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  1. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... LS. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitizations and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148:985- ... chronic beryllium disease. In: Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, eds. Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects . Baltimore: ...

  3. Risks of beryllium disease related to work processes at a metal, alloy, and oxide production plant.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Zhen, B; Wiedemann, H; Barna, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS: All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test on 627 employees; clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy were offered to people with abnormal test results; and industrial hygiene measurements related to work processes taken in 1984-93 were reviewed. RESULTS: 59 employees (9.4%) had abnormal blood tests, 47 of whom underwent bronchoscopy. 24 new cases of beryllium disease were identified, resulting in a beryllium disease prevalence of 4.6%, including five known cases (29/632). Employees who had worked in ceramics had the highest prevalence of beryllium disease (9.0%). Employees in the pebble plant (producing beryllium metal) who had been employed after 1983 also had increased risk, with a prevalence of beryllium disease of 6.4%, compared with 1.3% of other workers hired in the same period, and a prevalence of abnormal blood tests of 19.2%. Logistic regression modelling confirmed these two risk factors for beryllium disease related to work processes and the dependence on time of the risk at the pebble plant. The pebble plant was not associated with the highest gravimetric industrial hygiene measurements available since 1984. CONCLUSION: Further characterisation of exposures in beryllium metal production may be important to understanding how beryllium exposures confer high contemporary risk of beryllium disease. PMID:9326165

  4. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 464-473. Kreiss K, Newman LA, Mroz M, Campbell PA. Screening blood test identifies subclinical beryllium disease. ... 605-612. Mroz MM, Kreiss K, Lezotte DC, Campbell PA, Newman LS. Re-examination of the blood ...

  5. A Reconsideration of Acute Beryllium Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Virji, M. Abbas; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Context Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. Case Presentation Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. Symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities improved with cessation of exposure and, in one worker, recurred with repeat exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. None of the measured air samples exceeded 100 μg/m3, and most were < 10 μg/m3, lower than usually described. In both cases, lung biopsy about 18 months after acute illness revealed noncaseating granulomas. Years after first exposure, the workers left employment because of CBD. Discussion Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. Relevance to Practice ABD may occur after exposures lower than the high concentrations commonly described. Prudence dictates limitation of further beryllium exposure in both ABD and CBD. PMID:19672405

  6. Advances in Identifying Beryllium Sensitization and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and l940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true “gold standard” for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms. PMID:20195436

  7. Advances in identifying beryllium sensitization and disease.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Dan; Kowalski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique qualities related to stiffness, corrosion resistance, and conductivity. While there are many useful applications, researchers in the 1930s and 1940s linked beryllium exposure to a progressive occupational lung disease. Acute beryllium disease is a pulmonary irritant response to high exposure levels, whereas chronic beryllium disease (CBD) typically results from a hypersensitivity response to lower exposure levels. A blood test, the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), was an important advance in identifying individuals who are sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for developing CBD. While there is no true "gold standard" for BeS, basic epidemiologic concepts have been used to advance our understanding of the different screening algorithms.

  8. 75 FR 80734 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... beryllium particles may cause chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization. CBD is a chronic, often debilitating, and sometimes fatal lung condition. Beryllium sensitization is a condition in which...

  9. Beryllium Related Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2008-12-23

    In recent months, LLNL has identified, commenced, and implemented a series of interim controls, compensatory measures, and initiatives to ensure worker safety, and improve safety processes with regards to potential worker exposure to beryllium. Many of these actions have been undertaken in response to the NNSA Independent Review (COR-TS-5/15/2008-8550) received by LLNL in November of 2008. Others are the result of recent discoveries, events or incidents, and lessons learned, or were scheduled corrective actions from earlier commitments. Many of these actions are very recent in nature, or are still in progress, and vary in the formality of implementation. Actions are being reviewed for effectiveness as they progress. The documentation of implementation, and review of effectiveness, when appropriate, of these actions will be addressed as part of the formal Corrective Action Plan addressing the Independent Review. The mitigating actions taken fall into the following categories: (1) Responses to specific events/concerns; (2) Development of interim controls; (3) Review of ongoing activities; and (4) Performance improvement measures.

  10. Systematic review: Progression of beryllium sensitization to chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Seidler, A; Euler, U; Müller-Quernheim, J; Gaede, K I; Latza, U; Groneberg, D; Letzel, S

    2012-10-01

    The relevance of beryllium sensitization testing for occupational health practice and prevention is unclear. To analyse the natural course of beryllium sensitization and clarify the prognosis following cessation of exposure among sensitized workers. An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Toxline and Cochrane databases supplemented by a manual search. Data abstraction and study quality assessment with adapted guideline checklists were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review; however, six of the seven studies were of low methodological quality. A substantial (although not specifically quantifiable) proportion of beryllium-sensitized employees will develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). To date, it is unknown if cessation of exposure in sensitized workers reduces the progression rate to CBD. To determine the utility of regular assessments for beryllium sensitization among exposed workers, there is a need for prospective studies. This should include detailed and continuous exposure monitoring, regular tests for beryllium sensitization and a thorough diagnostic evaluation of sensitized workers to confirm or exclude CBD.

  11. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with beryllium. Health Effect Description Symptoms Beryllium sensitization The body develops hypersensitivity to beryllium. No symptoms, ... blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), identifies beryllium sensitization which may lead to chronic beryllium disease. These ...

  12. Beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease, and exposures at a beryllium mining and extraction facility.

    PubMed

    Deubner, D; Kelsh, M; Shum, M; Maier, L; Kent, M; Lau, E

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we examine beryllium sensitization, chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and workplace exposures at a beryllium mining (mine) and extraction facility (mill) in Delta, Utah. Historical airborne beryllium data collected between 1970-1999 included general area (GA), breathing zone (BZ), and personal lapel (LP) measurements and calculations of job-specific quarterly daily-weighted averages (DWVAs). We compared GA, BZ, and DWA data to airborne beryllium data from a mixed beryllium products facility and a beryllium ceramics facility located in Elmore, Ohio and Tucson, Arizona, respectively. At the Delta facility, jobs involving beryllium hydrolysis and wet-grinding activities had the highest air concentrations; annual median GA concentrations were less than 0.3 microg/m3 or both areas. Annual median GA sample concentrations ranged from 0.1-0.4 microg/m(-3) at Delta. These levels were generally lower than Elmore (0.1-1.0 microg/m3) and were comparable to the Tucson facility (0.1-0.4 microg/m3). Median BZ concentrations were higher, whereas DWAs were lower at the Delta facility than at the other two facilities. Among the 87 employees at the Delta facility, 75 participated in the medical survey; there were three persons sensitized, one with CBD. The individual with CBD previously worked at the Elmore facility for 10 years. Cumulative CBD incidence rates were significantly lower at the Delta facility: 0.3 percent compared to 2.0 percent for Elmore and 2.5 percent for the Tucson facility. Sensitization and CBD prevalence rates determined from cross-sectional surveys for the Delta facility were lower than but not significantly different from rates at the other two facilities. There was no sensitization or CBD among those who worked only at the mine where the only exposure to beryllium results from working with bertrandite ore. Although these results are derived from a small sample, this study suggests that the form of beryllium may affect the likelihood of

  13. Immune mechanisms in beryllium lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Deodhar, S.D.; Barna, B.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of beryllium lung disease has been suspected for years. The observation of cutaneous hypersensitivity to beryllium led to the development of the lymphocyte blast transformation test; the test clearly distinguishes between healthy subjects, who show little or no blast transformation response, and patients with beryllium lung disease, who demonstrate significant responses. The degree of blast transformation also correlates with the severity of the clinical disease. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of histocompatibility antigens in development of the disease, and support the participation of cellular immune mechanisms.22 references.

  14. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  15. Solubility and chemistry of materials encountered by beryllium mine and ore extraction workers: relation to risk.

    PubMed

    Deubner, David C; Sabey, Philip; Huang, Wenjie; Fernandez, Diego; Rudd, Abigail; Johnson, William P; Storrs, Jason; Larson, Rod

    2011-10-01

    Beryllium mine and ore extraction mill workers have low rates of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease relative to the level of beryllium exposure. The objective was to relate these rates to the solubility and composition of the mine and mill materials. Medical surveillance and exposure data were summarized. Dissolution of BeO, ore materials and beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)(2) was measured in synthetic lung fluid. The ore materials were more soluble than BeO at pH 7.2 and similar at pH 4.5. Be(OH)(2) was more soluble than BeO at both pH. Aluminum dissolved along with beryllium from ore materials. Higher solubility of beryllium ore materials and Be(OH)(2) at pH 7.2 might shorten particle longevity in the lung. The aluminum content of the ore materials might inhibit the cellular immune response to beryllium.

  16. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  17. Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is predominantly a pulmonary granulomatosis that was originally described in 1946. Symptoms usually include dyspnea and cough. Fever, anorexia, and weight loss are common. Skin lesions are the most common extrathoracic manifestation. Granulomatous hepatitis, hypercalcemia, and kidney stones can also occur. Radiographic and physiologic abnormalities are similar to those in sarcoidosis. While traditionally the pathologic changes included granulomas and cellular interstitial changes, the hallmark of the disease today is the well-formed granuloma. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium that is due to an accumulation of CD4{sup +} T cells at the site of disease activity. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (i.e., granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma was caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium (i.e., positive lung proliferative response to beryllium). Using these criteria, the diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Whether, with early diagnosis, the natural course of this condition will be the same as when it was traditionally diagnosed is not known. Currently, corticosteroids are used to treat patients with significant symptoms or evidence of progressive disease. 21 refs.

  18. Chest wall shrapnel-induced beryllium-sensitization and associated pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Fireman, E; Shai, A Bar; Lerman, Y; Topilsky, M; Blanc, P D; Maier, L; Li, L; Chandra, S; Abraham, J M; Fomin, I; Aviram, G; Abraham, J L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is an exposure-related granulomatous disease mimicking sarcoidosis. Beryllium exposure-associated disease occurs mainly via inhalation, but skin may also be a source of sensitization. A 65-year-old male with a history of war-related shrapnel wounds was initially diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Twenty years later, the possibility of a metal-related etiology for the lung disease was raised. A beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test, elemental analysis of removed shrapnel, and genetic studies were consistent with a diagnosis of CBD. This case demonstrates that retained beryllium-containing foreign bodies can be linked to a pathophysiologic response in the lung consistent with CBD.

  19. Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    In the last 50 years, beryllium has risen from a geological curiosity to become an important industrial metal. Its high strength, light weight and high thermal conductivity make it valuable in both defense and commercial applications, It is lighter than aluminum, has a higher tensile strength and melting temperature than both magnesium and aluminum, and exhibits the highest elasticity and strength-to-weight ratio of the light metals. These features, as well as beryllium`s high beat capacity and unusual nuclear properties, caused beryllium to be dubbed the {open_quotes}wonder metal{close_quotes} in the 1950s and early 1960s.

  20. Progression from beryllium exposure to chronic beryllium disease: an analytic model.

    PubMed

    Harber, Philip; Bansal, Siddharth; Balmes, John

    2009-06-01

    Understanding the progression from beryllium exposure (BeE) to chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is essential for optimizing screening and early intervention to prevent CBD. We developed an analytic markov model of progression to cbd that assigns annual probabilities for progression through three states: from BeE to beryllium sensitization and then to CBD. We used calculations of the number in each state over time to assess which of several alternative progression models are most consistent with the limited available empirical data on prevalence and incidence. We estimated cost-effectiveness of screening considering both incremental (cost/case) and cumulative program costs. No combination of parameters for a simple model in which risk of progression remains constant over time can meet the empirical constraints of relatively frequent early cases and continuing development of new cases with long latencies. Modeling shows that the risk of progression is initially high and then declines over time. Also, it is likely that there are at least two populations that differ significantly in risk. The cost-effectiveness of repetitive screening declines over time, although new cases will still be found with long latencies. However, screening will be particularly cost-effective when applied to persons with long latencies who have not been previously screened. To optimize use of resources, the intensity of screening should decrease over time. Estimation of lifetime cumulative CBD risk should consider the declining risk of progression over time.

  1. The bioinorganic chemistry and associated immunology of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian L; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Gnanakaran, S

    2008-07-07

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating, incurable, and often fatal disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particulates. The growing use of beryllium in the modern world, in products ranging from computers to dental prosthetics (390 tons of beryllium in the US in the year 2000) necessitates a molecular based understanding of the disease in order to prevent and cure CBD. We have investigated the molecular basis of CBD at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years, employing a multidisciplinary approach of bioinorganic chemistry and immunology. The results of this work, including speciation, inhalation and dissolution, and immunology will be discussed.

  2. An official American Thoracic Society statement: diagnosis and management of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Balmes, John R; Abraham, Jerrold L; Dweik, Raed A; Fireman, Elizabeth; Fontenot, Andrew P; Maier, Lisa A; Muller-Quernheim, Joachim; Ostiguy, Gaston; Pepper, Lewis D; Saltini, Cesare; Schuler, Christine R; Takaro, Tim K; Wambach, Paul F

    2014-11-15

    Beryllium continues to have a wide range of industrial applications. Exposure to beryllium can lead to sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The purpose of this statement is to increase awareness and knowledge about beryllium exposure, BeS, and CBD. Evidence was identified by a search of MEDLINE. The committee then summarized the evidence, drew conclusions, and described their approach to diagnosis and management. The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test is the cornerstone of both medical surveillance and the diagnosis of BeS and CBD. A confirmed abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test without evidence of lung disease is diagnostic of BeS. BeS with evidence of a granulomatous inflammatory response in the lung is diagnostic of CBD. The determinants of progression from BeS to CBD are uncertain, but higher exposures and the presence of a genetic variant in the HLA-DP β chain appear to increase the risk. Periodic evaluation of affected individuals can detect disease progression (from BeS to CBD, or from mild CBD to more severe CBD). Corticosteroid therapy is typically administered when a patient with CBD exhibits evidence of significant lung function abnormality or decline. Medical surveillance in workplaces that use beryllium-containing materials can identify individuals with BeS and at-risk groups of workers, which can help prioritize efforts to reduce inhalational and dermal exposures.

  3. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiss, K.; Mroz, M.M.; Zhen, B.; Martyny, J.W.; Newman, L.S. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined the epidemiology of chronic beryllium disease among a stratified, random sample (n = 895) of nuclear weapons workers using the blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation (BeLT) test and chest radiograph for case identification. Of 18 new cases of beryllium sensitization, 12 had beryllium disease, and three more developed pulmonary granulomas on lung biopsy over the succeeding 2 yr. Beryllium-sensitized cases did not differ from noncases in age, gender, race, ethnicity, smoking, most respiratory symptoms, spirometric or radiographic abnormalities, or job tenure. The six sensitized cases without initial disease differed from beryllium disease cases in having greater pack-years of smoking. Sensitization occurred among workers with inadvertent or bystander exposure, such as a secretary and security guard. However, beryllium sensitization risk was higher for machinists (4.7%) and for persons reporting measured overexposure (7.4%, odds ratio 5.1); exposure beginning before 1970 (3.6%, odds ratio 2.7); consistent beryllium exposure (3.4%); and sawing (4.7%) or band sawing (6.0%) of beryllium metal. We conclude that both individual susceptibility to sensitization and exposure circumstances are important in developing disease.

  4. Chest wall shrapnel-induced beryllium-sensitization and associated pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fireman, E.; Shai, A. Bar; Lerman, Y.; Topilsky, M.; Blanc, P.D.; Maier, L.; Li, L.; Chandra, S.; Abraham, J.M.; Fomin, I.; Aviram, G.; Abraham, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is an exposure-related granulomatous disease mimicking sarcoidosis. Beryllium exposure-associated disease occurs mainly via inhalation, but skin may also be a source of sensitization. A 65-year-old male with a history of war-related shrapnel wounds was initially diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Twenty years later, the possibility of a metal-related etiology for the lung disease was raised. A beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test, elemental analysis of removed shrapnel, and genetic studies were consistent with a diagnosis of CBD. This case demonstrates that retained beryllium-containing foreign bodies can be linked to a pathophysiologic response in the lung consistent with CBD. PMID:23461078

  5. Beryllium presentation to CD4+ T cells underlies disease-susceptibility HLA-DP alleles in chronic beryllium disease

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Andrew P.; Torres, Michaelann; Marshall, William H.; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease results from beryllium exposure in the workplace and is characterized by CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the lung. Susceptibility to this disease is associated with particular HLA-DP alleles. We isolated beryllium-specific T cell lines from the lungs of affected patients. These CD4+ T cell lines specifically responded to beryllium in culture in the presence of antigen-presenting cells that expressed class II MHC molecules HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP. The response to beryllium was nearly completely and selectively blocked by mAb to HLA-DP. Additional studies showed that only certain HLA-DP alleles allowed presentation of beryllium. Overall, the DP alleles that presented beryllium to disease-specific T cell lines match those implicated in disease susceptibility, providing a mechanism for this association. Based on amino acid residues shared by these restricting and susceptibility DP alleles, our results provide insight into the residues of the DP β-chain required for beryllium presentation. PMID:11050177

  6. Beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia; Shorter, Janet; Fisher, Miles

    2013-10-01

    A medical surveillance program was developed to identify current and former construction workers at significant risk for beryllium related disease from work at the DOE nuclear weapons facilities, and to improve surveillance among beryllium exposed workers. Medical examinations included a medical history and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, trade, and reported work in buildings where beryllium was used. After adjusting for covariates, the risk of BeS was significantly higher among boilermakers, roofers, and sheet metal workers, as suggested in the stratified analyses. Workers identified as sensitized to beryllium were interviewed to determine whether they had been subsequently diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. Between 1998 and December 31, 2010 13,810 workers received a BeLPT through the BTMed program; 189 (1.4%) were sensitized to beryllium, and 28 reported that they had had a compensation claim accepted for CBD. These data on former construction workers gives us additional information about the predictive value of the blood BeLPT test for detection of CBD in populations with lower total lifetime exposures and more remote exposures than that experienced by current workers in beryllium machining operations. Through this surveillance program we have identified routes of exposures to beryllium and worked with DOE site personnel to identity and mitigate those exposures which still exist, as well as helping to focus attention on the risk for beryllium exposure among current demolition workers at these facilities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S; Martyny, J; Zhen, B

    1996-07-01

    We examined the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. We interviewed 136 employees (97.8% of the workforce), ascertained beryllium sensitization with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test, and reviewed historical industrial hygiene measurements. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees (5.9%), six (4.4% of participating employees) had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Machining had significantly higher general area and breathing zone measurements than did other processes in the time period in which most beryllium-sensitized cases had started machining work. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for matching processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9 microgram/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0 micrograms/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. We conclude that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important to lowering risk of beryllium disease.

  9. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  10. Beryllium-Induced TNF-α Production Is Transcription-Dependent in Chronic Beryllium Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Richard T.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Barnes, Tristan A.; Parsons, Charles E.; Tooker, Brian C.; Maier, Lisa A.; Gillespie, May M.; Gottschall, E. Brigitte; Silveira, Lori; Hagman, James; Newman, Lee S.

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium (Be)-antigen presentation to Be-specific CD4+ T cells from the lungs of patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) results in T cell proliferation and TNF-α secretion. We tested the hypothesis that Be-induced, CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) T cell, transcription-dependent, TNF-α secretion was accompanied by specific transcription factor upregulation. After 6 h of Be stimulation, CBD BAL cells produced a median of 883 pg/ml TNF-α (range, 608–1,275 pg/ml) versus 198 pg/ml (range, 116–245 pg/ml) by unstimulated cells. After 12 h CBD BAL cells produced a median of 2,963 pg/ml (range, 99–9,424 pg/ml) TNF-α versus 55 pg/ml (range, 0–454) by unstimulated cells. Using real-time RT-PCR, Be-stimulated TNF-α production at 6 h was preceded by a 5-fold increase in TNF-α pre-mRNA copy number:β-actin copy number (Be median ratio 0.21; unstimulated median ratio 0.04). The median ratio of mature TNF-α mRNA:β-actin mRNA was upregulated 1.4-fold (Be median ratio 0.17; unstimulated median ratio 0.12). Be exposure in the presence of the transcription inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) decreased CBD BAL cell TNF-α pre-mRNA levels > 60%, whereas treatment with the mRNA splicing inhibitor 2-aminopurine (2AP) decreased levels 40% relative to Be exposure alone. PTX treatment decreased mature TNF-α mRNA levels 50% while 2AP decreased levels > 80%, relative to Be exposure alone. Beryllium exposure specifically upregulated transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. The data suggest that Be exposure induces transcription-dependent TNF-α production, potentially due to upregulation of specific transcription factors. PMID:16980557

  11. Development of Biomarkers for Chronic Beryllium Disease in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2013-01-25

    Beryllium is a strategic metal, indispensable for national defense programs in aerospace, telecommunications, electronics, and weaponry. Exposure to beryllium is an extensively documented occupational hazard that causes irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease in as much as 3 - 5% of exposed workers. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships has been severely limited by a general lack of a sufficient CBD animal model. We have now developed and tested an animal model which can be used for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new diagnostic and treatment paradigms. We have created 3 strains of transgenic mice in which the human antigen-presenting moiety, HLA-DP, was inserted into the mouse genome. Each mouse strain contains HLA-DPB1 alleles that confer different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD): HLA-DPB1*0401 (odds ratio = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (odds ratio = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (odds ratio = 240). Our preliminary work has demonstrated that the *1701 allele, as predicted by human studies, results in the greatest degree of sensitization in a mouse ear swelling test. We have also completed dose-response experiments examining beryllium-induced lung granulomas and identified susceptible and resistant inbred strains of mice (without the human transgenes) as well as quantitative trait loci that may contain gene(s) that modify the immune response to beryllium. In this grant application, we propose to use the transgenic and normal inbred strains of mice to identify biomarkers for the progression of beryllium sensitization and CBD. To achieve this goal, we propose to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of the lymphocyte proliferation test (blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) with the ELISPOT test in the three HLA-DP transgenic mice strains throughout a 6 month treatment with beryllium particles. Because of the availability of high-throughput proteomics, we will also identify

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form A Appendix A to Part 850 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form A Appendix A to Part 850 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Pt. 850, App. A Appendix A to Part 850—Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program...

  14. Measurement of Beryllium in Biological Samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Applications for Studying Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarappa-Zucca, M L; Finkel, R C; Martinelli, R E; McAninch, J E; Nelson, D O; Turtletaub, K W

    2004-04-15

    A method using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been developed for quantifying attomoles of beryllium (Be) in biological samples. This method provides the sensitivity to trace Be in biological samples at very low doses with the purpose of identifying the molecular targets involved in chronic beryllium disease. Proof of the method was tested by administering 0.001, 0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 {micro}g {sup 9}Be and {sup 10}Be by intraperitoneal injection to male mice and removing spleen, liver, femurs, blood, lung, and kidneys after 24 h exposure. These samples were prepared for AMS analysis by tissue digestion in nitric acid, followed by further organic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ammonium persulfate and lastly, precipitation of Be with ammonium hydroxide, and conversion to beryllium oxide at 800 C. The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio of the extracted beryllium oxide was measured by AMS and Be in the original sample was calculated. Results indicate that Be levels were dose-dependent in all tissues and the highest levels were measured in the spleen and liver. The measured {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios spanned 4 orders of magnitude, from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -14}, with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10{sup -14}, which is equivalent to 0.8 attomoles of {sup 10}Be. These results show that routine quantification of nanogram levels of Be in tissues is possible and that AMS is a sensitive method that can be used in biological studies to understand the molecular dosimetry of Be and mechanisms of toxicity.

  15. Beryllium: an etiologic agent in the induction of lung cancer, nonneoplastic respiratory disease, and heart disease among industrially exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.K.; Infante, P.F.; Bayliss, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    An epidemiologic study of workers exposed to beryllium at one production facility was undertaken. The study demonstrated a statistically significant increased risk of respiratory disease (neoplastic and nonneoplastic) and of heart disease mortality. A possible explanation other than in terms of beryllium was sought for this excessive risk of cause specific mortality among beryllium-exposed workers. The excessive risk of lung cancer mortality could not be related to an effect of age, chance, self-selection, study group selection, exposure to other agents in the study facility, or place of residence. On the basis of the frequency of cigarette smoking among those cohort members employed in 1967 to 1968 and the distribution of histologic types of lung cancer among deceased cohort members, it seems unlikely that cigarette smoking per se could have accounted for the increased risk of lung cancer among beryllium-exposed workers in the study cohort. Lifetime employment histories for members of the study cohort were not available, so that definitive statements about the role of other occupational exposures cannot be made. However, information on usual occupations as indicated on death certificates suggests that it is unlikely that some undefined occupational or environmental exposure other than to beryllium could account per se for the excessive lung cancer mortality. This interpretation is further supported by the residential stability of the study cohort in a county having a lung cancer rate significantly lower than that of the entire United States. The findings are supportive of the hypothesis that beryllium is carcinogenic to man.

  16. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population.

  17. Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease

    PubMed Central

    Falta, Michael T.; Mack, Douglas G.; Tinega, Alex N.; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A.; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4+ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4+ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4+ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLA-DP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4+ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD. PMID:23797096

  18. Identification of beryllium-dependent peptides recognized by CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Falta, Michael T; Pinilla, Clemencia; Mack, Douglas G; Tinega, Alex N; Crawford, Frances; Giulianotti, Marc; Santos, Radleigh; Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuewu; Maier, Lisa A; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2013-07-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder characterized by an influx of beryllium (Be)-specific CD4⁺ T cells into the lung. The vast majority of these T cells recognize Be in an HLA-DP–restricted manner, and peptide is required for T cell recognition. However, the peptides that stimulate Be-specific T cells are unknown. Using positional scanning libraries and fibroblasts expressing HLA-DP2, the most prevalent HLA-DP molecule linked to disease, we identified mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that bind to MHCII and Be, forming a complex recognized by pathogenic CD4⁺ T cells in CBD. These peptides possess aspartic and glutamic acid residues at p4 and p7, respectively, that surround the putative Be-binding site and cooperate with HLA-DP2 in Be coordination. Endogenous plexin A peptides and proteins, which share the core motif and are expressed in lung, also stimulate these TCRs. Be-loaded HLA-DP2–mimotope and HLA-DP2–plexin A4 tetramers detected high frequencies of CD4⁺ T cells specific for these ligands in all HLADP2+ CBD patients tested. Thus, our findings identify the first ligand for a CD4⁺ T cell involved in metal-induced hypersensitivity and suggest a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of a common antigen specificity in CBD.

  19. Skin as a route of exposure and sensitization in chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tinkle, Sally S; Antonini, James M; Rich, Brenda A; Roberts, Jenny R; Salmen, Rebecca; DePree, Karyn; Adkins, Eric J

    2003-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease is an occupational lung disease that begins as a cell-mediated immune response to beryllium. Although respiratory and engineering controls have significantly decreased occupational beryllium exposures over the last decade, the rate of beryllium sensitization has not declined. We hypothesized that skin exposure to beryllium particles would provide an alternative route for sensitization to this metal. We employed optical scanning laser confocal microscopy and size-selected fluorospheres to demonstrate that 0.5- and 1.0- micro m particles, in conjunction with motion, as at the wrist, penetrate the stratum corneum of human skin and reach the epidermis and, occasionally, the dermis. The cutaneous immune response to chemical sensitizers is initiated in the skin, matures in the local lymph node (LN), and releases hapten-specific T cells into the peripheral blood. Topical application of beryllium to C3H mice generated beryllium-specific sensitization that was documented by peripheral blood and LN beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) and by changes in LN T-cell activation markers, increased expression of CD44, and decreased CD62L. In a sensitization-challenge treatment paradigm, epicutaneous beryllium increased murine ear thickness following chemical challenge. These data are consistent with development of a hapten-specific, cell-mediated immune response following topical application of beryllium and suggest a mechanistic link between the persistent rate of beryllium worker sensitization and skin exposure to fine and ultrafine beryllium particles. PMID:12842774

  20. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPβ chain (DPβE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPβE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DPβE69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DPβE69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 μg/m(3). Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DPβE69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DPβE69 alone appears to be similar.

  1. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, M. V.; Martyny, John W.; Mroz, M. M.; Silveira, L. J.; Strand, M.; Cragle, D. L.; Tankersley, W. G.; Wells, S. M.; Newman, L. S.; Maier, L. A.

    2011-04-02

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPb chain (DPbE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPbE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DP{beta}E69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DP{beta}E69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DP{beta}E69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DP{beta}E69 alone appears to be similar.

  2. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPβ chain (DPβE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPβE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DPβE69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Methods Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case–control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. Results After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DPβE69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1μg/m3. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). Conclusion DPβE69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DPβE69 alone appears to be similar. PMID:21460389

  3. Introduction to beryllium: uses, regulatory history, and disease.

    PubMed

    Kolanz, M E

    2001-05-01

    Beryllium is an ubiquitous element in the environment, and it has many commercial applications. Because of its strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and nuclear properties, beryllium products are used in the aerospace, automotive, energy, medical, and electronics industries. What eventually came to be known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was first identified in the 1940s, when a cluster of cases was observed in workers from the fluorescent light industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission recommended the first 8-hour occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium of 2.0 microg/m3 in 1949, which was later reviewed and accepted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the vast majority of countries and standard-setting bodies worldwide. The 2.0 microg/m3 standard has been in use by the beryllium industry for more than 50 years and has been considered adequate to protect workers against clinical CBD. Recently, improved diagnostic techniques, including immunological testing and safer bronchoscopy, have enhanced our ability to identify subclinical CBD cases that would have formerly remained unidentified. Some recent epidemiological studies have suggested that some workers may develop CBD at exposures less than 2.0 microg/m3. ACGIH is currently reevaluating the adequacy of the current 2.0 microg/m3 guideline, and a plethora of research initiatives are under way to provide a better understanding of the cause of CBD. The research is focusing on the risk factors and exposure metrics that could be associated with CBD, as well as on efforts to better characterize the natural history of CBD. There is growing evidence that particle size and chemical form may be important factors that influence the risk of developing CBD. These research efforts are

  4. Animal models of beryllium-induced lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Hahn, F.F.

    1996-10-01

    The Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is conducting research to improve the understanding of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium-induced lung cancer. Initial animal studies examined beagle dogs that inhaled BeO calcined at either 500 or 1000{degrees}C. At similar lung burdens, the 500{degrees}C BeO induced more severe and extensive granulomatous pneumonia, lymphocytic infiltration into the lung, and positive Be-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses in vitro than the 1000{degrees}C BeO. However, the progressive nature of human CBD was not duplicated. More recently, Strains A/J and C3H/HeJ mice were exposed to Be metal by inhalation. This produced a marked granulomatous pneumonia, diffuse infiltrates, and multifocal aggregates of interstitial lymphocytes with a pronounced T helper component and pulmonary in situ lymphocyte proliferation. With respect to lung cancer, at a mean lung burden as low as 17 pg Be/g lung, inhaled Be metal induced benign and/or malignant lung tumors in over 50% of male and female F344 rats surviving {ge}1 year on study. Substantial tumor multiplicity was found, but K-ras and p53 gene mutations were virtually absent. In mice, however, a lung burden of approximately 60 {mu}g ({approximately}300 {mu}g Be/g lung) caused only a slight increase in crude lung tumor incidence and multiplicity over controls in strain A/J mice and no elevated incidence in strain C3H mice. Taken together, this research program constitutes a coordinated effort to understand beryllium-induced lung disease in experimental animal models. 47 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Screening for beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura; Ringen, Knut; Bingham, Eula; Dement, John; Takaro, Tim; McGowan, William; Chen, Anna; Quinn, Patricia

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether current and former construction workers are at significant risk for occupational illnesses from work at the Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities, screening programs were undertaken at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and the Savannah River Site. Medical examination for beryllium disease used a medical history and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, sex, trade, duration of DOE employment, reported work in buildings where beryllium was used, and time since last DOE site employment. Of the 3,842 workers included in this study, 34% reported exposure to beryllium. Overall, 2.2% of workers had at least one abnormal BeLPT test, and 1.4% were also abnormal on a second test. Regression analyses demonstrated increased risk of having at least one abnormal BeLPT to be associated with ever working in a site building where beryllium activities had taken place. The prevalence of beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in construction workers is described and the positive predictive value of the BeLPT in a population with less intense exposure to beryllium than other populations that have been screened is discussed. The BeLPT findings and finding of cases of CBD demonstrate that some of these workers had significant exposure, most likely, during maintenance, repair, renovation, or demolition in facilities where beryllium was used.

  6. Recent advances in understanding the biomolecular basis of chronic beryllium disease: a review.

    PubMed

    McCleskey, T Mark; Buchner, Virginia; Field, R William; Scott, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    In this review we summarize the work conducted over the past decade that has advanced our knowledge of pulmonary diseases associated with exposure to beryllium that has provided a molecular-based understanding of the chemistry, immunopathology, and immunogenetics of beryllium toxicity. Beryllium is a strong and lightweight metal that generates and reflects neutrons, resists corrosion, is transparent to X-rays, and conducts electricity. Beryllium is one of the most toxic elements on the periodic table, eliciting in susceptible humans (a) an allergic immune response known as beryllium sensitization (BeS); (b) acute beryllium disease, an acutely toxic, pneumonitis-like lung condition resulting from exposure to high beryllium concentrations that are rarely seen in modern industry; and (c) chronic beryllium disease (CBD) following either high or very low levels of exposure. Because of its exceptional strength, stability, and heat-absorbing capability, beryllium is used in many important technologies in the modern world. In the early 1940s, beryllium was recognized as posing an occupational hazard in manufacturing and production settings. Although acute beryllium disease is now rare, beryllium is an insidious poison with a latent toxicity and the risk of developing CBD persists. Chronic beryllium disease-a systemic granulomatous lung disorder caused by a specific delayed immune response to beryllium within a few months to several decades after exposure-has been called the "unrecognized epidemic". Although not a disease in itself, BeS, the innate immune response to beryllium identified by an abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result, is a population-based predictor of CBD. Genetic susceptibility to CBD is associated with alleles of the major histocompatibility gene, human leukocyte antigen DP (HLA-DP) containing glutamic acid at the 69th position of the beta chain (HLA-DPbeta-E69). Other genes are likely to be involved in the disease process, and research on

  7. Up-Regulation of Programmed Death-1 Expression on Beryllium-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Chronic Beryllium Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Brent E.; Mack, Douglas G.; Martin, Allison K.; Gillespie, May; Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by workplace exposure to beryllium and is characterized by the accumulation of memory CD4+ T cells in the lung. These cells respond vigorously to beryllium salts in culture by producing proinflammatory Th1-type cytokines. The presence of these inflammatory cytokines leads to the recruitment of alveolar macrophages, alveolitis, and subsequent granuloma development. It has been shown that chronic exposure to conventional Ags leads to up-regulation in the expression of negative regulators of T cells such as programmed death-1 (PD-1). Due to the persistence of beryllium in the lung after the cessation of exposure, aberrant regulation of the PD-1 pathway may play an important role in CBD development. In the present study, PD-1 expression was measured on blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) CD4+ T cells from beryllium-sensitized and CBD subjects. PD-1 expression was significantly higher on BAL CD4+ T cells compared with those cells in blood, with the highest expression on the beryllium-specific T cell subset. In addition, the expression of PD-1 on BAL CD4+ T cells directly correlated with the severity of the T cell alveolitis. Increased expression of the PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on BAL CD14+ cells compared with blood was also seen. The addition of anti-PD-1 ligand mAbs augmented beryllium-induced CD4+ T cell proliferation, and an inverse correlation was seen between PD-1 expression on beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells and beryllium-induced proliferation. Thus, the PD-1 pathway is active in beryllium-induced disease and plays a key role in controlling beryllium-induced T cell proliferation. PMID:18250483

  8. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To establish...

  9. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To establish...

  10. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To establish...

  11. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To establish...

  12. 20 CFR 30.205 - What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? 30.205 Section 30.205 Employees... Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.205 What are the criteria for eligibility for benefits relating to beryllium illnesses covered under Part B of EEOICPA? To establish...

  13. Risk of Chronic Beryllium Disease by HLA-DPB1 E69 Genotype and Beryllium Exposure in Nuclear Workers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Mike V.; Martyny, John W.; Mroz, Margaret M.; Silveira, Lori J.; Strand, Matt; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Sato, Hiroe; Newman, Lee S.; Maier, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are determined by at least one genetic factor, a glutamic acid at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, and by exposure to beryllium. The relationship between exposure and the E69 genotype has not been well characterized. Objectives: The study goal was to define the relationship between beryllium exposure and E69 for CBD and BeS. Methods: Workers (n = 386) from a U.S. nuclear weapons facility were enrolled into a case–control study (70 BeS, 61 CBD, and 255 control subjects). HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Beryllium exposures were reconstructed on the basis of worker interviews and historical exposure measurements. Measurements and Main Results: Any E69 carriage increased odds for CBD (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.66–15.84) and each unit increase in lifetime weighted average exposure increased the odds for CBD (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.26–4.09). Compared with E69-negative genotypes, a single E69-positive *02 allele increased the odds for BeS (OR, 12.01; 95% CI, 4.28–33.71) and CBD (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.42–8.43). A single non-*02 E69 allele further increased the odds for BeS (OR, 29.54; 95% CI, 10.33–84.53) and CBD (OR, 11.97; 95% CI, 5.12–28.00) and two E69 allele copies conferred the highest odds for BeS (OR, 55.68; 95% CI, 14.80–209.40) and CBD (OR, 22.54; 95% CI, 7.00–72.62). Conclusions: E69 and beryllium exposure both contribute to the odds of CBD. The increased odds for CBD and BeS due to E69 appear to be differentially distributed by genotype, with non-*02 E69 carriers and E69 homozygotes at higher odds than those with *02 genotypes. PMID:21471109

  14. Risk of chronic beryllium disease by HLA-DPB1 E69 genotype and beryllium exposure in nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Mike V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Sato, Hiroe; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2011-06-15

    Beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are determined by at least one genetic factor, a glutamic acid at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, and by exposure to beryllium. The relationship between exposure and the E69 genotype has not been well characterized. The study goal was to define the relationship between beryllium exposure and E69 for CBD and BeS. Workers (n = 386) from a U.S. nuclear weapons facility were enrolled into a case-control study (70 BeS, 61 CBD, and 255 control subjects). HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Beryllium exposures were reconstructed on the basis of worker interviews and historical exposure measurements. Any E69 carriage increased odds for CBD (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.66-15.84) and each unit increase in lifetime weighted average exposure increased the odds for CBD (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.26-4.09). Compared with E69-negative genotypes, a single E69-positive *02 allele increased the odds for BeS (OR, 12.01; 95% CI, 4.28-33.71) and CBD (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.42-8.43). A single non-*02 E69 allele further increased the odds for BeS (OR, 29.54; 95% CI, 10.33-84.53) and CBD (OR, 11.97; 95% CI, 5.12-28.00) and two E69 allele copies conferred the highest odds for BeS (OR, 55.68; 95% CI, 14.80-209.40) and CBD (OR, 22.54; 95% CI, 7.00-72.62). E69 and beryllium exposure both contribute to the odds of CBD. The increased odds for CBD and BeS due to E69 appear to be differentially distributed by genotype, with non-*02 E69 carriers and E69 homozygotes at higher odds than those with *02 genotypes.

  15. Target organ localization of memory CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic beryllium disease

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Andrew P.; Canavera, Scott J.; Gharavi, Laia; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by exposure to beryllium in the workplace, and it remains an important public health concern. Evidence suggests that CD4+ T cells play a critical role in the development of this disease. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we found that the frequency of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage) of 12 CBD patients ranged from 1.4% to 29% (mean 17.8%), and these T cells expressed a Th1-type phenotype in response to beryllium sulfate (BeSO4). Few, if any, beryllium-specific CD8+ T cells were identified. In contrast, the frequency of beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in the blood of these subjects ranged from undetectable to 1 in 500. No correlation was observed between the frequency of beryllium-responsive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) CD4+ T cells as detected by intracellular staining and lymphocyte proliferation in culture after BeSO4 exposure. Staining for surface marker expression showed that nearly all BAL T cells exhibit an effector memory cell phenotype. These results demonstrate a dramatically high frequency and compartmentalization of antigen-specific effector memory CD4+ cells in the lungs of CBD patients. These studies provide insight into the phenotypic and functional characteristics of antigen-specific T cells invading other inaccessible target organs in human disease. PMID:12438445

  16. 4-1BB Enhances Proliferation of Beryllium-Specific T Cells in the Lung of Subjects with Chronic Beryllium Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Douglas G.; Lanham, Allison K.; Palmer, Brent E.; Maier, Lisa A.; Watts, Tania H.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to naive T cells, reactivation of memory cells is less dependent on CD28-mediated costimulation. We have shown that circulating beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells from chronic beryllium disease patients remain CD28-dependent, while those present in the lung no longer require CD28 for T cell activation. In the present study, we analyzed whether other costimulatory molecules are essential for beryllium-induced T cell function in the lung. Enhanced proliferation of a beryllium-responsive, HLA-DP2-restricted T cell line was seen after the induction of 4-1BB ligand expression on the surface of HLA-DP2-expressing fibroblasts. Following beryllium exposure, CD4+ T cells from blood and bronchoalveolar lavage of chronic beryllium disease patients up-regulate 4-1BB expression, and the majority of beryllium-responsive, IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in blood coexpress CD28 and 4-1BB. Conversely, a significant fraction of IFN-γ-producing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) T cells express 4-1BB in the absence of CD28. In contrast to blood, inhibition of the 4-1BB ligand-4-1BB interaction partially blocked beryllium-induced proliferation of BAL CD4+ T cells, and a lack of 4-1BB expression on BAL T cells was associated with increased beryllium-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role of 4-1BB in the costimulation of beryllium-responsive CD4+ T cells in the target organ. PMID:18768897

  17. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    in each immunogenetic study. In this context, the populations of the study already performed in this field by the University of Modena and Rome (by Prof. C. Saltini) and the University of Pennsylvania (by Prof. M. Rossman) have been evaluated by using similar HLA molecular typing methodologies and that both populations have now been followed up for a period of 4 to 7 years. The general objective of this study has to generate a larger data base comprising the two population with which analyze gene disease association with greater statistical power and ascertain the effect of lesser common gener variants which may be missed when analyzing associations on small populations. In particular addressing the role suggested in previous study such as: (1) the role of HLA-DP rare alleles and polymorphisms, and (2) the role of the HLA markers in disease progression from sensitization. The two populations from the already published studies (Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94) present similar aspects about: ethnicity, type and length of exposure to Be dust, a broadly similar association between beryllium related abnormalities and HLA. The two population have been pooled and evaluated using common criteria of diagnosis (Sensitized subject: at least 2 positive BeLPT tests each with 2 positive wells; CBD-affected subject: identification of well formed non-caseating granulomas on biopsy), follow up and HLA typing technique (complete HLA-DRB, DQB, DPB high resolution typing using amplification with sequence specific primers or sequence based typing). The two populations included 137 subjects with Beryllium hypersensitized (BH) and 155 Be-exposed controls. Inclusion criteria were met by one hundred and six subjects with Be-hypersensitivity of whom 55 were affected by CBD (age 52 {+-} 11 years; 50 caucasians, 2 African-Americans 2 Hispanics and 1 Asian; 46 males and 9 females; mean duration of Be-exposure 15 {+-} 9 years

  18. Sensitization and chronic beryllium disease at a primary manufacturing facility, part 3: exposure-response among short-term workers.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas; Deubner, David C; Stanton, Marcia L; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Kent, Michael S; Sparks, Rachel; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Exposure-response relations for beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) using aerosol mass concentration have been inconsistent, although process-related risks found in most studies suggest that exposure-dependent risks exist. We examined exposure-response relations using personal exposure estimates in a beryllium worker cohort with limited work tenure to minimize exposure misclassification. The population comprised workers employed in 1999 with six years or less tenure. Each completed a work history questionnaire and was evaluated for immunological sensitization and CBD. A job-exposure matrix was combined with work histories to create individual estimates of average, cumulative, and highest-job-worked exposure for total, respirable, and submicron beryllium mass concentrations. We obtained odds ratios from logistic regression models for exposure-response relations, and evaluated process-related risks. Participation was 90.7% (264/291 eligible). Sensitization prevalence was 9.8% (26/264), with 6 sensitized also diagnosed with CBD (2.3%, 6/264). A general pattern of increasing sensitization prevalence was observed as exposure quartile increased. Both total and respirable beryllium mass concentration estimates were positively associated with sensitization (average and highest job), and CBD (cumulative). Increased sensitization prevalence was identified in metal/oxide production, alloy melting and casting, and maintenance, and for CBD in melting and casting. Lower sensitization prevalence was observed in plant-area administrative work. Sensitization was associated with average and highest job exposures, and CBD was associated with cumulative exposure. Both total and respirable mass concentrations were relevant predictors of risk. New process-related risks were identified in melting and casting and maintenance.

  19. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beryllium disease covered under Part B? 30.207 Section 30.207 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... disease covered under Part B? (a) Written medical documentation is required in all cases to prove that the... lavage cells. (c) Chronic beryllium disease is established in the following manner: (1) For diagnoses...

  20. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium disease covered under Part B? 30.207 Section 30.207 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... disease covered under Part B? (a) Written medical documentation is required in all cases to prove that the... lavage cells. (c) Chronic beryllium disease is established in the following manner: (1) For diagnoses...

  1. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beryllium disease covered under Part B? 30.207 Section 30.207 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... disease covered under Part B? (a) Written medical documentation is required in all cases to prove that the... lavage cells. (c) Chronic beryllium disease is established in the following manner: (1) For diagnoses...

  2. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is likely to

  3. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium: a case-referent study of men and women of working age with sarcoidosis or other chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Nicola; Beach, Jeremy; Burstyn, Igor; Parboosingh, Jillian; Schouchen, Janine; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Svenson, Larry; Tamminga, Jan; Yiannakoulias, Niko

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether beryllium exposure was related to illness diagnosed as sarcoidosis. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and sarcoidosis are clinically and pathologically indistinguishable, with only the presence of beryllium-specific T-lymphocytes identifying CBD. Testing for such cells is not feasible in community studies of sarcoidosis but a second characteristic of CBD, its much greater incidence in those with a glutamic acid residue at position 69 of the HLA-DPB1 gene (Glu69), provides an alternative approach to answering this question. Cases of sarcoidosis aged 18-60 years diagnosed in Alberta, Canada, from 1999 to 2005 were approached through their specialist physician, together with age-matched and sex-matched referents with other chronic lung disease. Referents were grouped into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and other lung disease. Participants completed a telephone questionnaire, including industry-specific questionnaires. DNA was extracted from mailed-in mouthwash samples and genotyped for Glu69. Duration of employment in types of work with independently documented beryllium exposure was calculated. DNA was extracted for 655 cases (270 Glu69 positive) and 1382 referents (561 positive). No increase in sarcoidosis was seen with either Glu69 or beryllium exposure (none, <10, ≥10 years) as main effects: longer duration in possible beryllium jobs was related to COPD. In Glu69 positive men with exposure ≥10 years, the trend towards increasing rate of COPD was reversed, and a significant interaction of duration of exposure and Glu69 was detected (OR=4.51 95% CI 1.17 to 17.48). The gene-environment interaction supports the hypothesis that some cases diagnosed as sarcoidosis result from occupational beryllium exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  5. Long-term efficacy of a program to prevent beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Carrie A; Deubner, David C; Stanton, Marcia L; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2013-07-01

    In 2000, a manufacturer of beryllium materials and products introduced a comprehensive program to prevent beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). We assessed the program's efficacy in preventing sensitization 9 years after implementation. Current and former workers hired since program implementation completed questionnaires and provided blood samples for the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Using these data, as well as company medical surveillance data, we estimated beryllium sensitization prevalence. Cross-sectional prevalence of sensitization was 0.7% (2/298). Combining survey results with surveillance results, a total of seven were identified as sensitized (2.3%). Early Program workers were more likely to be sensitized than Late Program workers; one of the latter was newly identified. All sensitization was identified while participants were employed. One worker was diagnosed with CBD during employment. The combination of increased respiratory and dermal protection, enclosure and improved ventilation of high-risk processes, dust migration control, improved housekeeping, and worker and management education showed utility in reducing sensitization in the program's first 9 years. The low rate (0.6%, 1/175) among Late Program workers suggests that continuing refinements have provided additional protection against sensitization compared to the program's early years. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sampling and Analysis Issues Relating to the ACGIH Notice of Intended Change for the Beryllium Threshold Limit Value

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, Michael J.; Ashley, Kevin

    2005-08-16

    Beryllium in various forms is widely used throughout the world in ceramics, aerospace and military applications, electronics, and sports equipment. Workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing industrial hygiene concern due to the potential for development of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a lung condition with no known cure, in a small percentage of those exposed. There are workplace exposure limits for beryllium that have been in place for several decades. However, recent studies suggest that the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) may not be sufficiently protective for workers who are potentially exposed to airborne beryllium. Early in 2005, ACGIH issued a Notice of Intended Change (NIC) to the current TLV for beryllium which entails a 100-fold reduction (from 2 to 0.02 micrograms per cubic meter of sampled air). It is noted that ACGIH TLVs do not carry legal force in the manner that OSHA PELs or other federal regulations do. Nevertheless, OSHA plans a beryllium rulemaking in the near future, and a reduction in the PEL is anticipated. Also, if this change in the TLV for beryllium is adopted, it is reasonable to assume that at least some sampling and analysis activities will need to be modified to address airborne beryllium at the lower levels. There are implications to both the industrial hygiene and the laboratory communities, which are discussed.

  7. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Beryllium sensitivity or sensitization is established with an abnormal LPT performed on either blood or lung... this section), together with lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease, including the following: (i) A lung biopsy showing granulomas or a lymphocytic process consistent with chronic...

  8. 20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Beryllium sensitivity or sensitization is established with an abnormal LPT performed on either blood or lung... this section), together with lung pathology consistent with chronic beryllium disease, including the following: (i) A lung biopsy showing granulomas or a lymphocytic process consistent with chronic...

  9. Responses of rat lungs following inhalation of beryllium metal particles to achieve relatively low lung burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Haley, P.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Potential health effects resulting from the accidental exposure of people to beryllium metal are of concern. To investigate the effects of relatively low levels of beryllium metal on lung clearance, we simultaneously exposed rats to beryllium metal and radioactive tracer particles. Exposure to beryllium metal aerosol to achieve estimated lung burdens of 9 or 52 {mu}g significantly retarded clearance up to 365 days after exposure compared to controls, whereas lung burdens of 1.5 or 2 {mu}g had no significant effect on clearance. Groups of rats were sacrificed at 8, 16, 40, 90, 210 and 365 days after exposure for bronchoalveolar lavage. The total numbers of cells, incidence of neutrophils, the levels of total protein, and the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and {beta}-glucuronidase were generally elevated in lavage fluids from groups of rats that also had impaired lung clearance. This study serves to further define the levels of beryllium metal required to retard lung clearance and induce accompanying pathological responses in the lungs of rats. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Beryllium increases the CD14(dim)CD16+ subset in the lung of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Gillespie, May; Elliott, Jill; Wang, Jieru; Gottschall, Eva Brigitte; Mroz, Peggy M; Maier, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    CD14dimCD16+ and CD14brightCD16+ cells, which compose a minor population of monocytes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), have been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this phenotype was present as a subset of lung infiltrative alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the granulomatous lung disease, chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The monocytes subsets was determined from PBMC cells and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from CBD, beryllium sensitized Non-smoker (BeS-NS) and healthy subjects (HS) using flow cytometry. The impact of smoking on the AMs cell phenotype was determined by using BAL cells from BeS smokers (BeS-S). In comparison with the other monocyte subpopulations, CD14dimCD16+ cells were at decreased frequency in PBMCs of both BeS-NS and CBD and showed higher HLA-DR expression, compared to HS. The AMs from CBD and BeS-NS demonstrated a CD14dimCD16+phenotype, while CD14brightCD16+ cells were found at increased frequency in AMs of BeS, compared to HS. Fresh AMs from BeS-NS and CBD demonstrated significantly greater CD16, CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR than HS and BeS-S. The expression of CD16 on AMs from both CBD and BeS-NS was downregulated significantly after 10μM BeSO4 stimulation. The phagocytic activity of AMs decreased after 10μM BeSO4 treatment in both BeS-NS and CBD, although was altered or reduced in HS and BeS-S. These results suggest that Be increases the CD14dimCD16+ subsets in the lung of CBD subjects. We speculate that Be-stimulates the compartmentalization of a more mature CD16+ macrophage phenotype and that in turn these macrophages are a source of Th1 cytokines and chemokines that perpetuate the Be immune response in CBD. The protective effect of cigarette smoking in BeS-S may be due to the low expression of co-stimulatory markers on AMs from smokers as well as the decreased phagocytic function.

  11. Beryllium-induced lung disease exhibits expression profiles similar to sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Silveira, Lori J.; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Gillespie, May; Mroz, Peggy M.; Mayer, Annyce S.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Maier, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    A subset of beryllium-exposed workers develop beryllium sensitisation (BeS) which precedes chronic beryllium disease (CBD). We conducted an in-depth analysis of differentially expressed candidate genes in CBD. We performed Affymetrix GeneChip 1.0 ST array analysis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 CBD, 10 BeS and 10 beryllium-exposed, nondiseased controls stimulated with BeSO4 or medium. The differentially expressed genes were validated by high-throughput real-time PCR in this group and in an additional group of cases and nonexposed controls. The functional roles of the top candidate genes in CBD were assessed using a pharmacological inhibitor. CBD gene expression data were compared with whole blood and lung tissue in sarcoidosis from the Gene Expression Omnibus. We confirmed almost 450 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between CBD and controls. The top enrichment of genes was for JAK (Janus kinase)–STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signalling. A JAK2 inhibitor significantly decreased tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production. Furthermore, we found 287 differentially expressed genes overlapped in CBD/sarcoidosis. The top shared pathways included cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions, and Toll-like receptor, chemokine and JAK–STAT signalling pathways. We show that PBMCs demonstrate differentially expressed gene profiles relevant to the immunnopathogenesis of CBD. CBD and sarcoidosis share similar differential expression of pathogenic genes and pathways. PMID:27103383

  12. Chronic Beryllium Disease: revealing the role of beryllium ion and small peptides binding to HLA-DP2.

    PubMed

    Petukh, Marharyta; Wu, Bohua; Stefl, Shannon; Smith, Nick; Hyde-Volpe, David; Wang, Li; Alexov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Beryllium (Be) Disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disorder that predominantly affects the lung. The CBD is caused by Be exposure of individuals carrying the HLA-DP2 protein of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII). While the involvement of Be in the development of CBD is obvious and the binding site and the sequence of Be and peptide binding were recently experimentally revealed [1], the interplay between induced conformational changes and the changes of the peptide binding affinity in presence of Be were not investigated. Here we carry out in silico modeling and predict the Be binding to be within the acidic pocket (Glu26, Glu68 and Glu69) present on the HLA-DP2 protein in accordance with the experimental work [1]. In addition, the modeling indicates that the Be ion binds to the HLA-DP2 before the corresponding peptide is able to bind to it. Further analysis of the MD generated trajectories reveals that in the presence of the Be ion in the binding pocket of HLA-DP2, all the different types of peptides induce very similar conformational changes, but their binding affinities are quite different. Since these conformational changes are distinctly different from the changes caused by peptides normally found in the cell in the absence of Be, it can be speculated that CBD can be caused by any peptide in presence of Be ion. However, the affinities of peptides for Be loaded HLA-DP2 were found to depend of their amino acid composition and the peptides carrying acidic group at positions 4 and 7 are among the strongest binders. Thus, it is proposed that CBD is caused by the exposure of Be of an individual carrying the HLA-DP2*0201 allele and that the binding of Be to HLA-DP2 protein alters the conformational and ionization properties of HLA-DP2 such that the binding of a peptide triggers a wrong signaling cascade.

  13. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    PubMed Central

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  14. Low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease among workers at a nuclear weapons research and development facility.

    PubMed

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R

    2010-06-01

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  15. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  16. Sensitization and chronic beryllium disease at a primary manufacturing facility, part 1: historical exposure reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Virji, M Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Day, Gregory A; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2012-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) have reported inconsistent exposure-response relationships, likely due to exposure misclassification. The objective of this study was to develop historical estimates of size-selective personal exposure to beryllium for an epidemiologic study. In 1999, a cross-sectional survey of workers hired after 1 January 1994 was conducted at a beryllium production facility. Personal exposure data from two air sampling surveys conducted in 1999 were used to obtain total, respirable, and submicron particle baseline exposure estimates (BEE) for a job-exposure matrix (JEM). General area air samples collected from 1994-1999 were used to estimate annual changes in exposures (temporal factors) for 24 different process areas. Historical exposure estimates (HEE) were calculated by applying the temporal factors to the BEE. Workers were assigned HEE based on their work history, and their historical exposure profile was summarized as cumulative, average, or highest-ever job exposure. Changes in exposure over a 6-year period were observed in 10 of the 24 process areas with an overall mean decline of 18% per year. The overall total exposure for study participants over their work tenure ranged from: 0.001-34.44 μg/m(3)-year, 0.01-16.26 μg/m(3), and 0.01-17.54 μg /m(3) for cumulative, average, and highest-ever job, respectively. For respirable exposures, the ranges were: 0.001-15.54 μg/m(3)-year, 0.01-3.56 μg/m(3), 0.01-5.54 μg /m(3) for cumulative, average, and highest-ever job, respectively. Using this JEM, exposure-response relationships for BeS and CBD can be explored over a range of exposure metrics such as total, respirable, and submicron beryllium mass concentrations, including summary measures such as cumulative, average, or highest exposures, with the ultimate objective of elucidating a quantitative exposure-response relationship.

  17. HANFORD BERYLLIUM STEERING GROUP CHARTER

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT, E.R.

    2003-11-19

    The purpose of the Beryllium Steering Group (BSG) is to (1) provide a forum for discussion of beryllium issues and concerns among Hanford prime contractors and DOE; (2) review proposed changes in prime contractor Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Programs (CBDPP) to determine if these changes will result in significant impacts to other contractors and their employees; (3) review proposed changes to Beryllium Hanford Facilities List prior to updating of this list.

  18. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... understand that my employer will be notified of my diagnosis only if I have a beryllium sensitization or... recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... understand that my employer will be notified of my diagnosis only if I have a beryllium sensitization or... recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 850 - Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Informed Consent Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... understand that my employer will be notified of my diagnosis only if I have a beryllium sensitization or... recommended. If additional tests indicate I do have a beryllium sensitization or CBD, the Site Occupational...

  2. Chronic beryllium disease, HLA-DPB1, and the DP peptide binding groove.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Lori J; McCanlies, Erin C; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Van Dyke, Michael V; Mroz, Margaret M; Strand, Matthew; Fontenot, Andrew P; Bowerman, Natalie; Dabelea, Dana M; Schuler, Christine R; Weston, Ainsley; Maier, Lisa A

    2012-10-15

    Multiple epidemiologic studies demonstrate associations between chronic beryllium disease (CBD), beryllium sensitization (BeS), and HLA-DPB1 alleles with a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69). Results suggest that the less-frequent E69 variants (non-*0201/*0202 alleles) might be associated with greater risk of CBD. In this study, we sought to define specific E69-carrying alleles and their amino acid sequences in the DP peptide binding groove, as well as their relationship to CBD and BeS risk, using the largest case control study to date. We enrolled 502 BeS/CBD subjects and 653 beryllium-exposed controls from three beryllium industries who gave informed consent for participation. Non-Hispanic white cases and controls were frequency-matched by industry. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined using sequence-specific primer PCR. The E69 alleles were tested for association with disease individually and grouped by amino acid structure using logistic regression. The results show that CBD cases were more likely than controls to carry a non-*02 E69 allele than an *02 E69, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) ranging from 3.1 (2.1-4.5) to 3.9 (2.6-5.9) (p < 0.0001). Polymorphic amino acids at positions 84 and 11 were associated with CBD: DD versus GG, 2.8 (1.8-4.6), p < 0.0001; GD versus GG, 2.1 (1.5-2.8), p < 0.0001; LL versus GG, 3.2 (1.8-5.6), p < 0.0001; GL versus GG, 2.8 (2.1-3.8), p < 0.0001. Similar results were found within the BeS group and CBD/BeS combined group. We conclude that the less frequent E69 alleles confer more risk for CBD than does *0201. Recent studies examining how the composition and structure of the binding pockets influence peptide binding in MHC genes, as well of studies showing the topology of the TCR to likely bind DPB1 preferentially, give plausible biological rationale for these findings.

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease, HLA-DPB1, and the DP Peptide Binding Groove

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Lori J.; McCanlies, Erin C.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Van Dyke, Michael V.; Mroz, Margaret M.; Strand, Matthew; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Bowerman, Natalie; Dabelea, Dana M.; Schuler, Christine R.; Weston, Ainsley; Maier, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies demonstrate associations between chronic beryllium disease (CBD), beryllium sensitization (BeS), and HLA-DPB1 alleles with a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69). Results suggest that the less-frequent E69 variants (non-*0201/*0202 alleles) might be associated with greater risk of CBD. In this study, we sought to define specific E69-carrying alleles and their amino acid sequences in the DP peptide binding groove, as well as their relationship to CBD and BeS risk, using the largest case control study to date. We enrolled 502 BeS/CBD subjects and 653 beryllium-exposed controls from three beryllium industries who gave informed consent for participation. Non-Hispanic white cases and controls were frequency-matched by industry. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined using sequence-specific primer PCR. The E69 alleles were tested for association with disease individually and grouped by amino acid structure using logistic regression. The results show that CBD cases were more likely than controls to carry a non-*02 E69 allele than an *02 E69, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) ranging from 3.1 (2.1–4.5) to 3.9 (2.6–5.9) (p < 0.0001). Polymorphic amino acids at positions 84 and 11 were associated with CBD: DD versus GG, 2.8 (1.8–4.6), p < 0.0001; GD versus GG, 2.1 (1.5–2.8), p < 0.0001; LL versus GG, 3.2 (1.8–5.6), p < 0.0001; GL versus GG, 2.8 (2.1–3.8), p < 0.0001. Similar results were found within the BeS group and CBD/BeS combined group. We conclude that the less frequent E69 alleles confer more risk for CBD than does *0201. Recent studies examining how the composition and structure of the binding pockets influence peptide binding in MHC genes, as well of studies showing the topology of the TCR to likely bind DPB1 preferentially, give plausible biological rationale for these findings. PMID:22972925

  4. Chronic beryllium disease: an updated model interaction between innate and acquired immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Richard T.; Maier, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, there have been concerted efforts to reduce beryllium (Be) exposure in the workplace and thereby reduce potential cases of this occupational lung disorder. Despite these efforts, it is estimated that there are at least one million Be-exposed individuals in the U.S. who are potentially at risk for developing chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Previously, we reviewed the current CBD literature and proposed that CBD represents a model interaction between innate and acquired immunity (Sawyer et al., Int Immunopharmacol 2:249–261, 2002). We closed this review with a section on “future directions” that identified key gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of CBD. In the intervening period, progress has been made to fill in some of these gaps, and the current review will provide an update on that progress. Based on recent findings, we provide a new hypothesis to explain how Be drives sustained chronic inflammation and granuloma formation in CBD leading to progressive compromised lung function in CBD patients. This paradigm has direct implications for our understanding of the development of an immune response to Be, but is also likely applicable to other immune-mediated lung diseases of known and unknown etiology. PMID:20981472

  5. Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among aluminium smelter workers

    PubMed Central

    Slade, M. D.; Cantley, L. F.; Kirsche, S. R.; Wesdock, J. C.; Cullen, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Beryllium exposure occurs in aluminium smelters from natural contamination of bauxite, the principal source of aluminium. Aims To characterize beryllium exposure in aluminium smelters and determine the prevalence rate of beryllium sensitization (BeS) among aluminium smelter workers. Methods A population of 3185 workers from nine aluminium smelters owned by four different aluminium-producing companies were determined to have significant beryllium exposure. Of these, 1932 workers participated in medical surveillance programmes that included the serum beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT), confirmation of sensitization by at least two abnormal BeLPT test results and further evaluation for chronic beryllium disease in workers with BeS. Results Personal beryllium samples obtained from the nine aluminium smelters showed a range of <0.01–13.00 μg/m3 time-weighted average with an arithmetic mean of 0.25 μg/m3 and geometric mean of 0.06 μg/m3. Nine workers were diagnosed with BeS (prevalence rate of 0.47%, 95% confidence interval = 0.21–0.88%). Conclusions BeS can occur in aluminium smelter workers through natural beryllium contamination of the bauxite and further concentration during the refining and smelting processes. Exposure levels to beryllium observed in aluminium smelters are similar to those seen in other industries that utilize beryllium. However, compared with beryllium-exposed workers in other industries, the rate of BeS among aluminium smelter workers appears lower. This lower observed rate may be related to a more soluble form of beryllium found in the aluminium smelting work environment as well as the consistent use of respiratory protection. PMID:20610489

  6. Structural basis of chronic beryllium disease: linking allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Gina M; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W

    2014-07-03

    T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. Here, we show that the T cell ligand is created when a Be(2+) cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be(2+) itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be(2+) and an accompanying Na(+) cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of preexisting self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural Basis of Chronic Beryllium Disease: Linking Allergic Hypersensitivity and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Gina M.; Wang, Yang; Crawford, Frances; Novikov, Andrey; Wimberly, Brian T.; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; Marrack, Philippa; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Dai, Shaodong; Kappler, John W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY T cell-mediated hypersensitivity to metal cations is common in humans. How the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes these cations bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and self-peptide is unknown. Individuals carrying the MHCII allele, HLA-DP2, are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a debilitating inflammatory lung condition caused by the reaction of CD4 T cells to inhaled beryllium. We show here that the T cell ligand is created when a Be2+ cation becomes buried in an HLA-DP2/peptide complex, where it is coordinated by both MHC and peptide acidic amino acids. Surprisingly, the TCR does not interact with the Be2+ itself, but rather with surface changes induced by the firmly bound Be2+ and an accompanying Na+ cation. Thus, CBD, by creating a new antigen by indirectly modifying the structure of pre-existing self MHC-peptide complex, lies on the border between allergic hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:24995984

  8. Statistical methods for the analysis of a screening test for chronic beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L.; Neubert, R.L.; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.; Colyer, S.P.

    1994-10-01

    The lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) is a noninvasive screening procedure used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A practical problem in the analysis of LPT well counts is the occurrence of outlying data values (approximately 7% of the time). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of test conditions. The variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected counts, and two resistant regression methods are used to estimate the parameters of interest. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts to estimate beryllium stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of the resistant regression methods is that it is not necessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the LPT data and the outlier rejection method that is currently being used are applied to 173 LPT assays. The authors strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the LPT.

  9. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  10. Crystal structure of HLA-DP2 and implications for chronic beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Shaodong; Murphy, Guinevere A.; Crawford, Frances; Mack, Douglas G.; Falta, Michael T.; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

    2010-06-15

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a fibrotic lung disorder caused by beryllium (Be) exposure and is characterized by granulomatous inflammation and the accumulation of Be-responsive CD4{sup +} T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to CBD has been associated with certain alleles of the MHCII molecule HLA-DP, especially HLA-DPB1*0201 and other alleles that contain a glutamic acid residue at position 69 of the {beta}-chain ({beta}Glu69). The HLA-DP alleles that can present Be to T cells match those implicated in the genetic susceptibility, suggesting that the HLA contribution to disease is based on the ability of those molecules to bind and present Be to T cells. The structure of HLA-DP2 and its interaction with Be are unknown. Here, we present the HLA-DP2 structure with its antigen-binding groove occupied by a self-peptide derived from the HLA-DR {alpha}-chain. The most striking feature of the structure is an unusual solvent exposed acidic pocket formed between the peptide backbone and the HLA-DP2 {beta}-chain {alpha}-helix and containing three glutamic acids from the {beta}-chain, including {beta}Glu69. In the crystal packing, this pocket has been filled with the guanidinium group of an arginine from a neighboring molecule. This positively charged moiety forms an extensive H-bond/salt bridge network with the three glutamic acids, offering a plausible model for how Be-containing complexes might occupy this site. This idea is strengthened by the demonstration that mutation of any of the three glutamic acids in this pocket results in loss of the ability of DP2 to present Be to T cells.

  11. Electrostatic potential on human leukocyte antigen: implications for putative mechanism of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, James A; Weston, Ainsley; Tinkle, Sally S; Demchuk, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    The pathobiology of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) involves the major histocompatibility complex class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Although occupational exposure to beryllium is the cause of CBD, molecular epidemiologic studies suggest that specific (Italic)HLA-DPB1(/Italic) alleles may be genetic susceptibility factors. We have studied three-dimensional structural models of HLA-DP proteins encoded by these genes. The extracellular domains of HLA-DPA1*0103/B1*1701, *1901, *0201, and *0401, and HLA-DPA1*0201/B1*1701, *1901, *0201, and *0401 were modeled from the X-ray coordinates of an HLA-DR template. Using these models, the electrostatic potential at the molecular surface of each HLA-DP was calculated and compared. These comparisons identify specific characteristics in the vicinity of the antigen-binding pocket that distinguish the different HLA-DP allotypes. Differences in electrostatics originate from the shape, specific disposition, and variation in the negatively charged groups around the pocket. The more negative the pocket potential, the greater the odds of developing CBD estimated from reported epidemiologic studies. Adverse impact is caused by charged substitutions in positions 55, 56, 69, 84, and 85, namely, the exact same loci identified as genetic markers of CBD susceptibility as well as cobalt-lung hard metal disease. These findings suggest that certain substitutions may promote an involuntary cation-binding site within a putatively metal-free peptide-binding pocket and therefore change the innate specificity of antigen recognition. PMID:14630515

  12. Regulatory T cells modulate granulomatous inflammation in an HLA-DP2 transgenic murine model of beryllium-induced disease.

    PubMed

    Mack, Douglas G; Falta, Michael T; McKee, Amy S; Martin, Allison K; Simonian, Philip L; Crawford, Frances; Gordon, Terry; Mercer, Robert R; Hoover, Mark D; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W; Tuder, Rubin M; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2014-06-10

    Susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is linked to certain HLA-DP molecules, including HLA-DP2. To elucidate the molecular basis of this association, we exposed mice transgenic (Tg) for HLA-DP2 to beryllium oxide (BeO) via oropharyngeal aspiration. As opposed to WT mice, BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice developed mononuclear infiltrates in a peribronchovascular distribution that were composed of CD4(+) T cells and included regulatory T (Treg) cells. Beryllium-responsive, HLA-DP2-restricted CD4(+) T cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-2 were present in BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice and not in WT mice. Using Be-loaded HLA-DP2-peptide tetramers, we identified Be-specific CD4(+) T cells in the mouse lung that recognize identical ligands as CD4(+) T cells derived from the human lung. Importantly, a subset of HLA-DP2 tetramer-binding CD4(+) T cells expressed forkhead box P3, consistent with the expansion of antigen-specific Treg cells. Depletion of Treg cells in BeO-exposed HLA-DP2 Tg mice exacerbated lung inflammation and enhanced granuloma formation. These findings document, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a Be-specific adaptive immune response in mice expressing HLA-DP2 and the ability of Treg cells to modulate the beryllium-induced granulomatous immune response.

  13. T Cell Recognition of Beryllium

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T.; Bowerman, Natalie A.; McKee, Amy S.; Fontenot, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the β-chain (βGlu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent βGlu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes βGlu69 and represents the putative beryllium binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the αβTCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. PMID:23978481

  14. T cell recognition of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shaodong; Falta, Michael T; Bowerman, Natalie A; McKee, Amy S; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2013-12-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by a hypersensitivity to beryllium and characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells in the lung. Genetic susceptibility to beryllium-induced disease is strongly associated with HLA-DP alleles possessing a glutamic acid at the 69th position of the β-chain (βGlu69). The structure of HLA-DP2, the most prevalent βGlu69-containing molecule, revealed a unique solvent-exposed acidic pocket that includes βGlu69 and represents the putative beryllium-binding site. The delineation of mimotopes and endogenous self-peptides that complete the αβTCR ligand for beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells suggests a unique role of these peptides in metal ion coordination and the generation of altered self-peptides, blurring the distinction between hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Designer ligands for beryllium: Stability and detection of beryllium?

    SciTech Connect

    Keizer, T. S.; Scott, B. L.; Sauer, N. N.; McCleskey, T. M.

    2004-01-01

    With the incorporation of beryllium into mainstream consumer products, there is a concern with the environmental and health implications of wide spread beryllium use. With little experimental research undertaken to address the toxic nature of beryllium (the worst case leading to chronic beryllium disease), there is a need for a fundamental understanding of the way the metal interacts with the environment and it's interaction within the human body. In addition, a better insight into beryllium interactions can lead to improvements in detection methods, which are vital with respect to preventing exposure and for the rapid clean up of beryllium in the environment. The MHC-class II receptor has been identified as the receptor that binds Be in the body. The proposed key binding sites in the antigen consist of two sections of the sequence, and each section contains three carboxylates in a row. Therefore, efforts in characterization of compounds with multiple carboxylates and hydroxides species are pursued.

  16. Development of beryllium honeycomb sandwich composite for structural and other related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Grant, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating large beryllium honeycomb panels was demonstrated. Both flat and curved sandwich structures were manufactured using practical, braze bonding techniques. The processes developed prove that metallurgically assembled beryllium honeycomb panels show decided potential where rigid, lightweight structures are required. Three panels, each 10 square feet in surface area, were fabricated, and radiographically inspected to determine integrity. This examination revealed a 97 percent braze in the final panel. It is believed that ceramic dies for forming and brazing would facilitate the fabrication techniques for higher production rates. Ceramic dies would yield a lower thermal gradient in the panel during the braze cycle. This would eliminate the small amount of face sheet wrinkling present in the panels. Hot forming the various panel components demonstrated efficient manufacturing techniques for scaling up and producing large numbers of hot formed beryllium components and panels. The beryllium honeycomb panel demonstrated very good vibrational loading characteristics under test with desirable damping characteristics.

  17. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    PubMed

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  18. Beryllium Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-06-30

    cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

  19. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling...

  20. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling...

  1. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling...

  2. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling...

  3. 10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section 850.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910.120(l) for handling...

  4. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. A mortality study of beryllium workers.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Mandel, Jack S

    2016-12-01

    We aimed at investigating mortality among beryllium-exposed workers, according to solubility of beryllium and beryllium compounds. We conducted an historical cohort study of 16,115 workers employed during 1925-2008 in 15 facilities, including eight entailing exposure to insoluble beryllium and seven entailing exposure to soluble/mixed beryllium compounds, who were followed up for mortality until 2011. Data were analyzed using indirect standardization and Cox regression modeling. Lung cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR, national reference rates) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.10) in the whole cohort, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.75-1.03) in the insoluble beryllium subcohort, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99-1.09) in the soluble/mixed beryllium subcohort. For lung cancer, there was an association with period of hire in soluble/mixed beryllium plants but not in insoluble plants, and, conversely, employment in soluble/mixed plants was associated with increased mortality only among workers hired before 1955. There was no trend with duration of employment. Mortality from chronic beryllium disease increased, in particular, among workers hired before 1955 in soluble/mixed beryllium facilities. There was no increase in lung cancer mortality in the entire cohort and lung cancer mortality was not increased among beryllium workers hired in 1955 or later in soluble/mixed beryllium facilities, or at any time among those employed in insoluble beryllium facilities.

  6. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Smith, Frank M.; O'Leary, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  7. Beryllium: a modern industrial hazard.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Kathleen; Day, Gregory A; Schuler, Christine R

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium exposure can cause a granulomatous lung disease in workers who develop a lymphocyte-mediated sensitization to the metal. Workers in diverse industries are at risk because beryllium's properties are critical to nuclear, aerospace, telecommunications, electronic, metal alloy, biomedical, and semiconductor industries. The occupational air concentration standard's failure to protect beryllium workers is driving many scientific and occupational health advances. These developments include study of bioavailability of different physicochemical forms of beryllium, medical surveillance to show effectiveness of skin protection in preventing sensitization in high-risk processes, gene-environment interaction, transgenic mice for use in experimental research, and risk-based management of industrial exposures in the absence of effective exposure-response information. Beryllium sensitization and disease prevention are paradigms for much broader public health action in both occupational and general population settings.

  8. Containerless processing of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wouch, G.; Keith, G. H.; Frost, R. T.; Pinto, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    Melting and solidification of a beryllium alloy containing 1.5% BeO by weight in the weightless environment of space has produced cast beryllium with a relatively uniform dispersion of BeO throughout. Examination of the cast material shows that it is coarse grained, although the BeO is not heavily agglomerated in the flight specimen. Ground based comparison experiments show extreme agglomeration and segregation of BeO, resulting in large zones which are practically free of the oxide. Several postulated hypotheses for the failure to grain refine the beryllium are formulated. These are: (1) spherodization of the BeO particles during specimen preparation and during the molten phase of the experiment; (2) loss of nucleation potency through aging in the molten phase; and (3) inability of BeO to act as a grain refiner for beryllium. Further investigation with non spherodized particles and shorter dwell times molten may delineate which of these hypotheses are valid. The results of this flight experiment indicate that the weightless environment of space is an important asset in conducting research to find grain refiners for beryllium and other metals for which cast dispersions of grain refining agents cannot be prepared terrestrially due to gravitationally driven settling and agglomeration.

  9. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  10. Beryllium weldability

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.A.; Damkroger, B.K.; Dixon, R.D. ); Robertson, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Welding processes and metallurgical considerations for beryllium welding are discussed in this review. The primary difficulties of welding beryllium are hot cracking, cracking at defects, and ductility limitation or thermally induced cracking. Solutions to these welding problems include control of the Fe/Al ratio in the base metal to reduce hot cracking, minimization of the BeO content and starting grain size to limit cracking at defects and ductility limitation cracking, and optimization of the welding process and process variables. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  12. Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  13. Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Larry D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

  14. Beryllium Technology Research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis

    2005-02-01

    While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease.

  15. Frequency of beryllium-specific, central memory CD4+ T cells in blood determines proliferative response

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Andrew P.; Palmer, Brent E.; Sullivan, Andrew K.; Joslin, Fenneke G.; Wilson, Cara C.; Maier, Lisa A.; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Beryllium exposure can lead to the development of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells and chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which is characterized by the presence of lung granulomas and a CD4+ T cell alveolitis. Studies have documented the presence of proliferating and cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells in blood of CBD patients after beryllium stimulation. However, some patients were noted to have cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells in blood in the absence of beryllium-induced proliferation, and overall, the correlation between the 2 types of responses was poor. We hypothesized that the relative proportion of memory T cell subsets determined antigen-specific proliferation. In most CBD patients, the majority of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in blood expressed an effector memory T cell maturation phenotype. However, the ability of blood cells to proliferate in the presence of beryllium strongly correlated with the fraction expressing a central memory T cell phenotype. In addition, we found a direct correlation between the percentage of beryllium-specific CD4+ TEM cells in blood and T cell lymphocytosis in the lung. Together, these findings indicate that the functional capability of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is determined by the relative proportion of memory T cell subsets, which may reflect internal organ involvement. PMID:16151531

  16. Method for welding beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. Beryllium parts made using this method can be used as structural components in aircraft, satellites and space applications.

  17. Beryllium in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tammy P; Ding, Mei; Ehler, Deborah S; Foreman, Trudi M; Kaszuba, John P; Sauer, Nancy N

    2003-02-01

    Beryllium is an important industrial metal because of its unusual material properties: it is lighter than aluminum and six times stronger than steel. Often alloyed with other metals such as copper, beryllium is a key component of materials used in the aerospace and electronics industries. Beryllium has a small neutron cross-section, which makes it useful in the production of nuclear weapons and in sealed neutron sources. Unfortunately, beryllium is one of the most toxic elements in the periodic table. It is responsible for the often-fatal lung disease, Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) or berylliosis, and is listed as a Class A EPA carcinogen. Coal-fired power plants, industrial manufacturing and nuclear weapons production and disposal operations have released beryllium to the environment. This contamination has the potential to expose workers and the public to beryllium. Despite the increasing use of beryllium in industry, there is surprisingly little published information about beryllium fate and transport in the environment. This information is crucial for the development of strategies that limit worker and public exposure. This review summarizes the current understanding of beryllium health hazards, current regulatory mandates, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and environmental contamination.

  18. Risk estimation and value-of-information analysis for three proposed genetic screening programs for chronic beryllium disease prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.; Ponce, R.A.; Takaro, T.K.; Zerbe, R.O.; Omenn, G.S.; Faustman, E.M.

    2000-02-01

    Genetic differences (polymorphisms) among members of a population are thought to influence susceptibility to various environmental exposures. In practice, however, this information is rarely incorporated into quantitative risk assessment and risk management. The authors describe an analytic framework for predicting the risk reduction and value-of-information (VOI) resulting from specific risk management applications of genetic biomarkers, and they apply the framework to the example of occupational chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an immune-mediated pulmonary granulomatous disease. One described Human Leukocyte Antigen gene variant, HLA-DP{beta}1*0201, contains a substitution of glutamate for lysine at position 69 that appears to have high sensitivity ({approximately}94%) but low specificity ({approximately}70%) with respect to CBD among individuals occupationally exposed to respirable beryllium. The expected postintervention CBD prevalence rates for using the genetic variant (1) as a required job placement screen, (2) as a medical screen for semiannual in place of annual lymphocyte proliferation testing, or (3) as a voluntary job placement screen are 0.08%, 0.8%, and 0.6%, respectively, in a hypothetical cohort with 1% baseline CBD prevalence. VOI analysis is used to examine the reduction in total social cost, calculated as the net value of disease reduction and financial expenditures, expected for proposed CBD intervention programs based on the genetic susceptibility test. For the example cohort the expected net VOI per beryllium worker for genetically based testing and intervention is $13,000, $1,800, and $5,100, respectively, based on a health valuation of $1.45 million per CBD case avoided. VOI results for alternative CBD valuations are also presented. Despite large parameter uncertainty, probabilistic analysis predicts generally positive utility for each of the three evaluated programs when avoidance of a CBD case is valued at $1 million or higher. Although

  19. The beryllium bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte proliferation test: indicator of beryllium sensitization, inflammation or both?

    PubMed

    Heldt, Gregory H; Deubner, David C

    2015-01-01

    We had available records on over 300 workers evaluated with the beryllium bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte proliferation test (BeBALLPT) at three expert chronic beryllium disease (CBD) diagnostic centers. The objective was to describe the contribution of the BeBALLPT to classification of workers with respect to beryllium sensitization (BeS) and beryllium-induced lung inflammation. Company records were used to identify beryllium workers who had undergone diagnostic bronchoscopy with BeBALLPT. Clinical, work and smoking information was abstracted from electronic and paper databases. We analyzed factors influencing BeBALLPT outcome, and its relation to blood-determined BeS and granulomatous inflammation. Positive BeBALLPTs contributed evidence of BeS in subjects without prior positive beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeBLPTs) and of pulmonary inflammation in persons without granulomata evident on lung biopsy. Positive BeBALLPTs were associated with positive BeBLPTs and more strongly with granulomata. The rate of both positive BeBALLPT and granulomata increased with time worked through 4 years and were lower in smoking subjects. The false negative rate of the BeBALLPT was 20%. A positive BeBALLPT is closely linked to the presence of granulomata on lung biopsy and can be considered as an indicator of lung inflammation in addition to BeS. The ability to use BeBALLPT as a substitute for the more risky lung biopsy is limited by the BeBALLPT false negative rate and lack of information on the false positive rate. It is not recommended that a positive BeBALLPT be considered sufficient evidence for both lung inflammation and BeS.

  20. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  1. Method for welding beryllium

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  2. Beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage and alteration in the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes.

    PubMed

    Attia, Sabry M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Hassan, Memy H; Bakheet, Saleh A

    2013-09-01

    Beryllium metal has physical properties that make its use essential for very specific applications, such as medical diagnostics, nuclear/fusion reactors and aerospace applications. Because of the widespread human exposure to beryllium metals and the discrepancy of the genotoxic results in the reported literature, detail assessments of the genetic damage of beryllium are warranted. Mice exposed to beryllium chloride at an oral dose of 23mg/kg for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in the level of DNA-strand breaking and micronuclei formation as detected by a bone marrow standard comet assay and micronucleus test. Whereas slight beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage was detected following formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase digestion, digestion with endonuclease III resulted in considerable increases in oxidative DNA damage after the 11.5 and 23mg/kg/day treatment as detected by enzyme-modified comet assays. Increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also directly correlated with increased bone marrow micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks, which further confirm the involvement of oxidative stress in the induction of bone marrow genetic damage after exposure to beryllium chloride. Gene expression analysis on the bone marrow cells from beryllium chloride-exposed mice showed significant alterations in genes associated with DNA damage repair. Therefore, beryllium chloride may cause genetic damage to bone marrow cells due to the oxidative stress and the induced unrepaired DNA damage is probably due to the down-regulation in the expression of DNA repair genes, which may lead to genotoxicity and eventually cause carcinogenicity.

  3. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  4. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  5. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  6. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  7. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.20 Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the...

  8. Considerations for the development of health-based surface dust cleanup criteria for beryllium.

    PubMed

    Shay, Erin; De Gandiaga, Elise; Madl, Amy K

    2013-03-01

    The exposure-response patterns with beryllium sensitization (BeS), chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and lung cancer are influenced by a number of biological and physicochemical factors. Recent studies have suggested dermal exposure as a pathway for BeS. In light of the current non-health-based DOE Beryllium Rule surface criteria, the feasibility of deriving a human health-based surface dust cleanup criteria (SDCC) for beryllium was assessed based on toxicology and health risk factors via all potential routes of exposure. Beryllium-specific and general exposure factors were evaluated, including (1) beryllium physicochemical characteristics, bioavailability and influence on disease prevalence, and (2) chemical dissipation, resuspension and transfer. SDCC for non-cancer (SDCC) and cancer (SDCC) endpoints were derived from a combination of modern methods applied for occupational, residential and building reentry surface dust criteria. The most conservative SDCC estimates were derived for dermal exposure (5-379 μg/100 cm for 0.1-1% damaged skin and 17-3337 μg/100 cm for intact skin), whereas the SDCC for inhalation exposure ranged from 51 to 485 μg/100 cm. Considering this analysis, the lowest DOE surface criterion of 0.2 μg/100 cm is conservative for minimizing exposure and potential risks associated with beryllium-contaminated surfaces released for non-beryllium industrial or public sector use. Although methodological challenges exist with sampling and analysis procedures, data variability and interpretation of surface dust information in relation to anthropogenic and natural background concentrations, this evaluation should provide useful guidance with regard to cleanup of manufacturing equipment or remediation of property for transfer to the general public or non-beryllium industrial facilities.

  9. Dynamics of beryllium-7 specific activity in relation to meteorological variables, tropopause height, teleconnection indices and sunspot number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, D.; Stratimirović, Đ.; Blesić, S.; Djurdjevic, V.; Miljković, V.; Ajtić, J.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of the beryllium-7 specific activity in surface air over 1987-2011 is analyzed using wavelet transform (WT) analysis and time-dependent detrended moving average (tdDMA) method. WT analysis gives four periodicities in the beryllium-7 specific activity: one month, three months, one year, and three years. These intervals are further used in tdDMA to calculate local autocorrelation exponents for precipitation, tropopause height and teleconnection indices. Our results show that these parameters share common periods with the beryllium-7 surface concentration. tdDMA method indicates that on the characteristic intervals of one year and shorter, the beryllium-7 specific activity is strongly autocorrelated. On the three-year interval, the beryllium-7 specific activity shows periods of anticorrelation, implying slow changes in its dynamics that become evident only over a prolonged period of time. A comparison of the Hurst exponents of all the variables on the one- and three-year intervals suggest some similarities in their dynamics. Overall, a good agreement in the behavior of the teleconnection indices and specific activity of beryllium-7 in surface air is noted.

  10. Beryllium particle combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A two-year study of the combustion efficiency of single beryllium droplets burning in a variety of oxidizers (primarily mixtures of oxygen/argon and oxygen/nitrogen) is summarized. An advanced laser heating technique was used to acquire systematic quantitative data on the burning of single beryllium droplets at atmospheric pressure. The research confirmed the sensitivity of beryllium droplet combustion to the chemistry of environmental species and provides experimental documentation for the nitrogen-induced droplet fragmentation of burning beryllium droplets.

  11. Laser fabrication of beryllium components

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafee, J.E.; Ramos, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Working with the beryllium industry on commercial applications and using prototype parts, the authors have found that the use of lasers provides a high-speed, low-cost method of cutting beryllium metal, beryllium alloys, and beryllium-beryllium oxide composites. In addition, they have developed laser welding processes for commercial structural grades of beryllium that do not need a filler metal; i.e., autogenous welds were made in commercial structural grades of beryllium by using lasers.

  12. Control of beryllium powder at a DOE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, G.C.; Creek, K.L.; Castro, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    Beryllium is contained in a number of domestic and national defense items. Although many items might contain beryllium in some manner, few people need worry about the adverse effects caused by exposure to beryllium because it is the inhalable form of beryllium that is most toxic. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a granulomas and fibrotic lung disease with long latency, can be developed after inhalation exposures to beryllium. It is a progressive, debilitating lung disease. Its occurrence in those exposed to beryllium has been difficult to predict because some people seem to react to low concentration exposures whereas others do not react to high concentration exposures. Onset of the disease frequently occurs between 15 to 20 years after exposure begins. Some people develop the disease after many years of low concentration exposures but others do not develop CBD even though beryllium is shown to be present in lungs and urine. Conclusions based on these experiences are that their is some immunological dependence of developing CBD in about 3--4% of the exposed population, but the exact mechanism involved has not yet been identified. Acute beryllium disease can occur after a single exposure to a concentration of greater than 0.100 mg/m3 (inhalation exposure); it is characterized by the development of chemical pneumoconiosis, a respiratory disease. The acute effect of skin contact is a dermatitis characterized by itching and reddened, elevated, or fluid-accumulated lesions which appear particularly on the exposed surfaces of the body, especially the face, neck, arms, and hands. Small particles of beryllium that enter breaks in the skin can lead to the development of granulomas and/or open sores that do not heal until the beryllium has been removed. Our interest is only airborne beryllium, which is found in areas that machine or produce beryllium.

  13. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium

    PubMed Central

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. PMID:24589746

  14. A mortality study of workers exposed to insoluble forms of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fordyce, Tiffani; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated lung cancer and other diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds. A cohort of 4950 workers from four US insoluble beryllium manufacturing facilities were followed through 2009. Expected deaths were calculated using local and national rates. On the basis of local rates, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced. Mortality from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio 96.0; 95% confidence interval 80.0, 114.3) and from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was also reduced. There were no significant trends for either cause of death according to duration of employment or time since first employment. Uterine cancer among women was the only cause of death with a significantly increased standardized mortality ratio. Five of the seven women worked in office jobs. This study confirmed the lack of an increase in mortality from lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases related to insoluble beryllium compounds.

  15. The bioinorganic chemistry and associated immunology of chronic beryllium disease†

    PubMed Central

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu; Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating, incurable, and often fatal disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particulates. The growing use of beryllium in the modern world, in products ranging from computers to dental prosthetics (390 tons of beryllium in the US in the year 2000) necessitates a molecular based understanding of the disease in order to prevent and cure CBD. We have investigated the molecular basis of CBD at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years, employing a multidisciplinary approach of bioinorganic chemistry and immunology. The results of this work, including speciation, inhalation and dissolution, and immunology will be discussed. PMID:18566702

  16. Beryllium BioBank: 2. Lymphocyte proliferation testing.

    PubMed

    Harber, Philip; Su, Jing; Alongi, Gabriela

    2014-08-01

    To incrementally improve the use of beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) results. Beryllium BioBank data were analyzed for 532 subjects in three groups: beryllium-exposed, sensitized, or chronic beryllium disease. Predictor variables were LPT stimulation index (SI) at the date of the earliest available data and at the study entry date. Cross-sectionally, LPT SI magnitude does not distinguish among the three groups. The likelihood of progression from sensitization to disease is associated with the absolute value of SI, but LPT SI interpreted by traditional cut point criteria was not predictive. Updating the criteria for interpreting beryllium LPT data should be considered. Prediction of progression to chronic beryllium disease may be improved by changing the cut point for interpretation or by using the SI as a continuous variable.

  17. Potential exposures and risks from beryllium-containing products.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; Florig, H Keith

    2002-10-01

    Beryllium is the strongest of the lightweight metals. Used primarily in military applications prior to the end of the Cold War, beryllium is finding new applications in many commercial products, including computers, telecommunication equipment, and consumer and automotive electronics. The use of beryllium in nondefense consumer applications is of concern because beryllium is toxic. Inhalation of beryllium dust or vapor causes a chronic lung disease in some individuals at concentrations as low as 0.01 microg/m3 in air. As beryllium enters wider commerce, it is prudent to ask what risks this might present to the general public and to workers downstream of the beryllium materials industry. We address this question by evaluating the potential for beryllium exposure from the manufacturing, use, recycle, and disposal of beryllium-containing products. Combining a market study with a qualitative exposure analysis, we determine which beryllium applications and life cycle phases have the largest exposure potential. Our analysis suggests that use and maintenance of the most common types of beryllium-containing products do not result in any obvious exposures of concern, and that maintenance activities result in greater exposures than product use. Product disposal has potential to present significant individual risks, but uncertainties concerning current and future routes of product disposal make it difficult to be definitive. Overall, additional exposure and dose-response data are needed to evaluate both the health significance of many exposure scenarios, and the adequacy of existing regulations to protect workers and the public. Although public exposures to beryllium and public awareness and concern regarding beryllium risks are currently low, beryllium risks have psychometric qualities that may lead to rapidly heightened public concern.

  18. Beryllium contamination inside vehicles of machine shop workers.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Henneberger, P K; Martyny, J; Ellis, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S

    1999-04-01

    Inhalation of beryllium particles causes a chronic, debilitating lung disease--chronic beryllium disease (CBD)--in immunologically sensitized workers. Evidence that very low concentrations of beryllium may initiate this chronic disease is provided by incidences of the illness in family members exposed to beryllium dust from workers' clothes and residents in neighborhoods surrounding beryllium refineries. This article describes the results of a cross-sectional survey to evaluate potential take-home beryllium exposures by measuring surface concentrations on the hands and in vehicles of workers at a precision machine shop where cases of CBD had recently been diagnosed. Many workers did not change out of their work clothes and shoes at the end of their shift, increasing the risk of taking beryllium home to their families. Wipe samples collected from workers' hands and vehicle surfaces were analyzed for beryllium content by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results ranged widely, from nondetectable to 40 micrograms/ft2 on workers' hands and up to 714 micrograms/ft2 inside their vehicles, demonstrating that many workers carried residual beryllium on their hands and contaminated the inside of their vehicles when leaving work. The highest beryllium concentrations inside the workers' vehicles were found on the drivers' floor (GM = 19 micrograms/ft2, GSD = 4.9), indicating that workers were carrying beryllium on their shoes into their vehicles. A safe level of beryllium contamination on surfaces is not known, but it is prudent to reduce the potential for workers to carry beryllium away from the work site.

  19. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene

    2003-12-10

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium.

  20. Double Photoionization of Atomic Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2010-03-01

    One-photon double ionization (DPI) of beryllium represents the next step in the evolution of DPI investigations that began with helium in order to sensitively probe electron correlation. Beryllium is the simplest atomic species of the alkaline earth elements which, in general, possess two electrons outside of a fully occupied inner shell that spherically screens the nucleus. This provides a natural basis for comparison to 1s^2 helium DPI. However, the valence state of beryllium has n=2, thus making the valence excited target 2s2p more accessible relative to the 2s^2 ground state as compared to ground-state and metastable helium. Also, the symmetry of photoionizing from either the ^1S or ^1P initial state will have consequences for the angular distributions for double ionization. Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) are presented for DPI from both ground state 2s^2 and excited state 2s2p beryllium calculated using exterior complex scaling (ECS) for the valence electrons.

  1. Prevalence of beryllium sensitization among Department of Defense conventional munitions workers at low risk for exposure.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, Marek A; Sanderson, Wayne T; Leonard, Stephanie A; Lourens, Spencer; Field, R William; Sprince, Nancy L; Fuortes, Laurence J

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of beryllium sensitization among former and current Department of Defense workers from a conventional munitions facility. Participants were screened by using Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test. Those sensitized were offered clinical evaluation for chronic beryllium disease. Eight (1.5%) of 524 screened workers were found sensitized to beryllium. Although the confidence interval was wide, the results suggested a possibly higher risk of sensitization among workers exposed to beryllium by occasional resurfacing of copper-2% beryllium alloy tools compared with workers with the lowest potential exposure (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-29.9). The findings from this study suggest that Department of Defense workers with low overall exposure to beryllium had a low prevalence of beryllium sensitization. Sensitization rates might be higher where higher beryllium exposures presumably occurred, although this study lacked sufficient power to confirm this.

  2. Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

    2014-07-21

    Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  3. Removing tritium and other impurities during industrial recycling of beryllium from a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dylst, K.; Seghers, J.; Druyts, F.; Braet, J.

    2008-07-15

    Recycling beryllium used in a fusion reactor might be a good way to overcome problems related to the disposal of neutron irradiated beryllium. The critical issues for the recycling of used first wall beryllium are the presence of tritium and (transuranic) impurities. High temperature annealing seems to be the most promising technique for detritiation. Purification of the de-tritiated beryllium can be achieved by chlorination of the irradiated beryllium and the subsequent reduction of beryllium chloride to highly pure metallic beryllium. After that, the beryllium can be re-fabricated into first wall tiles via powder metallurgy which is already a mature industrial practice. This paper outlines the path to define the experimental needs for beryllium recycling and tackles problems related to the detritiation and the purification via the chlorine route. (authors)

  4. METHOD OF BRAZING BERYLLIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hanks, G.S.; Keil, R.W.

    1963-05-21

    A process is described for brazing beryllium metal parts by coating the beryllium with silver (65- 75 wt%)-aluminum alloy using a lithium fluoride (50 wt%)-lithium chloride flux, and heating the coated joint to a temperature of about 700 un. Concent 85% C for about 10 minutes. (AEC)

  5. METHOD OF WORKING BERYLLIUM

    DOEpatents

    Macherey, R.E.

    1959-02-01

    >A process is presented for fabricating beryllium metal. The billet cf beryllium metal is sheathed with a jacket of either copper or stainless steel. It may then be worked by drawing or the like at a tcmperature of 300 to 400 C.

  6. [A experiment research of beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung injury and the protective effects of LBP in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Qingfeng; Wang, Yao; Wei, Conghui; Yan, Qing; Gong, Aihong; Guo, Xiong

    2015-07-01

    To explore beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung injury and the protective effects of LBP. Intoxication of animals were induced by once intratracheal injection and LBP intervention by intragastric administration. The content of HIF-1, VEGF and HO-1 of lung tissues were measured by kits. The pathological changes of lung tissue were showed by pathological section. The changes of lung ultrastructure were observed by electron microscope. Pathological changes of the lung tissue in beryllium oxide exposure group rats were in line with the characteristics of beryllium disease in human. Compared with the control group, HO-1 was increased in beryllium oxide exposure 40 d group and low doses of LBP group, compared with the control group, HO-1 was increased in beryllium oxide exposure 80d group and LBP treatment groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, HIF-1 was increased in beryllium oxide exposure 40 d group, LBP treatment groups, beryllium oxide exposure 60 d and 80 d groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, VEGF was increased of all phases, especially in beryllium oxide exposure 40d and 80 groups, LBP treatment groups and beryllium oxide exposure 60 d (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The content of HO-1 of beryllium oxide exposure group was higher than the LBP treatment for 40d group but below LBP treatment for 80 d group (P < 0.05). The content of HIF1 of beryllium oxide exposure group was higher than high dose of LBP treatment for 60d group and LBP treatment for 80 d group (P < 0.01). The content of VEGF of beryllium oxide exposure group was higher than LBP treatment for 40 d group and high dose of LBP treatment for 60 d (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). BeO can cause abnormal expression of related genes of lung tissue in rats, LBP has protective effects on BeO caused lung injury.

  7. Occupational exposure to beryllium and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Fryzek, Jon P; Mandel, Jack S

    2012-02-01

    There is controversy on whether occupational exposure to beryllium causes lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies on cancer among workers exposed to beryllium, including a study of seven U.S. production plants which has been recently updated, a study of patients with beryllium disease (largely overlapping with the former study) and several smaller studies. A small excess mortality from lung cancer was detected in the large cohort, which was partially explained by confounding by tobacco smoking and urban residence. Other potential confounders have not been addressed. The excess mortality was mainly among workers employed (often for a short duration) in the early phase of the manufacturing industry. There was no relation with duration of employment or cumulative exposure, whereas average and maximum exposure were associated with lung cancer risk. The use of lagged exposure variables resulted in associations with lung cancer risk; however, these associations were due to confounding by year of birth and year of hire. The studies of beryllium disease patients do not provide independent evidence and the results from other studies do not support the hypothesis of an increased risk of lung cancer or any other cancer. Overall, the available evidence does not support a conclusion that a causal association has been established between occupational exposure to beryllium and the risk of cancer.

  8. Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-09

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\\3\\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  9. A novel alternative to environmental monitoring to detect workers at risk for beryllium exposure-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of <5 μm particles correlated significantly to a positive beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were <1 μm, and this small fraction (0.1-1 μ) was significantly more highly accumulated in nuclear machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2-3 μ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = -0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and promising

  10. A Novel Alternative to Environmental Monitoring to Detect Workers at Risk for Beryllium Exposure-Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V.; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of <5 µm particles correlated significantly to a positive beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2–11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were <1 µm, and this small fraction (0.1–1 µ) was significantly more highly accumulated in nuclear machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2–3 µ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = −0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and

  11. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Cynthia M.

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  12. Characteristics of beryllium exposure to small particles at a beryllium production facility.

    PubMed

    Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Stanton, Marcia L; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported process-specific elevated prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) among workers. However, exposure-response relationships have been inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete characterization of many biologically relevant aspects of exposure, including particle size. In 1999, two surveys were conducted 3-5 months apart at a beryllium metal, oxide, and alloy production facility during which personal impactor samples (n = 198) and personal 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) 'total' samples (n = 4026) were collected. Among process areas, median particle mass median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 5 to 14 μm. A large fraction of the beryllium aerosol was in the nonrespirable size range. Respirable beryllium concentrations were among the highest for oxide production [geometric mean (GM) = 2.02 μg m⁻³, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.3] and pebbles plant (GM = 1.05 μg m⁻³, GSD = 2.9), areas historically associated with high risk of BeS and CBD. The relationship between GM 'CFC total' and GM respirable beryllium for jobs varied by process areas; the rank order of the jobs showed high overall consistency (Spearman r = 0.84), but the overall correlation was moderate (Pearson r = 0.43). Total beryllium concentrations varied greatly within and between workers among process areas; within-worker variance was larger than between-worker variance for most processes. A review of exposure characteristics among process areas revealed variation in chemical forms and solubility. Process areas with high risk of BeS and CBD had exposure to both soluble and insoluble forms of beryllium. Consideration of biologically relevant aspects of exposure such as beryllium particle size distribution, chemical form, and solubility will likely improve exposure assessment.

  13. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  14. The beryllium "double standard" standard.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S; Bagley, Sarah; Biklen, Molly; Golub, Alison Stern; Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2003-01-01

    Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and instructional materials prepared for customers and workers. Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram standard was "safe." Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and referred to them as such. Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions were intentional and that the motive was money. Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales device to provide reassurance to customers. Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass distribution of beryllium in consumer products. Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system, which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to victimized workers, their families, and society at large.

  15. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  16. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  17. Illness absences among beryllium sensitized workers.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Janice P; Ellis, Elizabeth D; Girardi, David J; Cragle, Donna L; Richter, Bonnie S

    2014-11-01

    This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19,305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered "diseased," workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers.

  18. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  19. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized.

  20. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  2. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    PubMed

    Abraham, J L; Chandra, S; Agrawal, A

    2014-11-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f secondary ion mass spectrometry ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (∼100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (∼25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y- and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (∼0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either

  3. Quantification and micron-scale imaging of spatial distribution of trace beryllium in shrapnel fragments and metallurgic samples with correlative fluorescence detection method and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Jerrold L.; Chandra, Subhash; Agrawal, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a report raised the possibility of shrapnel-induced chronic beryllium disease (CBD) from long-term exposure to the surface of retained aluminum shrapnel fragments in the body. Since the shrapnel fragments contained trace beryllium, methodological developments were needed for beryllium quantification and to study its spatial distribution in relation to other matrix elements, such as aluminum and iron, in metallurgic samples. In this work, we developed methodology for quantification of trace beryllium in samples of shrapnel fragments and other metallurgic sample-types with main matrix of aluminum (aluminum cans from soda, beer, carbonated water, and aluminum foil). Sample preparation procedures were developed for dissolving beryllium for its quantification with the fluorescence detection method for homogenized measurements. The spatial distribution of trace beryllium on the sample surface and in 3D was imaged with a dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument, CAMECA IMS 3f SIMS ion microscope. The beryllium content of shrapnel (~100 ppb) was the same as the trace quantities of beryllium found in aluminum cans. The beryllium content of aluminum foil (~25 ppb) was significantly lower than cans. SIMS imaging analysis revealed beryllium to be distributed in the form of low micron-sized particles and clusters distributed randomly in X-Y-and Z dimensions, and often in association with iron, in the main aluminum matrix of cans. These observations indicate a plausible formation of Be-Fe or Al-Be alloy in the matrix of cans. Further observations were made on fluids (carbonated water) for understanding if trace beryllium in cans leached out and contaminated the food product. A direct comparison of carbonated water in aluminum cans and plastic bottles revealed that beryllium was below the detection limits of the fluorescence detection method (~0.01 ppb). These observations indicate that beryllium present in aluminum matrix was either present in an

  4. NEW SERDP Project: Copper- Beryllium Alternatives Alloys Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-10

    diseases including lung cancer and Chronic Beryllium Disease ( CBD ). Recent research and aerospace industry exposure incidents indicate the potential...and scarring • Results in chronic steady decline of pulmonary function until death and/or increases lung cancer risk • CBD symptoms and progression...recommending a lower limit of 0.2 μg/m3 to prevent CBD . Additional protection is advised to prevent skin contact with dust. • Chronic Beryllium Disease ( CBD

  5. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-02-21

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: {sm_bullet} reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors, {sm_bullet} minimize the levels of, and potential for, expos exposure to beryllium, and {sm_bullet} establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease.

  6. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of... Criteria Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.206 How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

  7. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of... Criteria Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.206 How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

  8. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of... Criteria Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.206 How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

  9. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of... Criteria Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.206 How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

  10. 20 CFR 30.206 - How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... was a âcovered beryllium employeeâ exposed to beryllium dust, particles or vapor in the performance of... Criteria Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Covered Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.206 How does a claimant prove that the employee was a “covered beryllium employee” exposed...

  11. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, S. A. Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.

    2014-09-15

    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  12. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-10-04

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 {mu}m hr{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates.

  13. Beryllium window for synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.R.; Berman, L.; Montanez, P.; Pjerov, S.; Stefan, P.; Woodle, M.

    1996-10-01

    As part of an on-going upgrade program at the National Synchrotron Light Source, a parametric study of rectangular flat and curved beryllium windows of varying thickness and heights and under varying thermal loading was undertaken. The study consisted of a series of 2D and 3D thermal stress finite element analyses to determine the relative benefit of various combinations of parameters with respect to the windows` ability to withstand thermal loads. This study includes evaluation of fixed versus flexible mounting of flat and curved beryllium windows. Buckling analyses for both types of mountings are also included.

  14. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 98 / 008 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 41 - 7 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) April 1998 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in acco

  15. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Day, Gregory A.; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Deubner, David C.; Kent, Michael S.; Schuler, Christine R.; Virji, M. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  16. Multi-scale modelling to relate beryllium surface temperature, deuterium concentration and erosion in fusion reactor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, E.; Valles, G.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K.

    2017-05-01

    Beryllium (Be) has been chosen as the plasma-facing material for the main wall of ITER, the next generation fusion reactor. Identifying the key parameters that determine Be erosion under reactor relevant conditions is vital to predict the ITER plasma-facing component lifetime and viability. To date, a certain prediction of Be erosion, focusing on the effect of two such parameters, surface temperature and D surface content, has not been achieved. In this work, we develop the first multi-scale KMC-MD modeling approach for Be to provide a more accurate database for its erosion, as well as investigating parameters that affect erosion. First, we calculate the complex relationship between surface temperature and D concentration precisely by simulating the time evolution of the system using an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) technique. These simulations provide a D surface concentration profile for any surface temperature and incoming D energy. We then describe how this profile can be implemented as a starting configuration in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We finally use MD simulations to investigate the effect of temperature (300-800 K) and impact energy (10-200 eV) on the erosion of Be due to D plasma irradiations. The results reveal a strong dependency of the D surface content on temperature. Increasing the surface temperature leads to a lower D concentration at the surface, because of the tendency of D atoms to avoid being accommodated in a vacancy, and de-trapping from impurity sites diffuse fast toward bulk. At the next step, total and molecular Be erosion yields due to D irradiations are analyzed using MD simulations. The results show a strong dependency of erosion yields on surface temperature and incoming ion energy. The total Be erosion yield increases with temperature for impact energies up to 100 eV. However, increasing temperature and impact energy results in a lower fraction of Be atoms being sputtered as BeD molecules due to the lower D

  17. Multi-scale modelling to relate beryllium surface temperature, deuterium concentration and erosion in fusion reactor environment

    DOE PAGES

    Safi, E.; Valles, G.; Lasa, A.; ...

    2017-03-27

    Beryllium (Be) has been chosen as the plasma-facing material for the main wall of ITER, the next generation fusion reactor. Identifying the key parameters that determine Be erosion under reactor relevant conditions is vital to predict the ITER plasma-facing component lifetime and viability. To date, a certain prediction of Be erosion, focusing on the effect of two such parameters, surface temperature and D surface content, has not been achieved. In this paper, we develop the first multi-scale KMC-MD modeling approach for Be to provide a more accurate database for its erosion, as well as investigating parameters that affect erosion. First,more » we calculate the complex relationship between surface temperature and D concentration precisely by simulating the time evolution of the system using an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) technique. These simulations provide a D surface concentration profile for any surface temperature and incoming D energy. We then describe how this profile can be implemented as a starting configuration in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We finally use MD simulations to investigate the effect of temperature (300–800 K) and impact energy (10–200 eV) on the erosion of Be due to D plasma irradiations. The results reveal a strong dependency of the D surface content on temperature. Increasing the surface temperature leads to a lower D concentration at the surface, because of the tendency of D atoms to avoid being accommodated in a vacancy, and de-trapping from impurity sites diffuse fast toward bulk. At the next step, total and molecular Be erosion yields due to D irradiations are analyzed using MD simulations. The results show a strong dependency of erosion yields on surface temperature and incoming ion energy. The total Be erosion yield increases with temperature for impact energies up to 100 eV. However, increasing temperature and impact energy results in a lower fraction of Be atoms being sputtered as BeD molecules due to the lower

  18. Beryllium solubility in occupational airborne particles: Sequential extraction procedure and workplace application.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Davy; Durand, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Modification of an existing sequential extraction procedure for inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and in working areas is described. The speciation protocol was adapted to carry out beryllium extraction in closed-face cassette sampler to take wall deposits into account. This four-step sequential extraction procedure aims to separate beryllium salts, metal, and oxides from airborne particles for individual quantification. Characterization of the beryllium species according to their solubility in air samples may provide information relative to toxicity, which is potentially related to the different beryllium chemical forms. Beryllium salts (BeF(2), BeSO(4)), metallic beryllium (Bemet), and beryllium oxide (BeO) were first individually tested, and then tested in mixtures. Cassettes were spiked with these species and recovery rates were calculated. Quantitative analyses with matched matrix were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method Detection Limits (MDLs) were calculated for the four matrices used in the different extraction steps. In all cases, the MDL was below 4.2 ng/sample. This method is appropriate for assessing occupational exposure to beryllium as the lowest recommended threshold limit values are 0.01 µg.m(-3) in France([) (1) (]) and 0.05 µg.m(-3) in the USA.([ 2 ]) The protocol was then tested on samples from French factories where occupational beryllium exposure was suspected. Beryllium solubility was variable between factories and among the same workplace between different tasks.

  19. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N.; Tatenuma, K.

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  20. Beryllium detection in human lung tissue using electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas A; Ingram, Peter; Gunasegaram, Sue; Pinto, John F; Roggli, Victor L

    2003-11-01

    Chronic berylliosis is an uncommon disease that is caused by the inhalation of beryllium particles, dust, or fumes. The distinction between chronic berylliosis and sarcoidosis can be difficult both clinically and histologically, as both entities can have similar presentations and exhibit nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the lungs. The diagnosis of chronic berylliosis relies on a history of exposure to beryllium, roentgenographic evidence of diffuse nodular disease, and demonstration of beryllium hypersensitivity by ancillary studies, such as lymphocyte proliferation testing. Additional support may be gained by the demonstration of beryllium in lung tissue. Unlike other exogenous particulates, such as asbestos, detection of beryllium in human lung tissue is problematic. The low atomic number of beryllium usually makes it unsuitable for conventional microprobe analysis. We describe a case of chronic berylliosis in which beryllium was detected in lung tissue using atmospheric thin-window energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ATW EDXA). A woman with a history of occupational exposure to beryllium at a nuclear weapons testing facility presented with progressive cough and dyspnea and a nodular pattern on chest roentgenograph. Open lung biopsy showed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation that was histologically indistinguishable from sarcoidosis. Scanning electron microscopy and ATW EDXA demonstrated particulates containing beryllium within the granulomas. This application of EDXA offers significant advantages over existing methods of beryllium detection in that it is nondestructive, more widely available, and can be performed using routine paraffin sections.

  1. Beryllium Metal Supply Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government ard, upon its own initiative , to...instrumental in initiating the request for an independent assessment by the National Research Council of the current domestic beryllium metal supply...future environ- mental requirements i. examined. In view of the small quantity of metal needed, the size of the total market, and the present status of

  2. Significance of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, L.S.

    1996-10-01

    The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is an in vitro measure of the beryllium antigen-specific cell-mediated immune response. This response to beryllium is now understood to play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Although there remain some unresolved methodologic issues with testing, the blood BeLPT has already undergone sufficient development and field assessment to lead to a number of important conclusions: (a) The BeLPT identifies beryllium sensitization and CBD earlier and better than any other clinical test presently available. (b) The CBD cases identified with the blood test are clinically significant. (c) A subset of the people identified by the BeLPT who do not yet have clinical disease will progress and require treatment with corticosteroids for impairing illness. (d) The BeLPT can be used to improve clinical diagnostic accuracy and to correct mistaken diagnoses. (e) The blood test can be used in screening large numbers of exposed workers because it is sensitive and specific and has high positive and negative predictive value for CBD. (f) In every workforce studied to date, the BeLPT has identified beryllium sensitization and CBD that had been missed by conventional screening efforts. (g) Worker populations that have been characterized using the BeLPT can help to elucidate the role of exposure genetics and dysregulated inflammation in the genesis of occupational lung disease. 28 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Selection of I-220H beryllium for NIRCam optical bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, Derek J.; Nordt, Alison A.

    2005-08-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the four science instruments to be installed into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) on JWST. I-220H beryllium was chosen as the optical bench material for NIRCam based on its high specific stiffness, relatively high thermal conductivity, low CTE at cryogenic temperatures, and overall thermal stability at cryogenic temperatures. Beryllium has cryogenic heritage, but development of a structural bonded joint that could survive cryogenic temperatures was required. This paper will describe the trade studies performed in which bonded, I-220H beryllium was selected.

  4. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, C. M.; Adams, C. D.; Hull, L. M.; Gray, G. T.; Prime, M. B.; Addessio, F. L.; Wynn, T. A.; Papin, P. A.; Brown, E. N.

    2012-08-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional "arrested" drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  5. A Novel Biomarker for Beryllium Sensitization in Humans - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albertini, R. J.

    2001-04-16

    This research project will determine the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene usages of beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes isolated directly from the peripheral blood of individuals exposed at a U.S. Department of Energy site. The objective is to develop a sensitive and novel biomarker for identifying early human sensitization to environmental beryllium. This is a collaborative project involving the Genetics Laboratory of the University of Vermont and both the Center for Epidemiological Research and the scientific staff of the Cytogenetics Program at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). The > 2000 beryllium exposed workers who have been contacted for participation in the ORISE study ''Follow-up of Beryllium Workers at the Y-12 Plant/Efficacy of the Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Proliferation (LPT) and other Non-Invasive Procedures for Diagnosis of Chronic Beryllium Disease'' will provide the pool of potential participants for the proposed study. Beryllium reactive T-lymphocytes will be directly isolated from peripheral blood using a novel antigen-independent method of surrogate selection for in vivo arising hprt mutants as representatives of clones that are undergoing chronic proliferation. The T-cells undergoing chronic proliferation in beryllium sensitized individuals will be enriched for beryllium reactive cells. The TCR gene usage of these T-cell isolates will be determined and their junctional (CDR3) regions sequenced. Beryllium reactive T-cell clones will also be recovered following in vitro beryllium stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from these same individuals and the TCR gene CDR3 region sequences similarly determined. The TCR genes used by the beryllium reactive isolates and their CRD3 region sequences will be compared within (in vivo vs. in vitro derived) and among individuals with attention to kinds and durations of beryllium exposure and HPA DPB Glu 69 status. A method for quantitating total body loads of these antigen reactive T

  6. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, Carl M; Adams, Chris D; Hull, Lawrence M; Gray III, George T; Prime, Michael B; Addessio, Francis L; Wynn, Thomas A; Brown, Eric N

    2012-08-24

    Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to

  7. Joining of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium is anodic to almost

  8. 5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BERYLLIUM PROCESSING AREA, ROLLING MILL. BERYLLIUM FORMING BEGAN IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING IN 1962. (11/5/73) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-30

    1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

  10. Beryllium Alters Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Intracellular Phosphorylation and Cytokine Release in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M.; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T. Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide - mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We find that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1β is enhanced. Additionally, not all lipopolysaccharide - mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1β secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling. PMID:19894180

  11. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  12. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  13. Method for fabricating beryllium structures

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1977-01-01

    Thin-walled beryllium structures are prepared by plasma spraying a mixture of beryllium powder and about 2500 to 4000 ppm silicon powder onto a suitable substrate, removing the plasma-sprayed body from the substrate and placing it in a sizing die having a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of the beryllium, exposing the plasma-sprayed body to a moist atmosphere, outgassing the plasma-sprayed body, and then sintering the plasma-sprayed body in an inert atmosphere to form a dense, low-porosity beryllium structure of the desired thin-wall configuration. The addition of the silicon and the exposure of the plasma-sprayed body to the moist atmosphere greatly facilitate the preparation of the beryllium structure while minimizing the heretofore deleterious problems due to grain growth and grain orientation.

  14. Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: assessment of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, D; Sprince, N L; Eisen, E A; Greaves, I A

    1988-01-01

    The inhalation of beryllium causes a serious lung disease characterised by pronounced radiographic and functional impairments and occurs in workers engaged in the extraction and manufacture of the metal. This paper describes the beryllium exposure levels and refining processes in a large beryllium factory operating since the 1930s. Lifetime beryllium exposure histories were estimated for the 309 workers present at a health survey conducted in 1977. Beryllium exposure levels in the plant were high for many years, with some estimated exposure levels in excess of 100 micrograms/m3. As late as 1975, there were exposures to beryllium above 10 micrograms/m3 in some jobs. After about 1977, the plant was in compliance with the permissible exposure limit of 2.0 micrograms/m3. The median cumulative exposure in this cohort was 65 micrograms/m3-years and the median duration of exposure was 17 years. From these data a series of exposure parameters, functions of the exposure histories that characterise biologically important dimensions of exposure were calculated for each worker. PMID:3342199

  15. Summary of historical beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Weaver, Virginia M; Cadorette, Maureen; Puckett, Leslie G; Schwartz, Brian S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Jankowski, Mark D; Breysse, Patrick N

    2003-09-01

    Beryllium operations and accompanying medical surveillance of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory began in the 1940s. In 1999 a Former Workers Medical Surveillance Program that includes screening for chronic beryllium disease was initiated. As part of this program, historical beryllium exposure conditions were reconstructed from archived paper and electronic industrial hygiene data sources to improve understanding of past beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels. Archived industrial hygiene sampling reports indicated beryllium was principally used in technical areas-01 and -03, primarily being machined. Beryllium was also used at 15 other technical areas in activities that ranged from explosives detonation to the manufacture of X-ray windows. A total of 4528 personal breathing zone and area air samples for beryllium, combined for purposes of calculating summary statistics, were identified during the records review phase. The geometric mean airborne beryllium concentration for the period 1949-1989 for all technical areas was 0.04 microg Be/m(3) with 97 percent of all sample below the 2.0 microg Be/m(3) occupational exposure limit (OEL). Average beryllium concentrations per decade were less than 1 microg Be/m(3) and annual geometric mean concentrations in technical area-03, the largest user of beryllium, were generally below 0.1 microg Be/m(3), indicating exposure was generally well-controlled, that is, below the OEL. Typical of many retrospective exposure assessments, not all archived data could be extracted and summarized. Despite this, we report a reasonable summary of potential beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels a worker may have encountered from 1949-1989. These data can be used to more effectively identify former worker populations at potential risk for chronic beryllium disease and to offer these workers screening as part of the Former Worker Medical Surveillance Program, and in the event that a case is diagnosed, help to understand

  16. Cohort mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants: update and associations with cumulative and maximum exposure.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Couch, James R; Petersen, Martin R; Carreón, Tania; Jin, Yan; Deddens, James A

    2011-05-01

    To extend follow-up of cause-specific mortality in workers at seven beryllium processing plants and to estimate associations between mortality risk and beryllium exposure. 9199 workers were followed for mortality from 1940 through 2005. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated based on US population comparisons for lung, nervous system and urinary tract cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and categories containing chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and cor pulmonale. Associations with maximum and cumulative exposure were calculated for a subset of the workers. Overall mortality in the cohort compared with the US population was elevated for lung cancer (SMR 1.17; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.28), COPD (SMR 1.23; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.32), and the categories containing CBD (SMR 7.80; 95% CI 6.26 to 9.60) and cor pulmonale (SMR 1.17; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26). Mortality rates for most diseases of interest increased with time-since-hire. For the category including CBD, rates were substantially elevated compared to the US population across all exposure groups. Workers whose maximum beryllium exposure was ≥ 10 μg/m(3) had higher rates of lung cancer, urinary tract cancer, COPD and the category containing cor pulmonale than workers with lower exposure. Significant positive trends with cumulative exposure were observed for nervous system cancers (p = 0.0006) and, when short-term workers were excluded, lung cancer (p = 0.01), urinary tract cancer (p = 0.003) and COPD (p < 0.0001). These findings reaffirm that lung cancer and CBD, and suggest that COPD and nervous system and urinary tract cancers, are related to beryllium exposure. Cigarette smoking and exposure to other lung carcinogens are unlikely to explain these elevations.

  17. Thermal fatigue of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Deksnis, E.; Ciric, D.; Falter, H.

    1995-09-01

    Thermal fatigue life of S65c beryllium castellated to a geometry 6 x 6 x (8-10)mm deep has been tested for steady heat fluxes of 3 MW/m{sup 2} to 5 MW/m{sup 2} and under pulsed heat fluxes (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}) for which the time averaged heat flux is 5 MW/m{sup 2}. These tests were carried out in the JET neutral beam test facility A test sequence with peak surface temperatures {le} 600{degrees}C produced no visible fatigue cracks. In the second series of tests, with T{sub max} {le} 750{degrees}C evidence for fatigue appeared after a minimum of 1350 stress cycles. These fatigue data are discussed in view of the observed lack of thermal fatigue in JET plasma operations with beryllium PFC. JET experience with S65b and S65c is reviewed; recent operations with {Phi} = 25 MW/m{sup 2} and sustained melting/resolidification are also presented. The need for a failure criterion for finite element analyses of Be PFC lifetimes is discussed.

  18. Examination and sensitivity study of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.C.; Glenn, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have checked the consistency of the KOVEC constitutive model for beryllium with experimental data, by examining work hardening, the temperature dependence of the yield strength, strain-rate effects, and the Hugoniot (U/sub s/-U/sub p/) relations. We have examined the sensitivity of simulations of uniaxial strain plate impact experiments, in which beryllium was used, to changes in the beryllium constitutive model. We also discuss the nonuniqueness of constitutive models. 17 figures.

  19. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of {sup 56}Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo{sub 4}. The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO{sub 4} solution, and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs.

  20. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  1. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro.

  3. PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Jesus, A. P.; Luís, H.; Mateus, R.; Cruz, J.; Gasques, L.; Galaviz, D.; Ribeiro, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium in thick samples. This method is based on the ERYA - Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis - code, which integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For this purpose, the excitations functions of the 25Mg(p,p'γ) 25Mg ( Eγ = 585 keV) and 9Be(p,γ) 10B ( Eγ = 718 keV) reactions were employed. Calculated gamma-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds containing magnesium or beryllium. The agreement is better than 5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role.

  4. Beryllium Interactions in Molten Salts

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Smolik; M. F. Simpson; P. J. Pinhero; M. Hara; Y. Hatano; R. A. Anderl; J. P. Sharpe; T. Terai; S. Tanaka; D. A. Petti; D.-K. Sze

    2006-01-01

    Molten flibe (2LiF·BeF2) is a candidate as a cooling and tritium breeding media for future fusion power plants. Neutron interactions with the salt will produce tritium and release excess free fluorine ions. Beryllium metal has been demonstrated as an effective redox control agent to prevent free fluorine, or HF species, from reacting with structural metal components. The extent and rate of beryllium solubility in a pot design experiments to suppress continuously supplied hydrogen fluoride gas has been measured and modeled[ ]. This paper presents evidence of beryllium loss from specimens, a dependence of the loss upon bi-metal coupling, i.e., galvanic effect, and the partitioning of the beryllium to the salt and container materials. Various posttest investigative methods, viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore this behavior.

  5. Plasma-sprayed beryllium for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.; Youchison, D.L.; Watson, R.D.; Walsh, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and negative transferred-arc cleaning to prepare beryllium surfaces prior to depositing beryllium. Information will also b presented on thermal fatigue tests which were performed on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  6. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  7. Beryllium technology workshop, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 20, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: beryllium in the ITER blanket; mechanical testing of irradiated beryllium; tritium release measurements on irradiated beryllium; beryllium needs for plasma-facing components; thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed beryllium; beryllium research at the INEL; Japanese beryllium research activities for in-pile mockup tests on ITER; a study of beryllium bonding of copper alloy; new production technologies; thermophysical properties of a new ingot metallurgy beryllium product line; implications of beryllium:steam interactions in fusion reactors; and a test program for irradiation embrittlement of beryllium at JET.

  8. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M.; Scholz, M.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  9. Preparation of optical surfaces on beryllium.

    PubMed

    Bloxsom, J T; Schroeder, J B

    1970-03-01

    The high strength-to-weight ratio and thermal diffusivity of beryllium are very attractive to the optical system designer for many critical applications. In order to realize the potential advantages of beryllium, it is necessary to have mirror blanks figured to optical tolerances which are also dimensionally stable over the life of the system. As part of a program to improve the dimensional stability of beryllium, we have cataloged the properties of both Kanigen-coated and bare beryllium mirrors. The results presented in this report indicate the bare beryllium is to be preferred over Kanigen-coated beryllium for precision optical surfaces.

  10. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids.

    PubMed

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts.

  11. Machining of low percentage beryllium copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermeyer, J. G.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne beryllium sampling during machining of low percentage beryllium-copper alloys shows that normal dry machining creates 45.2 microgram/cu m of airborne beryllium in the casting operators breathing zone and 2.3 microgram/cu m in an adjacent machine working area. A small vacuum system placed over the tool effectively removes airborne beryllium in the breathing zone sample to 0.2 microgram/cu m.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  13. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  14. METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF SINTERABLE BERYLLIUM OXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Sturm, B.J.

    1963-08-13

    High-purity beryllium oxide for nuclear reactor applications can be prepared by precipitation of beryllium oxalate monohydrate from aqueous solution at a temperature above 50 deg C and subsequent calcination of the precipitate. Improved purification with respect to metallic impurities is obtained, and the product beryllium oxide sinters reproducibly to a high density. (AEC)

  15. Beryllium--important for national defense

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the lightest and stiffest metals, but there was little industrial demand for it until the 1930s and 1940s when the aerospace, defense, and nuclear sectors began using beryllium and its compounds. Beryllium is now classified by the U.S. Department of Defense as a strategic and critical material because it is used in products that are vital to national security. The oxide form of beryllium was identified in 1797, and scientists first isolated metallic beryllium in 1828. The United States is the world's leading source of beryllium. A single mine at Spor Mountain, Utah, produced more than 85 percent of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010. China produced most of the remainder, and less than 2 percent came from Mozambique and other countries. National stockpiles also provide significant amounts of beryllium for processing. To help predict where future beryllium supplies might be located, U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) scientists study how and where beryllium resources are concentrated in Earth's crust and use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered beryllium resources may exist. Techniques to assess mineral resources have been developed by the USGS to support the stewardship of Federal lands and to better evaluate mineral resource availability in a global context. The USGS also compiles statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of beryllium. These data are used to inform U.S. national policymaking.

  16. Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: disease related or drug related?

    PubMed

    Calandrella, Daniela; Antonini, Angelo

    2011-06-01

    Pathological gambling and other impulse-control disorders occur in susceptible Parkinson's disease patients during dopaminergic therapy, particularly in association with dopamine agonists. Additional factors such as age at onset play an important role, and predisposing personality traits have been identified both in treated patients, as well as in patients even before therapy is initiated. The contributions of specific allelic polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor and transporter genes were also tested as predictors of adverse effects of dopaminergic therapy but results are not conclusive. Recent imaging studies have shed light on the mechanism underlying pathological gambling. Resting-state brain perfusion of Parkinson's disease gamblers showed higher activity in 'limbic' areas associated with addictive processes. More importantly, severity of this behavior is associated with the impaired functioning of brain regions that are involved in 'top-down' cognitive monitoring and inhibition of inappropriate behaviors. This evidence is consistent with a significant contribution of disease-related factors.

  17. Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds.

    PubMed

    Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2014-07-31

    A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds.

  18. Beryllium and carbon films in JET following D T operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, M.; Coad, J. P.; Bekris, N.; Erents, S. K.; Hole, D.; Matthews, G. F.; Penzhorn, R.-D.; Contributors to EFDA-JET work programme

    2003-03-01

    After the D-T operation (DTE-1 campaign) at JET a large number of limiter and divertor tiles were dismounted from the torus for ex situ examination. The relative distributions of deuterium, tritium, beryllium and carbon are presented and discussed. Significant asymmetry observed in the distribution of erosion and deposition zones indicates preferential flow of the deuterium background plasma and impurities towards the inner divertor leg. The comparison of the beryllium content on the limiter tiles from the main chamber and the content of this element on the inner divertor tiles clearly proves the beryllium erosion from the main chamber wall and its transport to the divertor. However, no beryllium is detected in the shadowed regions of the divertor where the formation of thick and fuel-rich carbon films occurs. This is interpreted in terms of different mechanisms governing the erosion and transport of Be and C. The results allow a conclusion that the operation with a full beryllium wall would lead to a significantly decreased fuel inventory due to removal of the carbon source.

  19. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  20. Proper use of beryllium-containing alloys.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    To assist dentists in providing a safe and healthful workplace, the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs developed this advisory statement on the proper use of beryllium-containing alloys in the dental operatory and laboratory. Recommendations are made for reducing the potential risk of beryllium exposure for employees working in dental operatories or laboratories who fabricate or manipulate beryllium-containing alloys in dental prostheses. The Council recommends that practitioners adhere to the Ocupational Safety and Health Administration's recommendations for reducing beryllium exposure in the dental operatory and laboratory. These include the recommendation that--where possible--practitioners use alloys that do not contain beryllium in the fabrication of dental prostheses.

  1. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-320 F) and (-252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMetl62 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE-AMS7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions." O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMetl62 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  2. Cryogenic Properties of Aluminum-Beryllium and Beryllium Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were obtained for the aluminum- beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 (38%Al-62%Be), at cryogenic (-195.5 C (-32O F) and (- 252.8 C) (-423 F)) temperatures, and for an optical grade beryllium, O-30H (99%Be), at -252.8 C. AlBeMet162 material was purchased to the requirements of SAE- AMs7912, "Aluminum-Beryllium Alloy, Extrusions". O-30H material was purchased to the requirements of Brush Wellman Inc. specification O-30H Optical Grade Beryllium. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths for extruded AlBeMet162 material increased with decreasing temperature, and the percent elongation decreased with decreasing temperature. Design properties for the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percent elongation for extruded AlBeMetl62 were generated. It was not possible to distinguish a difference in the room and cryogenic ultimate strength for the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) O-30H material. The O-30H elongation decreased with decreasing temperature.

  3. Influence of beryllium carbide formation on deuterium retention and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porosnicu, C.; Anghel, A.; Sugiyama, K.; Krieger, K.; Roth, J.; Lungu, C. P.

    2011-08-01

    The inconel cladding tiles of the ITER-like-wall to be tested at JET will be coated by a beryllium layer. Carbon containing tiles will be also present. These materials are sputtered in the high flux (1022 m-2 s-1 or higher) of the deuterium-tritium plasma. Ionized by the energetic electrons and with hydrogen isotope ions they will be implanted or re-deposited, creating composite layers.In order to study the deuterium retention and release, mixed layers were prepared using the thermionic arc method.Deuterium implantation was performed using a high current ion source at room temperature using a deuterium ion beam with energy of 200 eV/D. Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) analyses were correlated with the beryllium/carbon relative concentrations of the prepared films. At higher carbon concentrations the peak value from TDS spectra corresponding to beryllium was lower and an increased peak corresponding to the carbon was observed.

  4. Double Photoionization of excited Lithium and Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Frank L.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2010-05-20

    We present total, energy-sharing and triple differential cross sections for one-photon, double ionization of lithium and beryllium starting from aligned, excited P states. We employ a recently developed hybrid atomic orbital/ numerical grid method based on the finite-element discrete-variable representation and exterior complex scaling. Comparisons with calculated results for the ground-state atoms, as well as analogous results for ground-state and excited helium, serve to highlight important selection rules and show some interesting effects that relate to differences between inter- and intra-shell electron correlation.

  5. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  6. Fluorometric study of the beryllium-morin system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1965-01-01

    Three principal beryllium-morin complexes, a (1 + 1) monomer, a (1 + 1) dimer, and a (1 + 2) complex are found and conditional equilibrium constants for their formation are evaluated. Approximate ionization constants, absorption spectra, and the relative fluorescence intensities for five ionic species of morin are also determined in a spectrophotometric and fluorometric study of morin. The following interrelationships are discussed: pH, ionization of morin, absorption spectra of the various ionic species of morin and of the berylliummorin complexes, equilibria for the reactions between beryllium and morin, the period of time between preparation of the solution and measurement of the fluorescence, and fluorescence intensity.

  7. Age-related eye disease.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Vinod B; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    As with many organs, compromised function of the eye is accompanied with age and has become increasingly prevalent with the aging population. When decreased visual loss becomes significant, patients' ability to perform activities of daily living becomes compromised. This decrease in function is met with morbidity and mortality, as well as a large socioeconomic burden throughout the world. This review summarizes the most common age-related eye diseases, including cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and age-related macular degeneration. Although our understanding of the genetic and biochemical pathways of these diseases is sill at its primitive stages, we have become able to help our patients improve the quality of life as they age.

  8. Worker Environment Beryllium Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environment, Safety, Health & Quality

    2009-12-28

    This report summarizes the conclusion of regular monitoring of occupied buildings at the Nevada Test Site and North Las Vegas facility to determine the extent of beryllium (Be) contamination in accordance with Judgment of Needs 6 of the August 14, 2003, “Minnema Report.”

  9. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-12-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl{sup {minus}} solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed.

  10. Bioenvironmental Engineering Guide to Beryllium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-26

    Environ Health Dept Chair, Occup & Environ Health Dept This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical...12 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...nuclear weapons, aircraft and space vehicle structures , instruments, x-ray machines, and mirrors. Some specific AF applications involving beryllium

  11. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  12. [Nutrition-related bone disease].

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kenji; Hirota, Takako

    2006-09-01

    Bone disorders clearly related to nutrition are osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Osteomalacia is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or a disturbance of its metabolism. Dietary deficiency of phosphate or excess of aluminum or cadmium will also cause osteomalacia. Osteoporosis is associated with low intake of calcium and other nutrients. Dietary copper deficiency might stimulate bone metabolism and increase in hip fractures. Excess vitamin A intake was also associated with lower bone mineral density and higher risk of hip fractures. Excess vitamin D sometimes causes mental simplicity, congenital heart disease and calcification of soft tissue. Therefore not only diet but also drugs and supplements of nutrients should be carefully observed in older women.

  13. History of asbestos related disease.

    PubMed

    Bartrip, P W J

    2004-02-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted.

  14. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  15. The acute toxicity of inhaled beryllium metal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Cuddihy, R.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors exposed rats once by nose only for 50 min to a mean concentration of 800 [mu]g/m[sup 3] of beryllium metal to characterize the acute toxic effects within the lung. Histological changes within the lung and enzyme changes within bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were evaluated at 3, 7, 10, 14, 31, 59, 115, and 171 days postexposure (dpe). Beryllium metal-exposed rats developed acute, necrotizing, hemorrhagic, exudative pneumonitis and intraalveolar fibrosis that peaked at 14 dpe. By 31 dpe, inflammatory lesions were replaced by minimal interstitial and intraalveolar fibrosis. Necrotizing inflammation was observed again at 59 dpe which progressed to chronic-active inflammation by 115 dpe. Low numbers of diffusely distributed lymphocytes were also present but they were not associated with granulomas as is observed in beryllium-induced disease in man. Lymphocytes were not elevated in BAL samples collected from beryllium-exposed rats at any time after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), [beta]-glucuronidase, and protein levels were elevated in BAL fluid from 3 through 14 dpe but returned to near normal levels by 31 dpe. LDH increased once again at 59 dpe and remained elevated at 171 dpe. [beta]-Glucuronidase and protein levels were slightly, but not significantly, elevated from 31 through 171 dpe.

  16. Hanford Site Beryllium Program: Past, Present, and Future - 12428

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Mark; Garcia, Pete; Goeckner, Julie; Millikin, Emily; Stoner, Mike

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a long history of beryllium use because of the element's broad application to many nuclear operations and processes. At the Hanford Site beryllium alloy was used to fabricate parts for reactors, including fuel rods for the N-Reactor during plutonium production. Because of continued confirmed cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and data suggesting CBD occurs at exposures to low-level concentrations, the DOE decided to issue a rule to further protect federal and contractor workers from hazards associated with exposure to beryllium. When the beryllium rule was issued in 1999, each of the Hanford Site contractors developed a Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) and initial site wide beryllium inventories. A new site-wide CBDPP, applicable to all Hanford contractors, was issued in May, 2009. In the spring of 2010 the DOE Headquarters Office of Health, Safety, and Security (HSS) conducted an independent inspection to evaluate the status of implementation of the Hanford Site Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP). The report identified four Findings and 12 cross-cutting Opportunities for Improvement (OFIs). A corrective action plan (CAP) was developed to address the Findings and crosscutting OFIs. The DOE directed affected site contractors to identify dedicated resources to participate in development of the CAP, along with involving stakeholders. The CAP included general and contractor-specific recommendations. Following initiation of actions to implement the approved CAP, it became apparent that additional definition of product deliverables was necessary to assure that expectations were adequately addressed and CAP actions could be closed. Consequently, a supplement to the original CAP was prepared and transmitted to DOE-HQ for approval. Development of the supplemental CAP was an eight month effort. From the onset a core group of CAP development members were identified to develop a mechanism for

  17. SOURCE AND PATHWAY DETERMINATION FOR BERYLLIUM FOUND IN BECHTEL NEVADA NORTH LAS VEGAS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-07-01

    records indicate that there are locations at the NTS which contain hazardous quantities of beryllium; however, because beryllium was not always considered a contaminant of concern, complete characterization was not performed prior to remediation efforts. Today, it is not practical to characterize Area 25 for beryllium due to the successful remediation. Analysis of sample data collected in B-1 for the BIAT was performed for the purpose of confirming past results and identifying a source of beryllium through the use of markers. The results confirmed the presence of man-made beryllium contamination in the B-1 High Bay at levels consistent with the NNSA Report. No source markers were found that would be associated with NTS historical nuclear rocket or weapons-related operations. Beryllium contamination was identified in the southwest area of the B-1 High Bay in characteristic association with materials handled during historic metal-working operations. Use of source marker analysis suggests a contributor of beryllium found in carpeted areas of the B-Complex may be naturally occurring. Naturally occurring beryllium is not regulated by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 850 (10 CFR 850) (see Appendix A). No current uncontrolled beryllium source or transport pathways have been identified as available for spread of contamination to uncontrolled areas from the NTS.

  18. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Ambrose H.; Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G.; Mowery, Erb H.

    1988-01-01

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  19. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  20. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF BERYLLIUM FOIL

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO,Y.; WANG,H.

    2000-03-31

    The electrical conductivity of beryllium at radio frequency (800 MHz) and liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated and measured. This summary addresses a collection of beryllium properties in the literature, an analysis of the anomalous skin effect, the test model, the experimental setup and improvements, MAFIA simulations, the measurement results and data analyses. The final results show that the conductivity of beryllium is not as good as indicated by the handbook, yet very close to copper at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  2. An electrolytic process for ultra fine beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidman, W. G.; Griffiths, V.

    1972-01-01

    Studies were made on the electrolysis of a molten BeCl2-NaCl bath using a mercury cathode and beryllium anode. A quasi-amalgam was obtained. The beryllium was consolidated by direct hot pressing of the amalgam at temperatures in the range of 800 C and using pressures of 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 psi. The work confirms the ability to produce ultrafine beryllium particles by electrolysis.

  3. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF HIGH PURITY BERYLLIUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    this work has been devoted recently to the hot swaging of zone refined beryllium. Considerable progress has been made toward the development of hot... swaging schedules capable of producing sound, fine-grained structures in this high pruity laterial. The recovery, recrystallization and grain growth...characteristics of the hot swaged , zone refined beryllium as well as those of hot swaged SR grade Pechiney and commercial grade Berylco beryllium have

  4. Brazing of beryllium for structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Progress made in fabricating a beryllium compression tube structure and a stiffened beryllium panel. The compression tube was 7.6cm in diameter and 30.5cm long with titanium end fittings. The panel was 203cm long and stiffened with longitudinal stringers. Both units were assembled by brazing with BAg-18 braze alloy. The detail parts were fabricated by hot forming 0.305cm beryllium sheet and the brazing parameters established.

  5. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  6. MANAGING BERYLLIUM IN NUCLEAR FACILITY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Rohe; T. N. Tranter

    2011-12-01

    Beryllium plays important roles in nuclear facilities. Its neutron multiplication capability and low atomic weight make it very useful as a reflector in fission reactors. Its low atomic number and high chemical affinity for oxygen have led to its consideration as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. In both applications, the beryllium and the impurities in it become activated by neutrons, transmuting them to radionuclides, some of which are long-lived and difficult to dispose of. Also, gas production, notably helium and tritium, results in swelling, embrittlement, and cracking, which means that the beryllium must be replaced periodically, especially in fission reactors where dimensional tolerances must be maintained. It has long been known that neutron activation of inherent iron and cobalt in the beryllium results in significant {sup 60}Co activity. In 2001, it was discovered that activation of naturally occurring contaminants in the beryllium creates sufficient {sup 14}C and {sup 94}Nb to render the irradiated beryllium 'Greater-Than-Class-C' for disposal in U.S. radioactive waste facilities. It was further found that there was sufficient uranium impurity in beryllium that had been used in fission reactors up to that time that the irradiated beryllium had become transuranic in character, making it even more difficult to dispose of. In this paper we review the extent of the disposal issue, processes that have been investigated or considered for improving the disposability of irradiated beryllium, and approaches for recycling.

  7. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  8. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined form the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing(HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  9. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  10. Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, T.G.; Grotsky, V.K.; Keller, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to be reduced by the interaction of increased titanium hydride quantity and brazing time. Metallographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies correlated these effects with microstructure. The formation of the brittle copper-beryllium delta phase was found to require conditions of high brazing temperature and the presence of a reservoir of the copper-containing filler such as found in fillet areas. Two other filler metals: pure silver, and a 60% Ag-30% Cu-10%Sn (BAg-17) alloy were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the BAg-8 alloy in cases where the filler metal can be preplaced between the base metal surfaces.

  11. Physicochemical characteristics of aerosol particles generated during the milling of beryllium silicate ores: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Chipera, Steve J; Day, Gregory A; Sabey, Phil; Dickerson, Robert M; Sbarra, Deborah C; Duling, Mathew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Stanton, Marcia L; Scripsick, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium dusts generated during milling of ores and cutting of beryl-containing gemstones is associated with development of beryllium sensitization and low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Inhalation of beryllium aerosols generated during primary beryllium production and machining of the metal, alloys, and ceramics are associated with sensitization and high rates of CBD, despite similar airborne beryllium mass concentrations among these industries. Understanding the physicochemical properties of exposure aerosols may help to understand the differential immunopathologic mechanisms of sensitization and CBD and lead to more biologically relevant exposure standards. Properties of aerosols generated during the industrial milling of bertrandite and beryl ores were evaluated. Airborne beryllium mass concentrations among work areas ranged from 0.001 microg/m(3) (beryl ore grinding) to 2.1 microg/m(3) (beryl ore crushing). Respirable mass fractions of airborne beryllium-containing particles were < 20% in low-energy input operation areas (ore crushing, hydroxide product drumming) and > 80% in high-energy input areas (beryl melting, beryl grinding). Particle specific surface area decreased with processing from feedstock ores to drumming final product beryllium hydroxide. Among work areas, beryllium was identified in three crystalline forms: beryl, poorly crystalline beryllium oxide, and beryllium hydroxide. In comparison to aerosols generated by high-CBD risk primary production processes, aerosol particles encountered during milling had similar mass concentrations, generally lower number concentrations and surface area, and contained no identifiable highly crystalline beryllium oxide. One possible explanation for the apparent low prevalence of CBD among workers exposed to beryllium mineral dusts may be that characteristics of the exposure material do not contribute to the development of lung burdens sufficient for progression from sensitization to

  12. Beryllium Health and Safety Committee Data Reporting Task Force White Paper #2 -- Uses of Uncensored Data

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, D H

    2007-10-10

    On December 8, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) published Title 10 CFR 850 (hereafter referred to as the Rule) to establish a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) to: (1) reduce the number of workers currently exposed to beryllium in the course of their work at DOE facilities managed by DOE or its contractors; (2) minimize the levels of, and potential for, exposure to beryllium; and (3) establish medical surveillance requirements to ensure early detection of the disease. On January 4, 2001, DOE issued DOE G 440.1-7A, Implementation Guide for use with 10 CFR 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program, to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing the CBDPP. That guide describes methods and techniques that DOE considers acceptable in complying with the Rule. In 2005 a draft DOE Technical Standard ''Management of Items and Areas Containing Low Levels of Beryllium'' (SAFT 0103; hereafter referred to as the ''TS'') was circulated for comment (http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/tsdrafts/saft-0103.pdf). DOE technical standards are voluntary consensus standards developed when industry standards do not exist (see http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/techstds/index.html for more information). DOE does not require its field elements to implement DOE technical standards, but field elements may choose to adopt these standards to meet specific needs. This beryllium TS is intended to provide best practices and lessons learned for manageing items and areas that contain low levels of beryllium, which has been a costly and technically challenging component of CBDPPs. The TS is also intended to provide guidance for determining if the Rule's housekeeping and release criteria are met. On challenge the TS addressed was the statistical interpretation of data sets with non-detected results, a topic for which no strong consensus exists. Among the many comments on the draft TS was a suggestion that certain of the

  13. Massachusetts Beryllium Screening Program for Former Workers of Wyman-Gordon, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, L. D.

    2008-05-21

    The overall objective of this project was to provide medical screening to former workers of Wyman-Gordon Company, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals (NMI) in order to prevent and minimize the health impact of diseases caused by site related workplace exposures to beryllium. The program was developed in response to a request by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that had been authorized by Congress in Section 3162 of the 1993 Defense Authorization Act, urging the DOE to carry out a program for the identification and ongoing evaluation of current and former DOE employees who are subjected to significant health risks during such employment." This program, funded by the DOE, was an amendment to the medical surveillance program for former DOE workers at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program's scope included workers who had worked for organizations that provided beryllium products or materials to the DOE as part of their nuclear weapons program. These organizations have been identified as Beryllium Vendors.

  14. A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, E.; Okun, A.; Ruder, A.; Fingerhut, M.; Steenland, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December 31, 1969. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1988. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in the total cohort was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.42); significant SMRs for lung cancer were observed for two of the oldest plants located in Lorain, Ohio (SMR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.28-2.19) and Reading, Pennsylvania (SMR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48). For the overall cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were found for all deaths (SMR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01-1.08), ischemic heart disease (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01-1.14), pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (SMR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.21-1.80), and chronic and unspecified nephritis, renal failure, and other renal sclerosis (SMR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.00-2.12). Lung cancer SMRs did not increase with longer duration of employment, but did increase with longer latency (time since first exposure). Lung cancer was particularly elevated (SMR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.66-5.95) among workers at the Lorain plant with a history of (primarily) acute beryllium disease, which is associated with very high beryllium exposure. The lung cancer excess was not restricted to plants operating in the 1940s, when beryllium exposures were known to be extraordinarily high. Elevated lung cancer SMRs were also observed for four of the five plants operating in the 1950s for workers hired during that decade. Neither smoking nor geographic location fully explains the increased lung cancer risk. Occupational exposure to beryllium compounds is the most plausible explanation for the increased risk of lung cancer observed in this study.

  15. Fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemon, D. D.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the fracture toughness, sustained-load flaw growth, and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of S200E hot-pressed beryllium at room temperature. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the influence of various factors on the fracture toughness of hot-pressed beryllium determined using fatigue-cracked specimens.

  16. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  17. Lightweight Beryllium Free Nanostructured Nanostructured Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Plasma Processes, Inc. Lightweight Beryllium Free Nanostructured Composites SBIR Contract DASG60-02-P-41 Phase I Final Report 1/15/03 Submitted by...Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Lightweight Beryllium Free Nanostructured Nanostructured Composites Contract

  18. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  19. Pain-related diseases and sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Roizenblatt, M.; Rosa Neto, N.S.; Tufik, S.; Roizenblatt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Pain and sleep share mutual relations under the influence of cognitive and neuroendocrine changes. Sleep is an important homeostatic feature and, when impaired, contributes to the development or worsening of pain-related diseases. The aim of the present review is to provide a panoramic view for the generalist physician on sleep disorders that occur in pain-related diseases within the field of Internal Medicine, such as rheumatic diseases, acute coronary syndrome, digestive diseases, cancer, and headache. PMID:22760852

  20. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide raw...

  1. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide raw...

  2. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide raw...

  3. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide raw...

  4. 40 CFR 421.150 - Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary beryllium subcategory. 421.150 Section 421.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Primary Beryllium Subcategory § 421.150 Applicability: Description of the primary beryllium... beryllium by primary beryllium facilities processing beryllium ore concentrates or beryllium hydroxide raw...

  5. Use of Beryllium and Beryllium Oxide in Space Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L. L.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2005-02-06

    Beryllium and beryllium oxide are attractive candidate materials for neutron reflector application in space reactors due to their beneficial combination of low density and high neutron moderation and reflection capabilities. Drawbacks to their use include the expense of working with toxic materials, a limited industrial infrastructure, and material properties that are challenging in the non-irradiated state and seriously degrade under neutron irradiation. As an example of neutron effects, mechanical properties degrade under relevant conditions to the point where encasement in structural alloys is necessary. Such measures are required if neutron fluence exceeds {approx}1x1024 n/m2 (E>0.1 MeV). At high temperatures (>500 deg. C for Be and >600 deg. C for BeO), irradiation-induced swelling may also limit the maximum allowable dose without additional engineering measures. Significant volumetric swelling (>5%) can occur in these materials during neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures for neutron fluences above 1x1025 n/m2. This paper will review Be and BeO fabrication considerations, and summarize the effects of neutron irradiation on material properties.

  6. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  7. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Contact Us Who We Help Patients ARNet Research Survey AD Knowledge Base Autoimmune Disease List Common Thread ... Planned Giving Shop AARDA Volunteer Take Action ARNet Research Survey Advocacy Voter Voice Prescription Drug User Fee Act ( ...

  8. Claudin-related intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Barmeyer, Christian; Schulzke, Jörg D; Fromm, Michael

    2015-06-01

    With up to 200 m(2) the human intestine is the organ with the largest absorptive surface of the body. It is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells that separates the host from the environment. The intestinal epithelium provides both, selective absorption of nutrients, ions, and water but also a highly effective barrier function which includes the first line of defense against environmental antigens. The paracellular part of this barrier function is provided by tight junction (TJ) proteins, especially the large family of claudins. Changes in abundance or molecular structure of claudins can generally result in three typical effects, (i) decreased absorptive passage, (ii) increased secretory passage of small solutes and water causing leak flux diarrhea and (iii) increased absorptive passage of macromolecules which may induce inflammatory processes. Several intestinal diseases are associated with such changes that can result in intestinal inflammation and symptoms like weight loss, abdominal pain or diarrhea. This review summarizes our current knowledge on barrier dysfunction and claudin dysregulation in several intestinal diseases gastroenterologists are often faced with, like inflammatory bowel disease, microscopic colitis, celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, gallstones and infectious diseases like HIV enteropathy, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium perfringens infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. ); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. ); Measures, C.I. )

    1992-04-01

    The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

  10. A study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single crystal silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 MeV and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-MeV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-MeV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two acceptor levels at 106 MeV and 81 MeV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191-MeV and 145-MeV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-MeV beryllium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed.

  11. Study of beryllium and beryllium-lithium complexes in single-crystal silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.; Gilmer, T. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    When beryllium is thermally diffused into silicon, it gives rise to acceptor levels 191 and 145 meV above the valence band. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that the 145-meV level is due to a more complex beryllium configuration than the 191-meV level. When lithium is thermally diffused into a beryllium-doped silicon sample, it produces two new acceptor levels at 106 and 81 meV. Quenching and annealing studies indicate that these new levels are due to lithium forming a complex with the defects responsible for the 191- and 145-meV beryllium levels, respectively. Electrical measurements imply that the lithium impurity ions are physically close to the beryllium impurity atoms. The ground state of the 106-meV beryllium-lithium level is split into two levels, presumably by internal strains. Tentative models are proposed to explain these results.

  12. Recommended design correlations for S-65 beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    The properties of tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium are reviewed, along with the thermal-mechanical properties needed for ITER design analysis. Correlations are developed to describe the performance of beryllium in a fusion reactor environment. While this paper focuses on the use of beryllium as a plasma-facing component (PFC) material, the correlations presented here can also be used to describe the performance of beryllium as a neutron multiplier for a tritium breeding blanket. The performance properties for beryllium are subdivided into two categories: properties which do not change with irradiation damage to the bulk of the material; and properties which are degraded by neutron irradiation. The irradiation-independent properties described within are: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, and elastic constants. Irradiation-dependent properties include: yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, plastic tangent modulus, uniform and total tensile elongation, thermal and irradiation-induced creep strength, He-induced swelling and tritium retention/release. The approach taken in developing properties correlations is to describe the behavior of dense, pressed S-65 beryllium -- the material chosen for ITER PFC application -- as a function of temperature. As there are essentially no data on the performance of porous and/or irradiated S-65 beryllium, the degradation of properties with as-fabricated porosity and irradiation are determined from the broad data base on S-200F, as well as other types and grades, and applied to S-65 beryllium by scaling factors. The resulting correlations can be used for Be produced by vacuum hot pressing (VHP) and cold-pressing (CP)/sintering(S)/hot-isostatic-pressing (HIP). The performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium is discussed but not quantified.

  13. Crystallization of Beryllium-Boron Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Wall, M A; Nieh, T G

    2002-02-14

    Prior studies of evaporation and sputter deposition show that the grain size of pure beryllium can be dramatically refined through the incorporation of metal impurities. Recently, the addition of boron at a concentration greater than 11% is shown to serve as a glassy phase former in sputter deposited beryllium. Presently, thermally induced crystallization of the beryllium-boron metallic glass is reported. The samples are characterized during an in-situ anneal treatment with bright field imaging and electron diffraction using transmission electron microscopy. A nanocrystalline structure evolves from the annealed amorphous phase and the crystallization temperature is affected by the boron concentration.

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of beryllium in albino rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Agrawal, V.P.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Arsenic compounds, if chronically exposed to human beings, significantly increase incidences of epidermoid carcinomas of the skin and lung. Nickel has been considered to be an important metallic carcinogen. Regarding beryllium, different opinions are held so far as its carcinogenic nature is concerned. While it is reported that there is an equivocal increase in the incidences of respiratory cancers in patients with chronic pulmonary berylliosis, investigation shows no increase in the incidence of respiratory cancer. Among experimental animals, intravenous injections of suspensions of beryllium salts to rabbits have been shown to induce osteogenic sarcomas. This abstract deals with the histopathological and enzymological study of lungs of albino rats after prolonged beryllium treatment.

  15. THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BERYLLIUM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    A Beryllium Technology Update meeting was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on July 18, 2007. Participants came from the U.S., Japan, and Russia. There were two main objectives of this meeting. One was a discussion of current technologies for beryllium in fission reactors, particularly the Advanced Test Reactor and the Japan Materials Test Reactor, and prospects for material availability in the coming years. The second objective of the meeting was a discussion of a project of the International Science and Technology Center regarding treatment of irradiated beryllium for disposal. This paper highlights discussions held during that meeting and major conclusions reached

  16. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  17. Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L.; Smith, M.H.; Littlefield, L.G.

    1996-10-01

    The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts ({approx}7%). A log-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of Be exposure conditions, and the variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected count. Two outlier-resistant regression methods are used to estimate stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts as a method for estimation; the second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of these resistant methods is that they make it unnecessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the BeLPT data and the current outlier rejection method are applied to 173 BeLPT assays. We strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the BeLPT. Outliers are important when trying to identify individuals with beryllium hypersensitivity, since these individuals typically have large positive SI values. A new method for identifying large SIs using combined data from the nonexposed group and the beryllium workers is proposed. The log(SI)s are described with a Gaussian distribution with location and scale parameters estimated using resistant methods. This approach is applied to the test data and results are compared with those obtained from the current method. 24 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.

    PubMed Central

    Frome, E L; Smith, M H; Littlefield, L G; Neubert, R L; Colyer, S P

    1996-01-01

    The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts (approximately 7%). A long-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of Be exposure conditions, and the variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected count. Two outlier-resistant regression methods are used to estimate stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts as a method for estimation; the second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of these resistant methods is that they make it unnecessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the BeLPT data and the current outlier rejection method are applied to 173 BeLPT assays. We strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the BeLPT. Outliers are important when trying to identify individuals with beryllium hypersensitivity, since these individuals typically have large positive SI values. A new method for identifying large Sls using combined data from the nonexposed group and the beryllium workers is proposed. The log(SI)s are described with a Gaussian distribution with location and scale parameters estimated using resistant methods. This approach is applied to the test data and results are compared with those obtained from the current method. PMID:8933042

  19. Statistical methods for the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test.

    PubMed

    Frome, E L; Smith, M H; Littlefield, L G; Neubert, R L; Colyer, S P

    1996-10-01

    The blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) is a modification of the standard lymphocyte proliferation test that is used to identify persons who may have chronic beryllium disease. A major problem in the interpretation of BeLPT test results is outlying data values among the replicate well counts (approximately 7%). A long-linear regression model is used to describe the expected well counts for each set of Be exposure conditions, and the variance of the well counts is proportional to the square of the expected count. Two outlier-resistant regression methods are used to estimate stimulation indices (SIs) and the coefficient of variation. The first approach uses least absolute values (LAV) on the log of the well counts as a method for estimation; the second approach uses a resistant regression version of maximum quasi-likelihood estimation. A major advantage of these resistant methods is that they make it unnecessary to identify and delete outliers. These two new methods for the statistical analysis of the BeLPT data and the current outlier rejection method are applied to 173 BeLPT assays. We strongly recommend the LAV method for routine analysis of the BeLPT. Outliers are important when trying to identify individuals with beryllium hypersensitivity, since these individuals typically have large positive SI values. A new method for identifying large Sls using combined data from the nonexposed group and the beryllium workers is proposed. The log(SI)s are described with a Gaussian distribution with location and scale parameters estimated using resistant methods. This approach is applied to the test data and results are compared with those obtained from the current method.

  20. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and workers can take steps to address working conditions and work practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related ... advise workers about any suspected or confirmed medical condition that may be ... exposures, about recommendations for further evaluation and treatment, ...

  1. Purfication kinetics of beryllium during vacuum induction melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, J. L.; Gupta, K. P.; Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The kinetics of evaporation in binary alloys were quantitatively treated. The formalism so developed works well for several systems studied. The kinetics of purification of beryllium was studied through evaporation data actually acquired during vacuum induction melting. Normal evaporation equations are shown to be generally valid and useful for understanding the kinetics of beryllium purification. The normal evaporation analysis has been extended to cover cases of limited liquid diffusion. It was shown that under steady-state evaporation, the solute concentration near the surface may be up to six orders of magnitude different from the bulk concentration. Corrections for limited liquid diffusion are definitely needed for the highly evaporative solute elements, such as Zn, Mg, and Na, for which the computed evaporation times are improved by five orders of magnitude. The commonly observed logarithmic relation between evaporation time and final concentration further supports the validity of the normal evaporation equations.

  2. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  3. Chemical Analysis Of Beryllium Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, J; Cook, R

    2005-11-17

    There is a need to understand the level of high-Z impurities in Beryllium shells prepared by sputter coating. The Ignition Point Design Requirements state the following: ''Except for allowed ingredients, as listed in the ablator composition entries, the ablator material in all layers shall contain sufficiently low impurity levels that the sum over all impurities of atom fraction*Z{sup 2} shall be less than or equal to 0.2''. This is a tight specification that requires careful materials analysis. Early in the first quarter of FY06, we undertook a study of Be shell impurities via ICP-MS{sup 2} and determined that the impurity levels in the sputtered shells are very close to the specification.

  4. Damage to JET beryllium tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deksnis, E.; Cheetham, A.; Hwang, A.; Lomas, P.; Pick, M.; Summers, D. D. R.

    1990-12-01

    JET has operated with beryllium limiters such that up to 180 MJ could be coupled to the plasma. Approximately 2-4% of the surface of the limiter has been melted near the plasma contact point. Another 10-15% of the surface shows evidence of edge heating. Some 5% of tiles have been subjected to abnormal loads at points distant from the contact area. Damage shows strong correlation of localised heating of the limiter with toroidal field ripple. Edge heating rates of 260 Mw/m 2 have not caused gross mechanical failure of the limiter. The mechanical damage comprises fatigue cracks analogous to those due to sustained loading at low power levels.

  5. The optical properties of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, E.T. ); Callcott, T.A.; Chang, Yun-ching Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01

    We review the published data on the optical properties of beryllium for the spectral region from 0.03 to 300 eV. In the visible and infrared spectral regions, where published data from various authors show very large variations, we have performed experiments that identify the most probable sources of error, and use this information to select the best data from published sources. The effects of surface oxide overlayers have also been studied. In the far infrared spectral region, where only normal incidence reflectance data are available, and in the extreme ultraviolet, where only transmission data are available, there is insufficient information to fully determine the optical properties at each photon energy. Between 0.06 and 26 eV, however, a normal incidence reflectance curve is fully determined. This curve has been used for a Kramers{endash}Kronig analysis to determine the optical properties in this spectral range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Colorimetric Method for Beryllium Surface Contamination Detection

    SciTech Connect

    MCWHORTER, CHRISTOPHER

    2004-03-11

    To address the need for real-time accurate total beryllium analyses, Savannah River Technology Center Analytical Development Section personnel evaluated and modified a colorimetric screening method developed at Los Alamos National Lab to measure beryllium on surfaces. This method was based on a color complex formed by beryllium and chromium azurol s . SRTC converted this visual method to a quantitative analysis method using spectrophotometric detection. The addition of a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to the Be-CAS system shifted the complex absorbance away from the CAS absorbance and allowed for the detection. Assuming complete dissolution and a 10 mL rinse solution volume to remove the beryllium from the wipe, the detection limit was calculated comfortably below the free release limit. The spectrophotometric method was rugged and simple enough that it could be used as a field method.

  7. [Safety criteria in working with metallic beryllium].

    PubMed

    Petrin, S V; Petrina, L S; Pinaev, V S

    2004-01-01

    The concept of an acceptable risk was used to elaborate criteria required to analyze the safety of operations with metallic beryllium at dangerous industrial enterprises. To follow these criteria ensures the high level of beryllium work safety, follows the present-day tendency for the development of approaches to evaluating the safety of devices using toxically hazard substances. The criteria involve a human death risk due to the single entry of beryllium into the body during accidents, as well as the level of its chronic intake in different groups of subjects on secondary dust formation after an accident. The accident that occurred at the beryllium works, the industrial association "Ulbinsk Metallurgic Plant, in Ust-Kamenogorsk on September 12, 1990, has been analyzed by using the computer program "GAUSS". The results of calculations are in good agreement with those of observations.

  8. Nutrition and age-related eye diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vision loss among the elderly is an important health problem. Approximately one person in three has some form of vision-reducing eye disease by the age of 65 [1]. Age-related cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are the major diseases resulting in visu...

  9. Celiac disease and new diseases related to gluten

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Martínez García, Rosa María; Quiles Blanco, María José; Majid Abu Naji, Jamil Abdel; González Iglesias, María José

    2016-07-12

    Celiac disease is the most common chronic intestinal disease. Nowadays it´s known that this is a multisistemic pathology of immune mechanism, triggered by gluten, which occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. It affects approximately 1% of the world population, which is a very high prevalence, affects all age groups and has symptoms both digestive and extra-digestive. Since it is a disease that requires maintaining a gluten-free diet and medical monitoring for life, it is important to know it and establish its diagnosis properly. Along with celiac disease a number of new diseases related to gluten are diagnosed increasingly, including the non celiac gluten sensitivity or wheat allergy. The suffering of celiac disease, or other related diseases, by conditioning diet changes of the affected individual, it may be associated with nutritional imbalances that need to monitor and try to solve. Therefore patients with this problem need special nutritional advice.

  10. Beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children.

    PubMed

    Nogaj, Ewa; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Golusiński, Wojciech; Kowol, Jolanta; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Power plant dust is believed to be the main source of the increased presence of the element beryllium in the environment which has been detected in the atmospheric air, surface waters, groundwater, soil, food, and cigarette smoke. In humans, beryllium absorption occurs mainly via the respiratory system. The pharyngeal tonsils are located on the roof of the nasopharynx and are in direct contact with dust particles in inhaled air. As a result, the concentration levels of beryllium in the pharyngeal tonsils are likely to be a good indicator of concentration levels in the air. The presented study had two primary aims: to investigate the beryllium concentration in pharyngeal tonsils in children living in southern Poland, and the appropriate reference range for this element in children's pharyngeal tonsils. Pharyngeal tonsils were extracted from a total of 379 children (age 2-17 years, mean 6.2 ± 2.7 years) living in southern Poland. Tonsil samples were mineralized in a closed cycle in a pressure mineralizer PDS 6, using 65% spectrally pure nitric acid. Beryllium concentration was determined using the ICP-AES method with a Perkin Elmer Optima 5300DVTM. The software Statistica v. 9 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found that girls had a significantly greater beryllium concentration in their pharyngeal tonsils than boys. Beryllium concentration varies greatly, mostly according to the place of residence. Based on the study results, the reference value for beryllium in pharyngeal tonsils of children is recommended to be determined at 0.02-0.04 µg/g.

  11. Characteristics of beryllium bonds; a QTAIM study.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, K

    2012-08-01

    The nature of beryllium bonds formed between BeX2 (X is H, F and Cl) and some Lewis bases have been investigated. The distribution of the Laplacian of electron density shows that there is a region of charge depletion around the Be atom, which, according to Laplacian complementary principal, can interact with a region of charge concentration of an atom in the base and form a beryllium bond. The molecular graphs of the investigated complexes indicate that beryllium in BeH2 and BeF2 can form “beryllium bonds” with O, N and P atoms but not with halogens. In addition, eight criteria based on QTAIM properties, including the values of electron density and its Laplacian at the BCP, penetration of beryllium and acceptor atom, charge, energy, volume and first atomic moment of beryllium atom, have been considered and compared with the corresponding ones in conventional hydrogen bonds. These bonds share many common features with very strong hydrogen bonds, however,some differences have also been observed.

  12. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-02-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ``spike`` of 750{degrees}C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m{sup 2}. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP`d sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe{sub 12}. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis.

  13. Helicobacter pylori-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori infection in Digestive Diseases Week, 2016. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of this infection, infection rates continue to be high in developing countries. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly high in most countries and continues to rise. The management of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcers still leaves much to be desired. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely avoid its appearance. The new rapid stool antigen tests show promising results. The efficacy of standard triple therapy is clearly inadequate and continues to decline, and cannot therefore be recommended. Vonoprazan, when associated with 2 antibiotics, is more effective than traditional proton pump inhibitors, especially in clarithromycin-resistant patients. Non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy achieves eradication rates of around 90% and has a good safety profile. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. Although some probiotics can increase the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy, the utility of its association with quadruple concomitant therapy has not been established. If a first treatment with clarithromycin fails, both bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy achieve good-but still suboptimal-results. The combination of bismuth and levofloxacin in the same regimen increases the efficacy of rescue therapy. The management of H. pylori infection by European gastroenterologists is widely heterogeneous and the eradication rates achieved by them are generally unacceptable. In Spain, the highest first-line eradication rate is obtained with quadruple concomitant therapy in 14-day regimens and with double doses of proton pump inhibitors; in second-line therapy, the use of

  14. [Helicobacter pylori-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori at Digestive Disease Week 2013. Knowledge of this infection among the general population continues to be extremely limited. H. pylori is the main cause of "aging" of the human stomach. In developed countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased but continues to be considerable. In most countries, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance rates are markedly high. H. pylori eradication improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, but only in a minority of patients. The frequency of idiopathic peptic ulcers seems to be rising and their prognosis is worse. Most patients with gastric cancer have, or have had, prior H. pylori infection. The risk of developing preneoplastic lesions depends on the type (strain) of the microorganism. To prevent the development of gastric cancer, eradication therapy should be administered early (before the development of intestinal metaplasia). Among H. pylori-infected patients, those who receive long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors more frequently develop preneoplastic lesions. In patients who undergo endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of metachronous tumors. Eradication therapy induces regression of MALT lymphoma in most patients and tumoral recurrence in the long term is exceptional; eradication is a reasonable option even when H. pylori infection has not been identified in patients with MALT lymphoma. Several diagnostic innovations were presented, such as some polymerase chain reaction techniques for use in gastric biopsy specimens or gastric juice. The efficacy of triple standard therapy is clearly inadequate. The superiority of "sequential" therapy over standard triple therapy has not been definitively established. "Concomitant" therapy is more effective and is simpler than "sequential" therapy. After failure of standard triple therapy, second

  15. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

  16. [IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2012-02-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions, mainly in exocrine tissue, that consist of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and sclerosis. There are numerous IgG4+ plasma cells in the affected tissues, and the serum IgG4 level is elevated in these patients. Ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease frequently involves bilateral lacrimal glands, and obliterative phlebitis is rare. Moreover, some malignant lymphomas, especially mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, arise from ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease. It is known that hyper IL-6 syndromes, such as multicentric Castleman's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases, fulfill the histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease; therefore, hyper IL-6 syndromes and IgG4-related disease cannot be differentially diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining alone. However, upon laboratory examination, hype IL-6 syndromes show elevation of the CRP level, polyclonal hyper gamma-globulinemia, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia. These findings are quite different from IgG4-related disease, which is not characterized by elevated serum IgA, IgM, and CRP levels. Therefore, laboratory findings are crucial for the differential diagnosis.

  17. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

  18. [Relation between Helicobacter pylori and atopic diseases].

    PubMed

    López Pérez, Gerardo; Alcántara Rodríguez, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The rise in the incidence of atopic diseases in the last years is associated to a greater prevalence of viral and bacterial infections. The infections facilitate a chronic inflammatory process that is directly related to the sensibilization of mast cells which favors manifestations of allergic diseases. Within the proposed bacteriological agents as causes of is Helicobacter pylori. This work is a bibliographical revision and concludes that there is not evidence of the direct causal relation between infection by Helicobacter and allergic diseases; however, it can play an indirect role. Controlled and randomized studies are necessary to know accurately this relation because the eradication treatment could be a real alternative in these patients handling.

  19. [Circadian clocks and lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between the disturbance of circadian rhythm and the development of lifestyle-related diseases. First, epidemiological studies showed that rotating shift workers are more likely to develop obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cancers than day shift employees. In addition, mice with their circadian rhythm chronically impaired by alteration of the light-dark cycle also develop such diseases. Furthermore, both the genotypes and genetic modifications of the clock genes are associated with the development of lifestyle-related diseases in humans and mice, respectively. Finally, circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are impaired in both patients with type 2 diabetes and obese diabetic mice, probably not due to metabolic abnormalities, but to the lifestyle, aging, and/or genetic factors. Thus, disturbance of the circadian rhythm is an important cause of lifestyle-related diseases, and therefore the circadian clocks are attractive therapeutic targets for preventing and treating these conditions.

  20. Long-term follow-up of beryllium sensitized workers from a single employer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Up to 12% of beryllium-exposed American workers would test positive on beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) screening, but the implications of sensitization remain uncertain. Methods Seventy two current and former employees of a beryllium manufacturer, including 22 with pathologic changes of chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and 50 without, with a confirmed positive test were followed-up for 7.4 +/-3.1 years. Results Beyond predicted effects of aging, flow rates and lung volumes changed little from baseline, while DLCO dropped 17.4% of predicted on average. Despite this group decline, only 8 subjects (11.1%) demonstrated physiologic or radiologic abnormalities typical of CBD. Other than baseline status, no clinical or laboratory feature distinguished those who clinically manifested CBD at follow-up from those who did not. Conclusions The clinical outlook remains favorable for beryllium-sensitized individuals over the first 5-12 years. However, declines in DLCO may presage further and more serious clinical manifestations in the future. These conclusions are tempered by the possibility of selection bias and other study limitations. PMID:20047684

  1. [Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Marten, Katharina

    2007-03-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  3. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Release of beryllium from beryllium-containing materials in artificial skin surface film liquids.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Skin exposure to soluble beryllium compounds causes systemic sensitization in humans. Penetration of poorly soluble particles through intact skin has been proposed as a mechanism for beryllium sensitization; however, this mechanism is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that particulate beryllium compounds in contact with skin surface release ions via dissolution in sweat. Dissolution of 11 particulate beryllium materials (hydroxide, metal, oxides and copper-beryllium fume), 3 copper-beryllium alloy reference materials (chips and solid block), and 4 copper-beryllium alloy tools was measured over 7 days in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 and pH 6.5. All test materials released beryllium ions in artificial sweat. Particulate from a reduction furnace that contained both crystalline and amorphous beryllium was the most soluble compound-40% dissolved in 8 h. Rates of beryllium release from all other particulate and reference materials were faster at pH 5.3 than at pH 6.5 (P < 0.05). At pH 5.3, values of the chemical dissolution rate constant, k [g (cm² day)⁻¹] differed significantly for hydroxide, metal, and oxide -1.7 ± 0.0 × 10⁻⁷, 1.7 ± 0.6 × 10⁻⁸, and 1.0 ± 0.5 × 10⁻⁹, respectively (P < 0.05). Up to 30 μg of beryllium was released from the alloy tools within 1 h. Dissolution rates in artificial sweat were equal to or faster than values previously determined for these materials in lung models. Poorly soluble beryllium materials undergo dissolution in artificial sweat, suggesting that skin exposure is a biologically plausible pathway for development of sensitization. Skin surface acidity, which is regulated by sweat chemistry and bacterial hydrolysis of sebum lipids varies by anatomical region and may be an exposure-modifying factor for beryllium particle dissolution.

  5. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Detection of Beryllium Ions in the Antigen Processing and Presentation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, it was determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) then HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ. PMID:24932923

  6. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway.

    PubMed

    Tooker, Brian C; Brindley, Stephen M; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Newman, Lee S

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, it was determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) than HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Newman, Lee S.

    2014-06-16

    We report that exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, we determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) then HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.

  8. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; ...

    2014-06-16

    We report that exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstratemore » that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, we determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) then HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.« less

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Newman, Lee S.

    2014-06-16

    Exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, it was determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) than HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; ...

    2014-06-16

    Exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Massmore » Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, it was determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) than HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.« less

  11. [Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Bisphosphonates for lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Okada, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2014-11-01

    A lifestyle-related disease and osteoporosis are diseases to increase with aging and a lifestyle-related disease has an influence on the bone metabolism. Because the number of patients with lifestyle-related disease is getting larger, it is necessary to prevent fracture in those. Unfortunately, substantial randomized control studies are yet to be done in patients with lifestyle-related disease to clarify if anti-osteoporotic drugs are effective to prevent fractures. It is suggested by the subanalysis in the existing clinical study with usefulness of bisphosphonates with evidence as an osteoporotic therapeutic drug in life-related disease. Here I will review about the effective and problem with bisphosphonate for the lifestyle-related disease with arteriosclerosis.

  12. Using U-series and beryllium isotopes to reveal the occurrence and relative timing of crustal and mantle processes in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. B.; Reubi, O.; Dungan, M. A.; Bourdon, B.; Langmuir, C. H.; Turner, S. J.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magmas erupted from subduction zone volcanoes represent the end products of multiple magmatic processes occurring in the asthenospheric mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere (i.e., fluid addition, melting, assimilation, and crystal fractionation). To resolve the contributions of diverse processes and components, and the relative timing of these events, we have determined U-series activities (U-Th-Ra-Pa) for 60 and 10Be compositions for 20 historic or very young lavas carefully chosen on the basis of major and trace element analyses of 625 samples from six volcanoes in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile (37.6-41.1°S: Nevados de Chillán, Antuco, Llaima, Lonquimay, Villarrica, and Osorno). Our dataset demonstrates that each of these volcanoes reflects a unique combination and sequence of magmatic processes that are only revealed through analysis of multiple samples spanning the extent of intra-volcano and intra-eruption chemical variation. Sigmarsson et al. (1990; 2002) identified a regional trend using U-series and Be from mostly single samples, which they interpreted to represent along-strike variations in the flux of slab-derived fluids into the wedge [from 230Th-excess plus 226Ra-deficit plus low 10Be/9Be at Chillán towards progressively higher 238U- and Ra-excesses and 10Be/9Be at Villarrica and Osorno]. These data fall within the much broader array defined by our results, but we infer the operation of assimilation (e.g., Llaima; Reubi et al., 2011) and aging of subduction zone components of variable compositions and proportions in the mantle prior to partial melting as important factors in generating the highly individualized and complex U-series systematics observed at each of these six volcanoes. All of the volcanoes exhibit evidence of assimilation, with the exception of Lonquimay which has undergone mostly closed-system fractional crystallization. At Llaima and Chillán the assimilant is crustal. At Villarica, flux-related melts that dominate in

  13. [Relation between autoimmune thyroid diseases and connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Barragán-Garfias, Jorge Alberto; Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The main physiological function of the immune system consists in the defense against infectious micro-organisms. Sometimes there is a loss of immunological tolerance with the consequence of ignorance of self-antibodies. Some thyroid diseases are related to autoimmune diseases associated with the most common exocrine glands between them. There are also the autoimmune thyroid organ specific diseases, such as Graves-Basedow and the Hashimoto thyroiditis. It has been shown that there is a higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases in patients with connective tissue diseases (systemic autoimmune) such as Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erithmatosis and systemic myopathic diseases. In the same way a higher prevalence of antinuclear antibodies against antigens extracted from the nucleus in patients with a thyroid autoimmune disease has been identified. There is a high percentage of patients with subclinical thyroid diseases, and it is recommended for patients with connective tissue diseases with hypo- or hyperthyroidism to have thyroid globulin and peroxide antibodies measured.

  14. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm and monitor the extent and nature of a covered Part B employee's beryllium sensitivity. Monitoring shall also...

  15. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm and monitor the extent and nature of a covered Part B employee's beryllium sensitivity. Monitoring shall also...

  16. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm and monitor the extent and nature of a covered Part B employee's beryllium sensitivity. Monitoring shall also...

  17. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm and monitor the extent and nature of a covered Part B employee's beryllium sensitivity. Monitoring shall also...

  18. 20 CFR 30.508 - What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is beryllium sensitivity monitoring? 30... sensitivity monitoring? Beryllium sensitivity monitoring shall consist of medical examinations to confirm and monitor the extent and nature of a covered Part B employee's beryllium sensitivity. Monitoring shall also...

  19. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  20. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, A; Graziano, P; Sverzellati, N; Harari, S

    2010-12-01

    In pulmonary pathology, a wide spectrum of morphological changes is related to the consequences of smoking, and recognizing them on surgical specimens and on small transbronchial biopsies represents a challenge for the pathologist. Respiratory bronchiolitis, also referred to as smoker's bronchiolitis, is a common histologic feature found in the lung tissue of cigarette smokers. When identified as the sole histopathologic finding in the clinical setting of symptomatic interstitial lung disease, a diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease is made. Since smoking is recognized to cause a variety of histologic patterns encompassing respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell hystiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial lung disease may be a useful concept to keep in mind for the pathologists. The relationship of smoking with each of these entities has been largely established on the basis of epidemiologic evidence. Although they have been retained as distinct and separate conditions in various classifications of interstitial lung diseases, these entities share a number of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features suggesting that they represent a spectrum of patterns of interstitial lung disease occurring in predisposed individuals who smoke. Evaluation of histologic features, particularly in surgical lung biopsy samples, is important in making the distinction between these disorders. However, even after tissue biopsy, it may sometimes be difficult to clearly separate these entities. Recently, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease with fibrosis has been described and postulated that this is a smoking-related condition distinct from fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

  1. Beryllium-Induced Hypersensitivity: Genetic Susceptibility and Neoantigen Generation1

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Andrew P.; Falta, Michael T.; Kappler, John W.; Dai, Shaodong; McKee, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder that results from beryllium (Be) exposure in a genetically-susceptible host. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of Be-responsive CD4+ T cells in the lung, and genetic susceptibility is primarily linked to HLA-DPB1 alleles possessing a glutamic acid at position 69 of the β-chain. Recent structural analysis of a Be-specific T cell receptor (TCR) interacting with a Be-loaded HLA-DP2-peptide complex revealed that Be is coordinated by amino acid residues derived from the HLA-DP2 β-chain and peptide and showed that the TCR does not directly interact with the Be2+ cation. Rather, the TCR recognizes a modified HLA-DP2-peptide complex with charge and conformational changes. Collectively, these findings provide a structural basis for the development of this occupational lung disease through the ability of Be to induce post-translational modifications in preexisting HLA-DP2-peptide complexes, resulting in the creation of neoantigens. PMID:26685315

  2. The Search for Rydberg Matter: Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A.V.

    2005-03-15

    Results are presented from theoretical investigations of condensed excited states of beryllium by the Hartree-Fock method with allowance for the width of the atomic levels. It is shown that, during the excitation of a beryllium atom in the X-ray energy range, the 2p states split, the one-electron energy levels are shifted by unequal amounts, the 2s and 2p states mix at excitation energies of 10 and 14 Ry, and the atom is stabilized at energies higher than 6.7 Ry. In the optical range of excitation energies, a condensed excited state of beryllium with a lifetime on the order of 0.1 fs is reveale000.

  3. Evaluation of beryllium for space shuttle components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    Application of beryllium to specific full-scale space shuttle structural components and assemblies was studied. Material evaluations were conducted to check the mechanical properties of as-received material to gain design information on characteristics needed for the material in the space shuttle environment, and to obtain data needed for evaluating component and panel tests. Four beryllium structural assemblies were analyzed and designed. Selected components of these assemblies, representing areas of critical loading or design/process uncertainty, were designed and tested, and two panel assemblies were fabricated. Trends in cost and weight factors were determined by progressive estimation at key points of preliminary design, final design, and fabrication to aid in a cost/weight evaluation of the use of beryllium.

  4. Investigation of beryllium self-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, M. I.; Korshunov, S. N.; Gureev, V. M.; Martinenko, Yu. V.; Neumoin, V. E.; Stoljarova, V. G.

    1997-02-01

    The angular dependence of the beryllium self-sputtering yield ( Ys) has been investigated. The self-sputtering yield was measured as a function of the angle of ion incidence in the angle range of 0-85°. The measured data agree with those of the computer simulation at the angles of incidence: 0°, 30°, 45° and 85°. The maximum value of both the experimental and calculated beryllium self-sputtering yield occurs at the same angle of incidence -75°, but the experimental yield is reduced by a factor of 1.75 compared to the calculated value. The self-sputtering yield of beryllium is determined by the surface relief of microscopic scale created by ion bombardment.

  5. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  6. [IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, Juan; Losada López, Inés; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2015-12-21

    IgG4-related disease is a recently described clinicopathological entity showing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that share a common pathology. Its most characteristic feature is the formation of inflammatory tumors in different organs, which makes differentiation mainly with neoplastic diseases fundamental. The inflammatory process is typically comprised of IgG4 lymphoplasmacytic cells. The pathophysiological role of the immunoglobulin is not clear. The treatment of choice is corticosteroids. This article aims to summarize the main features of the disease.

  7. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  8. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2006-01-01

    Beryllium metal is lighter than aluminum and stiffer than steel. These and other properties, including its strength, dimensional stability, thermal properties and reflectivity, make it useful for aerospace and defense applications, such as satellite and space-vehicle structural components. Beryllium’s nuclear properties, combined with its low density, make it useful as a neutron reflector and moderator in nuclear reactors. Because it is transparent to most X rays, beryllium is used as X-ray windows in medical, industrial and analytical equipment.

  9. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.J.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  10. The prevention of tobacco-related disease.

    PubMed

    Raw, M; McNeill, A

    1994-11-01

    The key components of a strategy to prevent tobacco-related disease are outlined. These measures aim to increase the cessation of tobacco use and reduce its uptake. Components are wide-ranging, including a taxation policy, a ban on advertising and promotion, a comprehensive health promotion programme including advice from primary health care professionals and the development of campaigning skills, particularly by the medical profession. The prevention of tobacco-related disease has moved into the domain of campaigners and lobbyists at political, economic and international levels. The key target is countering the activities, especially the unethical trade practices, of the wealthy and powerful tobacco industry.

  11. [Bone quality in lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuru; Marumo, Keishi

    2011-05-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases deteriorate bone quality in terms of material properties. Collagen cross-link formation is thought to be a determinant of material strength. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, carbonyl stress, and hyperhomocysteinemia induce the reduction in beneficial enzymatic cross-links and the accumulation of disadvantageous non-enzymatic cross-link, Advanced glycation end products (AGEs, Pentosidine) in bone. In this review, we describe that lifestyle-related diseases are crucial determinants of detrimental crosslinking of bone collagen that have been reported in the literature.

  12. Behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium during temperature excursions up to and beyond its melting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuste, Elina; Kizane, Gunta; Avotiņa, Līga; Zariņš, Artūrs

    2015-10-01

    Beryllium pebble behaviour has been studied regarding the accidental operation conditions of tritium breeding blanket of fusion reactors. Structure evolution, oxidation and thermal properties have been compared for nonirradiated and neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles during thermal treatment in a temperature range from ambient temperature to 1600 K. For neutron irradiated pebbles tritium release process was studied. Methods of temperature programmed tritium desorption (TPD) in combination with thermogravimetry (TG) and temperature differential analysis (TDA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) have been used. It was found that there are strong relation between tritium desorption spectra and structural evolution of neutron irradiated beryllium. The oxidation rate is also accelerated by the structure damages caused by neutrons.

  13. Thermodynamic considerations in the use of nickel-beryllium alloy to braze Zircaloy-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. J.; Corcoran, E. C.; Thompson, W. T.; Lewis, B. J.; Palleck, S.; Goodyear, H.; Harmsen, J. G.; Dimayuga, F.

    2015-10-01

    To better control beryllium exposure during the manufacture of CANDU® fuel bundles, a nickel-beryllium brazing alloy to affix appendages to Zircaloy-4 is being considered. A Ni-2wt%Be shows promise in substantially reducing beryllium volatility while minimally perturbing existing fabrication processes. Thermodynamic models of the condensed phases of the binary Zr-Be, Ni-Be and Ni-Zr alloy systems provide a basis for the construction of a provisional ternary phase diagram that in particular identifies the domain of the liquid phase. The modeling also permits the computation of the partial pressures of Be and related matters associated with the control of surface oxide on Zircaloy-4.

  14. [Renal diseases related to MYH9 disorders].

    PubMed

    Galeano, Dario; Zanoli, Luca; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Granata, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in MYH9 gene encoding the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) are related to a number of rare autosomal-dominant disorders which has been known as May-Hegglin disease, Sebastian syndrome, Fechtner syndrome and Epstein syndrome. Their common clinical features are congenital macrothrombocytopaenia and polymorphonuclear inclusion bodies, in addition to a variable risk of developing proteinuria, chronic kidney disease progressing toward end stage, sensorineural deafness and presenile cataracts. The term MYH9 related disease (MYH9-RD) describes the variable expression of a single illness encompassing all previously mentioned hereditary disorders. Renal involvement in MYH9- RD has been observed in 30% of patients. Mutant MYH9 protein, expressed in podocytes, mesangial and tubular cells, plays a main role in foot process effacement and in development of nephropathy. Interestingly, the MYH9 gene is currently under investigation also for his possible contribution to many other non-hereditary glomerulopathies such as focal global glomerulosclerosis (hypertensive nephrosclerosis), idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, C1q nephropathy and HIV-associated nephropathy. In this review we are aimed to describe renal diseases related to MYH9 disorders, from the hereditary disease to the acquired disorders, in which MYH9-gene acts as a "renal failure susceptibility gene". Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  15. Oxide segregation and melting behavior of transient heat load exposed beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-10-01

    In the experimental fusion reactor ITER, beryllium will be applied as first wall armor material. However, the ITER-like wall project at JET already experienced that the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium can easily be exceeded during plasma operation. Therefore, a detailed study was carried out on S-65 beryllium under various transient, ITER-relevant heat loads that were simulated in the electron beam facility JUDITH 1. Hereby, the absorbed power densities were in the range of 0.15-1.0 GW m-2 in combination with pulse durations of 1-10 ms and pulse numbers of 1-1000. In metallographic cross sections, the emergence of a transition region in a depth of ~70-120 µm was revealed. This transition region was characterized by a strong segregation of oxygen at the grain boundaries, determined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy element mappings. The oxide segregation strongly depended on the maximum temperature reached at the end of the transient heat pulse in combination with the pulse duration. A threshold for this process was found at 936 °C for a pulse duration of 10 ms. Further transient heat pulses applied to specimens that had already formed this transition region resulted in the overheating and melting of the material. The latter occurred between the surface and the transition region and was associated with a strong decrease of the thermal conductivity due to the weakly bound grains across the transition region. Additionally, the transition region caused a partial separation of the melt layer from the bulk material, which could ultimately result in a full detachment of the solidified beryllium layers from the bulk armor. Furthermore, solidified beryllium filaments evolved in several locations of the loaded area and are related to the thermally induced crack formation. However, these filaments are not expected to account for an increase of the beryllium net erosion.

  16. IgG4-related kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Lynn D

    2012-11-01

    IgG4-related kidney disease is a term that refers to any form of renal involvement by IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a recently recognized systemic immune-mediated disease. The most common renal manifestation is IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN), which presents as acute or chronic renal insufficiency, renal mass lesions, or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a plasma cell-rich interstitial inflammatory infiltrate with increased IgG4+ plasma cells, along with expansile interstitial fibrosis; tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits are common. IgG4-TIN usually shows a brisk response to immunosuppressive therapy. Glomeruli may be affected by IgG4-RD, usually in the form of membranous glomerulonephritis. Other patterns of glomerular disease include IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and endocapillary or mesangioproliferative immune complex glomerulonephritis. IgG4-related plasma cell arteritis has also been observed in the kidney. This review describes the histopathologic and immunophenotypic patterns of renal involvement by IgG4-RD, with associated clinical, radiographic, and serologic features.

  17. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Donne, M.D.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma facing component of first wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold isostatic pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.

  18. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  19. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  20. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000).

    PubMed

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-06-01

    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (<120 min) personal and area samples were collected during a variety of activities including machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in

  1. Beryllium surface levels in a military ammunition plant.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Wayne T; Leonard, Stephanie; Ott, Darrin; Fuortes, Laurence; Field, William

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the presence of beryllium surface contamination in a U.S. conventional munitions plant as an indicator of possible past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and used these measurements to classify job categories by potential level of exposure. Surface samples were collected from production and nonproduction areas of the plant and at regional industrial reference sites with no known history of beryllium use. Surface samples of premoistened wiping material were analyzed for beryllium mass content using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and results expressed as micrograms of beryllium per 100 square centimeters (micro g/100 cm(2)). Beryllium was detected in 87% of samples collected at the munitions plant and in 72% of the samples collected at regional reference sites. Two munitions plant samples from areas near sanders and grinders were above 3.0 micro g/100 cm(2) (U.S. Department of Energy surface contamination limit). The highest surface level found at the reference sites was 0.44 micro g/100 cm(2). Workers in areas where beryllium-containing alloy tools were sanded or ground, but not other work areas, may have been exposed to airborne beryllium concentrations above levels encountered in other industries where metal work is conducted. Surface sampling provided information useful for categorizing munitions plant jobs by level of past beryllium airborne and skin exposure and, subsequently, for identifying employees within exposure strata to be screened for beryllium sensitization.

  2. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  3. The epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Niklinski, Jacek; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Laudanski, Jerzy; Naumnik, Wojciech; Chyczewski, Lech; Pluygers, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Asbestos has been recognised as a potential health hazard since the 1940s. Of the two major species of asbestos; white asbestos (chrysotile) and blue asbestos (crocidolite), both of which are hazardous. The workers at extraction facilities are at the greatest risk of exposure to asbestos and, therefore, the development of asbestos-related diseases, commonly mesothelioma. However, other individuals at a high risk of exposure include asbestos-cement workers, insulation workers and ship-yard workers. Environmental exposure to asbestos can occur as a result of living in areas either characterised by natural outcrops of asbestos or asbestos-related materials, or those close to asbestos-producing or -using plants. Unfortunately, man-made fibre alternatives to asbestos, such as rock and slag-wool and glass wool, have also been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. A characteristic of mesothelioma is that there is a long latency period (20-30 years) before the signs and symptoms of the disease become apparent. In addition, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult. The use of biological markers, such as tissue polypeptide antigen, may play a useful role in the early detection of the disease in individuals at risk.

  4. Complement related kidney diseases: Recurrence after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Maurizio; Bertoni, Elisabetta

    2016-12-24

    The recurrence of renal disease after renal transplantation is becoming one of the main causes of graft loss after kidney transplantation. This principally concerns some of the original diseases as the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), in particular the MPGN now called C3 glomerulopathy. Both this groups of renal diseases are characterized by congenital (genetic) or acquired (auto-antibodies) modifications of the alternative pathway of complement. These abnormalities often remain after transplantation because they are constitutional and poorly influenced by the immunosuppression. This fact justifies the high recurrence rate of these diseases. Early diagnosis of recurrence is essential for an optimal therapeutically approach, whenever possible. Patients affected by end stage renal disease due to C3 glomerulopathies or to atypical HUS, may be transplanted with extreme caution. Living donor donation from relatives is not recommended because members of the same family may be affected by the same gene mutation. Different therapeutically approaches have been attempted either for recurrence prevention and treatment. The most promising approach is represented by complement inhibitors. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against C5 convertase is the most promising drug, even if to date is not known how long the therapy should be continued and which are the best dosing. These facts face the high costs of the treatment. Eculizumab resistant patients have been described. They could benefit by a C3 convertase inhibitor, but this class of drugs is by now the object of randomized controlled trials.

  5. Complement related kidney diseases: Recurrence after transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Maurizio; Bertoni, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The recurrence of renal disease after renal transplantation is becoming one of the main causes of graft loss after kidney transplantation. This principally concerns some of the original diseases as the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), in particular the MPGN now called C3 glomerulopathy. Both this groups of renal diseases are characterized by congenital (genetic) or acquired (auto-antibodies) modifications of the alternative pathway of complement. These abnormalities often remain after transplantation because they are constitutional and poorly influenced by the immunosuppression. This fact justifies the high recurrence rate of these diseases. Early diagnosis of recurrence is essential for an optimal therapeutically approach, whenever possible. Patients affected by end stage renal disease due to C3 glomerulopathies or to atypical HUS, may be transplanted with extreme caution. Living donor donation from relatives is not recommended because members of the same family may be affected by the same gene mutation. Different therapeutically approaches have been attempted either for recurrence prevention and treatment. The most promising approach is represented by complement inhibitors. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against C5 convertase is the most promising drug, even if to date is not known how long the therapy should be continued and which are the best dosing. These facts face the high costs of the treatment. Eculizumab resistant patients have been described. They could benefit by a C3 convertase inhibitor, but this class of drugs is by now the object of randomized controlled trials. PMID:28058212

  6. Beryllium atom reinvestigated: A comparison between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Alexander, Steve A.; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Oliphant, Nevin; Olsen, Jeppe; Öster, Per; Quiney, Harry M.; Salomonson, Sten; Sundholm, Dage

    1991-04-01

    We compare the theoretical and experimental energies for the ground state of the beryllium atom and investigate possible sources for the small discrepancy of about 60 μhartrees found by Bunge [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1965 (1976); 17, 486(E) (1978)]. Indications that the correlation energy may be underestimated in Bunge's work have been confirmed by a recent, very extensive multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculation. We emphasize that the critical part of the comparison between theory and experiment is the sum of the first and second ionization energies-the third and fourth are known more accurately from theory-and present the theoretical results accordingly. Before a comparison with experimental results can be performed, corrections must be added to account for mass polarization, for the effect of relativity including the Breit interaction and for radiative effects. The previously unknown mass-polarization contribution to the first ionization energy has recently been determined experimentally. Relativity is most important for the 1s electrons and this effect was included in Bunge's work, whereas the relativistic effect on the correlation involving the 2s electrons was neglected. Here, these contributions have been calculated to leading order. A crude estimate of the contribution to the Lamb shift from the 2s electrons is also given. When the revised relativistic corrections are combined with recent results from a very extensive MCHF calculation, the discrepancy in the beryllium ground-state energy is reduced to (10+/-50)μ hartrees.

  7. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms—increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.’s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  8. Study on the effects of nitrilotriproprionic acid and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonate on the fractionation of beryllium in human serum using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Chadi H; Fournier, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to beryllium may cause Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD), a lung disorder initiated by an electrostatic interaction with the MHC class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Molecular studies have found a significant correlation between the electrostatic potential at the HLA-DP surface and disease susceptibility. CBD can therefore be treated by chelation therapy. In this work, we studied the effect of two complexing agents, nitrilotriproprionic acid (NTP) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonate (Tiron), on the fractionation of beryllium in human serum analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results We found the average serum beryllium concentration of fourteen non-exposed individuals to be 0.53 (± 0.14) μg l-1, with 21 (± 3)% of the beryllium mass bound to the low molecular weight fraction (LMW), and 79 (± 3)% bound to the high molecular weight fraction (HMW). The addition of Tiron increased the beryllium mass in the HMW fraction, while NTP was not seen to have any influence on the fractionation of beryllium between the two fractions. NTP was, however, shown to complex 94.5% of the Be mass in the LMW fraction. The beryllium GFAAS detection limit, calculated as three times the standard deviation of 10 replicates of the lowest standard (0.05 μg L-1), was 6.0 (± 0.2) ng L-1. Conclusion The concentration of beryllium or its fractionation in human serum was not affected by sex or smoking habit. On average, three quarters of the beryllium in serum were found in the HMW fraction. Of the two ligands tested, only Tiron was effective in mobilising beryllium under physiological conditions, thus increasing the Be content in the HMW fraction. PMID:18479524

  9. Mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-related dental disease.

    PubMed

    Clague, Jason; Belin, Thomas R; Shetty, Vivek

    2017-06-01

    The authors clarified the causal mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of dental disease encountered in people who habitually use methamphetamine (meth). Using a stratified sampling approach, the authors conducted comprehensive oral examinations and psychosocial assessments for 571 study participants who used meth. Three calibrated dentists, who used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols, characterized the study participants' dental disease. The authors also collected data related to study participants' history of meth use and other attributes linked to dental disease. Study participants who used meth manifested higher rates of xerostomia and caries experience compared with NHANES control participants. Participants who used meth had a higher level of daily consumption of sugary beverages compared with NHANES control participants. Smoking meth did not increase caries experience over other modes of intake. Dental hygiene was a significant determinant of dental health outcomes. Mode of intake and frequency of meth use have a minimal impact on dental health outcomes. Behaviors, such as sugary beverage consumption and poor oral hygiene, better explain dental health outcomes. Having a better understanding of the causal mechanisms of "meth mouth" sets the stage for clinicians to provide more personalized interventions and management of dental disease in people who use meth. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of beryllium and graphite first-walls in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    JET has operated with beryllium as a first-wall material in 1989 and 1990. An initial period with beryllium evaporation onto the original graphite surfaces was followed by operation with beryllium belt-limiter tiles. Beryllium Faraday shields for the ICRH antennae and lower X-point target tiles were installed for experiments in 1990. The use of beryllium has increased the density limit, significantly reduced deconditioning following disruptions, allowed heavy gas fueling for impurity control, reduced the impurity influx from the ICRH antennae so that ICRH-only H modes were possible for the first time and permitted hot-ion plasmas on the outer limiters. This paper describes the primary effects of beryllium which led to these improvements in performance. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-12-31

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface.

  12. Genetic susceptibility testing for beryllium: worker knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Silver, Ken; Kukulka, Gary; Gorniewicz, John; Rayman, Kathleen; Sharp, Richard

    2011-07-01

    We sought to gain insight into workers' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes on the subject of testing for genetic susceptibility to beryllium. Five focus groups were held with 30 current and former beryllium workers and nine family members. Audio recordings were transcribed and assessed by hierarchical coding using an inductive approach. Some workers were unclear about the distinction between genotoxicity and heritability. A key finding is that they perceived the benefits of a positive test result to be related to enhanced autonomous decision-making. The major concern cited by participants was potential abuse of genetic information by employers. Complete financial separation of a prospective testing entity from the employer was seen as crucial. A window of opportunity exists to create regional partnerships for translational research on genetic susceptibility testing. Such partnerships would involve labor, management, public health scientists, primary care professionals, and other stakeholders. They would be critical to identifying testing strategies that maximize worker autonomy along with the public health advantages of genetic testing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Medical bioremediation of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques M; Schloendorn, John; Rittmann, Bruce E; Alvarez, Pedro JJ

    2009-01-01

    Catabolic insufficiency in humans leads to the gradual accumulation of a number of pathogenic compounds associated with age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and macular degeneration. Removal of these compounds is a widely researched therapeutic option, but the use of antibodies and endogenous human enzymes has failed to produce effective treatments, and may pose risks to cellular homeostasis. Another alternative is "medical bioremediation," the use of microbial enzymes to augment missing catabolic functions. The microbial genetic diversity in most natural environments provides a resource that can be mined for enzymes capable of degrading just about any energy-rich organic compound. This review discusses targets for biodegradation, the identification of candidate microbial enzymes, and enzyme-delivery methods. PMID:19358742

  14. Paget's Disease of Bone and Osteoarthritis: Different Yet Related

    MedlinePlus

    ... For more information about Paget’s disease , contact: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: ... drug products. NIH Pub. No. 15-7919 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 ...

  15. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2006-10-31

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  16. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    SciTech Connect

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  17. Electronic bistability in linear beryllium chains.

    PubMed

    Helal, Wissam; Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2009-04-30

    A theoretical investigation on the mixed-valence behavior (bistability) of a series of cationic linear chains composed of beryllium atoms, Be(N)(+) (with N = 6,..., 12), is presented. The calculations were performed at CAS-SCF and MR-CI levels by using an ANO basis set containing 6s4p3d2f orbitals for each atom. Our results show a consistent gradual shift between different classes of mixed-valence compounds as the number of beryllium atoms increases, from class III strong coupling toward class II valence trapped. Indeed, in the largest cases (N > 10), the cationic chains were found to be closer to class I, where the coupling vanishes. The intramolecular electron transfer parameters V(ab), E(a), and E(opt) were calculated for each atomic chain. It is shown that the decrease of V(ab) with increasing N follows an exponential pattern.

  18. Reststrahlen band studies of polycrystalline beryllium oxide.

    PubMed

    Chibuye, T; Ribbing, C G; Wäckelgård, E

    1994-09-01

    New experimental bulk reflectance and emittance spectra from the 9-15-µm reststrahlen band region of polycrystallline beryllium oxide are reported. Note that the polycrystalline material exhibits a dip at 10 pm, which is not present in spectra for single crystals. The possible origins of this feature are discussed including absorption by a surfaceboscillation excited at boundaries of 20-µm crystalline grains. Owing to the reststrahlen band, beryllium oxide is selectively low, emitting in the primary atmospheric window, which makes this material useful for frost prevention when electrical conductors cannot be used. This protection is susceptible to reduction by surface contaminants from air pollution. Using an established acceleration procedure, we simulated such pollution, and the increase in emittance was measured. It was observed that the emissivity increased from 0.31 for a clean surface to 0.36 for a surface heavily polluted by an industrial atmosphere.

  19. Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2012-05-01

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

  20. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed.

  1. Contact dermatitis from beryllium in dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Haberman, A L; Pratt, M; Storrs, F J

    1993-03-01

    An increasing number of metals with the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis have found their way into dental alloys for economic and practical reasons. 2 patients are reported who developed gingivitis adjacent to the Rexillium III alloy in their dental prostheses. Patch testing demonstrated positive reactions to beryllium sulfate, a component of the alloy. Components of dental alloys and the mechanism of the contact dermatitis are discussed.

  2. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  3. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-06-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

  4. Piezoresistance and hole transport in beryllium-doped silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlejohn, M. A.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The resistivity and piezoresistance of p-type silicon doped with beryllium have been studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It is shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gauge factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, while the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  5. Impurity coverage and deuterium inventory of beryllium and carbon first wall components after beryllium operation in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. T.; Coad, J. P.; Lama, F.; Behrisch, R.; Martinelli, A. P.; Mills, B. E.; Pick, M.; Partridge, J.; Simpson, J. C. B.; Zhu, Y. K.

    1990-12-01

    During 1989, following a brief all carbon phase, JET was operated with an evaporated beryllium film on all the plasma facing surfaces and then, in a third phase, with bulk beryllium used for the belt limiters and one set of antenna protection tiles. Subsequent analysis of wall components and long term samples (LTS) using Beta Backscatter and Ion Beam Analysis has been conducted to determine the condition of the First Wall and its deuterium inventory after beryllium operation. Ex-situ analysis of components where deposition occurs during operation shows mixed carbon and beryllium layers with an approximate ratio 1:1 and some localised higher Z components. The deuterium inventory situation is littled changed by the introduction of beryllium. Similar surface levels of deuterium, ~1 × 10 22 atoms m -2, have been seen for both carbon and beryllium belt limiter tiles.

  6. Pathophysiology of age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Giuseppina; Chiappelli, Martina; De Martinis, Massimo; Franco, Vito; Ginaldi, Lia; Guiglia, Rosario; Licastro, Federico; Lio, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    A Symposium regarding the Pathophysiology of Successful and Unsuccessful Ageing was held in Palermo, Italy on 7-8 April 2009. Three lectures from that Symposium by G. Campisi, L. Ginaldi and F. Licastro are here summarized. Ageing is a complex process which negatively impacts on the development of various bodily systems and its ability to function. A long life in a healthy, vigorous, youthful body has always been one of humanity's greatest dreams. Thus, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of age-related diseases is urgently required to improve our understanding of maintaining good health in the elderly and to program possible therapeutic intervention. PMID:19737378

  7. Modelling the erosion of beryllium carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehine, M.; Björkas, C.; Vörtler, K.; Nordlund, K.; Airila, M. I.

    2011-07-01

    Redeposition of beryllium eroded from main chamber plasma facing components of ITER onto the divertor material carbon creates a mixed material, beryllium carbide Be 2C, whose interaction with the plasma is not well known. In this study, we have investigated the erosion of Be 2C by deuterium using molecular dynamics simulations and ERO impurity modelling. We found that beryllium sputters preferentially over carbon and identified the sputtering mechanism in the ion energy range 10-100 eV to be both physical and swift chemical sputtering. In addition to single atoms, different types of small molecules/clusters were sputtered, the most frequently occurring molecules being BeD, Be 2D, and CD. The sputtering threshold was found to lie between 10 and 15 eV. The MD sputtering yields were used in plasma impurity simulations, serving as a replacement for input data obtained with TRIM. This changes the accumulation rate of impurity Be in the divertor region compared to previous estimates.

  8. [Immunological aspects of asbestos-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica

    2009-11-01

    Asbestos is a generic name for a group of silicate minerals. The most common are chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite and anthophyllite. Exposure to asbestos may cause asbestos-related non-malignant diseases of the lung and pleura, including asbestosis, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis, small airway disease, and malignant diseases such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Inhaled asbestos fibres deposit in the distal regions of the respiratory system where they interact with epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, and trigger active immunological response which leads to a slowly progressing lung fibrosis. Asbestos may affect immunocompetent cells and induce malignant transformation of mesothelial cells. It is still not clear whether asbestos causes mesothelioma directly or indirectly. There is a general opinion that malignant mesothelioma is a complex tumour that results from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations over many years. There is no specific antibody for malignant mesothelioma as yet which could act as a single diagnostic tool. Recent studies have demonstrated that asbestos acts on peripheral T cells as superantigen and that in malignant mesothelioma patients there is an overexpression of the Bcl-2 gene on peripheral CD4+ T cells. These findings contribute to better understanding of biological effects of asbestos in respect to the duration and intensity of exposure.

  9. Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is an early ‘pre-clinical’ sign of Parkinson's disease (PD). The present review is a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of such dysfunction in PD and related disorders. The olfactory bulb is implicated in the dysfunction, since only those syndromes with olfactory bulb pathology exhibit significant smell loss. The role of dopamine in the production of olfactory system pathology is enigmatic, as overexpression of dopaminergic cells within the bulb's glomerular layer is a common feature of PD and most animal models of PD. Damage to cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems is likely involved, since such damage is most marked in those diseases with the most smell loss. When compromised, these systems, which regulate microglial activity, can influence the induction of localized brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and cytosolic disruption of cellular processes. In monogenetic forms of PD, olfactory dysfunction is rarely observed in asymptomatic gene carriers, but is present in many of those that exhibit the motor phenotype. This suggests that such gene-related influences on olfaction, when present, take time to develop and depend upon additional factors, such as those from aging, other genes, formation of α-synuclein- and tau-related pathology,or lowered thresholds to oxidative stress from toxic insults. The limited data available suggest that the physiological determinants of the early changes in PD-related olfactory function are likely multifactorial and may include the same determinants as those responsible for a number of other non-motor symptoms of PD, such as dysautonomia and sleep disturbances. PMID:22192366

  10. Beryllium deposition on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor first mirrors: Layer morphology and influence on mirror reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    De Temmerman, G.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Nishijima, D.; Seraydarian, R.; Schmid, K.; Kost, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Marot, L.

    2007-10-15

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of the optical diagnostic systems in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Reliability of these systems may be affected by mirror reflectivity changes induced by erosion and/or deposition of impurities (carbon, beryllium). The present study aims to assess the effect of beryllium (Be) deposition on the reflectivity of metallic mirrors and to collect data on the optical quality of these layers in terms of morphology, roughness, etc. Mirrors from molybdenum and copper were exposed in the PISCES-B linear plasma device to collect eroded material from graphite and beryllium targets exposed to beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma. After exposure, relative reflectivity of the mirrors was measured and different surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the properties of the deposited layers. Be layers formed in PISCES-B exhibit high levels of porosity which makes the reflectivity of the Be layers much lower than the reflectivity of pure Be. It is found that if Be deposition occurs on ITER first mirrors, the reflectivity of the coated mirrors will strongly depend on the layer morphology, which in turn depends on the deposition conditions.

  11. IgG4-related skin disease.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Y; Yagi, H; Yanaguchi, H; Majima, Y; Kasuya, A; Ito, T; Maekawa, M; Hashizume, H

    2014-11-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently established clinical entity characterized by high levels of circulating IgG4, and tissue infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells. IgG4-RD exhibits a distinctive fibroinflammatory change involving multiple organs, such as the pancreas and salivary and lacrimal glands. The skin lesions of IgG4-RD have been poorly characterized and may stem not only from direct infiltration of plasma cells but also from IgG4-mediated inflammation. Based on the documented cases together with ours, we categorized the skin lesions into seven subtypes: (1) cutaneous plasmacytosis (multiple papulonodules or indurations on the trunk and proximal part of the limbs), (2) pseudolymphoma and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (plaques and papulonodules mainly on the periauricular, cheek and mandible regions), (3) Mikulicz disease (palpebral swelling, sicca syndrome and exophthalmos), (4) psoriasis-like eruption (strikingly mimicking psoriasis vulgaris), (5) unspecified maculopapular or erythematous eruptions, (6) hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura (bilateral asymmetrical palpable purpuric lesions on the lower extremities) and urticarial vasculitis (prolonged urticarial lesions occasionally with purpura) and (7) ischaemic digit (Raynaud phenomenon and digital gangrene). It is considered that subtypes 1-3 are induced by direct infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells, while the other types (4-7) are caused by secondary mechanisms. IgG4-related skin disease is defined as IgG4(+) plasma-cell-infiltrating skin lesions that form plaques, nodules or tumours (types 1-3), but may manifest secondary lesions caused by IgG4(+) plasma cells and/or IgG4 (types 4-7).

  12. Functionally Graded Nanophase Beryllium/Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Beryllium, beryllium alloys, beryllium carbide, and carbon are the ingredients of a class of nanophase Be/Be2C/C composite materials that can be formulated and functionally graded to suit a variety of applications. In a typical case, such a composite consists of a first layer of either pure beryllium or a beryllium alloy, a second layer of B2C, and a third layer of nanophase sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. The three layers are interconnected through interpenetrating spongelike structures. These Be/Be2C/C composite materials are similar to Co/WC/diamond functionally graded composite materials, except that (1) W and Co are replaced by Be and alloys thereof and (2) diamond is replaced by sintered carbon derived from fullerenes and nanotubes. (Optionally, one could form a Be/Be2C/diamond composite.) Because Be is lighter than W and Co, the present Be/Be2C/C composites weigh less than do the corresponding Co/WC/diamond composites. The nanophase carbon is almost as hard as diamond. WC/Co is the toughest material. It is widely used for drilling, digging, and machining. However, the fact that W is a heavy element (that is, has high atomic mass and mass density) makes W unattractive for applications in which weight is a severe disadvantage. Be is the lightest tough element, but its toughness is less than that of WC/Co alloy. Be strengthened by nanophase carbon is much tougher than pure or alloy Be. The nanophase carbon has an unsurpassed strength-to-weight ratio. The Be/Be2C/C composite materials are especially attractive for terrestrial and aerospace applications in which there are requirements for light weight along with the high strength and toughness of the denser Co/WC/diamond materials. These materials could be incorporated into diverse components, including cutting tools, bearings, rocket nozzles, and shields. Moreover, because Be and C are effective as neutron moderators, Be/Be2C/C composites could be attractive for some nuclear applications.

  13. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease.

  14. [IgG4-related systemic disease/systemic IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2010-05-01

    IgG4-related systemic disease/systemic IgG4-related disease has been established as a new systemic disease entity. It is characterized by high serum IgG4 concentrations and abundant IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration in the involved organs. The chronic inflammation can attack lacrimal glands, salivary glands, the thyroid, lung, pancreas, kidney, and prostate. The concept includes Mikulicz's disease, Riedel's thyroiditis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary pseudotumor, autoimmune pancreatitis, a part of tubulointerstitial nephritis, and chronic prostatitis. It is important to note that these lesions can occur at different times and sites. So, it is necessary to reconfirm the disease definition and entity in each specialized field. The diagnosis of this disease is confirmed by the above serological and histopathological characteristics. There are clinical diagnostic criteria of Mikulicz's disease (the Japanese Medical Society for Sjögren's Syndrome) and autoimmune pancreatitis (the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Japan Pancreas Society). They are convenient and useful. Glucocorticoid improves the physical abnormalities, and the initial dose of prednisolone is 30 mg/day, tapered in 5-mg reductions every two weeks. Nevertheless, there are some cases unable to achieve complete remission.

  15. Rare disease relations through common genes and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Novo, Sara; Pazos, Florencio; Chagoyen, Monica

    2016-06-01

    ODCs (Orphan Disease Connections), available at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/odcs, is a novel resource to explore potential molecular relations between rare diseases. These molecular relations have been established through the integration of disease susceptibility genes and human protein-protein interactions. The database currently contains 54,941 relations between 3032 diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beryllium metal II. a review of the available toxicity data.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation

  17. Beryllium Metal II. A Review of the Available Toxicity Data

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Beryllium metal was classified in Europe collectively with beryllium compounds, e.g. soluble salts. Toxicological equivalence was assumed despite greatly differing physicochemical properties. Following introduction of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, beryllium metal was classified as individual substance and more investigational efforts to appropriately characterize beryllium metal as a specific substance apart from soluble beryllium compounds was required. A literature search on toxicity of beryllium metal was conducted, and the resulting literature compiled together with the results of a recently performed study package into a comprehensive data set. Testing performed under Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice concluded that beryllium metal was neither a skin irritant, an eye irritant, a skin sensitizer nor evoked any clinical signs of acute oral toxicity; discrepancies between the current legal classification of beryllium metal in the European Union (EU) and the experimental results were identified. Furthermore, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity were discussed in the context of the literature data and the new experimental data. It was concluded that beryllium metal is unlikely to be a classical nonthreshold mutagen. Effects on DNA repair and morphological cell transformation were observed but need further investigation to evaluate their relevance in vivo. Animal carcinogenicity studies deliver evidence of carcinogenicity in the rat; however, lung overload may be a species-specific confounding factor in the existing studies, and studies in other species do not give convincing evidence of carcinogenicity. Epidemiology has been intensively discussed over the last years and has the problem that the studies base on the same US beryllium production population and do not distinguish between metal and soluble compounds. It is noted that the correlation

  18. Obesity-Related Digestive Diseases and Their Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Su Youn

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing medical and public health problem worldwide. Many digestive diseases are related to obesity. In this article, the current state of our knowledge of obesity-related digestive diseases, their pathogenesis, and the medical and metabolic consequences of weight reduction are discussed. Obesity-related digestive diseases include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal cancer, colon polyp and cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis C-related disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstone, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Although obesity-related esophageal diseases are associated with altered mechanical and humoral factors, other obesity-related digestive diseases seem to be associated with obesity-induced altered circulating levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. The relationship between functional gastrointestinal disease and obesity has been debated. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of the obesity-related digestive diseases, including pathophysiology, obesity-related risk, and medical and metabolic effects of weight reduction in obese subjects. PMID:27890867

  19. Obesity-Related Digestive Diseases and Their Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Nam, Su Youn

    2016-11-29

    Obesity is a growing medical and public health problem worldwide. Many digestive diseases are related to obesity. In this article, the current state of our knowledge of obesity-related digestive diseases, their pathogenesis, and the medical and metabolic consequences of weight reduction are discussed. Obesity-related digestive diseases include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, colon polyp and cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis C-related disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstone, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Although obesity-related esophageal diseases are associated with altered mechanical and humoral factors, other obesity-related digestive diseases seem to be associated with obesity-induced altered circulating levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. The relationship between functional gastrointestinal disease and obesity has been debated. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of the obesity-related digestive diseases, including pathophysiology, obesity-related risk, and medical and metabolic effects of weight reduction in obese subjects.

  20. Beryllium fluoride exchange rate accelerated by Mg²⁺ as discovered by ¹⁹F NMR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yixiang; Mao, Xi-an; Liu, Maili; Jiang, Ling

    2015-01-08

    Beryllium fluoride is widely used as a phosphoryl analogue in macromolecular studies, which are not only fluoride-sensitive but also magnesium-dependent. The beryllium fluorides are a mixture of different species including BeF3(-) and BeF4(2-) exchanging under thermodynamic equilibrium in neutral aqueous solutions. In the cases of mimicking phosphate group transfer, both beryllium fluoride and the magnesium ion are generally needed. However, the impact of magnesium on the bioactivity of beryllium fluoride is not clear. We have found by (19)F NMR spectroscopy that Mg(2+) can severely affect the chemical exchange kinetics between BeF3(-) and BeF4(2-). When the F(-) concentration is relatively low, the presence of 10.0 mM Mg(2+) can accelerate the exchange rate 3-4 fold. However, when the F(-) concentration is relatively high, the Mg(2+) effect on the chemical exchange vanishes. On the basis of these findings, we proposed a possible mechanism that BeF4(2-) and Mg(2+) form an ion pair that affects the distribution of beryllium fluoride species and thus the activity in the solution.

  1. Kidney disease and aging: A reciprocal relation.

    PubMed

    Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are overrepresented in elderly patients. This provides specific challenges for the treatment, as the start of dialysis in vulnerable elderly patients may be associated with a rapid decline in functional performance. However, prognosis in elderly patients with ESRD is quite variable and related to the presence of comorbidity and geriatric impairments. The decision to start dialysis in elderly patients should always be based on shared decision making, which may be aided by the use of prediction models which should however not be used to withhold dialysis treatment. The treatment of ESRD in elderly patients should be based on a multidimensional treatment plan with a role for active rehabilitation. Moreover, there also appears to be a reciprocal relationship between aging and CKD, as the presence of geriatric complications is also high in younger patients with ESRD. This has led to the hypothesis of a premature aging process associated with CKD, resulting in different phenotypes such as premature vascular aging, muscle wasting, bone disease, cognitive dysfunction and frailty. Prevention and treatment of this phenotype is based on optimal treatment of CKD, associated comorbidities, and lifestyle factors by established treatments. For the future, interventions, which are developed to combat the aging process in general, might also have relevance for the treatment of patients with CKD, but their role should always be investigated in adequately powered clinical trials, as results obtained in experimental trials may not be directly translatable to the clinical situation of elderly patients. In the meantime, physical exercise is a very important intervention, by improving both physical capacity and functional performance, as well as by a direct effect on the aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence relating dietary sodium to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Michael H

    2006-06-01

    The expectation that dietary sodium intake might influence cardiovascular disease occurrence has been based upon its impact on blood pressure (BP). Solid experimental data confirms the ability of large (75-100 mmols/24 hours) changes in dietary sodium to reduce pressure by, on average, mid-low single digits. However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in BP response. In addition, sodium restriction generates other, sometimes undesirable effects, including increased insulin resistance, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and increased sympathetic nerve activity. The health effects of salt restriction are, therefore, the sum of these recognized, and probably other unrecognized, intermediate effects. Ideally, salt restriction would be tested in a randomized clinical trial. In its absence, there are 9 observational studies linking baseline sodium intake, estimated by either 24 hour urine or dietary intake, to morbidity and mortality. The results have been inconsistent. The only study in hypertensive patients, there was an inverse relation of sodium to cardiovascular outcome. In a Japanese study, stroke incidence was increased among males with the highest salt intake. Two studies found a direct relation of sodium intake to cardiovascular mortality in an obese minority of the group studied. Taken together, these results suggest, not surprisingly given the genetic, behavioral, and environmental variety of humankind, that heterogeneity best describes the relation of sodium intake to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In short, the available data provides no support for any universal recommendation of a particular level of dietary sodium.

  3. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  4. Beryllium sensitivity among workers at a Norwegian aluminum smelter.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, A M; Vik, R; Behrens, C; Drabløs, P A; Espevik, T

    2010-07-01

    Sensitivity to beryllium was investigated among workers at an aluminum smelter in Norway as a consequence of the findings in an occupational exposure survey. Three hundred and sixty-two employees and 31 reference persons were tested for sensitization to beryllium with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) based on specifications by the US Department of Energy in 2001. The results are reported as abnormal, borderline, or normal. One person (0.28%) from the aluminum smelter was found to have abnormal results in two separate blood samples and is sensitized to beryllium. Three other persons had one abnormal test that was not confirmed by a second test. One person in the reference group had one abnormal and one normal test result. No borderline samples were detected. None of the employees with one or more abnormal sample results had pot room asthma. The sensitized individual worked in a Soederberg line in 1972-1974. The beryllium concentration in the work atmosphere is estimated to have been similar as today (0.1-0.3 microg/m(3)), but work routines, etc. would cause higher total exposures. Only one sensitized person of 362 is in line with what is found in other studies in the aluminum industry. The low number, compared with the beryllium handling industry, may be attributable to lower work atmosphere concentrations, beryllium speciation effects, or use of respiratory protection equipment. Pot room asthma does not appear to be associated with beryllium sensitization. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Performance of a beryllium copper nonmagnetic drill collar alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlevey, F.

    1984-09-01

    Laboratory characterization and field testing show the advantages of beryllium copper Alloy 25 for use in non-magnetic drill collars, stabilizers, and subs. Beryllium copper is resistant to stress corrosion cracking failures at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and dissolved chloride solutions. The alloy is more resistant than stainless steel to galling failure in threaded joints.

  6. Simulating beryllium electrorefining with AspenPlus{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Polston, C.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Abeln, S.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Corle, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight, high strength metal with excellent thermal properties. It is a high cost material that has applications in electronics, the space program, and the defense industry. Beryllium is irreplaceable in several defense applications and therefore the US government maintains a reserve supply of several grades of the metal. However, the current defense industry (the largest metallic beryllium user) use has dwindled to the point that the only metallic beryllium producer in the US, Brush Wellman Inc., continually evaluates the profitability of continued production. The production dilemma has been compounded by health concerns associated with the generation of beryllium fines during production. An electrorefining method, previously developed, shows promise for recycling low purity beryllium scraps and produces a high grade material. Recycling and purification can reduce costs and waste disposal problems and increase the beryllium reserves in the event that Brush Wellman discontinues production. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how to use a commercially available process simulator for improving a process to electrorefine both scrap and low purity beryllium into a high purity product.

  7. 2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW IN ROOM 111, ATOMIC ABSORPTION BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS LABORATORY. AIR FILTERS AND SWIPES ARE DISSOLVED WITH ACIDS AND THE REMAINING RESIDUES ARE SUSPENDED IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTION. THE SOLUTION IS PROCESSED THROUGH THE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER TO DETECT THE PRESENCE AND LEVELS OF BERYLLIUM. - Rocky Flats Plant, Health Physics Laboratory, On Central Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

  9. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

  10. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  11. Trace level determination of beryllium in natural and flavored mineral waters after pre-concentration using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in natural and flavored mineral water samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) after pre-concentration based on the complexation of Be(+2) with a mixture of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) plus morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentaoxyflavone) and adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorbed complex was eluted with 1.5 ml of 2.0 M HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. After adding 1.5 ml of 2 M HNO(3) and centrifuging, Be in acid solution was determined by FAAS. To remove a number of metals present in water, EDTA was used as a chelating agent. Beryllium in mineral water samples was pre-concentrated by 500-fold, taking 750 ml as initial sample and 1.5 ml as the final volume. The relative standard deviations were sufficiently low for practical purposes and recoveries were up to 85%. Spiking experiments were performed in real samples to establish accuracy and recoveries. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively. Twenty samples were analyzed for their beryllium content using optimum parameters. The highest concentration of beryllium was found to be 0.94 ± 0.15 ng ml(-1) in a natural mineral water, while beryllium was not detected in five samples.

  12. Estimating occupational beryllium exposure from compliance monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Michele P; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium is widespread and is a health risk. The objectives of this study were to develop plausible models to estimate occupational airborne beryllium exposure. Compliance monitoring data were obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 12,148 personal measurements of beryllium exposure from 1979 to 2005. Industry codes were maintained as reported or collapsed based on the number of measurements per cell of a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Probability of exposure was predicted based on year, industry, job, and sampling duration. In these models, probability of exposure decreased over time, was highest in full-shift personal samples, and varied with industry and job. The probability of exposure was calculated using 6 JEMs, each providing similar rankings of the likelihood of non-negligible exposure to beryllium. These statistical models, with expert appraisal, are suitable for the assessment of the probability of elevated occupational exposure to beryllium.

  13. Release of beryllium into artificial airway epithelial lining fluid.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Inhaled beryllium particles that deposit in the lung airway lining fluid may dissolve and interact with immune-competent cells resulting in sensitization. As such, solubilization of 17 beryllium-containing materials (ore, hydroxide, metal, oxide, alloys, and process intermediates) was investigated using artificial human airway epithelial lining fluid. The maximum beryllium release in 7 days was 11.78% (from a beryl ore melter dust), although release from most materials was < 1%. Calculated dissolution half-times ranged from 30 days (reduction furnace material) to 74,000 days (hydroxide). Despite rapid mechanical clearance, billions of beryllium ions may be released in the respiratory tract via dissolution in airway lining fluid. Beryllium-containing particles that deposit in the respiratory tract dissolve in artificial lung epithelial lining fluid, thereby providing ions for absorption in the lung and interaction with immune-competent cells in the respiratory tract.

  14. Method for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Skulina, Kenneth M.; Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Alford, Craig S.

    2003-02-18

    Beryllium-based multilayer structures and a process for fabricating beryllium-based multilayer mirrors, useful in the wavelength region greater than the beryllium K-edge (111 .ANG. or 11.1 nm). The process includes alternating sputter deposition of beryllium and a metal, typically from the fifth row of the periodic table, such as niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), ruthenium (Ru), and rhodium (Rh). The process includes not only the method of sputtering the materials, but the industrial hygiene controls for safe handling of beryllium. The mirrors made in accordance with the process may be utilized in soft x-ray and extreme-ultraviolet projection lithography, which requires mirrors of high reflectivity (>60%) for x-rays in the range of 60-140 .ANG. (60-14.0 nm).

  15. Modelling of tritium permeation through beryllium as plasma facing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardinucci, L.

    1998-10-01

    Due to a number of technological properties and, first of all, to a low atomic number, beryllium will be used as plasma facing material in ITER. Tritium control, including both the permeation through and inventory in the beryllium, is of great importance for the safety of the device. Experimental data have shown that, under ITER-like plasma conditions, the plasma facing surfaces of the beryllium develop high porosity (bubbles) and become saturated with bubbles, leading to a strong uptake of tritium and deuterium ions almost independent of the incident flux. At fluxes typical of ITER, surface erosion of beryllium should be also taken into account. A computational model has been used with the computer code TMAP4 to reproduce the available experimental data concerning hydrogen ion implantation in beryllium. The results described in this paper refer to the first wall of the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket (HCPB) Test Blanket Module (TBM-I).

  16. Photodetachment spectroscopy of the beryllium oxide anion, BeO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaritolo, Kyle J.; Dermer, Amanda R.; Green, Mallory L.; Gardner, Adrian M.; Heaven, Michael C.

    2017-02-01

    The X2Σ+ →X1Σ+ anion to neutral ground state photodetachment of BeO- has been studied by means of photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy in a newly constructed apparatus. Vibrational intervals, rotational constants, and the electron detachment threshold of BeO- were determined for the first time. The small moment of inertia of beryllium oxide allowed for the observation of partially resolved rotational contours. Analyses of these contours provided evidence of several detachment channels resulting from changes in molecular rotational angular momenta of Δ N = 0, ±1, ±2, and ±3. The relative intensities of these detachment channels were found to be a function of the electron kinetic energy. Experimental results are compared to the predictions of high level ab initio calculations.

  17. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  18. Neutron beams from protons on beryllium.

    PubMed

    Bewley, D K; Meulders, J P; Octave-Prignot, M; Page, B C

    1980-09-01

    Measurements of dose rate and penetration in water have been made for neutron beams produced by 30--75 MeV protons on beryllium. The effects of Polythene filters added on the target side of the collimator have also been studied. A neutron beam comparable with a photon beam from a 4--8 MeV linear accelerator can be produced with p/Be neutrons plus 5 cm Polythene filtrations, with protons in the range 50--75 MeV. This is a more economical method than use of the d/Be reaction.

  19. Plasma transferred arc deposition of beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, K.; Bartram, B.; Withers, J.; Storm, R.; Massarello, J.

    2006-12-01

    The exceptional properties of beryllium (Be), including low density and high elastic modulus, make it the material of choice in many defense and aerospace applications. However, health hazards associated with Be material handling limit the applications that are suited for its use. Innovative solutions that enable continued use of Be in critical applications while addressing worker health concerns are highly desirable. Plasma transferred arc solid free-form fabrication is being evaluated as a Be fabrication technique for civilian and military space-based components. Initial experiments producing Be deposits are reported here. Deposit shape, microstructure, and mechanical properties are reported.

  20. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ...

  1. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  2. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  4. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ...

  5. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ...

  6. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  7. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11166 - What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary beryllium production facilities? 63.11166 Section 63.11166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Primary Beryllium Production Facilities § 63.11166 What General Provisions apply to primary beryllium production facilities? (a) You must...

  9. 40 CFR 468.20 - Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... beryllium copper forming subcategory. 468.20 Section 468.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Beryllium Copper Forming Subcategory § 468.20 Applicability; description of the beryllium copper forming... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from the forming of beryllium copper alloys. ...

  10. [Effect of beryllium on the morphology and chemical elements of cell membrane of Porphyromonas gingivalis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-hong; Huang, Rui; Lin, Hua; Li, Qing-yan; Zheng, Xin-ying; Lv, Qiao; Gao, Ning

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of beryllium (Be²⁺) on the morphology and chemical elements on cell membrane of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), thus to explore the microbiologic mechanisms of periodontal diseases. P. gingivalis was put into the culture with different Be²⁺ concentrations and anaerobically cultured for 24 hours. The morphologic change of P. gingivalis was observed under microscope and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and chemical elements of cell membrane were observed by X-ray energy dispersion spectrum (EDS). The data was statistically analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. The morphology of P.gingivalis altered obviously at the concentration greater than 2.5 mg/L, which was manifested by the sharpness of border and depression on the surface. With the increased concentration of beryllium, the Na and Ca peak descended on the surface of P. gingivalis. Beryllium can interfere with the morphology of P. gingivalis, and lead to the changes of chemical elements on cell membrane of P. gingivalis, which may result in a disturbance in the microecologic balance of subgingival microbes and eventually contribute to periodontal diseases.

  11. Asbestos-related pulmonary disease in boilermakers

    SciTech Connect

    Demers, R.Y.; Neale, A.V.; Robins, T.; Herman, S.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Boilermakers are skilled building tradesmen who construct, repair, and dismantle boilers. The present study reports on the evaluation of members of a Michigan boilermaker's union for the presence of signs and symptoms of chronic pulmonary disease. Study variables included standardized evaluations of chest x-ray findings, pulmonary function testing, physical examination, and respiratory symptoms. An overall participation rate of 69% was achieved. A non-participant survey identified no significant differences between participants and non-participants in dyspnea, cough, age, or smoking history. Among participants with greater than 20 years experience in the trade, the mean FVC was 91% of predicted; the FEV1 was 86% of predicted; 25% showed at least a 1/0 profusion of interstitial markings on chest x-ray; 30% had bilateral pleural abnormalities; and 52% had audible inspiratory rales on physical examination. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at one second both decreased with years in the trade. Chest x-ray findings of interstitial fibrosis and pleural plaques were related to ten or more years in the trade, as were respiratory symptoms of pulmonary rales, wheeze, and dyspnea.

  12. Sepsis in alcohol-related liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gustot, Thierry; Fernandez, Javier; Szabo, Gyongyi; Albillos, Agustin; Louvet, Alexandre; Jalan, Rajiv; Moreau, Richard; Moreno, Christophe

    2017-06-22

    Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) remains the most important cause of death due to alcohol. Infections, particularly bacterial infections, are one of the most frequent and severe complications of advanced ALDs, such as alcoholic cirrhosis and severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH). The specific mechanisms responsible for this altered host defence are yet to be deciphered. The aim of the present study is to review the current knowledge of infectious complications in ALD and its pathophysiological mechanisms, distinguishing the role of alcohol consumption and the contribution of different forms of ALD. To date, corticosteroids are the only treatment with proven efficacy in sAH, but their impact on the occurrence of infections remains controversial. The combination of an altered host defence and corticosteroid treatment in sAH has been suggested as a cause of opportunistic fungal and viral infections. A high level of suspicion with systematic screening and prompt, adequate treatment are warranted to improve outcomes in these patients. Prophylactic or preemptive strategies in this high-risk population might be a preferable option, because of the high short-term mortality rate despite adequate therapies. However, these strategies should be assessed in well-designed trials before clinical implementation. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  14. Estimate of beryllium critical point on the basis of correspondence between the critical and the Zeno-line parameters.

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, E M

    2012-12-20

    The critical-point coordinates of Beryllium have been calculated by means of recently found similarity relations between the Zeno-line and the critical-point parameters. We have used the NVT MC simulations and pseudopotential theory to calculate the Zeno-line parameters together with the data of isobaric measurements to construct the liquid branch of Beryllium binodal. The critical-point coordinates, determined this way, are lower than earlier estimates. We have shown that these previous estimates are in evident contradiction with available measurements data. Present investigation can resolve this contradiction if the measurements data are supposed to be reliable.

  15. High Precision Spectroscopy of Neutral Beryllium-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Chui Yu; Williams, Will

    2015-05-01

    We report on the progress of high precision spectroscopy of the 2s2p singlet and triplet states in beryllium-9. Our goal is to improve the experimental precision on the energy levels of the 2s2p triplet J = 0, 1, and 2 states by a factor of 500, 100, and 500 respectively in order to delineate various theoretical predictions. The goal for the 2s2p singlet (J = 1) state is to improve the experimental precision on the energy level by a factor of 600 as a test of quantum electrodynamics. Our experimental setup consists of an oven capable of 1400 C that produces a collimated beam of neutral beryllium-9. The triplet states are probed with a 455 nm ECDL stabilized to a tellurium-210 line. The singlet state is probed with 235nm light from a frequency quadrupled titanium sapphire laser, where the frequency doubled light at 470 nm is stabilized to another tellurium-210 line. We also present our progress on improving the absolute accuracy of our frequency reference by using an ultrastable/low drift fiber coupled cavity.

  16. Spall fracture of beryllium under shockwave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokov, Viktor; Arinin, Vladimir; Kryuchkov, Dmitry; Ogorodnikov, Vladimir; Raevsky, Viktor; Panov, Konstantin; Peshkov, Viktor; Tyupanova, Olga

    2012-03-01

    We present investigations of beryllium spall fracture with samples of dimensions ø 65×7 mm, which were made via vacuum hot pressing. Samples were loaded at normal incidence by a detonation wave of the explosive charge of TG 5/5 composition, 7, 14 and 30 mm in thickness, which gave shockwave stresses of 21-25 GPa within the sample. Spall fractures formed as the sample unloading at an air gap. A velocity profile was measured at the free boundary using VISAR laser interferometer, a spall layer thickness was measured with two-frame impulse X-ray radiography, and the shockwave profile was measured via a manganin-based gauge in a fluoroplastic base in the course of deceleration of a spall layer and of a basic part of beryllium. Hugoniot dynamic yield strength (YHE) and spall strength (σP) were measure as 0.69-0.73 GPa and 0.85±0.03 GPa, respectively, at a strain rate of ɛ ~104 s-1 in the unloading part of the incident pulse. A weak dependence between the spall layer thickness and HE layer thickness was recorded in tests. The weak dependence is not described through existing damage models and points to the need to develop more sophisticated models.

  17. Peculiarities of spall fracture of beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokov, Viktor; Arinin, V.; Kryuchkov, D.; Malyshev, A.; Ogorodnikov, V.; Panov, K.; Peshkov, V.; Raevsky, V.

    2013-06-01

    Authors of this work performed investigations of spall fracture in a beryllium sample with diameter 90 mm and thickness 20 mm when loading HE charge made of TG 5/5 with thicknesses of 12 and 100 mm, HMX with thickness of 100 mm by detonation wave. Spall fracture was formed in the sample during its release into air gap. Laser interferometer Visar was used to measure velocity profile at the free boundary, thickness of the spall layer was measured by the technique of two-frame pulse X-ray radiography, the manganin gauge technique was used to measure profile of the shock-wave pulse in the fluoroplastic base when decelerating the beryllium spall layer, the technique of electrocontact gauge was used for determination of location of the spall layer at two times. When TG 5/5 thicknesses were 12 and 100 mm, it was revealed that the spall layer thickness, which was measured after its traveling the distance of 8 mm, was nearly unchanged. It was equal to 1.8 and 2.1 mm, respectively. It was observed in the test with a charge made of HMX that, depending on traveled distance x, thickness of the spall layer δ under the condition of absence of tensile stresses is continuously decreasing.

  18. Contact allergy to beryllium chloride: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Fernando; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Cuesta, Laura; Latorre, Nuria; Monteagudo, Almudena

    2011-02-01

    Isolated cases of allergic contact dermatitis, gingivitis and stomatitis caused by beryllium have been previously reported. We have been able to study a series of 12 patients with patch test reactions to beryllium chloride. The study was aimed at defining the clinical and patch testing characteristics in this group of patients, and determining whether some were delayed elicitation reactions or late reactions of active sensitizations by patch testing. We performed a 5-year retrospective study of patients tested with a metal series, and studied a subgroup who showed reactions to beryllium chloride. A total of 1799 patients were patch tested, 62 of whom were also tested with a specific metal series; 12 of them reacted to beryllium chloride. Eight of the 12 patients showed reactions to other metals. Based on the time of positive reaction to beryllium chloride, three patterns emerged: (i) 3 patients showed positive reactions on D2-D4; (ii) 6 patients showed positive reactions between D7 and D10; and (iii) 3 patients showed positive reactions later than D10. Contact allergy to beryllium chloride may not be as unusual as the literature suggests. In order to avoid undetected contact allergies, we recommend performing later readings, between D7 and D10, whenever patch testing is performed with beryllium chloride. Active sensitization may occur. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Beryllium nitrate inhibits fibroblast migration to disrupt epimorphic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Adam B; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-10-01

    Epimorphic regeneration proceeds with or without formation of a blastema, as observed for the limb and skin, respectively. Inhibition of epimorphic regeneration provides a means to interrogate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate it. In this study, we show that exposing amputated limbs to beryllium nitrate disrupts blastema formation and causes severe patterning defects in limb regeneration. In contrast, exposing full-thickness skin wounds to beryllium only causes a delay in skin regeneration. By transplanting full-thickness skin from ubiquitous GFP-expressing axolotls to wild-type hosts, we demonstrate that beryllium inhibits fibroblast migration during limb and skin regeneration in vivo Moreover, we show that beryllium also inhibits cell migration in vitro using axolotl and human fibroblasts. Interestingly, beryllium did not act as an immunostimulatory agent as it does in Anurans and mammals, nor did it affect keratinocyte migration, proliferation or re-epithelialization, suggesting that the effect of beryllium is cell type-specific. While we did not detect an increase in cell death during regeneration in response to beryllium, it did disrupt cell proliferation in mesenchymal cells. Taken together, our data show that normal blastema organogenesis cannot occur without timely infiltration of local fibroblasts and highlights the importance of positional information to instruct pattern formation during regeneration. In contrast, non-blastemal-based skin regeneration can occur despite early inhibition of fibroblast migration and cell proliferation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended.

  1. [Adipocytokines and life style-related disease].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Iichiro

    2003-11-01

    The adipose tissue produces and secretes many bioactive substances, which we conceptualized as Adipocytokines (Nature Medicine 1996). Adiponectin is a novel adipocytokine, which we identified by screening the adipose-specific genes from human fat. Adiponectin is a secreted protein, the concentration of which reaches as high as 5-15 micrograms/ml in human plasma. Adiponectin mRNA is expressed exclusively in adipose tissues. The adiponectin mRNAs and its plasma levels are reduced in obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies in humans and monkeys, and several recent studies from others revealed that adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone. Furthermore, adiponectin exhibited anti-atherogenic moieties, decreasing the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells through inhibiting the expression levels of adhesion molecules. It reduced the lipid accumulation in macrophages through reducing the expression of scavenger receptor, and inhibited the cytokine-stimulated proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The genetic mutation of the adiponectin gene accompanying hypoadiponectinemia was strongly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis in Japanese subjects. Hypoadiponectinemia was the strongest predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes in humans. Adiponectin knockout mice exhibited diet-induced diabetes and severer atherosclerotic response by vascular injury. Adiponectin supplement reversed the insulin resistance syndrome including diabetes and atherosclerotic change in the knockout mice. We conclude that "Hypoadiponectinemia" stands upstream of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome, hence, can be a direct target of drug intervention to tackle life style-related disease rampant in developed countries.

  2. The Relation of Pancreatic Disease to Weber-Christian Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean

    1963-01-01

    A case of acute Weber-Christian disease is reported, in which pancreatitis was accompanied by evidence of dissemination of pancreatic enzymes causing necrosis of fat and vessels. There is clinical and experimental evidence in the literature to suggest that widespread vascular dissemination of lipase occurs in cases of pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma. Review of the autopsy literature of cases of Weber-Christian disease shows that a majority had pancreatitis and systemic involvement of fat. A minority showed lesions confined to the panniculus, which tended to ulcerate; these lesions were in other ways not typical of Weber-Christian disease. In this group none had autopsy evidence of pancreatitis. The opinion is expressed that Weber-Christian disease results from disruption of pancreatic tissue and subsequent vascular dissemination of pancreatic enzymes. PMID:20327582

  3. Beryllium-Induced Hypersensitivity: Genetic Susceptibility and Neoantigen Generation.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Andrew P; Falta, Michael T; Kappler, John W; Dai, Shaodong; McKee, Amy S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic beryllium (Be) disease is a granulomatous lung disorder that results from Be exposure in a genetically susceptible host. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of Be-responsive CD4(+) T cells in the lung, and genetic susceptibility is primarily linked to HLA-DPB1 alleles possessing a glutamic acid at position 69 of the β-chain. Recent structural analysis of a Be-specific TCR interacting with a Be-loaded HLA-DP2-peptide complex revealed that Be is coordinated by amino acid residues derived from the HLA-DP2 β-chain and peptide and showed that the TCR does not directly interact with the Be(2+) cation. Rather, the TCR recognizes a modified HLA-DP2-peptide complex with charge and conformational changes. Collectively, these findings provide a structural basis for the development of this occupational lung disease through the ability of Be to induce posttranslational modifications in preexisting HLA-DP2-peptide complexes, resulting in the creation of neoantigens. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. [Lifestyle-related disease and fracture risk].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2011-05-01

    Meta analysis of fracture risk in diabetes indicates that the risk of proximal femoral fracture in type-2 diabetes is increased 1.4-1.7 times. It is well known that increased fracture risk is observed in serious kidney disease. However, it has recently been reported that increased fracture risk is also observed in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) . The risk of proximal femoral fracture increases in early stages after stroke, but gradually decreases in subsequent stages. Some reports indicate decreased fracture risk in metabolic syndrome and hyperlipidemia and increased fracture risk in hypertension, arterial calcification and ischemic heart disease, while other reports indicate contradictory results.

  5. Ultrashort Beryllium-Beryllium Distances Rivalling Those of Metal-Metal Quintuple Bonds Between Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Caixia; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Wu, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiaotai

    2016-12-12

    Chemical bonding is at the heart of chemistry. Recent work on high bond orders between homonuclear transition metal atoms has led to ultrashort metal-metal (TM-TM) distances defined as dM-M <1.900 Å. The present work is a computational design and characterization of novel main group species containing ultrashort metal-metal distances (1.728-1.866 Å) between two beryllium atoms in different molecular environments, including a rhombic Be2 X2 (X=C, N) core, a vertical Be-Be axis in a 3D molecular star, and a horizontal Be-Be axis supported by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands. The ultrashort Be-Be distances are achieved by affixing bridging atoms to attract the beryllium atoms electrostatically or covalently. Among these species are five global minima and one chemically viable diberyllium complex, which provide potential targets for experimental realization.

  6. Atypical CF and CF related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kerem, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of atypical CF are: symptoms that may start in infancy but the disease become clinically significant only after 10 years of age, survival into adulthood, chronic sinopulmonary disease, pancreatic sufficiency, and sweat chloride <60 meq/L. Other patients may present with single organ involvement such as CBAVD, biliary cirrhosis and portal hypertension, chronic or recurrent pancreatitis, giant nasal polyposis or hypochloremic alkalosis. It is recommended to refer such patients for CFTR genotyping, however, absence of known common mutation does not rule out CFTR associated disease, since mutations causing atypical CF are rare and whole genome scan is required for their identification. Nasal PD measurements may be helpful to establish the diagnosis of these patients; however, measurements might be also atypical. Several explanations have been suggested to explain the atypical CF disease.

  7. Kinetoplastids: related protozoan pathogens, different diseases.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Ken; Brun, Reto; Croft, Simon; Fairlamb, Alan; Gürtler, Ricardo E; McKerrow, Jim; Reed, Steve; Tarleton, Rick

    2008-04-01

    Kinetoplastids are a group of flagellated protozoans that include the species Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which are human pathogens with devastating health and economic effects. The sequencing of the genomes of some of these species has highlighted their genetic relatedness and underlined differences in the diseases that they cause. As we discuss in this Review, steady progress using a combination of molecular, genetic, immunologic, and clinical approaches has substantially increased understanding of these pathogens and important aspects of the diseases that they cause. Consequently, the paths for developing additional measures to control these "neglected diseases" are becoming increasingly clear, and we believe that the opportunities for developing the drugs, diagnostics, vaccines, and other tools necessary to expand the armamentarium to combat these diseases have never been better.

  8. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease,...

  9. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease,...

  10. Therapy of Human Papillomavirus-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Peter L.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Hampson, Ian N.; Broker, Thomas; Fiander, Alison; Lacey, Charles J.; Kitchener, Henry C.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the current treatment of chronic and neoplastic HPV-associated conditions and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Surgical excision of HPV-associated lower genital tract neoplasia is very successful but largely depends on secondary prevention programmes for identification of disease. Only high-risk HPV-driven chronic, preneoplastic lesions and some very early cancers cannot be successfully treated by surgical procedures alone. Chemoradiation therapy of cervical cancer contributes to the 66–79% cervical cancer survival at 5 years. Outlook for those patients with persistent or recurrent cervical cancer following treatment is very poor. Topical agents such as imiquimod (immune response modifier), cidofovir (inhibition of viral replication; induction apoptosis) or photodynamic therapy (direct damage of tumour and augmentation of anti-tumour immunity) have all shown some useful efficacy (~50–60%) in treatment of high grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Provider administered treatments of genital warts include cryotherapy, trichloracetic acid, or surgical removal which has the highest primary clearance rate. Patient applied therapies include podophyllotoxin and imiquimod. Recurrence after “successful” treatment is 30–40%. Further improvements could derive from a rational combination of current therapy with new drugs targeting molecular pathways mediated by HPV in cancer. Small molecule inhibitors targeting the DNA binding activities of HPV E1/E2 or the anti-apoptotic consequences of E6/E7 oncogenes are in preclinical development. Proteasome and histone deacetylase inhibitors, which can enhance apoptosis in HPV positive tumour cells, are being tested in early clinical trials. Chronic high-risk HPV infection/neoplasia is characterised by systemic and/or local immune suppressive regulatory or escape factors. Recently two E6/E7 vaccines have shown some clinical efficacy in high grade VIN patients and this correlated with strong

  11. Unsolved issues related to human mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lombès, Anne; Auré, Karine; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Gilleron, Mylène; Jardel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Human mitochondrial diseases, defined as the diseases due to a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defect, represent a large group of very diverse diseases with respect to phenotype and genetic causes. They present with many unsolved issues, the comprehensive analysis of which is beyond the scope of this review. We here essentially focus on the mechanisms underlying the diversity of targeted tissues, which is an important component of the large panel of these diseases phenotypic expression. The reproducibility of genotype/phenotype expression, the presence of modifying factors, and the potential causes for the restricted pattern of tissular expression are reviewed. Special emphasis is made on heteroplasmy, a specific feature of mitochondrial diseases, defined as the coexistence within the cell of mutant and wild type mitochondrial DNA molecules. Its existence permits unequal segregation during mitoses of the mitochondrial DNA populations and consequently heterogeneous tissue distribution of the mutation load. The observed tissue distributions of recurrent human mitochondrial DNA deleterious mutations are diverse but reproducible for a given mutation demonstrating that the segregation is not a random process. Its extent and mechanisms remain essentially unknown despite recent advances obtained in animal models.

  12. Kinetoplastids: related protozoan pathogens, different diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Ken; Brun, Reto; Croft, Simon; Fairlamb, Alan; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; McKerrow, Jim; Reed, Steve; Tarleton, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Kinetoplastids are a group of flagellated protozoans that include the species Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which are human pathogens with devastating health and economic effects. The sequencing of the genomes of some of these species has highlighted their genetic relatedness and underlined differences in the diseases that they cause. As we discuss in this Review, steady progress using a combination of molecular, genetic, immunologic, and clinical approaches has substantially increased understanding of these pathogens and important aspects of the diseases that they cause. Consequently, the paths for developing additional measures to control these “neglected diseases” are becoming increasingly clear, and we believe that the opportunities for developing the drugs, diagnostics, vaccines, and other tools necessary to expand the armamentarium to combat these diseases have never been better. PMID:18382742

  13. Polarizabilities of the beryllium clock transition

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.

    2010-11-15

    The polarizabilities of the three lowest states of the beryllium atom are determined from a large basis configuration interaction calculation. The polarizabilities of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e} ground state (37.73a{sub 0}{sup 3}) and the 2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} metastable state (39.04a{sub 0}{sup 3}) are found to be very similar in size and magnitude. This leads to an anomalously small blackbody radiation shift at 300 K of -0.018(4) Hz for the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sup e}-2s2p {sup 3}P{sub 0}{sup o} clock transition. Magic wavelengths for simultaneous trapping of the ground and metastable states are also computed.

  14. Large-area beryllium metal foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, J. O., Jr.

    1997-02-01

    To manufacture beryllium filters having diameters up to 82 mm and thicknesses in the range 0.1-1 μm, it was necessary to construct apparatus in which the metal could safely be evaporated, and then to find an acceptable substrate and evaporation procedure. The metal was evaporated resistively from a tantalum dimple boat mounted in a baffled enclosure that could be placed in a conventional vacuum bell jar, obviating the need for a dedicated complete vacuum system. Substrates were 102 mm × 127 mm × 0.05 mm cleaved mica sheets, coated with 0.1 μm of NaCl, then with approximately 50 μg/cm 2 of cellulose nitrate. These were mounted on poly(methyl methacrylate) sheets 3 mm thick that were in turn clamped to a massive aluminum block for thermal stability. Details of the processes for evaporation, float off, and mounting are given, and the resulting foils described.

  15. Primordial beryllium as a big bang calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2011-03-25

    Many models of new physics including variants of supersymmetry predict metastable long-lived particles that can decay during or after primordial nucleosynthesis, releasing significant amounts of nonthermal energy. The hadronic energy injection in these decays leads to the formation of ⁹Be via the chain of nonequilibrium transformations: Energy(h)→T, ³He→⁶He, ⁶Li→⁹Be. We calculate the efficiency of this transformation and show that if the injection happens at cosmic times of a few hours the release of O(10 MeV) per baryon can be sufficient for obtaining a sizable ⁹Be abundance. The absence of a plateau structure in the ⁹Be/H abundance down to a O(10⁻¹⁴) level allows one to use beryllium as a robust constraint on new physics models with decaying or annihilating particles.

  16. Premelting hcp to bcc Transition in Beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Sun, T.; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, P.; Zhang, D.-B.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2017-04-01

    Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to x-ray equipment. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp → bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0

  17. Simulations of threshold displacement in beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Matthew L.; Fossati, Paul C. M.; Grimes, Robin W.

    2016-07-28

    Atomic scale molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage have been performed on beryllium. Direct threshold displacement simulations along a geodesic projection of directions were used to investigate the directional dependence with a high spatial resolution. It was found that the directionally averaged probability of displacement increases from 0 at 35 eV, with the energy at which there is a 50% chance of a displacement occurring is 70 eV and asymptotically approaching 1 for higher energies. This is, however, strongly directionally dependent with a 50% probability of displacement varying from 35 to 120 eV, with low energy directions corresponding to the nearest neighbour directions. A new kinetic energy dependent expression for the average maximum displacement of an atom as a function of energy is derived which closely matches the simulated data.

  18. Investigation of the ion beryllium surface interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, M.I.; Birukov, A.Yu.; Gureev, V.M.

    1995-09-01

    The self -sputtering yield of the Be was measured. The energy dependence of the Be self-sputtering yield agrees well with that calculated by W. Eckstein et. al. Below 770 K the self-sputtering yield is temperature independent; at T{sub irr}.> 870 K it increases sharply. Hot-pressed samples at 370 K were implanted with monoenergetic 5 keV hydrogen ions and with a stationary plasma (flux power {approximately} 5 MW/m{sup 2}). The investigation of hydrogen behavior in beryllium shows that at low doses hydrogen is solved, but at doses {ge} 5x10{sup 22} m{sup -2} the bubbles and channels are formed. It results in hydrogen profile shift to the surface and decrease of its concentration. The sputtering results in further concentration decrease at doses > 10{sup 25}m{sup -2}.

  19. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

  20. Photodesorption from copper, beryllium, and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, C. L.; Halama, H. J.; Korn, G.

    Ever increasing circulating currents in electron-positron colliders and light sources demand lower and lower photodesportion (PSD) from the surfaces of their vacuum chambers and their photon absorbers. This is particularly important in compact electron storage rings and B meson factories where photon power of several kw cm(exp -1) is deposited on the surfaces. Given the above factors, we have measured PSD from 1 m long bars of solid copper and solid beryllium, and TiN, Au and C thin films deposited on solid copper bars. Each sample was exposed to about 10(exp 23) photons/m with a critical energy of 500 eV at the VUV ring of the NSLS. PSD was recorded for two conditions: after a 200 C bake-out and after an Ar glow discharge cleaning. In addition, we also measured reflected photons, photoelectrons and desorption as functions of normal, 75 mrad, 100 mrad, and 125 mrad incident photons.

  1. Gravimetric determination of beryllium with sodium oxinate.

    PubMed

    Hundekar, A M; Umapathy, P; Sen, D N

    1978-04-01

    Sodium oxinate is found to precipitate Be(II) quantitatively in the pH range 7.5-8.2. The complex has the composition Be(2)O(C(9)H(6)NO)(2).2H(2)O, is stable and can be weighed directly after drying at 105-110 degrees . A method for the estimation of Be(II) and its separation from interfering elements is described. The monohydrate has been prepared from the dihydrate and characterized. The results show the presence of hydroxyl bridges in the monohydrate. Methods using various organic reagents for the direct estimation of beryllium in ores and alloys have been examined and it is found that 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyacetoacetanilide gives the best results. A method for the determination of be(II) in beryl without prior separation of Fe(III) and Al(III) is described.

  2. Synchrotron radiation studies of beryllium fluoride glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. T.; Nagel, D. J.; Klein, P. H.; Weber, M. J.

    1980-07-01

    Beryllium fluoride glasses are possible materials for high power laser systems because of their low nonlinear refractive indexes. In addition the linear refractive index of BeF2 is extremely small, so that it may be of use in multilayer coatings for the ultraviolet. Reflectance of pure BeF2 glasses in the range 9 eV to 120 eV, as well as photoelectron spectra of the bulk glass in the valence band region were measured. Ultraviolet reflectivity and photoemission are useful measurements for indicating the ultimately achievable transmission edge since they sample very high densities of states, assumed intrinsic in nature. Both methods probe only the near surface region, so the hygroscopic nature of BeF2 presents a problem. An argon sputter etching gun was used to clean the samples in ultrahigh vacuum prior to measurement.

  3. Stepped-anneal helium release in 1-mm beryllium pebbles from COBRA-1A2

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.M.

    1998-03-01

    Stepped-anneal helium release measurements on two sets of fifteen beryllium pebbles irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-w), are reported. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the helium release characteristics of the beryllium using larger sample sizes and longer anneal times relative to earlier measurements. Sequential helium analyses were conducted over a narrower temperature range from approximately 800 C to 1100 C in 100 C increments, but with longer anneal time periods. To allow for overnight and unattended operation, a temperature controller and associated circuitry were added to the experimental setup. Observed helium release was nonlinear with time at each temperature interval, with each step being generally characterized by an initial release rate followed by a slowing of the rate over time. Sample Be-C03 showed a leveling off in the helium release after approximately 3 hours at a temperature of 890 C. Sample Be-D03, on the other hand, showed a leveling off only after {approximately}12 to 24 hours at a temperature of 1100 C. This trend is consistent with that observed in earlier measurements on single microspheres from the same two beryllium lots. None of the lower temperature steps showed any leveling off of the helium release. Relative to the total helium concentrations measured earlier, the total helium releases observed here represent approximately 80% and 92% of the estimated total helium in the C03 and D03 samples, respectively.

  4. The mechanical behavior of cross-rolled beryllium sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkener, J. A.; Spiker, I. K.; Castner, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    In response to the failure of a conical section of the Insat C satellite during certification testing, the use of beryllium for payload structures, particularly in sheet product form, is being reevaluated. A test program was initiated to study the tensile, shear, and out-of-plane failure modes of beryllium cross-rolled sheet and to apply data to the development of an appropriate failure criterion. Tensile test results indicated that sanding the surface of beryllium sheet has no significant effect on yield strength but can produce a profound reduction in ultimate strength and results obtained by finite element analysis. Critical examination of these test results may contribute to the modification of a JSC policy for the use of beryllium in orbiter and payload structures.

  5. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  6. Plans and status of the Beryllium ablator campaign on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Edwards, M. J.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.

    2014-10-01

    Beryllium has long been known to have excellent properties for indirectly driven ICF implosions including enhanced ablation pressure, implosion velocity, and mass ablation rate. The high ablation velocity leads to stabilization of ablative hydrodynamic instabilities and higher ablation pressures. Recent ``high foot'' experiments have shown ablative Rayleigh-Taylor to be a leading cause of degraded performance for ICF implosions. While Beryllium ablators have these advantages, there are also risks associated with Beryllium target designs. A campaign is underway to design and to test these advantages for comparison with other ablator options and determine which provides the best path forward for ICF. Experiments using Beryllium ablators are expected to start in the late summer of 2014. This presentation will discuss the status of the experiments and layout the plans/goals for the campaign. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  7. 2'-hydroxychalcone as an analytical reagent for beryllium.

    PubMed

    Naidu, R R

    1975-07-01

    Several o-hydroxychalcones were examined to develop specific reagents for the precipitation of beryllium in the presence of elements such as aluminium and iron, which occur in its ores. All these reagents showed specificity only in the presence of EDTA. Among them, the readily obtainable 2'-hydroxychalcone is proposed as a new specific reagent for beryllium. The chalcone complex can be dried to constant weight at 105-110 degrees and the conversion factor is 0.01978. A probable structure for the complex has been suggested. Quantitative separation of beryllium from aluminium and iron carried out by this method gave good results. This method was applied for the gravimetric determination of beryllium in beryl and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by the oxide and pyrophosphate methods.

  8. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  9. Prevention of arthropod-related disease.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M

    2004-12-01

    Arthropods of medical importance include vespids, ticks, mosquitoes, mites, flies, and fleas. They spread illness as disease vectors, are associated with lethal allergic reactions, and produce potentially deadly toxins. Strategies for prevention of illness include avoidance, vector reduction programs, chemoprophylaxis, and repellents. Strategies must be tailored to regional risks.

  10. Spontaneous proton transfers induced by beryllium bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2014-03-01

    Through the use of B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have shown that when a molecule participates as a proton donor in a complex, it yields much stronger hydrogen bonds (HBs) if it participates simultaneously in beryllium bonds. This is indeed the case of the complexes formed by oxyacids such as acetic, benzoic and phosphinic acids with BeCl2, which yield much stronger HBs with different bases than the isolated oxyacids due to a significant acidity enhancement, triggered by the charge transfer from the oxyacid to BeCl2. More importantly, depending on the intrinsic basicity of the base acting as proton acceptor, a spontaneous proton transfer from the oxyacid to the base may occur, leading to the formation of an ion pair in the gas phase. This is indeed the case in complexes involving ammonia. For slightly weaker bases, such as trimethylphosphine, two local minima are stable: one in which the proton remains attached to the oxyacid and one in which this proton has been transferred to the trimethylphosphine, the latter being always the most stable. When a compound is able to act simultaneously as a proton donor and as a proton acceptor, its participation in a beryllium bond necessarily leads to an enhancement and a dampening of both properties, respectively. Hence, the HB in which they participate as proton donors becomes stronger, whereas the HB in which they act as proton acceptors becomes weaker. The dimers of 1H-tetrazole and the dimers of isatin nicely illustrate this finding.

  11. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds (2008 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Beryllium that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. An IRIS Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds was published in 1988 and reassessed in 1998. The current draft (2007) only focuses on the cancer assessment and does not re-evaluate posted reference doses or reference concentrations.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds (2008 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Beryllium that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. An IRIS Toxicological Review of Beryllium and Compounds was published in 1988 and reassessed in 1998. The current draft (2007) only focuses on the cancer assessment and does not re-evaluate posted reference doses or reference concentrations.

  14. METHOD OF ALLOYING REACTIVE METALS WITH ALUMINUM OR BERYLLIUM

    DOEpatents

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1957-10-15

    A halide of one or more of the reactive metals, neptunium, cerium and americium, is mixed with aluminum or beryllium. The mass is heated at 700 to 1200 deg C, while maintaining a substantial vacuum of above 10/sup -3/ mm of mercury or better, until the halide of the reactive metal is reduced and the metal itself alloys with the reducing metal. The reaction proceeds efficiently due to the volatilization of the halides of the reducing metal, aluminum or beryllium.

  15. Work-hardening and effective viscosity in solid beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Breithaupt, D.; Honodel, C.

    1985-06-01

    Results from Hopkinson split-bar, plate-impact, and cylinder deceleration experiments on beryllium are compared with hydrodynamic computer code simulations. By substantially increasing the beryllium work-hardening in the Steinberg-Guinan constitutive model, excellent agreement between the experiments and the calculations is achieved. A model to estimate effective viscosity is also proposed and the resultant calculations are in reasonable agreement with those derived from another model advanced by Asay, Chhabildas and Wise. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  16. A DFT study of dodecahedral beryllium silicide cage clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioressi, Silvina; Bacelo, Daniel E.; Binning, R. C.

    2012-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been conducted on 20- and 32-atom dodecahedral and face-capped dodecahedral cage clusters of beryllium and silicon. Stable Be24Si8, Be12Si8 and Be12Si20 cages are described, as is a stuffed cluster consisting of dodecahedral Si20 with an endohedral icosahedral Be12. Especial stability is associated with clusters in which faces are capped by silicon atoms, acting as electron donors to beryllium atoms.

  17. Actinide/beryllium neutron sources with reduced dispersion characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2012-08-14

    Neutron source comprising a composite, said composite comprising crystals comprising BeO and AmBe.sub.13, and an excess of beryllium, wherein the crystals have an average size of less than 2 microns; the size distribution of the crystals is less than 2 microns; and the beryllium is present in a 7-fold to a 75-fold excess by weight of the amount of AmBe.sub.13; and methods of making thereof.

  18. Conditioning and learning in relation to disease.

    PubMed

    Ban, T A; Guy, W

    1985-12-01

    Of the two generally recognized processes through which learning occurs--imprinting and conditioning--only the latter with its two paradigms, classical and operant, has both practical and heuristic implications for disease. From the classical conditioning experiments of Pavlov's laboratory over 100 years ago to the later work in operant conditioning by Skinner and others in the past four decades has evolved much of the basis of modern learning theory and its applications to disease in the form of behavior therapy. Variants of behavior therapy have been employed in the treatment of wide variety of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Recent developments in the study of brain function and biochemistry have led to renewed interest in the conditioning paradigm and its value as tool in these areas of research.

  19. Is allergy related to Meniere's disease?

    PubMed

    Banks, Catherine; McGinness, Samuel; Harvey, Richard; Sacks, Raymond

    2012-06-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) is characterized by episodic rotational vertigo, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, aural pressure, and tinnitus. The cause of MD is thought to be multifactorial, with anatomic and genetic contributions. Allergy is thought to be one of the possible extrinsic factors that, when combined with underlying intrinsic factors, may lead to MD. We review the epidemiologic associations of MD and allergy and review the recent literature on the association of allergy and MD.

  20. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S.

    1990-07-20

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

  1. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-01

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  2. Low cycle thermal fatigue testing of beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-02-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium, which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 kW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ``spike`` of 750{degree}C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stresses in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m{sup 2}. Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S- 65H, S-200F, S-200F-H, SR-200, I-400, extruded high purity, HIP`d spherical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe{sub 12}. Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be (SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis.

  3. Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Maldonado, G Ivan; Primm, Trent; Proctor, Larry Duane

    2012-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

  4. Method of making alloys of beryllium with plutonium and the like

    DOEpatents

    Runnals, O J.C.

    1959-02-24

    The production or alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium is described. A halide salt or the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated at l3O0 deg C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and cause the latter to alloy directly with the beryllium. Although the heavy metal halides are more stable, thermodynamically, than the beryllium halides, the reducing reaction proceeds to completion if the beryllium halide product is continuously removed by vacuum distillation.

  5. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF BERYLLIUM WITH PLUTONIUM AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Runnals, O.J.C.

    1959-02-24

    The production of alloys of beryllium with one or more of the metals uranium, plutonium, actinium, americium, curium, thorium, and cerium are described. A halide salt of the metal to be alloyed with the beryllium is heated at 1300 deg C in the presence of beryllium to reduce the halide to metal and cause the latter to alloy directly with the beryllium. Although the heavy metal halides are more stable, thermodynamically, than the beryllium halides, the reducing reaction proceeds to completion if the beryllium halide product is continuously removed by vacuum distillation.

  6. Characterization of microbiomes related to respiratory disease in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Respiratory disease is the single largest disease-related issue for the beef cattle industry in the United States, estimated to be responsible for up to 75% of morbidity in beef cattle feedlots. Despite decades of research into this problem, incidence of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) h...

  7. Tight junction, selective permeability, and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Krug, Susanne M; Schulzke, Jörg D; Fromm, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The tight junction forms a barrier against unlimited paracellular passage but some of the tight junction proteins just do the opposite, they form extracellular channels zigzagging between lateral membranes of neighboring cells. All of these channel-forming proteins and even some of the barrier formers exhibit selectivity, which means that they prefer certain substances over others. All channel formers exhibit at least one of the three types of selectivity: for cations (claudin-2, -10b, -15), for anions (claudin-10a, -17) or for water (claudin-2). Also some, but not all, barrier-forming claudins are charge-selective (claudin-4, -8, -14). Moreover, occludin and tricellulin turned out to be relevant for barrier formation against macromolecule passage. Tight junction proteins are dysregulated or can be genetically defective in numerous diseases, which may lead to three effects: (i) impaired paracellular transport e.g. causing magnesium loss in the kidney, (ii) increased paracellular transport of solutes and water e.g. causing leak-flux diarrhea in the intestine, and (iii) increased permeability to large molecules e.g. unwanted intestinal pathogen uptake fueling inflammatory processes. This review gives an overview on the properties of tight junction proteins featuring selective permeability, and in this context explains how these proteins induce or aggravate diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity from exposure to therapeutic agents and chemicals in the environment and workplace results in a broad spectrum of clinical renal disease that may mimic disorders from other causes. Nephrotoxic agents may, in fact, be responsible for some fraction of renal disease of undetermined etiology. Specific diagnosis and treatment by removal from exposure to the toxic agent is more likely in the early phase of the disorder. Measurement and characterization of proteinuria provides the most sensitive and reliable method of early detection. Increased urinary excretion of serum proteins with molecular weight in excess of 50,000, such as albumin and transferrin, is an early indicator of glomerular injury. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria (beta 2-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein) and enzymuria, particularly excretion of NAG, are sensitive indicators of renal tubular cell injury. Tests that reflect hypersensitivity reactions are often indicative of immunologically mediated nephrotoxicity but are not specific for the kidney. Cancers of the kidney and urinary bladder appear to be increasing and are most common among the socially active and affluent. Susceptibility of the urinary tract to toxicity and carcinogenicity reflect contact of excreted toxins with the epithelial cells of nephrons and urinary bladder. 45 references.

  9. Chromosome 1 in relation to human disease.

    PubMed Central

    Povey, S; Parrington, J M

    1986-01-01

    Chromosome 1 is thought to represent about 6% of the total human genome and the 85 loci so far identified may constitute about 1% of the genes present on this chromosome. The existence of at least 22 loci sufficiently polymorphic in Europeans to be useful as genetic markers has allowed the construction of an elementary genetic map. This permits comparisons with physical and chiasma maps and has demonstrated striking homologies between different regions of chromosome 1 and mouse chromosomes 1, 3, and 4. The existence of a map should be of great help in developing a more systematic approach to further mapping studies. A wide range of disease can be attributed to allelic variation on chromosome 1 and the homologies with the mouse may be useful in predicting the position of other genes involved in human disease. Rearrangements of this chromosome are a common finding in many different types of malignancy. Loss of material from the short arm and activation of one or more of the four oncogenes in this region may play an important role in the later stages of tumour development. Polymorphic markers of all kinds will be useful in the future for investigating the somatic events which have occurred during the malignant process. PMID:3519970

  10. Genetics of Huntington's disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Burgunder, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    Huntington's disease is the most frequent form of the hereditary choreas and has a multifaceted phenotype including cognitive and psychiatric impairment. The disorder is due to a dynamic mutation, which also influences the onset age of the disorder. Other genetic modifiers of the HD phenotypes have been suggested but often not confirmed by independent studies. Several syndromes with similar presentation have different genetic backgrounds, including the neuroacanthocytoses, mainly choreoacanthocytosis and MacLeod syndrome as a result of mutations in chorein and Kell protein, respectively, but also benign hereditary chorea, owing to mutations in NKX-2-1, and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, as a result of recently found mutations in the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2, PRRT2. Chorea can also be a major feature in other neurogenetic disorders, including the spinocerebellar ataxias and also in neurometabolic disorders.

  11. Parkinson's disease and issues related to driving.

    PubMed

    Uitti, Ryan J

    2009-12-01

    Driving a motor vehicle represents an important activity associated with personal independence and freedom. Being told that one can no longer drive is itself associated with loss of independence, depression, low self-esteem and reduced activities [1,2]. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), therefore, understandably wish to continue to be able to maintain their ability to drive automobiles, motorcycles, airplanes, and boats, etc. The ability to determine if and when a PD patient is no longer fit to drive a motor vehicle is important for maintaining safety for the PD patient and the public. There are numerous requirements for being able to drive a motor vehicle safely. When any of these capacities deteriorate, the ability to drive safely may be lost. This review will concentrate upon common issues that would be peculiar to patients with PD.

  12. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  13. Cure of HCV related liver disease.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Mitchell L; Benhamou, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic liver injury and can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV can also interact with the immune system to cause several HCV related disorders including essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, dermatitis, glomerulonephritis and lymphoma. A strong association between HCV and diabetes mellitus also exists. These extrahepatic features may lead to increased fatigue and a reduced quality of life. It is now possible to cure most patients with chronic HCV using oral antiviral therapy. Many of these HCV-related disorders and symptoms can be cured when HCV is eradicated. However, some patients may have irreversible injury to extrahepatic sites, cirrhosis that cannot resolve, an increased risk for HCC, persistent fatigue and a reduced quality of life, despite achieving sustained virological response. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A vector space model approach to identify genetically related diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The relationship between diseases and their causative genes can be complex, especially in the case of polygenic diseases. Further exacerbating the challenges in their study is that many genes may be causally related to multiple diseases. This study explored the relationship between diseases through the adaptation of an approach pioneered in the context of information retrieval: vector space models. Materials and Methods A vector space model approach was developed that bridges gene disease knowledge inferred across three knowledge bases: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, GenBank, and Medline. The approach was then used to identify potentially related diseases for two target diseases: Alzheimer disease and Prader-Willi Syndrome. Results In the case of both Alzheimer Disease and Prader-Willi Syndrome, a set of plausible diseases were identified that may warrant further exploration. Discussion This study furthers seminal work by Swanson, et al. that demonstrated the potential for mining literature for putative correlations. Using a vector space modeling approach, information from both biomedical literature and genomic resources (like GenBank) can be combined towards identification of putative correlations of interest. To this end, the relevance of the predicted diseases of interest in this study using the vector space modeling approach were validated based on supporting literature. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a vector space model approach may be a useful means to identify potential relationships between complex diseases, and thereby enable the coordination of gene-based findings across multiple complex diseases. PMID:22227640

  15. Lithium and beryllium depletion by rotation-induced mixing in the Sun and in galactic cluster stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, C.; Vauclair, S.; Maeder, A.; Meynet, G.; Schaller, G.

    1994-03-01

    Lithium and beryllium depletion by rotation-induced mixing in Population I G and F stars is investigated under the scope of recent strides of the theory of rotational mixing and of the observational constraints on rotational velocities. Following Zahn (1992) who proposed a consistent picture of the interaction between meridional circulation and turbulence induced by rotation in stars, we calculate the effect of the resulting mixing on the lithium and beryllium depletion in low mass stars. We restrict our study to the case where the stars are submitted to a moderate wind which obeys Skumanich's (1972) spindown relation. Stellar models are computed with the new OPAL opacities, and adjustable stellar parameters are calibrated using the Sun. The results of our numerical simulations are precisely compared with lithium and beryllium abundances observed in seven galactic lusters. The red side of the lithium dip is well explained by rotation-induced mixing and a beryllium dip consistent with observations is predicted. The rotation velocity dispersion in the Hyades accounts for the lithium abundance dispersion.

  16. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284

  17. Nanoimaging for protein misfolding and related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Sherman, Simon; Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2006-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins is a common thread linking a number of important human health problems. The misfolded and aggregated proteins are inducers of cellular stress and activators of immunity in neurodegenerative diseases. They might posses clear cytotoxic properties, being responsible for the dysfunction and loss of cells in the affected organs. Despite the crucial importance of protein misfolding and abnormal interactions, very little is currently known about the molecular mechanism underlying these processes. Factors that lead to protein misfolding and aggregation in vitro are poorly understood, not to mention the complexities involved in the formation of protein nanoparticles with different morphologies (e.g. the nanopores) in vivo. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of misfolding and aggregation might facilitate development of the rational approaches to prevent pathologies mediated by protein misfolding. The conventional tools currently available to researchers can only provide an averaged picture of a living system, whereas much of the subtle or short-lived information is lost. We believe that the existing and emerging nanotools might help solving these problems by opening the entirely novel pathways for the development of early diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This article summarizes recent advances of the nanoscience in detection and characterization of misfolded protein conformations. Based on these findings we outline our view on the nanoscience development towards identification intracellular nanomachines and/or multicomponent complexes critically involved in protein misfolding. PMID:16823798

  18. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This study focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  19. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  20. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; ...

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting itsmore » lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This study focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.« less

  1. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This study focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  2. Stem cell transplantation improves aging-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Susumu; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. The number of patients with age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer has increased recently. Aging-related diseases are related to a deficiency of the immune system, which results from an aged thymus and bone marrow cells. Intra bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) is a useful method to treat intractable diseases. This review summarizes findings that IBM-BMT can improve and treat aging-related diseases, including T2DM, osteoporosis and AD, in animal models. PMID:25364723

  3. Cosmogenic beryllium cycling in a natural forest setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conyers, Grace

    10Bemet, or cosmogenic beryllium, has a long half-life of 1.4 million years and quick adsorption on soil particles, which may make it ideal for dating soil erosion in historical context. However, there are questions on about the fundamental assumptions of the retentivity of 10Bemet. This manuscript explores these assumptions and the context of nutrient cycling in a natural forest setting. To see if 10Bemet was being cycled through the trees, and at what rate, we looked at the[10Bemet ] in the soil, 4 species of trees, and their leaves. The isotopic ratio 10Be/9Be in all four tree species was comparable to the soil on which they grow, ranging from 6-8 x 10 -9. However, there was one exception with hickory (Carya spp.) which strongly bioaccumulate beryllium with an average of 0.38 ppm dry weight in the wood. Abscised hickory leaves have a higher [Be] of 2.0 ppm, over 10 times higher than in the soil. Using standard allometric equations relating tree biomass to trunk diameter, and assuming that belowground biomass has the same [Be] as aboveground, we calculate that hickory trees at our site contain approximately 1% of the total 10Bemet under their canopy and that ~10% of this Be is cycled annually by leaf abscission. It is not clear at this point what fraction of litterfall Be is recycled into the plant, returned to the soil, or carried to groundwater as organic chelates. Hickory trees occupy an average of ~10% of the oak-hickory forest area. Assuming that trees are randomly distributed, that litterfall Be is returned to the soil, and maintaining a constant 10Bemet budget over time for simplicity, then more than half of all 10Be met in the forest soil will have passed through a hickory tree over the past 10 ky. Fully 90% of all 10Bemet will pass through a hickory tree over a period of ~25 ky. It is clear that hickory trees can transport a sizable fraction of the total 10Bemet in their nutrient cycle, and that they may be responsible for landscape-scale Be mobility.

  4. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  5. Beryllium processing technology review for applications in plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1993-07-01

    Materials research and development activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), i.e., the next generation fusion reactor, are investigating beryllium as the first-wall containment material for the reactor. Important in the selection of beryllium is the ability to process, fabricate and repair beryllium first-wall components using existing technologies. Two issues that will need to be addressed during the engineering design activity will be the bonding of beryllium tiles in high-heat-flux areas of the reactor, and the in situ repair of damaged beryllium tiles. The following review summarizes the current technology associated with welding and joining of beryllium to itself and other materials, and the state-of-the-art in plasma-spray technology as an in situ repair technique for damaged beryllium tiles. In addition, a review of the current status of beryllium technology in the former Soviet Union is also included.

  6. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Richard G.; Stanek, Paul W.; Elliott, Keith E.; Youchison, Dennis L.; Watson, Robert D.; Walsh, David S.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasmaspray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H2 gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and negative transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal cycle tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10s cycle times with 60s cooldowns using a heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m2.

  7. The structure, properties and performance of plasma-sprayed beryllium for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.G.; Stanek, P.W.; Elliott, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    Plasma-spray technology is under investigation as a method for producing high thermal conductivity beryllium coatings for use in magnetic fusion applications. Recent investigations have focused on optimizing the plasma-spray process for depositing beryllium coatings on damaged beryllium surfaces. Of particular interest has been optimizing the processing parameters to maximize the through-thickness thermal conductivity of the beryllium coatings. Experimental results will be reported on the use of secondary H{sub 2} gas additions to improve the melting of the beryllium powder and transferred-arc cleaning to improve the bonding between the beryllium coatings and the underlying surface. Information will also be presented on thermal fatigue tests which were done on beryllium coated ISX-B beryllium limiter tiles using 10 sec cycle times with 60 sec cooldowns and an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant divertor heat flux slightly in excess of 5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  8. [Osteoporosis as a lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Hata, Motohide; Miyao, Mariko; Mizuno, Yuzo

    2003-02-01

    Although genetic factors determine the limits of peak bone mass, environmental factors can modify the outcome. Relation between lifestyle and osteoporosis is discussed, in terms of nutrition and habits. Significant link between calcium intake and bone mass has been reported. Although recommended daily allowance of calcium is 600 mg/day for adults, 850 mg/day or more shall be recommended later in life. Vitamin D insufficiency may lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly, the condition that facilitates bone loss. Other nutrients that affect bone turnover include vitamin K, vitamin C, protein, potassium, salt, magnesium and phosphorus. Too much intake of caffeine or alcohol, as well as smoking is a risk factor of osteoporosis. Mechanical loading on the skeleton increases bone mass, therefore weight-bearing activity is recommended to gain or preserve bone mass.

  9. Diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related ophthalmic disease.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hiroshi; Takahira, Masayuki; Takahira, Masahiro; Azumi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a novel clinical entity characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and elevated serum IgG4 concentration accompanied by enlargement of and masses in various organs, including the lacrimal gland, salivary gland, and pancreas. Recent studies have clarified that conditions previously diagnosed as Mikulicz disease as well as various types of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrative disorders of the ocular adnexa are consistent with a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. Against this background, the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related ophthalmic disease have recently been established, based on both the clinical and the histopathologic features of the ocular lesions. This article reviews these new criteria with reference to the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease for all systemic conditions reported in 2012.

  10. [Genetic analysis of life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Tokihisa; Miki, Tetsuro

    2005-03-01

    In our country to which the aging society was invited, life-style related diseases, such as cancer, ischemic cardiac disease, apoplexy, and diabetes, are increasing. These life-style related diseases are multi-factor diseases. And genetic factors, environmental factors, and aging factors are concerned. This genetic factors are prescribed by gene polymorphism between individuals. The method of identifying these gene polymorphism has two kinds, microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). If the relation of life-style related diseases and gene polymorphism will be solved from now on, realization of patient-tailored treatment according to the individual, extension of healthy life expectancy, improvement in quality of life, and decrease of medical expenses are expected.

  11. The unusual properties of beryllium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stumpf, R. ||; Hannon, J.B. |; Plummer, E.W. |

    1994-12-31

    Be is a ``marginal metal.`` The stable phase, hcp-Be, has a low Fermi-level density of states and very anisotropic structural and elastic properties, similar to a semiconductor`s. At the Be(0001) surface, surface states drastically increase the Fermi-level density of states. The different nature of bonding in bulk-Be and at the Be(0001) surface explains the large outward relaxation. The presence of surface states causes large surface core-level shifts by inducing a higher electrostatic potential in the surface layers and by improving the screening at the surface. The authors experimental and theoretical investigations of atomic vibrations at the Be(0001) surface demonstrate clearly that Be screening of atomic motion by the surface states makes the surface phonon dispersion fundamentally different from that of the bulk. Properties of Be(0001) are so different from those of the bulk that the surface can be considered a new ``phase`` of beryllium with unique electronic and structural characteristics. For comparison they also study Be(11{bar 2}0), a very open surface without important surface states. Be(11{bar 2}0) is the only clean s-p metal surface known to reconstruct (1 {times} 3 missing row reconstruction).

  12. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  13. [Phenome-genome relations and pathogenetics of multifactorial diseases].

    PubMed

    Puzyrev, V P

    2011-01-01

    This study of phenome-genome relations in multifactorial diseases is focused on the principal notions and concepts, such as "arthritism", syntropies and syntropic gene, diseasome, orthologic phenotypes (phenologs). The results of original investigations into synthropic genes responsible for predisposition to multifactorial diseases are presented along with analysis of DNA methylation in atherosclerotic plaques and whole-genome analysis of asthma. A hypothesis is proposed that ischaemic preconditioning may be a mechanism underlying the stable cardiovascular disease continuum as a special form of synthropy. Two principal lines of research on genetics of multifactorial disease are distinguished, viz. ontogenesis of multifactorial diseases and epigenetic inheritance.

  14. A Report on the Validation of Beryllium Strength Models

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick

    2016-02-05

    This report discusses work on validating beryllium strength models with flyer plate and Taylor rod experimental data. Strength models are calibrated with Hopkinson bar and quasi-static data. The Hopkinson bar data for beryllium provides strain rates up to about 4000 per second. A limitation of the Hopkinson bar data for beryllium is that it only provides information on strain up to about 0.15. The lack of high strain data at high strain rates makes it difficult to distinguish between various strength model settings. The PTW model has been calibrated many different times over the last 12 years. The lack of high strain data for high strain rates has resulted in these calibrated PTW models for beryllium exhibiting significantly different behavior when extrapolated to high strain. For beryllium, the α parameter of PTW has recently been calibrated to high precision shear modulus data. In the past the α value for beryllium was set based on expert judgment. The new α value for beryllium was used in a calibration of the beryllium PTW model by Sky Sjue. The calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Also, the calibration by Sjue used EOS table information to model the density changes of the beryllium sample during the Hopkinson bar and quasi-static experiments. In this paper, the calibrated PTW model by Sjue is compared against experimental data and other strength models. The other strength models being considered are a PTW model calibrated by Shuh- Rong Chen and a Steinberg-Guinan type model by John Pedicini. The three strength models are used in a comparison against flyer plate and Taylor rod data. The results show that the Chen PTW model provides better agreement to this data. The Chen PTW model settings have been previously adjusted to provide a better fit to flyer plate data, whereas the Sjue PTW model has not been changed based on flyer plate data. However, the Sjue model provides a reasonable fit to

  15. Inorganic dust pneumonias: the metal-related parenchymal disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, P; Pacheco, K; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    In recent years the greatest progress in our understanding of pneumoconioses, other than those produced by asbestos, silica, and coal, has been in the arena of metal-induced parenchymal lung disorders. Inhalation of metal dusts and fumes can induce a wide range of lung pathology, including airways disorders, cancer, and parenchymal diseases. The emphasis of this update is on parenchymal diseases caused by metal inhalation, including granulomatous disease, giant cell interstitial pneumonitis, chemical pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis, among others. The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of disorders arising from exposure to aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, and nickel are presented in detail. Metal fume fever, an inhalation fever syndrome attributed to exposure to a number of metals, is also discussed. Advances in our knowledge of antigen-specific immunologic reactions in the lung are particularly evident in disorders secondary to beryllium and nickel exposure, where immunologic mechanisms have been well characterized. For example, current evidence suggests that beryllium acts as an antigen, or hapten, and is presented by antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ T cells, which possess specific surface antigen receptors. Other metals such as cadmium and mercury induce nonspecific damage, probably by initiating production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, genetic susceptibility markers associated with increased risk have been identified in some metal-related diseases such as chronic beryllium disease and hard metal disease. Future research needs include development of biologic markers of metal-induced immunologic disease, detailed characterization of human exposure, examination of gene alleles that might confer risk, and association of exposure data with that of genetic susceptibility. PMID:10931787

  16. Design and cooling of BESIII beryllium beam pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xunfeng; Ji, Quan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Lifang

    2008-01-01

    The beryllium beam pipe was restructured according to the requirements of the upgraded BESIII (Beijing Spectrometer) experiment. SMO-1 (sparking machining oil no. 1) was selected as the coolant for the central beryllium beam pipe. The cooling gap width of the beryllium beam pipe was calculated, the influence of concentrated heat load on the wall temperature of the beryllium beam pipe was studied, and the optimal velocity of the SMO-1 in the gap was determined at the maximum heat load. A cooling system for the beam pipe was developed to control the outer wall temperature of the beam pipe. The cooling system is reported in this paper with regard to the following two aspects: the layouts and the automation. The performance of the cooling system was tested on the beam pipe model with trim size. The test results show that the design of the beryllium beam pipe is reasonable and that the cooling system achieves the BESIII experimental aim. The cooling system has already passed the acceptance test and has been installed in position. It will be put into practice for the BESIII experiment in 2008.

  17. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  18. Inflammation: The Common Pathway of Stress-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Zi; Wang, Yun-Xia; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2017-01-01

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed that the nature of stress has changed dramatically. Chronic stress result failures of homeostasis thus lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and depression. However, while 75%–90% of human diseases is related to the activation of stress system, the common pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease is still debatable. Chronic inflammation is an essential component of chronic diseases. Additionally, accumulating evidence suggested that excessive inflammation plays critical roles in the pathophysiology of the stress-related diseases, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we discuss the role of inflammation in stress-induced diseases and suggest a common pathway for stress-related diseases that is based on chronic mild inflammation. This framework highlights the fundamental impact of inflammation mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of stress-related diseases. PMID:28676747

  19. Forming properties and springback evaluation of copper beryllium sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, A. A.; Jen, K. P.; Chen, T. C.; Kondetimmamhalli, R.; Murty, Y. V.

    1995-08-01

    Copper beryllium (CuBe) alloys possess excellent strength and conductivity. They have become the most important materials used for producing high reliability connectors and interconnections for electrical and electronic applications. As demand for high connection density in electrical and electronic products grows, springback behaviors become increasingly critical in fabricating these miniaturized contact components from sheet base materials. In the present article, a study of the springback behavior of CuBe sheets under different heat treatments is presented, with the goal of providing reliable information needed for fabricating more intricate connection parts. Both experimental and analytical techniques were adopted. The tensile tester was first used to study the springback related tensile properties. The governing tensile parameters on springback were identified, and their variations for sheets with different heat treatments were studied. It was found that a bilinear constitutive relationship can best characterize the stress strain behavior of the CuBe alloy. A closed form solution based on this bilinear relationship was formulated to predict the springback for the CuBe sheets at bending conditions. A V-shaped bend tester having an interchangeable punch to accommodate multiple radii was designed and built to evaluate the springback properties of CuBe sheets. A good correlation was found between the analytical predictions and experimental data. A parametric study, as an example, was also performed to provide the springback information needed for designing complicated connectors.

  20. Inelastic Collisions of Positrons with Beryllium and Magnesium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bakry, Salah-Yaseen

    The collision of positrons with beryllium and magnesium positive ions is treated for the first time as a three-channel problem with the assumption that the elastic, ground-positronium and excited-positronium formation channels are open. A one-valence-electron model for the targets, based on the Clementi-Roetti Slater basis functions, as well as an improved coupled-static approach allowing for the polarization of the excited positronium, are used for calculating the partial cross-sections of eight partial waves (corresponding to 0≤ℓ≤7, where ℓ is the total angular momentum of the scattering problem considered). The calculations are carried out, in each case, at 19 values of the incident energy lying above the excited positronium formation threshold (i.e. above 16.42 eV in e+-Be+ scattering and above 13.02 eV in e+-Mg+ scattering). The total elastic cross-sections of e+-Mg+ scattering show a peak around the ionization threshold of Mg+ (at 14.723 eV) but for e+-Be+ scattering, display a peak at 90 eV (remember that the ionization threshold of Be+ is 18.2 eV). Although the resulting total collisional positronium formation cross-sections are smaller than the elastic ones, their relatively large values should draw the attention of experimental and theoretical physicists to the field of positron-ion collisions.