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Sample records for beta thalassaemia trait

  1. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Beta Thalassaemia Trait- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Bimal Kumar; Marwaha, Saurabh; Bhatnagar, Mini; Parry, Shabir A; Agrawal, Usha

    2016-06-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune aetiology. It has a predilection for female gender and presence of photosensitive rash over the sun exposed area gives a clue to the diagnosis. Diagnosis in a male patient with atypical manifestations is unusual and difficult. A 25-year-old male presented with fever, fatigue, vomiting, abdominal pain and loss of weight. He had sustained injury on his right arm following which he developed abscess at the trauma site and severe anaemia. Further evaluation revealed pancytopenia and peritonitis. Though peritonitis is rare in SLE, it was considered in the differential diagnosis after ruling out bacterial and tubercular peritonitis. Positive anti-dsDNA and antiSm antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. While evaluating for microcytic anaemia it was found that iron studies were normal and A2 fraction was raised in haemoglobin electrophoresis. The symptoms and laboratory parameters improved remarkably with steroid therapy. Beta thalassaemia trait is rare in patients with SLE, but when they co-exist the manifestations can be severe. High degree of suspicion is required to diagnose SLE in male patients in absence of typical photosensitive rash. Beta thalassaemia trait often does not require any treatment except genetic counseling. However empirical treatment with iron should be avoided. PMID:27504333

  2. Association of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Beta Thalassaemia Trait- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Bimal Kumar; Marwaha, Saurabh; Bhatnagar, Mini; Parry, Shabir A; Agrawal, Usha

    2016-06-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune aetiology. It has a predilection for female gender and presence of photosensitive rash over the sun exposed area gives a clue to the diagnosis. Diagnosis in a male patient with atypical manifestations is unusual and difficult. A 25-year-old male presented with fever, fatigue, vomiting, abdominal pain and loss of weight. He had sustained injury on his right arm following which he developed abscess at the trauma site and severe anaemia. Further evaluation revealed pancytopenia and peritonitis. Though peritonitis is rare in SLE, it was considered in the differential diagnosis after ruling out bacterial and tubercular peritonitis. Positive anti-dsDNA and antiSm antibodies confirmed the diagnosis. While evaluating for microcytic anaemia it was found that iron studies were normal and A2 fraction was raised in haemoglobin electrophoresis. The symptoms and laboratory parameters improved remarkably with steroid therapy. Beta thalassaemia trait is rare in patients with SLE, but when they co-exist the manifestations can be severe. High degree of suspicion is required to diagnose SLE in male patients in absence of typical photosensitive rash. Beta thalassaemia trait often does not require any treatment except genetic counseling. However empirical treatment with iron should be avoided.

  3. Population screening for beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Flatz, S D; Flatz, G

    1980-09-01

    The graphic recording of time to 50% haemolysis in a glycerine-saline solution is a simple, reproducible method of determining erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Studies on a normal population yielded an upper limit of normal of 90 s. In 250 healthy males from Northern Thailand all 19 with beta-thalassaemia minor had abnormal osmotic indices, and the value of the test was confirmed in beta-thalassaemia heterozygotes in Europe. Of 23 patients with iron deficiency 18 had abnormal osmotic indices. However, this is not thought likely to be a significant source of false positives in the screening of populations at risk of haemoglobinopathies but in whom iron deficiency is rare.

  4. Cardiovascular aspect of Beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Prabhu, Shakuntala; Venkatesh, Sumitra

    2012-03-01

    Beta-thalassaemia major is a genetic blood disorder caused by the reduced synthesis of beta globin chain. The consequences of the resulting chronic anaemia are also common and include growth retardation, bone marrow expansion, extramedular hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, increased intestinal iron absorption, susceptibility to infections, and hypercoagulability. Transfusional iron overload can affect heart function by directly damaging tissue through iron deposition or via iron-mediated effects at other sites. Cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with thalassaemia and is the leading cause of mortality. The main cardiac abnormalities reported in patients with thalassaemia major (TM) and iron overload are left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, valvulopathies, arrhythmias and pericarditis. These cardiac abnormalities are a consequence of the general co-morbid conditions in thalassaemia but are closely related to concomitant endocrine deficiencies, hypercoagulability state and inflammatory milieu. Iron's toxicity within cells arises from its capacity to catalyse the production of reactive oxygen species that cause lipid peroxidation and organelle damage, which lead ultimately to cell death and fibrosis. With the introduction of new technologies such as cardiac magnetic resonance T2* , the early detection of cardiac iron overload and associated cardiac dysfunction is now possible, allowing time for reversal through iron chelation therapy.

  5. Diabetes mellitus in children suffering from beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; al-Swailem, A; al-Fawaz, I; Warsey, A S; al-Swailem, A

    1994-10-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a frequent complication in patients with beta-thalassaemia major. It is believed to be a consequence of the damage inflicted by iron overload to the pancreatic beta-cell. Liver disorders and genetic influences seem to be additional predisposing factors to diabetes mellitus in patients with beta-thalassaemia. Ethnic variations are frequently reported on prevalence and complications of diabetes mellitus in the beta-thalassaemia patients. We investigated 50 Saudi children (< 15 years) with beta-thalassaemia major and 50 beta-thalassaemia minor, and age- and sex-matched controls for the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and its relation to hitherto claimed predisposing factors. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin level, liver function tests, plasma ferritin, iron, and transferrin were assessed in each patient and glucose tolerance was evaluated. Results in patients with beta-thalassaemia major were compared with those obtained for beta-thalassaemia minor and the controls. The results showed moderate elevation of ferritin level in the majority of the beta-thalassaemia major despite desferroxamine therapy. Either hyperinsulinaemia or hypoinsulinaemia was encountered in the majority of these patients. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 6 per cent compared to 2 per cent in the beta-thalassaemia minor and normal children. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) occurred at a significantly higher (24 per cent) frequency in the beta-thalassaemia major compared to 2 and 0 per cent in the beta-thalassaemia minor patients and normal controls, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly lower in the Saudi thalassaemic patients compared to the results obtained from patients of other ethnic groups reported in literature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Thalassaemia intermedia in a family with beta 0-thalassaemia and Hb Hasharon.

    PubMed Central

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F; Bottura, C

    1982-01-01

    A Brazilian family of Italian descent is described in which the beta-thalassaemia gene is interacting with an alpha chain variant Hb Hasharon (alpha 47 Asp leads to His). One patient who was affected by homozygous beta 0-thalassaemia and heterozygous alpha Hasharon displayed the clinical picture of thalassaemia intermedia. Her haemolysate contained 8.6% Hb F Hasharon (alpha 2 Hasharon gamma 2) and 1.1% Hb A2, the remaining haemoglobin being Hb F. Hb A was not detected. Globin chain synthesis in reticulocytes showed non-alpha/total alpha ratios of 0.29, 0.39, and 0.73 respectively for the patient, the mother, and the father, who is heterozygous for both the beta 0-thalassemia and Hb Hasharon genes. The possible contribution of Hb Hasharon heterozygosity to the less severe expression of homozygous beta 0-thalassaemia is discussed. Images PMID:7154040

  7. Providing a cure for beta thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Chan, L L; Lin, H P; Ariffn, W A; Ariffin, H

    2001-12-01

    The current treatment options for beta thalassaemia major patients include conservative treatment with blood cell transfusions and iron chelation or stem cell transplantation. Regular blood transfusions inevitably lead to multi-organ haemosiderosis and are attended by risks of blood-borne infections. Results from stem cell transplantation are good and suggest that this should be offered as first line therapy when a matched sibling donor is available because the patient is often cured and able to live a normal life. Of 38 Malaysian children who underwent bone marrow or cord blood transplantations using matched sibling donors, 29 (76%) are now cured.

  8. Postmortem molecular diagnosis of sickle beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Kutlar, F; Mirmow, D; Glendenning, M; Holley, L; Kutlar, A

    2005-05-01

    This report describes a case in which the diagnosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) was established after death. The diagnosis of sickle cell syndrome was made in a 68 year old black patient who was found to have sickled red blood cells in many organs at necropsy although the disease had not been diagnosed during her lifetime. DNA was isolated from a peripheral blood smear obtained on the day of the patient's death. The beta globin gene was polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced, revealing that the patient had S-beta(+) thalassaemia. This study shows that blood smears are a suitable source for retrospective DNA analysis studies. This case illustrates that relatively "mild" forms of SCD can be overlooked, despite symptomatology suggestive of a sickle syndrome, and demonstrates the feasibility of the postmortem molecular diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in such cases.

  9. Hb E/beta-thalassaemia: a common & clinically diverse disorder

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Nancy F.; Pakbaz, Zahra; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Haemoglobin E-beta thalassaemia (Hb E/β-thalassaemia) is the genotype responsible for approximately one-half of all severe beta-thalassaemia worldwide. The disorder is characterized by marked clinical variability, ranging from a mild and asymptomatic anaemia to a life-threatening disorder requiring transfusions from infancy. The phenotypic variability of Hb E/β-thalassaemia and the paucity of long-term clinical data, present challenges in providing definitive recommendations for the optimal management of patients. Genetic factors influencing the severity of this disorder include the type of beta-thalassaemia mutation, the co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia, and polymorphisms associated with increased production of foetal haemoglobin. Other factors, including a variable increase in serum erythropoietin in response to anaemia, previous or ongoing infection with malaria, previous splenectomy and other environmental influences, may be involved. The remarkable variation, and the instability, of the clinical phenotype of Hb E beta-thalassaemia suggests that careful tailoring of treatment is required for each patient, and that therapeutic approaches should be re-assessed over-time. PMID:22089616

  10. Obligatory premarital tests for beta-thalassaemia in the Gaza Strip: evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, I; Al Najjar, E; Lulu, N; Sirdah, M

    2007-04-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is a major health problem in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, where 293 patients are currently treated with transfusions and chelation. In September 2000, Palestine adopted a prevention programme of obligatory premarital testing for beta-thalassaemia before the issue of a marriage certificate. From April 2003 to May 2005, 21,825 blood samples from 19,712 couples were collected and analysed. Samples (n = 2251, 10.3%) with microcytosis (mean cell volume <80 fl) and/or hypochromasia (mean cell haemoglobin <26 pg) were considered as suspicious for beta-thalassaemia and subjected to serum ferritin and HbA(2) quantification. Of these samples, 25% were carriers for beta-thalassaemia while 32.4% were iron deficient. A diagnosis could not be established in 15.3% of the suspect samples. An increasing percentages of carrier couples did not go ahead with their marriage in the successive years of the programme, which was fitted to zero in the first year and reached 73.7% in the year 2005 (both partners were carriers in 19 couples, 14 decided to separate while five continued). Since implementation, there has been a reduction in the birth of children with beta-thalassaemia major. This study evaluated the 5-year experience of the Gaza Strip in implementing the obligatory premarital testing programme for beta-thalassaemia and recommends measures that could improve it.

  11. Molecular heterogeneity of beta-thalassaemia in Malaysia: a practical approach to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Thong, M K; Law, H Y; Ng, I S

    1996-01-01

    The beta-thalassaemia mutations in 20 Malaysian children with beta-thalassaemia major were characterised by using a multi-modal approach, consisting of a slot-blot hybridisation with selected allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO), followed by reverse dot-blot assay (RDB), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and genomic sequencing. This strategy yielded a 94.4% mutation detection rate. The 6 most common mutations were codons 41/42 (-TTCT), IVS II nt 654(C --> T), IVS I nt 5(G --> C), IVS I nt 1(G -->T), codon 35 (-C) and codon 19 (A --> G), which accounted for 83.3% of all mutations detected. A strategy of initial screening with the above 6 selected ASOs for slot-blot hybridisation followed by RDB assay for the less common Asian mutations would give a mutation identification of 91.7%. Another feasible approach would be to analyse alleles from a particular racial group, by a judicious selection of 4 ASOs common to that particular subpopulation and then supplement this with RDB assay. This could yield a 100% coverage for the Chinese subpopulation in Malaysia. With these strategies, a practical approach has been identified to overcome the pitfalls posed by the molecular heterogeneity of beta-thalassaemia to enable prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening to be carried out. Regional collaborative studies are to be encouraged as an indispensable tool in providing better health care services to our patients.

  12. A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B.; Khan, M.; Darlison, M.; King, A.; Layton, M.; Old, J.; Petrou, M.; Varnavides, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected, reflecting a widespread failure to deliver timely screening and counselling to carriers. Even though effective treatment is available the annual number of deaths is rising, indicating that better tolerated treatments are needed. CONCLUSION: A national diagnosis register is a powerful instrument for monitoring the treatment and prevention of inherited disorders and for highlighting correctable shortcomings. In view of the increasing possibilities for genetic screening there is a strong case for central funding for such databases within modern health services. PMID:11731807

  13. A chronic hypercoagulable state in patients with beta-thalassaemia major is already present in childhood.

    PubMed

    Eldor, A; Durst, R; Hy-Am, E; Goldfarb, A; Gillis, S; Rachmilewitz, E A; Abramov, A; MacLouf, J; Godefray, Y C; De Raucourt, E; Guillin, M C

    1999-12-01

    A higher than normal incidence of thromboembolic events has been observed in adult patients with beta-thalassaemia major (TM) and certain haemostatic anomalies found in these patients suggest the existence of a chronic hypercoagulable state. Thalassaemic red blood cells (RBC) were demonstrated to facilitate thrombin formation due to altered asymmetry of the membrane phospholipids with enhanced exposure of phosphatidylserine. Since RBC anomalies exist in thalassaemia from the first months of life, we studied markers of hypercoagulability and thrombophilia in 36 adult patients (range 19-38 years) and 26 children (range 2-18 years) with beta-TM. All the patients were in steady state and none had experienced clinical signs or symptoms of thrombosis. Highly elevated urinary levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 and significantly elevated plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes were observed to the same extent in TM children and adults. The levels of factor II were decreased while factors V, VII + X and plasminogen were within the normal range. The natural coagulation inhibitors, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) were significantly decreased in all TM patients investigated, regardless of age, but the PS binding protein (C4bBP) and antithrombin III levels were normal. The frequency of other thrombophilic mutations was not increased. Thus, a chronic hypercoagulable state already exists in thalassaemia in childhood and may contribute to the cardiac and pulmonary anomalies and the thrombotic events which occur later. PMID:10606878

  14. Thalassaemia in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed Central

    Kuliev, A M; Rasulov, I M; Dadasheva, T; Schwarz, E I; Rosatelli, C; Saba, L; Meloni, A; Gemidjioglu, E; Petrou, M; Modell, B

    1994-01-01

    beta thalassaemia is present throughout the southern regions of the former USSR. We have defined the clinical picture of the disorder, the spectrum of beta thalassaemia mutations, and the role of customary consanguineous marriage in Azerbaijan, where thalassaemia presents a public health problem of the same order as that in Greece. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we found that the common form of the disorder is typically severe. Typical Turkish, Mediterranean, Azeri, Kurdish, and Asian Indian mutations were found, consistent with the history of the region. The common Mediterranean beta 0 thalassaemia mutation (codon 39) was not found. Three mutations (codon 8-AA, IVS2-1 and IVS1-110) account for over 80% of beta thalassaemia genes. Consanguineous marriage appears to contribute relatively little to the frequency of affected births. These observations provide the basis for a thalassaemia prevention programme in Azerbaijan. PMID:8014969

  15. Family reactions and their management in a parents group with beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Tsiantis, J; Xypolita-Tsantili, D; Papadakou-Lagoyianni, S

    1982-11-01

    The parents of children with beta-thalassaemia displayed various patterns of emotion (guilt, death anxiety, denial of feelings) and their behaviour towards the child was inappropriate (overprotective, conspiracy of silence); this could affect his psychosocial development and lead to tension within the family. Some parents were overdemanding and even hostile to hospital staff, thus making the management of cases difficult. The therapeutic team has tried to concentrate on these problems in order to clarify them and give support to the families. This has facilitated communication within the family as well as between the family and hospital staff, and had diminished the problems. PMID:7149759

  16. Osteomyelitis, discitis, epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica in a man with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed α-thalassaemia trait.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Helen; Abbey, Aoife; Patel, Vinod; Nair, Rajiv

    2015-01-21

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and α-thalassaemia trait. Investigations for relapsing and remitting fever found vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis and epidural and psoas abscess secondary to Salmonella enterica.

  17. Effect of nutrition support on immunity in paediatric patients with beta-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Tienboon, Prasong

    2003-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies have been variably observed in thalassaemia and the aetiology of many of the immune abnormalities in thalassaemic children are poorly defined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that certain immune abnormalities have a nutritional basis. Nutritional status, selective quantitative and functional indices of immunity were studied in twelve children (7 females, 5 males; mean age 28 months, SD 5 and range 19.8-35.5), with thalassaemia major before and after a one month period of intensive nutrition support (the study diet consisted of 'Enfapro' liquid formula (Mead Johnson) with added dextrose and corn oil to achieve a caloric density of 1.1 kcal/cc in addition to vitamins and minerals). Each child was provided approximately 150 kcal/day and 4 g of protein/day. Lymphocyte proliferation to Concanavalin A (Con A) (P = 0.008) and Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) (P = 0.002) was depressed upon entry into the study, however the response to Con A attained normal values by the end of the intervention. Compared to baselines, the proliferative response to Con A (P = 0.005) and Phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) (P = 0.031) both improved after the nutrition support. Although there was no general correlation of zinc status with lymphocyte proliferation, normal baseline zinc status was associated with improvement of proliferation. The %CD4 increased (P = 0.036), primarily because of a decrease in total lymphocytes and to lesser extent a decrease in CD8 lymphocytes. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were found to be elevated on admission but were not significantly affected by the nutrition intervention. C3 concentrations were uniformly depressed on admission but increased by the end of the study protocol (P = 0.037). C4 and CH50 activity were not significantly influenced by the intervention. In conclusion, children with beta thalassaemia have abnormalities of lymphocyte function as well as key complement components that are responsive to nutrition support. In

  18. Secondary Sea-Blue Histiocytosis in a Patient with Transfusion Dependent HbE-Beta Thalassaemia and Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Saad Eldeen Bakheet, Omayma; Yusof, Nurasyikin; Raja Zahratul, Azma; Ithnin, Azlin; Abdul Aziz, Suria; Alias, Hamidah

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sea-blue histiocytosis occurs more frequently than the primary form and occurs consequent to a wide range of metabolic and haematologic disorders including thalassaemia. We report an 18-year-old Chinese boy with transfusion-dependent HbE-beta thalassaemia who complained of pain and swelling at the left iliac crest region for 2 months duration. Physical examination revealed pallor with hepatosplenomegaly. Local examination revealed a huge swelling 12 cm × 12 cm in diameter, firm in consistency and tender. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed an osteosarcoma. His bone marrow aspirate showed numerous sea-blue histiocytes, the cytoplasm of which was closely packed with fine granules that stained blue with May-Grunwald-Giemsa. The nuclei were centrally located in some cells and displaced towards the periphery in other cells. There was no malignant cell infiltration in the marrow. The case is reported due to the co-incidental dual pathology in our patient (HbE-beta thalassaemia and osteosarcoma) and the unusual bone marrow finding of numerous sea-blue histiocytes. PMID:27408409

  19. α-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-thalassaemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a clinical phenotype varying from almost asymptomatic to a lethal haemolytic anaemia. It is probably the most common monogenic gene disorder in the world and is especially frequent in Mediterranean countries, South-East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and in the Indian subcontinent. During the last few decades the incidence of alpha thalassaemia in North-European countries and Northern America has increased because of demographic changes. Compound heterozygotes and some homozygotes have a moderate to severe form of alpha thalassaemia called HbH disease. Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis is a lethal form in which no alpha-globin is synthesized. Alpha thalassaemia most frequently results from deletion of one or both alpha genes from the chromosome and can be classified according to its genotype/phenotype correlation. The normal complement of four functional alpha-globin genes may be decreased by 1, 2, 3 or all 4 copies of the genes, explaining the clinical variation and increasing severity of the disease. All affected individuals have a variable degree of anaemia (low Hb), reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH/pg), reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV/fl) and a normal/slightly reduced level of HbA2. Molecular analysis is usually required to confirm the haematological observations (especially in silent alpha-thalassaemia and alpha-thalassaemia trait). The predominant features in HbH disease are anaemia with variable amounts of HbH (0.8-40%). The type of mutation influences the clinical severity of HbH disease. The distinguishing features of the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are the presence of Hb Bart's and the total absence of HbF. The mode of transmission of alpha thalassaemia is autosomal recessive. Genetic counselling is offered to couples at risk for HbH disease or haemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Foetalis Syndrome. Carriers of alpha+- or

  20. Complex preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia, sideroblastic anaemia, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, Georgia; Vrettou, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Destouni, Aspasia; Poulou, Myrto; Moutafi, Maria; Kokkali, Georgia; Pantos, Konstantinos; Davies, Stephen; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select histocompatible siblings to facilitate curative haematopoeitic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is now an acceptable option in the absence of an available human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatible donor. We describe a case where the couple who requested HLA-PGD, were both carriers of two serious haematological diseases, beta-thalassaemia and sideroblastic anaemia. Their daughter, affected with sideroblastic anaemia, was programmed to have HSCT. A multiplex-fluorescent-touchdown-PCR protocol was optimized for the simultaneous amplification of: the two HBB-gene mutated regions (c.118C> T, c.25-26delAA), four short tandem repeats (STRs) in chr11p15.5 linked to the HBB gene, the SLC25A38 gene mutation (c.726C > T), two STRs in chr3p22.1 linked to the SLC25A38 gene, plus eleven informative STRs for HLA-haplotyping (chr6p22.1-21.3). This was followed by real-time nested PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for the detection of HBB and SLC25A38 gene mutations, as well as the analysis of all STRs on an automatic genetic analyzer (sequencer). The couple completed four clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF)/PGD cycles. At least one matched unaffected embryo was identified and transferred in each cycle. A twin pregnancy was established in the fourth PGD cycle and genotyping results at all loci were confirmed by prenatal diagnosis. Two healthy baby girls were delivered at week 38 of pregnancy. The need to exclude two familial disorders for HLA-PGD is rarely encountered. The methodological approach described here is fast, accurate, clinically-validated, and of relatively low cost. PMID:26636621

  1. Increased serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in beta thalassaemia: effect of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Meliconi, R; Uguccioni, M; Lalli, E; Nesci, S; Delfini, C; Paradisi, O; Lucarelli, G; Gasbarrini, G; Facchini, A

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were determined in beta thalassemic patients before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to evaluate whether changes in TNF concentrations after BMT were related to immune mediated complications. METHODS: Serum TNF concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) in paired samples from 71 patients with beta thalassemia before and after BMT. Serial samples from 13 patients were also studied for up to six months after BMT. Forty one normal healthy children matched for sex and age were studied as controls. RESULTS: beta thalassemic patients had high serum TNF concentrations before transplantation compared with controls. These were not related to sex, age, duration of disease, number of blood transfusions, transferrin concentrations or splenectomy. DQw1 positive patients showed significantly lower TNF concentrations than non-DQw1 cases. Patients with severe liver fibrosis had significantly higher TNF concentrations. No correlation was found between TNF values and BMT outcome before transplantation but TNF alpha values fell significantly after BMT. The decrease persisted only in patients with successful engraftment. In serial samples studied for up to six months after BMT, TNF values decreased but in four out of five patients with graft rejection and in all five with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) sharp increases occurred at the time of clinical symptoms. No correlation was found between the degree of GVHD and serum TNF-alpha concentrations nor between TNF-alpha concentrations after BMT and the presence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. CONCLUSIONS: About 50% of beta thalassemic patients have increased serum TNF, and the changes after BMT are related to the occurrence of immune mediate complications. The persistence of low TNF concentrations after successful engraftment may be due to the preparative regimen and the lack of adverse immune reactions. PMID:1740519

  2. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait Beta diversity in South American hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ben G; Tinoco, Boris; Parra, Juan Luis; Brown, Leone M; McGuire, Jimmy A; Stiles, F Gary; Graham, Catherine H

    2014-08-01

    Comparison of the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait dimensions of beta diversity may uncover the mechanisms that generate and maintain biodiversity, such as geographic isolation, environmental filtering, and convergent adaptation. We developed an approach to predict the relationship between environmental and geographic distance and the dimensions of beta diversity. We tested these predictions using hummingbird assemblages in the northern Andes. We expected taxonomic beta diversity to result from recent geographic barriers limiting dispersal, and we found that cost distance, which includes barriers, was a better predictor than Euclidean distance. We expected phylogenetic beta diversity to result from historical connectivity and found that differences in elevation were the best predictors of phylogenetic beta diversity. We expected high trait beta diversity to result from local adaptation to differing environments and found that differences in elevation were correlated with trait beta diversity. When combining beta diversity dimensions, we observe that high beta diversity in all dimensions results from adaption to different environments between isolated assemblages. Comparisons with high taxonomic, low phylogenetic, and low trait beta diversity occurred among lowland assemblages separated by the Andes, suggesting that geographic barriers have recently isolated lineages in similar environments. We provide insight into mechanisms governing hummingbird biodiversity patterns and provide a framework that is broadly applicable to other taxonomic groups.

  3. Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait Beta diversity in South American hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ben G; Tinoco, Boris; Parra, Juan Luis; Brown, Leone M; McGuire, Jimmy A; Stiles, F Gary; Graham, Catherine H

    2014-08-01

    Comparison of the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait dimensions of beta diversity may uncover the mechanisms that generate and maintain biodiversity, such as geographic isolation, environmental filtering, and convergent adaptation. We developed an approach to predict the relationship between environmental and geographic distance and the dimensions of beta diversity. We tested these predictions using hummingbird assemblages in the northern Andes. We expected taxonomic beta diversity to result from recent geographic barriers limiting dispersal, and we found that cost distance, which includes barriers, was a better predictor than Euclidean distance. We expected phylogenetic beta diversity to result from historical connectivity and found that differences in elevation were the best predictors of phylogenetic beta diversity. We expected high trait beta diversity to result from local adaptation to differing environments and found that differences in elevation were correlated with trait beta diversity. When combining beta diversity dimensions, we observe that high beta diversity in all dimensions results from adaption to different environments between isolated assemblages. Comparisons with high taxonomic, low phylogenetic, and low trait beta diversity occurred among lowland assemblages separated by the Andes, suggesting that geographic barriers have recently isolated lineages in similar environments. We provide insight into mechanisms governing hummingbird biodiversity patterns and provide a framework that is broadly applicable to other taxonomic groups. PMID:25058281

  4. Thalassaemia in the British

    PubMed Central

    Knox-Macaulay, H. H. M.; Weatherall, D. J.; Clegg, J. B.; Pembrey, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Different forms of thalassaemia or related disorders were found in 116 people of apparently pure British stock. Among them were one family with a child homozygous for β-thalassaemia and eight heterozygous relatives, 16 families with 83 persons heterozygous for β-thalassaemia, two families with three persons with Hb H disease and three heterozygous for α-thalassaemia 1, one family with a child apparently homozygous for the “silent β-thalassaemia gene,” one family with six members heterozygous for a form of β-thalassaemia intermedia, and three families with 11 members heterozygous for different types of hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin. The clinical, haematological, and haemoglobin biosynthetic findings in these persons were similar to those of patients with thalassaemia from other racial groups. The heterozygous state for β-thalassaemia is overlooked in British patients, particularly during pregnancy, because it is not considered in the differential diagnosis of refractory anaemia. In many cases this leads to much unnecessary investigation and potentially harmful treatment. There seem to be several varieties of hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin production among British people. These conditions, while not causing anaemia, may cause difficulties during examination of maternal blood for fetal cells and may, if inherited with a β-thalassaemia gene, produce an unusually high level of Hb F in a person heterozygous for β-thalassaemia. PMID:4124395

  5. Screening for intermediate and severe forms of thalassaemia in discarded red blood cells: optimization and feasibility.

    PubMed

    George, Elizabeth; Lai, Mei I; Teh, Lai Kuan; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Goh, Ern Huei; Asokan, Kamalan; Tan, J A M A; Vasudevan, Maithili; Low, Sharon

    2011-12-01

    Detection and quantification of Hb subtypes of human blood is integral to presumptive identification of thalassaemias. It has been used in neonatal screening of thalassaemia and Hb variants. The use of discarded red blood cells following processing of the cord blood for stem cells provides readily available diagnostic material for thalassaemia screening. In this study, we determined the range of Hb subtypes in 195 consecutive cord blood samples collected for cord blood banking. The 'cord blood samples' analysed were those of the remaining red blood cells after the cord blood was processed for stem cell storage. Quantification of Hb subtypes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was done on BioRad Variant II Hb testing system. Only 73 (36.5%) of the samples could be analyzed neat without dilution. With a 1:300 dilution with wash solution the acceptable area as recommended by the manufacturer for reading of a C-gram within the 1 to 3 million ranges were achieved in all. Eighteen (9%) 12 showed classical Hb Barts (y4) prerun peaks were confirmed by Sebia Hydrasys automated Hb gel electrophoresis and quantified by Sebia Capillarys 2 capillary electrophoresis. Only 1 (0.5%) was presumptively identified with HbH disease. Due to the limited number of samples no beta-thalassaemia major, Hb E beta-thalassaemia and Hb Barts hydrops fetalis were found. The HPLC assay was possible at a cost US$ 5 per sample and a turnover time of 10 samples per hour without technical difficulties. This study reports an effective and valuable protocol for thalassaemia screening in red blood cells which would otherwise be discarded during cord blood processing. Cord blood with severe and intermediate forms of thalassaemia can be preselected and not stored. PMID:22390095

  6. β-Thalassaemia and its Co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in Upper Assam Region of North Eastern India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Rumi; Saikia, Sidhartha Protim; Pathak, Kalyani; Panyang, Rita; Rajkakati, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction β-Thalassaemias are common genetic disorders in the Indian subcontinent and its status has not been well studied in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Aim The aim of the study was to show the prevalence of β- thalassaemias and its co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 1200 anaemic patients were investigated for β- thalassaemias. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were done for screening. Results Out of 1200 patients screened, 5.83% β-thalassaemia trait, 2.33% compound Hb E/β-Thalassaemia, 1.33% β-thalassaemia major and 0.42% compound Hb S/β- thalassaemia were detected. A high incidence of thalassaemia is found among the people of Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Conclusion The only way to prevent the disease is carrier detection and awareness among the people about it. PMID:27190829

  7. Genotyping of beta thalassemia trait by high-resolution DNA melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Rattika; Ongchai, Siriwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2013-11-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common hereditary hemalogogical disease in Thailand, with a prevalence of 5-8%. In this study, we evaluated the high resolution DNA melting (HRM) assay to identify beta thalassemia mutation in samples from 143 carriers of the beta thalassemia traits in at risk couples. The DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and tested for mutation under a series of 5 PCR-HRM (A, B, C, D and E primers) protocols. The A primers were for detection of beta thalassemia mutations in the HBB promoter region, the B primers for mutations in exon I, the C primers for exon II, the D primers for exon III and the E primers for the 3.4 kb deletion mutation. The mutations were diagnosed by comparing the complete melting curve profiles of a wild type control with those for each mutant sample. With the PCR-HRM technique, fourteen types of beta thalassemia mutations were detected. Each mutation had a unique and specific melting profile. The mutations included 36.4% (52 cases) codon 41/42-CTTT, 26.6% (38 cases) codon 17 A-T, 11.2% (16 cases) IVS1-1 G-T, 8.4% (12 cases) codon 71/72 +A, 8.4% (12 cases) of the 3.4 kb deletion and 3.5% (5 cases) -28 A-G. The remainder included one instance each of -87 C-A, -31 A-C, codon 27/28 +C, codon 30 G-A, IVS1-5 G-C, codon 35 C-A, codon 41-C and IVSII -654 C-T. Of the total cases, 85.8% of the mutations could be detected by primers B and C. The PCR-HRM method provides a rapid, simple and highly feasible strategy for mutation screening of beta thalassemia traits. PMID:24450243

  8. Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

    2013-11-01

    The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSHβ gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSHβ primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSHβ primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele.

  9. Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

    2013-11-01

    The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSHβ gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSHβ primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSHβ primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele. PMID:24057246

  10. Severe thalassaemia intermedia with multiple fractures: role of transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saqib Qayyum; Iqbal, Mudassar; Wahla, Madiha Saeed; Tarrar, Aimel Munir

    2011-11-01

    Thalassaemia intermedia includes thalassaemias with clinical severity intermediate between asymptomatic thalassaemia minor and transfusion dependent thalassaemia major. By definition patients of thalassaemia intermedia maintain a haemoglobin level of 7-10 g/dl and do not, or only occasionally, require blood transfusion. An eight-year-old girl who was a known case of thalassaemia intermedia and had been occasionally transfused presented with fever, pain and swelling over the wrists, ankles and above the right knee joint. Radiographs showed medullary widening, cortical thinning and; multiple, recent and old, partially healed fractures of metadiaphseal regions of long bones. Her fractures have been immobilized by means of back slabs. In view of her recurrent fractures and growth retardation we advised a regular transfusion-chelation regimen to our patient to suppress her ineffective dyserythropoiesis. The treatment is expected to prevent further bone fragility and fractures, as well as improve her life quality. PMID:22125999

  11. Hb lepore/β0-thalassaemia with α+-thalassaemia interactions, a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Hafiza; Mohamad Nasir, Suziana; Ahadon, Madzlifah; Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma; Ithnin, Azlin; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Alias, Hamidah; Loh, C-Khai; Abdul Latiff, Zarina; Abdul Murad, Nor Azian; Othman, Ainoon

    2015-12-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a variant Hb consisting of two α-globin and two δβ-globin chains. In a heterozygote, it is associated with clinical findings of thalassaemia minor, but interactions with other haemoglobinopathies can lead to various clinical phenotypes and pose diagnostic challenges. We reported a pair of siblings from a Malay family, who presented with pallor and hepatosplenomegaly at the ages of 21 months and 14 months old. The red cell indices and peripheral blood smears of both patients showed features of thalassaemia intermedia. Other laboratory investigations of the patients showed conflicting results. However, laboratory investigation results of the parents had led to a presumptive diagnosis of compound heterozygote Hb Lepore/β-thalassaemia and co-inheritance α+-thalassaemia (-α3.7). Hb Lepore has rarely been detected in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Malaysia. These two cases highlight the importance of family studies for accurate diagnosis, hence appropriate clinical management and genetic counseling. PMID:26712677

  12. Frequency distribution of sickle cell anemia, sickle cell trait and sickle/beta-thalassemia among anemic patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Jahman; Alkulaibi, Yasser Abdullah; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2015-01-01

    Background: Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and Hb F) were also estimated in SCA and SCT patients. Materials and Methods: Results of Hb capillary electrophoresis performed on all patients with SCH from January 2011 to December 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of a total of 3332 patient data analyzed, 307 were anemic patients (58% males and 42% females) with SCH. The sickling test showed all the patients to be positive. Hb electrophoresis revealed the incidence of 96.7%, 3.3%, and 0% of the patients suffered from SCA, SCT and sickle/beta-thalassemia, respectively. Patients with SCA had a higher level of Hb F and showed no crisis when compared with other SCA patients who had lower or no Hb F levels. Conclusion: SCA is relatively frequent among males (56.4%) than females out of all patients with SCH. The SCA incidence was more common (48.5%) among children, frequency of SCT among adult age group was 1.6%, while sickle/beta-thalassemia was 0%. PMID:26604627

  13. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  14. A thalassaemia intermedia case with concomitant left atrial thrombus.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Cem; Basaran, Ozcan; Topal, Yasar; Akin, Fatih

    2014-06-20

    Although marked improvements have been observed in the life expectancy of patients with thalassaemia by regular blood transfusion and strict iron chelation therapies in recent years, these patients still have to deal with several complications, mainly cardiovascular. One of the life-threatening complications is the chronic hypercoagulable state and thromboembolic events which develop due to haemostatic alterations in patients with thalassaemia, although they are more frequently seen in those with thalassaemia intermedia. Many thromboembolic complications, mainly deep venous thrombosis and cerebral thrombosis, have been reported in thalassaemia. However, intracardiac thrombosis is rarely seen. In this manuscript, we presented a case that underwent splenectomy 6 years ago but not regularly attended the control visits and presented to our clinic with gradually increasing exercise dyspnoea for 2 months.

  15. Trait anger expressiveness and pain-induced beta-endorphin release: support for the opioid dysfunction hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen; Chung, Ok Y; Burns, John W; Diedrich, Laura

    2007-08-01

    The anger management styles of anger-in (inhibition) and anger-out (direct expression) are positively associated with pain responsiveness. Opioid blockade studies suggest that hyperalgesic effects of trait anger-out, but not those of trait anger-in, are mediated in part by opioid analgesic system dysfunction. The current study tested the opioid dysfunction hypothesis of anger-out using an alternative index of opioid function: pain-induced changes in plasma endogenous opioids. Plasma beta-endorphin (BE) was assessed at rest and again following exposure to three laboratory acute pain tasks (finger pressure, ischemic, and thermal) in 14 healthy controls and 13 chronic low back pain (LBP) subjects. As expected, acute pain ratings correlated positively with measures of anger-in (both groups) and anger-out (LBP group; p's<.05). Greater pain-induced increases in BE were associated with significantly lower pain ratings in both groups (p's<.05). Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that greater anger-out significantly predicted smaller pain-induced BE increases (p<.05). Subject type did not moderate this association (p>.10). Anger-in did not display significant main or interaction effects on pain-induced BE changes (p's>.10). The significant association between anger-out and BE release partially mediated the hyperalgesic effects of anger-out on pain unpleasantness, and was not attenuated by statistical control of general negative affect. This suggests unique associations with expressive anger regulation. Elevated trait anger-out therefore appears to be associated with opioid analgesic system dysfunction, whether it is indexed by responses to opioid blockade or by examining circulating endogenous opioid levels. Possible "statextrait" interactions on these anger-related opioid system differences are discussed. PMID:17197088

  16. Quantitative trait analysis reveals transforming growth factor-beta2 as a positive regulator of early hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Langer, Jessica C; Henckaerts, Els; Orenstein, Jonathan; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

    2004-01-01

    Elucidation of pathways involved in mouse strain-dependent variation in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment may reveal novel mechanisms relevant in vivo. Here, we demonstrate genetically determined variation in the proliferation of lin-Sca1++kit+ (LSK) primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells in response to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) 2, the dose response of which was biphasic with a stimulatory effect at low concentrations. In contrast, the dose responses of TGF-beta1 or -beta3 were inhibitory and did not show mouse strain-dependent variation. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the effect of TGF-beta2 was identified on chromosome 4 overlapping with a QTL regulating the frequency of LSK cells. These overlapping QTL were corroborated by the observation that the frequency of LSK cells is lower in adult Tgfb2+/- mice than in wild-type littermates, indicating that TGF-beta2 is a genetically determined positive regulator LSK number in vivo. Furthermore, adult Tgfb2+/- mice have a defect in competitive repopulation potential that becomes more pronounced upon serial transplantation. In fetal TGF-beta2-deficient HSCs, a defect only appears after serial reconstitution. These data suggest that TGF-beta2 can act cell autonomously and is important for HSCs that have undergone replicative stress. Thus, TGF-beta2 is a novel, genetically determined positive regulator of adult HSCs.

  17. Direct demonstration that the A gamma T globin gene is linked to the 4 bp promoter deletion in the beta A chromosome of sickle cell traits.

    PubMed

    Gilman, J G; Josifovska, O; Erlingsson, S; Milner, P F; Nagel, R L

    1993-08-01

    In beta zero-thalassemia and sickle cell patients, a 4 bp deletion at -222 to -225 of the A gamma globin promoter was associated with low expression of the A gamma T variant (threonine at codon 75 of A gamma), whereas A gamma I (isoleucine at 75) had the normal A gamma promoter and higher expression. However, it has been reported that the beta A chromosomes of sickle cell trait cases have the 4 bp deletion as a common polymorphism unlinked to the A gamma T allele. We now present data demonstrating the association of the A gamma T allele with the 4 bp deletion in beta A chromosomes of sickle cell traits.

  18. The genetic basis of asymptomatic codon 8 frame-shift (HBB:c25_26delAA) β(0) -thalassaemia homozygotes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Huang, Shengwen; Farrell, John J; Davis, Lance; Théberge, Roger; Benson, Katherine A; Riolueang, Suchada; Viprakasit, Vip; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Ünal, Sule; Gümrük, Fatma; Akar, Nejat; Başak, A Nazli; Osorio, Leonor; Badens, Catherine; Pissard, Serge; Joly, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew D; Gallagher, Patrick G; Steinberg, Martin H; Forget, Bernard G; Chui, David H K

    2016-03-01

    Two 21-year old dizygotic twin men of Iraqi descent were homozygous for HBB codon 8, deletion of two nucleotides (-AA) frame-shift β(0) -thalassaemia mutation (FSC8; HBB:c25_26delAA). Both were clinically well, had splenomegaly, and were never transfused. They had mild microcytic anaemia (Hb 120-130 g/l) and 98% of their haemoglobin was fetal haemoglobin (HbF). Both were carriers of Hph α-thalassaemia mutation. On the three major HbF quantitative trait loci (QTL), the twins were homozygous for G>A HBG2 Xmn1 site at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7482144, homozygous for 3-bp deletion HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphism (HMIP) at rs66650371, and heterozygous for the A>C BCL11A intron 2 polymorphism at rs766432. These findings were compared with those found in 22 other FSC8 homozygote patients: four presented with thalassaemia intermedia phenotype, and 18 were transfusion dependent. The inheritance of homozygosity for HMIP 3-bp deletion at rs66650371 and heterozygosity for Hph α-thalassaemia mutation was found in the twins and not found in any of the other 22 patients. Further studies are needed to uncover likely additional genetic variants that could contribute to the exceptionally high HbF levels and mild phenotype in these twins. PMID:26771086

  19. Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Stich, Benjamin; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schulz, Britta; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-10-01

    Association mapping promises to overcome the limitations of linkage mapping methods. The main objective of this study was to examine the applicability of multivariate association mapping with an empirical data set of sugar beet. A total of 111 diploid sugar beet inbreds was selected from the seed parent heterotic pool to represent a broad diversity with respect to sugar content (SC). The inbreds were genotyped with 26 simple sequence repeat markers chosen according to their map positions in proximity to previously identified quantitative trait loci for SC. For SC and beet yield (BY), the genotypic variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Based on the global test of the bivariate mixed-model approach, four markers were significantly associated with SC, BY, or both at a false discovery rate of 0.025. All four markers were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BY but only two with SC. The identification of markers associated with SC, BY, or both indicated that association mapping can be successfully applied in a sugar beet breeding context for detection of marker-phenotype associations. Furthermore, based on our results multivariate association mapping can be recommended as a promising tool to discriminate with a high mapping resolution between pleiotropy and linkage as reasons for co-localization of marker-phenotype associations for different traits.

  20. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  1. Silent cerebral infarct in child patients with beta thalassaemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Leblebisatan, Göksel; Bay, Ali; Sirikci, Akif; Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Sonmezisik, Serdar; Leblebisatan, Serife; Baspinar, Osman; Dogan, Mustafa; Yis, Uluc

    2012-10-01

    There are numerous reports that patients with thalassemia are faced with hypercoagulability leading to vascular disorders. One of these complications is known as a silent infarct, defined as a small infarct detected by cerebral imaging but without any neurological symptoms. Since it has a progressive nature, it is of vital importance because it may lead to symptomatic cerebrovascular accidents in the future. Twenty-two children with thalassemia intermedia were enrolled into the study and MRI scans were performed. All demographic data and clinical features of the patients were obtained during the follow-up period. In addition to the patients, 13 healthy controls were included to compare serum anticoagulant levels with those of the thalassemia intermedia patients. Four of the patients were found to have silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs). The lesions involved varying amounts of the deep cerebral white matter and sub-cortical areas. One patient showed 'net line' filling defects within the ambient cistern on MRI images corresponding to moyamoya vessels. Three patients had undergone splenectomy, and three were transfused irregularly and had less than six transfusions per year. More importantly, protein C levels were lower and platelet levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared with controls. We were not able to find any association between SCI and transfusion number or splenectomy. However, of the total patients four thalassemia intermedia patients had SCI in early childhood and this is an unusual finding. In order to verify the findings, further studies must be conducted involving larger numbers of patients.

  2. Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.

    2009-01-01

    At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than λ.

  3. Dysregulated Arginine Metabolism and Cardiopulmonary Dysfunction in Patients with Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Claudia R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wood, John; Porter, John B.; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Sweeters, Nancy; Olivieri, Nancy F; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Virzi, Lisa; Hassell, Kathryn; Taher, Ali; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A.; Larkin, Sandra; Suh, Jung H.; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Kuypers, Frans A.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly develops in thalassaemia syndromes, but is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the cardiopulmonary and biological profile of patients with thalassaemia at risk for PH. A case-control study of thalassaemia patients at high versus low PH-risk was performed. A single cross-sectional measurement for variables reflecting cardiopulmonary status and biological pathophysiology were obtained, including Doppler-echocardiography, 6-minute-walk-test, Borg Dyspnea Score, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest-computerized tomography, pulmonary function testing and laboratory analyses targeting mechanism of coagulation, inflammation, haemolysis, adhesion and the arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Twenty-seven thalassaemia patients were evaluated, 14 with an elevated tricuspid-regurgitant-jet-velocity (TRV) ≥2.5m/s. Patients with increased TRV had a higher frequency of splenectomy, and significantly larger right atrial size, left atrial volume and left septal-wall thickness on echocardiography and/or MRI, with elevated biomarkers of abnormal coagulation, lactate dehydrogenase levels and arginase concentration, and lower arginine-bioavailability compared to low-risk patients. Arginase concentration correlated significantly to several echocardiography/MRI parameters of cardiovascular function in addition to global-arginine-bioavailability and biomarkers of haemolytic rate, including lactate dehydrogenase, haemoglobin and bilirubin. Thalassaemia patients with a TRV ≥2.5m/s have additional echocardiography and cardiac-MRI parameters suggestive of right and left-sided cardiac dysfunction. In addition, low arginine bioavailability may contribute to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in β-thalassaemia. PMID:25907665

  4. Beta event-related desynchronization as an index of individual differences in processing human facial expression: further investigations of autistic traits in typically developing adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicholas R.; Simpson, Andrew; Till, Amy; Simmons, Kelly; Puzzo, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) has been associated with various forms of social cognition and affective processing including vicarious experience. It has also been proposed that a faulty hMNS may underlie some of the deficits seen in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the present study we set out to investigate whether emotional facial expressions could modulate a putative EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) and if so, would this differ according to the individual level of autistic traits [high versus low Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score]. Participants were presented with 3 s films of actors opening and closing their hands (classic hMNS mu-suppression protocol) while simultaneously wearing happy, angry, or neutral expressions. Mu-suppression was measured in the alpha and low beta bands. The low AQ group displayed greater low beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) to both angry and neutral expressions. The high AQ group displayed greater low beta ERD to angry than to happy expressions. There was also significantly more low beta ERD to happy faces for the low than for the high AQ group. In conclusion, an interesting interaction between AQ group and emotional expression revealed that hMNS activation can be modulated by emotional facial expressions and that this is differentiated according to individual differences in the level of autistic traits. The EEG index of hMNS activation (mu suppression) seems to be a sensitive measure of the variability in facial processing in typically developing individuals with high and low self-reported traits of autism. PMID:23630489

  5. Mineral Levels in Thalassaemia Major Patients Using Different Iron Chelators.

    PubMed

    Genc, Gizem Esra; Ozturk, Zeynep; Gumuslu, Saadet; Kupesiz, Alphan

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the levels of minerals in chronically transfused thalassaemic patients living in Antalya, Turkey and to determine mineral levels in groups using different iron chelators. Three iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox have been used to remove iron from patients' tissues. There were contradictory results in the literature about minerals including selenium, zinc, copper, and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients. Blood samples from the 60 thalassaemia major patients (the deferoxamine group, n = 19; the deferiprone group, n = 20 and the deferasirox group, n = 21) and the controls (n = 20) were collected. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium, and iron were measured, and all of them except iron showed no significant difference between the controls and the patients regardless of chelator type. Serum copper levels in the deferasirox group were lower than those in the control and deferoxamine groups, and serum magnesium levels in the deferasirox group were higher than those in the control, deferoxamine and deferiprone groups. Iron levels in the patient groups were higher than those in the control group, and iron levels showed a significant correlation with selenium and magnesium levels. Different values of minerals in thalassaemia major patients may be the result of different dietary intake, chelator type, or regional differences in where patients live. That is why minerals may be measured in thalassaemia major patients at intervals, and deficient minerals should be replaced. Being careful about levels of copper and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients using deferasirox seems to be beneficial.

  6. Comparative in vivo expression of beta(+)-thalassemia alleles.

    PubMed

    Marwan, M M; Scerri, C A; Zarroag, S O; Cao, A; Kyrri, A; Kalogirou, E; Kleanthous, M; Ioannou, P; Angastiniotis, M; Felice, A E

    1999-08-01

    Double heterozygotes who inherit one abnormal though stable beta-globin variant in association with a molecularly identified beta(+)-thalassaemia allele provide unique opportunities to quantify the in vivo expression of particular beta(+)-thalassemia alleles. The globin products of the two alleles can be separated, quantified and the output of the beta(+)-thalassaemia allele expressed as the MCH-beta(A) in pg beta(A)-globin/beta(+)-thalassemia allele/RBC = 0.5 MCH x Hb A%. In this communication we provide new quantitative data on the expression of five mutations as follows: the beta(+)-87 (C-->G) = 3.8 pg beta(A)-globin/beta(+)-thalassemia allele/RBC (n = 1); the beta(+) IVS-I-1 (G-->A) = 0.2 pg beta(A)-globin/beta(+)-thalassemia allele/RBC (n = 1); the beta(+) IVS-I-6 (T-->C) = 2.9 pg beta(A)-globin/beta(+)-thalassemia allele/RBC (n = 7); the beta(+) IVS-I-110 (G-->A) = 1.1 pg beta(A)-globin/beta(+)-thalassemia allele/RBC (n = 13), and the beta(+) IVS-II-745 (C-->G) = 1.74 pg beta(A)-globin/beta(+)-thalassemia allele/RBC (n = 2). The values obtained are compared with those of other beta(+)-thalassemia alleles from the literature. It can be seen that the MCH-beta(A) value may be a correct index of thalassemia severity useful for the correlation of genotype with phenotype, and for understanding the effects of mutations in beta-globin genes on pathophysiologically meaningful beta-globin gene expression. PMID:10490134

  7. Endocrine complications in transfusion dependent thalassaemia in Penang Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ong, C K; Lim, S L; Tan, W C; Ong, E E; Goh, A S

    2008-06-01

    Frequent blood transfusions can lead to iron overload which may result in several endocrine complications especially in the absence of adequate chelation therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of endocrine complications in transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients and the correlation of endocrine complications with the degree of iron chelation. This retrospective study looked at cases of adult patients with transfusion dependent thalassaemia treated in the Haematology Unit, Penang Hospital. Of the 25 transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients, there were 10 male and 15 female patients respectively with almost equal number of Malay and Chinese patients (13 and 12 patients respectively). Short stature was seen in 36.0% of our patients. In our cohort, 12 patients had delayed puberty (male 70.0% and female 33.3%). Prevalence of osteoporosis was 36.0%. Hypogonadism was noted in 40.0% of males and 46.7% of females. 53.4% of the female population had menstrual abnormalities with prevalence of primary and secondary amenorrhoea at 26.7% each. The prevalence of other endocrinopathies was much lower: 8.0% had diabetes mellitus and only one patient had hypocortisolism. Iron chelation appeared insufficient in our study population. The high frequency of endocrine complications noted in our study supports the rationale for regular follow-up of transfusion dependent thalassaemic patients to ensure early detection and timely treatment of associated complications.

  8. Genetic basis of agronomically important traits in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) investigated with joint linkage association mapping.

    PubMed

    Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Maurer, Hans Peter; Möhring, Jens; Fischer, Sandra; Schechert, Axel; Würschum, Tobias

    2010-11-01

    Epistatic interactions may contribute substantially to the hybrid performance of sugar beet. The main goal of our study was to dissect the genetic basis of eight important physiological and agronomic traits using two different biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping. A total of 197 genotypes of an elite breeding population were evaluated in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 194 SNP markers. Two different statistical models were used for the genome-wide scan for marker-trait associations: Model A, which corrects for the genetic background with markers as cofactors and Model B, which additionally models a population effect. Based on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the parental population, we estimated that for a genome-wide scan at least 100 equally spaced markers are necessary. We mapped across the eight traits 39 QTL for Model A and 22 for Model B. Only 11% of the total number of QTL were identified based on Models A and B, which indicates that both models are complementary. Epistasis was detected only for two out of the eight traits, and contributed only to a minor extent to the genotypic variance. This low relevance of epistasis implies that in sugar beet breeding the prediction of performance of three-way hybrids is feasible with high accuracy based on the means of their single crosses.

  9. Comparative genomics approaches within Beta vulgaris to reveal loci relevant to root development and secondary metabolite storage traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and patterning of Beta vulgaris root tissues is key to obtaining a good crop. This study aims to undertake a comparative systems biology approach for the study of root development, physiology, and storage characteristics within two B. vulgaris crop types, sugar beet and red beet. Generat...

  10. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  11. Oxidative stress in β-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Voskou, S.; Aslan, M.; Fanis, P.; Phylactides, M.; Kleanthous, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia are inherited haemoglobinopathies resulting in structural and quantitative changes in the β-globin chain. These changes lead to instability of the generated haemoglobin or to globin chain imbalance, which in turn impact the oxidative environment both intracellularly and extracellularly. The ensuing oxidative stress and the inability of the body to adequately overcome it are, to a large extent, responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. This article provides an overview of the main players and control mechanisms involved in the establishment of oxidative stress in these haemoglobinopathies. PMID:26285072

  12. Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in β-thalassaemia intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Hoi; Li, Allen; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old man known to have β-thalassaemia intermedia since childhood presented with bilateral lower limb weakness after spinal anaesthesia for an elective minor operation of his left leg. MRI and CT scans were performed to rule out acute epidural haematoma; coincidental imaging features of marrow hyperplasia and spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis were found. This article will present and discuss the imaging features, differential diagnosis, management and literature review of the rare occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spinal epidural space. PMID:24390965

  13. [Effect of Triton X-100 on genetic segregation and associated monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous traits in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Kirikovich, S S; Levites, E V

    2013-05-01

    The effect of Triton X-100 (TX-100) on the ratio of phenotypic classes and the expression of morphological traits in the progeny of sugar beet hybrids (N12 and N2) was investigated. It was shown that the TX-100 exposition on the unopened flower buds of sugar beets has different effects on hybrid progenies. In agamospermic progeny of hybrid plant No 12km-4, a significant decrease in the heteroallelic (heterozygous) phenotypic classes of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) fraction was determined in the nonagamospermic progeny of hybrid plant No 2km-2 appearance of sugar beet seedlings with one cotyledon leaf was detected. The obtained results indicate the high efficiency of the epimutagenic effect of TX-100 on the early stages of plant ontogenesis.

  14. Myocardial iron overload in thalassaemia major. How early to check?

    PubMed

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Meloni, Antonella; Guerrini, Giulia; Gulino, Letizia; Filosa, Aldo; Ruffo, Giovan B; Casini, Tommaso; Chiodi, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Massimo; Pepe, Alessia

    2014-02-01

    The age at which it is necessary to start Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) T2* screening in thalassaemia major (TM) is still uncertain. To clarify this point, we evaluated the prevalence of myocardial iron overload (MIO), function and fibrosis by CMR in TM patients younger than 10 years. We retrospectively selected 35 TM patients enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassaemia network. MIO was measured by T2* multislice multiecho technique. Biventricular function parameters were evaluated by cine images. To detect myocardial fibrosis, late gadolinium enhancement images were acquired. Patients' age ranged from 4·2 to 9·7 years. All scans were performed without sedation. Nine patients showed no MIO, 22 patients had heterogeneous MIO with a T2* global value ≥20 ms; two patients had heterogeneous MIO with a T2* global value <20 ms and two patients showed homogeneous MIO. No patient showed myocardial fibrosis. Among the patients with heart T2*<20 ms, the youngest was 6 years old, none showed heart dysfunction and the iron transfused was <35 g in all cases. Cardiac iron loading can occur much earlier than previously described. The first cardiac T2* assessment should be performed as early as feasible without sedation, especially if chelation is started late or if poor compliance is suspected.

  15. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Kiani, Rizwan; Anwar, Muhammad; Waheed, Usman; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Abbasi, Saleem; Abbas Zaheer, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) continue to be a major risk in transfusions in many parts of the world. The transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients are particularly at risk of acquiring TTIs. The current study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1253 multitransfused thalassaemia major patients was conducted in five different centres of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi. The study subjects were screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV. The screening was performed at two centres: Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB) Medical University, and Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from July to December 2015. The confirmatory screening was performed by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA). Results. Out of the 1253 multiple transfused patients, 317 (25.3%) were infected with TTIs. HCV was positive in 273 cases (21.7%), HBV in 38 cases (3.0%), and HIV in 6 cases (0.5%). Conclusion. HCV was the leading TTI in multitransfused thalassaemia major patients in the study. Presence of HIV in thalassaemia patients is a recent disturbing development in Pakistan. Improved regulation of blood banks including use of internationally or nationally evaluated kits will bring down the incidence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. More stringent behavioral and serological pretransfusion screening of blood for TTIs must be implemented in blood banks. PMID:27559490

  16. A descriptive profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Black, M L; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A H

    2010-09-01

    Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of β-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements were observed relating to major β-thalassaemia mutations. The current regional mutation profiles of β-thalassaemia have been influenced by historical migrations into and from the Indian sub-continent, by the development and effects of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Sikh religious traditions, and by the major mid-twentieth century population translocations that followed the Partition of India in 1947. Given the resultant genetic complexity revealed by the populations of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to ensure optimum diagnostic efficiency and the delivery of appropriate care, it is important that screening and counselling programmes for β-thalassaemia mutations recognise the underlying patterns of population sub-division throughout the region. PMID:22460247

  17. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Kiani, Rizwan; Anwar, Muhammad; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Abbasi, Saleem; Abbas Zaheer, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) continue to be a major risk in transfusions in many parts of the world. The transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients are particularly at risk of acquiring TTIs. The current study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1253 multitransfused thalassaemia major patients was conducted in five different centres of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi. The study subjects were screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV. The screening was performed at two centres: Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB) Medical University, and Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from July to December 2015. The confirmatory screening was performed by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA). Results. Out of the 1253 multiple transfused patients, 317 (25.3%) were infected with TTIs. HCV was positive in 273 cases (21.7%), HBV in 38 cases (3.0%), and HIV in 6 cases (0.5%). Conclusion. HCV was the leading TTI in multitransfused thalassaemia major patients in the study. Presence of HIV in thalassaemia patients is a recent disturbing development in Pakistan. Improved regulation of blood banks including use of internationally or nationally evaluated kits will bring down the incidence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. More stringent behavioral and serological pretransfusion screening of blood for TTIs must be implemented in blood banks. PMID:27559490

  18. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  19. Choosing offspring: prenatal genetic testing for thalassaemia and the production of a 'saviour sibling' in China.

    PubMed

    Sui, Suli; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper focuses on the pre-natal genetic testing and reproductive decision-making around thalassaemia in China. Findings are based on fieldwork conducted in hospitals and research institutions, interviews with families with thalassaemia-affected children, interviews with geneticists and genetic researchers and a literature review conducted between September and November 2007. The paper aims to provide insight into the ways in which those who carry thalassaemia decide to have a test for the condition and the choices available to prospective parents. The paper also analyses factors affecting reproductive choices and the decision to produce a 'saviour sibling', including financial implications, state family planning policy, images and information conveyed through the media and propaganda, advice and counselling from doctors, psychological pressure from the community and social discrimination. The paper concludes with a discussion on the issues involved in the creation of saviour siblings, some of which are particular to China.

  20. Thalassaemia in children: from quality of care to quality of life.

    PubMed

    Amid, Ali; Saliba, Antoine N; Taher, Ali T; Klaassen, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a remarkable improvement in the survival of patients with thalassaemia in developed countries. Availability of safe blood transfusions, effective and accessible iron chelating medications, the introduction of new and non-invasive methods of tissue iron assessment and other advances in multidisciplinary care of thalassaemia patients have all contributed to better outcomes. This, however, may not be true for patients who are born in countries where the resources are limited. Unfortunately, transfusion-transmitted infections are still major concerns in these countries where paradoxically thalassaemia is most common. Moreover, oral iron chelators and MRI for monitoring of iron status may not be widely accessible or affordable, which may result in poor compliance and suboptimal iron chelation. All of these limitations will lead to reduced survival and increased thalassaemia-related complications and subsequently will affect the patient's quality of life. In countries with limited resources, together with improvement of clinical care, strategies to control the disease burden, such as public education, screening programmes and appropriate counselling, should be put in place. Much can be done to improve the situation by developing partnerships between developed countries and those with limited resources. Future research should also particularly focus on patient's quality of life as an important outcome of care.

  1. Co-Incidence or Co-Existence? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in HbE-alpha Thalassaemia: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rithika; Rajendran, Aruna; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin E (HbE) is a Haemoglobin variant that commonly occurs in many places in Asia. As β thalassaemia and α thalassaemia also occur in the same regions, the co-inheritance of these conditions leads to various phenotypic forms. HbE α thalassaemia is less common and of a milder phenotype than HbE β thalassaemia. Though malignancies are one of the complications in thalassaemia, occurrence of leukaemia is a rare event. Here we present a case of a two-year-old male child co-presenting with pre B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangement and HbE alpha thalassaemia. The child is on remission 12 months post-therapy with standard ALL high risk protocol with no minimal residual disease (MRD). Haematological and oncological conditions coexisting at presentation is a challenge to therapy. This case is described for its rarity. Informed consent has been obtained from the parents. PMID:26672845

  2. The multifactorial origin of growth failure in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Skordis, Nicos; Kyriakou, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Growth failure in thalassaemia major (TM) has been recognised for many years, and has persisted despite major therapeutic advances. The child with TM has a particular growth pattern, which is relatively normal until age 9-10 years; after this age a slowing down of growth velocity and reduced or absent pubertal growth spurt are observed. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial. The fundamental problem is the free iron and hemosiderosis-induced damage of the endocrine glands. Additional factors may contribute to the aetiology of growth delay including chronic anaemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid and nutritional deficiencies, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism, disturbed calcium homeostasis and bone disease) and last but not least dysregulation of the GH-IGF-1 axis.Three phases of growth disturbances according to age of presentation are well recognised, and have different aetiologies: in the first phase growth disturbance is mainly due to hypoxia, anaemia, ineffective erythropoiesis and nutritional factors. During late childhood (second phase), growth retardation is mainly due to iron overload affecting GH-IGF-1 axis and other potential endocrine complications. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. After the age of 10-11 years (third phase), delayed or arrested puberty is an important contributing factor to growth failure in adolescent thalassaemics, who do not exhibit a normal growth spurt. During the last decades therapeutic progress and bone marrow transplantation resulted in a prolonged life expectancy in TM patients. Growth retardation, however, continues to be a significant challenge in these individuals, often affecting their social

  3. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome Traits with Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity by Oral Minimal Model Assessment in South Asian and European Families Residing in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; de Rooij, Felix W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are different metabolic syndrome traits among patients with different ethnicities. Methods. We investigated this by studying 44 South Asians and 54 Europeans and classified them in three groups according to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), static, dynamic, and total beta-cell responsivity indices (Φ), and disposition indices (DIs) were calculated with the use of oral minimal model (OMM). Results. In both ethnicities, ISI was lower in the subgroup with MetS and T2D as compared to the subgroup without MetS nor T2D (P < 0.004). South Asians without MetS were more insulin resistant than Europeans without MetS (P = 0.033). In the South Asians, ISI, dynamic DI, and static DI were associated significantly (P < 0.006) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. In the Europeans, ISI was associated with waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.005) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), while static DI was related to the systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). Conclusions. MetS was linked with insulin resistance and reduced capacity to handle glucose regardless of ethnicity. ISI and DIs were associated with lipid traits in South Asians and with blood pressure in Europeans suggesting that insulin resistance enhances different metabolic syndrome traits among different ethnicities.

  4. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome Traits with Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity by Oral Minimal Model Assessment in South Asian and European Families Residing in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Geragotou, Thekla; Jainandunsing, Sjaam; Özcan, Behiye; de Rooij, Felix W M; Kokkinos, Alexander; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Sijbrands, Eric J G

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are different metabolic syndrome traits among patients with different ethnicities. Methods. We investigated this by studying 44 South Asians and 54 Europeans and classified them in three groups according to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), static, dynamic, and total beta-cell responsivity indices (Φ), and disposition indices (DIs) were calculated with the use of oral minimal model (OMM). Results. In both ethnicities, ISI was lower in the subgroup with MetS and T2D as compared to the subgroup without MetS nor T2D (P < 0.004). South Asians without MetS were more insulin resistant than Europeans without MetS (P = 0.033). In the South Asians, ISI, dynamic DI, and static DI were associated significantly (P < 0.006) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. In the Europeans, ISI was associated with waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.005) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), while static DI was related to the systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). Conclusions. MetS was linked with insulin resistance and reduced capacity to handle glucose regardless of ethnicity. ISI and DIs were associated with lipid traits in South Asians and with blood pressure in Europeans suggesting that insulin resistance enhances different metabolic syndrome traits among different ethnicities. PMID:27597980

  5. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome Traits with Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity by Oral Minimal Model Assessment in South Asian and European Families Residing in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; de Rooij, Felix W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are different metabolic syndrome traits among patients with different ethnicities. Methods. We investigated this by studying 44 South Asians and 54 Europeans and classified them in three groups according to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), static, dynamic, and total beta-cell responsivity indices (Φ), and disposition indices (DIs) were calculated with the use of oral minimal model (OMM). Results. In both ethnicities, ISI was lower in the subgroup with MetS and T2D as compared to the subgroup without MetS nor T2D (P < 0.004). South Asians without MetS were more insulin resistant than Europeans without MetS (P = 0.033). In the South Asians, ISI, dynamic DI, and static DI were associated significantly (P < 0.006) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. In the Europeans, ISI was associated with waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.005) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), while static DI was related to the systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). Conclusions. MetS was linked with insulin resistance and reduced capacity to handle glucose regardless of ethnicity. ISI and DIs were associated with lipid traits in South Asians and with blood pressure in Europeans suggesting that insulin resistance enhances different metabolic syndrome traits among different ethnicities. PMID:27597980

  6. Platelet and not erythrocyte microparticles are procoagulant in transfused thalassaemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Agouti, Imane; Cointe, Sylvie; Robert, Stéphane; Judicone, Coralie; Loundou, Anderson; Driss, Fathi; Brisson, Alain; Steschenko, Dominique; Rose, Christian; Pondarré, Corinne; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Badens, Catherine; Dignat-George, Françoise; Lacroix, Romaric; Thuret, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The level of circulating platelet-, erythrocyte-, leucocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles detected by high-sensitivity flow cytometry was investigated in 37 β-thalassaemia major patients receiving a regular transfusion regimen. The phospholipid procoagulant potential of the circulating microparticles and the microparticle-dependent tissue factor activity were evaluated. A high level of circulating erythrocyte- and platelet-microparticles was found. In contrast, the number of endothelial microparticles was within the normal range. Platelet microparticles were significantly higher in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients, independent of platelet count (P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis indicated that phospholipid-dependent procoagulant activity was influenced by both splenectomy (P = 0·001) and platelet microparticle level (P < 0·001). Erythrocyte microparticles were not related to splenectomy, appear to be devoid of proper procoagulant activity and no relationship between their production and haemolysis, dyserythropoiesis or oxidative stress markers could be established. Intra-microparticle labelling with anti-HbF antibodies showed that they originate only partially (median of 28%) from thalassaemic erythropoiesis. In conclusion, when β-thalassaemia major patients are intensively transfused, the procoagulant activity associated with thalassaemic erythrocyte microparticles is probably diluted by transfusions. In contrast, platelet microparticles, being both more elevated and more procoagulant, especially after splenectomy, may contribute to the residual thrombotic risk reported in splenectomized multi-transfused β-thalassaemia major patients.

  7. Effects of beta-mannanase addition to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility of weanling and growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pettey, L A; Carter, S D; Senne, B W; Shriver, J A

    2002-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding a beta-mannanase preparation (Hemicell, ChemGen, Gaithersburg, MD) to corn-soybean meal-based diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weanling and growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 156 weanling pigs (20 d, 6.27 kg BW) were allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of diet complexity (complex vs simple) and addition of 3-mannanase preparation (0 vs 0.05%). Pigs were fed in three dietary phases (Phase 1, d 0 to 14; Phase 2, d 14 to 28; and Phase 3, d 28 to 42). Pigs fed complex diets gained faster and were more efficient (P < 0.05) during Phase 1 compared with pigs fed simple diets. Overall, gain:feed ratio (G:F) tended to be improved (P < 0.10) for pigs fed complex diets and it was improved (P < 0.01) for those fed diets with beta-mannanase. In Exp. 2, 117 pigs (44 d, 13.62 kg BW) were allotted randomly to three dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal-based control, 2) the control diet with soybean oil added to increase metabolizable energy (ME) by 100 kcal/kg, and 3) the control diet with 0.05% beta-mannanase preparation. Beta-mannanase or soybean oil improved (P < 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet. In Exp. 3, 60 pigs (22.5 kg BW) were allotted randomly to the three dietary treatments used in Exp. 2. Dietary treatments were fed in three phases (23 to 53 kg, 53 to 82 kg, and 82 to 109 kg with 0.95, 0.80, and 0.65% lysine, respectively). Overall, the addition of soybean oil tended to improve G:F (P < 0.10) compared with that of pigs fed the control diet, and G:F was similar (P > 0.54) for pigs fed diets with soybean oil or beta-mannanase. Also, addition of beta-mannanase increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with that of pigs fed the control or soybean oil diets. There were no differences (P > or = 0.10) in longissimus muscle area or backfat; however, on a fat-free basis

  8. Association of BCL11A genetic variant (rs11886868) with severity in β-thalassaemia major & sickle cell anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Dadheech, Sneha; Madhulatha, D.; Jain, Suman; Joseph, James; Jyothy, A.; Munshi, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The amount of foetal haemoglobin that persists in adulthood affects the clinical severity of haemoglobinopathies including β-thalassaemia major and sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The present study was undertaken to analyse β-thalassaemia as well as SCA patients for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11886868 (T/C) in BCL11A gene and to evaluate the association between this polymorphism and severity of β-thalassaemia major and SCA. Methods: A total of 620 samples (420 β-thalassaemia major and 200 SCA cases) were analysed before blood transfusion using basic screening tests like complete blood analysis and osmotic fragility and further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and reverse dot blot techniques. All patients were transfusion dependent. Patients with β-thalassaemia and SCA were classified into mild, moderate, severe according to the severity score based on Hb levels, age of onset, age at which patients received their first blood transfusion, the degree of growth retardation and splenectomy. β-thalassaemia as well as SCA patients were analysed for the SNP, rs11886868 (T/C) in BCL11A gene and association between this polymorphism and severity of β-thalassaemia major as well as SCA was evaluated. Results: There was a significant difference in genotypic and allelic frequencies of BCL11A gene polymorphism between mild and moderate and mild and severe cases in both the groups. A significant (P<0.001) difference was observed in the mean HbF levels between the three genotypes in different severity groups. HbF levels were found to be high in CC genotype bearing individuals followed by TC and TT in β-thalassaemia major as well as SCA. Interpretation & conclusions: This study confirms that the T/C variant (rs11886868) of the BCL11A gene causing downregulation of BCL11A gene expression in adult erythroid precursors results in the

  9. Evaluation of carotid artery dynamics & correlation with cardiac & hepatic iron in β-thalassaemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rashid H.; Chate, Someshwar; Ahmed, Javed; Ahmad, Noor; Karnik, Alka; Jankaria, Bhavin

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Early atherosclerosis and vascular complication have been described in thalassaemia patients. There is lack of data or guidelines regarding monitoring of vascular health in thalassaemia. This study was conducted to compare carotid artery structural and functional indices such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), stiffness index (SI) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM) in β-thalassemia patients with age and sex matched controls, and to correlate these parameters with serum ferritin, cardiac iron, and hepatic iron. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 53 β-thalassaemia patients receiving regular blood transfusions. Carotid artery indices such as CIMT, SI, and YEM were calculated by duplex ultrasound and colour Doppler. Serum ferritin levels were measured by chemiluminescence. Cardiac and hepatic iron estimation were done using MRI T2* sequences analyzed by a special thalassaemia software. Results: Mean CIMT of cases and controls were 0.48 ± 0.04 and 0.44±0.02 mm, respectively and these were significantly different (P<0.001). Similarly significant differences were noted in SI and YEM of cases (2.45±0.79 and 96.12±34.85, respectively) as compared to controls (1.98±0.54 and 68.60±24.29, respectively) (P<0.001). There was significant inverse correlation between stiffness index and cardiac iron overload assessed by MRI cardiac T2* (P=0.03). Mean SI and YEM of cases were (2.1736 ± 0.2986 and 107.3± 41.6, respectively) significantly higher among non-splenectomized patients compared to splenectomized patients (2.0136 ± 0.263 and 86.9 ± 25.2, respectively) (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: CIMT and arterial stiffness indices were significantly increased in β-thalassaemia patients compared to controls which was indicative of early atherogenic changes. This study supports the hypothesis that iron overload is a risk factor for early atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27377500

  10. Extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia major causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Q L L; Lau, K K

    2007-04-01

    A 33-year-old, homozygous beta-thalassaemic, Jehovah witness man presented with subacute spinal cord compression secondary to extramedullary haematopoiesis within the thoracic spinal canal. In this case, MRI showed characteristic features of extramedullary haematopoiesis, leading to an early diagnosis. PMID:17419864

  11. The role of the Thalassaemia International Federation in health professionals' education.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Androulla

    2004-12-01

    The Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF) was established in 1986. The Federation has two important objectives: 1. To promote the continued control of thalassaemia major in countries with existing policies aimed at control, and 2. To support the establishment of policies of control in every affected country of the world. Over the years TIF has: - Held workshops and seminars attended by over 7,000 from 35 countries - Organized 11 International Conferences attended by 5,150 from 62 countries - Organized field trips/delegation visits in 42 countries - Prepared, published and distributed 70,000 books to 96 countries - Trained physicians and scientists from medical centres in the UK, US, Italy, Greece and Cyprus - Initiated and co-ordinated projects and clinical studies overseen by international experts in over 50 countries. - Established a vast network of scientific collaborators from every corner of the world, and - Has promoted close and productive collaborations with major health organizations. One of the most important projects that TIF has conducted was a multi-centre study on endocrine complications in the different affected regions of the world. It is hopeful that through the analysis of data already obtained and expected, other projects related to blood transfusion therapy, iron chelation and chronic hepatitis could be organized.

  12. Status of Superoxide Dismutase in Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rujito, Lantip; Mulatsih, Sri; Sofro, Abdul Salam M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is a collection of genetic impairments in beta and alpha genes causing various states of anemia. Severe types of the disease need lifelong transfusions, leading to oxidant-antioxidant disturbance due to massive iron deposits. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and ferritin levels of thalassemia major patients in a peripheral health facility. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and nine probands were recruited and performed laboratory experiments for SOD and Ferritin levels. Chelation administration and clinical score were taken from interviewing the family and from medical report data. Results: The study showed that SOD intensity was lower (162.41 u/ml) compared to the normal cutoff point (P = 0.001), while the mean of Ferritin levels was ten times over the normal value (4226,67 ng/dl). Observations also reported that chelation medicine was not administrated properly. Conclusions: The data indicates that thalassemic patients have oxidant-antioxidant uproar due to oxidative stress. Monitored chelating administration, selective antioxidant, and a well-balanced diet may prevent oxidative injury. PMID:26110130

  13. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations.

    PubMed

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease's high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics' assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions' setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning. PMID:27351925

  14. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations.

    PubMed

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease's high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics' assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions' setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning.

  15. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease’s high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics’ assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions’ setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning. PMID:27351925

  16. Bone disease in adult patients with β-thalassaemia major: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Marina; Forti, Stella; Orsatti, Alessandra; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Airaghi, Lorena; Zanaboni, Laura; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2014-02-01

    Despite the extraordinary improvements carried out in diagnostic and therapeutic management of thalassaemia major over the past few decades, bone demineralization is still a common finding, even in optimally treated patients. The relationships between bone density and several clinical characteristics or hematological markers have been described, and many factors contributing to demineralization have been identified; among them endocrine complications seem to play an important role. Nevertheless, the complex etiological mechanisms of this heterogeneous osteopathy still remains incompletely clarified. While previous studies focused on the characteristics of thalassaemic patients affected from bone demineralization, we conducted a case-control study focused on thalassaemic patients free from bone disease, aimed to detect the distinctive characteristics and any possible protective feature. Among a large cohort of 150 adult patients with β-thalassaemia major, we enrolled 20 patients with normal bone mineralization and 20 patients with osteoporosis matched for gender, BMI, age at first transfusion, serum ferritin and pre-transfusional hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The differences in demographic, clinical and endocrinological profiles were investigated, correcting for physical and hematological features known as confounding variables. The comparison of the two groups for biochemical parameters and endocrine function showed a protective role of normal gonadic function and IGF-1 levels against osteoporosis, and a similar influence of hypoparathyroidism. Treatment-corrected hypothyroidism and diabetes seemed not to affect bone mineralization. In conclusion, from a different perspective our results corroborate the role of endocrinopathies in thalassaemic osteopathy, and once again underline the crucial importance of an early and multi-disciplinary intervention in preventing bone complications in thalassaemic patients. PMID:22179745

  17. Cardiac T2* MRI assessment in patients with thalassaemia major and its effect on the preference of chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Arzu; Salcioglu, Zafer; Oztarhan, Kazim; Tugcu, Deniz; Aydogan, Gonul; Ayaz, Nuray Aktay; Bornaun, Helen; Sen, Hulya Sayilan; Akici, Ferhan; Akdana, Burhan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) values and age, serum ferritin level, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), splenectomy status, and to identify appropriate modifications to chelation therapy based on T2* MRI results of children with thalassaemia major. Sixty-four patients with thalassaemia major (37 girls/27 boys) older than 8 years of age were enrolled in the study. Based on the first T2* MRI, the patients' myocardial iron depositions were classified into three groups: T2* MRI <10 ms (high risk group), T2* MRI 10-20 ms (medium-risk group) and T2* MRI >20 ms (low-risk group). There was no significant relationship between T2* MRI value and ages, serum ferritin levels and splenectomy status of thalassaemia major patients. The mean LVEFs were 60, 75, and 72.5 % in the high-, medium-, and low-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean cardiac iron concentrations calculated from the T2* MRI values were 4.96 ± 1.93, 1.65 ± 0.37, and 0.81 ± 0.27 mg/g in the high-, medium-, and low-risk groups, respectively. Chelation therapies were re-designed in 24 (37.5 %) patients according to cardiac risk as assessed by cardiac T2* MRI. In conclusion, until recently, T2* MRI has been employed to demonstrate cardiac siderosis without a direct relationship with the markers used in follow-up of patients with thalassaemia. However, modifications of chelation therapies could reliably be planned according to severity of iron load displayed by T2* MRI.

  18. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  19. A review on the origin and spread of deleterious mutants of the beta-globin gene in Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Talukder, G

    2001-01-01

    Deleterious mutations of the human beta-globin gene are responsible for beta-thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies, which are the most common genetic diseases in Indian populations. A highly heterogeneous distribution of those mutations is observed in India and certain mutations are restricted to some extent to particular groups only. The reasons behind the geographical clustering and origin of the mutations in India is a highly debated issue and the evidence is conflicting. Our present article aims at tracing the origin of the deleterious beta-globin mutation and evaluates the role of different evolutionary forces responsible for the spread and present distribution of those mutations in Indian populations, using data from molecular biology and statistical methods. Mutations are generated essentially randomly, but "hot-spot" sites for mutation are reported for the beta-globin gene cluster, indicating sequence dependency of mutation. A single origin of a deleterious beta-globin mutation, followed by recombination (in a hot spot region) and/or interallelic gene conversion (within beta-globin gene) through time is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the association of those mutations with multiple haplotype backgrounds and frameworks. It is suggested that India is the place of origin of HbE and HbD mutations and that they dispersed to other parts of the would by migration. HbS mutants present in Indian populations are not of Middle East origin but rather a fresh mutation is the probable explanation for the prevalence among tribal groups. beta-thalassaemia represents a heterogeneous group of mutant alleles in India. Five common and twelve rare mutations have been reported in variable frequencies among different Indian populations. Gene flow of those mutant alleles from different populations of the world by political, military and commercial interactions possibly accounts for the heterogenous nature of beta-thalassaemia among Indians. A multiple allelic

  20. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  1. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Expectation Questionnaire for Thalassaemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koutelekos, Ioannis G.; Kyritsi, Helen; Makis, Alexandros; Vassalos, Constantine M; Ktenas, Eftychios; Polikandrioti, Maria; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa; Chaliasos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, thalassaemia major (TM) patients are surviving into mature young adulthood; however, no published instrument exists to measure the expectations’ dimensionality among older TM patients in their thirties. This study seeks to validate a novel multidimensional expectation questionnaire suitable for TM patients (MEQ-TMP) reaching their fourth decade of life. In order to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument, data analysis was carried out. The principal component analysis revealed four components (‘Supportive social network’; ‘Raising one’s own family’; ‘Career advancement’; ‘Ability of daily activities’). Their cumulative contribution rate was 66.32%. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.87. Each subscale had an alpha value above 0.70; three subscales were in the 0.80 range. MEQ-TMP reliability was proved to be good. The known-group method served as a strategy in examining the operationalisation of the questionnaire’s constructs. The present MEQ-TMP, developed for the aged group of TM patients, would be a useful tool for clinical personnel providing care to TM patients in understanding their outlook on life as they are growing up, to have better psychosocial adjustment to illness chronicity, live life as normally as possible, and fulfill their ambitions; thus enhancing their life satisfaction and quality of life. PMID:26383219

  2. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Expectation Questionnaire for Thalassaemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Koutelekos, Ioannis G; Kyritsi, Helen; Makis, Alexandros; Vassalos, Constantine M; Ktenas, Eftychios; Polikandrioti, Maria; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa; Chaliasos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, thalassaemia major (TM) patients are surviving into mature young adulthood; however, no published instrument exists to measure the expectations' dimensionality among older TM patients in their thirties. This study seeks to validate a novel multidimensional expectation questionnaire suitable for TM patients (MEQ-TMP) reaching their fourth decade of life. In order to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument, data analysis was carried out. The principal component analysis revealed four components ('Supportive social network'; 'Raising one's own family'; 'Career advancement'; 'Ability of daily activities'). Their cumulative contribution rate was 66.32%. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.87. Each subscale had an alpha value above 0.70; three subscales were in the 0.80 range. MEQ-TMP reliability was proved to be good. The known-group method served as a strategy in examining the operationalisation of the questionnaire's constructs. The present MEQ-TMP, developed for the aged group of TM patients, would be a useful tool for clinical personnel providing care to TM patients in understanding their outlook on life as they are growing up, to have better psychosocial adjustment to illness chronicity, live life as normally as possible, and fulfill their ambitions; thus enhancing their life satisfaction and quality of life. PMID:26383219

  3. Evaluation of Serum Leptin Levels and Growth in Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naama, Lamia Mustafa; Hassan, Meaad Kadum; Abdul Karim, Muhannad Maki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Iron deposition in the body can damage the endocrine glands of patients with β-thalassaemia major (β-TM). Leptin plays a key role in the regulation of appetite, body fat mass, and endocrine function. Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and growth and pubertal development in patients with β-TM, as well as whether serum leptin can predict growth retardation and delayed puberty in these patients. Methods. Fifty β-TM patients (aged 8–20 years) and 75 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Anthropometric data and sexual maturity ratings were assessed. Serum leptin was measured by ELISA. Results. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with β-TM than in healthy individuals (P < 0.001). Leptin levels were also significantly reduced in female patients with short stature (P < 0.002) and in patients who displayed delayed puberty (P = 0.032) compared to those with normal stature who had reached puberty. The sensitivity of leptin for predicting short stature and delayed puberty among patients was 84.6% and 92.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Low serum leptin is sensitive to predict short stature and significant in β-TM females only. This link could thus be used as a guide for further therapeutic or hormonal modulation. PMID:27088012

  4. [Peculiarities of iron metabolism in patients with Beta - thalassemia at different periods after splenectomy].

    PubMed

    Kadimova, E

    2007-11-01

    Often thalassaemia patients have significant iron stores. The present research has been conducted to estimate a level of the overall store and degree of an iron overload in patients suffering from beta-thalassemia in pre- and post-surgery periods (pre-surgery, and to the second, seventh, fifteenth, and thirtieth days) after splenectomy. Observation was conducted once a year. The observation period was eight years. The analysis of parameters of iron metabolism in patients with beta-thalassemia in the distant period of time after splenectomy showed that the decrease of serum iron level and index of transferrin saturation was unchanged during the first year. The index of serum ferittin was unchanged during two years. SFT value remained reduced within a year; two years after splenectomy this parameter reached a preoperative level. The index of total serum coupling capacity remaind unchanged during the whole period of observation. The research revealed, that splenectomy has a positive effect on iron balance.

  5. Combine-ARMS: a rapid and cost-effective protocol for molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L; Tan, J A; Wong, Y C; Wee, Y C; Thong, M K; Yap, S F

    2001-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia major patients have chronic anemia and are dependent on blood transfusions to sustain life. Molecular characterization and prenatal diagnosis of beta3-thalassemia is essential in Malaysia because about 4.5% of the population are heterozygous carriers for beta-thalassemia. The high percentage of compound heterozygosity (47.62%) found in beta-thalassemia major patients in the Thalassaemia Registry, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, also supports a need for rapid, economical, and sensitive protocols for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. Molecular characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malaysia is currently carried out using ARMS, which detects a single beta-thalassemia mutation per PCR reaction. We developed and evaluated Combine amplification refractory mutation system (C-ARMS) techniques for efficient molecular detection of two to three beta-thalassemia mutations in a single PCR reaction. Three C-ARMS protocols were evaluated and established for molecular characterization of common beta-thalassemia mutations in the Malay and Chinese ethnic groups in Malaysia. Two C-ARMS protocols (cd 41-42/IVSII #654 and -29/cd 71-72) detected the beta-thalassemia mutations in 74.98% of the Chinese patients studied. The CARMS for cd 41-42/IVSII #654 detected beta-thalassemia mutations in 72% of the Chinese families. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 allowed detection of beta-thalassemia mutations in 36.53% of beta-thalassemia in the Malay patients. C-ARMS for cd 41-42/IVSI #5/cd 17 detected beta-thalassemia in 45.54% of the Chinese patients. We conclude that C-ARMS with the ability to detect two to three mutations in a single reaction provides more rapid and cost-effective protocols for beta-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis and molecular analysis programs in Malaysia. PMID:11336396

  6. Detection of β-globin Gene Mutations Among β-thalassaemia Carriers and Patients in Malaysia: Application of Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System–Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Syahzuwan; Ahmad, Rahimah; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Zulkafli, Zefarina; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah

    2013-01-01

    Background: β-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene disorders worldwide. Each ethnic population has its own common mutations, accounting for the majority of cases, with a small number of mutations for the rarer alleles. Due to the heterogeneity of β-thalassaemia and the multi-ethnicity of Malaysians, molecular diagnostics may be expensive and time consuming. Methods: A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach involving a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) and one amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), consisting of 20 β-globin gene mutations, were designed and employed to investigate β-thalassaemia patients and carriers. Results: Out of 169 carriers tested with the MARMS, Cd 41/42 (–TTCT), Cd 26 (A–G) HbE, IVS 1–1 (G–T), and IVS 1–5 (G–C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 78.1%. Among the Malays, Cd 26 (A–G) HbE, Cd 41/42 (–TTCT), IVS 1–1 (G–T), and IVS 1–5 (G–C) were the most common mutations, accounting for 81.4%, whereas Cd 41/42 (–TTCT) and IVS 2–654 (C–T) were most common among the Chinese (79.1%). Conclusion: We propose the use of this cheap, easy to interpret, and simple system for the molecular diagnostics of β-thalassaemia among Malaysians at the Institute for Medical Research (IMR). PMID:23613656

  7. Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2014-12-26

    Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich's ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus in

  8. Transition of Thalassaemia and Friedreich ataxia from fatal to chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kolnagou, Annita; Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2014-01-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) and Friedreich’s ataxia (FA) are autosomal recessive inherited diseases related to the proteins haemoglobin and frataxin respectively. In both diseases abnormalities in iron metabolism is the main cause of iron toxicity leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Major efforts are directed towards the prevention of these diseases and also in their treatment using iron chelation therapy. Both TM and FA are endemic in Cyprus, where the frequency per total population of asymptomatic heterozygote carriers and patients is the highest worldwide. Cyprus has been a pioneering nation in preventing and nearly eliminating the birth of TM and FA patients by introducing an organized health structure, including prenatal and antenatal diagnosis. Effective iron chelation therapy, improved diagnostic methods and transfusion techniques as well as supportive therapy from other clinical specializations have improved the survival and quality of life of TM patients. Despite the tiresome clinical management regimes many TM patients are successful in their professional lives, have families with children and some are now living well into their fifties. The introduction of deferiprone led to the elimination of cardiac failure induced by iron overload toxicity, which was the major cause of mortality in TM. Effective combinations of deferiprone with deferoxamine in TM patients caused the fall of body iron to normal physiological ranges. In FA different mechanisms of iron metabolism and toxicity apply to that of TM, which can be targeted with specific iron chelation protocols. Preliminary findings from the introduction of deferiprone in FA patients have increased the hopes for improved and effective therapy in this untreatable condition. New and personalised treatments are proposed in TM and FA. Overall, advances in treatments and in particular of chelation therapy using deferiprone are transforming TM and FA from fatal to chronic conditions. The paradigm of Cyprus

  9. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  10. Allele-dependent barley grain beta-amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Erkkilä, M J; Leah, R; Ahokas, H; Cameron-Mills, V

    1998-06-01

    The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high beta-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and beta-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high beta-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the beta-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the beta-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct beta-amy1 alleles. Two of these beta-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain beta-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated beta-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of beta-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed.

  11. The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

  12. Novel ATRX gene damaging missense mutation c.6740A>C segregates with profound to severe intellectual deficiency without alpha thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bouazzi, Habib; Thakur, Seema; Trujillo, Carlos; Alwasiyah, Mohammad Khalid; Munnich, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: ATRX is a recessive X-linked intellectual deficiency (X-LID) gene causing predominately alpha-thalassaemia with a wide and clinically heterogeneous spectrum of intellectual deficiency syndromes. Although alpha-thalassaemia is commonly present, some patients do not express this sign despite the ATRX gene being altered. Most pathological mutations have been localized in two different major domains, the helicase and the plant homeo-domain (PHD)-like domain. In this study we examined a family of three males having an X-linked mental deficiency and developmental delay, and tried to establish a genetic diagnosis while discussing and comparing the phenotype of our patients to those reported in the literature. Methods: Three related males with intellectual deficiency underwent clinical investigations. We performed a karyotype analysis, CGH-array, linkage study, and X-exome sequencing in the index case to identify the genetic origin of this disorder. The X-inactivation study was carried out in the mother and Sanger sequencing was achieved in all family members to confirm the mutation. Results: A novel ATRX gene missense mutation (p.His2247Pro) was identified in a family of two uncles and their nephew manifesting intellectual deficiency and specific facial features without alpha-thalassaemia. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. It segregated with the pathological phenotype. The mother and her two daughters were found to be heterozygous. Interpretation & conclusions: The novel mutation c.6740A>C was identified within the ATRX gene helicase domain and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the three affected males as well as in the mother and her two daughters. This mutation was predicted to be damaging and deleterious. The novel mutation segregated with the phenotype without alpha-thalassaemia and with non-skewed X chromosome. PMID:26997013

  13. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  14. Beta Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Admani, Shehla; Feldstein, Stephanie; Gonzalez, Ernesto M.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors seen in 4.5 percent of neonates and infants. While most infantile hemangiomas can be managed with active nonintervention, a subset of patients will require more aggressive management. Here the authors review the use of beta-blockers in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas, including oral, topical, and multimodal treatment options. They discuss the latest data on propranolol, including criteria for patient selection, dosing recommendations, and appropriate monitoring for side effects and efficacy. Lastly, they review indications for topical timolol treatment and the potential benefits of concomitant laser therapy. PMID:25053982

  15. Novel Polymorphisms of Adrenergic, Alpha-1B-, Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Beta Genes and Their Association with Egg Production Traits in Local Chinese Dagu Hens.

    PubMed

    Mu, F; Jing, Y; Qin, N; Zhu, H Y; Liu, D H; Yuan, S G; Xu, R F

    2016-09-01

    Adrenergic, alpha-1B-, receptor (ADRA1B) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B) genes are involved in regulation of hen ovarian development. In this study, these two genes were investigated as possible molecular markers associated with hen-housed egg production, egg weight (EW) and body weight in Chinese Dagu hens. Samples were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, followed by sequencing analysis. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the candidate genes. Among them, an A/G transition at base position 1915 in exon 2 of ADRA1B gene and a T/C mutation at base position 6146 in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of PPARGC1B gene were found to be polymorphic and named SNP A1915G and T6146C, respectively. The SNP A1915G (ADRA1B) leads to a non-synonymous substitution (aspartic acid 489-to-glycine). The 360 birds from the Dagu population were divided into genotypes AA and AG, allele A was found to be present at a higher frequency. Furthermore, the AG genotype correlated with significantly higher hen-housed egg production (HHEP) at 30, 43, 57, and 66 wks of age and with a higher EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05). For the SNP T6146C (PPARGC1B), the hens were typed into TT and TC genotypes, with the T allele shown to be dominant. The TC genotype was also markedly correlated with higher HHEP at 57 and 66 wks of age and EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05). Moreover, four haplotypes were reconstructed based on these two SNPs, with the AGTC haplotype found to be associated with the highest HHEP at 30 to 66 wks of age and with higher EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05). Collectively, the two SNPs identified in this study might be used as potential genetic molecular markers favorable in the improvement of egg productivity in chicken breeding. PMID:26954135

  16. Novel Polymorphisms of Adrenergic, Alpha-1B-, Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Beta Genes and Their Association with Egg Production Traits in Local Chinese Dagu Hens

    PubMed Central

    Mu, F.; Jing, Y.; Qin, N.; Zhu, H. Y.; Liu, D. H.; Yuan, S. G.; Xu, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenergic, alpha-1B-, receptor (ADRA1B) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B) genes are involved in regulation of hen ovarian development. In this study, these two genes were investigated as possible molecular markers associated with hen-housed egg production, egg weight (EW) and body weight in Chinese Dagu hens. Samples were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, followed by sequencing analysis. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the candidate genes. Among them, an A/G transition at base position 1915 in exon 2 of ADRA1B gene and a T/C mutation at base position 6146 in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of PPARGC1B gene were found to be polymorphic and named SNP A1915G and T6146C, respectively. The SNP A1915G (ADRA1B) leads to a non-synonymous substitution (aspartic acid 489-to-glycine). The 360 birds from the Dagu population were divided into genotypes AA and AG, allele A was found to be present at a higher frequency. Furthermore, the AG genotype correlated with significantly higher hen-housed egg production (HHEP) at 30, 43, 57, and 66 wks of age and with a higher EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05). For the SNP T6146C (PPARGC1B), the hens were typed into TT and TC genotypes, with the T allele shown to be dominant. The TC genotype was also markedly correlated with higher HHEP at 57 and 66 wks of age and EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05). Moreover, four haplotypes were reconstructed based on these two SNPs, with the AGTC haplotype found to be associated with the highest HHEP at 30 to 66 wks of age and with higher EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05). Collectively, the two SNPs identified in this study might be used as potential genetic molecular markers favorable in the improvement of egg productivity in chicken breeding. PMID:26954135

  17. A FACS Based Case Study on Two HbE-β Thalassaemia Members of a Family, Having Similar Mutational Background.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Halder, Suchismita; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene. Father and younger son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), whereas mother and elder son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/Cod 26 (G-A). XmnI sequencing also revealed that all members of the family were CC. Then, flow cytometry study of red blood cells (RBCs) was performed to measure the oxidative stress of the RBCs. This study was also done on the light and dense fractions of the RBC population of the father and younger son. It was seen that the younger son suffers severe oxidative stress, which can be explained by his higher transfusion requirement. From our work, we have established the importance of taking oxidative stress of RBCs into consideration to explain the clinical manifestation and progression of haemoglobin related diseases like thalassaemia. PMID:27195173

  18. A FACS Based Case Study on Two HbE-β Thalassaemia Members of a Family, Having Similar Mutational Background

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Halder, Suchismita; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In this report we have tried to explain the reasons behind the difference in the pattern of transfusion requirement between two members of a family with similar β-globin mutation. The father and younger son both are HbE-β, but the father never had transfusion, whereas the younger son takes transfusion monthly. Mother and the elder son are HbEE without any history of transfusion. β-globin mutations of all family members were determined by ARMS-PCR. These were reconfirmed by direct sequencing of β-globin gene. Father and younger son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), whereas mother and elder son were found to be Cod 26 (G-A)/Cod 26 (G-A). XmnI sequencing also revealed that all members of the family were CC. Then, flow cytometry study of red blood cells (RBCs) was performed to measure the oxidative stress of the RBCs. This study was also done on the light and dense fractions of the RBC population of the father and younger son. It was seen that the younger son suffers severe oxidative stress, which can be explained by his higher transfusion requirement. From our work, we have established the importance of taking oxidative stress of RBCs into consideration to explain the clinical manifestation and progression of haemoglobin related diseases like thalassaemia. PMID:27195173

  19. DNA studies are necessary for accurate patient diagnosis in compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) with deletional or nondeletional α-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Kho, Siew Leng; Ngim, Chin Fang; Chua, Kek Heng; Goh, Ai Sim; Yeoh, Seoh Leng; George, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α(3.7)), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (α(codon 59)α/α(Paksé)α) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations. PMID:27271331

  20. Validation and reliability of a disease-specific quality of life measure (the TranQol) in adults and children with thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Robert J; Barrowman, Nicholas; Merelles-Pulcini, Manuela; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Sweeters, Nancy; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Neufeld, Ellis J; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Wu, John; Vickars, Linda; Blanchette, Victor S; Forgie, Melissa; Yamashita, Robert; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Young, Nancy L

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a new disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaire for children and adults with thalassaemia major, the Transfusion-dependent QoL questionnaire (TranQol). 106 participants (51 adults and 55 children) were recruited from six North American thalassaemia treatment centres with a mean age of 20·7 years (standard deviation [SD] 9, range 7-51 years). The mean total TranQol score was 71 (SD 17, 32-97) on a scale of 0-100. Patients with co-morbidities had significantly lower scores (63 vs. 75, P = 0·001). TranQol scores showed substantial agreement (P < 0·001) with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (all patients, r = 0·65), the Pediatric QoL (children, r = 0·77) and the Short Form (36) physical (adults, r = 0·69) and mental summary scores (r = 0·76). In the subgroup who rated their QoL as better, there was a 4·0 point (SD 9·0) improvement in TranQol scores, from baseline of 67·1-71·1 one week later (P = 0·008). Test-retest reliability was excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient, 0·93). The TranQol was valid, with acceptable correlation for all administered measures and was reliable and responsive to change. The TranQol can be incorporated into future studies of thalassaemia major.

  1. DNA studies are necessary for accurate patient diagnosis in compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) with deletional or nondeletional α-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Kho, Siew Leng; Ngim, Chin Fang; Chua, Kek Heng; Goh, Ai Sim; Yeoh, Seoh Leng; George, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α3.7), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (αcodon 59α/αCSα) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (αcodon 59α/αPakséα) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (αcodon 59α/αCSα). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations. PMID:27271331

  2. Genetic red cell disorders and severity of falciparum malaria in Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Oo, M.; Tin-Shwe; Marlar-Than; O'Sullivan, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    A hospital-based survey was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incidence and severity of malaria infection and various red cell disorders in Myanmar. The mean parasitaemia levels of patients with alpha- or beta-thalassaemia trait or with severe glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency were lower than those of individuals with normal haemoglobin AA or with heterozygous haemoglobin E. The double genetic defect of thalassaemia trait and severe G6PD deficiency appeared to confer some degree of protection against malaria. PMID:8846492

  3. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  4. A mutation of the beta-globin gene initiation codon, ATG-->AAG, found in a French Caucasian man.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Philippe; Aubry, Martine; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2005-01-01

    A new mutation of the beta-globin gene initiation codon, ATG-->AAG (Met-->Tyr), is reported in a man originating from the southeast of France. Typical hematological findings of beta-thalassemia (thal) trait were found. We emphasize the importance of characterizing uncommon beta-thal mutations for genetic counseling.

  5. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  6. Optimising iron chelation therapy with deferasirox for non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: 1-year results from the THETIS study.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Cappellini, M Domenica; Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Karakas, Zeynep; Viprakasit, Vip; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kattamis, Antonis; Wang, Candace; Zhu, Zewen; Joaquin, Victor; Uwamahoro, Marie José; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Efficacy and safety of iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) patients were established in the THALASSA study. THETIS, an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IV study, added to this evidence by investigating earlier dose escalation by baseline liver iron concentration (LIC) (week 4: escalation according to baseline LIC; week 24: adjustment according to LIC response, maximum 30mg/kg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in LIC from baseline to week 52. 134 iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients were enrolled and received deferasirox starting at 10mg/kg/day. Mean actual dose±SD over 1year was 14.70±5.48mg/kg/day. At week 52, mean LIC±SD decreased significantly from 15.13±10.72mg Fe/g dw at baseline to 8.46±6.25mg Fe/g dw (absolute change from baseline, -6.68±7.02mg Fe/g dw [95% CI: -7.91, -5.45]; P<0.0001). Most common drug-related adverse events were gastrointestinal: abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and nausea (n=6 each). There was one death (pneumonia, not considered drug related). With significant and clinically relevant reductions in iron burden alongside a safety profile similar to that in THALASSA, these data support earlier escalation with higher deferasirox doses in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients.

  7. Optimising iron chelation therapy with deferasirox for non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: 1-year results from the THETIS study.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali T; Cappellini, M Domenica; Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Karakas, Zeynep; Viprakasit, Vip; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Kattamis, Antonis; Wang, Candace; Zhu, Zewen; Joaquin, Victor; Uwamahoro, Marie José; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Efficacy and safety of iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) patients were established in the THALASSA study. THETIS, an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IV study, added to this evidence by investigating earlier dose escalation by baseline liver iron concentration (LIC) (week 4: escalation according to baseline LIC; week 24: adjustment according to LIC response, maximum 30mg/kg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in LIC from baseline to week 52. 134 iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients were enrolled and received deferasirox starting at 10mg/kg/day. Mean actual dose±SD over 1year was 14.70±5.48mg/kg/day. At week 52, mean LIC±SD decreased significantly from 15.13±10.72mg Fe/g dw at baseline to 8.46±6.25mg Fe/g dw (absolute change from baseline, -6.68±7.02mg Fe/g dw [95% CI: -7.91, -5.45]; P<0.0001). Most common drug-related adverse events were gastrointestinal: abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea and nausea (n=6 each). There was one death (pneumonia, not considered drug related). With significant and clinically relevant reductions in iron burden alongside a safety profile similar to that in THALASSA, these data support earlier escalation with higher deferasirox doses in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients. PMID:26852651

  8. Next generation sequencing of SNPs for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: challenges and feasibility as illustrated by an application to β-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Papasavva, Thessalia; van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Kockx, Christel E M; van den Hout, Mirjam C G N; Kountouris, Petros; Kythreotis, Loukas; Kalogirou, Eleni; Grosveld, Frank G; Kleanthous, Marina

    2013-12-01

    β-Thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive single-gene disorder worldwide, with a carrier frequency of 12% in Cyprus. Prenatal tests for at risk pregnancies use invasive methods and development of a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) method is of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary risks inherent to invasive methods. Here, we describe such a method by assessing a modified version of next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina platform, called 'targeted sequencing', based on the detection of paternally inherited fetal alleles in maternal plasma. We selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the β-globin locus with a high degree of heterozygosity in the Cypriot population. Spiked genomic samples were used to determine the specificity of the platform. We could detect the minor alleles in the expected ratio, showing the specificity of the platform. We then developed a multiplexed format for the selected SNPs and analysed ten maternal plasma samples from pregnancies at risk. The presence or absence of the paternal mutant allele was correctly determined in 27 out of 34 samples analysed. With haplotype analysis, NIPD was possible on eight out of ten families. This is the first study carried out for the NIPD of β-thalassaemia using targeted NGS and haplotype analysis. Preliminary results show that NGS is effective in detecting paternally inherited alleles in the maternal plasma. PMID:23572027

  9. Next generation sequencing of SNPs for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: challenges and feasibility as illustrated by an application to β-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Papasavva, Thessalia; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Kockx, Christel E M; van den Hout, Mirjam C G N; Kountouris, Petros; Kythreotis, Loukas; Kalogirou, Eleni; Grosveld, Frank G; Kleanthous, Marina

    2013-01-01

    β-Thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive single-gene disorder worldwide, with a carrier frequency of 12% in Cyprus. Prenatal tests for at risk pregnancies use invasive methods and development of a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic (NIPD) method is of paramount importance to prevent unnecessary risks inherent to invasive methods. Here, we describe such a method by assessing a modified version of next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina platform, called ‘targeted sequencing', based on the detection of paternally inherited fetal alleles in maternal plasma. We selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the β-globin locus with a high degree of heterozygosity in the Cypriot population. Spiked genomic samples were used to determine the specificity of the platform. We could detect the minor alleles in the expected ratio, showing the specificity of the platform. We then developed a multiplexed format for the selected SNPs and analysed ten maternal plasma samples from pregnancies at risk. The presence or absence of the paternal mutant allele was correctly determined in 27 out of 34 samples analysed. With haplotype analysis, NIPD was possible on eight out of ten families. This is the first study carried out for the NIPD of β-thalassaemia using targeted NGS and haplotype analysis. Preliminary results show that NGS is effective in detecting paternally inherited alleles in the maternal plasma. PMID:23572027

  10. Global mammal beta diversity shows parallel assemblage structure in similar but isolated environments.

    PubMed

    Penone, Caterina; Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H; Brooks, Thomas M; Rondinini, Carlo; Hedges, S Blair; Davidson, Ana D; Costa, Gabriel C

    2016-08-31

    The taxonomic, phylogenetic and trait dimensions of beta diversity each provide us unique insights into the importance of historical isolation and environmental conditions in shaping global diversity. These three dimensions should, in general, be positively correlated. However, if similar environmental conditions filter species with similar trait values, then assemblages located in similar environmental conditions, but separated by large dispersal barriers, may show high taxonomic, high phylogenetic, but low trait beta diversity. Conversely, we expect lower phylogenetic diversity, but higher trait biodiversity among assemblages that are connected but are in differing environmental conditions. We calculated all pairwise comparisons of approximately 110 × 110 km grid cells across the globe for more than 5000 mammal species (approx. 70 million comparisons). We considered realms as units representing geographical distance and historical isolation and biomes as units with similar environmental conditions. While beta diversity dimensions were generally correlated, we highlight geographical regions of decoupling among beta diversity dimensions. Our analysis shows that assemblages from tropical forests in different realms had low trait dissimilarity while phylogenetic beta diversity was significantly higher than expected, suggesting potential convergent evolution. Low trait beta diversity was surprisingly not found between isolated deserts, despite harsh environmental conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence for parallel assemblage structure of mammal assemblages driven by environmental conditions at a global scale. PMID:27559061

  11. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  12. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J B; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Piel, William H; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-09-23

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  13. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  14. Power and Autistic Traits.

    PubMed

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  15. Power and Autistic Traits.

    PubMed

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  16. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  17. Resting EEG in offspring of male alcoholics: beta frequencies.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice; Chorlian, David B; Wang, Kongming; Jones, Kevin A; Kuperman, Samuel; Rohrbaugh, John; O'Connor, Sean J; Bauer, Lance O; Reich, Theodore; Begleiter, Henri

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the differences in beta (12-28 Hz) band power in offspring of male alcoholics from densely affected alcoholic families. We have attempted to investigate if the increase in beta power is a 'state' or 'trait' marker for alcoholism. This study also explores the gender differences in the expression of this potential risk marker. Absolute beta power in three bands-beta 1(12-16 Hz), beta 2 (16-20 Hz), and beta 3 (20-28 Hz)-in the eyes closed EEG of 171 high risk (HR) subjects who were offspring of male alcoholics and 204 low risk (LR) subjects with no family history of alcoholism, were compared for each gender separately using a repeated measures analysis of variance design. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects within the high risk group were compared using a repeated measures design as a follow-up analysis. The present study demonstrated increased beta power in the resting EEG of offspring of male alcoholics. Male HR subjects had higher beta 1 (12-16 Hz) power and female HR subjects had increased power in beta 2 (16-20 Hz) and beta 3 (20-28 Hz) as compared with low risk participants. Female HR subjects also showed significantly increased beta 2 and beta 3 power if they had two or more alcoholic first-degree relatives when compared with HR females having only an affected father. Risk characteristics are expressed differentially in males and females and may be an index of differential vulnerability to alcoholism. The results indicate that increased EEG beta power can be considered as a likely marker of risk for developing alcoholism and may be used as a predictive endophenotype.

  18. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  19. Beta+-thalassemia in cis of a sickle cell gene: occurrence of a promoter mutation on a beta s chromosome.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, F; Ouazana, R; Gonnet, C; Lapillonne, A; Delaunay, J; Godet, J

    1989-10-01

    An atypical sickle cell trait with a very low level of hemoglobin S and features of heterozygous beta-thalassemia was recently described. In vitro globin chain synthesis strongly suggested the presence of the two abnormalities on the same chromosome. We report the corresponding beta S-thal gene. DNA sequence revealed a C----T base substitution in the distal promoter element CACCC, at position-88 from the cap site, in addition to the expected GAG----GTG mutation responsible for the structural variant (beta 6 Glu----Val). Reticulocyte mRNA titration and transient assay of the mutant gene in COS cells showed a defect in beta-mRNA production. Restriction haplotype and DNA sequence analyses revealed that the doubly mutated gene is associated with haplotype 19 (or Benin/Algeria haplotype). In particular, we found the (AT)9(T)4 repeated sequences specifically encountered 5' to the beta S gene of Benin Algeria type. These results support the view that the beta S-thal gene resulted from an independent thalassemic mutation having occurred on a beta S chromosome rather than (a) from a beta S mutation having altered a beta-thalassemic gene or (b) from a recombination event between two chromosomes, each carrying one of the mutations.

  20. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  1. Power and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  2. Human alpha2-globin nonsense-mediated mRNA decay induced by a novel alpha-thalassaemia frameshift mutation at codon 22.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francisco J C; do Céu Silva, Maria; Picanço, Isabel; Seixas, Maria T; Ferrão, Anabela; Faustino, Paula; Romão, Luísa

    2006-04-01

    We describe a novel alpha-thalassaemia determinant in a 3-year-old girl presenting a mild microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, and normal haemoglobin A2 level. Molecular studies revealed heterozygosity for a novel microdeletion (-C) at codon 22 of the alpha2-globin gene. As the frameshift mutation generates a premature translation termination codon at position 48/49, we investigated the effect of the nonsense codon on the alpha2-globin gene expression. Although it does not affect RNA splicing, the premature nonsense codon induces accelerated mRNA degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first time the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay has been reported to occur in human alpha-globin mRNA.

  3. Mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron generation: insights from comparing transfused diamond blackfan anaemia with sickle cell and thalassaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Porter, John B; Walter, Patrick B; Neumayr, Lynne D; Evans, Patricia; Bansal, Sukhvinder; Garbowski, Maciej; Weyhmiller, Marcela G; Harmatz, Paul R; Wood, John C; Miller, Jeffery L; Byrnes, Colleen; Weiss, Guenter; Seifert, Markus; Grosse, Regine; Grabowski, Dagmar; Schmidt, Angelica; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2014-12-01

    In transfusional iron overload, extra-hepatic iron distribution differs, depending on the underlying condition. Relative mechanisms of plasma non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) generation may account for these differences. Markers of iron metabolism (plasma NTBI, labile iron, hepcidin, transferrin, monocyte SLC40A1 [ferroportin]), erythropoiesis (growth differentiation factor 15, soluble transferrin receptor) and tissue hypoxia (erythropoietin) were compared in patients with Thalassaemia Major (TM), Sickle Cell Disease and Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA), with matched transfusion histories. The most striking differences between these conditions were relationships of NTBI to erythropoietic markers, leading us to propose three mechanisms of NTBI generation: iron overload (all), ineffective erythropoiesis (predominantly TM) and low transferrin-iron utilization (DBA).

  4. The human leucocyte antigen-G 14-basepair polymorphism correlates with graft-versus-host disease in unrelated bone marrow transplantation for thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    La Nasa, Giorgio; Littera, Roberto; Locatelli, Franco; Lai, Sara; Alba, Francesco; Caocci, Giovanni; Lisini, Daniela; Nesci, Sonia; Vacca, Adriana; Piras, Eugenia; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Di Cesare-Merlone, Alessandra; Orrù, Sandro; Carcassi, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    The presence of the 14-bp insertion polymorphism of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene (HLA-G) promotes immune tolerance through increased synthesis of HLA-G molecules. We investigated this polymorphism in a large cohort of 53 thalassaemia patients transplanted from an unrelated donor. Sixteen patients (30.2%) homozygous for the 14-bp deletion had a higher risk of developing acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) than patients homozygous for the 14-bp insertion (-14-bp/-14-bp vs +14-bp/+14-bp: Relative Risk = 15.0; 95% confidence interval 1.59-141.24; P = 0.008). Therefore, the 14-bp polymorphism could be an important predictive factor for aGvHD following bone marrow transplantation. PMID:17897304

  5. A beta-thalassemia lesion abolishes the same Mst II site as the sickle mutation.

    PubMed

    Chang, J C; Alberti, A; Kan, Y W

    1983-11-25

    Digestion of DNA from a patient with homozygous beta zero thalassemia from Calabria, Italy with the restriction endonuclease Mst II produced a pattern similar to the one obtained with sickle cell trait DNA in that the Mst II site at the beta 6 position on one chromosome was abolished. We cloned the DNA from this beta-thalassemia chromosome and performed sequence analysis. The deletion of a single nucleotide (A) at the GAG codon of the beta 6 position results in a frame shift and early beta-globin chain termination. This mutation occurs on a chromosome with a haplotype similar to two other Mediterranean beta-thalassemia lesions. The Mst II enzyme is useful for prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia in this population.

  6. High Beta Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.

    1998-11-14

    Perhaps the ideal tokamak would have high {beta} ({beta} {approx}> 1) and classical confinement. Such a tokamak has not been found, and we do not know if one does exist. We have searched for such a possibility, so far without success. In 1990, we obtained analytic equilibrium solutions for large aspect ratio tokamaks at {beta} {approx} {Omicron}(1) [1]. These solutions and the extension at high {beta} poloidal to finite aspect ratio [2] provided a basis for the study of high {beta} tokamaks. We have shown that these configurations can be stable to short scale MHD modes [3], and that they have reduced neoclassical transport [4]. Microinstabilities (such as the {del}T{sub i} mode) seem to be stabilized at high {beta} [5] - this is due to the large local shear [3] and the magnetic well. We have some concerns about modes associated with the compressional branch which may appear at high {beta}. Bill Dorland and Mike Kotschenreuther have studied this issue and our concerns may be unfounded. It is certainly tantalizing, especially given the lowered neoclassical transport values, that these configurations could have no microinstabilities and, one could assume, no anomalous transport. Unfortunately, while this work is encouraging, the key question for high {beta} tokamaks is the stability to large scale kink modes. The MHD {beta} limit (Troyon limit) for kink modes at large aspect ratio is problematically low. There is ample evidence from computations that the limit exists. However, it is not known if stable equilibria exist at much higher {beta}--none have been found. We have explored this question in the asymptotic high {beta} poloidal limit. Unfortunately, we are unable to find stable equilibrium and also unable to show that they don't exist. The results of these calculations will be published when a more definitive answer is found.

  7. Evolving Trait Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Redefines intelligence as a useful, comprehensive, and flexible construct that allows its modifiability as a function of age and culture. Reviews theories on two-factor, multiple-factor, facet, and hierarchical models of trait formation based on research in developmental, cross-cultural, learning, and cognitive psychology. (Author/AOS)

  8. Importation route of the sickle cell trait into Portugal: contribution of molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lavinha, J; Gonçalves, J; Faustino, P; Romão, L; Osório-Almeida, L; Peres, M J; Picanço, I; Martins, M C; Ducrocq, R; Labie, D

    1992-12-01

    To elucidate the origin and spread of the sickle cell trait into the Portuguese population, we examined nine polymorphic DNA markers within the beta globin gene cluster defining the haplotype. The population sample included 64 sickle-cell-gene-bearing individuals from defined Portuguese-speaking white, black, and Asian Indian populations. The nature and geographic distribution of the different beta S haplotypes in Portugal suggest that the sickle cell trait has been imported twice: between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries from the Mediterranean basin (in association with the Benin haplotype) and after the fifteenth century from black Africa over an Atlantic route (Senegal and Bantu haplotypes).

  9. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  10. Nkx6.1 is essential for maintaining the functional state of pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brandon L; Liu, Fen-Fen; Sander, Maike

    2013-09-26

    Recently, loss of beta-cell-specific traits has been proposed as an early cause of beta cell failure in diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the loss of beta cell features remain unclear. Here, we identify an Nkx6.1-controlled gene regulatory network as essential for maintaining the functional and molecular traits of mature beta cells. Conditional Nkx6.1 inactivation in adult mice caused rapid-onset diabetes and hypoinsulinemia. Genome-wide analysis of Nkx6.1-regulated genes and functional assays further revealed a critical role for Nkx6.1 in the control of insulin biosynthesis, insulin secretion, and beta cell proliferation. Over time, Nkx6.1-deficient beta cells acquired molecular characteristics of delta cells, revealing a molecular link between impaired beta cell functional properties and loss of cell identity. Given that Nkx6.1 levels are reduced in human type 2 diabetic beta cells, our study lends support to the concept that loss of beta cell features could contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24035389

  11. Clines in polygenic traits.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H

    1999-12-01

    This article outlines theoretical models of clines in additive polygenic traits, which are maintained by stabilizing selection towards a spatially varying optimum. Clines in the trait mean can be accurately predicted, given knowledge of the genetic variance. However, predicting the variance is difficult, because it depends on genetic details. Changes in genetic variance arise from changes in allele frequency, and in linkage disequilibria. Allele frequency changes dominate when selection is weak relative to recombination, and when there are a moderate number of loci. With a continuum of alleles, gene flow inflates the genetic variance in the same way as a source of mutations of small effect. The variance can be approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of allelic effects; with a sufficiently steep cline, this is accurate even when mutation and selection alone are better described by the 'House of Cards' approximation. With just two alleles at each locus, the phenotype changes in a similar way: the mean remains close to the optimum, while the variance changes more slowly, and over a wider region. However, there may be substantial cryptic divergence at the underlying loci. With strong selection and many loci, linkage disequilibria are the main cause of changes in genetic variance. Even for strong selection, the infinitesimal model can be closely approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of breeding values. Linkage disequilibria can generate a substantial increase in genetic variance, which is concentrated at sharp gradients in trait means.

  12. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  13. Ureidopenicillins and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed

    Bush, L M; Johnson, C C

    2000-06-01

    Although research and development of new penicillins have declined, penicillins continue to be essential antibiotics for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. The most recent additions are the ureidopenicillins and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. This article reviews the spectrum of activity, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and clinical uses of the ureidopenicillins, and the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination agents.

  14. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  15. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  16. Interval Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Employing Correlated Trait Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Korol, A. B.; Ronin, Y. I.; Kirzhner, V. M.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritability attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/ a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y, H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a). The last inequality holds even if y does not depend on A/ a at all, but x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H(2) (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2N log(1 - H(2)). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis as compared to the single-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). PMID:7672584

  17. Assessment and management of iron overload in β-thalassaemia major patients during the 21st century: a real-life experience from the Italian WEBTHAL project.

    PubMed

    Piga, Antonio; Longo, Filomena; Musallam, Khaled M; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Forni, Gian Luca; Quarta, Giovanni; Chiavilli, Francesco; Commendatore, Francesca; Mulas, Sergio; Caruso, Vincenzo; Galanello, Renzo

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on 924 β-thalassaemia major patients (mean age 30·1 years) treated at nine Italian centres using the WEBTHAL software, to evaluate real-life application of iron overload assessment and management standards. Serum ferritin <2500 ng/ml was a risk factor for never having liver iron concentration (LIC) measurement, while absence of cardiac disease and siderosis were risk factors for a delay in LIC measurement >2 years. Patients who never had a cardiac MRI (CMR) T2* measurement were <18 years, had iron intake ≤0·4 mg/kg per day, or a serum ferritin <2500 ng/ml. A history of normal CMR T2* was the main risk factor for a delay in subsequent assessment of >2 years. Deferoxamine (22·8%) was more commonly used in patients with Hepatitis C Virus or high serum creatinine. Deferiprone (20·6%) was less commonly prescribed in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase; while a deferoxamine + deferiprone combination (17·9%) was more commonly used in patients with serum ferritin >2500 ng/ml or CMR T2* <20 ms. Deferasirox (38·3%) was more commonly prescribed in patients <18 years, but less commonly used in those with heart disease or high iron intake. These observations largely echoed guidelines at the time, although some practices are expected to change in light of evolving evidence.

  18. Quantitative trait loci associated with the tocochromanol (vitamin E) pathway in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the Genome-Wide Association Studies approach was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci associated with tocochromanol concentrations using a panel of 1,466 barley accessions. All major tocochromanol types- alpha-, beta-, delta-, gamma-tocopherol and tocotrienol- were assayed. We found...

  19. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  20. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/outputmore » library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.« less

  1. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  2. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait.

  3. Quantitative trait loci underlying udder morphology traits in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2008-09-01

    A genome scan was conducted on the basis of the daughter design to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing udder morphology traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep. A total of 739 ewes belonging to 11 half-sib families were genotyped for 182 microsatellite markers covering 3,248.2 cM (Kosambi) of the ovine autosomal genome. Phenotypic traits included scores for 5 linear udder traits: udder depth, udder attachment, teat placement, teat size, and udder shape. Quantitative measurements for the QTL analysis were calculated for each trait from evaluation scores using within-family yield deviations corrected for fixed environmental effects. Joint analysis of all families using Haley-Knott regression identified 5 regions that exceeded the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold on chromosomes 7, 14, 15, 20, and 26. Based on the across-family results, a within-family analysis was carried out to identify families segregated according to the QTL and to estimate the QTL effect. The allelic substitution effect for individual families ranged from 0.47 to 1.7 phenotypic standard deviation units for udder shape on chromosome 15 and udder depth on chromosome 14, respectively. These QTL regions provide a starting point for further research aimed at the characterization of genetic variability involved in udder traits in Churra sheep. This paper presents the first report of a sheep genome scan for udder-related traits in a dairy sheep outbred population.

  4. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  5. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  6. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  7. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  8. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  9. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  10. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign.

  11. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  12. Sickle Cell Trait: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lenworth N.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature on sickle cell trait was completed by Sears in 1978. Since that time, several papers have been published concerning the possible health risks of sickle cell trait. Data presented from these studies show that there is no association with sickle cell trait and overall survival, overall mortality, overall morbidity, frequency and length of hospitalization, short-term survival of renal transplant recipient, and inheritance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Association with sickle cell trait is very likely in the following: splenic infarction at high altitudes (over 10,000 feet), in unpressurized airplane flight and mountain climbing, bacteriuria and pyelonephritis in pregnancy, hyposthenuria, hematuria, and delayed resolution of anterior chamber hyphema. Although these conditions have a statistical significant association with sickle cell trait, they occur quite infrequently. Thus, when they are observed, other causes should be sought before attributing them to sickle cell trait. Reduced mortality from Plasmodium falciparum infection also shows significant association with sickle cell trait. PMID:6752430

  13. Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  14. Measurement of $\\beta_s$ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, Louise; /Oxford U.

    2011-02-01

    The latest results for the measurement of the CP violating phase {beta}{sub s} in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi} decays, from 5.2 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity of CDF data are presented. For the first time, this measurement includes the contribution of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup +}K{sup -} or B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}f{sub 0} events to the signal sample, where the f{sub 0} and non-resonant K{sup +}K{sup -} are S-wave states. Additional improvements to the analysis include more than doubling the signal sample, improved selection and particle ID, and fully calibrated flavour tagging for the full dataset. Additionally, the world's most precise single measurements of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime, {tau}{sub s}, and width difference, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} are given.

  15. On the biodegradation of beta-peptides.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Jürg V; Frackenpohl, Jens; Moser, Frank; Fleischmann, Thomas; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Seebach, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    A consortium of microorganisms was established that was able to grow with the beta-tripeptide H-beta-HVal-beta-HAla-beta-HLeu-OH, with the beta-dipeptide H-beta-HAla-beta-HLeu-OH, and with the beta-amino acids H-beta-HAla-OH, H-beta-HVal-OH, and H-beta-HLeu-OH as the sole carbon and energy sources. This growth was achieved after several incubation-transfer cycles with the beta-tripeptide as the substrate. During degradation of the beta-tripeptide H-beta-HVal-beta-HAla-beta-HLeu-OH, the temporary formation of a metabolite was observed. The metabolite was identified as the beta-dipeptide H-beta-HAla-beta-HLeu-OH by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This result indicates that in the course of the degradation of the beta-tripeptide, the N-terminal beta-HVal residue was cleaved off by a not yet known mechanism. During the subsequent degradation of the beta-dipeptide, formation of additional metabolites could not be detected. The growth-yield coefficients Y(x/s) for growth on the beta-di- and beta-tripeptide both had a value of 0.45. When a 1:1 mixture of the beta-tripeptide and the corresponding alpha-tripeptide H-Val-Ala-Leu-OH was added to the enrichment culture, the alpha-peptide was completely utilized in six days and thereafter growth of the culture stopped. This result indicates that even in beta-peptide enrichment cultures, alpha-peptides are the preferred substrates. Our experiments clearly show for the first time that beta-peptides and beta-amino acids are amenable to biodegradation and that a microbial consortium was able to utilize these compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. Furthermore, the preparation of beta-amino acids, of derivatives thereof, and of beta-di- and beta-tripeptides is described.

  16. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  17. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    PubMed

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  18. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  19. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    PubMed

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment. PMID:2213498

  20. Effects of milk protein genotypes on the variation for milk production traits of Holstein and Jersey cows in California.

    PubMed

    Ojala, M; Famula, T R; Medrano, J F

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to form appropriate composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotypes in order to assess which genotypes were favorably associated with first lactation milk production, fat and protein percentages, and fat and protein production for data of 916 Holstein and 116 Jersey cows. Multiple-trait animal models were used with assumed fixed effects for herd, year and season of calving, age at calving, days open, composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotypes, and beta-LG genotypes. The differences between the beta-LG genotypes for production traits were not statistically significant for either breed. The proportion of phenotypic variance that was due to the composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-Cn genotypes was 5% for milk production, 4% for protein production, and 3% for fat percentage. The kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotype ABA1A2BB was superior to the comparable AAA1A2BB and ABA1A1BB genotypes by 252 and 338 kg for first lactation milk yield, respectively, and 8.7 and 11.5 kg for protein yield, respectively. Thus, neither the beta-CN A2 allele nor the kappa-CN B allele alone had a positive effect on milk and protein production, but the joint effect was strongly positive. These results may be explained by epistatic effects between the kappa-CN and beta-CN loci and possibly by closely linked quantitative trait loci with favorable alleles on the kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN BA2B haplotype.

  1. Multiple Trait Analysis of Genetic Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C.; Zeng, Z. B.

    1995-01-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis provides formal procedures to test a number of biologically interesting hypotheses concerning the nature of genetic correlations between different traits. Among the testing procedures considered are those for joint mapping, pleiotropy, QTL by environment interaction, and pleiotropy vs. close linkage. The test of pleiotropy (one pleiotropic QTL at a genome position) vs. close linkage (multiple nearby nonpleiotropic QTL) can have important implications for our understanding of the nature of genetic correlations between different traits in certain regions of a genome and also for practical applications in animal and plant breeding because one of the major goals in breeding is to break unfavorable linkage. Results of extensive simulation studies are presented to illustrate various properties of the analyses. PMID:7672582

  2. Solergy (Beta Version 1)

    2009-03-30

    SOLERGY simulates the operation and power output of a user-defined solar central receiver power plant for a time period of up to one year. SOLERGY utilizes recorded or simulated weather data and plant component performance models to calculate the power flowing through each part of the solar plant. A plant control subroutine monitors these powers and determines when to operate the various plant subsystems. The original version of the code was released in May 1987,more » within SAND86-8060 and was widely distributed. The Beta Version 1 to be released in 2009, includes some relatively small modifications to the original code.« less

  3. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  4. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  5. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  6. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Bovenhuis, H; Van Arendonk, J A; Korver, S

    1992-09-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each milk protein gene was analyzed separately (single-gene analysis) and a model in which all milk protein genes were analyzed simultaneously (multigene analysis). The results of the two models indicate that some effects ascribed to certain milk protein genes in the single-gene analysis are not effects of the milk protein gene itself but of linked genes. Results from this study and from literature indicate that the kappa-casein gene or a very closely linked gene affects protein percentage, and the beta-lactoglobulin gene or a very closely linked gene affects fat percentage. Furthermore, effects of beta-casein genotypes on milk production, fat percentage, and protein yield were significant, and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had significant effects on milk production and protein yield. It is less clear whether those effects are due to effects of milk protein genes themselves or to effects of linked genes.

  7. Moral reasoning and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mudrack, Peter E

    2006-06-01

    Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.

  8. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  9. TraitBank: An Open Digital Repository for Organism Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TraitBank currently serves over 11 million measurements and facts for more than 1.7 million taxa. These data are mobilized from major biodiversity information systems (e.g., International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ocean Biogeographic Information System, Paleobiology Database), literature sup...

  10. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  11. Thyroid storm during beta blockade.

    PubMed

    Strube, P J

    1984-04-01

    A thyrotoxic patient who had received beta-adrenoceptor blockers pre-operatively suffered an episode of severe heart failure immediately following thyroidectomy and required artificial ventilation of the lungs for six hours. The possible causes are discussed and the likelihood of thyroid storm unmitigated by beta adrenergic blockade suggested.

  12. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  13. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  14. Phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Adam C; Treseder, Kathleen; Pusch, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    A central question in biology is how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Underlying this is the relationship between organismal phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. The relationship is complicated by gene loss and convergent evolution, resulting in the polyphyletic distribution of many traits. In microorganisms, lateral gene transfer can further distort the linkage between phylogeny and the presence of specific functional traits. To identify the phylogenetic conservation of specific traits in microorganisms, we developed a new phylogenetic metric-consenTRAIT-to estimate the clade depth where organisms share a trait. We then analyzed the distribution of 89 functional traits across a broad range of Bacteria and Archaea using genotypic and phenotypic data. A total of 93% of the traits were significantly non-randomly distributed, which suggested that vertical inheritance was generally important for the phylogenetic dispersion of functional traits in microorganisms. Further, traits in microbes were associated with a continuum of trait depths (τD), ranging from a few deep to many shallow clades (average τD: 0.101-0.0011 rRNA sequence dissimilarity). Next, we demonstrated that the dispersion and the depth of clades that contain a trait is correlated with the trait's complexity. Specifically, complex traits encoded by many genes like photosynthesis and methanogenesis were found in a few deep clusters, whereas the ability to use simple carbon substrates was highly phylogenetically dispersed. On the basis of these results, we propose a framework for predicting the phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits depending on the complexity of the trait. This framework enables predicting how variation in microbial composition may affect microbially-mediated ecosystem processes as well as linking phylogenetic and trait-based patterns of biogeography.

  15. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  16. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  17. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  18. Predicting communities from functional traits.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, Marc W; Arnillas, Carlos A; Livingstone, Stuart W; Yasui, Simone-Louise E

    2015-09-01

    Species traits influence where species live and how they interact. While there have been many advances in describing the functional composition and diversity of communities, only recently do researchers have the ability to predict community composition and diversity. This predictive ability can offer fundamental insights into ecosystem resilience and restoration. PMID:26190136

  19. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  20. A trait-based approach for examining microbial community assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prest, T. L.; Nemergut, D.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms regulate all of Earth's major biogeochemical cycles and an understanding of how microbial communities assemble is a key part in evaluating controls over many types of ecosystem processes. Rapid advances in technology and bioinformatics have led to a better appreciation for the variation in microbial community structure in time and space. Yet, advances in theory are necessary to make sense of these data and allow us to generate unifying hypotheses about the causes and consequences of patterns in microbial biodiversity and what they mean for ecosystem function. Here, I will present a metaanalysis of microbial community assembly from a variety of successional and post-disturbance systems. Our analysis shows various distinct patterns in community assembly, and the potential importance of nutrients and dispersal in shaping microbial community beta diversity in these systems. We also used a trait-based approach to generate hypotheses about the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and the implications for function. Our work reveals the importance of rRNA operon copy number as a community aggregated trait in helping to reconcile differences in community dynamics between distinct types of successional and disturbed systems. Specifically, our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number can be a common feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession, supporting a transition from an r-selected to a K-selected community. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, from cells to populations and communities, and has implications for both ecology and evolution. Trait-based approaches are an important next step to generate and test hypotheses about the forces structuring microbial communities and the subsequent consequences for ecosystem function.

  1. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  2. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  3. Influence of beta-carotene on fertility in rabbits when using embryo transfer programs.

    PubMed

    Besenfelder, U; Solti, L; Seregi, J; Brem, G

    1993-05-01

    The effect of beta-carotene on reproduction traits in rabbits was studied in 509 (superovulated and normally ovulated) donors and 239 recipients by using embryo/gene transfer performed at 2 different locations. All of the bucks and the half of the females were fed a diet supplemented with 40 mg synthetic beta-carotene (Rovimix((R)))/kg feed. Embryos at the pronucleus stage were collected 19 to 21 hours after induction of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); they were then microinjected into the male pronucleus and transferred to synchronized recipients. Data were obtained from the time when the donors and recipients were caged, until the pups resulting from the embryo transfers were weaned. Supplemented beta-carotene did not affect most of the 30 traits that were analyzed. However superovulated donors in Project 2 that received the beta-carotene enriched diet had a 14% lighter ovary weight (P<0.05) and less than half of the oocytes were unfertilized (P<0.05). In Project 1 (beta-carotene group) there was a greater number of pups born (36%, P<0.05) and more of these pups were born alive (53%, P<0.05). PMID:16727279

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Barillet, Francis; Arranz, Juan-José; Carta, Antonello

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep alphas1-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits.

  5. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  6. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  7. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  8. Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

  9. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  10. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  11. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  12. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  13. Why are rare traits unilaterally expressed?: trait frequency and unilateral expression for cranial nonmetric traits in humans.

    PubMed

    Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Donnabháin, Barra O; Blom, Deborah E; Lozada, Maria C; Willmore, Katherine T

    2005-09-01

    Based on an analysis of nonmetric trait databases from several large skeletal series in Northern Europe and South America, representing 27 bilateral traits, we report a predictable relationship between the frequency of nonmetric traits and the probability that they are expressed bilaterally. In a wider sampling of traits and populations, this study thus confirms the findings of an earlier study by Ossenberg ([1981] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 54:471-479), which reported the same relationship for two mandibular traits. This trend was previously explained by extending the multifactorial threshold model for discontinuous traits to incorporate either separate thresholds for unilateral or bilateral expression, or by a fuzzy threshold in which the probability of bilateral expression increases away from the median threshold value. We show that the trend is produced under the standard multifactorial threshold model for discontinuous traits simply if the within-individual or developmental instability variance remains relatively constant across the range of liability. Under this assumption, the number of individuals in which one side but not the other is pushed over the threshold for trait formation will be a larger proportion of the number of individuals expressing the trait when the trait frequency is low. As trait frequency increases, the significance of within-individual variance as a determinant of trait formation decreases relative to the genetic and among-individual environmental variance. These results have implications for interpreting nonmetric trait data as well as for understanding the prevalence of unilateral vs. bilateral expression of a wide variety of discontinuous traits, including dysmorphologies in humans.

  14. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    PubMed

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics.

  15. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  16. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  17. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein in red blood ... In people with beta thalassemia , low levels of hemoglobin lead to a lack of oxygen in many ...

  19. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  20. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  1. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  2. Role of IL-1 beta and prostaglandins in beta 2-microglobulin-induced bone mineral dissolution.

    PubMed

    Moe, S M; Hack, B K; Cummings, S A; Sprague, S M

    1995-02-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) induces an osteoclast-mediated net calcium efflux from neonatal mouse calvariae which occurs only after 48 hours of incubation, suggesting that beta 2m acts via other growth factors. To further test this hypothesis, calvariae were incubated with and without beta 2m in the presence of the prostaglandin inhibitor indomethacin, anti-interleukin-1 beta antibody (anti-IL-1 beta), or interleukin-1 beta receptor antagonist (IL-1 beta RA). The addition of beta 2m to the culture medium stimulated, whereas indomethacin inhibited basal calcium efflux following 48 hours. However, the difference (delta) between the calcium efflux induced in calvariae incubated with and without beta 2m in basal medium and that in calvariae incubated with and without beta 2m in indomethacin supplemented medium was similar, suggesting a prostaglandin independent mechanism. There was a time dependent increase in PGE2 in basal medium which was unaffected by beta 2m. In contrast, pre-incubating calvariae with either anti-IL-1 beta or IL-1 beta RA did not alter basal calcium efflux but completely blocked the beta 2m induced calcium efflux. Anti-IL-1 beta had no effect on the basal release of beta-glucuronidase but partially blocked the beta 2m induced release of beta-glucuronidase. Thus, the beta 2m-induced calcium efflux observed in neonatal mouse calvariae is dependent on interleukin-1 beta but not prostaglandins.

  3. Medium Beta Superconducting Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen

    2001-09-01

    While, originally, the development of superconducting structures was cleanly divided between low-beta resonators for heavy ions and beta=1 resonators for electrons, recent interest in protons accelerators (high and low current, pulsed and cw) has necessitated the development of structures that bridge the gap between the two. These activities have resulted both in new geometries and in the adaptation of well-known geometries optimized to this intermediate velocity range. Their characteristics and properties are reviewed.

  4. From Algol to Beta Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    Recognizing that the structure and evolutionary status of Beta Lyrae are much more complicated than for Algol, some of the problems of revealing its structure are discussed. The best model available at present considers Beta Lyrae as an Algol-type semi-detached system in a phase of fairly rapid mass transfer, i.e., younger than typical Algols. It is concluded that Beta Lyrae is not so special as it appears; some characteristics that are so puzzling in Beta Lyrae already appear in such classical Algols as U Cephei and RW Tauri. The mass-accreting components in these systems are surrounded by a hot, turbulent layer which probably expands and which is the seat of emission lines of fairly high ionization discovered in the far ultraviolet. In Beta Lyrae and the so-called W Serpenis stars, the circumstellar hot turbulent shell is much more extensive and probably also denser - a kind of 'superchromosphere'. In Beta Lyrae, a thick disk probably completely surrounds and hides the accreting star proper.

  5. Beta-decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, I. N.

    2006-10-01

    Major astrophysical applications involve a huge number of exotic nuclei. Their beta-decay properties play a crucial role in stellar explosive events. An important effort has been developed in last decades to measure the masses and β-decay properties of very neutron-rich nuclei at radioactive nuclear beam facilities. However, most of them cannot be synthesized in terrestrial laboratories and only theoretical predictions can fill the gap. We will concentrate mainly on the β-decay rates needed for stellar r-process modeling and for performing the RNB experiments. An overview of the microscopic approaches to the β-decay strength function is given. The continuum QRPA approach based on the self-consistent ground state description in the framework of the density functional theory is outlined. For the first time, a systematic study of the total β-decay half-lives and delayed neutron emission probabilities takes into account the Gamow Teller and first-forbidden transitions. Due to the shell configuration effects, the first-forbidden decays have a strong impact on the β-decay characteristics of the r-process relevant nuclei at Z≈28, N>50; Z⩾50, N>82 and Z=60 70, N≈126. Suppression of the delayed neutron emission probability is found in nuclei with the neutron excess bigger than one major shell. The effect originates from the high-energy first-forbidden transitions to the states outside the (Q-B)-window in the daughter nuclei. The performance of existing global models for the nuclides near the r-process paths is critically analyzed and confronted with the recent RIB experiments in the regions of 78Ni, 132Sn and “east” of 208Pb.

  6. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN. PMID:7787867

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay and neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, Michael

    2012-07-27

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is a promising test for lepton number violating physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. There is a deep connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses. In particular, we will discuss the relation between 0{nu}{beta}{beta} and Majorana neutrino masses provided by the so-called Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way. Furthermore, we will present an experimental cross check to discriminate 0{nu}{beta}{beta} from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope, i.e., within one experiment.

  8. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of ewe traits in Icelandic sheep.

    PubMed

    Arnason, T; Jónmundsson, J V

    2008-12-01

    The prolificacy of the ewes was measured as the number of lambs born per ewe mated (NLB) when the ewes were 1-4 years of age. The ewe productivity related to the same age interval was measured by special ewe production indices (EPI). The genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by a series of bivariate REML analyses using animal models. The material used for the genetic analysis contained records on 193,213 ewes. The heritability estimates for NLB were h(2) = 0.17, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10 for the four respective age classes. Corresponding estimates for EPI were h(2) = 0.16, 0.17, 0.17, 0.15. The genetic correlations among NLB at different ages ranged from 0.63 to 0.98 and among EPI from 0.82 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between NLB and EPI were generally low. The material used for estimating the breeding values by the MT-BLUP Animal Model consisted of 1.5 million individuals in the pedigree file. In total 815,782 ewes had records for the NLB and 763,491 ewes had production index (at least 1 year). The records were registered in the years 1990-2006. All possible missing patterns were present in the data. In the iteration process expected values for missing traits were generated and solutions were obtained on canonical transformed scale. The genetic evaluations were run independently for NLB and EPI for computational convenience given the correlations between these traits were negligible.

  9. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk.

    PubMed

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  10. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  11. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    SciTech Connect

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  12. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble solids (degrees Brix; °Bx) in tomato fruit. The purpose of the present work was to pyramid into cultivated varieties the selected QTL for enhanced antioxidant and °Bx content. To better understand the genetic architecture of each QTL, the two ILs were crossed to the recurrent parent M82 (ILH7-3 and ILH12-4) and between them (ILH7-3+12-4). F1 hybrids (ILH7-3+12-4) were then selfed up to obtain F3 progenies in order to stabilize the favourable traits at the homozygous condition. Species-specific molecular markers were identified for each introgressed region and allowed us to select four F2 genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition. The F3 double homozygous plants displayed AsA, total phenols and °Bx content significantly higher than M82. Therefore, they may represent suitable genetic material for breeding schemes aiming to increase antioxidant content in tomato fruit. PMID:23316114

  13. Beta-lactamase genes of the penicillin-susceptible Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahua; Succi, Janice; Tenover, Fred C; Koehler, Theresa M

    2003-02-01

    Susceptibility to penicillin and other beta-lactam-containing compounds is a common trait of Bacillus anthracis. Beta-lactam agents, particularly penicillin, have been used worldwide to treat anthrax in humans. Nonetheless, surveys of clinical and soil-derived strains reveal penicillin G resistance in 2 to 16% of isolates tested. Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam agents is often mediated by production of one or more types of beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring, inactivating the antimicrobial agent. Here, we report the presence of two beta-lactamase (bla) genes in the penicillin-susceptible Sterne strain of B. anthracis. We identified bla1 by functional cloning with Escherichia coli. bla1 is a 927-nucleotide (nt) gene predicted to encode a protein with 93.8% identity to the type I beta-lactamase gene of Bacillus cereus. A second gene, bla2, was identified by searching the unfinished B. anthracis chromosome sequence database of The Institute for Genome Research for open reading frames (ORFs) predicted to encode beta-lactamases. We found a partial ORF predicted to encode a protein with significant similarity to the carboxy-terminal end of the type II beta-lactamase of B. cereus. DNA adjacent to the 5' end of the partial ORF was cloned using inverse PCR. bla2 is a 768-nt gene predicted to encode a protein with 92% identity to the B. cereus type II enzyme. The bla1 and bla2 genes confer ampicillin resistance to E. coli and Bacillus subtilis when cloned individually in these species. The MICs of various antimicrobial agents for the E. coli clones indicate that the two beta-lactamase genes confer different susceptibility profiles to E. coli; bla1 is a penicillinase, while bla2 appears to be a cephalosporinase. The beta-galactosidase activities of B. cereus group species harboring bla promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusions indicate that bla1 is poorly transcribed in B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis. The bla2 gene is strongly expressed in B

  14. Fundamental processes in the interacting boson model: 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Iachello, F.; Barea, J.

    2011-05-06

    A program to calculate nuclear matrix elements for fundamental processes in the interacting boson model has been initiated. Results for the nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double beta decay 0{nu}{beta}{beta} are presented.

  15. Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Giles, Jessica W

    2004-01-01

    Reasoning about evaluative traits was investigated among a group of 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 34), a group of 11- to 13-year olds (N = 25), and a group of adults (N = 23) to determine whether their inferences would be sensitive to the valence of social and academic traits. Four aspects of trait-relevant beliefs were examined: (1) malleability, (2) stability over time, (3) origin in terms of nature versus nurture, and (4) an inference criterion that concerns how readily traits are inferred. Although there was evidence of an age-related decrease in the tendency to emphasize positive information, participants of all ages responded that positive traits are less malleable and more stable over time than negative traits, that the positive influences of biological and environmental factors are likely to override the negative influences, and that competence can be more readily inferred from positive outcomes than from negative outcomes. PMID:20953297

  16. Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    Reasoning about evaluative traits was investigated among a group of 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 34), a group of 11- to 13-year olds (N = 25), and a group of adults (N = 23) to determine whether their inferences would be sensitive to the valence of social and academic traits. Four aspects of trait-relevant beliefs were examined: (1) malleability, (2) stability over time, (3) origin in terms of nature versus nurture, and (4) an inference criterion that concerns how readily traits are inferred. Although there was evidence of an age-related decrease in the tendency to emphasize positive information, participants of all ages responded that positive traits are less malleable and more stable over time than negative traits, that the positive influences of biological and environmental factors are likely to override the negative influences, and that competence can be more readily inferred from positive outcomes than from negative outcomes. PMID:20953297

  17. Multi-trait mimicry and the relative salience of individual traits.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Baharan; Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Leimar, Olof

    2015-11-01

    Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative salience of the traits of a two-trait artificial model prey, and subsequently tested the survival of mimics of the different traits. The unrewarded model prey had two colour traits, black and blue, and the rewarded prey had two combinations of green, brown and grey shades. Blue tits were used as predators. We found that the birds perceived the black and blue traits to be similarly salient in one treatment, and mimic-model similarity in both traits was then required for high mimic success. In a second treatment, the blue trait was the most salient trait, and mimic-model similarity in this trait alone achieved high success. Our results thus support the idea that similar salience of model traits can explain the occurrence of multi-trait mimicry.

  18. Seasonality and phenology alter functional leaf traits.

    PubMed

    McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Azam, M Shofiul; Drewes, Eric C; Quamme, Linda K

    2013-07-01

    In plant ecophysiology, functional leaf traits are generally not assessed in relation to phenological phase of the canopy. Leaf traits measured in deciduous perennial species are known to vary between spring and summer seasons, but there is a knowledge gap relating to the late-summer phase marked by growth cessation and bud set occurring well before fall leaf senescence. The effects of phenology on canopy physiology were tested using a common garden of over 2,000 black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) individuals originating from a wide geographical range (44-60ºN). Annual phenological events and 12 leaf-based functional trait measurements were collected spanning the entire summer season prior to, and following, bud set. Patterns of seasonal trait change emerged by synchronizing trees using their date of bud set. In particular, photosynthetic, mass, and N-based traits increased substantially following bud set. Most traits were significantly different between pre-bud set and post-bud set phase trees, with many traits showing at least 25% alteration in mean value. Post-bud set, both the significance and direction of trait-trait relationships could be modified, with many relating directly to changes in leaf mass. In Populus, these dynamics in leaf traits throughout the summer season reflected a shift in whole plant physiology, but occurred long before the onset of leaf senescence. The marked shifts in measured trait values following bud set underscores the necessity to include phenology in trait-based ecological studies or large-scale phenotyping efforts, both at the local level and larger geographical scale.

  19. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  20. Psychopathy and Trait Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Malterer, Melanie B.; Glass, Samantha J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are infamous for their chronic and diverse failures of social adjustment despite their adequate intellectual abilities. Non-cognitive factors, in particular trait emotional intelligence (EI), offer one possible explanation for their lack of success. This study explored the association between psychopathy and EI, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS, Salovey, Mayer, Golman, Turvey & Palfai, 1995). Consistent with the Response Modulation (RM) model of psychopathy (Newman & Lorenz, 2003), low-anxious psychopathic individuals had significantly lower scores on TMMS Repair and Attention compared to controls. Consistent with proposals by Patrick and Lang (1999) regarding PCL-R factors, these EI deficits related to different aspects of the psychopathy construct. Correlations revealed significant inverse associations between PCL-R factor 1 and Attention and PCL-R factor 2 and Repair. We propose that the multi-dimensional EI framework affords a complementary perspective on laboratory-based explanations of psychopathy. PMID:18438451

  1. Personality Traits and Successful Aging: Findings From the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yousun; Martin, Peter; Siegler, Ilene C; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W

    2016-09-01

    The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well. Also, blocked multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between personality traits and four components of successful aging. Results indicated that low scores on neuroticism and high scores on extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are significantly related to the components of successful aging. After controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, residential type, and race/ethnicity), alpha (i.e., emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was associated with higher levels of cognition, higher likelihood of engaging in volunteer work, higher levels of activities of daily living, and higher levels of subjective health. Beta (i.e., extraversion and openness to experience) was also positively associated with cognition and engaging in volunteer work. PMID:27298487

  2. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  3. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  4. Trait anxiety, but not trait anger, predisposes obese individuals to emotional eating

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Oleski, Jessica; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether trait anxiety and trait anger are associated with vulnerability to emotional eating, particularly among obese individuals. Lean (n=37) and obese (n=24) participants engaged in a laboratory study where they completed measures of trait anxiety and trait anger at screening and then completed 3 counterbalanced experimental sessions involving different mood inductions (neutral, anxiety, anger). Following each mood induction, participants were provided with snack foods in a sham taste test. Models predicting snack intake revealed a significant trait anxiety × body mass index group interaction, such that high trait anxiety was positively associated with food intake for obese individuals, but not their lean counterparts. Contrary to the hypothesis, trait anger was not associated with food intake for obese or lean participants. Results suggest that trait anxiety may be a risk factor for emotional eating among obese individuals. PMID:20959131

  5. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  6. Mechanism of inactivation of alanine racemase by beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, W.S.; Walsh, C.T.

    1989-01-24

    The alanine racemases are a group of PLP-dependent bacterial enzymes that catalyze the racemization of alanine, providing D-alanine for cell wall synthesis. Inactivation of the alanine racemases from the Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive organism Bacillus stearothermophilus with beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine has been studied. The inactivation occurs with the same rate constant as that for formation of a broad 460-490-nm chromophore. Loss of two fluoride ions per mole of inactivated enzyme and retention of (1-/sup 14/C)trifluoroalanine label accompany inhibition, suggesting a monofluoro enzyme adduct. Partial denaturation (1 M guanidine) leads to rapid return of the initial 420-nm chromophore, followed by a slower (t1/2 approximately 30 min-1 h) loss of the fluoride ion and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ release. At this point, reduction by NaB/sub 3/H/sub 4/ and tryptic digestion yield a single radiolabeled peptide. Purification and sequencing of the peptide reveals that lysine-38 is covalently attached to the PLP cofactor. A mechanism for enzyme inactivation by trifluoroalanine is proposed and contrasted with earlier results on monohaloalanines, in which nucleophilic attack of released aminoacrylate on the PLP aldimine leads to enzyme inactivation. For trifluoroalanine inactivation, nucleophilic attack of lysine-38 on the electrophilic beta-difluoro-alpha, beta-unsaturated imine provides an alternative mode of inhibition for these enzymes.

  7. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  8. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  9. BETA-GAMMA PERSONNEL DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.M.; Gupton, E.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hull, A.P.

    1961-01-17

    A personnel dosimeter is offered which is sensitive to both gamma and soft beta radiations from all directions within a hemisphere. The device is in the shape of a small pill box which is worn on a worker-s wrist. The top and sides of the device are provided with 50 per cent void areas to give 50 per cent response to the beta rays and complete response to the gamma rays. The device is so constructed as to have a response which will approximate the dose received by the basal layer of the human epidermis.

  10. Beta decay of polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Dubbers, D.; Hornig, L.; Klemt, E.; Last, J.; Schuetze, H.; Freedman, S.J.; Schaerpf, O.

    1985-01-15

    Beta decay of polarized neutrons has been studied with the superconductive spectrometer PERKEO at the Institut Laue-Langevin. The energy spectrum of the ..beta..-decay asymmetry has been measured for the first time; from the absolute value of the asymmetry we obtain a new value for the ratio of weak coupling constants g/sub A//g/sub V/, which is compared to similar data from hyperon decays. The measurement of further weak interaction parameters from neutron decay is in progress.

  11. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait…

  12. Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acids.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, B A; Lomaliza, K; Chavarie, C; Dubé, B; Bataille, P; Ramsay, J A

    1990-01-01

    Alcaligenes latus, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Micrococcus halodenitrificans were found to accumulate poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acid [P(HB-co-HV)] copolymer when supplied with glucose (or sucrose in the case of A. latus) and propionic acid under nitrogen-limited conditions. A fed-batch culture of A. eutrophus produced 24 g of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) liter-1 under ammonium limitation conditions. When the glucose feed was replaced with glucose and propionic acid during the polymer accumulation phase, 17 g of P(HB-co-HV) liter-1 was produced. The P(HB-co-HV) contained 5.0 mol% beta-hydroxyvaleric acid (HV). Varying the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at a dilution rate of 0.15 h-1 in a chemostat culture of A. eutrophus resulted in a maximum value of 33% (wt/wt) PHB in the biomass. In comparison, A. latus accumulated about 40% (wt/wt) PHB in chemostat culture under nitrogen-limited conditions at the same dilution rate. When propionic acid was added to the first stage of a two-stage chemostat, A. latus produced 43% (wt/wt) P(HB-co-HV) containing 18.5 mol% HV. In the second stage, the P(HB-co-HV) increased to 58% (wt/wt) with an HV content of 11 mol% without further addition of carbon substrate. The HV composition in P(HB-co-HV) was controlled by regulating the concentration of propionic acid in the feed. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates containing a higher percentage of HV were produced when pentanoic acid replaced propionic acid. PMID:2117877

  13. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  14. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants’ regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES

  15. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  16. EEG theta/beta ratio as a potential biomarker for attentional control and resilience against deleterious effects of stress on attention.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Verkuil, Bart; Arias-Garcia, Elsa; Pantazi, Ioanna; van Schie, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    Anxious stress compromises cognitive executive performance. This occurs, for instance, in cognitive performance anxiety (CPA), in which anxiety about one's cognitive performance causes that performance to actually deteriorate (e.g., test anxiety). This is thought to result from a prefrontal cortically (PFC) mediated failure of top-down attentional control over stress-induced automatic processing of threat-related information. In addition, stress-induced increased catecholamine influx into the PFC may directly compromise attentional function. Previous research has suggested that the ratio between resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) low- and high-frequency power (the theta/beta ratio) is related to trait attentional control, which might moderate these effects of stress on attentional function. The goals of the present study were to test the novel prediction that theta/beta ratio moderates the deleterious effects of CPA-like anxious stress on state attentional control and to replicate a previous finding that the theta/beta ratio is related to self-reported trait attentional control. After recording of baseline frontal EEG signals, 77 participants performed a stress induction or a control procedure. Trait attentional control was assessed with the Attentional Control Scale, whereas stress-induced changes in attentional control and anxiety were measured with self-report visual analogue scales. The hypothesized moderating influence of theta/beta ratio on the effects of stress on state attentional control was confirmed. Theta/beta ratio explained 28% of the variance in stress-induced deterioration of self-reported attentional control. The negative relationship between theta/beta ratio and trait attentional control was replicated (r = -.33). The theta/beta ratio reflects, likely prefrontally mediated, attentional control, and should be a useful biomarker for the study of CPA and other anxiety-cognition interactions. PMID:24379166

  17. Sculpture preferences and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Moffett, L A; Dreger, R M

    1975-02-01

    Factor analyzed the preference ratings of 70 male and 70 female undergraduates for 36 slides of sculpture. A principal factors solution with orthogonal rotations yielded 6 factors: ambiguous abstraction vs. controlled human realism, mildly distorted representation, emotional detachment, traditional portraiture vs. surrealism, highly distorted representation, and geometric abstraction. Some of these factors were similar to the Apollonian, the Dionysian, and the Pythagorean dimensions previously postualted by Nietzsche and Knapp. Preference scores for each factor were computed and correlated with scores on the 16 PF and with selected educational and physical variables. A few small, significant (p less than .05) correlations were found, supporting the hypothesis that artistic style preferences resemble the personality traits of the spectator. PMID:1113250

  18. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  19. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  20. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  1. Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

  2. Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2004-01-01

    Trait conceptions, such as smart, antisocial, and shy, can serve as tools for interpreting and making predictions about the social world. An understanding of children?s trait conceptions can lead to important insights into the way children acquire an understanding of human mental life. The present study was designed to examine positivity biases…

  3. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    traits_cover.jpg" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="2" alt="Cover of the Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  4. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  5. Blue & C--Personality Traits of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2009-01-01

    School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…

  6. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  7. Cultural traits as units of analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L

    2010-12-12

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process.

  8. Towards an evolutionary ecology of sexual traits.

    PubMed

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Uller, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    Empirical studies of sexual traits continue to generate conflicting results, leading to a growing awareness that the current understanding of this topic is limited. Here we argue that this is because studies of sexual traits fail to encompass three important features of evolution. First, sexual traits evolve via natural selection of which sexual selection is just one part. Second, selection on sexual traits fluctuates in strength, direction and form due to spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. Third, phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generates selection and responses to selection within and across generations. A move from purely gene-focused theories of sexual selection towards research that explicitly integrates development, ecology and evolution is necessary to break the stasis in research on sexual traits.

  9. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  10. [IMPACT OF INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY FEATURES ON ABILITY TO VOLUNTARY REGULATION OF EXPRESSION EEG ALPHA AND BETA FREQUENCIES].

    PubMed

    Aslanyan, E V; Kiroy, V N; Stoletniy, A S; Lazurenko, D M; Bahtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Kiroy, R I

    2015-05-01

    The ability to voluntary control severity of alpha- and beta-2 frequency bands in the parietal and frontal cortical areas was investigated at 17 volunteers using biofeedback. The impact of different personality traits on the effectiveness of control was evaluated. According to the data, it was easier task to decrease expression beta-2 frequency in the frontal cortex than to decline the power of alpha frequency in the parietal cortex. The effectiveness of voluntary control of brain activity is influenced by personality features as extraversion, psychoticism, neuroticism, mobility and steadiness of nerve processes, level of person anxiety. PMID:26263685

  11. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. beta. -decay asymmetry of the free neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Dubbers, D.; Klemt, E.; Last, J.; Schuetze, H.; Weibler, W.; Freedman, S.J.; Schaerpf, O.

    1983-01-01

    The ..beta..-decay of polarized neutrons has been studied with the new superconducting spectrometer PERKEO at the ILL. The energy dependence of the ..beta..-decay asymmetry has been measured for the first time. From the measured ..beta..-asymmetry parameter we obtain a new value for the ratio of weak coupling constants g/sub A//g/sub V/. 11 references.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... eliminate beta-ureidopropionase enzyme activity. Loss of this enzyme function reduces the production of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ... aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine may impair the function of these molecules in the ... in enzyme activity caused by a particular UPB1 gene mutation, ...

  16. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-07-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.

  17. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J.

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  18. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle.

    PubMed

    Velmala, R; Vilkki, J; Elo, K; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1995-12-01

    Polymorphism of casein genes was studied in half-sib families of artificial insemination bulls of the Finnish Ayrshire dairy breed. Ten grandsires and 300 of their sons were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: alpha s1-casein (B, C), beta-casein (A1, A2), the microsatellite within the kappa-casein gene (ms5, ms4) and kappa-casein (A, B, E). Nine different combinations of these alleles, casein haplotypes, were found. Associations between casein haplotypes and milk production traits (milk and protein yield, fat and protein percentage and milking speed) were studied with ordinary least-squares analysis to find a direct effect of the haplotypes or an association within individual grandsire families using the granddaughter design. Estimated breeding values of sons were obtained from cow evaluation by animal model. No direct effect of the casein haplotypes on the traits was found. Within grandsire families, in one out of four families the chromosomal segment characterized by haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) was associated with an increase in milk yield (P < 0.01) and a decrease in fat percentage (P < 0.01) when contrasted with haplotype 8 (B-A1-ms4-E). The results provide evidence that in the Finnish Ayrshire breed at least one quantitative trait locus affecting the genetic variation in yields traits is segregating linked to either haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) or 8 (B-A1-ms4-E).

  19. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association datasets of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-N; Kim, B-H; Cho, J; Ryu, S; Shin, H; Sung, J; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Sung, Y A; Choi, B-O; Kim, H-L

    2015-04-01

    Although several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of human personality have been recently published, genetic variants that are highly associated with certain personality traits remain unknown, due to difficulty reproducing results. To further investigate these genetic variants, we assessed biological pathways using GWA datasets. Pathway analysis using GWA data was performed on 1089 Korean women whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the 5-factor model of personality. A total of 1042 pathways containing 8297 genes were included in our study. Of these, 14 pathways were highly enriched with association signals that were validated in 1490 independent samples. These pathways include association of: Neuroticism with axon guidance [L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions]; Extraversion with neuronal system and voltage-gated potassium channels; Agreeableness with L1CAM interaction, neurotransmitter receptor binding and downstream transmission in postsynaptic cells; and Conscientiousness with the interferon-gamma and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide pathways. Several genes that contribute to top-ranked pathways in this study were previously identified in GWA studies or by pathway analysis in schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report the first pathway analysis of all five personality traits. Importantly, our analysis identified novel pathways that contribute to understanding the etiology of personality traits. PMID:25809424

  20. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association datasets of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-N; Kim, B-H; Cho, J; Ryu, S; Shin, H; Sung, J; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Sung, Y A; Choi, B-O; Kim, H-L

    2015-04-01

    Although several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of human personality have been recently published, genetic variants that are highly associated with certain personality traits remain unknown, due to difficulty reproducing results. To further investigate these genetic variants, we assessed biological pathways using GWA datasets. Pathway analysis using GWA data was performed on 1089 Korean women whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the 5-factor model of personality. A total of 1042 pathways containing 8297 genes were included in our study. Of these, 14 pathways were highly enriched with association signals that were validated in 1490 independent samples. These pathways include association of: Neuroticism with axon guidance [L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions]; Extraversion with neuronal system and voltage-gated potassium channels; Agreeableness with L1CAM interaction, neurotransmitter receptor binding and downstream transmission in postsynaptic cells; and Conscientiousness with the interferon-gamma and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide pathways. Several genes that contribute to top-ranked pathways in this study were previously identified in GWA studies or by pathway analysis in schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report the first pathway analysis of all five personality traits. Importantly, our analysis identified novel pathways that contribute to understanding the etiology of personality traits.

  1. Mechanical differences of sickle cell trait (SCT) and normal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Cachia, Mark A; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is a condition in which an individual inherits one sickle hemoglobin gene (HbS) and one normal beta hemoglobin gene (HbA). It has been hypothesized that under extreme physical stress, the compromised mechanical properties of the red blood cells (RBCs) may be the underlying mechanism of clinical complications of sickle cell trait individuals. However, whether sickle cell trait (SCT) should be treated as physiologically normal remains controversial. In this work, the mechanical properties (i.e., shear modulus and viscosity) of individual RBCs were quantified using a microsystem capable of precisely controlling the oxygen level of RBCs' microenvironment. Individual RBCs were deformed under shear stress. After the release of shear stress, the dynamic cell recovery process was captured and analyzed to extract the mechanical properties of single RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs from sickle cell trait individuals are inherently stiffer and more viscous than normal RBCs from healthy donors, but oxygen level variations do not alter their mechanical properties or morphology.

  2. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J W; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-01-01

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees. PMID:26235237

  3. Local-scale Partitioning of Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversity in a Tropical Tree Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G.; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Cao, Min; Sha, Liqing; Li, Jie; Ferry Slik, J. W.; Lin, Luxiang

    2015-01-01

    The relative degree to which stochastic and deterministic processes underpin community assembly is a central problem in ecology. Quantifying local-scale phylogenetic and functional beta diversity may shed new light on this problem. We used species distribution, soil, trait and phylogenetic data to quantify whether environmental distance, geographic distance or their combination are the strongest predictors of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity on local scales in a 20-ha tropical seasonal rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. The patterns of phylogenetic and functional beta diversity were generally consistent. The phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity between subplots (10 × 10 m, 20 × 20 m, 50 × 50 m and 100 × 100 m) was often higher than that expected by chance. The turnover of lineages and species function within habitats was generally slower than that across habitats. Partitioning the variation in phylogenetic and functional beta diversity showed that environmental distance was generally a better predictor of beta diversity than geographic distance thereby lending relatively more support for deterministic environmental filtering over stochastic processes. Overall, our results highlight that deterministic processes play a stronger role than stochastic processes in structuring community composition in this diverse assemblage of tropical trees. PMID:26235237

  4. Anionic ring-opening polymerization of beta-alkoxymethyl-substituted beta-lactones.

    PubMed

    Adamus, Grazyna; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2008-02-01

    We report on anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of racemic beta-(methoxymethyl)-beta-propiolactone (MOMPL) and beta-(ethoxymethyl)-beta-propiolactone (EOMPL) initiated by supramolecular complex of potassium acetate and tetrabutylammonium acetate (Bu4N+ Ac) as well as by tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, respectively. Structure of the resulting polymers has been established at the molecular level by electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) and has been confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, and GPC analyses. Similar behavior of MOMPL and EOMPL with respect to already-studied beta-alkyl-substituted beta-lactones, e.g., beta-butyrolactone (MPL), has been observed under the conditions of anionic ROP (including observed side reactions leading to unsaturated end groups) and the already-established mechanisms of anionic polymerization of beta-alkyl-substituted beta-lactones are extended on beta-alkoxymethyl-substituted ones. PMID:18179174

  5. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition.

    PubMed

    Schopen, G C B; Koks, P D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein-Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (P(genome) < 0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 6, 11 and 14. The QTL on BTA6 was found at about 80 cM, and affected alpha(S1)-casein, alpha(S2)-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected beta-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for beta-casein and 7.9% for kappa-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for beta-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting alpha(S2)-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in beta-casein, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.

  6. A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. )

    1991-04-30

    Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

  7. Trait anxiety impact on posterior activation asymmetries at rest and during evoked negative emotions: EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, Ljubomir I; Pavlov, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to examine how high trait anxiety would influence cortical EEG asymmetries under non-emotional conditions and while experiencing negative emotions. The 62-channel EEG was recorded in control (n=21) and high anxiety (HA, n=18) non-patient individuals. Results showed that in HA subjects, the lowest level of arousal (eyes closed) was associated with stronger right-sided parieto-temporal theta-1 (4-6 Hz) and beta-1 (12-18 Hz) activity, whereas increased non-emotional arousal (eyes open, viewing neutral movie clip) was marked by persisting favored right hemisphere beta-1 activity. In turn, viewing aversive movie clip by the HA group led to significant lateralized decrease of the right parieto-temporal beta-1 power, which was initially higher in the emotionally neutral conditions. The EEG data suggests that asymmetrical parieto-temporal theta-1 and beta-1 EEG activity might be better interpreted in terms of Gray's BAS and BIS theory. PMID:15598519

  8. Plant trait expression responds to establishment timing.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; Leahy, S Conor; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Burns, Jean H

    2015-06-01

    Trait divergence between co-occurring individuals could decrease the strength of competition between these individuals, thus promoting their coexistence. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated establishment timing for four congeneric pairs of perennial plants and assessed trait plasticity. Because soil conditions can affect trait expression and competition, we grew the plants in field-collected soil from each congener. Competition was generally weak across species, but the order of establishment affected divergence in biomass between potmates for three congeneric pairs. The type of plastic response differed among genera, with trait means of early-establishing individuals of Rumex and Solanum spp. differing from late-establishing individuals, and trait divergence between potmates of Plantago and Trifolium spp. depending on which species established first. Consistent with adaptive trait plasticity, higher specific leaf area (SLA) and root-shoot ratio in Rumex spp. established later suggest that these individuals were maximizing their ability to capture light and soil resources. Greater divergence in SLA correlated with increased summed biomass of competitors, which is consistent with trait divergence moderating the strength of competition for some species. Species did not consistently perform better in conspecific or congener soil, but soil type influenced the effect of establishment order. For example, biomass divergence between Rumex potmates was greater in R. obtusifolius soil regardless of which species established first. These results suggest that plant responses to establishment timing act in a species-specific fashion, potentially enhancing coexistence in plant communities.

  9. Plant trait expression responds to establishment timing.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Angela J; Leahy, S Conor; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Burns, Jean H

    2015-06-01

    Trait divergence between co-occurring individuals could decrease the strength of competition between these individuals, thus promoting their coexistence. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated establishment timing for four congeneric pairs of perennial plants and assessed trait plasticity. Because soil conditions can affect trait expression and competition, we grew the plants in field-collected soil from each congener. Competition was generally weak across species, but the order of establishment affected divergence in biomass between potmates for three congeneric pairs. The type of plastic response differed among genera, with trait means of early-establishing individuals of Rumex and Solanum spp. differing from late-establishing individuals, and trait divergence between potmates of Plantago and Trifolium spp. depending on which species established first. Consistent with adaptive trait plasticity, higher specific leaf area (SLA) and root-shoot ratio in Rumex spp. established later suggest that these individuals were maximizing their ability to capture light and soil resources. Greater divergence in SLA correlated with increased summed biomass of competitors, which is consistent with trait divergence moderating the strength of competition for some species. Species did not consistently perform better in conspecific or congener soil, but soil type influenced the effect of establishment order. For example, biomass divergence between Rumex potmates was greater in R. obtusifolius soil regardless of which species established first. These results suggest that plant responses to establishment timing act in a species-specific fashion, potentially enhancing coexistence in plant communities. PMID:25616649

  10. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor.

  11. Association of interleukin 1beta gene (+3953) polymorphism and severity of endometriosis in Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Attar, Rukset; Agachan, Bedia; Kucukhuseyin, Ozlem; Toptas, Bahar; Attar, Erkut; Isbir, Turgay

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis is regarded as a complex trait, in which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disease phenotype. We investigated whether the interleukin (IL) 1beta (+3953) polymorphism is associated with the severity of endometriosis. Diagnosis of endometriosis was made on the basis of laparoscopic findings. Stage of endometriosis was determined according to the Revised American Fertility Society classification. 118 women were enrolled in the study. 78 women did not have endometriosis, 6 women had stage I, 3 had stage II, 13 had stage III and 18 had stage IV endometriosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques were used to determine the IL 1beta (+3953) genotype. Frequencies of the IL-1beta (+3953) genotypes in the control group were: CC, 0.397; TT, 0.115; CT, 0.487. Frequencies of the IL-1beta (+3953) genotypes in cases were: CC, 0.375; TT, 0.225; CT, 0.400. We found a 2.22 fold increase in TT genotype in the endometriosis group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). We also observed an increase in the frequency of IL-1beta (+3953) T allele in the endometriosis group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. We also investigated the association between IL-1beta (+3953) polymorphism and the severity of endometriosis. The frequencies of CC+CT genotypes in stage I, III and IV endometriosis patients were 83.3, 84/6 and 72.2%, respectively; and TT genotypes were 16.7, 15.4 and 27.8%, respectively. We observed a statistically insignificant increase in TT genotype in stage IV endometriosis (P > 0.05). We suggest that IL-1beta (+3953) polymorphism is not associated with endometriosis in Turkish women.

  12. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  13. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. PMID:27153207

  14. The contrasting roles of growth traits and architectural traits in diversity maintenance in clonal plant communities.

    PubMed

    Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, Deborah E; Herben, Tomáš

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities often exhibit high diversity, even though pairwise experiments usually result in competitive hierarchies that should result in competitive exclusion. Such experiments, however, do not typically allow expression of spatial traits, despite theoretical studies showing the potential importance of spatial mechanisms of diversity maintenance. Here we ask whether, in a clonal plant model system, spatial trait variation is more likely than growth trait variation to maintain diversity. We used a field-calibrated, spatially explicit model to simulate communities comprising sets of four simulated species differing in only one of a suite of architectural or growth traits at a time, examining their dynamics and long-term diversity. To compare trait manipulation effects across traits measured in different units, we scaled traits to have identical effects on initial productivity. We found that in communities of species differing only in an architectural trait, all species usually persist, whereas communities of species differing only in a growth trait experienced rapid competitive exclusion. To examine the roles of equalizing and stabilizing mechanisms in maintaining diversity, we conducted reciprocal invasion experiments for species pairs differing only in single traits. The results suggest that stabilizing mechanisms cannot account for the observed long-term co-occurrence. Strong positive correlations between diversity and similarity both in monoculture carrying capacity and reciprocal invasion ability suggesting equalizing mechanisms may instead be responsible.

  15. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  16. Heterozygous beta-thalassemia and homozygous H63D hemochromatosis in a child: an 18-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Tardivo, Irene; Roetto, Antonella; De Gobbi, Marco

    2005-03-01

    At age of 3.2 years routine blood analysis showed the presence of a beta-thalassemic trait with unexpected high level of serum iron and high transferrin saturation. Hematological follow-up confirmed the moderate degree of anemia and persisting high levels of iron indices throughout the years with a progressive increase of serum ferritin. At the age of 19 years the patient was diagnosed homozygous for HC63D HFE. The patient referred by us confirm the possibility of precocious alteration of iron indices in patients with heterozygosity for beta-thalassemia inherited together with HFE mutations. This observation suggests that any children with thalassemic trait with increased transferrin saturation and/or serum ferritin might be investigated for the presence of the hemocromatosis genes in order to detect the disease before any clinical manifestation and even before organ iron loading.

  17. Deterministic tropical tree community turnover: evidence from patterns of functional beta diversity along an elevational gradient

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Nathan G.; Anglada-Cordero, Pedro; Barone, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Explaining the mechanisms that produce the enormous diversity within and between tropical tree communities is a pressing challenge for plant community ecologists. Mechanistic hypotheses range from niche-based deterministic to dispersal-based stochastic models. Strong tests of these hypotheses require detailed information regarding the functional strategies of species. A few tropical studies to date have examined trait dispersion within individual forest plots using species trait means in order to ask whether coexisting species tend to be more or less functionally similar than expected given a null model. The present work takes an alternative approach by: (i) explicitly incorporating population-level trait variability; and (ii) quantifying the functional beta diversity in a series of 15 tropical forest plots arrayed along an elevational gradient. The results show a strong pattern of decay in community functional similarity with elevation. These observed patterns of functional beta diversity are shown to be highly non-random and support a deterministic model of tropical tree community assembly and turnover. PMID:20861048

  18. TRAIT ANXIETY PROFILE OF KORO PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMMARY Koro is regarded as a psychogenic acute anxiety reaction since last forty years. In spite of quite a few research publications on koro during last twenty years, no report on psychometric assessment of anxiety level in Koro is available to substantiate this diagnostic status. The present study in this context is the first attempt of psychometric measurement of anxiety proneness or trait anxiety level in Koro patients. Trait anxiety measurement of 186 male Koro patients showed the presence ot higher level of trait anxiety in Koro than the normal sujects. PMID:21927486

  19. Beyond traits: personality as intersubjective themes.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that research in the idiographic tradition is more conducive to effective clinical work than the uncritical adoption of specific "evidence-based therapies" for discrete symptomatic disorders. She views pressures on therapists to adopt evidence-based therapies without consideration of individual differences and personal subjectivity as the misapplication of a research paradigm to the clinical situation. Reviewing some recent empirical work on individuality and therapeutic process, she critiques efforts to formulate personality diagnosis on the basis of externally observable traits without attention to internal experience, and she contends that intrapsychic themes account for personality differences more powerfully than traits, even when traits are construed dimensionally.

  20. Reactions of fluoroalkyl-. beta. -ketoesters with ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkevich, K.I.; Saloutin, V.I.; Fomin, A.N.; Rudaya, M.N.; Egorova, L.G.

    1987-01-20

    It has been found that ..beta..-ketoesters containing highly fluorinated substituents (CF/sub 3/, or H(CF/sub 2/)/sub 4/) react with ammonia to give ..beta..-aminocrotonate esters, or under severe conditions, ..beta..-ketoamides. The latter react with a tenfold excess of ammonia to give ..beta..-aminocrotonamides together with acetamide and fluorocarboxamides. Acetoacetic and 4,4-difluoroacetoacetic esters react with ammonia, irrespective of the reaction conditions, to give ..beta..-aminocrotonate and 4,4-difluoro-..beta..-aminocrotonate esters. Using DNMR and dipole moments, it has been shown that rotation of the amino group around the C-N bond in fluorinated ..beta..-aminocrotonate esters is restricted (..delta..Gnumber approx. 50 kJ/mole).

  1. Trait emotional intelligence and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Petrides, K V; Tillmann, Taavi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the psychological aspects of inflammatory disorders. Within this line of research, the present study compares the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 827 individuals with various inflammatory conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and RA plus one comorbidity) against 496 healthy controls. Global trait EI scores did not show significant differences between these groups, although some differences were observed when comparisons were carried out against alternative control groups. Significant differences were found on the trait EI factors of Well-being (where the healthy group scored higher than the RA group) and Sociability (where the healthy group scored higher than both the RA group and the RA plus one comorbidity group). The discussion centers on the multifarious links and interplay between emotions and inflammatory conditions.

  2. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  3. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global environmental change affects exotic plant invasions, which profoundly impact native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, including those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness), and impacts, as well as the integration of these...

  4. Integrating microbial traits into ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Diverse bacterial and fungal communities control the decomposition of complex organic material, thereby driving important ecosystem functions such as CO2 production and nutrient regeneration. Predicting these functions is challenging because microbial communities and the chemical substrates they metabolize are complex. To address this challenge, I developed a theoretical model of microbial decomposition based on microbial traits involved in substrate degradation, uptake, and growth. The model represents a large number of microbial taxa, each of which possesses a set of trait values drawn at random from empirically-based distributions. The model also includes a large number of chemical substrates that can be degraded by microbial extracellular enzymes and taken up by membrane transporters. Microbes with different trait values for enzyme production and uptake capacity compete for chemical substrates and vary in abundance during model runs. I used the model to predict rates of plant litter decomposition and determine which traits were associated with high microbial abundance under different environmental conditions. The model predicted that optimal traits depend on the level of enzyme production in the whole community, which determines resource availability and decomposition rates. There is also evidence for facilitation and competition among microbial taxa that co-occur on decomposing litter, suggesting that microbial interactions may play a role in determining ecosystem function. These interactions vary with community investment in extracellular enzyme production and the magnitude of tradeoffs affecting biochemical traits such as enzyme kinetic parameters. The model accounted for 69% of the variation in decomposition rates and up to 26% of the variation in enzyme activities in an empirical dataset with 15 types of Hawaiian plant litter. By explicitly representing microbial diversity, trait-based models can predict ecosystem processes based on functional trait

  5. Trait values, not trait plasticity, best explain invasive species' performance in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Matzek, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The question of why some introduced species become invasive and others do not is the central puzzle of invasion biology. Two of the principal explanations for this phenomenon concern functional traits: invasive species may have higher values of competitively advantageous traits than non-invasive species, or they may have greater phenotypic plasticity in traits that permits them to survive the colonization period and spread to a broad range of environments. Although there is a large body of evidence for superiority in particular traits among invasive plants, when compared to phylogenetically related non-invasive plants, it is less clear if invasive plants are more phenotypically plastic, and whether this plasticity confers a fitness advantage. In this study, I used a model group of 10 closely related Pinus species whose invader or non-invader status has been reliably characterized to test the relative contribution of high trait values and high trait plasticity to relative growth rate, a performance measure standing in as a proxy for fitness. When grown at higher nitrogen supply, invaders had a plastic RGR response, increasing their RGR to a much greater extent than non-invaders. However, invasive species did not exhibit significantly more phenotypic plasticity than non-invasive species for any of 17 functional traits, and trait plasticity indices were generally weakly correlated with RGR. Conversely, invasive species had higher values than non-invaders for 13 of the 17 traits, including higher leaf area ratio, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency, and nutrient uptake rates, and these traits were also strongly correlated with performance. I conclude that, in responding to higher N supply, superior trait values coupled with a moderate degree of trait variation explain invasive species' superior performance better than plasticity per se.

  6. Quantitative trait loci for flowering time and morphological traits in multiple populations of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ping; Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, Jung Sun; Shen, Shuxing; Del Carpio, Dunia Pino; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, Mina; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, Maarten; Bonnema, Guusje

    2007-01-01

    Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in B. rapa using multiple populations. The populations resulted from crosses between the following accessions: Rapid cycling, Chinese cabbage, Yellow sarson, Pak choi, and a Japanese vegetable turnip variety. A total of 27 QTL affecting 20 morphological traits were detected, including eight QTL for flowering time, six for seed traits, three for growth-related traits and 10 for leaf traits. One major QTL was found for turnip formation. Principal component analysis and co-localization of QTL indicated that some loci controlling leaf and seed-related traits and those for flowering time and turnip formation might be the same. The major flowering time QTL detected in all populations on linkage group R02 co-localized with BrFLC2. One major QTL, controlling turnip formation, was also mapped at this locus. The genes that may underly this QTL and comparative analyses between the four populations and with Arabidopsis thaliana are discussed.

  7. Statistical analysis of diversification with species traits.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Testing whether some species traits have a significant effect on diversification rates is central in the assessment of macroevolutionary theories. However, we still lack a powerful method to tackle this objective. I present a new method for the statistical analysis of diversification with species traits. The required data are observations of the traits on recent species, the phylogenetic tree of these species, and reconstructions of ancestral values of the traits. Several traits, either continuous or discrete, and in some cases their interactions, can be analyzed simultaneously. The parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. The statistical significance of the effects in a model can be tested with likelihood ratio tests. A simulation study showed that past random extinction events do not affect the Type I error rate of the tests, whereas statistical power is decreased, though some power is still kept if the effect of the simulated trait on speciation is strong. The use of the method is illustrated by the analysis of published data on primates. The analysis of these data showed that the apparent overall positive relationship between body mass and species diversity is actually an artifact due to a clade-specific effect. Within each clade the effect of body mass on speciation rate was in fact negative. The present method allows to take both effects (clade and body mass) into account simultaneously.

  8. Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling

    2015-06-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.

  9. Associations of a polymorphic AP-2 binding site in the 5'-flanking region of the bovine beta-lactoglobulin gene with milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuss, A W; Gogol, J; Geidermann, H

    2003-06-01

    Studies on a polymorphic position (R10) in an Activator-Protein-2 (AP-2) binding site of the bovine beta-Lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) gene promoter region and quantitative traits of individual milk proteins were based on material from 79 German Holstein Friesian (HF) and 61 Simmental (Sm) cows. At least four milk samples per cow were analyzed with alkaline Urea-PAGE in combination with densitometry for quantification of individual milk proteins. The two alleles of the R10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) carry either G or C in position -435 bp of the beta-Lg promoter region. G- and C-alleles were found in Sm with nearly equal frequencies, while in HF the C-allele frequency was higher (0.73) than that of the G-allele. In both breeds, the R10 G-homozygotes had higher (P < 0.001) amounts of beta-Lg secreted per day and proportion of beta-Lg in milk protein compared with the C-homozygotes. A similar association was found for alpha-lactalbumin, whereas the relative proportions and daily secreted amounts of caseins (alphaS1, beta, kappa) showed lower values in beta-Lg R10 G-homozygotes. A positive association (P < 0.001) of R10 CC with milk yield has also been observed and indicates a close proximity of the beta-Lg locus to a candidate gene for this trait. The association between the SNP in the AP-2 binding site of the beta-Lg gene and its gene product can be explained as the result of differences in protein binding activity, and, therefore, allele specific differences in gene expression. Thus, our study clearly links a DNA polymorphism of molecular function very closely with in vivo expression parameters of the same locus.

  10. Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist activities of ICI-215001, a putative beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Tesfamariam, B.; Allen, G. T.

    1994-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to characterize the beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist activity of ICI-215001 and to determine whether it exhibits additional activities on beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in isolated spontaneously beating atrium, trachea and ileum of guinea-pig. 2. In guinea-pig atrium, isoprenaline, a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor agonist, caused concentration-dependent, positive chronotropic effects that were inhibited by atenolol, a selective beta 1-antagonist. ICI-215001 also competitively antagonized the increase in heart rate caused by isoprenaline. 3. ICI-215001 exhibited low intrinsic activity at increasing the beating rate of atrium and no activity on resting or induced tone of tracheal strips. 4. In strips of guinea-pig trachea, contracted submaximally with carbachol, isoprenaline, caused concentration-dependent relaxations. Both ICI-118551, a selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, and ICI-215001 competitively inhibited the relaxations caused by isoprenaline. 5. In isolated strips of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle contracted with histamine, isoprenaline and ICI-215001 caused relaxations which were inhibited by alprenolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with modest affinity for beta 3-adrenoceptors, but were resistant to ICI-118551 and atenolol. 6. These results indicate that ICI-215001 exhibits beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist activity as demonstrated by relaxations mediated via atypical beta-adrenoceptors in the longitudinal smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum. Further, the studies demonstrate that ICI-215001 can act as an antagonist at beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in situations where its intrinsic agonist activity is low. PMID:7913381

  11. Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  12. Using IRT Trait Estimates versus Summated Scores in Predicting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Ting; Stone, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that item response theory trait estimates should be used in analyses rather than number right (NR) or summated scale (SS) scores. Thissen and Orlando postulated that IRT scaling tends to produce trait estimates that are linearly related to the underlying trait being measured. Therefore, IRT trait estimates can be more useful…

  13. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Children's Peer Relations at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian; Frederickson, Norah

    2006-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion"related self"perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of personality. The present study investigated the role of trait EI in children's peer relations at school. One hundred and sixty pupils (83 girls; mean age = 10.8…

  14. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction.

    PubMed

    Philip, A; Bostedt, L; Stigbrand, T; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

    1994-04-15

    Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is quantitatively the most important pregnancy-associated plasma protein and it has strong similarity to alpha 2-macroglobulin. Since alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta), it was of interest to test whether the related protein, PZP, also binds to these growth-regulatory proteins. Using affinity-labelling methods, we demonstrate that PZP binds both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and that the binding characteristics are similar to those of the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 bind to PZP in a predominantly noncovalent manner in vitro. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bind to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of PZP. Our studies also indicate that PZP binds TGF-beta 2 with higher affinity than TGF-beta 1. Finally, we demonstrate that PZP inhibits the binding of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 to their cell surface receptors. The increased level of PZP during pregnancy may affect the action of TGF-beta by regulating the distribution, clearance and/or general availability of TGF-beta. The preferential binding of TGF-beta 2 over TGF-beta 1 by PZP implies that PZP may differentially regulate the action of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2.

  15. The beta-beta-alpha fold: explorations in sequence space.

    PubMed

    Sarisky, C A; Mayo, S L

    2001-04-13

    The computational redesign of the second zinc finger of Zif268 to produce a 28 residue peptide (FSD-1) that assumes a betabetaalpha fold without metal binding was recently reported. In order to explore the tolerance of this metal-free fold towards sequence variability, six additional peptides resulting from the ORBIT computational protein design process were synthesized and characterized. The experimental stabilities of five of these peptides are strongly correlated with the energies calculated by ORBIT. However, when a peptide with a mutation in the beta-turn is examined, the calculated stability does not accurately predict the experimentally determined stability. The NMR solution structure of a peptide incorporating this mutation (FSD-EY) reveals that the register between the beta-strands is different from the model structure used to select and score the sequences. FSD-EY has a type I' turn instead of the target EbaaagbE turn (rubredoxin knuckle). Two additional peptides that have improved side-chain to backbone hydrogen bonding and turn propensity for the target turn were characterized. Both are of stability comparable to that of FSD-1. These results demonstrate the robustness of the ORBIT protein design methods and underscore the need for continued improvements in negative design.

  16. Human globin gene analysis for a patient with beta-o/delta beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ottolenghi, S; Lanyon, W G; Williamson, R; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B; Pitcher, C S

    1975-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from human globin messenger RNA (mRNA). Annealing and translation experimenta with total mRNA from circulating cells from a patient with heterozygous beta/heterozygous beta-delta-o thalassemia (beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemia) demonstrated no detectable mRNA for beta-globin. cDNA enriched in sequences homologous to beta-globin mRNA was prepared by hydroxylapatite fractionation of hybrids formed between beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemic mRNA and cDNA made from mRNA from a patient with alpha-thalassemia (hemoglobin H disease). The rate of annealing of this beta-enriched cDNA to normal human nuclear DNA was that of a sequence present as only a single copy per haploid genome. The beta-enriched cDNA annealed to the beta-o-delta beta-o-thalassemia total DNA with approximately the same kinetics as to normal DNA, indicating that no total gene deletion of beta-globin genes from the diploid genome has occurred, although the accuracy of the technique could not exclude with certainty a partial deletion or a deletion of a beta-globin gene from only one of the haploid genomes. This demonstrates that at least one of the beta-o- or the delta beta-o-thalassemia haploid genomes in this case contains a substantially intact beta-globin gene. PMID:49057

  17. Presynaptic targeting of alpha4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is regulated by neurexin-1beta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Amici, Stephanie A; Ren, Xiao-Qin; McKay, Susan B; Treuil, Magdalen W; Lindstrom, Jon M; Rao, Jayaraman; Anand, Rene

    2009-08-28

    The mechanisms involved in the targeting of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), critical for their functional organization at neuronal synapses, are not well understood. We have identified a novel functional association between alpha4beta2 AChRs and the presynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neurexin-1beta. In non-neuronal tsA 201 cells, recombinant neurexin-1beta and mature alpha4beta2 AChRs form complexes. alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta also coimmunoprecipitate from rat brain lysates. When exogenous alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in hippocampal neurons, they are robustly targeted to hemi-synapses formed between these neurons and cocultured tsA 201 cells expressing neuroligin-1, a postsynaptic binding partner of neurexin-1beta. The extent of synaptic targeting is significantly reduced in similar experiments using a mutant neurexin-1beta lacking the extracellular domain. Additionally, when alpha4beta2 AChRs, alpha7 AChRs, and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in the same neuron, only the alpha4beta2 AChR colocalizes with neurexin-1beta at presynaptic terminals. Collectively, these data suggest that neurexin-1beta targets alpha4beta2 AChRs to presynaptic terminals, which mature by trans-synaptic interactions between neurexins and neuroligins. Interestingly, human neurexin-1 gene dysfunctions have been implicated in nicotine dependence and in autism spectrum disorders. Our results provide novel insights as to possible mechanisms by which dysfunctional neurexins, through downstream effects on alpha4beta2 AChRs, may contribute to the etiology of these neurological disorders.

  18. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Verkaar, Folkert; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Smits, Jos F M; Zaman, Guido J R

    2010-04-01

    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an important regulator of cell polarity, proliferation, and stem cell maintenance during development and adulthood. Wnt proteins induce the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which regulates the expression of Wnt-responsive genes through association with TCF/LEF transcription factors. Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in a plethora of pathologies and, most notably, underlies initiation and expansion of several cancers. Here, we apply enzyme fragment complementation to measure the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. beta-Catenin was tagged with a peptide fragment of beta-galactosidase and transfected into cells expressing a corresponding deletion mutant of the enzyme exclusively in the nucleus. Stimulation of the cells with recombinant Wnt-3a restored beta-galactosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner with nanomolar potency. Using the assay, we confirmed that Wnt-5a represses beta-catenin-driven reporter gene activity downstream of nuclear entry of beta-catenin. In addition, we tested a library of >2000 synthetic chemical compounds for their ability to induce beta-catenin nuclear accumulation. The immunosuppressive protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin (AEB-071) was identified as an activator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling at micromolar concentrations. It was confirmed that the compound stabilizes endogenous beta-catenin protein and can induce TCF/LEF-dependent gene transcription. Subsequent biochemical profiling of >200 kinases revealed both isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase 3, as previously unappreciated targets of sotrastaurin. We show that the beta-catenin nuclear accumulation assay contributes to our knowledge of molecular interactions within the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and can be used to find new therapeutics targeting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.-Verkaar, F., Blankesteijn, W. M., Smits, J. F. M., Zaman, G. J. R. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta

  19. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    PubMed

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them. PMID:3665616

  20. Invasive Plants and Enemy Release: Evolution of Trait Means and Trait Correlations in Ulex europaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species. PMID:22022588

  1. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  2. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.

  3. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25733796

  4. Mapping Splicing Quantitative Trait Loci in RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cheng; Hu, Yu; Liu, Yichuan; Li, Mingyao

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major mechanisms of generating mRNA diversity is alternative splicing, a regulated process that allows for the flexibility of producing functionally different proteins from the same genomic sequences. This process is often altered in cancer cells to produce aberrant proteins that drive the progression of cancer. A better understanding of the misregulation of alternative splicing will shed light on the development of novel targets for pharmacological interventions of cancer. METHODS In this study, we evaluated three statistical methods, random effects meta-regression, beta regression, and generalized linear mixed effects model, for the analysis of splicing quantitative trait loci (sQTL) using RNA-Seq data. All the three methods use exon-inclusion levels estimated by the PennSeq algorithm, a statistical method that utilizes paired-end reads and accounts for non-uniform sequencing coverage. RESULTS Using both simulated and real RNA-Seq datasets, we compared these three methods with GLiMMPS, a recently developed method for sQTL analysis. Our results indicate that the most reliable and powerful method was the random effects meta-regression approach, which identified sQTLs at low false discovery rates but higher power when compared to GLiMMPS. CONCLUSIONS We have evaluated three statistical methods for the analysis of sQTLs in RNA-Seq. Results from our study will be instructive for researchers in selecting the appropriate statistical methods for sQTL analysis. PMID:25452687

  5. Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C H; Zeng, Z B; Teasdale, R D

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM approach, the precision and power of QTL mapping could be improved. Also, epistasis between QTL, genotypic values of individuals, and heritabilities of quantitative traits can be readily estimated and analyzed. Using the MIM model, a stepwise selection procedure with likelihood ratio test statistic as a criterion is proposed to identify QTL. This MIM method was applied to a mapping data set of radiata pine on three traits: brown cone number, tree diameter, and branch quality scores. Based on the MIM result, seven, six, and five QTL were detected for the three traits, respectively. The detected QTL individually contributed from approximately 1 to 27% of the total genetic variation. Significant epistasis between four pairs of QTL in two traits was detected, and the four pairs of QTL contributed approximately 10.38 and 14.14% of the total genetic variation. The asymptotic variances of QTL positions and effects were also provided to construct the confidence intervals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.5606, 0.5226, and 0. 3630 for the three traits, respectively. With the estimated QTL effects and positions, the best strategy of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement for a specific purpose and requirement can be explored. The MIM FORTRAN program is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:10388834

  6. Trait stacking via targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Ainley, William M; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Welter, Mary E; Murray, Michael G; Zeitler, Bryan; Amora, Rainier; Corbin, David R; Miles, Rebecca R; Arnold, Nicole L; Strange, Tonya L; Simpson, Matthew A; Cao, Zehui; Carroll, Carley; Pawelczak, Katherine S; Blue, Ryan; West, Kim; Rowland, Lynn M; Perkins, Douglas; Samuel, Pon; Dewes, Cristie M; Shen, Liu; Sriram, Shreedharan; Evans, Steven L; Rebar, Edward J; Zhang, Lei; Gregory, Phillip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Webb, Steven R; Petolino, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits. The current paradigm of randomly integrating and sorting independently segregating transgenes creates severe downstream breeding challenges. A versatile, generally applicable solution is hereby provided: the combination of high-efficiency targeted genome editing driven by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) with modular 'trait landing pads' (TLPs) that allow 'mix-and-match', on-demand transgene integration and trait stacking in crop plants. We illustrate the utility of nuclease-driven TLP technology by applying it to the stacking of herbicide resistance traits. We first integrated into the maize genome an herbicide resistance gene, pat, flanked with a TLP (ZFN target sites and sequences homologous to incoming DNA) using WHISKERS™-mediated transformation of embryogenic suspension cultures. We established a method for targeted transgene integration based on microparticle bombardment of immature embryos and used it to deliver a second trait precisely into the TLP via cotransformation with a donor DNA containing a second herbicide resistance gene, aad1, flanked by sequences homologous to the integrated TLP along with a corresponding ZFN expression construct. Remarkably, up to 5% of the embryo-derived transgenic events integrated the aad1 transgene precisely at the TLP, that is, directly adjacent to the pat transgene. Importantly and consistent with the juxtaposition achieved via nuclease-driven TLP technology, both herbicide resistance traits cosegregated in subsequent generations, thereby demonstrating linkage of the two independently transformed transgenes. Because ZFN-mediated targeted transgene integration is becoming applicable across an increasing number of crop species, this work exemplifies a simple, facile and rapid approach to trait stacking.

  7. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Easson, Cole G; Matterson, Kenan O; Freeman, Christopher J; Archer, Stephanie K; Thacker, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson's diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study

  8. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Matterson, Kenan O.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Archer, Stephanie K.; Thacker, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson’s diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study

  9. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Easson, Cole G; Matterson, Kenan O; Freeman, Christopher J; Archer, Stephanie K; Thacker, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson's diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study

  10. Beta-blockers for treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan N; Cohen, Jerome D

    2003-12-01

    Beta-blockers are an established class in the management of hypertension, and numerous randomized, controlled trials have shown that these drugs can prevent cardiovascular events in this population. However, beta-blockers are underutilized in managing the general hypertensive population. This phenomenon may stem in part from concerns about side effects. On the contrary, beta-blockers demonstrate comparable efficacy, safety, and tolerability compared with other classes of antihypertensive drugs. Because beta-blockers offer unique cardiovascular protection, they should be considered an integral part of the treatment regimen for patients with hypertension who are at risk for cardiovascular events.

  11. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L.; Emin, David

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  12. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  14. Regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass.

    PubMed

    Bouwens, Luc; Rooman, Ilse

    2005-10-01

    Beta-cell mass regulation represents a critical issue for understanding diabetes, a disease characterized by a near-absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency in the number of pancreatic beta cells. The number of islet beta cells present at birth is mainly generated by the proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells, a process called neogenesis. Shortly after birth, beta-cell neogenesis stops and a small proportion of cycling beta cells can still expand the cell number to compensate for increased insulin demands, albeit at a slow rate. The low capacity for self-replication in the adult is too limited to result in a significant regeneration following extensive tissue injury. Likewise, chronically increased metabolic demands can lead to beta-cell failure to compensate. Neogenesis from progenitor cells inside or outside islets represents a more potent mechanism leading to robust expansion of the beta-cell mass, but it may require external stimuli. For therapeutic purposes, advantage could be taken from the surprising differentiation plasticity of adult pancreatic cells and possibly also from stem cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that it is feasible to regenerate and expand the beta-cell mass by the application of hormones and growth factors like glucagon-like peptide-1, gastrin, epidermal growth factor, and others. Treatment with these external stimuli can restore a functional beta-cell mass in diabetic animals, but further studies are required before it can be applied to humans. PMID:16183912

  15. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  16. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  17. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci for plant adaptation and morphology traits in wheat using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) morphological and adaptation-related traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define potential growing areas of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTL for heading date (HD), lodging resistance (LR), shattering resistance (SR), cold tolerance (CT), plant...

  19. Prevalence of sickle cell trait and HbC-trait in Blacks from low socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, E J; Miller, G D; Horton, R

    1978-01-01

    In the present investigation we did not observe age or sex differentials in the prevalence of sickle cell or HbC-traits in Black males or females of low socioeconomic status. When our data were compared to those of others, we found no evidence for a socioeconomic differential in the prevalence of these traits. PMID:717622

  20. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  1. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  2. Trait mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Rosalind

    2015-02-01

    Training in mindfulness skills has been shown to increase autobiographical memory specificity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is also an association between individual differences in trait mindfulness and memory specificity using a non-clinical student sample (N = 70). Also examined were the relationships between other memory characteristics and trait mindfulness, self-reported depression and rumination. Participants wrote about 12 autobiographical memories, which were recalled in response to emotion word cues in a minimal instruction version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, rated each memory for seven characteristics, and completed the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Ruminative Responses Scale. Higher rumination scores were associated with more reliving and more intense emotion during recall. Depression scores were not associated with any memory variables. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower memory specificity and with more intense and more positive emotion during recall. Thus, trait mindfulness is associated with memory specificity, but the association is opposite to that found in mindfulness training studies. It is suggested that this difference may be due to an influence of trait mindfulness on memory encoding as well as retrieval processes and an influence on the mode of self-awareness that leads to a greater focus on momentary rather than narrative self-reference. PMID:25120213

  3. Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

  4. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  5. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  6. Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

  7. Relationships of growth hormone gene and milk protein polymorphisms to milk production traits in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Falaki, M; Prandi, A; Corradini, C; Sneyers, M; Gengler, N; Massart, S; Fazzini, U; Burny, A; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    1997-02-01

    The importance of milk proteins and the positive effect of administration of growth hormone (GH) on milk production, and the presence in some dairy cattle lines of greater GH concentrations prompted us to examine the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the GH gene using the restriction enzyme TaqI and to investigate associations between this polymorphism in Simmental cows and bulls, as well as milk protein variants in Simmental cows, and milk production traits. Blood and milk were sampled from 279 Italian Simmental cows and semen was collected from 148 bulls of the same breed. Two fragment bands, denoted A and B, of 6200 and 5200 bp respectively, were examined and three patterns, AA, AB and BB, were found in both animal samples. All variants previously reported in other studies, for kappa, beta, and alpha s1-caseins, and beta-lactoglobulin, were found in the cows' samples. For the cows' samples, a BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) analysis of results was performed using a REML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) program and known heritabilities, whereas for bulls we have performed a General Linear Model analysis. The effect of GH gene polymorphism, using TaqI restriction enzyme, on milk production traits was not significant, but bulls of BB pattern had a higher breeding value for milk yield than AA bulls (P < 0.05). For the kappa-casein genotypic effects, cows of AB genotype gave milk with 1.53 +/- 0.70 g/kg less fat than cows of AA genotype. In addition, breeding values for milk protein content were significantly higher in BB bulls, with 0.87 +/- 0.32 and 0.71 +/- 0.34 g/kg more milk protein than AA and AB bulls respectively. Thus, our results revealed a GH gene polymorphism and indicated significant effects of milk protein polymorphisms on milk production traits in the Italian Simmental breed.

  8. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    DOEpatents

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  9. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs.

  10. Relationships between phyllosphere bacterial communities and plant functional traits in a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; O'Connor, Timothy K; Arnold, Holly K; Hubbell, Stephen P; Wright, S Joseph; Green, Jessica L

    2014-09-23

    The phyllosphere--the aerial surfaces of plants, including leaves--is a ubiquitous global habitat that harbors diverse bacterial communities. Phyllosphere bacterial communities have the potential to influence plant biogeography and ecosystem function through their influence on the fitness and function of their hosts, but the host attributes that drive community assembly in the phyllosphere are poorly understood. In this study we used high-throughput sequencing to quantify bacterial community structure on the leaves of 57 tree species in a neotropical forest in Panama. We tested for relationships between bacterial communities on tree leaves and the functional traits, taxonomy, and phylogeny of their plant hosts. Bacterial communities on tropical tree leaves were diverse; leaves from individual trees were host to more than 400 bacterial taxa. Bacterial communities in the phyllosphere were dominated by a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. Host attributes including plant taxonomic identity, phylogeny, growth and mortality rates, wood density, leaf mass per area, and leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations were correlated with bacterial community structure on leaves. The relative abundances of several bacterial taxa were correlated with suites of host plant traits related to major axes of plant trait variation, including the leaf economics spectrum and the wood density-growth/mortality tradeoff. These correlations between phyllosphere bacterial diversity and host growth, mortality, and function suggest that incorporating information on plant-microbe associations will improve our ability to understand plant functional biogeography and the drivers of variation in plant and ecosystem function.

  11. Trait procrastination among dental students in India and its influence on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ≥60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (p<0.05). Procrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education. PMID:23066141

  12. Trait procrastination among dental students in India and its influence on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Cholleti Sudheer; Naik, Eslavath Seena; Panda, Sujit; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Barik, Ashish Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Trait procrastination is believed to be highly prevalent among college students and detrimental to their educational performance. As the scenario among dental students is virtually unknown, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of trait procrastination among dental students and to analyze its influence on their academic performance. A total of 174 fourth-year dental students from three dental colleges in India voluntarily completed the Lay's Procrastination Scale-student version (LPS). The mean percentage marks scored in the subsequent final university examinations were used as a measure of academic performance. The descriptive statistics were computed to evaluate the prevalence of significant procrastination (LPS score ≥60). Mann-Whitney U test and multiple linear regressions were used to assess the influence of age and gender on procrastination severity, and the latter was again used to analyze the association between procrastination severity and academic performance. The results indicated that 27 percent (n=47) of the students exhibited a significant extent of trait procrastination; neither age nor gender affected its severity (p<0.05). Procrastination had a significant and negative impact on the academic performance of the student (beta=-0.150, p=0.039). These findings highlight the need for active measures to reduce the causes and consequences of procrastination in dental education.

  13. Obsessional personality traits and ABO blood types.

    PubMed

    Rinieris, P; Stefanis, C; Rabavilas, A

    1980-01-01

    The relation of ABO blood types to obsessional personality traits, as measured by the Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI), was studied in a sample of 600 normal individuals. High scorers of the LOI trait portion demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of phenotype O and a significantly higher incidence of phenotypes AB, A and B, taken together, compared to those of a general population sample and the entire study group. Findings of the present study, in conjunction with previous findings concerning a lower incidence of phenotype O and a higher incidence of phenotype A in obsessive compulsive patients, could be interpreted as indicating that phenotype O may be associated with personality traits hindering the development of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.

  14. Systems genetics approaches to understand complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2014-01-01

    Systems genetics is an approach to understand the flow of biological information that underlies complex traits. It uses a range of experimental and statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein or metabolite levels, in populations that vary for traits of interest. Systems genetics studies have provided the first global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits and are useful for the identification of genes, pathways and networks that underlie common human diseases. Given the urgent need to understand how the thousands of loci that have been identified in genome-wide association studies contribute to disease susceptibility, systems genetics is likely to become an increasingly important approach to understanding both biology and disease. PMID:24296534

  15. Relationship between personality traits and vocational choice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sedeño, Manuel; Navarro, Jose I; Menacho, Inmaculada

    2009-10-01

    Summary.-The relationship between occupational preferences and personality traits was examined. A randomly chosen sample of 735 students (age range = 17 to 23 years; 50.5% male) in their last year of high school participated in this study. Participants completed Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor-5 Questionnaire (16PF-5 Questionnaire) and the Kuder-C Professional Tendencies Questionnaire. Initial hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the participants into two groups by Kuder-C vocational factors: one showed a predilection for scientific or technological careers and the other a bias toward the humanities and social sciences. Based on these groupings, differences in 16PF-5 personality traits were analyzed and differences associated with three first-order personality traits (warmth, dominance, and sensitivity), three second-order factors (extraversion, control, and independence), and some areas of professional interest (mechanical, arithmetical artistic, persuasive, and welfare) were identified. The data indicated that there was congruency between personality profiles and vocational interests.

  16. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  17. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  18. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational

  19. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  20. Resistance to beta-lactams--the permutations.

    PubMed

    Amyes, S G B

    2003-12-01

    The beta-lactam family of antimicrobials, in particular penicillins and cephalosporins, is the mainstay of treatment for community-acquired infections. However, the emergence of resistant isolates to these agents has raised concerns regarding the continued efficacy of existing therapies. Resistance to beta-lactams is most commonly expressed by the microbial production of beta-lactamases that hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring. Three further resistance mechanisms include conformational changes in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs); permeability changes in the outer membrane; and active efflux of the antimicrobial. In addition to the pre-requisite efficacy and tolerability profiles, new beta-lactams should address these four resistance mechanisms. Overcoming resistance may be a serendipitous event or arrived at by design. A unique synthetic beta-lactam class, which demonstrates promise in terms of its activity against the range of bacteria responsible for community-acquired infections and its inherent stability to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases, is the penems. This discrete class of hybrid molecules combines properties from the penicillin (penam) and cephalosporin (cephem) beta-lactam classes. Faropenem is an example of a penem with a broad spectrum of activity designed to address these resistance issues. PMID:14998075

  1. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  2. Determination of effects of milk protein genotype on production traits of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Ron, M; Yoffe, O; Ezra, E; Medrano, J F; Weller, J I

    1994-04-01

    Genotypes of 112 Israeli Holstein sires were determined for beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of amplified DNA. Frequencies of the A alleles were .89 and .52 for kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Two models were used to test the effect of these loci on production of milk, fat, and protein and on fat and protein percentages. The dependent variable in the first model was production of 84,593 daughters of 110 genotyped sires, and the independent variables were herd-year-season, sire genotype for beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein, the interaction of the two loci, and sire nested within genotype. In the second model, the dependent variable was individual animal model genetic evaluations of 111 sires for production traits, and milk protein genotypes were the independent variables. The only significant effect of genotype with both models was the interaction of the two loci on fat percentage. When sires, rather than cows, were genotyped, the contrasted groups differed by only one-half of the genotype effect, but the residual variance was reduced.

  3. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Damstrup, L.; Rygaard, K.; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Skovgaard Poulsen, H.

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8388229

  4. Newborn screening for sickle cell disease in Brazil: the Campinas experience.

    PubMed

    Brandelise, S; Pinheiro, V; Gabetta, C S; Hambleton, I; Serjeant, B; Serjeant, G

    2004-02-01

    Newborn screening for sickle cell disease commenced in 1992 in Sao Paulo State and by the end of 2000, the programme covered 78 institutions in 36 municipalities with the screening of 281,884 babies. Initially based on liquid cord blood samples, these are being replaced by dried filter paper capillary samples to ease handling and avoid diagnostic confusion from maternal contamination. The prevalence of sickle cell trait (2.0%) and HbC trait (0.6%) increased significantly between 1996 and 2000, apparently because of improved detection rather than the later introduction of institutions serving populations with higher trait frequencies. There were 29 babies with homozygous sickle cell SS disease and 26 with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (SC) disease, the latter significantly exceeding expectation and possibly attributable to a nonrandom selection of partners. Sickle cell-beta thalassaemia syndromes were proportionately more common than in Jamaica, and it is possible that this results from interaction with other Brazilian populations carrying higher beta thalassaemia gene frequencies. The frequency of abnormal haemoglobins in this population is lower than in Jamaica, but clinically significant sickle cell disease occurred once in every 5527 births, comparable with the frequencies of other significant inborn errors of metabolism.

  5. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

  6. The chromosphere of Beta Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teays, Terry J.; Schmidt, Edward G.; Pasinetti Fracassini, Laura E.; Fracassini, Massimo

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution, long-wavelength IUE observations and ground-based photometry of the Delta Scuti star Beta Cas is reported. The ground-based observations were used together with previous results of Antonello et al. (1986) to ensure that the IUE observations were correctly phased relative to the photometric variation. Fluxes for the emission core of the Mg II k 2796-A line were obtained from the UV spectra over several cycles in 1986 and 1987. It is found that there is an increase in the emission during part of the cycle, but it occurs near minimum light in contrast to another Delta Scuti star, Rho Pup, and the classical Cepheids (where it occurs near maximum light). The mean level of chromospheric activity is comparable to other early F dwarfs.

  7. Bovine beta-mannosidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bryan, L; Schmutz, S; Hodges, S D; Snyder, F F

    1990-12-14

    A fatal inherited glycoprotein storage disorder is described in Salers cattle which affects both sexes. Affected calves are unable to stand at birth, have a marked intention tremor, markedly enlarged kidneys, decreased white matter in all areas of the brain, and cytoplasmic vacuolation in multiple cell types of multiple tissues with nervous, renal, lymphoid and thyroid tissues most severely affected. Affected calves were grossly deficient in lymphocyte and brain beta-mannosidase activity and had markedly reduced but not deficient activity in liver and kidney. A test mating of obligate carriers produced three genotypes: affected, carrier, non-carrier in essentially the expected ratio of 1:2:1, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:2260963

  8. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, A C

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase beta-endorphin secretion during times of surgical stress is positively correlated with amelioration of pain, the administration of exogenous opioids, such as fentanyl, reduces plasma beta-endorphin. Decreased beta-endorphin concentrations may play a role in trigeminal neuralgia, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1814247

  9. Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

  10. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  11. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  12. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  13. Peripheral beta-endorphin and pain modulation.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, A C

    1991-01-01

    Beta-endorphin is a peptide with morphine-like effects produced primarily in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. After its cleavage from the parent molecule, proopiomelanocortin, beta-endorphin is circulated via the blood stream to interact with specific opioid receptors located throughout the body. The peptide produces analgesia by inhibiting the firing of peripheral somatosensory fibers. It also affects other senses, such as vision, hearing, and smell. Whereas the ability to increase beta-endorphin secretion during times of surgical stress is positively correlated with amelioration of pain, the administration of exogenous opioids, such as fentanyl, reduces plasma beta-endorphin. Decreased beta-endorphin concentrations may play a role in trigeminal neuralgia, migraine headache, and rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Quantitative trait locus analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gondo, Takahiro; Sato, Shusei; Okumura, Kenji; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Isobe, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    The first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus was performed with a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129. Thirteen agronomic traits were evaluated in 2004 and 2005: traits of vegetative parts (plant height, stem thickness, leaf length, leaf width, plant regrowth, plant shape, and stem color), flowering traits (flowering time and degree), and pod and seed traits (pod length, pod width, seeds per pod, and seed mass). A total of 40 QTLs were detected that explained 5%-69% of total variation. The QTL that explained the most variation was that for stem color, which was detected in the same region of chromosome 2 in both years. Some QTLs were colocated, especially those for pod and seed traits. Seed mass QTLs were located at 5 locations that mapped to the corresponding genomic positions of equivalent QTLs in soybean, pea, chickpea, and mung bean. This study provides fundamental information for breeding of agronomically important legume crops.

  15. Volitional personality trait change: Can people choose to change their personality traits?

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nathan W; Fraley, R Chris

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has found that most people want to change their personality traits. But can people actually change their personalities just because they want to? To answer this question, we conducted 2, 16-week intensive longitudinal randomized experiments. Across both studies, people who expressed goals to increase with respect to any Big Five personality trait at Time 1 tended to experience actual increases in their self-reports of that trait-as well as trait-relevant daily behavior-over the subsequent 16 weeks. Furthermore, we tested 2 randomized interventions designed to help participants attain desired trait changes. Although 1 of the interventions was inefficacious, a second intervention that trained participants to generate implementation intentions catalyzed their ability to attain trait changes. We also tested several theoretical processes through which volitional changes might occur. These studies suggest that people may be able to change their self-reported personality traits through volitional means, and represent a first step toward understanding the processes that enable people to do so.

  16. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge

  17. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a slowly progressive disorder that affects ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis II alpha/beta mucolipidosis II alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (also known as I-cell disease) is ...

  19. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A

    2006-01-01

    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  1. Variability in the interaction of beta-thalassemia with the alpha-chain variants Hb G-Philadelphia and Hb Rampa.

    PubMed

    Huisman, T H; Gravely, M E; Henson, J; Felice, A; Wilson, J B; Abraham, E C; Vella, F; Little, M W

    1978-08-01

    Two unrelated families are reported in which beta-thalassemia trait occurred with a heterozygosity of Hb G-Philadelphia (alpha2 68(E17)Asn leads to Lys beta2) in one family and with Hb Rampa (alpha2 95(G2)Pro leads to Ser beta2) in the other. The percentage of Hb G-Philadelphia was not influenced by the simultaneous presence of a beta-thalassemai determinant, but that of Hb Rampa was descreased from 20% in the simple heterozygote to about 6% in persons with the Hb Rampa-beta-thalassemia combination. Data from in vitro recombination experiments with isolated alpha X, alpha A, and beta A chains, with heme attached, indicated a preferential formation of Hb A over Hb Rampa but not over Hb G-Philadelphia in conditions of relative beta-chain deficiency. This suggests that the rate of assembly of monomers to form dimers or tetramers can be an important mechanism of controlling the quantity of certain hemoglobin variants with critical substitutions in heterozygotes. PMID:681817

  2. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  3. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  4. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  5. Estimating Trait Heritability in Highly Fecund Species

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sarah W.; Scarpino, Samuel V.; Pongwarin, Thanapat; Scott, James; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are interested in estimating the heritability of traits for nonmodel organisms. However, estimating the heritability of these traits presents both experimental and statistical challenges, which typically arise from logistical difficulties associated with rearing large numbers of families independently in the field, a lack of known pedigree, the need to account for group or batch effects, etc. Here we develop both an empirical and computational methodology for estimating the narrow-sense heritability of traits for highly fecund species. Our experimental approach controls for undesirable culturing effects while minimizing culture numbers, increasing feasibility in the field. Our statistical approach accounts for known issues with model-selection by using a permutation test to calculate significance values and includes both fitting and power calculation methods. We further demonstrate that even with moderately high sample-sizes, the p-values derived from asymptotic properties of the likelihood ratio test are overly conservative, thus reducing statistical power. We illustrate our methodology by estimating the narrow-sense heritability for larval settlement, a key life-history trait, in the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata. The experimental, statistical, and computational methods, along with all of the data from this study, are available in the R package multiDimBio. PMID:26438295

  6. Biodiversity: Predictive traits to the rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisan, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    Climate change poses new challenges to the conservation of species, which at present requires data-hungry models to meaningfully anticipate future threats. Now a study suggests that species traits may offer a simpler way to help predict future extinction risks.

  7. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity.

  8. Phylogenetics Exercise Using Inherited Human Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuimala, Jarno

    2006-01-01

    A bioinformatics laboratory exercise based on inherited human morphological traits is presented. It teaches how morphological characters can be used to study the evolutionary history of humans using parsimony. The exercise can easily be used in a pen-and-paper laboratory, but if computers are available, a more versatile analysis can be carried…

  9. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  10. Callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas; Goldweber, Asha; Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a subgroup of antisocial youth at risk for severe, aggressive, and stable conduct problems. As a result, these traits should be considered as part of the criteria for conduct disorder. The present study tests 2 possible symptom sets (4- and 9-item criteria sets) of CU traits that could be used in diagnostic classification, assessed using self-report with a sample of 643 incarcerated adolescent (M age = 16.50, SD = 1.63 years) boys (n = 493) and girls (n = 150). Item response theory analysis was employed to examine the unique characteristics of each criterion comprising the 2 sets to determine their clinical utility. Results indicated that most items comprising the measure of CU traits demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. Whereas the 9-item criteria set provided more information and was internally consistent, the briefer 4-item set was equally effective at identifying youth at-risk for poor outcomes associated with the broader CU construct. Supporting the clinical utility of the criteria sets, incarcerated boys and girls who endorsed high levels of CU symptoms across criteria sets were particularly at-risk for proactive aggression and violent delinquency. PMID:24079957

  11. New trait data at MaizeGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB has several ways to archive trait data used for QTL and GWAS analyses. The simplest is simple posting of files provided by researchers along with links to the publication. More recently we have begun to integrate these data for diversity recombinant germplasm, and association panels. The go...

  12. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  13. Advances in Phenotyping of Functional Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, functional traits are morphological, biochemical, physiological, structural, phenological, or behavioral characteristics that are expressed in phenotypes of individual plants,that are relevant to the plant’s role in the ecosystem or its agronomic performance. By themselves, functional tra...

  14. Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, D.B.

    1997-03-01

    The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 a level with <300 observations. 57 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  16. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  17. State and Trait Emotions in Delinquent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Belinda; Karnik, Niranjan; Jo, Booil; Hall, Rebecca E.; Schallauer, Astrid; Carrion, Victor; Feucht, Martha; Steiner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the structure of emotions and affective dysregulation in juvenile delinquents. Method: Fifty-six juvenile delinquents from a local juvenile hall and 169 subjects from a local high school were recruited for this study. All participants completed psychometric testing for trait emotions followed by measurements of state emotions…

  18. Callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas; Goldweber, Asha; Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a subgroup of antisocial youth at risk for severe, aggressive, and stable conduct problems. As a result, these traits should be considered as part of the criteria for conduct disorder. The present study tests 2 possible symptom sets (4- and 9-item criteria sets) of CU traits that could be used in diagnostic classification, assessed using self-report with a sample of 643 incarcerated adolescent (M age = 16.50, SD = 1.63 years) boys (n = 493) and girls (n = 150). Item response theory analysis was employed to examine the unique characteristics of each criterion comprising the 2 sets to determine their clinical utility. Results indicated that most items comprising the measure of CU traits demonstrated adequate psychometric properties. Whereas the 9-item criteria set provided more information and was internally consistent, the briefer 4-item set was equally effective at identifying youth at-risk for poor outcomes associated with the broader CU construct. Supporting the clinical utility of the criteria sets, incarcerated boys and girls who endorsed high levels of CU symptoms across criteria sets were particularly at-risk for proactive aggression and violent delinquency.

  19. The Computerized Inventory of Developmental Writing Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Niki

    The Computerized Inventory of Developmental Writing Traits (CIDWT) is meant to provide a valid reliable measure of program improvement, particularly for teachers implementing a process writing approach in their classrooms. While standardized tests, portfolio, and holistic scoring all have something to offer, the CIDWT is an inexpensive direct…

  20. Genetic markers of inflammation may not contribute to metabolic traits in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    Vashi, Neeti; Stryjecki, Carolina; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana I.; Cruz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a common feature of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications. However, little is known about a possible causal role of inflammation in metabolic disorders. Mexico is among the countries with the highest obesity rates in the world and the admixed Mexican population is a relevant sample due to high levels of genetic diversity. Methods: Here, we studied 1,462 Mexican children recruited from Mexico City. Six genetic variants in five inflammation-related genes were genotyped: rs1137101 (leptin receptor (LEPR)), rs7305618 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A)), rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)), rs1800896, rs1800871 (interleukin-10 (IL-10)), rs1862513 (resistin (RETN)). Ten continuous and eight binary traits were assessed. Linear and logistic regression models were used adjusting for age, sex, and recruitment centre. Results: We found that one SNP displayed a nominal evidence of association with a continuous trait: rs1800871 (IL-10) with LDL (beta = −0.068 ± 1.006, P = 0.01). Subsequently, we found one nominal association with a binary trait: rs7305618 (HNF1A) with family history of hypertension (odds-ratio = 1.389 [1.054–1.829], P = 0.02). However, no P-value passed the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Discussion: Our data in a Mexican children population are consistent with previous reports in European adults in failing to demonstrate an association between inflammation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolic traits. PMID:27366637

  1. A Major Locus for Quantitatively Measured Shank Skin Color Traits in Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S.; Lee, J. H.; Seo, D. W.; Cahyadi, M.; Choi, N. R.; Heo, K. N.; Jo, C.; Park, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC) shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [L*], redness [a*], and yellowness [b*]) were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects b* value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, p = 1.60×10−49) on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus). At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences a* value (LOD = 14.2, p = 6.14×10−16). Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2), the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA) and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and a* (PMGA = 1.69×10−28; PQTDT = 2.40×10−25). The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and b* (PMGA = 3.56×10−66; PQTDT = 1.68×10−65). However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. PMID:27383802

  2. Inactivation of the IL-6 gene prevents development of multicentric Castleman's disease in C/EBP beta-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder thought to be related to deregulated production of IL-6. We have previously shown that mice lacking the trans-acting factor C/EBP beta, a transcriptional regulator of IL-6 and a mediator of IL-6 intracellular signaling, develop a pathology nearly identical to multicentric Castleman's disease, together with increasingly high levels of circulating IL-6. We describe here how the simultaneous inactivation of both IL-6 and C/EBP beta genes prevents the development of pathological traits of Castleman's disease observed in C/EBP beta-deficient mice. Histological and phenotypic analysis of lymph nodes and spleen of double mutant mice did not show either the lymphoadenopathy and splenomegaly or the abnormal expansion of myeloid, B and plasma cell compartments observed in C/EBP beta-/- mice, while B cell development, although delayed, was normal. Our data demonstrate that IL-6 is essential for the development of multicentric Castleman's disease in C/EBP beta-/- mice. PMID:8879230

  3. [Influence of the sickle cell trait heterozygote on energy abilities].

    PubMed

    Bitanga, E; Rouillon, J D

    1998-01-01

    The sickle cell trait (SCT) is a genetic abnormality of the red blood cell which mainly affects people of African descent. It is due to the mutation of only one parental gene (one glutamic acid of the chain beta of the globin is substituted by one valin). The prevalence of SCT in the black US population is within the range of 8-9%. It is increasing in Europe and in Africa where it may reach up to 40% in some regions. The rate of prevalence of SCT in athletic populations was found to be similar to that of the general sedentary population in west African countries. SCT is usually asymptomatic. However, SCT has been associated with a higher risk of sudden death during exercise. In fact, the substitution of one amino-acid modifies the properties of haemoglobin and produces physiological disorders such as sickling, less solubility of the deoxidized form and the reduction of affinity for oxygen. The sickling phenomenon (formation of sickle cells) mainly occurs in some conditions related to the practise of sport (intense and/or prolonged exercise, exercise in hypoxic conditions, exercise in heat conditions). These sickled red blood cells reduce the speed of capillary flow or obstruct the blood vessels which, because of the lack of oxygen, become altered. The physical ability of sickle cell trait carriers (HbAS) who practise sport should be different from the physical ability of subjects with normal haemoglobin (HbAA) because of: 1) potential risks due to their haemoglobinopathy and 2) the eventual modification of their performance ability. These two aspects have caused controversies among many researchers particularly in line with their investigation methods. Nevertheless, the following results seem to be established: 1) the ability to perform sprint exercises is not altered in the HbAS subjects. Their performances in these events are similar to those of HbAA subjects; 2) The ability of HbAS subjects to perform intense and prolonged exercise is decreased. Our former

  4. [Influence of the sickle cell trait heterozygote on energy abilities].

    PubMed

    Bitanga, E; Rouillon, J D

    1998-01-01

    The sickle cell trait (SCT) is a genetic abnormality of the red blood cell which mainly affects people of African descent. It is due to the mutation of only one parental gene (one glutamic acid of the chain beta of the globin is substituted by one valin). The prevalence of SCT in the black US population is within the range of 8-9%. It is increasing in Europe and in Africa where it may reach up to 40% in some regions. The rate of prevalence of SCT in athletic populations was found to be similar to that of the general sedentary population in west African countries. SCT is usually asymptomatic. However, SCT has been associated with a higher risk of sudden death during exercise. In fact, the substitution of one amino-acid modifies the properties of haemoglobin and produces physiological disorders such as sickling, less solubility of the deoxidized form and the reduction of affinity for oxygen. The sickling phenomenon (formation of sickle cells) mainly occurs in some conditions related to the practise of sport (intense and/or prolonged exercise, exercise in hypoxic conditions, exercise in heat conditions). These sickled red blood cells reduce the speed of capillary flow or obstruct the blood vessels which, because of the lack of oxygen, become altered. The physical ability of sickle cell trait carriers (HbAS) who practise sport should be different from the physical ability of subjects with normal haemoglobin (HbAA) because of: 1) potential risks due to their haemoglobinopathy and 2) the eventual modification of their performance ability. These two aspects have caused controversies among many researchers particularly in line with their investigation methods. Nevertheless, the following results seem to be established: 1) the ability to perform sprint exercises is not altered in the HbAS subjects. Their performances in these events are similar to those of HbAA subjects; 2) The ability of HbAS subjects to perform intense and prolonged exercise is decreased. Our former

  5. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  6. The evolution of beta2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Sears, M R

    2001-08-01

    Beta-agonists have been widely used in the treatment of asthma for many years Although concerns have been expressed over their safety based largely upon epidemics of increased mortality in asthmatics associated with high doses of isoprenaline in the 1960s and fenoterol in the 1970s and 1980s, the specific beta2-agonists are vital drugs in asthma management. The short-acting beta2-agonists have an important prophylactic role in the prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and are essential in the emergency treatment of severe asthma. However, little if any benefit seems to be derived from regular use of short-acting beta2-agonists and regular or frequent use can increase the severity of the condition. The development of beta2-agonists with long-acting properties, such as salmeterol and formoterol, has provided advantages over short-acting beta-agonists, such as prolonged bronchodilation, reduced day- and night-time symptoms and improved quality of sleep, and has reduced the requirement for short-acting beta2-agonists as relief medication. Both drugs are well tolerated and, when added to inhaled corticosteroids, produce greater mprovement in lung function than increased steroid dose alone. Because of its rapid onset of action, formoterol also has the potential to be used for as-needed bronchodilator therapy in asthma.

  7. Resistance exercise decreases beta-endorphin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E F; Eastman, N W; McGowan, R W; Tripathi, H; Dewey, W L; Olson, K G

    1994-09-01

    Previous research investigating the response of plasma beta-endorphins (beta-EP) to resistance exercise has resulted in equivocal findings. To examine further the effects of resistance exercise on beta-EP immunoreactivity, 10 male and 10 female college-age students participated in a series of controlled isotonic resistance exercises. The session consisted of three sets of eight repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) for each of the following exercises: (1) bench press; (2) lateral pull-downs; (3) seated arm curls; and (4) military press. Blood plasma was sampled both before and after the lifting routine and beta-endorphin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. A Students t test for paired samples indicated that mean(s.e.) plasma beta-endorphin levels after exercise (10.5(1.3) pg beta-EP ml-1) were significantly decreased as compared with pre-exercise (control) levels (16.5(1.2), P < 0.05). While the mechanism(s) contributing to the decrease in immunoreactivity is unclear, it may be the result of the synergistic effect of beta-EP clearance during rest intervals and changes in psychological states between sampling.

  8. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  9. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  10. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  11. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  12. Sexually selected traits evolve positive allometry when some matings occur irrespective of the trait.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-05-01

    Positive allometry of secondary sexual traits (whereby larger individuals have disproportionally larger traits than smaller individuals) has been called one of the most pervasive and poorly understood regularities in the study of animal form and function. Its widespread occurrence is in contrast with theoretical predictions that it should evolve only under rather special circumstances. Using a combination of mathematical modeling and simulations, here we show that positive allometry is predicted to evolve under much broader conditions than previously recognized. This result hinges on the assumption that mating success is not necessarily zero for males with the lowest trait values: for example, a male who lacks horns or antlers might still be able to copulate if encountering an unguarded female. We predict the strongest positive allometry when males typically (but not always) compete in large groups, and when trait differences decisively determine the outcome of competitive interactions.

  13. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves beef yield, changes palatability traits, and increases calpain-calpastatin gene expression in Nellore heifers.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, Nara Regina Brandão; Ferrari, Viviane Borba; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Goulart, Rodrigo Silva; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada E

    2016-11-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the beta-agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass traits, subprimal yield, meat quality, palatability traits, and gene expression in Nellore heifers. Zilpaterol increased Longissimus lumborum area and did not change back fat thickness, meat color, and cooking loss. Heifers fed ZH had greater hindquarter weight and carcass percentage. Muscles from hindquarter were heavier for animals fed ZH. Forequarter (% of carcass) decreased and brisket did not change with ZH supplementation. There were no differences between treatments for steak aroma, beef flavor, and off-flavor. However, tenderness and juiciness were reduced by ZH, depending on postmortem aging. Zilpaterol increased Calpain-1, Calpain-2, and calpastatin mRNA expression, with no effect of day of slaughter or ZH×Day interaction. In conclusion, ZH supplementation improved hypertrophy, meat production, and debone yield in Nellore heifers, which led to decreased tenderness and to increased mRNA expression in the calpain-calpastatin system. PMID:27427783

  14. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves beef yield, changes palatability traits, and increases calpain-calpastatin gene expression in Nellore heifers.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, Nara Regina Brandão; Ferrari, Viviane Borba; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Goulart, Rodrigo Silva; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada E

    2016-11-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the beta-agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass traits, subprimal yield, meat quality, palatability traits, and gene expression in Nellore heifers. Zilpaterol increased Longissimus lumborum area and did not change back fat thickness, meat color, and cooking loss. Heifers fed ZH had greater hindquarter weight and carcass percentage. Muscles from hindquarter were heavier for animals fed ZH. Forequarter (% of carcass) decreased and brisket did not change with ZH supplementation. There were no differences between treatments for steak aroma, beef flavor, and off-flavor. However, tenderness and juiciness were reduced by ZH, depending on postmortem aging. Zilpaterol increased Calpain-1, Calpain-2, and calpastatin mRNA expression, with no effect of day of slaughter or ZH×Day interaction. In conclusion, ZH supplementation improved hypertrophy, meat production, and debone yield in Nellore heifers, which led to decreased tenderness and to increased mRNA expression in the calpain-calpastatin system.

  15. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  16. Multiple beta-ketothiolases mediate poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer synthesis in Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Slater, S; Houmiel, K L; Tran, M; Mitsky, T A; Taylor, N B; Padgette, S R; Gruys, K J

    1998-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a class of carbon and energy storage polymers produced by numerous bacteria in response to environmental limitation. The type of polymer produced depends on the carbon sources available, the flexibility of the organism's intermediary metabolism, and the substrate specificity of the PHA biosynthetic enzymes. Ralstonia eutropha produces both the homopolymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and, when provided with the appropriate substrate, the copolymer poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). A required step in production of the hydroxyvalerate moiety of PHBV is the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and propionyl-CoA to form beta-ketovaleryl-CoA. This activity has generally been attributed to the beta-ketothiolase encoded by R. eutropha phbA. However, we have determined that PhbA does not significantly contribute to catalyzing this condensation reaction. Here we report the cloning and genetic analysis of bktB, which encodes a beta-ketothiolase from R. eutropha that is capable of forming beta-ketovaleryl-CoA. Genetic analyses determined that BktB is the primary condensation enzyme leading to production of beta-hydroxyvalerate derived from propionyl-CoA. We also report an additional beta-ketothiolase, designated BktC, that probably serves as a secondary route toward beta-hydroxyvalerate production.

  17. Tau overexpression in transgenic mice induces glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and beta-catenin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shim, S B; Lim, H J; Chae, K R; Kim, C K; Hwang, D Y; Jee, S W; Lee, S H; Sin, J S; Leem, Y H; Lee, S H; Cho, J S; Lee, H H; Choi, S Y; Kim, Y K

    2007-05-11

    The abnormal phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin have been shown to perform a crucial function in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the manner in which overexpressed htau23 interacts and regulates the behavior and phosphorylation characteristics of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin. In order to accomplish this, transgenic mice expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human wild-type tau (NSE/htau23) were created. Transgenic mice evidenced the following: (i) tendency toward memory impairments at later stages, (ii) dramatic overexpression of the tau transgene, coupled with increased tau phosphorylation and paired helical filaments (PHFs), (iii) high levels of GSK3beta phosphorylation with advanced age, resulting in increases in the phosphorylations of tau and beta-catenin, (iv) an inhibitory effect of lithium on the phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin, but not in the non-transgenic littermate group. Therefore, the overexpression of NSE/htau23 in the brains of transgenic mice induces abnormal phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin, which are ultimately linked to neuronal degeneration in cases of AD. These transgenic mice are expected to prove useful for the development of new drugs for the treatment of AD.

  18. QTLs for Biomass and Developmental Traits in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and genomic resources have recently been developed for the bioenergy crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Despite these advances, little research has been focused on identifying genetic loci involved in natural variation of important bioenergy traits, including biomass. Quantitative trait l...

  19. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  20. beta-Lactam resistance and beta-lactamases in bacteria of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Zhi; Mehrotra, Manisha; Ghimire, Shiva; Adewoye, Lateef

    2007-04-15

    beta-Lactams are among the most clinically important antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine. Bacterial resistance to beta-lactams has been increasingly observed in bacteria, including those of animal origin. The mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance include inaccessibility of the drugs to their target, target alterations and/or inactivation of the drugs by beta-lactamases. The latter contributes predominantly to beta-lactam resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. A variety of beta-lactamases have been identified in bacteria derived from food-producing and companion animals and may further serve as a reservoir for beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in humans. While this review mainly describes beta-lactamases from animal-derived Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., beta-lactamases from animal-derived Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and other pathogens are also discussed. Of particular concern are the increasingly-isolated plasmid-encoded AmpC-type CMY and extended-spectrum CTX-M beta-lactamases, which mediate acquired resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams. The genes encoding these enzymes often coexist with other antimicrobial resistance determinants and can also be associated with transposons/integrons, increasing the potential enrichment of multidrug resistant bacteria by multiple antimicrobial agents as well as dissemination of the resistance determinants among bacterial species. Characterization of beta-lactam-resistant animal-derived bacteria warrants further investigation of the type and distribution of beta-lactamases in bacteria of animal origin and their potential impact on human medicine.

  1. The beta-D-xylosidase of Trichoderma reesei is a multifunctional beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, M C; Vrsanska, M; Jurickova, M; Hirsch, J; Biely, P; Kubicek, C P

    1997-01-01

    An extracellular multifunctional beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase, previously described as beta-xylosidase, was purified from Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 to physical homogeneity. The active enzyme was a 100 (+/-5) kDa glycosylated monomer that exhibited a pl of 4.7. Its activity was optimal at pH 4 and it was stable between pH 3 and 6. Its temperature-stability was moderate (70 degrees zero of activity remaining after 60 min at 50 degrees C) and optimal activity was observed at 60 degrees C. It is capable of hydrolysing beta-1.4-xylo-oligosaccharides [degree of polymerization (DP) 2-7], the apparent Vmax increasing with increasing chain length. The enzyme also attacked debranched beech-wood (Lenzing) xylan and 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, forming xylose as the only end product. The K(m) for xylan was 0.7 g/l. For this reason we consider the enzyme to be a beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase. The enzyme also exhibits alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity on 4-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinofuranoside, and evidence is presented that this is not caused by an impurity in the enzyme preparation. The beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase exhibits glycosyltransferase activity with xylo-oligosaccharides and at high concentrations of 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside (4-Nph-beta-Xyl). The enzyme hydrolyses beta-1, 4-linkages preferentially to beta-1,3-linkages, and beta-1,2-linked xylo-oligosaccharides are not hydrolysed at all. The enzyme liberates terminal beta-1,4-xylopyranose residues linked to a 2-O-substituted xylopyranose residue, but not that linked to a 3-O-substituted xylopyranose residue. The enzyme does not attack methyl, methyl 1-thio-benzyl or butyl l-thio-beta-D-xylopyranosides and 4-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl and phenyl beta-D-xylopyranosides. PMID:9020869

  2. Fabrication of thin layer beta alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennenhouse, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Beta alumina tubes having walls 700 microns, 300 microns, and 140 microns were processed by extrusion and sintering utilizing Ford proprietary binder and fabrication systems. Tubes prepared by this method have properties similar to tubes prepared by isostatic pressing and sintering, i.e. density greater than 98% of theoretical and a helium leak rate less than 3 x 10 to the -9th power cc/sq cm/sec. Ford ultrasonic bonding techniques were used for bonding beta alumina end caps to open ended beta -alumina tubes prior to sintering. After sintering, the bond was hermetic, and the integrity of the bonded area was comparable to the body of the tube.

  3. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  4. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    PubMed Central

    Vitezica, Zulma G; Moreno, Carole R; Lantier, Frederic; Lantier, Isabelle; Schibler, Laurent; Roig, Anne; François, Dominique; Bouix, Jacques; Allain, Daniel; Brunel, Jean-Claude; Barillet, Francis; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance) and production (wool and carcass) traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes. PMID:17612481

  5. Fates beyond traits: ecological consequences of human-induced trait change

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Kinnison, Michael T; Correa, Cristian; Dalton, Christopher M; Hendry, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Human-induced trait change has been documented in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. These trait changes are driven by phenotypic plasticity and contemporary evolution. While efforts to manage human-induced trait change are beginning to receive some attention, managing its ecological consequences has received virtually none. Recent work suggests that contemporary trait change can have important effects on the dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Therefore, trait changes caused by human activity may be shaping ecological dynamics on a global scale. We present evidence for important ecological effects associated with human-induced trait change in a variety of study systems. These effects can occur over large spatial scales and impact system-wide processes such as trophic cascades. Importantly, the magnitude of these effects can be on par with those of traditional ecological drivers such as species presence. However, phenotypic change is not always an agent of ecological change; it can also buffer ecosystems against change. Determining the conditions under which phenotypic change may promote vs prevent ecological change should be a top research priority. PMID:25568040

  6. Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

    2013-09-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24279259

  7. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting growth and carcass traits in F2 intercross chickens.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Y; Sato, S; Odawara, S; Nokata, H; Oyamada, Y; Taguchi, Y; Yanai, S; Sasaki, O; Takahashi, H; Nirasawa, K; Kobayashi, E

    2009-03-01

    We constructed a chicken F(2) resource population to facilitate the genetic improvement of economically important traits, particularly growth and carcass traits. An F(2) population comprising 240 chickens obtained by crossing a Shamo (lean, lightweight Japanese native breed) male and White Plymouth Rock breed (fat, heavyweight broiler) females was measured for BW, carcass weight (CW), abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and thigh muscle weight (TMW) and was used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analysis, using a total of 240 microsatellite markers. A total of 14 QTL were detected at a 5% chromosome-wide level, and 7 QTL were significant at a 5% experiment-wide level for the traits evaluated in the F(2) population. For growth traits, significant and suggestive QTL affecting BW (measured at 6 and 9 wk) and average daily gain were identified on similar regions of chromosomes 1 and 3. For carcass traits, the QTL effects on CW were detected on chromosomes 1 and 3, with the greatest F-ratio of 15.0 being obtained for CW on chromosome 3. Quantitative trait loci positions affecting BMW and TMW were not detected at the same loci as those detected for BMW percentage of CW and TMW percentage of CW. For AFW, QTL positions were detected at the same loci as those detected for AFW percentage of CW. The present study identified significant QTL affecting BW, CW, and AFW. PMID:19211515

  8. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits.

  9. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  10. Towards deploying genomic selection for improving complex traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an effective approach for improving qualitative traits and has been successfully used to develop improved lines for rust resistance and high oleate trait in peanut. Further efforts are underway to pyramid genomic regions for multiple qualitative traits (rust re...

  11. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  12. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  13. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geneticists and breeders are poised to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, they need a better understanding of root functional traits and how these traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditio...

  14. Short-Term Stability of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Zina; Klaver, Jessica R.; Hart, Stephen D.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate about the assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescence due in part to questions regarding the stability of traits. We investigated the 6-month stability of psychopathic traits in a sample of 83 male adolescent offenders using an augmented protocol for the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and the self-report…

  15. Cysteines beta93 and beta112 as probes of conformational and functional events at the human hemoglobin subunit interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, G B; Karavitis, M; Ji, X; Pechik, I; Brinigar, W S; Gilliland, G L; Fronticelli, C

    1999-01-01

    Three variants of tetrameric human hemoglobin, with changes at the alpha1beta2/alpha2beta1-interface, at the alpha1beta1/alpha2beta2-interface, and at both interfaces, have been constructed. At alpha1beta2/alpha2beta1-interface the beta93 cysteine was replaced by alanine (betaC93A), and at the alpha1beta1/alpha2beta2-interface the beta112 cysteine was replaced by glycine (betaC112G). The alpha1beta2 interface variant, betaC93A, and the alpha1beta1/alpha1beta2 double mutant, beta(C93A+C112G), were crystallized in the T-state, and the structures determined at 2. 0 and 1.8 A resolution, respectively. A comparison of the structures with that of natural hemoglobin A shows the absence of detectable changes in the tertiary folding of the protein or in the T-state quaternary assembly. At the beta112 site, the void left by the removal of the cysteine side chain is filled by a water molecule, and the functional characteristics of betaC112G are essentially those of human hemoglobin A. At the beta93 site, water molecules do not replace the cysteine side chain, and the alanine substitution increases the conformational freedom of beta146His, weakening the important interaction of this residue with beta94Asp. As a result, when Cl- is present in the solution, at a concentration 100 mM, the Bohr effect of the two mutants carrying the beta93Cys-->Ala substitution, betaC93A and beta(C93A+C112G), is significantly modified being practically absent below pH 7.4. Based on the crystallographic data, we attribute these effects to the competition between beta94Asp and Cl- in the salt link with beta146His in T-state hemoglobin. These results point to an interplay between the betaHis146-betaAsp94 salt bridge and the Cl- in solution regulated by the Cys present at position beta93, indicating yet another role of beta93 Cys in the regulation of hemoglobin function. PMID:9876125

  16. A synopsis of factors regulating beta cell development and beta cell mass.

    PubMed

    Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Xiangwei, Xiao; Ricks, David; Fusco, Joseph; Gittes, George

    2016-10-01

    The insulin-secreting beta cells in the endocrine pancreas regulate blood glucose levels, and loss of functional beta cells leads to insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and diabetes mellitus. Current treatment strategies for type-1 (autoimmune) diabetes are islet transplantation, which has significant risks and limitations, or normalization of blood glucose with insulin injections, which is clearly not ideal. The type-1 patients can lack insulin counter-regulatory mechanism; therefore, hypoglycemia is a potential risk. Hence, a cell-based therapy offers a better alternative for the treatment of diabetes. Past research was focused on attempting to generate replacement beta cells from stem cells; however, recently there has been an increasing interest in identifying mechanisms that will lead to the conversion of pre-existing differentiated endocrine cells into beta cells. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of several of the key factors that regulate new beta cell formation (neogenesis) and beta cell proliferation. PMID:27105622

  17. Synthesis of mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta zeolites and their catalytic performances.

    PubMed

    Jin, Junjiang; Ye, Xinxin; Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Yanqin; Li, Liang; Gu, Jinlou; Zhao, Wenru; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-06-14

    Mesoporous Beta zeolite has been successfully prepared through hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of cationic ammonium-modified chitosan as the meso-template. Through a subsequent solid-gas reaction between highly dealuminated mesoporous Beta zeolite and SnCl4 steam at an elevated temperature, mesoporous Sn-Beta has been facilely obtained. It was revealed that the addition of cationic chitosan induced the nanocrystal aggregation to particle sizes of ∼300 nm, giving rise to the intercrystalline/interparticle mesoporosity. In the Sn-implanting procedure, Sn species were demonstrated to be doped into the framework of the resulting mesoporous Beta zeolite in a tetrahedral environment without structural collapse. Due to the micro/mesoporous structures, both mesoporous Beta and Sn-Beta exhibited superior performances in α-pinene isomerization, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-adamantanone by hydrogen peroxide and the isomerization of glucose in water, respectively.

  18. Alpha6 beta4 and alpha6 beta1 integrins in astrocytomas and other CNS tumors.

    PubMed

    Previtali, S; Quattrini, A; Nemni, R; Truci, G; Ducati, A; Wrabetz, L; Canal, N

    1996-04-01

    Laminin may alter the biological behavior of gliomas. Therefore, we investigated the expression of two laminin receptors, alpha6 beta1 and alpha6 beta4 integrins in normal brain, astrogliotic brain, and astrocytomas as compared to other central nervous system (CNS) tumors. In most CNS tumors, the expression of these integrins was unchanged in neoplastic as compared to normal counterpart cells. In contrast, increased numbers of reactive and neoplastic astrocytes expressed beta4 integrin as compared to normal astrocytes, whereas alpha6 and beta1 integrin expression did not change. Conversely, lower numbers of astrocytoma blood vessels expressed beta4, whereas all blood vessels in normal brain expressed beta4. These data suggest that the profile of laminin receptors changes in neoplastic astrocytes and in astrocytoma blood vessels; this change may play an important role in astrocytoma pathogenesis.

  19. Genotypic Variation for Drought Tolerance in Beta vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    OBER, E. S.; LUTERBACHER, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    Insufficient soil moisture during summer months is now the major cause of sugar beet yield losses in the UK. However, selection for increased drought tolerance has not been a breeding priority until recently. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is an essential prerequisite for the development of more stress‐tolerant varieties, but commercial sugar beet varieties seem to have similar yield responses to drought. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of genotypic variation for drought tolerance within a wide range of sugar beet germplasm and genebank accessions within Beta. Thirty sugar beet genotypes were screened under field drought conditions, and putative drought tolerant and sensitive lines (in terms of yield reduction in polythene‐covered vs. irrigated plots) were identified. Significant genotype × water treatment interactions were found for dry matter yield and relative leaf expansion rate. Genotypic differences for drought susceptibility index were also significant. Differential sensitivity of seedling shoot growth to water deficit was examined by comparing 350 genebank accessions in a simple growth chamber screen. Methods of data management were devised to highlight lines for entry into subsequent field tests. The results of the field and seedling screens indicate that there is variation for tolerance to water deficits within sugar beet and related types, and that there are lines that show greater drought tolerance than selected commercial varieties. Divergent lines showing contrasting behaviour should aid in the identification of key morpho‐physiological traits that confer drought tolerance. PMID:12102517

  20. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa.

    PubMed

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation.

  1. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa.

    PubMed

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  2. Integrating Taxonomic, Functional and Phylogenetic Beta Diversities: Interactive Effects with the Biome and Land Use across Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Corbelli, Julian Martin; Zurita, Gustavo Andres; Filloy, Julieta; Galvis, Juan Pablo; Vespa, Natalia Isabel; Bellocq, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of species, functional traits and phylogenetic relationships at both the regional and local scales provide complementary approaches to study patterns of biodiversity and help to untangle the mechanisms driving community assembly. Few studies have simultaneously considered the taxonomic (TBD), functional (FBD) and phylogenetic (PBD) facets of beta diversity. Here we analyze the associations between TBD, FBD, and PBD with the biome (representing different regional species pools) and land use, and investigate whether TBD, FBD and PBD were correlated. In the study design we considered two widely used indicator taxa (birds and ants) from two contrasting biomes (subtropical forest and grassland) and land uses (tree plantations and cropfields) in the southern Neotropics. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic distances were associated to biome and land use; study sites grouped into four groups on the bi-dimensional space (cropfields in forest and grassland, and tree plantations in forest and grassland), and that was consistent across beta diversity facets and taxa. Mantel and PERMANOVA tests showed that TBD, FBD and PBD were positively correlated for both bird and ant assemblages; in general, partial correlations were also significant. Some of the functional traits considered here were conserved along phylogeny. Our results will contribute to the development of sound land use planning and beta diversity conservation. PMID:25978319

  3. Comparison of erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities between two types of haemoglobin H disease.

    PubMed Central

    Prasartkaew, S; Bunyaratvej, A; Fucharoen, S; Wasi, P

    1986-01-01

    The activities of erythrocyte antioxidative enzymes were measured in two groups of patients with different genotypes of haemoglobin (Hb) H disease: 21 with alpha-thalassaemia 1 or alpha-thalassaemia 2 (alpha-thalassaemia 1/2) and 21 with alpha-thalassaemia 1/Hb Constant Spring (HbCS). They were compared with 21 normal subjects. Both genotypes of Hb H disease had increased activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase when compared with those of controls. Comparison of the two genotypes showed that subjects with alpha-thalassaemia 1/Hb CS, the more severe disease, had higher SOD and GSH-Px activities but lower catalase activity than those with alpha-thalassaemia 1/2. This indicates that there are compensatory mechanisms in Hb H erythrocytes to cope with increased generation of oxygen free radicals as a result of increased excess beta chain. PMID:3805316

  4. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) attached to certain proteins (glycoproteins). Beta-mannosidase is involved in the last step ... Inherited Metabolic Diseases ISMRD: The International Advocate for Glycoprotein Storage Diseases The MPS Society (UK) Genetic Testing ...

  5. Beta scaling of transport in microturbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.

    2005-07-15

    A systematic study of the beta ({beta}) scaling and spatial structure of thermal and particle transport in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations is presented. Here, {beta} is the ratio of the plasma kinetic pressure to the magnetic pressure. Results show that the nonlinear self-consistent temperature profiles exhibit a (statistically) time-stationary flattening in the vicinity of rational surfaces with a concomitant drop in the electrostatic components of the thermal diffusivity. Simultaneously, the increased magnetic fluctuation amplitude at these surfaces enhances the steady-state electromagnetic (flutter) component of the electron thermal diffusivity. The electromagnetic components of the ion transport coefficients remain close to zero, as expected on theoretical grounds. Only a weak dependence of ion energy transport on {beta} is observed, consistent with recent tokamak experiments [C. C. Petty et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2514 (2004)].

  6. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  7. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  8. Tevatron B0 low beta tuning report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.

    1982-05-05

    A detailed study of the low beta insertion for the B0 experimental area has been carried out and is described below. This insertion is similar to the Type C low beta previously report, anti p Note 169, although some changes have been made to the quadrupole lengths and positions. This insertion is designated Type E. The purpose of the study was to see if it is possible to turn the insertion on in a smooth and continuous manner and tune the insertion to a value of ..beta..* of less than one meter while maintaining the overall tune of the j Tevatron to a constant value. This was found to be possible. An examination of chromaticity corrections for the Tevatron with the low beta insertion on in various configurations was also undertaken.

  9. Carotenoids: more than just beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Gellenbeck, K W

    1998-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables of the human diet contain many of the over 600 carotenoid pigments that have been identified in plants. Led by work with beta-carotene, researchers have constantly been learning more about the metabolism of these compounds in the human body. Research work is now expanding beyond beta-carotene in an effort to understand what happens to all the pigments found in the human diet. This discussion briefly looks at research results on the carotenoids found in human serum as well as the effects of supplementation. Recent confusing results from large intervention trials with beta-carotene and lung cancer incidence are emphasized in relation to supplementation doses and beta-carotene source (synthetic vs. natural). The summation of results emphasizes the importance of the broad spectrum of carotenoids in the diet and relates to supplementation products currently being designed for the marketplace.

  10. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  11. Amyloid beta-peptide possesses a transforming growth factor-beta activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, S S; Huang, F W; Xu, J; Chen, S; Hsu, C Y; Huang, J S

    1998-10-16

    Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) of 39-42 amino acid residues is a major constituent of Alzheimer's disease neurite plaques. Abeta aggregates (fibrils) are believed to be responsible for neuronal damage and dysfunction, as well as microglia and astrocyte activation in disease lesions by multiple mechanisms. Since Abeta aggregates possess the multiple valencies of an FAED motif (20th to 23rd amino acid residues), which resembles the putative transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) active site motif, we hypothesize that Abeta monomers and Abeta aggregates may function as TGF-beta antagonists and partial agonists, analogous to previously described monovalent and multivalent TGF-beta peptide antagonists and agonists (Huang, S. S., Liu, Q., Johnson, F. E., Konish, Y., and Huang, J. S. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27155-27159). Here, we report that the Abeta monomer, Abeta-(1-40) and its fragment, containing the motif inhibit radiolabeled TGF-beta binding to cell-surface TGF-beta receptors in mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu cells). Abeta-(1-40)-bovine serum albumin conjugate (Abeta-(1-40)-BSA), a multivalent synthetic analogue of Abeta aggregates, exhibited cytotoxicity toward bovine cerebral endothelial cells and rat post-mitotic differentiated hippocampal neuronal cells (H19-7 cells) and inhibitory activities of radiolabeled TGF-beta binding to TGF-beta receptors and TGF-beta-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, that were approximately 100-670 times more potent than those of Abeta-(1-40) monomers. At less than micromolar concentrations, Abeta-(1-40)-BSA but not Abeta-(1-40) monomers inhibited proliferation of Mv1Lu cells. Since TGF-beta is an organizer of responses to neurodegeneration and is also found in neurite plaques, the TGF-beta antagonist and partial agonist activities of Abeta monomers and aggregates may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  12. PECAM-1 affects GSK-3beta-mediated beta-catenin phosphorylation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Purba; Canosa, Sandra; Schoenfeld, David; Schoenfeld, Jonathan; Li, Puyau; Cheas, Lydia C; Zhang, Jin; Cordova, Alfredo; Sumpio, Bauer; Madri, Joseph A

    2006-07-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) regulates a variety of endothelial and immune cell biological responses. PECAM-1-null mice exhibit prolonged and increased permeability after inflammatory insults. We observed that in PECAM-1-null endothelial cells (ECs), beta-catenin remained tyrosine phosphorylated, coinciding with a sustained increase in permeability. Src homology 2 domain containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) association with beta-catenin was diminished in PECAM-1-null ECs, suggesting that lack of PECAM-1 inhibits the ability of this adherens junction component to become dephosphorylated, promoting a sustained increase in permeability. beta-Catenin/Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3beta) association and beta-catenin serine phosphorylation levels were increased and beta-catenin expression levels were reduced in PECAM-1-null ECs. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3beta) serine phosphorylation (inactivation) was blunted in PECAM-1-null ECs after histamine treatment or shear stress. Our data suggest that PECAM-1 serves as a critical dynamic regulator of endothelial barrier permeability. On stimulation by a vasoactive substance or shear stress, PECAM-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated, enabling recruitment of SHP-2 and tyrosine-phosphorylated beta-catenin to its cytoplasmic domain, facilitating dephosphorylation of beta-catenin, and allowing reconstitution of adherens junctions. In addition, PECAM-1 modulated the levels of beta-catenin by regulating the activity of GSK-3beta, which in turn affected the serine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and its proteosomal degradation, affecting the ability of the cell to reform adherens junctions in a timely fashion. PMID:16816383

  13. Enzyme-catalyzed formation of beta-peptides: beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases BapA and DmpA acting as beta-peptide-synthesizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Heck, Tobias; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Limbach, Michael; Flögel, Oliver; Seebach, Dieter; Geueke, Birgit

    2007-09-01

    In recent studies, we discovered that the three beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases, BapA from Sphingosinicella xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4, BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2, and DmpA from Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991, possess the unique feature of cleaving N-terminal beta-amino acid residues from beta- and alpha/beta-peptides. Herein, we investigated the use of the same three enzymes for the reverse reaction catalyzing the oligomerization of beta-amino acids and the synthesis of mixed peptides with N-terminal beta-amino acid residues. As substrates, we employed the beta-homoamino acid derivatives H-beta hGly-pNA, H-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-beta3 hPhe-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hPhe-pNA, and H-beta3 hLeu-pNA. All three enzymes were capable of coupling the six beta-amino acids to oligomers with chain lengths of up to eight amino acid residues. With the enzyme DmpA as the catalyst, we observed very high conversion rates, which correspond to dimer yields of up to 76%. The beta-dipeptide H-beta3 hAla-beta3 hLeu-OH and the beta/alpha-dipeptide H-beta hGly-His-OH (carnosine) were formed with almost 50% conversion, when a five-fold excess of beta3-homoleucine or histidine was incubated with H-beta3 hAla-pNA and H-beta hGly-pNA, respectively, in the presence of the enzyme BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2. BapA from S. xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4 turned out to be a versatile catalyst capable of coupling various beta-amino acid residues to the free N-termini of beta- and alpha-amino acids and even to an alpha-tripeptide. Thus, these aminopeptidases might be useful to introduce a beta-amino acid residue as an N-terminal protecting group into a 'natural' alpha-peptide, thereby stabilizing the peptide against degradation by other proteolytic enzymes. PMID:17886858

  14. Enzyme-catalyzed formation of beta-peptides: beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases BapA and DmpA acting as beta-peptide-synthesizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Heck, Tobias; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Limbach, Michael; Flögel, Oliver; Seebach, Dieter; Geueke, Birgit

    2007-09-01

    In recent studies, we discovered that the three beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases, BapA from Sphingosinicella xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4, BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2, and DmpA from Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991, possess the unique feature of cleaving N-terminal beta-amino acid residues from beta- and alpha/beta-peptides. Herein, we investigated the use of the same three enzymes for the reverse reaction catalyzing the oligomerization of beta-amino acids and the synthesis of mixed peptides with N-terminal beta-amino acid residues. As substrates, we employed the beta-homoamino acid derivatives H-beta hGly-pNA, H-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-beta3 hPhe-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hPhe-pNA, and H-beta3 hLeu-pNA. All three enzymes were capable of coupling the six beta-amino acids to oligomers with chain lengths of up to eight amino acid residues. With the enzyme DmpA as the catalyst, we observed very high conversion rates, which correspond to dimer yields of up to 76%. The beta-dipeptide H-beta3 hAla-beta3 hLeu-OH and the beta/alpha-dipeptide H-beta hGly-His-OH (carnosine) were formed with almost 50% conversion, when a five-fold excess of beta3-homoleucine or histidine was incubated with H-beta3 hAla-pNA and H-beta hGly-pNA, respectively, in the presence of the enzyme BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2. BapA from S. xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4 turned out to be a versatile catalyst capable of coupling various beta-amino acid residues to the free N-termini of beta- and alpha-amino acids and even to an alpha-tripeptide. Thus, these aminopeptidases might be useful to introduce a beta-amino acid residue as an N-terminal protecting group into a 'natural' alpha-peptide, thereby stabilizing the peptide against degradation by other proteolytic enzymes.

  15. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in human developing teeth: immunolocalization according to the odontogenesis phases.

    PubMed

    Sassá Benedete, Ana Paula; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Kamibeppu, Leonardo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional growth factor that has several biological effects in vivo, including control of cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, lineage determination, motility, adhesion, apoptosis, and synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and TGF-beta plays an important role in regulating tissue repair and regeneration. Our study analyzed the participation of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in the different stages of morphogenesis and differentiation of human developing dental organ using immunohistochemistry. The maxillae and mandibles of 10 human embryos ranging from 8 to 23 weeks of gestation were employed, according to the approval of the ethical committee. Our study revealed that the TGF-beta subunits-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-were present in the various stages of tooth development, but the expression varied according to the differentiation stage, tissue, and TGF-beta subunit. Our results indicated that TGF-beta 1 is closely related to differentiation of enamel organ and initiation of matrix secretion, TGF-beta 2 to cellular differentiation, and TGF-beta 3 to mineral maturation matrix.

  16. [Identification of a focus of beta-thalassemia in Tamiahua, Veracruz].

    PubMed

    Reyes Cruz, G; Hernández Acasiete, M; Ruiz Reyes, G

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of beta thalassemia (B-thal) in Mexico is largely unknown, and it is thought that the disease is confined to populations with Mediterranean ancestors. Various reports suggest that in certain parts of the coast in the Gulf of Mexico the prevalence of both B-thal and hemoglobin S disease/trait is high. We studied prospectively a town with 11,000 inhabitants named Tamiahua, located along the Gulf Coast, in the State of Veracruz, and very close to the State of Tamaulipas. A group of 200 inhabitants was initially studied: the prevalence of B-thal was 15% and 6% of them had sickle cell trait. The prevalence of B-thal is the highest reported in the country. In a second part of the study, two family trees with members heterozygous for B-thal and/or Hb S trait were constructed. The ethnic characteristics of the studied population makes unlikely that the gene was derived from white Europeans but not from black Africans. Inasmuch as the indians living in that part of the country belong to the macro-maya glotochronological group, where a relatively high prevalence of B-thal has also been identified, we feel that it is possible that B-thal was present in our country before the Spaniards arrived to Mexico. PMID:2270364

  17. Association mapping in multiple segregating populations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Stich, Benjamin; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Heckenberger, Martin; Möhring, Jens; Schechert, Axel; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Association mapping in multiple segregating populations (AMMSP) combines high power to detect QTL in genome-wide approaches of linkage mapping with high mapping resolution of association mapping. The main objectives of this study were to (1) examine the applicability of AMMSP in a plant breeding context based on segregating populations of various size of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), (2) compare different biometric approaches for AMMSP, and (3) detect markers with significant main effect across locations for nine traits in sugar beet. We used 768 F(n) (n = 2, 3, 4) sugar beet genotypes which were randomly derived from 19 crosses among diploid elite sugar beet clones. For all nine traits, the genotypic and genotype x location interaction variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Using a one-step AMMSP approach, the total number of significant (P < 0.05) marker-phenotype associations was 44. The identification of genome regions associated with the traits under consideration indicated that not only segregating populations derived from crosses of parental genotypes in a systematic manner could be used for AMMSP but also populations routinely derived in plant breeding programs from multiple, related crosses. Furthermore, our results suggest that data sets, whose size does not permit analysis by the one-step AMMSP approach, might be analyzed using the two-step approach based on adjusted entry means for each location without losing too much power for detection of marker-phenotype associations.

  18. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takashi; Masuda, Yuichi; Irie, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Takegoshi, K.

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  19. Giant impacts in the Beta Pic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A.

    2014-09-01

    One scenario that can potentially explain the brightness asymmetry in the Beta Pictoris debris disk in the mid-infrared and millimetre is that of a comparatively recent (< 1 Myr ago) impact between planetary scale bodies at an orbital distance of ˜85 AU, as discussed by Dent et al 2014. I will discuss the details of this model, how it applies to Beta Pictoris, and how it may be applied elsewhere.

  20. Method for treating beta-spodumene ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul; Hickman, David L.

    1994-09-27

    A vapor-phase method for treating a beta-spodumene ceramic article to achieve a substitution of exchangeable hydrogen ions for the lithium present in the beta-spodumene crystals, wherein a barrier between the ceramic article and the source of exchangeable hydrogen ions is maintained in order to prevent lithium contamination of the hydrogen ion source and to generate highly recoverable lithium salts, is provided.

  1. Antibiotic action of beta-ursolic acid.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Z; Kortus, M; Kedzia, W; Koniar, H

    1976-01-01

    The antimicrobial action of beta-ursolic acid (triterpenoid sapogenin from the ursan group) has been studied. At the concentration of 300 mug/ml, this substance inhibited growth of all strains of staphylococci investigated. MIC for Gram-positive bacteria ranged between 50 and 500 mug/ml, and 100 to 800 mug/ml for Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. Acquired resistance to beta-ursolic acid was transient.

  2. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  3. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  4. Exact relativistic {beta} decay endpoint spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, S. S.; Nasri, S.; Schechter, J.; Tortola, M. A.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2007-10-15

    The exact relativistic form for the {beta} decay endpoint spectrum is derived and presented in a simple factorized form. We show that our exact formula can be well approximated to yield the endpoint form used in the fit method of the KATRIN Collaboration. We also discuss the three-neutrino case and how information from neutrino oscillation experiments may be useful in analyzing future {beta} decay endpoint experiments.

  5. N=1 supersymmetric {beta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D. R. T.

    1997-06-15

    Recent results on three-loop, four-loop and large-N{sub f}{beta}-functions in supersymmetric gauge theories are summarised. It is argued that the O(1/N{sub f})-corrected form of {beta}{sub g} in SQCD is consistent with the existence of the conformal window 3N{sub c}/2

  6. Optmization of the beta-beam baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, M.; Fabich, A.; Hancock, S.; Lindroos, M.; Beta-Beam Task Within Eurisol Ds

    2006-05-01

    The beta-beam concept for the production of intense electron (anti-)neutrino beams is now well established. A baseline design has recently been published for a beta-beam facility at CERN. It has the virtue to respect the known limitations of the PS and SPS synchrotrons at CERN but it falls short of delivering the requested annual rate of anti-neutrinos. We here report on a first analysis on how to increase the rate.

  7. Method for treating beta-spodumene ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.P.; Hickman, D.L.

    1994-09-27

    A vapor-phase method is described for treating a beta-spodumene ceramic article to achieve a substitution of exchangeable hydrogen ions for the lithium present in the beta-spodumene crystals, wherein a barrier between the ceramic article and the source of exchangeable hydrogen ions is maintained in order to prevent lithium contamination of the hydrogen ion source and to generate highly recoverable lithium salts, is provided.

  8. Sinterable. beta. - spodumene glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Knickerbocker, S.; Tuzzolo, M.R.; Lawhorne, S. . East Fishkill Lab.)

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports on {beta}-Spodumene glass-ceramic compositions melted and studied. Compositional variations were made in the three major components as well as through minor additions of other oxides. Sintering characteristics and microstructures were studied and values for crystallization temperature, melting temperature, and crystallized thermal expansion coefficient were recorded. It was found that sinterable {beta}-spodumene glass-ceramics could be made with a wide range of properties. Selection of an appropriate composition would be based on desired properties.

  9. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial

  10. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fruit quality traits and number of weeks of flowering in the cultivated strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit quality traits and dayneutrality are two major foci of several strawberry breeding programs. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers linked to these traits could improve breeding efficiency. In this work, an F1 population derived from the cross ‘Delmarvel’ × ...

  12. Transcriptional induction of Streptomyces cacaoi beta-lactamase by a beta-lactam compound.

    PubMed

    Forsman, M; Lindgren, L; Häggström, B; Jaurin, B

    1989-10-01

    The soil bacterium Streptomyces cacaoi produces an extracellular beta-lactamase. The beta-lactamase expression could be induced by the beta-lactam compound 6-amino penicillinoic acid (6-APA). In liquid cultures, a 50-fold increase in beta-lactamase expression was observed within the first three hours after addition of 6-APA. Using the cloned beta-lactamase gene as a probe, it was shown that this increase was mediated at the level of transcriptional initiation. The start point of the induced beta-lactamase transcript was determined, and the nucleotide sequence of the promoter region was analysed. No noticeable homology was found to control regions of inducible beta-lactamase genes of other bacteria. A striking feature was the presence of six direct repeats (ten base pairs each) upstream of the promoter region. Thus, an example of an inducible regulatory gene system in this Gram-positive microorganism is presented. Also, the primary structure of the beta-lactamase was deduced, showing a high degree of homology with class A beta-lactamases. PMID:2559297

  13. Peptidase activity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rhazi, N; Galleni, M; Page, M I; Frère, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. PMID:10393100

  14. Toward beta cell replacement for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sui, Lina; Freytes, Donald O; Creusot, Remi J; Egli, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of insulin more than 90 years ago introduced a life-saving treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes, and since then, significant progress has been made in clinical care for all forms of diabetes. However, no method of insulin delivery matches the ability of the human pancreas to reliably and automatically maintain glucose levels within a tight range. Transplantation of human islets or of an intact pancreas can in principle cure diabetes, but this approach is generally reserved for cases with simultaneous transplantation of a kidney, where immunosuppression is already a requirement. Recent advances in cell reprogramming and beta cell differentiation now allow the generation of personalized stem cells, providing an unlimited source of beta cells for research and for developing autologous cell therapies. In this review, we will discuss the utility of stem cell-derived beta cells to investigate the mechanisms of beta cell failure in diabetes, and the challenges to develop beta cell replacement therapies. These challenges include appropriate quality controls of the cells being used, the ability to generate beta cell grafts of stable cellular composition, and in the case of type 1 diabetes, protecting implanted cells from autoimmune destruction without compromising other aspects of the immune system or the functionality of the graft. Such novel treatments will need to match or exceed the relative safety and efficacy of available care for diabetes.

  15. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  16. On the origin of the beta cell.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Krasinski, Jennifer M; Stoffers, Doris A

    2008-08-01

    The major forms of diabetes are characterized by pancreatic islet beta-cell dysfunction and decreased beta-cell numbers, raising hope for cell replacement therapy. Although human islet transplantation is a cell-based therapy under clinical investigation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the limited availability of human cadaveric islets for transplantation will preclude its widespread therapeutic application. The result has been an intense focus on the development of alternate sources of beta cells, such as through the guided differentiation of stem or precursor cell populations or the transdifferentiation of more plentiful mature cell populations. Realizing the potential for cell-based therapies, however, requires a thorough understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation. Pancreas development is coordinated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways and transcription factors that determine early pancreatic specification as well as the later differentiation of exocrine and endocrine lineages. This review describes the current knowledge of these factors as they relate specifically to the emergence of endocrine beta cells from pancreatic endoderm. Current therapeutic efforts to generate insulin-producing beta-like cells from embryonic stem cells have already capitalized on recent advances in our understanding of the embryonic signals and transcription factors that dictate lineage specification and will most certainly be further enhanced by a continuing emphasis on the identification of novel factors and regulatory relationships. PMID:18676806

  17. The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels.

    PubMed

    Bender, Tamás; Nagy, György; Barna, István; Tefner, Ildikó; Kádas, Eva; Géher, Pál

    2007-07-01

    Beta-endorphin (betaE) is an important reliever of pain. Various stressors and certain modalities of physiotherapy are potent inducers of the release of endogenous betaE to the blood stream. Most forms of exercise also increase blood betaE level, especially when exercise intensity involves reaching the anaerobic threshold and is associated with the elevation of serum lactate level. Age, gender, and mental activity during exercise also may influence betaE levels. Publications on the potential stimulating effect of manual therapy and massage on betaE release are controversial. Sauna, mud bath, and thermal water increase betaE levels through conveying heat to the tissues. The majority of the techniques for electrical stimulation have a similar effect, which is exerted both centrally and--to a lesser extent--peripherally. However, the parameters of electrotherapy have not yet been standardised. The efficacy of analgesia and the improvement of general well-being do not necessarily correlate with betaE level. Although in addition to blood, increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid betaE levels are also associated with pain, the majority of studies have concerned blood betaE levels. In general, various modalities of physical therapy might influence endorphin levels in the serum or in the cerebrospinal fluid--this is usually manifested by elevation with potential mitigation of pain. However, a causal relationship between the elevation of blood, cerebrospinal fluid or brain betaE levels and the onset of the analgesic action cannot be demonstrated with certainty. PMID:17483960

  18. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  19. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (p<0.05). Conclusion There is an association between the Cusp of Carabelli and the shoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  20. The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths

    PubMed Central

    Blair, R. James J.

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child’s environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous–unemotional component and an impulsive–antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social–environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. PMID:24105343

  1. The neurobiology of psychopathic traits in youths.

    PubMed

    Blair, R James R

    2013-11-01

    Conduct disorder is a childhood behaviour disorder that is characterized by persistent aggressive or antisocial behaviour that disrupts the child's environment and impairs his or her functioning. A proportion of children with conduct disorder have psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits consist of a callous-unemotional component and an impulsive-antisocial component, which are associated with two core impairments. The first is a reduced empathic response to the distress of other individuals, which primarily reflects reduced amygdala responsiveness to distress cues; the second is deficits in decision making and in reinforcement learning, which reflects dysfunction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Genetic and prenatal factors contribute to the abnormal development of these neural systems, and social-environmental variables that affect motivation influence the probability that antisocial behaviour will be subsequently displayed. PMID:24105343

  2. Successful restrained eating and trait impulsiveness.

    PubMed

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Restrained eaters with high scores on the Perceived Self-Regulatory Success in Dieting Scale (PSRS) are more successful than low scorers in regulating their food intake. According to the theory of temptation-elicited goal activation (Fishbach, Friedman, & Kruglanski, 2003), they have become successful because, due to earlier repeated instances of successful self-control, they formed an associative link between temptations and thoughts of dieting. It is unclear, however, why they should have been more successful in earlier attempts at self-control than their unsuccessful counterparts. We examined whether trait impulsiveness plays a role by investigating the associations between dietary restraint, trait impulsiveness, and PSRS. Results showed that the interaction between dietary restraint and impulsiveness predicted dieting success: A lower level of impulsiveness was associated with greater dieting success among restrained eaters. These results suggest that restrained eaters who are less impulsive are more likely to become successful restrained eaters as identified with the PSRS.

  3. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  5. Going underground: root traits as drivers of ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Richard D; Mommer, Liesje; De Vries, Franciska T

    2014-12-01

    Ecologists are increasingly adopting trait-based approaches to understand how community change influences ecosystem processes. However, most of this research has focussed on aboveground plant traits, whereas it is becoming clear that root traits are important drivers of many ecosystem processes, such as carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, and the formation and structural stability of soil. Here, we synthesise emerging evidence that illustrates how root traits impact ecosystem processes, and propose a pathway to unravel the complex roles of root traits in driving ecosystem processes and their response to global change. Finally, we identify research challenges and novel technologies to address them. PMID:25459399

  6. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients. PMID:26796410

  7. The nature and structure of correlations among Big Five ratings: the halo-alpha-beta model.

    PubMed

    Anusic, Ivana; Schimmack, Ulrich; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Lockwood, Penelope

    2009-12-01

    In light of consistently observed correlations among Big Five ratings, the authors developed and tested a model that combined E. L. Thorndike's (1920) general evaluative bias (halo) model and J. M. Digman's (1997) higher order personality factors (alpha and beta) model. With 4 multitrait-multimethod analyses, Study 1 revealed moderate convergent validity for alpha and beta across raters, whereas halo was mainly a unique factor for each rater. In Study 2, the authors showed that the halo factor was highly correlated with a validated measure of evaluative biases in self-ratings. Study 3 showed that halo is more strongly correlated with self-ratings of self-esteem than self-ratings of the Big Five, which suggests that halo is not a mere rating bias but actually reflects overly positive self-evaluations. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that the halo bias in Big Five ratings is stable over short retest intervals. Taken together, the results suggest that the halo-alpha-beta model integrates the main findings in structural analyses of Big Five correlations. Accordingly, halo bias in self-ratings is a reliable and stable bias in individuals' perceptions of their own attributes. Implications of the present findings for the assessment of Big Five personality traits in monomethod studies are discussed.

  8. Neuroendocrine correlates of temperamental traits in humans.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Timpano, M; Zambelli, U; Delsignore, R; Brambilla, F

    2000-07-01

    Studies investigating temperament traits in humans and their biological correlates have found high levels of novelty seeking (NS) linked with dopaminergic system changes, and particularly a deficit of dopamine transporter. Harm avoidance and reward dependence, on the other hand, appeared to be associated, respectively with serotonin and noradrenaline changes. In the present study, we have investigated the dopaminergic (DA), serotonergic (5-HT), and noradrenergic (NE) functions in healthy volunteers by challenging the monoamine systems with the DA agonist bromocriptine, the 5-HT agonist D-fenfluramine, and the NE agonist clonidine, respectively. Parallel to this investigation, we examined the temperament traits of our subjects by measuring NS, harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD) using the 'Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire' (TPQ). The aims of the study were to see whether or not the monoamine functions were correlated with temperament traits. Bromocriptine challenge induced a significant GH increase and a significant suppression of PRL. D-fenfluramine test significantly increased PRL and cortisol plasma levels and Clonidine test induced a significant rise in GH values. NS scores showed a significant direct correlation with brom-stimulated GH values (r=0.426, P<0.05) and a significant inverse correlation with brom-inhibited PRL values (r=-0.498, P<0.01). HA scores correlated significantly with D-fen-stimulated PRL and CORT AUCs, (PRL: r=0.424, P<0.05; CORT: r=0. 595, P<0.005). RD scores correlated positively with clon-stimulated GH values (r=0.55; F=8.6; P<0.01) and negatively with brom-inhibited-PRL AUCs (r=-0.439, P<0.05). Our data support Cloninger theory concerning the biological correlates of temperamental traits, and evidence the link between the neuroendocrine responses to dynamic challenges and stable temperament features.

  9. Nurse manager personal traits and leadership characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H E; Woods, C Q; Boyle, D K; Bott, M J; Taunton, R L

    1995-01-01

    A portion of an Organizational Dynamics Paradigm provided the framework for examining urban hospital nurse managers' personality and staff nurses' perceptions of their leadership. Nurse managers' personality traits were comparable to American women in general. On motivation to manage they scored lower than business and health services managers and higher than female public school administrators. Staff nurses rated managers favorably on leadership style, power, and influence. Personality was linked modestly to motivation to manage and selected aspects of leadership.

  10. Hemoglobin Indianapolis (beta 112[G14] arginine). An unstable beta-chain variant producing the phenotype of severe beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J G; Boxer, L A; Baehner, R L; Forget, B G; Tsistrakis, G A; Steinberg, M H

    1979-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) Indianapolis is an extremely labile beta-chain variant, present in such small amounts that it was undetectable by usual techniques. Clinically, it produces the phenotype of severe beta-thalassemia. Biosynthetic studies showed a beta:alpha ratio of 0.5 in reticulocytes and about 1.0 in marrow after a 1-h incubation. These results, similar to those seen in typical heterozygous beta-thalassemia, suggested that betaIndianapolis was destroyed so rapidly that its net synthesis was essentially zero. To examine the kinetics of globin synthesis, reticulocyte incubations of 1.25--20 min were performed with [3H]leucine. The betaIndianapolis:beta A ratio at 1.25 min was 0.80 suggesting that beta Indianapolis was synthesized at a near normal rate. At 20 min, this ratio was 0.46 reflecting rapid turnover of beta Indianapolis. The erythrocyte ghosts from these incubations contained only betaIndianapolis and alpha-chains, and the proportion of betaIndianapolis decreased with time, indicating loss of betaIndianapolis. Pulse-chase studies showed little change in beta A:alpha ratio and decreasing betaIndianapolis:alpha and betaIndianapolis:beta A with time. The half-life of betaIndianapolis in the soluble hemoglobin was approximately equal to 7 min. There was also rapid loss of beta Indianapolis from the erythrocyte membrane. From these results, it may be inferred that betaIndianapolis is rapidly precipitated from the soluble cell phase to the membrane, where it is catabolized. Heterozygotes for beta 0-thalassemia usually have minimal hematologic abnormalities, whereas heterozygotes with betaIndianapolis, having a similar net content of beta-chain, have severe disease. The extremely rapid precipitation and catabolism of betaIndianapolis and the resulting excess of alpha-chains, both causing membrane damage, may be responsible for the severe clinical manifestations associated with this variant. It seems likely that other, similar disturbances in the primary sequence of

  11. The Effects of Sertraline on Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Boadie W.; DeFife, Jared A.; Marx, Lauren; Garlow, Steven J.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/d) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with MDD. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all subjects who completed a baseline and post-randomization PPI. Results Ninety patients (84 completers and 6 who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Conclusion Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization. PMID:21909028

  12. Explaining additional genetic variation in complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wray, Naomi R.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of complex traits, discovering >6000 variants associated with >500 quantitative traits and common complex diseases in humans. The associations identified so far represent only a fraction of those which influence phenotype, as there are likely to be very many variants across the entire frequency spectrum, each of which influences multiple traits, with only a small average contribution to the phenotypic variance. This presents a considerable challenge to further dissection of the remaining unexplained genetic variance within populations, which limits our ability to predict disease risk, identify new drug targets, improve and maintain food sources, and understand natural diversity. This challenge will be met within the current framework through larger sample size, better phenotyping including recording of non-genetic risk factors, focused study designs, and an integration of multiple sources of phenotypic and genetic information. The current evidence supports the application of quantitative genetic approaches, and we argue that one should retain simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power. PMID:24629526

  13. The effects of sertraline on psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Boadie W; DeFife, Jared A; Marx, Lauren; Garlow, Steven J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2011-11-01

    We examined whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/day) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all participants who completed a baseline and postrandomization PPI. Ninety patients (84 completers and six who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization. PMID:21909028

  14. Morphoscopic Trait Expression in "Hispanic" Populations.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Joseph T; Pilloud, Marin A; Black, Cullen J; Anderson, Bruce E

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates population variation of eight cranial morphoscopic traits using samples of known southwest Hispanics (n=72), Guatemalans (n=106), American Blacks (n=146), and American Whites (n=218). We applied the support vector machine (SVM) method to build a prediction model based on a subsample (20%) of the data; the remainder of the data was used as a test sample. The SVM approach effectively differentiated between the four groups with correct classification rates between 72% (Guatemalan group) and 94% (American Black group). However, when the Guatemalan and southwest Hispanic samples were pooled, the same model correctly classified all groups with a higher degree of accuracy (American Black=96%; American White=77%; and the pooled Hispanic sample=91%). This study also identified significant differences between the two Hispanic groups in six of the eight traits using univariate statistical tests. These results speak to the unique population histories of these samples and the current use of the term "Hispanic" within forensic anthropology. Finally, we argue that the SVM can be used as a classification model for ancestry estimation in a forensic context and as a diagnostic tool may broaden the application of morphoscopic trait data for the assessment of ancestry. PMID:26272587

  15. Modelling the ecological niche from functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Michael; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; Helmuth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The niche concept is central to ecology but is often depicted descriptively through observing associations between organisms and habitats. Here, we argue for the importance of mechanistically modelling niches based on functional traits of organisms and explore the possibilities for achieving this through the integration of three theoretical frameworks: biophysical ecology (BE), the geometric framework for nutrition (GF) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models. These three frameworks are fundamentally based on the conservation laws of thermodynamics, describing energy and mass balance at the level of the individual and capturing the prodigious predictive power of the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ and ‘evolutionary fitness’. BE and the GF provide mechanistic multi-dimensional depictions of climatic and nutritional niches, respectively, providing a foundation for linking organismal traits (morphology, physiology, behaviour) with habitat characteristics. In turn, they provide driving inputs and cost functions for mass/energy allocation within the individual as determined by DEB models. We show how integration of the three frameworks permits calculation of activity constraints, vital rates (survival, development, growth, reproduction) and ultimately population growth rates and species distributions. When integrated with contemporary niche theory, functional trait niche models hold great promise for tackling major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:20921046

  16. Analysis of psychopathological traits in psoriatic patients.

    PubMed

    Zeljko-Penavić, Jasna; Situm, Mirna; Babić, Dragan; Simić, Dubravka

    2013-06-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a multifactorial, heterogeneous disease that is associated with problems in skin image and feelings of shame and stigmatization. The aim of this study was to analyze psychopathological traits in patients with psoriasis and a comparative group. A total of 254 dermatological patients participated in the study: 124 patients with confirmed diagnoses of psoriasis vulgaris and 130 patients with melanocytic and non-melanocytic nevi on covered parts of the body. Psychometrically mensural and standardized instruments were used in the study: list of general data, appendix of disease data, Beck Depression Inventory test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Measure of psychological stress and Eysenck's Personal Questionnaire. There is a significant statistical difference in the result of psychometric tests between the study groups. Patients with psoriasis have more severe symptoms of depression, more physical symptoms of anxiety and higher results on the anxiety scale as a state and as a trait p=0.000. Eysenck's personal questionnaire showed higher results on the psychoticism scale p=0.000 and lower results on the extraversion scale p=0.035 among psoriatic patients.

  17. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology. PMID:25561561

  18. How are personality trait and profile agreement related?

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri; Borkenau, Peter; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kuppens, Peter; Realo, Anu

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that if we compute self-other agreement on some personality traits then we possess no or very little information about the individuals who are the targets of this judgment. This idea is largely based on two separate ways of computing self-other agreement: trait agreement (rT) and profile agreement (rP), which are typically associated with two different trait-centered and person-centered approaches in personality research. Personality traits of 4115 targets from Czech, Belgian, Estonian, and German samples were rated by themselves and knowledgeable informants. We demonstrate that trait agreement can be partialled into individual contributions so that it is possible to show how much each individual pair of judges contributes to agreement on a particular trait. Similarly, it is possible to decompose agreement between two personality profiles into the individual contributions of traits from which these profiles are assembled. If normativeness is separated from distinctiveness of personality scores and individual profiles are ipsatized, then mean profile agreement rP becomes identical to mean trait agreement rT. The views that trait-by-trait analysis does not provide information regarding accuracy level of a particular pair of judges and profile analysis does not permit assessment of the relative contributions of traits to overall accuracy are not supported. PMID:26106356

  19. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits.

  20. Plant functional traits and the multidimensional nature of species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Nathan J B; Godoy, Oscar; Levine, Jonathan M

    2015-01-20

    Understanding the processes maintaining species diversity is a central problem in ecology, with implications for the conservation and management of ecosystems. Although biologists often assume that trait differences between competitors promote diversity, empirical evidence connecting functional traits to the niche differences that stabilize species coexistence is rare. Obtaining such evidence is critical because traits also underlie the average fitness differences driving competitive exclusion, and this complicates efforts to infer community dynamics from phenotypic patterns. We coupled field-parameterized mathematical models of competition between 102 pairs of annual plants with detailed sampling of leaf, seed, root, and whole-plant functional traits to relate phenotypic differences to stabilizing niche and average fitness differences. Single functional traits were often well correlated with average fitness differences between species, indicating that competitive dominance was associated with late phenology, deep rooting, and several other traits. In contrast, single functional traits were poorly correlated with the stabilizing niche differences that promote coexistence. Niche differences could only be described by combinations of traits, corresponding to differentiation between species in multiple ecological dimensions. In addition, several traits were associated with both fitness differences and stabilizing niche differences. These complex relationships between phenotypic differences and the dynamics of competing species argue against the simple use of single functional traits to infer community assembly processes but lay the groundwork for a theoretically justified trait-based community ecology.

  1. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412

  2. The effect of beta and kappa casein genes on milk yield and milk composition in different percentages of Holstein in crossbred dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Molee, Amonrat; Boonek, Lerchat; Rungsakinnin, Noppanan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the genotype, and composite genotype frequency, and the association between beta and kappa casein genes and milk yield (MY), percentage of fat (%Fat), protein (%Prot), and solids non-fat (%SNF) between two groups of crossbred Holstein: G1 ≤ 87.5% Holstein = 89 cows and G2 > 87.5% Holstein = 142 cows. Five genotypes of beta casein gene were observed. A1A2 and A1B were the most and rarest frequency, respectively, in both groups. Five genotypes of kappa casein gene were found. The highest and the lowest frequency were AA, and BB and BE, respectively, in both groups. Composite genotype A1A2AA was the most frequent in both groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between two genes was detected. Significant differences of frequencies between both groups of both genes were not found. The association of the genes and the traits was different between G1 and G2. Negative effects on the traits were found in both groups. In addition, the stronger effect of the beta casein gene was observed in most of the traits. The conclusions were that different %Holstein caused different significant effects of these genes. A study of the association of these genes within each percentage of Holstein is strongly recommended.

  3. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait 'stability', which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  4. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait ‘stability’, which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  5. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  6. Disparity between beta-core levels in pregnancy urine and serum: implications for the origin of urinary beta-core.

    PubMed

    Wehmann, R E; Blithe, D L; Akar, A H; Nisula, B C

    1990-02-01

    We used a highly purified preparation of the naturally occurring core fragment of hCG beta (beta-core) and a new RIA for beta-core to investigate the concentrations and behavior of beta-core in serum and urine. We collected serum and 24-h urine specimens from healthy pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of beta-core in serum were determined by analysis of fractions eluted from Sephadex G-100. Serum concentrations of beta-core immunoreactivity were very low (0.13-1.25 micrograms/L), while large amounts of beta-core were excreted in urine during pregnancy (as much as 4-5 mg/day). Interference with measurement by serum factors did not account for the low levels of beta-core immunoreactivity in pregnancy serum. Based on the known urinary clearance rate of beta-core in healthy nonpregnant subjects, we calculated that urinary clearance of serum beta-core accounts for only about 1% of the beta-core in pregnancy urine. We conclude that during pregnancy, the concentrations of beta-core in plasma are measurable, but extremely low, and that most of the beta-core in urine is derived by mechanisms other than urinary clearance of serum beta-core; most likely, these mechanisms involve nephrogenous production of beta-core from precursor molecules such as hCG and hCG beta.

  7. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    PubMed

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  8. Digging into the extremes: a useful approach for the analysis of rare variants with continuous traits?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The common disease/rare variant hypothesis predicts that rare variants with large effects will have a strong impact on corresponding phenotypes. Therefore it is assumed that rare functional variants are enriched in the extremes of the phenotype distribution. In this analysis of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data set, my aim is to detect genes with rare variants that are associated with quantitative traits using two general approaches: analyzing the association with the complete distribution of values by means of linear regression and using statistical tests based on the tails of the distribution (bottom 10% of values versus top 10%). Three methods are used for this extreme phenotype approach: Fisher’s exact test, weighted-sum method, and beta method. Rare variants were collapsed on the gene level. Linear regression including all values provided the highest power to detect rare variants. Of the three methods used in the extreme phenotype approach, the beta method performed best. Furthermore, the sample size was enriched in this approach by adding additional samples with extreme phenotype values. Doubling the sample size using this approach, which corresponds to only 40% of sample size of the original continuous trait, yielded a comparable or even higher power than linear regression. If samples are selected primarily for sequencing, enriching the analysis by gathering a greater proportion of individuals with extreme values in the phenotype of interest rather than in the general population leads to a higher power to detect rare variants compared to analyzing a population-based sample with equivalent sample size. PMID:22373517

  9. Effect of conventional (mixed beta 1/beta 2) and novel (beta 3) adrenergic agonists on thermoregulatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, H J; Stock, M J

    1991-10-01

    The effects of submaximal and maximal thermogenic doses of isoproterenol (ISO) on operant thermoregulatory responses in a cold (-8 degrees C) environment were tested in lean (+/?) Zucker rats trained to barpress for radiant heat. Contrary to expectations, ISO rats pressed for twice as much exogenous heat as controls, but showed a smaller rise in colonic temperature. Conversely, a beta 3-selective adrenergic agonist (RO40-2148) decreased the requirement for exogenous heat and produced larger rises in colonic temperature. RO40-2148 and another beta 3-agonist (ICI D7114) produced similar responses in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, but tests with ISO were terminated because it caused profound, and lethal hypothermia. The hypothermic effects of ISO on colonic temperature were also observed in Sprague-Dawley rats at room temperature (22 degrees C), whereas RO40-2148 produced hyperthermia. These results provide behavioral evidence for the high thermogenic selectivity of these novel adrenergic agonists and support the existence of an atypical beta 3-adrenoceptor. The hypothermic effects of ISO are presumed to be due to actions on beta 1- and/or beta 2-adrenoceptors. PMID:1687163

  10. Beta-adrenoceptors in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Modzelewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis. On the other hand, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in tocolysis is, as yet, the primary method for inhibiting premature uterine contractions. Unfortunately, the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment for the management of preterm labor is regularly questioned. Moreover, studies related to non-pregnant myometrium performed to date indicate that the rhythmic contractions of the uterus are required for menstruation and have an important role in human reproduction. In turn, abnormal uterine contractility has been linked to dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with painful uterine cramping. The benefits of the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in dysmenorrhea are still unclear and should be balanced against a wide range of adverse effects recognized with this class of medication. The ideal tocolytic agent is one which is effective for the pregnant or non-pregnant woman but has no side effects on either the woman or the baby. Looking to the future with both caution and hope, the potential metamorphosis of beta3-adrenoceptor agonists from experimental tools into therapeutic drugs for tocolysis warrants attention. PMID:27442692

  11. Structural studies of dopamine. beta. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Dopamine ..beta..-hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, a ..beta..-hydroxylation reaction, utilizing ascorbic acid as reducing agent and molecular oxygen as cosubstrate. Modifications of the previously published purification procedure for D..beta..H have produced findings which show that (1) enzyme is inactivated by ascorbate autooxidation during the isolation procedure, (2) active as well as inactive D..beta..H co-purify throughout the entire purification procedure and (3) beef liver catalase totally protects against this time dependent inactivation. The stoichiometry of copper binding to the active sites of D..beta..H has been investigated using /sup 19/F-NMR and radioactive binding experiments. The data unequivocally show that homogeneous D..beta..H (isolated in the presence of catalase) specifically binds up to approx.8 copper atoms per enzyme tetramer. Distance determinations done using NMR relaxation rate theory show that anion activators of the catalytic reaction are bound at a fairly far distance from the Cu/sup 2 +/ centers. Spin-echo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that at least one, possibly two, histidines are bound as equatorial ligands to each Cu/sup 2 +/ ion. The combined data indicate that highly purified dopamine ..beta..-hydroxylase contains a 2 copper atom active site, composed of magnetically non-interacting metal centers. Active site components are distant from the Cu/sup 2 +/ centers, suggesting a possible movement of active site residues or components after reduction of enzyme bound copper in order to achieve the insertion of 1 atom of oxygen into the benzylic C-H bond of dopamine.

  12. Beta-adrenoceptors in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Modzelewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and twenty years after the description of extracts from the adrenal medulla, the use of beta-blockers and beta-agonists evolved from antianginal drugs and tocolytics to ligand-directed signaling. Beta-blockers in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology have so far been limited to the consideration of continuing treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular system and other dysfunctions that started before pregnancy. Studies in recent years have shown that beta-adrenoceptor signaling might be crucial in carcinogenesis and metastasis, apoptosis and anoikis. On the other hand, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in tocolysis is, as yet, the primary method for inhibiting premature uterine contractions. Unfortunately, the efficacy of current pharmacological treatment for the management of preterm labor is regularly questioned. Moreover, studies related to non-pregnant myometrium performed to date indicate that the rhythmic contractions of the uterus are required for menstruation and have an important role in human reproduction. In turn, abnormal uterine contractility has been linked to dysmenorrhea, a condition associated with painful uterine cramping. The benefits of the use of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in dysmenorrhea are still unclear and should be balanced against a wide range of adverse effects recognized with this class of medication. The ideal tocolytic agent is one which is effective for the pregnant or non-pregnant woman but has no side effects on either the woman or the baby. Looking to the future with both caution and hope, the potential metamorphosis of beta3-adrenoceptor agonists from experimental tools into therapeutic drugs for tocolysis warrants attention.

  13. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  14. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  15. Beta Thalassemia: mutations which affect processing of the beta-Globin mRNA precursor.

    PubMed

    Kantor, J A; Turner, P H; Nienhuis, A W

    1980-08-01

    To define the molecular lesion which causes decreased beta-globin synthesis in beta+ thalessemia, four patients of diverse ethnic origin were studied. Each had a 2--3 fold higher concentration of beta-globin mRNA precursor than that found in control bone marrow cells from patients with sickle cell anemia. Globin RNA metabolism was analyzed in two of these patients. Transcription of the beta-globin gene appeared to be normal, since analysis of nuclear RNA indicated that beta-globin mRNA synthesis exceeded that of alpha in a 2 hr pulse but the cytoplasm contained a relative deficiency of labeled beta-globin mRNA. An abnormal RNA species approximately 650 nucleotides in length, which contained sequences transcribed from both the large intron and coding portions of the beta-globin gene, was found in one patient's bone marrow cells. The second patient's cells contained a significant amount of a 1320 nucleotide RNA species, not initially evident in normal cells, from which part but not all of the large intervening sequence had been removed. Our data thus indicate that mutations which affect RNA processing cause beta thalessemia.

  16. Animal trait ontology: The importance and usefulness of a unified trait vocabulary for animal species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L M; Bao, J; Hu, Z-L; Honavar, V; Reecy, J M

    2008-06-01

    Ontologies help to identify and formally define the entities and relationships in specific domains of interest. Bio-ontologies, in particular, play a central role in the annotation, integration, analysis, and interpretation of biological data. Missing from the number of bio-ontologies is one that includes phenotypic trait information found in livestock species. As a result, the Animal Trait Ontology (ATO) project being carried out under the auspices of the USDA-National Animal Genome Research Program is aimed at the development of a standardized trait ontology for farm animals and software tools to assist the research community in collaborative creation, editing, maintenance, and use of such an ontology. The ATO is currently inclusive of cattle, pig, and chicken species, and will include other livestock species in the future. The ATO will eventually be linked to other species (e.g., human, rat, mouse) so that comparative analysis can be efficiently performed between species. PMID:18272850

  17. Associations of polymorphisms in four candidate genes with carcass and/or meat-quality traits in two meat-type chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanfa; Liu, Ranran; Lu, Xiqing; Hu, Yaodong; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wang, Hongrong; Wen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between polymorphisms of five genes, calpain 1 (CAPN1), follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHB), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and retinol binding protein 7 (RBP7), and live weight, carcass composition, and meat-quality traits were estimated from two meat-type chickens lines (n=311). Except for the variants of the FSHR gene, 11 SNPs of the other four genes and two diplotypes of PPARG were associated with one or more traits excluding shear factor (SF). SNP C31566680T of the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with live weight (LW) carcass traits. The SNP A4580859C of FSHB gene was significantly associated with breast muscle weight (BrW) and LW. One of the PPARG SNPs, C5070948T, was associated with intramuscular fat content in breast (IMFbr). Diplotype P1 of the PPARG gene was significantly associated with LW and all carcass traits. P3 were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight (AbFW). SNPs in RBP7 were only associated with BrW. These results indicate that the four genes were associated with these traits and have promise as genetic markers for future marker-assisted selection. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online.

  18. Climate interacts with soil to produce beta diversity in Californian plant communities.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Going, B M; Harrison, S P; Anacker, B L; Safford, H D

    2013-09-01

    Spatially distinct communities can arise through interactions and feedbacks between abiotic and biotic factors. We suggest that, for plants, patches of infertile soils such as serpentine may support more distinct communities from those in the surrounding non-serpentine matrix in regions where the climate is more productive (i.e., warmer and/or wetter). Where both soil fertility and climatic productivity are high, communities may be dominated by plants with fast-growing functional traits, whereas where either soils or climate impose low productivity, species with stress-tolerant functional traits may predominate. As a result, both species and functional composition may show higher dissimilarity between patch and matrix in productive climates. This pattern may be reinforced by positive feedbacks, in which higher plant growth under favorable climate and soil conditions leads to higher soil fertility, further enhancing plant growth. For 96 pairs of sites across a 200-km latitudinal gradient in California, we found that the species and functional dissimilarities between communities on infertile serpentine and fertile non-serpentine soils were higher in more productive (wetter) regions. Woody species had more stress-tolerant functional traits on serpentine than non-serpentine soil, and as rainfall increased, woody species functional composition changed toward fast-growing traits on non-serpentine, but not on serpentine soils. Soil organic matter increased with rainfall, but only on non-serpentine soils, and the difference in organic matter between soils was positively correlated with plant community dissimilarity. These results illustrate a novel mechanism wherein climatic productivity is associated with higher species, functional, and landscape-level dissimilarity (beta diversity).

  19. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  20. Quantitative trait loci for yield and related traits in the wheat population Ning7840 x Clark.

    PubMed

    Marza, F; Bai, G-H; Carver, B F; Zhou, W-C

    2006-02-01

    Grain yield and associated agronomic traits are important factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement. Knowledge regarding the number, genomic location, and effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) would facilitate marker-assisted selection and the development of cultivars with desirable characteristics. Our objectives were to identify QTLs directly and indirectly affecting grain yield expression. A population of 132 F12 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived by single-seed descent from a cross between the Chinese facultative wheat Ning7840 and the US soft red winter wheat Clark. Phenotypic data were collected for 15 yield and other agronomic traits in the RILs and parental lines from three locations in Oklahoma from 2001 to 2003. Twenty-nine linkage groups, consisting of 363 AFLP and 47 SSR markers, were identified. Using composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis, 10, 16, 30, and 14 QTLs were detected for yield, yield components, plant adaptation (shattering and lodging resistance, heading date, and plant height), and spike morphology traits, respectively. The QTL effects ranged from 7 to 23%. Marker alleles from Clark were associated with a positive effect for the majority of QTLs for yield and yield components, but gene dispersion was the rule rather than the exception for this RIL population. Often, QTLs were detected in proximal positions for different traits. Consistent, co-localized QTLs were identified in linkage groups 1AL, 1B, 4B, 5A, 6A, and 7A, and less consistent but unique QTLs were identified on 2BL, 2BS, 2DL, and 6B. Results of this study provide a benchmark for future efforts on QTL identification for yield traits. PMID:16369760