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Sample records for beta-lactamase resistance genes

  1. Exploring divergent antibiotic resistance genes in ancient metagenomes and discovery of a novel beta-lactamase family.

    PubMed

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Telke, Amar; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean Marc; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-08-12

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major problem for human health. We analyzed metagenomic datasets from ancient and remote samples from diverse environmental sources and observed the presence of all the eleven antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) groups evaluated. Since ancient samples are not subjected to modern effects of antibiotic misuse, they represent a clean model to explore the natural diversity of ARG in the environment. Most sequences showed high divergence compared with known ARG, representing a much larger universe than the currently known and characterized ARGs. We explored whether proteins within the "divergent resistome" may correspond to functional ARG by characterizing a beta-lactamase hit with very low similarity to any known sequence (<45% to best BLAST hit in NCBI). By starting from purely in-silico data, we revived a new family of class B beta-lactamases from ancient medieval samples, which exhibited a very high penicillinase activity. In this work, we explored ancient resistomes and added novel support to previous works showing that the universe of ARG is naturally vast and diverse in microbial communities. Our results bring a new perspective to the exploration of environmental ARG and indicate that this gigantic reservoir represents a natural endless source of emerging resistances.

  2. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes and plasmids among Escherichia coli isolates from zoo animals, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Dolejska, Monika; Jamborova, Ivana; Brhelova, Eva; Blazkova, Lucie; Papousek, Ivo; Kozlova, Marketa; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy zoo animals kept in Ostrava Zoological Garden, Czech Republic, were investigated to evaluate the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. A total of 160 faecal samples of various animal species were inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg L(-1)) or ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg L(-1)) to obtain ESBL- or PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. Clonality of E. coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-nine (71%, n = 69) cefotaxime-resistant and 15 (16%, n = 94) ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates harboured ESBL or PMQR genes. Isolates were assigned to 18 sequence types (ST) and 20 clusters according to their macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genes blaCTX -M-1 and qnrS1 were detected on highly related IncI1 plasmids assigned to clonal complex 3 (ST3, ST38) and on non-related IncN plasmids of ST1 and ST3, respectively. The gene qnrS1 was located on related IncX1 plasmids. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance is associated with spreading of particular E. coli clones and plasmids of specific incompatibility groups among various animal species.

  3. beta-Lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Livermore, D M

    1995-01-01

    beta-Lactamases are the commonest single cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Numerous chromosomal and plasmid-mediated types are known and may be classified by their sequences or phenotypic properties. The ability of a beta-lactamase to cause resistance varies with its activity, quantity, and cellular location and, for gram-negative organisms, the permeability of the producer strain. beta-Lactamases sometimes cause obvious resistance to substrate drugs in routine tests; often, however, these enzymes reduce susceptibility without causing resistance at current, pharmacologically chosen breakpoints. This review considers the ability of the prevalent beta-lactamases to cause resistance to widely used beta-lactams, whether resistance is accurately reflected in routine tests, and the extent to which the antibiogram for an organism can be used to predict the type of beta-lactamase that it produces. PMID:8665470

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  5. Nucleotide sequence of SHV-2 beta-lactamase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarg-Chenon, A.; Godard, V.; Labia, R.; Nicolas, J.C. )

    1990-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase SHV-2 from Salmonella typhimurium (SHV-2pHT1) was determined. The gene was very similar to chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase LEN-1 of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Compared with the sequence of the Escherichia coli SHV-2 enzyme (SHV-2E.coli) obtained by protein sequencing, the deduced amino acid sequence of SHV-2pHT1 differed by three amino acid substitutions.

  6. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A.

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with blaTEM being the most abundant (50/61) and blaCTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, blaSHV + blaTEM or blaCTX + blaTEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic blaTEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27563674

  8. High percentage of resistance to ciprofloxacin and qnrB19 gene identified in urinary isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Esther; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Hernandez, Elena; Picazo, Juan Jose

    2010-08-01

    The presence of qnr genes in 191 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from 2005, with 75% of resistance to ciprofloxacin, was evaluated. An SHV-12-producing E. coli carried qnrB19; both genes were transferred by conjugation. No qnrA- or qnrS-positive strains were detected. In addition, we identified 3 new parC mutations (S80W, E84R, and E84A).

  9. Rapid Electrochemical Detection of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes To Enable Point-of-Care Testing of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jimmy Ming-Yuan; Henihan, Grace; Macdonald, Daniel; Michalowski, Annette; Templeton, Kate; Gibb, Alan P; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T

    2015-08-04

    The alarming rate at which antibiotic resistance is occurring in human pathogens causes a pressing need for improved diagnostic technologies aimed at rapid detection and point-of-care testing to support quick decision making regarding antibiotic therapy and patient management. Here, we report the successful development of an electrochemical biosensor to detect bla(NDM), the gene encoding the emerging New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, using label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of this gene is of critical concern because organisms harboring bla(NDM) tend to be multiresistant, leaving very few treatment options. For the EIS assay, we used a bla(NDM)-specific PNA probe that was designed by applying a new approach that combines in silico probe design and fluorescence-based DNA microarray validation with electrochemical testing on gold screen-printed electrodes. The assay was successfully demonstrated for synthetic targets (LOD = 10 nM), PCR products (LOD = 100 pM), and direct, amplification-free detection from a bla(NDM)-harboring plasmid. The biosensor's specificity, preanalytical requirements, and performance under ambient conditions were demonstrated and successfully proved its suitability for further point-of-care test development.

  10. Molecular characterisation of the metallo-beta-lactamase genes in imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from a university hospital in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Feng; Peng, Chien-Fang; Hsu, Hui-Jine; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2008-12-01

    In this study, 260 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated between January 2002 and December 2006 were subjected to a screening test for detection of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) using the Etest containing imipenem and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Among the 260 strains, 123 (47.3%) appeared to produce MBL. Of these 123 strains, 113 (91.9%) were found by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to carry MBL genes of types blaVIM-2, blaVIM-3, blaVIM-11 (blaVIM-11a), blaIMP-8 and novel blaIMP-24. One strain of Serratia marcescens harboured two MBL genes (blaVIM-11 and blaIMP-8) simultaneously. Of the 123 strains, 116 strains (94.3%) carrying the intI1 gene and 21 strains carrying integron-associated blaVIM-3, blaVIM-11 and blaIMP-8 genes were identified among Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter haemolyticus and S. marcescens. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern hybridisation with the blaVIM gene probe for I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA, P. aeruginosa 9527 strain harboured two class 1 integron-associated MBL genes in the chromosome, including blaVIM-3-orf2-aacA4 and novel bla(VIM-3)-orf2-aacA4-aadB-aacA4. This is the first description of the blaVIM-11 gene spreading among P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains in southern Taiwan. This finding suggests that clinical spread of this blaVIM-11 gene is a matter of great concern for carbapenem resistance in southern Taiwan.

  11. Presence and diversity of the beta-lactamase gene in cat and dog staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Malik, Seidu; Christensen, Henrik; Peng, Haihong; Barton, Mary D

    2007-07-20

    Staphylococci are part of the normal microflora of humans and animals and some are potential pathogens that have become resistant to almost all known antibiotics. Despite the widespread reports of penicillin resistance in cat and dog staphylococci, the mechanism underlying penicillin resistance has not been examined. This study was aimed at investigating the molecular basis of resistance to penicillin in cat and dog staphylococcal isolates that showed phenotypic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. An 861 bp fragment of the structural blaZ gene which codes for beta-lactamase production in staphylococci was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products were sequenced. Sequenced fragments were analysed by protein signature typing and sequences were compared to published blaZ sequences of human and bovine staphylococcal strains held in a public database. Four known protein signature types (1, 3, 5 and 6) and one new type (12) were identified in this study. When sequences were compared with published blaZ sequences, gene phylogenetic analysis revealed three major groups. The four variants of beta-lactamases types (A, B, C and D) belonged to each major group except for types A and D which were both in group II. These findings confirm that the blaZ gene is responsible for beta-lactamase production leading to subsequent resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in feline and canine staphylococci and that the gene shows similar diversity and relatedness as found with blaZ sequences obtained from human and bovine staphylococci.

  12. Cloning and sequence of the gene encoding a cefotaxime-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Ohno, A; Taguchi, H; Imajo, S; Ishiguro, M; Matsuzawa, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli TUH12191, which is resistant to piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotiam, ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, and aztreonam but is susceptible to cefoxitin, latamoxef, flomoxef, and imipenem, was isolated from the urine of a patient treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. The beta-lactamase (Toho-1) purified from the bacteria had a pI of 7.8, had a molecular weight of about 29,000, and hydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Toho-1 was markedly inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and tazobactam. Resistance to beta-lactams, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was transferred by conjugational transfer from E. coli TUH12191 to E. coli ML4903, and the transferred plasmid was about 58 kbp, belonging to incompatibility group M. The cefotaxime resistance gene for Toho-1 was subcloned from the 58-kbp plasmid by transformation of E. coli MV1184. The sequence of the gene for Toho-1 was determined, and the open reading frame of the gene consisted of 873 or 876 bases (initial sequence, ATGATG). The nucleotide sequence of the gene (DDBJ accession number D37830) was found to be about 73% homologous to the sequence of the gene encoding a class A beta-lactamase produced by Klebsiella oxytoca E23004. According to the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence, the precursor consisted of 290 or 291 amino acid residues, which contained amino acid motifs common to class A beta-lactamases (70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG). Toho-1 was about 83% homologous to the beta-lactamase mediated by the chromosome of K. oxytoca D488 and the beta-lactamase mediated by the plasmid of E. coli MEN-1. Therefore, the newly isolated beta-lactamase Toho-1 produced by E. coli TUH12191 is similar to beta-lactamases produced by K. oxytoca D488, K. oxytoca E23004, and E. coli MEN-1 rather than to mutants of TEM or SHV enzymes

  13. Beta-Lactamase Activity in Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, W. Edmund; O'Dell, Noel M.

    1974-01-01

    The specific activity, substrate profile, response to inhibitors, inducibility, and cellular localization of the beta-lactamase produced by an ampicillin-resistant strain of Haemophilus influenzae type B were investigated. In these properties the enzyme resembles β-lactamases produced by other gram-negative bacilli more closely than those produced by gram-positive organisms. It is quite similar to an enzyme found in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and differs significantly from those described in other gram-negative bacilli. Comparison of the substrate profile with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of various β-lactamase antibiotics suggests that the β-lactamase plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance of this organism. PMID:15825317

  14. A fitness cost associated with the antibiotic resistance enzyme SME-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Marciano, David C; Karkouti, Omid Y; Palzkill, Timothy

    2007-08-01

    The bla(TEM-1) beta-lactamase gene has become widespread due to the selective pressure of beta-lactam use and its stable maintenance on transferable DNA elements. In contrast, bla(SME-1) is rarely isolated and is confined to the chromosome of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens strains. Dissemination of bla(SME-1) via transfer to a mobile DNA element could hinder the use of carbapenems. In this study, bla(SME-1) was determined to impart a fitness cost upon Escherichia coli in multiple genetic contexts and assays. Genetic screens and designed SME-1 mutants were utilized to identify the source of this fitness cost. These experiments established that the SME-1 protein was required for the fitness cost but also that the enzyme activity of SME-1 was not associated with the fitness cost. The genetic screens suggested that the SME-1 signal sequence was involved in the fitness cost. Consistent with these findings, exchange of the SME-1 signal sequence for the TEM-1 signal sequence alleviated the fitness cost while replacing the TEM-1 signal sequence with the SME-1 signal sequence imparted a fitness cost to TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness costs associated with some beta-lactamases may limit their dissemination.

  15. [Investigation of beta-lactamase genes and clonal relationship among the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing nosocomial Escherichia coli isolates].

    PubMed

    Görgeç, Sündüz; Kuzucu, Çiğdem; Otlu, Barış; Yetkin, Funda; Ersoy, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing microorganisms currently cause a major problem. Among theseCTX-M beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli has also disseminated worldwide as an important cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the beta-lactamase genes, antibiotic susceptibilities and clonal relationships of ESBL-producing nosocomial E.coli isolates. A total of 76 ESBL-producing E.coli strains isolated from urine (n= 26), blood (n= 25) and wound (n= 25) specimens of hospitalized patients identified as nosocomial infection agents according to the CDC criteria between June 2010-June 2011 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were detected by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. ESBL production was tested by double disc diffusion method, and cefotaxime/cefotaxime-clavulanic acid E-test strips (AB Biodisk, Sweden) were used for indeterminate results. Presence of TEM, SHV, CTX-M, OXA-2 group, 0XA-10 group, PER, VEB and GES beta-lactamase genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method was used for the detection of clonal relationships among the strains. Most of the ESBL-producing E.coli strains were isolated from samples of inpatients in intensive care (35%), internal medicine (16%) and general surgery (13%) units. All of the 76 strains were found susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin; however all were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to cefoxitin, ertapenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam and ceftazidime were 96%, 83%, 63%, 61%, 50%, 41%, 25%, 21%, 20% and 18%, respectively. Among E.coli isolates, the frequency of CTX-M, TEM, OXA-2 group, PER, SHV and OXA-10 group beta-lactamase

  16. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32, TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.

  17. Occurrence of bacteria producing broad-spectrum beta-lactamases and qnr genes in hospital and urban wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Röderová, Magdaléna; Sedláková, Miroslava Htoutou; Pudová, Vendula; Hricová, Kristýna; Silová, Romana; Imwensi, Peter Eghonghon Odion; Bardoň, Jan; Kolář, Milan

    2016-04-01

    The aims were to investigate the level of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital and urban wastewater and to determine the similarity of isolates obtained from wastewater and hospitalized patients. Wastewater samples were collected in September 2013 and 2014. After identification using MALDI-TOF MS, beta-lactamase production was determined by relevant phenotypic tests. Genes responsible for the production of single beta-lactamase groups and Qnr proteins were established. The epidemiological relationship of the isolates from wastewater and hospitalized patients was determined by PFGE. A total of 51 isolates of enterobacteria were obtained. Overall, 45.1% of them produced broad-spectrum beta-lactamases. Genes encoding TEM, SHV, CTX-M, CIT, DHA and EBC types of enzymes and Qnr proteins were detected. No broad-spectrum beta-lactamase production was confirmed in the urban wastewater treatment plant. The most important finding was the detection of two identical isolates of K. pneumoniae in 2013, one from a patient's urinary catheter and the other from a wastewater sample.

  18. Combating bacterial resistance in skin and skin-structure infection: importance of beta-lactamase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chan, J C

    1999-01-01

    Serious skin and skin-structure infections may require parenteral antibiotic therapy. Such infections are generally polymicrobial, and they often involve both gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes as well as anaerobic bacteria. Effective treatment thus requires the use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic or combination therapy. The development of antibiotic resistance by clinically important pathogens has significantly increased the difficulty of treating skin and skin-structure infections. One of the major mechanisms of resistance observed in organisms likely to be associated with such infections is the development of beta-lactamases that inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Two approaches have been taken to combat this problem: the use of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and the development of beta-lactamase-stable drugs. Both strategies have resulted in treatments that are clinically and bacteriologically effective in patients with skin and skin-structure infections. The use of one beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination, ampicillin/sulbactam, has been demonstrated to be more cost-effective than treatment with beta-lactamase-stable antibiotics, such as cefoxitin and imipenem/cilastatin, for this indication.

  19. Insertions of IS256-like element flanking the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene of Enterococcus faecalis CX19.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, L B; Marshall, S H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified an inverted repeat characteristic of staphylococcal beta-lactamase transposons adjacent to the chromosomal beta-lactamase genes of Enterococcus faecalis CH19 and its beta-lactamase-producing transconjugant CX19. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the CH19 beta-lactamase structural gene (blaZ) reveals it to be identical to the blaZ gene from E. faecalis HH22 and to the blaZ gene from the staphylococcal beta-lactamase transposon Tn552. We also report the presence of nucleotide sequence identical to a 317-bp region of the staphylococcal insertion sequence IS256 upstream of the blaZ gene in both CH19 and CX19. The identical segment of IS256 is present downstream of the blaZ gene of CX19, suggesting a second insertion of the element (in the inverted orientation) accompanying transfer to the recipient strain. Restriction analysis of the areas beyond the ClaI sites used to clone these regions suggests that full copies of the IS256-like element (designated IS256E) are present in all positions but that these elements were not directly involved in the transfer of the beta-lactamase gene to the recipient strain. We have also identified a region downstream of the second IS256E insertion site which exhibits substantial homology to ISSIW, an iso-ISSI insertion originally identified in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. These data suggest that the two enterococcal blaZ genes sequenced to date evolved from a common ancestor and may at one time have been incorporated into a transposon similar to Tn552. They also suggest that IS256-like elements are mobile in E. faecalis and capable of inserting in a manner consistent with the formation of novel composite transposons. Finally, they provide the first confirmation of the presence of an ISSI-like element in enterococci, raising the possibility that these elements play a role in the exchange of chromosomal antimicrobial resistance determinants. Images PMID:8031032

  20. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marta S; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M; Castro, Bruno B; Correia, António C M; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes bla TEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (bla CTX-M-1 and bla SHV-12) and seagull feces (bla CMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  1. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Marta S.; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M.; Castro, Bruno B.; Correia, António C. M.; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12) and seagull feces (blaCMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health. PMID:25191308

  2. Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteria, Including Strains with Genes Encoding the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and QnrS, in Waterbirds on the Baltic Sea Coast of Poland▿

    PubMed Central

    Literak, Ivan; Dolejska, Monika; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Hrusakova, Jolana; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Rzyska, Hanna; Bzoma, Szymon; Cizek, Alois

    2010-01-01

    Individual cloacal swabs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), as well as samples of waterbird feces obtained in 2008 and 2009, were cultivated for Escherichia coli. Isolates of E. coli were tested for susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. Moreover, the samples were subcultivated on MacConkey agar (MCA) containing cefotaxime (2 mg liter−1) to detect E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and subsequently on MCA supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg liter−1) and MCA with nalidixic acid (20 mg liter−1) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. PCR was used to detect specific antibiotic resistance genes. We found 9 E. coli isolates producing ESBL with bla genes: blaCTX-M-1 (6 isolates), blaCTX-M-9 plus blaTEM-1b (1 isolate), blaCTX-M-15 plus blaOXA-1 (1 isolate), and blaSHV-12 (1 isolate). In the isolate with blaCTX-M-15, the gene aac(6)-Ib-cr was also detected. The bla genes were harbored by transferable plasmids of the IncN and IncI1 groups. Nine quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates with qnrS genes were found and characterized. The gene qnrS was associated with a Tn3-like transposon on the IncX1 plasmid together with blaTEM-1 in two isolates. The gene qnrS was also harbored by conjugative plasmids of the IncN and IncX2 groups. Even if populations of wild birds are not directly influenced by antibiotic practice, we have demonstrated that antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, including strains with various ESBL and qnrS genes, are found in the feces of wild birds on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Poland. PMID:20952638

  3. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria, including strains with genes encoding the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and QnrS, in waterbirds on the Baltic Sea Coast of Poland.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Dolejska, Monika; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Hrusakova, Jolana; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Rzyska, Hanna; Bzoma, Szymon; Cizek, Alois

    2010-12-01

    Individual cloacal swabs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), as well as samples of waterbird feces obtained in 2008 and 2009, were cultivated for Escherichia coli. Isolates of E. coli were tested for susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. Moreover, the samples were subcultivated on MacConkey agar (MCA) containing cefotaxime (2 mg liter(-1)) to detect E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and subsequently on MCA supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg liter(-1)) and MCA with nalidixic acid (20 mg liter(-1)) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. PCR was used to detect specific antibiotic resistance genes. We found 9 E. coli isolates producing ESBL with bla genes: bla(CTX-M-1) (6 isolates), bla(CTX-M-9) plus bla(TEM-1b) (1 isolate), bla(CTX-M-15) plus bla(OXA-1) (1 isolate), and bla(SHV-12) (1 isolate). In the isolate with bla(CTX-M-15), the gene aac(6)-Ib-cr was also detected. The bla genes were harbored by transferable plasmids of the IncN and IncI1 groups. Nine quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates with qnrS genes were found and characterized. The gene qnrS was associated with a Tn3-like transposon on the IncX1 plasmid together with bla(TEM-1) in two isolates. The gene qnrS was also harbored by conjugative plasmids of the IncN and IncX2 groups. Even if populations of wild birds are not directly influenced by antibiotic practice, we have demonstrated that antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, including strains with various ESBL and qnrS genes, are found in the feces of wild birds on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Poland.

  4. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (< or = 0.06-0.25), and aztreonam (2-->32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  5. Gene Network Analysis of Metallo Beta Lactamase Family Proteins Indicates the Role of Gene Partners in Antibiotic Resistance and Reveals Important Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Parimelzaghan, Anitha; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2016-06-01

    Metallo Beta (β) Lactamases (MBL) are metal dependent bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam antibiotics. In recent years, MBL have received considerable attention because it inactivates most of the β-lactam antibiotics. Increase in dissemination of MBL encoding antibiotic resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria often results in unsuccessful treatments. Gene interaction network of MBL provides a complete understanding on the molecular basis of MBL mediated antibiotic resistance. In our present study, we have constructed the MBL network of 37 proteins with 751 functional partners from pathogenic bacterial spp. We found 12 highly interconnecting clusters. Among the 37 MBL proteins considered in the present study, 22 MBL proteins are from B3 subclass, 14 are from B1 subclass and only one is from B2 subclass. Global topological parameters are used to calculate and compare the probability of interactions in MBL proteins. Our results indicate that the proteins associated within the network have a strong influence in antibiotic resistance mechanism. Interestingly, several drug targets are identified from the constructed network. We believe that our results would be helpful for researchers exploring MBL-mediated antibiotic resistant mechanisms.

  6. Emergence of a cefepime- and cefpirome-resistant Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate harbouring a novel chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase, CMY-37.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2008-09-01

    Citrobacter freundii strain 4306 was isolated from a urine specimen of a patient in March 2006 in Palestine. This strain showed a unique multidrug resistance phenotype, as it was resistant both to 7-alpha-methoxy- and oxyimino-cephalosporins, including cefepime, cefpirome and monobactams, in addition to quinolones, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Clavulanic acid did not act synergistically with cephalosporins by the double-disk synergy test. Molecular characterisation showed that the resistance to 7-alpha-methoxy- and oxyimino-cephalosporins was due to a novel AmpC beta-lactamase, designated CMY-37, with an isoelectric point of approximately 9.0. CMY-37 is a variant of C. freundii chromosomal AmpC enzymes with at least seven amino acid substitutions. One of these substitutions, L316I, is located within the R2 loop that is considered the hotspot region responsible for the extended substrate spectrum in class C beta-lactamases. The blaCMY-37 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli TG1. CMY-37 is chromosomally encoded and is not associated with ISEcp1-like element. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that CMY-37 is the origin of many plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases. This study highlights the emergence of cefepime and cefpirome resistance in C. freundii owing to a new type of AmpC beta-lactamase.

  7. In vivo development of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes producing multiple beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Gang; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Yun-Song; Qu, Ting-Ting; Wei, Ze-Qing; Shen, Ping; Li, Lan-Juan

    2008-10-01

    Four clinical strains of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and AmpC-producing Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated successively from a liver transplantation patient. Isolates C(1) and C(2) were isolated prior to carbapenem therapy, whilst isolates C(3) and C(4) were recovered after 40 days of carbapenem therapy. The homology of these strains was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). beta-Lactamases were analysed by isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Outer membrane proteins were analysed by PCR, sequencing, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Disruption of OmpE36 in C(1) in vitro was also performed by homologous gene recombination. The isolates demonstrated an indistinguishable PFGE pattern. Molecular characterisation revealed that, in addition to the pre-existing multiple beta-lactamases (DHA-1, TEM-1, SHV-5, CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-14) found in C(1) and C(2), isolates C(3) and C(4) failed to express OmpE36 owing to insertional inactivation by an IS903-like insertion sequence. Other resistance mechanisms, such as production of carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes or expression of chromosomal efflux, were apparently not involved. Completely replacing OmpE36 by the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) resulted in a significant increase in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations of an ompE36 mutant. Thus, C(3) and C(4) were apparently derived from the previously imipenem-susceptible isolates C(1) and C(2). Following carbapenem exposure, depletion of OmpE36 expression resulted in the collateral effect of carbapenem resistance.

  8. Postneurosurgical meningitis due to Proteus penneri with selection of a ceftriaxone-resistant isolate: analysis of chromosomal class A beta-lactamase HugA and its LysR-type regulatory protein HugR.

    PubMed

    Liassine, Nadia; Madec, Stéphanie; Ninet, Béatrice; Metral, Catherine; Fouchereau-Peron, Martine; Labia, Roger; Auckenthaler, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    We report on a case of a postneurosurgical meningitis due to ceftriaxone-susceptible Proteus penneri, with selection of a ceftriaxone-resistant isolate following treatment with ceftriaxone. The isolates presented identical patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and produced a single beta-lactamase named HugA with an isoelectric point of 6.7. The ceftriaxone-resistant isolate hyperproduced the beta-lactamase (increase in the level of production, about 90-fold). The sequences of the hugA beta-lactamase gene and its regulator, hugR, were identical in both P. penneri strains and had 85.96% homology with those of Proteus vulgaris. The HugA beta-lactamase belongs to molecular class A, and the transcriptional regulator HugR belongs to the LysR family.

  9. Worldwide diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Truong, HaVy; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wisell, Karin T; Carmeli, Yehuda; Gales, Ana C; Venezia, Shiri Navon; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniaeisolates that produce carbapenemases (KPCs) are rapidly disseminating worldwide. To determine their genetic background, we investigated 16 blaKPC-2-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates from 5 countries. The isolates were multidrug resistant, possessed the blaKPC-2 gene, and differed by additional Beta-lactamase content. They harbored a naturally chromosome-encoded bla gene (blaSHV-1 [12.5%], blaSHV-11 [68.7%], or blaOKP-AVB [18.8%]) and several acquired and plasmid-encoded genes (blaTEM-1 [81.3%], blaCTX-M-2 [31.3%], blaCTX-M-12 [12.5%], blaCTX-M-15 [18.7%], and blaOXA-9 [37.5%]). The blaKPC-2 gene was always associated with 1 of the Tn4401 isoforms (a, b, or c). Tn4401 was inserted on different-sized plasmids that belonged to different incompatibility groups. Several blaKPC-containing K. pneumoniae clones were found: 9 different pulsotypes with 1 major (sequence type 258) and 7 minor distinct allelic profiles. Different clones harboring different plasmids but having identical genetic structure, Tn4401, could be at the origin of the worldwide spread of this emerging resistance gene.

  10. Horizontol dissemination of TEM- and SHV-typr beta-lactamase genes-carrying resistance plasmids amongst clonical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ozgumus, Osman Birol; Tosun, Ilknur; Aydin, Faruk; Kilic, Ali Osman

    2008-01-01

    The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been isolated at increasing frequency worldwide. Expression of ESBL is often associated with multidrug resistance and dissemination by resistance plasmids. During a two-month period in 2000, 133 clinical isolates of enterobacterial strains were randomly collected from outpatients and inpatients at a university hospital in Turkey. The ESBL producing strains were determined by double-disk synergy (DDS) testing. Twenty ESBL producing strains (15%) including Escherichia coli (n = 9), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 2) and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2) were detected and further analyzed for their resistance transfer features, plasmid profile and nature of the resistance genes. Plasmid transfer assays were performed using broth mating techniques. TEM- and SHV- genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization using specific probes. EcoRI restriction enzyme analyses of R plasmids were used in the detection of epidemic plasmids. Fourteen plasmid profiles (A, B1, B2, C1, and C2 to L) were obtained with EcoRI restriction enzyme analysis. Most of these plasmids were detected to carry both TEM- and SHV-derived genes by PCR, and confirmed by localizing each gene by hybridization assay. Epidemiological evidence indicated that there was an apparent horizontal dissemination of conjugative R plasmids among multidrug-resistant enterobacterial genera and species in this hospital. PMID:24031280

  11. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Results: Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher’s test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27563634

  12. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  13. Beta-lactamase production in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and resistance to beta-lactam-enzyme inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, K S; Weber, D A; Sanders, C C; Sanders, W E

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that produce high levels of certain beta-lactamases are often resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate prompted this study to assess the relationship between type and amount of enzyme produced and susceptibility to ticarcillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Agar dilution MICs were determined by using 73 strains of Enterobacteriaceae that produced a single beta-lactamase that had been characterized and quantified and a beta-lactamase-negative control strain of Escherichia coli. For E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, MICs of each combination increased as levels of TEM, SHV-1, or class IV enzymes increased. However, the percentage of strains that were resistant was highest for ticarcillin-clavulanate (32%), with only 18 and 6% resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam, respectively. Strains producing PSE-1, regardless of level, were resistant or moderately susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate but were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. HMS-1 and OHIO-1 beta-lactamases were associated with resistance to ticarcillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam, respectively. High levels of class IV enzymes in Klebsiella oxytoca were associated with resistance to all three combinations. These results indicate that the level and type of beta-lactamase produced by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are important determinants of susceptibility to beta-lactam-inhibitor combinations, especially ticarcillin-clavulanate. PMID:2344169

  14. Presence of the bla(Z) beta-lactamase gene in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that appear penicillin susceptible by conventional phenotypic methods.

    PubMed

    El Feghaly, Rana E; Stamm, Jennifer E; Fritz, Stephanie A; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2012-12-01

    Beta-lactamase production may not be reliably detected by commonly used susceptibility testing methods such as Kirby-Bauer penicillin disk diffusion and nitrocefin beta-lactamase detection. We assayed 105 apparently penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates using multiple methods to detect beta-lactamase production. The bla(Z) beta-lactamase gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 10 (9.5%) of the 105 isolates. The average disk diffusion zone diameter was 34 and 38 mm for the bla(Z)-positive and -negative isolates, respectively (P < 0.001). Qualitative description of the zone edge was observer-dependent. The "cloverleaf assay" was positive in 6 of the 10 phenotypically susceptible isolates possessing bla(Z). The results of this study suggest that conventional methods for S. aureus penicillin susceptibility testing may not reliably detect penicillin resistance in all isolates; however, increasing the disk diffusion zone size interpretive criteria to 35 mm for this antimicrobial/organism combination from the current 29-mm breakpoint may improve the sensitivity of phenotypic penicillin susceptibility testing.

  15. Genetic structures at the origin of acquisition of the beta-lactamase bla KPC gene.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Cuzon, Gaelle; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Genetic structures surrounding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing Ambler class A bla KPC gene were characterized in several KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from the United States, Colombia, and Greece. The bla KPC genes were associated in all cases with transposon-related structures. In the K. pneumoniae YC isolate from the United States, the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene was located on a novel Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. Tn4401 was 10 kb in size, was delimited by two 39-bp imperfect inverted repeat sequences, and harbored, in addition to the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene, a transposase gene, a resolvase gene, and two novel insertion sequences, ISKpn6 and ISKpn7. Tn4401 has been identified in all isolates. However, two isoforms of this transposon were found: Tn4401a was found in K. pneumoniae YC and K. pneumoniae GR from the United States and Greece, respectively, and differed by a 100-bp deletion, located just upstream of the bla KPC-2 gene, compared to the sequence of Tn4401b, which was found in the Colombian isolates. In all isolates tested, Tn4401 was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication, the signature of a recent transposition event, and was inserted in different open reading frames located on plasmids that varied in size and nature. Tn4401 is likely at the origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC mobilization to plasmids and its further insertion into various-sized plasmids identified in nonclonally related K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates.

  16. [Investigation of OXA type beta-lactamases and PFGE patterns in Acinetobacter baumannii strains resistant to carbapenems].

    PubMed

    Keyik, Serafettin; Arslan, Uğur; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Seyhan, Tuba; Fındık, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic and multidrug-resistant pathogen leading to nosocomial infections. Over the last 10 years, a significant and threatening increase in resistance to carbapenems, mainly due to the dissemination of class D beta-lactamases, has been reported in A.baumannii worldwide. The most common types of beta-lactamases causing carbapenem resistance in A.baumannii are the OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-40, OXA-58 and OXA-143 type serine beta-lactamases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of OXA type beta-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii strains and the clonal relationship between the strains. A total of 105 non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii strains isolated from various clinical samples (68 blood, 18 bronchoalveolar lavage, 13 drainage, 3 urine, 2 cerebrospinal fluid and 1 catheter samples) in the Microbiology Laboratories of Selcuk University, Meram (2009-2012) and Selcuklu (2007-2008) Medical School Hospitals, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 BD (BD Diagnostic, USA) and Vitek II (bioMerieux, France) automated systems. Carbapenem susceptibility test was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the CLSI standards. bla(OXA 23-like), bla(OXA 24-like), bla(OXA 58-like) and bla(OXA 51-like) genes were amplified by multiplex PCR assay and clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using ApaI enzyme. The bla(OXA 51-like) gene was determined in all carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii isolates, while the bla(OXA 23-like) and bla(OXA 58-like) genes were detected in 46.6% and 53.3% of isolates, respectively. However bla(OXA 24-like) gene was not demonstrated in any isolates. bla(OXA 23-like) gene was determined in both Meram and Selcuklu Medical School hospitals, but bla(OXA 58-like) gene was detected only in Meram Medical School hospital. PFGE analysis of the isolates revealed 32 different

  17. Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sabry A.; Shobrak, Mohammed Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the genetic basis and types of beta-lactamase encountered among enterobacterial isolates of wild pets from the animal exhibit. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria recovered from fecal samples of wild pet animals were analyzed for a selected beta-lactamase gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Molecular analysis identified one or more β-lactamase-encoding genes in 14 enterobacterial isolates as a single or gene combination. The most frequent extended-spectrum β-lactamases types were TEM and CTX-M, and the most common AmpC enzymes were CMY-2 and DHA types. Conclusions: The study is the first in Saudi Arabia, have established the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes in the fecal isolates of wild pets. PMID:27047051

  18. Genetic diversity of genes encoding OKP and LEN beta-lactamases produced by clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela

    2009-03-01

    Of the 308 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected in 21 Portuguese health institutions, 11 encoded for LEN and 9 for OKP enzymes; of these, 15 were new enzymes. Ninety-one percent of LEN and all OKP producer strains were resistant to amoxicillin. We demonstrate that these beta-lactamase were highly diverse.

  19. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  20. Detection of extended spectrum beta lactamases, ampc beta lactamases and metallobetalactamases in clinical isolates of ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, Sivaraman; Joseph, Noyal M; Kumari, Kandha; Easow, Joshy M; Kumar, Shailesh; Stephen, Selvaraj; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Raj, Sruthi

    2011-10-01

    We studied the prevalence of ceftazidime resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production among the ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A very high rate of MBL production was observed, which suggested it to be an important contributing factor for ceftazidime resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  1. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli among Uropathogens of Pediatrics in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Rafiei, Alireza; Rafati, Mohammadreza; Shafahi, Kheironesa

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains as one of the most important bacteria causing infections in pediatrics and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) making them resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In this study we aimed to genotype ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pediatric patients for ESBL genes and determine their association with antimicrobial resistance. One hundred of the E. coli isolates were initially considered ESBL producing based on their MIC results. These isolates were then tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of CTX, TEM, SHV, GES, and VEB beta-lactamase genes. About 30.5% of isolated E. coli was ESBL-producing strain. The TEM gene was the most prevalent (49%) followed by SHV (44%), CTX (28%), VEB (8%), and GES (0%) genes. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were susceptible to carbapenems (66%) and amikacin (58%) and showed high resistance to cefixime (99%), colistin (82%), and ciprofloxacin (76%). In conclusion, carbapenems were the most effective antibiotics against ESBl-producing E. coli in urinary tract infection in North of Iran. The most prevalent gene is the TEM-type, but the other resistant genes and their antimicrobial resistance are on the rise. PMID:26064896

  2. Influence of beta-lactamase inhibitors on the activity of oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T

    1995-02-01

    We studied the in vitro susceptibility to oxacillin of 46 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 8 micrograms/ml of oxacillin, with and without adding clavulanic acid, sulbactam, or tazobactam in three different concentrations (2, 4, and 8 micrograms/ml). All 46 strains were found by the rapid chromogenic cephalosporin method to be beta-lactamase producers. For those strains with low-level resistance (MIC of 16 or 32 micrograms/ml), the MICs of oxacillin decreased four- to 32-fold and two- to 32-fold after adding sulbactam and tazobactam, respectively. For those with high-level resistance (MIC of > or = 64 micrograms/ml), the MICs either did not change or decreased only two-fold after we added one of three beta-lactamase inhibitors. The results suggest that beta-lactamase production probably plays a role in resistance to oxacillin in those MRSA strains of low-level oxacillin resistance.

  3. Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase beta-lactamases associated with long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Urban, Carl; Bradford, Patricia A; Tuckman, Margareta; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Wehbeh, Wehbeh; Grenner, Louise; Colon-Urban, Rita; Mariano, Noriel; Rahal, James J

    2008-06-01

    Nine carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2 or KPC-3 enzymes were identified in patients residing in 7 distinct long-term care facilities. Cefotaxime-hydrolyzing (CTX-M)-type beta-lactamases were also documented in 3 isolates. The identification of these enzymes in patients staying in long-term care facilities should be of great concern to all components of health care systems.

  4. beta-Lactamase-producing Moraxella catarrhalis may prevent the emergence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Veli-Pekka; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Puhakka, Heikki

    2002-05-15

    We studied the effect of concomitant nasopharyngeal carriage of beta-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae on the occurrence of penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We took nasopharyngeal samples from 306 children with recurrent otitis media and a history of several antibiotic treatments. We could isolate at least one of the pathogens in 89 subjects. Of these children 13% carried more than one pathogen. Of the isolated M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae strains 93% and 43% produced beta-lactamase, respectively. Of the S. pneumoniae strains 25% were non-susceptible (I/R) to penicillin. However, in patients carrying beta-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis together with pneumococci all strains were susceptible to penicillin (P=0.0353). This finding suggests that beta-lactamase producing M. catarrhalis may hinder the emergence of penicillin resistance of S. pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

  5. Combination of IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase production and porin deficiency causes carbapenem resistance in a Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jia-Chang; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2009-10-01

    This study shows for the first time the mechanism of carbapenem resistance of a Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate ZC101 recovered from a Zhejiang University Hospital in Hangzhou, China. MIC values of imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem for K. oxytoca ZC101 were 16, 16, and 128 microg/mL, respectively. Conjugation experiments demonstrated the transferability of a resistance determinant from K. oxytoca ZC101 to Escherichia coli EC600. Results from isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reactions, and DNA sequencing confirmed that K. oxytoca ZC101 produced IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) and CTX-M-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, whereas E. coli transconjugant only produced the IMP-4. Amplification of integron revealed that bla(IMP-4) gene is located within a class I integron that was carried in a plasmid approximately 55 kb in size. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiling of outer membrane proteins of K. oxytoca ZC101 indicated lack of expression of the OmpK36 porin. DNA sequence analysis of ompK36 gene of K. oxytoca ZC101 showed the gene was disrupted by an insertion sequence IS5. In all, the results show that plasmid-mediated IMP-4 MBL production combined with the loss of OmpK36 porin caused the resistance in K. oxytoca ZC101 to carbapenems.

  6. Staphylococci isolated from animals and food with phenotypically reduced susceptibility to beta-lactamase-resistant beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Sz; Keseru, Judit; Gál, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, I; Veres, Z; Somogyi, P

    2004-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance pattern of 1921 Staphylococcus strains isolated from animals and food within the last two years were examined using diffusion tests. Among them there were only 35 strains of S. aureus having an inhibition zone diameter of 15 mm or less, and 4 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) having a zone diameter of 18 mm or less to 1-microg oxacillin disk. These 39 strains were examined also by E-test to oxacillin and for the detection of the mecA gene by PCR in order to determine whether they might be real methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Among the 39 strains there were only two that were susceptible to penicillin by disk diffusion method; however, further examination by the penicillinase test showed that they produced beta-lactamase. While 19 (15 S. aureus, 4 CNS) strains were resistant and 7 strains were intermediate to oxacillin in disk diffusion test, the E-test gave 8 resistant and 5 intermediate results. Six out of the 8 oxacillin-resistant strains examined by disk diffusion and E-test harboured the mecA gene. Thus only 6 out of the examined 1921 strains proved to be mecA positive. These methicillin-resistant, mecA-positive strains (5 of the S. aureus strains and 1 of the S. epidermidis) originated from two dairy herds. The results prove that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in animals are really rare in Hungary. Eighteen strains were chosen and screened for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin with or without clavulanic acid or sulbactam, and three of them produced methicillinase enzyme.

  7. The bla gene of the cephamycin cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a class A beta-lactamase of low enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Llarena, F; Martín, J F; Galleni, M; Coque, J J; Fuente, J L; Frère, J M; Liras, P

    1997-01-01

    A gene (bla) encoding a beta-lactamase is present in the cephamycin gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, the strain producing clavulanic acid and a beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. The bla gene is located 5.1 kb downstream from and in the opposite orientation to cefE, encoding the deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase. The bla gene encodes a 332-residue protein (Mr, 35,218), similar to other class A beta-lactamases produced by actinomycetes. Modification (to SDG) of the SDN conserved motif of class A beta-lactamases as well as of amino acids in otherwise conserved regions in the molecule may explain the low penicillinase and cephalosporinase activities of the protein. The beta-lactamase has been purified to homogeneity and found to bind [3H]benzylpenicillin, a result reflecting a rate-limiting deacylation step. Nucleotide sequences homologous to bla were found in all tested cephamycin producers, but several other Streptomyces species which produce a beta-lactamase do not contain genes for beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis. PMID:9324249

  8. Emergence of Multidrug Resistance and Metallo-beta-lactamase Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Patients in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, MN; Motamedifar, M; Sarvari, J; Sedigh, Ebrahim-Saraie H; Mousavi, Same M; Moghadam, FN

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metallo-beta-lactamase (MβL) enzymes production is one of the most important resistance mechanisms against carbapenems in some bacteria including Acinetobacter baumannii. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the prevalence of MβL among carbapenem-resistant isolates of A. baumannii. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study from October 2012 to April 2013, 98 isolates were identified as A. baumannii using Microgen™ kits and confirmed by molecular method. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were further detected phenotypically by MβL minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)-test strips, and subsequently positive MβL isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Overall, 98% (96/98) of A. baumannii isolates were detected as carbapenem-resistant by MIC test. Highest sensitivity to the tested antibiotic with 42.9% (42/98) was observed to colistin. Of 96 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 43 were phenotypically positive for MβL; out of 43 isolates, 37 were confirmed for the presence of MβL genes by PCR. Conclusion: The frequency of drug resistance among the clinical samples of A. baumannii isolated in our study against most of the antibiotics was very high. Moreover, all MβL producing isolates were multidrug resistance. Therefore, systematic surveillance to detect MβL producing bacteria and rational prescription and use of carbapenems could be helpful to prevent the spread of carbapenem resistance. PMID:27398247

  9. Effects of azlocillin in combination with clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin against beta-lactamase-producing, carbenicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, S B; Gardella, A; Philippon, A M; Jacoby, G A; Moellering, R C

    1982-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the combination of azlocillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid and sulbactam and with N-formimidoyl thienamycin against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with R-factor-mediated carbenicillin resistance. The 10 strains tested (1 R-, 9 R+) were isogenic, except for the presence of individual plasmids determining each of nine plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases found in P. aeruginosa. We utilized a checkerboard technique for testing antibiotic combinations. Low concentrations of clavulanic acid produced synergy with azlocillin against the strains producing the TEM-1, TEM-2, PSE-1, PSE-3, and PSE-4 beta-lactamases; for the strains producing the OXA-1, OXA-2, OXA-3, and PSE-2 beta-lactamases, such synergy was not found. With sulbactam, synergy was demonstrated in all strains except that producing PSE-2 beta-lactamase; for several strains, however, the concentration of sulbactam required to produce synergy was substantially higher than that for clavulanic acid. N-Formimidoyl thienamycin was highly active as a single agent against all of the strains, regardless of beta-lactamase production. The combination of N-formimidoyl thienamycin and azlocillin produced synergy against only two of the strains tested. PMID:6100423

  10. Thiol-beta-lactamase: replacement of the active-site serine of RTEM beta-lactamase by a cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Sigal, I S; Harwood, B G; Arentzen, R

    1982-12-01

    We describe a procedure by which the codon (AGC) for the active-site serine-70 of pBR322 beta-lactamase (penicillinase, penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase, EC 3.5.2.6) is altered to that for cysteine (TGC). The pertinent nucleotide bases, A-G-C-A, positions 410-413, of pBR322 are excised by treating a limited HgiAI digest of pBR322 with the 3' leads to 5' exonuclease of T4 DNA polymerase. The new sequence, T-G-C-A, is inserted in two steps. First, the Kpn I molecular linker d(T-G-G-T-A-C-C-A) is ligated into the gap described above. The internal sequence G-T-A-C is then excised enzymatically with Kpn I and T4 DNA polymerase and the molecule is recircularized. This mutant gene, which codes for a thiol-beta-lactamase, confers on Escherichia coli K-12 hosts an ampicillin resistance that is reduced compared with that given by pBR322 yet is greater than that of E. coli lacking any intact beta-lactamase gene. Cell-free extracts of E. coli strains hosting the thiol-beta-lactamase gene possess a p-chloromercuribenzoate-sensitive beta-lactamase activity.

  11. Growing Menace of Antibacterial Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Nepal: An Insight of Beta-Lactamase Production

    PubMed Central

    Dhital, Rabindra; Puri, Ram; Chaudhary, Niraj; Khatiwada, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently isolated organism as it acts as the opportunistic pathogen and can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. The production of different types of beta-lactamases renders this organism resistant to many commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document the antibiotic resistance rate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods. Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered was identified by standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines and all the suspected isolates were tested for the production of ESBLs, MBLs, and AmpC. Results. Out of total (178) isolates, 83.1% were recovered from the inpatient department (IPD). Majority of the isolates mediated resistance towards the beta-lactam antibiotics, while nearly half of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Most of the aminoglycosides used showed resistance rate up to 75% but amikacin proved to be better option. No resistance to polymyxin was observed. ESBLs, MBLs, and AmpC mediated resistance was seen in 33.1%, 30.9%, and 15.7% isolates, respectively. Conclusions. Antibiotic resistance rate and beta-lactamase mediated resistance were high. Thus, regular surveillance of drug resistance is of utmost importance. PMID:27642599

  12. High prevalence of extensively drug-resistant and metallo beta-lactamase-producing clinical Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran.

    PubMed

    Maspi, Hossein; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-09-01

    Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method. The MBL-producing isolates were screened using combined disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the presence of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM, blaSIM and blaNDM was detected by PCR. 34.9% of isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 81 (94.2%) and 62 (71.2%) isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) and XDR, respectively. 44 (51.2%) and 65 (75.6%) isolates were MBL-producing strains with resistance to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. 2 (2.3%), 13 (15.1%), 2 (2.3%), 4 (4.7%) and 2 (2.3%) isolates carried blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM and blaSIM genes, respectively. Our data showed that the rate of XDR and MBL A. baumannii is on the rise.

  13. Prevalence of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M Beta-Lactamase genes in the urinary isolates of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Trupti; Pandey, M.; Varma, M.; Bhatambare, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are the major cause of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. They are derived from the narrow-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1) by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the enzyme active site. Aim: To determine the prevalence of ESBL (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV) genes among the members of Enterobacteriaceae. Methodology: The present prospective study was carried out from January 2015 to June 2015 in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine of a Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital. A total of 526 urine samples were studied. Seventy-eight isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction for detection of ESBL genes. Results: In our study, ESBL genes were detected among 18 (45%) phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers and 20 (52.5%) phenotypically confirmed non-ESBL producers. The gene that predominated was blaTEM (48.7%), followed by blaCTX-M (7.6%) and blaSHV (5.1%). Conclusion: Definitive identification of ESBL genes is only possible by molecular detection methods. Phenotypic tests need to be evaluated periodically as their performance may change with the introduction of new enzymes. PMID:28182026

  14. Evolutionary Trajectories of Beta-Lactamase CTX-M-1 Cluster Enzymes: Predicting Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Comas, Iñaki; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Coque, Teresa M.; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando; Galán, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type β-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of specific mutations enhancing protein efficiency and fitness concomitantly. The existence of driver antibiotic molecules favoring protein divergence has been investigated by combining evolutionary analyses and experimental site-specific mutagenesis. Phylogenetic reconstruction with all the CTX-M variants described so far provided a hypothetical evolutionary scenario showing at least three diversification events. CTX-M-3 was likely the enzyme at the origin of the diversification in the CTX-M-1 cluster, which was coincident with positive selection acting on several amino acid positions. Sixty-three CTX-M-3 derivatives containing all combinations of mutations under positively selected positions were constructed, and their phenotypic efficiency was evaluated. The CTX-M-3 diversification process can only be explained in a complex selective landscape with at least two antibiotics (cefotaxime and ceftazidime), indicating the need to invoke mixtures of selective drivers in order to understand the final evolutionary outcome. Under this hypothesis, we found congruent results between the in silico and in vitro analyses of evolutionary trajectories. Three pathways driving the diversification of CTX-M-3 towards the most complex and efficient variants were identified. Whereas the P167S pathway has limited possibilities of further diversification, the D240G route shows a robust diversification network. In the third route, drift may have played a role in the early stages of CTX-M-3 evolution

  15. Effects of tazobactam on the frequency of the emergence of resistant strains from Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris (beta-lactamase derepressed mutants).

    PubMed

    Higashitani, F; Nishida, K; Hyodo, A; Inoue, M

    1995-09-01

    When Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris were treated with piperacillin (PIPC) in combination with tazobactam (TAZ), the in vitro frequency of emergence of resistant strains (beta-lactamase producing mutants) was lower than with PIPC or ceftazidime (CAZ) treated bacteria. In a mouse intraperitoneal infection model caused by E. cloacae, beta-lactamase derepressed mutants were detected following therapy with PIPC or CAZ, although no derepressed mutants were detected after treatment with PIPC in combination with TAZ. This suppression of the selection of derepressed mutants, which produce large amounts of beta-lactamases, by the combination of TAZ and PIPC suggests that the combination delays the increase of resistant mutants compared with PIPC alone.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamase production of Escherichia coli causing canine urinary tract infections: Passive surveillance of laboratory isolates in Saskatoon, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Courtice, Rachel; Sniatynski, Michelle; Rubin, Joseph E

    2016-11-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of canine urinary Escherichia coli (n = 113) isolated by a regional diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period was determined. Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined, and those isolates resistant to beta-lactams were screened for broad-spectrum beta-lactamases. Isolates were unexpectedly susceptible, 79.6% were susceptible to all drugs tested and no extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were identified. Our findings indicate that empiric treatment of canine urinary tract infections with first line drugs such as amoxicillin or trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole is likely to be successful.

  17. Ceftazidime and aztreonam resistance in Providencia stuartii: characterization of a natural TEM-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-60.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, N; Perilli, M; Segatore, B; Setacci, D; Amicosante, G; Mazzariol, A; Cornaglia, G

    1998-06-01

    A plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase produced from a clinical strain of Providencia stuartii has been purified and characterized. The gene coding for the beta-lactamase was cloned and sequenced. It appears to be a new natural TEM-derived enzyme, named TEM-60. Point mutations (Q39K, L51P, E104K, and R164S) are present with respect to the TEM-1 enzyme; the mutation L51P has never been previously reported, with the exception of the chromosomally encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase PER-1. Kinetic parameters relative to penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams other than mechanism-based inactivators were related to the in vitro susceptibility phenotype.

  18. TLA-1: a new plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Silva, J; Aguilar, C; Ayala, G; Estrada, M A; Garza-Ramos, U; Lara-Lemus, R; Ledezma, L

    2000-04-01

    Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two beta-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single beta-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 beta-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5alpha. Sequencing of the bla(TLA-1) gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A beta-lactamases: (70)SXXK, (130)SDN, and (234)KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A beta-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A beta-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 beta-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of Ambler class A.

  19. Commensal Enterobacteriaceae as reservoirs of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, integrons, and sul genes in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Elisabete; Coque, Teresa M.; Cantón, Rafael; Sousa, João C.; Peixe, Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria colonizing the human intestine have a relevant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans from Portugal and analyzed the distribution of sul genes and class 1 and 2 integrons. Faecal samples (n = 113) were recovered from healthy persons (North/Centre of Portugal, 2001–2004) and plated on MacConkey agar with and without ceftazidime (1 mg/L) or cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Isolates representing different morphotypes/plate and antibiotic susceptibility patterns (n = 201) were selected. Isolates resistant to sulfonamides and/or streptomycin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim were screened (PCR and sequencing) for sul genes (sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integrons. Presence of ESBLs was inferred using the double disk synergy test (DDST) and further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. ESBL producers were selected for clonal analysis, plasmid characterization and conjugation assays by standard methods. ESBL-producing isolates were found in 1.8% (2/113) of samples, corresponding to Escherichia coli of phylogroups A (n = 1) and B1 (n = 1) carrying transferable blaCTX-M-14 and the new blaTEM-153, respectively. A 80kb IncK plasmid bearing blaCTX-M-14 was found, being highly related to that widely spread among CTX-M-14 producers of humans and animals from Portugal and other European countries. sul genes were found in 88% (22/25; sul2-60%, sul1-48%, sul3-4%) of the sulfonamide resistant isolates. Class 1 integrons were more frequently found than class 2 (7%, 14/201 vs. 3%, 6/201). Interestingly, gene cassette arrangements within these platforms were identical to those commonly observed among Enterobacteriaceae from Portuguese food-producing animals, although aadA13 is here firstly described in Morganella morganii. These results reinforce the relevance of human commensal flora as reservoir of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes including

  20. Survey of CTX-M Gene Frequency in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the Combination Disk and PCR Methods in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Ahmadkhosravy, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background A common mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase by Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, nonderivative extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) from the TEM and SHV enzymes, such as CTX-M, that were related to different geographical regions have been recognized. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in hospitalized patients in the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Methods Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens (other than stool), such as wounds, blood, urine, trachea, discharge, and abscess, were collected and examined. All the isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests. The combination test was carried out based on CLSI criteria for the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing isolates. After DNA extraction, the CTX-M and CTX-M-1 genes were amplified using PCR among phenotypically positive ESBL isolates. Results Among 240 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter were the most common isolates with 171 (71.3%) and 65 (27.1%), respectively. The combination test results also showed that 108 (45%) Enterobacteriaceae isolates were phenotypic ESBL producers, but 104 (96%) isolates were positive for the blaCTX-M gene and 99 (92%) were positive for the blaCTX-M-1 gene according to the PCR method. Conclusions The results of this study phenotypically and genotypically confirmed the high frequency of ESBL-producing strains, such as the CTX-M and CTX-M-1 genes, among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in our region. Therefore, use of antibiotic susceptibility testing for the detection of ESBL isolates prior to the prescription of beta-lactam antibiotics is recommended. This could help prevent the spread of bacteria strains that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:28138376

  1. Contribution of enzymatic properties, cell permeability, and enzyme expression to microbiological activities of beta-lactams in three Bacteroides fragilis isolates that harbor a metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B A; Yang, Y; Jacobus, N; Bush, K

    1994-01-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase gene, ccrA, has been cloned from three clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, TAL3636, QMCN3, and QMCN4. Although all three isolates harbored a gene encoding a potent beta-lactamase, the MICs of benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and biapenem for the three isolates varied from 4- to > 128-fold. QMCN4 was the most susceptible of the three isolates, followed by QMCN3. TAL3636 was resistant to all of the beta-lactams. Previous DNA sequence analysis of the three ccrA genes revealed that the enzymes differed at 5 amino acid residues (B. A. Rasmussen, Y. Gluzman, and F. P. Tally, Mol. Microbiol. 5:1211-1219, 1991). Biochemical characterization of the three enzymes revealed only small differences in kcat and Km values for the majority of beta-lactams tested. Thus, the 5 amino acid substitutions affected the hydrolyzing activity of the enzymes only modestly. Crypticity differences between the three isolates showed that QMCN4 was the least permeable of the isolates to cephaloridine, followed by TAL3636, and that QMCN3 was highly permeable to cephaloridine. Therefore, neither catalytic activity nor permeability was a major contributor to the dramatic differences in the MICs. Instead, microbiological susceptibility was closely related to the level of metallo-beta-lactamase present in each isolate. Both biochemical and physical studies indicated that TAL3636 produced 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold more metallo-beta-lactamase than QMCN3 and QMCN4, respectively. Therefore, the level of CcrA enzyme production is the dominant contributing factor to high-level resistance among strains harboring a ccrA gene. Images PMID:7811029

  2. Contribution of enzymatic properties, cell permeability, and enzyme expression to microbiological activities of beta-lactams in three Bacteroides fragilis isolates that harbor a metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, B A; Yang, Y; Jacobus, N; Bush, K

    1994-09-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase gene, ccrA, has been cloned from three clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, TAL3636, QMCN3, and QMCN4. Although all three isolates harbored a gene encoding a potent beta-lactamase, the MICs of benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and biapenem for the three isolates varied from 4- to > 128-fold. QMCN4 was the most susceptible of the three isolates, followed by QMCN3. TAL3636 was resistant to all of the beta-lactams. Previous DNA sequence analysis of the three ccrA genes revealed that the enzymes differed at 5 amino acid residues (B. A. Rasmussen, Y. Gluzman, and F. P. Tally, Mol. Microbiol. 5:1211-1219, 1991). Biochemical characterization of the three enzymes revealed only small differences in kcat and Km values for the majority of beta-lactams tested. Thus, the 5 amino acid substitutions affected the hydrolyzing activity of the enzymes only modestly. Crypticity differences between the three isolates showed that QMCN4 was the least permeable of the isolates to cephaloridine, followed by TAL3636, and that QMCN3 was highly permeable to cephaloridine. Therefore, neither catalytic activity nor permeability was a major contributor to the dramatic differences in the MICs. Instead, microbiological susceptibility was closely related to the level of metallo-beta-lactamase present in each isolate. Both biochemical and physical studies indicated that TAL3636 produced 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold more metallo-beta-lactamase than QMCN3 and QMCN4, respectively. Therefore, the level of CcrA enzyme production is the dominant contributing factor to high-level resistance among strains harboring a ccrA gene.

  3. Gene fusion analysis of membrane protein topology: a direct comparison of alkaline phosphatase and beta-lactamase fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, W A; Beckwith, J

    1994-01-01

    To compare two approaches to analyzing membrane protein topology, a number of alkaline phosphatase fusions to membrane proteins were converted to beta-lactamase fusions. While some alkaline phosphatase fusions near the N terminus of cytoplasmic loops of membrane proteins have anomalously high levels of activity, the equivalent beta-lactamase fusions do not. This disparity may reflect differences in the folding of beta-lactamase and alkaline phosphatase in the cytoplasm. PMID:7929016

  4. Structure-based virtual screening to identify the beta-lactamase CTX-M-9 inhibitors: An in silico effort to overcome antibiotic resistance in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Davari, Kambiz; Nowroozi, Jamileh; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Mirzaie, Sako

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the quick spreads of broad-spectrum beta-lactams antibiotic resistance in pathogenic strains of bacteria have become a major global health problem. These new emerging resistances cause ineffectiveness of antibiotics and increasing the severity of diseases and treatment costs. Among different and diverse resistance targets, we chose a class A beta lactamase, CTX-M-9, with the aim of identifying new chemical entities to be used for further rational drug design. Based on this purpose, a set of 5000 molecules from the Zinc database have been screened by docking experiments using AutoDock Vina software. The best ranked compound, with respect of the previously proved inhibitor compound 19, was further tested by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our molecular modeling analysis demonstrates that ZINC33264777 has ideal characteristics a potent beta lactamase CTX-M-9 inhibitor. In the free form of beta lactamase, NMR relaxation studies showed the extensive motions near the active site and in the Ω-loop. However, our molecular dynamics studies revealed that in the compound 1: beta lactamase complex, the flexibility of Ω-loop was restricted.

  5. Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs).

    PubMed

    Giamarellou, H

    2005-07-01

    In 1983, just two years after the introduction of the oxymino-beta-lactams to the market , the first extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were isolated in Germany from Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Since then several outbreaks have been reported in many European countries and the USA, and nowadays in several places worldwide the problem seems to reach endemic dimensions, with rates exceeding 50% in some countries, such as Portugal and Turkey. On the other hand not only K. pneumoniae but also Escherichia coli strains, with Enterobacter aerogenes predominating among the other enterobacteriaceal species, are increasingly reported as ESBL producers. In this review types, molecular characteristics, detection methods, epidemiology as well as interventions for therapy and antibiotic strategies to prevent and control infections caused by ESBL-producing microorganisms, are presented and discussed.

  6. Amino acid sequence requirements at residues 69 and 238 for the SME-1 beta-lactamase to confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics have been used to counteract resistant strains of bacteria harboring beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Four enzymes from the class A group of beta-lactamases, NMC-A, IMI-1, SME-1, and KPC-1, efficiently hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Sequence comparisons and structural information indicate that cysteines at amino acid residues 69 and 238, which are conserved in all four of these enzymes, form a disulfide bond that is unique to these beta-lactamases. To test whether this disulfide bond is required for catalytic activity, the codons for residues Cys69 and Cys238 were randomized individually and simultaneously by PCR-based mutagenesis to create random replacement libraries for these positions. Mutants that were able to confer resistance to ampicillin, imipenem, or cefotaxime were selected from these libraries. The results indicate that positions Cys69 and Cys238 are critical for hydrolysis of all of the antibiotics tested, suggesting that the disulfide bond is generally required for this enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics.

  7. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Shu, Weiqun; Chang, Xiaosong; Chen, Ji-an; Guo, Yebin; Tan, Yao

    2010-07-01

    The spreading of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla(TEM+CTx-M) was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

  8. Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: Implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, R.A.; Caselli, E.; Focia, P.J.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-08

    Third-generation cephalosporins are widely used {beta}-lactam antibiotics that resist hydrolysis by {beta}-lactamases. Recently, mutant {beta}-lactamases that rapidly inactivate these drugs have emerged. To investigate why third-generation cephalosporins are relatively stable to wild-type class C {beta}-lactamases and how mutant enzymes might overcome this, the structures of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC in complex with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and with a transition-state analogue of ceftazidime were determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.0 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Comparison of the acyl-enzyme structures of ceftazidime and loracarbef, a {beta}-lactam substrate, reveals that the conformation of ceftazidime in the active site differs from that of substrates. Comparison of the structures of the acyl-enzyme intermediate and the transition-state analogue suggests that ceftazidime blocks formation of the tetrahedral transition state, explaining why it is an inhibitor of AmpC. Ceftazidime cannot adopt a conformation competent for catalysis due to steric clashes that would occur with conserved residues Val211 and Tyr221. The X-ray crystal structure of the mutant {beta}-lactamase GC1, which has improved activity against third-generation cephalosporins, suggests that a tandem tripeptide insertion in the {Omega} loop, which contains Val211, has caused a shift of this residue and also of Tyr221 that would allow ceftazidime and other third-generation cephalosporins to adopt a more catalytically competent conformation. These structural differences may explain the extended spectrum activity of GC1 against this class of cephalosporins. In addition, the complexed structure of the transition-state analogue inhibitor (K{sub i} 20 nM) with AmpC reveals potential opportunities for further inhibitor design.

  9. Investigation for antimicrobial resistance-modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Mirzaie, Sako; Najafi, Kambiz; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Fathi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics in bacteria, is one of the major problems of mankind. Each year, a large number of patients due to infection, lose their lives. One of the main mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is beta-lactamase secretion. This enzyme hydrolyzes the amide bond of a lactam ring in beta-lactam antibiotics. Bacillus licheniformis is a mesophilic gram-positive bacterium, which has a high potential to produce beta-lactamase class A. In this study, the inhibitory effects of some malate analogous were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the effects of inhibitor binding on beta-lactamase were studied using MD simulations. Our results showed that diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate can decrease the MIC value of benzyl penicillin by sixteen and eight-fold, respectively. Data derived from in vitro studies revealed that decrease in MIC values is correlated with beta-lactamase inhibition. Molecular docking studies predicted the binding mode of inhibitors with the beta-lactamase active site. The structural analysis from MD simulations exhibits that binding of citrate and diethyl malate causes earlier equilibrium of beta-lactamase. After binding, the fluctuation of Ser 70 is also decreased. Based on our data, diethyl malate can be used to design the potent inhibitor against beta-lactamase class A.

  10. Phenotypic Detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamases in Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muneeza; Ejaz, Hassan; Zafar, Aizza; Hamid, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant A. baumannii has emerged as an important and problematic human pathogen as it is the causative agent of several types of infections especially in neonates and immunocompromised patients because they have least capacity to fight against infections. Carbapenems are used as last resort antibiotics for treating these infections but currently resistance against carbapenems due to MBL production is on the rise. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii and also to compare the efficacy of combined disk test and double disk synergy test for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases. A total of 112 A. baumannii were identified from various clinical samples and antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion method. Out of 112, 66 (58.9%) isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem (OXOID). These resistant isolates were tested for carbapenemase production, and 55 (83.3%) were carbapenemase producers by Modified Hodge Test. These isolates were further tested for MBL production by combined disk test and double disk synergy test. Out of 66, 49 isolates were positive by both methods, CDT and DDST, and only one isolate was detected as negative (with kappa value = 0.038). All MBL producing strains showed remarkable resistance to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin/tazobactam (OXOID). The antibiotic resistance was very high in A. baumannii which were isolated from children in Pakistan specially attending a nephrology unit.

  11. Accumulation of plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes, qepA and qnrS1, in Enterobacter aerogenes co-producing RmtB and class A beta-lactamase LAP-1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon-Joon; Yu, Jin Kyung; Kim, Sang-Il; Lee, Kyungwon; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2009-01-01

    A new plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone efflux pump gene, qepA, is known to be associated with the rmtB gene, which confers high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. We investigated the qepA gene in 573 AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae including one Citrobacter freundii known to harbor rmtB. Of them, two clonally unrelated E. aerogenes harbored qepA. Both isolates co-harbored rmtB, qnrS1, qepA, and bla(LAP-1) on an IncFI type plasmid. The qepA was flanked by two copies of IS26 containing ISCR3C, tnpA, tnpR, bla(TEM), and rmtB. The qnrS1 and bla(LAP-1) were located upstream of qepA. All the resistance determinants (qepA, qnrS1, rmtB, and bla(LAP-1)) were co-transferred to E. coli J53 by filter mating from both isolates. Although the prevalence of qepA is currently low, considering the presence of ISCR3C and the possibility of co-selection and co-transferability of plasmids, more active surveillance for these multi-drug resistant bacteria and prudent use of antimicrobials are needed.

  12. Study of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in healthy broilers of Jabalpur

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Arpita; Sharma, R. K.; Sahni, Y. P.; Shrivastav, Neeraj; Gautam, Vidhi; Jain, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in samples collected from the ceca of healthy broilers of poultry sale outlets (PSOs) Jabalpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 cecal swab samples were taken randomly from freshly slaughtered poultry of 39 PSOs located at four different zones or areas of Jabalpur and were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli using standard methods. Further they were characterized phenotypically by standard methods. Results: All the 400 samples were screened for E. coli producing ESBL enzyme. Among the samples positive for E. coli 135 were positive for ESBL E. coli giving an overall prevalence of 33.5%. Conclusion: This study related to the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy broilers in Jabalpur is indicative of antibiotic resistance prevalent in the healthy birds which are used for human consumption as well. It also signifies resistance prevalent against beta-lactam antibiotics including third and fourth generations of cephalosporins. PMID:27956778

  13. Genetic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in fecal samples of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Bruno; Barreto, Angela; Radhouani, Hajer; Figueiredo, Nicholas; Gaspar, Eurico; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-09-01

    One hundred twelve fecal samples of healthy children were recovered in Portugal during October 2007 and February 2008 and were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Three of the 112 fecal samples (2.7%) harbored ESBL-positive E. coli isolates and the bla(CTX-M-1), bla(TEM-52), and bla(SHV-12) genes were identified in these isolates. The bla(TEM-52)-containing isolate showed a phenotype of multiresistance that included fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol; sul1, sul3, and cmlA genes were detected in this isolate, in addition to two amino acid changes in GyrA (Ser83Leu + Asp87Asn) and one in ParC protein (Ser80Ile). The ESBL isolates corresponded to phylogroup A (one isolate), B1 (one isolate), and D (one isolate). vanA-containing Escherichia faecium isolates were detected in 13 of the 112 fecal samples (11.6%), and vanC-1 isolates were found in 2 samples. A diversity of resistance genes [(tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia, catA, and vat(E)] were found in VRE isolates. These results show that the intestinal tract of healthy children constitutes a reservoir of ESBL-containing E. coli and VRE isolates.

  14. Transferable cefoxitin resistance in enterobacteria from Greek hospitals and characterization of a plasmid-mediated group 1 beta-lactamase (LAT-2).

    PubMed Central

    Gazouli, M; Tzouvelekis, L S; Prinarakis, E; Miriagou, V; Tzelepi, E

    1996-01-01

    Cefoxitin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Escherichia coli strains isolated in Greek hospitals was found to be due to the acquisition of similar plasmids coding for group 1 beta-lactamases. The plasmids were not self-transferable but were mobilized by conjugative plasmids. These elements have also been spread to Enterobacter aerogenes. The most common enzyme was a Citrobacter freundii-derived cephalosporinase (LAT-2) which differed from LAT-1 by three amino acids. PMID:8807075

  15. Prevalence of Class 1 Integrons and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour Moghaddam, Mohammad Javad; Mirbagheri, Adeleh Alsadat; Salehi, Zivar; Habibzade, Seyyed Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) are an important cause of transferable multidrug resistance (MDR) in gram-negative bacteria. The most described ESBL genes are generally found within integron-like structures as mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to identify the accompanying of class 1 integrons and ESBLs in the MDR E. coli isolates. Methods: Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for 33 E. coli strains by the disk diffusion method. Double-disk synergy test was applied for screening ESBL. To identify the strains carrying integrons, the conserved regions of integron-encoded integrase gene intI1 were amplified. For detection of gene cassettes, 5′CS and 3′CS primers were used. Results: All E. coli isolates were identified as multi-drug resistant. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, cephalothin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and third generation cephalosporines. Nearly all of the isolates displayed sensitivity to piperacillin. There was a significant correlation between production of ESBL and resistance to all antibiotics except for ciprofloxacin and piperacillin (P < 0.01). Thirty two MDR strains (97%) included class 1 integron, and some isolates that included integrons were similar in the size of gene cassettes. The isolates were different in the resistance profiles; however, some others had similar resistance profiles. Of eight ESBL positive isolates, seven (87.5%) carried class 1 integrons. Conclusion: Class 1 integrons were frequent in MDR and also ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. High prevalence of class 1 integrons confirms that integron-mediated antimicrobial gene cassettes are important in E. coli resistance profile. PMID:26220727

  16. Carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates producing Bush group 2f beta-lactamase (SME-1) in the United States: results from the MYSTIC Programme.

    PubMed

    Gales, A C; Biedenbach, D J; Winokur, P; Hacek, D M; Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N

    2001-02-01

    Two carbapenem (imipenem, meropenem)-resistant Serratia marcescens strains were isolated in the United States (Chicago, IL) through the 1999 MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) Programme. The S. marcescens antimicrobial susceptible patterns were: susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime (MICs, < or = 0.25 microg/ml), and resistance to the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem; MIC, > 32 microg/ml) and aztreonam (MIC, > = 16 microg/ml). Each S. marcescens isolate shared an identical epidemiologic type (ribotype and PFGE) and the outer membrane protein profile was also identical to those of the wild type susceptible strains from the same medical center. The PCR utilizing bla(sme-1) primers amplified a gene product that was identified as consistent with SME-1 after DNA sequencing. Imipenem and meropenem resistance due to production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes among clinical isolates is still very rare, but microbiology laboratories should be aware of these chromosomally encoded enzymes among class C beta-lactamases producing enteric bacilli such as S. marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae.

  17. [Investigation of the frequency and distribution of beta-lactamase genes in the clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii collected from different regions of Turkey: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Budak, Emine Esra; Gülek, Duygu; Uzun, Aytül; Çizmeci, Zeynep; Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Direkel, Şahin; Çetinkol, Yeliz; Ay Altıntop, Yasemin; Iraz, Meryem; Dal, Tuba; Say Coşkun, Safiye Umut; Balcı, Pervin Özlem; Kayman, Tuba; Çalışkan, Ahmet; Yazıcı, Yelda; Tosun, İsmail; Ertürk, Ayşe; Çopur Çiçek, Ayşegül

    2016-10-01

    The diversity and distribution of TEM, SHV and CTX-M type of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are important for the treatment and control of infections. Determination of ESBL genes in clinical isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing can obtain useful data for their molecular epidemiology and risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of beta-lactamase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from different regions of Turkey. A total of 519 A.baumannii strains collected from hospitals located at 12 different provinces of Turkey (Bolu (n= 67), Tokat (n= 47), Trabzon (n= 25), Ordu (n= 27), Diyarbakır (n= 47), Niğde (n=31), Kayseri (n= 36), Ankara (n= 41), Kirikkale (n= 26), Kahramanmaraş (n= 25), Mersin (n= 40), Istanbul (n= 107)] between 2011-2012 period were included in the study. Identification of the isolates were performed by both conventional methods and automated systems, VITEK2 Compact (BioMerieux, France) and API 32GN (BioMerieux, France). Disc diffusion method was used for the detection of antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates and the results were evaluated according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) criteria. Tigecycline and colistin sensitivities of the isolates were evaluated according to BSAC (British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) criteria. The presence of beta-lactamase genes, namely blaoxa-51, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M1, blaCTX-M2, blaGES and blaVIM were detected by PCR. In our study, the resistance rates against colistin, tigecycline, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoperazone/sulbactam, tobramycin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cefepime, piperacillin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and ceftazidime were detected as; 0.6%, 2.7%, 11.9%, 15.2%, 21%, 22.9%, 23.9%, 48.6%, 59.5%, 61.8%, 66.3%, 67.8%, 69.2%, 71.1%, 77.5%, 78.6%, 81.1%, 82

  18. The Structural Bases of Antibiotic Resistance in the Clinically Derived Mutant beta-Lactamases TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-34

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Widespread use of {beta}-lactam antibiotics has promoted the evolution of {beta}-lactamase mutant enzymes that can hydrolyze ever newer classes of these drugs. Among the most pernicious mutants are the inhibitor-resistant TEM {beta}-lactamases (IRTs), which elude mechanism-based inhibitors, such as clavulanate. Despite much research on these IRTs, little is known about the structural bases of their action. This has made it difficult to understand how many of the resistance substitutions act as they often occur far from Ser-130. Here, three IRT structures, TEM-30 (R244S), TEM-32 (M69I/M182T), and TEM-34 (M69V), are determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.00, 1.61, and 1.52 {angstrom}, respectively. In TEM-30, the Arg-244 {yields} Ser substitution (7.8 {angstrom} from Ser-130) displaces a conserved water molecule that usually interacts with the {beta}-lactam C3 carboxylate. In TEM-32, the substitution Met-69 {yields} Ile (10 {angstrom} from Ser-130) appears to distort Ser-70, which in turn causes Ser-130 to adopt a new conformation, moving its O{gamma} further away, 2.3 {angstrom} from where the inhibitor would bind. This substitution also destabilizes the enzyme by 1.3 kcal/mol. The Met-182 {yields} Thr substitution (20 {angstrom} from Ser-130) has no effect on enzyme activity but rather restabilizes the enzyme by 2.9 kcal/mol. In TEM-34, the Met-69 {yields} Val substitution similarly leads to a conformational change in Ser-130, this time causing it to hydrogen bond with Lys-73 and Lys-234. This masks the lone pair electrons of Ser-130 O{gamma}, reducing its nucleophilicity for cross-linking. In these three structures, distant substitutions result in accommodations that converge on the same point of action, the local environment of Ser-130. TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the predominant source of resistance to {beta}-lactams, such as the penicillins. TEM-1 and related class A {beta}-lactamases confer resistance by hydrolyzing the {beta}-lactam ring of these antibiotics

  19. Molecular characterization of TEM-type beta-lactamases identified in cold-seep sediments of Edison Seamount (south of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Seok; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2005-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and genotypes of beta-lactamases among clones of a metagenomic library from the cold-seep sediments of Edison seamount (10,000 years old), we performed pulse-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic susceptibility testing, pI determination, and DNA sequencing analysis. Among the 8,823 clones of the library, thirty clones produced beta-lactamases and had high levels of genetic diversity. Consistent with minimum inhibitory concentration patterns, we found that five (16.7%) of thirty clones produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. 837- and 259-bp fragments specific to blaTEM genes were amplified, as determined by banding patterns of PCR amplification with designed primers. TEM-1 was the most prevalent beta-lactamase and conferred resistance to ampicillin, piperacillin, and cephalothin. TEM-116 had a spectrum that was extended to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. The resistance levels conferred by the pre-antibiotic era alleles of TEM-type beta-lactamases were essentially the same as the resistance levels conferred by the TEM-type alleles which had been isolated from clinically resistant strains of bacteria of the antibiotic era. Our first report on TEM-type beta-lactamases of the pre-antibiotic era indicates that TEM-type beta-lactamases paint a picture in which most of the diversity of the enzymes may not be the result of recent evolution, but that of ancient evolution.

  20. Resistance to cefepime and cefpirome due to a 4-amino-acid deletion in the chromosome-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase of a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-03-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The bla(AmpC) gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(AmpC) gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the bla(AmpC) gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the beta-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type beta-lactamases.

  1. Detection of Metallo-Beta Lactamases Among Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Rostami, Soodabeh; Jolodar, Abbas; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Khorvash, Farzin; Saki, Azadeh; Shoja, Saeed; Sheikhi, Raheleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carbapenems are important drugs used for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, however metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) are able to efficiently hydrolyze these classes of drugs. Immediate detection of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa is necessary in order to accurately treat infections caused by this organism. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of MBL producing P. aeruginosa in burn and non-burn patients by two phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare phenotypic tests with PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 223 non-duplicate strains of P. aeruginosa were collected from three teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and E-test methods. Combined disk (CD) test, MBL E-test and PCR were performed for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Results: Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 58.7% were resistant to imipenem while 31.8%, 13.5% and 74.4% were resistant to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem, respectively. Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 44.4% were multidrug resistant and 13.45% were resistant to all of the carbapenems. The CD test with doripenem disk / 750 μg ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) had the highest efficiency compared to the other phenotypic tests. blaIMP and blaVIM genes were detected in 11.7% and 0.4% of isolates, respectively. blaSPM and blaNDM genes were not observed. Conclusions: Epidemiological and regional evaluation of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa through simple and inexpensive methods should be considered for effective treatment of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:25774271

  2. Automatic phylogenetic classification of bacterial beta-lactamase sequences including structural and antibiotic substrate preference information.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianmin; Eisenhaber, Frank; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    Beta lactams comprise the largest and still most effective group of antibiotics, but bacteria can gain resistance through different beta lactamases that can degrade these antibiotics. We developed a user friendly tree building web server that allows users to assign beta lactamase sequences to their respective molecular classes and subclasses. Further clinically relevant information includes if the gene is typically chromosomal or transferable through plasmids as well as listing the antibiotics which the most closely related reference sequences are known to target and cause resistance against. This web server can automatically build three phylogenetic trees: the first tree with closely related sequences from a Tachyon search against the NCBI nr database, the second tree with curated reference beta lactamase sequences, and the third tree built specifically from substrate binding pocket residues of the curated reference beta lactamase sequences. We show that the latter is better suited to recover antibiotic substrate assignments through nearest neighbor annotation transfer. The users can also choose to build a structural model for the query sequence and view the binding pocket residues of their query relative to other beta lactamases in the sequence alignment as well as in the 3D structure relative to bound antibiotics. This web server is freely available at http://blac.bii.a-star.edu.sg/.

  3. Purification and properties of thiol beta-lactamase. A mutant of pBR322 beta-lactamase in which the active site serine has been replaced with cysteine.

    PubMed

    Sigal, I S; DeGrado, W F; Thomas, B J; Petteway, S R

    1984-04-25

    The specifically mutated enzyme thiol beta-lactamase has been expressed in Escherichia coli by means of the trp promoter and purified to homogeneity. The gene for this enzyme results from a single base change N410 A----T in the gene of pBR322 RTEM beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6, penicillinase, penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase) which alters the codon for the active site Ser 70 to that for Cys. Precursor thiol beta-lactamase is processed to give the same NH2-terminal sequence as that for wild type enzyme. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, thiol beta-lactamase contains one free titratable thiol group/molecule. Thiol beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-lactams with a substrate specificity that is distinct from that of wild type enzyme. For benzyl-penicillin and ampicillin, the Km values are similar to wild type values although the kcat values are 1-2% that of wild type enzyme. For the cephalosporin nitrocefin, the Km is greater than 10-fold that of the wild type and the kcat is at least as large as the kcat for the wild type enzyme. Thiol beta-lactamase is different from wild type beta-lactamase in that it is not competitively inhibited by boric acid although a small degree of noncompetitive inhibition does occur. Whereas the circular dichroism spectra of both enzymes are nearly identical, thiol beta-lactamase at 40 degrees C is 3-fold more resistant to trypsin than is the wild type enzyme.

  4. [Spreading and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams of Klebsiella spp. strains, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotic sensivity of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains (n = 212), isolated from patients treated in 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia was investigated. The Klebsiella genus was represented by the following species: Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae--182 (85.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. ozaenae--1 (0.5%), Klebsiella oxytoca--29 (13.7%) isolates. The most active antibacterial agents against the investigated strains were carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). Among 3rd generation cephalosporine the lowest MICs were observed for ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (MIC50--0.25 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml) and cefoperazone/sulbactam (MIC50--16 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml). Beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) were detected in 42 Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae strains by PCR. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 16 (38.1%) isolates, SHV--in 29 (69%), and CTX--in 27 (64.3%). Combinations of 2 different determinants were detected in 23.8% of the isolates, 3--in 26.2%. There were not isolates producing MBL class B among resistant to carbapenems nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains.

  5. Identical plasmid AmpC beta-lactamase genes and plasmid types in E. coli isolates from patients and poultry meat in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Voets, Guido M; Fluit, Ad C; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Stuart, James Cohen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Recent studies showed that poultry meat and humans share identical Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase genes, plasmid types, and Escherichia coli strain types, suggesting that transmission from poultry meat to humans may occur. The aim of this study was to compare plasmid-encoded Ambler class C beta-lactamase (pAmpC) genes, their plasmids, and bacterial strain types between E. coli isolates from retail chicken meat and clinical isolates in the Netherlands. In total, 98 Dutch retail chicken meat samples and 479 third-generation cephalosporin non-susceptible human clinical E. coli isolates from the same period were screened for pAmpC production. Plasmid typing was performed using PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). E coli strains were compared using Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST). In 12 of 98 chicken meat samples (12%), pAmpC producing E. coli were detected (all blaCMY-2). Of the 479 human E. coli, 25 (5.2%) harboured pAmpC genes (blaCMY-2 n = 22, blaACT n = 2, blaMIR n = 1). PBRT showed that 91% of poultry meat isolates harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 9% on an IncI1 plasmid. Of the human blaCMY-2 producing isolates, 42% also harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 47% on an IncI1 plasmid. Thus, 68% of human pAmpC producing E. coli have the same AmpC gene (blaCMY-2) and plasmid type (IncI1 or IncK) as found in poultry meat. MLST showed one cluster containing one human isolate and three meat isolates, with an IncK plasmid. These findings imply that a foodborne transmission route of blaCMY-2 harbouring plasmids cannot be excluded and that further evaluation is required.

  6. Phylogenetic tree and sequence similarity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, H

    1993-06-01

    beta-Lactamases are the main cause of beta-lactam resistance in many pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes can be detected in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria. The cyanobacteria are also known to produce a beta-lactamase. Recently, the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional structures of some of these beta-lactamases have been clarified. On the basis of the amino acid sequences of 47 beta-lactamases and the computer-aided analysis, a phylogenetic tree is proposed in this paper. According to the tree, beta-lactamases are classified into six groups. Group 1 beta-lactamases are mainly composed of plasmid-mediated enzymes from gram-negative bacteria. However, chromosome-derived beta-lactamases from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata take part in this group. Group 2 enzymes consist of a part of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from Streptomyces, and chromosome-mediated enzymes from Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter diversus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria form group 3. Group 4 is composed of metalloenzymes, whereas group 5 consists of OXA type beta-lactamases. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-positive bacteria form group 6. Comparison of the amino acid sequences among these groups confirmed the phylogenetic tree and the classification: the beta-lactamases in each group have its particular conserved amino acid sequences. In addition, the tree provides more detailed classification and time-scale mutual relationships and predicts new types of beta-lactamases that may be found. Furthermore, the classification deduced from the tree is generally in accord with the one based on the amino acid sequences reported previously. However, the class A beta-lactamases are clearly divided into three groups: groups 1, 2, and 6. RDF2 analysis shows that some combinations between beta-lactamases and beta-lactam-interacting proteins as well as eukaryotic proteins

  7. Wide dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Ten bla(KPC-2)-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded bla(AmpC) and bla(OXA-50) genes and the acquired bla(KPC-2) gene. In most cases, the bla(KPC-2) genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing bla(KPC-2) are disseminating in Colombia.

  8. Presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) & AmpC positive non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli among Intensive Care Unit patients with special reference to molecular detection of blaCTX-M & blaAmpC genes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Ahmed, Moied

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii have been implicated in a variety of infections, particularly in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs). This study was aimed to overview the burden of multidrug-resistant NFGNB causing infections in ICU and also to assess the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among these isolates. Methods: Bacterial culture, identification and antibiotic susceptibility were carried out. ESBLs and AmpC were detected both phenotypically and genotypically. MBL was detected by modified Hodge and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid double-disc synergy test. Results: NFGNB represented 45 (37%) of total 121 Gram negative isolates. Multidrug resistance was observed in 66.9 per cent and 72.5 per cent isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. Detection by phenotypic methods showed presence of ESBL, AmpC and MBL in 21.4, 51.1 and 21.4 per cent isolates, respectively. When detected genotypically by polymerase chain reaction, ESBL and AmpC were detected in 21.4 and 41.4 per cent of NFGNB isolates, respectively. BlaCTX-M (21.4%) was the most prevalent gene responsible for ESBL production. Interpretation & conclusions: Most of the NFGNB isolated from ICU patients were multidrug-resistant and producers of ESBL, AmpC and MBL. A regular surveillance is required to detect ESBL, AmpC and MBL producers, especially in ICU patients. PMID:27934808

  9. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

    PubMed

    Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion.

  10. Emergence of Acinetobacter pittii harboring New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase genes in Daejeon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenemase production has been reported worldwide in gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter species. We detected carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter pittii in clinical isolates in Daejeon, Korea. Twenty-one ertapenem-resistant A. pittii isolates screened with a disk diffusion method were characterized by using the Epsilon test, four multiplex PCR assays, and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. A total of 21 A. pittii isolates harbored the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene bla(IMP-1) or bla(NDM-1). Nineteen isolates containing bla(IMP-1) were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, but two isolates harboring bla(NDM-1) were susceptible to them. The sequence types (STs) of the two New Delhi MBL (NDM-1)-producing A. pittii isolates were ST70 and ST207, which differed from the STs (ST63, ST119, ST396, and a novel ST) of the IMP-1-producing A. pittii. This is the first report on NDM-1-producing A. pittii isolates in Korea. Our results emphasize that the study of NDM-1-producing gram-negative bacteria should involve carbapenem-susceptible as well as carbapenem-resistant isolates.

  11. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem.

  12. In vivo topological analysis of Ste2, a yeast plasma membrane protein, by using beta-lactamase gene fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, C P; Tipper, D J

    1991-01-01

    Gene fusions were constructed between Ste2, the receptor for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor, and beta la, the secreted form of beta-lactamase encoded by the bla gene of pBR322. The Ste2 and beta la components were linked by a processing fragment (P) from the yeast killer preprotoxin containing a C-terminal lysine-arginine site for cleavage by the Golgi-associated Kex2 protease. Ste2 is predicted to have a rhodopsinlike topology, with an external N terminus and seven transmembrane segments. Fusions to three of the four Ste2 domains predicted to be external resulted in beta la secretion from yeast cells. A fusion at a site just preceding the first transmembrane segment was an exception; the product was cell associated, indicating that the first 44 residues of Ste2 are insufficient to direct secretion of beta la; translocation of this domain presumably requires the downstream transmembrane segment. Expression of fusions located in two domains predicted to be cytoplasmic failed to result in beta la secretion. Following insertion of the preprotoxin signal peptide (S) between the Ste2 and P components of these cytoplasmic fusions, secretion of beta la activity occurred, which is consistent with inversion of the orientation of the beta la reporter. Conversely, insertion of S between Ste2 and P in an external fusion sharply reduced beta la secretion. Complementary information about both cytoplasmic and external domains of Ste2 was therefore provided, and most aspects of the predicted topology were confirmed. The steady-state levels of beta la detected were low, presumably because of efficient degradation of the fusions in the secretory pathway; levels, however, were easily detectable. This method should be valuable in the analysis of in vivo topologies of both homologous and foreign plasma membrane proteins expressed in yeast cells. Images PMID:2017168

  13. Characterization and sequence analysis of extended-spectrum-{beta}-lactamase-encoding genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Hal; Tuckman, Margareta; Keeney, David; Ruzin, Alexey; Bradford, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    In concert with the development of novel beta-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded beta-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(OXA), and bla(CTX) genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the bla(CMY), bla(ACT), bla(FOX), and bla(DHA) families as well as the bla(KPC) genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of > or =2 microg/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, bla(CTX-M)-type beta-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas bla(SHV) genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC(90) = 2 microg/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting.

  14. Risk Factor Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Pathogen-Induced Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young; Lee, Dong Gi; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoo, Koo Han

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate risk factors and the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP). We reviewed the medical records of 307 patients who were diagnosed with ABP between January 2006 and December 2015. The etiologic pathogens and risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing microbes, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and the incidence of ESBL in patients with ABP were described. History of prior urologic manipulation was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant (P = 0.005) and ESBL-producing microbes (P = 0.005). Advanced age (over 60 years) was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant microbes (P = 0.022). The ciprofloxacin susceptibility for Escherichia coli in groups without prior manipulation was documented 85.7%. For groups with prior manipulation, the susceptibility was 10.0%. Incidence of ESBL-producing microbes by pathogen was 3.8% for E. coli and 1.0% for Klebsiella pneumonia in the absence of manipulation group, and 20% and 33.3% in the presence of manipulation group, respectively. Initial treatment of ABP must consider patient's age and the possibility of prior manipulation to optimize patient treatment. With the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolone, cephalosporins with amikacin, or carbapenems, or extended-spectrum penicillin with beta lactamase inhibitor should be considered as the preferred empirical ABP treatment in the patients with history of prior urologic manipulation.

  15. Integron mediated multidrug resistance in extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Mobarak-Qamsari, Maryam; Ashayeri-Panah, Mitra; Eftekhar, Freshteh; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes integron mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. One hundred and four clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from two Iranian hospitals were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase production and susceptibility of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates was determined to 17 antibiotics by disc diffusion. Presence of integron classes 1, 2 and 3 was detected by PCR and integrase specific primers. Isolates harboring class 1 integron were then screened for variable regions using PCR. Fifty isolates (48%) produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases among which, 22 (44%) harbored class 1, 3 (6%) carried class 2 and none contained class 3 integons. Integron carriage was significantly associated with higher rates of multiple antibiotic resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. Integron harboring isolates were more resistant to aztreonam (51.3%), ceftazidime (42.6%), cefotaxime (43.3%), cefepime (24.6%), kanamycin (43.2%), tobramycin (30.7%), norfloxcacin (32%) and spectinomycin (25.6%) compared to the organisms without integrons. On the other hand, resistance to nitrofurantoin and streptomycin was significantly higher among the integron negative isolates. PCR amplification of class1 integron variable regions revealed 9 different sized DNA fragments and isolates with similar profiles for class 1 integron variable regions showed the same antibiotic resistance phenotypes. PMID:24516451

  16. Iodometric Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Beta-Lactamase: Rapid Presumptive Test for Ampicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B. Wesley

    1975-01-01

    Strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b sporadically isolated from clinical specimens are ampicillin resistant due to production of a β-lactamase. This enzyme which inactivates ampicillin and penicillin G is not produced by ampicillin-susceptible strains. Various characteristics of β-lactamase production and ampicillin resistance of three H. influenzae type b isolates were investigated. A sensitive iodometric test was employed to detect β-lactamase; positive results were obtained in 5 min with 109 bacteria taken from cultures on a nutritionally adequate agar medium. This simple chemical test will enable the hospital laboratory to obtain presumptive evidence of ampicillin resistance on the same day that H. influenzae is isolated. PMID:1079712

  17. Binding properties of a peptide derived from beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Huang, W; Palzkill, T

    2001-12-01

    To overcome the antibiotic resistance mechanism mediated by beta-lactamases, small-molecule beta-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, have been used. This approach, however, has applied selective pressure for mutations that result in beta-lactamases no longer sensitive to beta-lactamase inhibitors. On the basis of the structure of beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP), novel peptide inhibitors of beta-lactamase have been constructed. BLIP is a 165-amino-acid protein that is a potent inhibitor of TEM-1 beta-lactamase (K(i) = 0.3 nM). The cocrystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP indicates that residues 46 to 51 of BLIP make critical interactions with the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. A peptide containing this six-residue region of BLIP was found to retain sufficient binding energy to interact with TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Inhibition assays with the BLIP peptide reveal that, in addition to inhibiting TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the peptide also inhibits a class A beta-lactamase and a class C beta-lactamase that are not inhibited by BLIP. The crystal structures of class A and C beta-lactamases and two penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) reveal that the enzymes have similar three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the active site. This similarity suggests that the BLIP peptide inhibitor may have a broad range of activity that can be used to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors of various classes of beta-lactamases and PBPs.

  18. Evolution of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases by mutation.

    PubMed

    Gniadkowski, M

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria belong to the most rapidly evolving DNA sequences, which results in an enormous structural diversity of resistance effectors. Structural modifications of resistance genes by mutation and recombination, together with a multitude of events that stimulate their mobility and expression, allow microorganisms to survive in environments saturated with antimicrobial agents of various types and generations. Genes coding for beta-lactamases in Gram-negative bacteria are a fascinating example of this multifocal and multidirectional evolution, with the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) being one of the most spectacular 'achievements'. Some of the ESBLs known today are 'ready-to-use' enzymes in their natural producers but these are often of low pathogenic potential, or none at all. The problem appears upon mobilisation of a gene encoding such an ESBL, and its acquisition and sufficient expression by a more virulent organism. Many ESBLs are generated by mutations in genes coding for broad-spectrum enzymes, which have been mobile since at least the 1960s and which have disseminated very widely in populations of pathogenic bacteria. Strong selection pressure exerted by antimicrobial use, especially with newer-generation beta-lactam antibiotics, efficiently promotes these two modes of ESBL emergence and subsequent spread. It also stimulates further evolution of ESBLs by accumulation of other mutations with an astonishing variety of effects on beta-lactamase structure and activity. Remarkably, more than 300 natural ESBL variants have been identified since the mid-1980s but in-vitro studies suggest that ESBL evolution has certainly not come to an end; they may also help in predicting future developments. The aim of this review is to briefly overview the role of various mutations in ESBL evolution.

  19. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  20. Chromosome-encoded narrow-spectrum Ambler class A beta-lactamase GIL-1 from Citrobacter gillenii.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Aubert, Daniel; Ozcan, Ayla; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-04-01

    A novel beta-lactamase gene was cloned from the whole-cell DNA of an enterobacterial Citrobacter gillenii reference strain that displayed a weak narrow-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant phenotype and was expressed in Escherichia coli. It encoded a clavulanic acid-inhibited Ambler class A beta-lactamase, GIL-1, with a pI value of 7.5 and a molecular mass of ca. 29 kDa. GIL-1 had the highest percent amino acid sequence identity with TEM-1 and SHV-1, 77%, and 67%, respectively, and only 46%, 31%, and 32% amino acid sequence identity with CKO-1 (C. koseri), CdiA1 (C. diversus), and SED-1 (C. sedlaki), respectively. The substrate profile of the purified GIL-1 was similar to that of beta-lactamases TEM-1 and SHV-1. The blaGIL-1 gene was chromosomally located, as revealed by I-CeuI experiments, and was constitutively expressed at a low level in C. gillenii. No gene homologous to the regulatory ampR genes of chromosomal class C beta-lactamases was found upstream of the blaGIL-1 gene, which fits the noninducibility of beta-lactamase expression in C. gillenii. Rapid amplification of DNA 5' ends analysis of the promoter region revealed putative promoter sequences that diverge from what has been identified as the consensus sequence in E. coli. The blaGIL-1 gene was part of a 5.5-kb DNA fragment bracketed by a 9-bp duplication and inserted between the d-lactate dehydrogenase gene and the ydbH genes; this DNA fragment was absent in other Citrobacter species. This work further illustrates the heterogeneity of beta-lactamases in Citrobacter spp., which may indicate that the variability of Citrobacter species is greater than expected.

  1. Risk Factor Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Pathogen-Induced Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate risk factors and the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP). We reviewed the medical records of 307 patients who were diagnosed with ABP between January 2006 and December 2015. The etiologic pathogens and risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing microbes, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and the incidence of ESBL in patients with ABP were described. History of prior urologic manipulation was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant (P = 0.005) and ESBL-producing microbes (P = 0.005). Advanced age (over 60 years) was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant microbes (P = 0.022). The ciprofloxacin susceptibility for Escherichia coli in groups without prior manipulation was documented 85.7%. For groups with prior manipulation, the susceptibility was 10.0%. Incidence of ESBL-producing microbes by pathogen was 3.8% for E. coli and 1.0% for Klebsiella pneumonia in the absence of manipulation group, and 20% and 33.3% in the presence of manipulation group, respectively. Initial treatment of ABP must consider patient’s age and the possibility of prior manipulation to optimize patient treatment. With the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolone, cephalosporins with amikacin, or carbapenems, or extended-spectrum penicillin with beta lactamase inhibitor should be considered as the preferred empirical ABP treatment in the patients with history of prior urologic manipulation. PMID:27709861

  2. Regulation of the beta-lactamase BlaL of Streptomyces cacaoi: the product of the blaB regulatory gene is an internal membrane-bound protein.

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, J; Joris, B; Van Beeumen, J; Brasseur, R; Dusart, J

    1995-01-01

    The beta-lactamase-encoding gene blaL, cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi in Streptomyces lividans, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. This regulation has been shown to depend on the products of two open reading frames, ORF1 (blaA) and ORF2 (blaB) [Lenzini, Magdalena, Fraipont, Joris, Matagne and Dusart (1992) Mol. Gen. Genet. 235, 41-48]. BlaA belongs to the LysR family of transcription activators, whereas BlaB shares some features with the penicillin-recognizing proteins. BlaB has now been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for antibody preparation. Immunoblotting of cell-fractionated materials from S. cacaoi showed that BlaB is attached to the internal face of the cytoplasmic membrane. It could not be released by high salt concentrations or EDTA, but only by protease treatment. Under the assay conditions, BlaB did not act as a penicillin-binding protein, a beta-lactamase, a D-amino-peptidase or a target in a phosphorylation step. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7575447

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H. Sohn, S. G. Jung, H. I. An, Y. J. Lee, S. H.

    2013-07-15

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates {beta}-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino {beta}-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 A. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  4. Notes from the field: hospital outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase--Denver, Colorado, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-02-15

    On August 16, 2012, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment was notified of two patients at an acute-care hospital in Denver with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), specifically Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), isolated from respiratory specimens during July-August. Both isolates produced New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM). A review of microbiology records identified a third patient with NDM-producing CRKP isolated from a respiratory specimen, admitted in May. Active surveillance cultures in September identified an additional five patients colonized with NDM-producing CRKP. An investigation was launched by the hospital and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment to guide infection control measures and limit transmission.

  5. [Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae after exposure to oral antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Naoko; Morozumi, Miyuki; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2012-10-01

    Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (BLNAR) after exposure to oral antibacterial agents could be observed over time under a phase-contrast microscope. Morphological changes in BLNAR were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The organisms used in this study were ME19F strain identified as genotypic(g) gPRSP (serotype: 19F) and JPH002 strain identified as gBLNAR (serotype: b). The antibacterial agents used were amoxicillin (AMPC), cefditoren (CDTR), tebipenem (TBPM), and tosufloxacin (TFLX). The concentration of each antibacterial agent to which the bacteria were exposed was set at the blood level one hour after Cmax when administered to children at the usual dose. Bacteriolysis of gPRSP cells started after exposure of only 20minutes to TBPM, and 90% of the cells were lysed within 2 hours. A high bactericidal action of TBPM on gPRSP was supported by these findings. When gBLNAR was exposed to AMPC and TBPM, lysis from spheroplasts and cells with vacuoles were sometimes observed. In contrast, after gBLNAR was exposed to CDTR, lysis occurred after marked filamentation in the cells, but after exposure to TFLX, cells deduced to be killed after mild filamentation without lysis. Time-dependent morphological changes that reflect the differences in bactericidal activity and PBP affinity among beta-lactams provide beneficial information to select antibacterial agents.

  6. Frequency and distribution per species, biotypes, resistance to antibiotics and beta-lactamase production of the haemophils isolated from patients with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Mihancea, N

    1998-01-01

    A number of 150 samples were prelevated from respiratory tract secretions of 88 patients with respiratory infections and three healthy subjects; 162 haemophilus strains were isolated, identified and studied and the following results were obtained: H. parainfluenzae was isolated from tonsillitis and laryngitis--over 70%, bronchitis--58% and pharyngitis--56.6%; H. influenzae was isolated from pharyngitis--26.4%, bronchitis--16.1% and tonsillitis--13.6% cases; H. parahaemolyticus from bronchitis--19.3%, tonsillitis--13.6% and laryngitis. H. paraphrophilus was isolated (6.8%) from pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, bronchitis and pulmonary abscess and H. paraphrohaemolyticus was isolated--4.5% from pharyngitis, synusitis, bronchitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Most of the isolates belonged to biotype II H. influenzae and biotypes II, I, III H. parainfluenzae. Haemophils were 100% sensitive to Ofloxacin and resistant to Cro--13.5%, Do--17.9%, C and Caz--22.2%, Aml--24.6%, Rd--40.7%, Amp--41.9% and Te--63.5%; varying according to the haemophilus species. H. influenzae was resistant to Do--14.2%, Caz and C--21.4%, H. parainfluenzae was resistant to Cro--11%, Do--22%, whilst H. parahaemolyticus was resistant to Do--9% and to Aml, Caz and Cro--13.6%. Haemophils isolated from sputum showed a resistance higher by 12-34% and 6-17% than those isolated from other specimens, such as pharyngeal exudate, where the resistance to rifadin was lower by 10%. beta-lactamases were present in 27.7% of the strains: H. parainfluenzae--36%, H. paraphrohaemolyticus--25%, H. influenzae--17.8% and H. parahaemolyticus--15.7%; in strains from sputum--34.2%, pharyngeal exudate--28.8% and from other specimens--6.6%. No correlations were noticed between the biotype and the clinical manifestation or the resistance to the antibiotic, a higher frequency of beta-lactamase production being reported in H. influenzae biotype V and H. parainfluenzae biotypes II and IV.

  7. Novel class A beta-lactamase Sed-1 from Citrobacter sedlakii: genetic diversity of beta-lactamases within the Citrobacter genus.

    PubMed

    Petrella, S; Clermont, D; Casin, I; Jarlier, V; Sougakoff, W

    2001-08-01

    Citrobacter sedlakii 2596, a clinical strain resistant to aminopenicillins, carboxypenicillins, and early cephalosporins such as cephalothin, but remaining susceptible to acylureidopenicillins, carbapenems, and later cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, was isolated from the bile of a patient treated with beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. The isolate produced an inducible class A beta-lactamase of pI 8.6, named Sed-1, which was purified. Characterized by a molecular mass of 30 kDa, Sed-1 preferentially hydrolyzed benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, and cloxacillin. The corresponding gene, bla(Sed-1), was cloned and sequenced. Its deduced amino acid sequence shared more than 60% identity with the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from Citrobacter koseri (formerly C. diversus) (84%), Klebsiella oxytoca (74%), Serratia fonticola (67%), and Proteus vulgaris (63%) and 71% identity with the plasmid-mediated enzyme MEN-1. A gene coding for a LysR transcriptional regulator was found upstream from bla(Sed-1). This regulator, named SedR, displayed 90% identity with the AmpR sequence of the chromosomal beta-lactamase from C. koseri and 63 and 50% identity with the AmpR sequences of P. vulgaris and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively. By using DNA-DNA hybridization, a bla(Sed-1)-like gene was identified in two reference strains, C. sedlakii (CIP-105037) and Citrobacter rodentium (CIP-104675), but not in the 18 strains of C. koseri studied. Two DNA fragments were amplified and sequenced from the reference strains of C. sedlakii CIP-105037 and C. rodentium CIP-104675 using two primers specific for bla(Sed-1). They shared 98 and 80% identity with bla(Sed-1), respectively, confirming the diversity of the chromosomally encoded class A beta-lactamases found in Citrobacter.

  8. [blaTEM, blaSHV y blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacterias isolated from patients with hospital-acquired infections].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Militza; Rodríguez, Eliosmar; Antón, Karen; Silva, Suyin; Navarro, Jhonilys; Lastra, Loriannys; Salazar, Elsa; Alonso, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to identify the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates, collected between September and November 2005. In addition to third-generation cephalosporin resistance, the isolates also showed resistance to chloramphenicol (59.2%), amikacin (37.0%) and gentamicin (40.7%), and demonstrated sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem. Nine strains were capable of transferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance, as well as the production of ESBL. In the clinical isolates, the genes blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected, being more prevalent the types blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-5 blaSHV-5-2a and blaCTX-M-1; while in the trans-conjugated only blaTEM-1, blaSHV-5 y blaSHV-5-2awere found. In total, seven types of genes were identified, five of which were codifying genes for ESBL-type enzymes. This demonstrates that in the hospital center, resistance to third-generation cephalosporin is mediated by several enzymes.

  9. High levels of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in a major teaching hospital in Ghana: the need for regular monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Twum-Danso, Kingsley; Krogfelt, Karen A; Newman, Mercy J

    2013-11-01

    Infections with bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing across Africa. This study reports on ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae as significant causes of infections and antibiotic resistance at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Of 300 isolates examined, 49.3% produced ESBLs. The prevalence of ESBLs was significantly high among isolates from neonates (28 of 43, 65.1%; relative risk = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-2.13, P = 0.002) and adult patients > 65 years of age (36 of 51, 70.5%; relative risk = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-2.40, P = 0.001). A marked increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations of ESBL-positive species was noticed compared with those for the other strains. Using these concentrations, we found that 26 (17%) ESBL producers were resistant to two or more antibiotics (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamide, and carbapenems) whereas 5 (3.2%) non-ESBL producers were multidrug resistant. Regular ESBL detection and evaluation of antibiotic resistance may help reduce the spread of ESBLs and antibiotic resistance in Ghana.

  10. [Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized patients in Goiânia, State of Goiás].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Diana Christina Pereira Santos; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Leão, Lara Stefania Netto de Oliveira; Filho, José Rodrigues do Carmo; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium frequently isolated from hospital environments. This study had the aims of evaluating the susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously isolated from patients in a hospital in Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil), performing phenotypic screening for metallo-beta-lactamase production and detecting its genes using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Seventy-five 75 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were evaluated between January 2005 and January 2007. Biochemical identification was performed using the API 20E system and an antibiogram was produced using the Kirby-Bauer method. Among the 62 isolates that were resistant to imipenem and ceftazidime, 35 (56.4%) produced metallo-beta-lactamase, while 26 (74.3%) showed the bla(SPM-1) gene. The frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produces metallo-beta-lactamase suggests that greater control over the dissemination of resistance in hospital environments is needed.

  11. Reversal of clavulanate resistance conferred by a Ser-244 mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a result of a second mutation (Arg to Ser at position 164) that enhances activity against ceftazidime.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, U; Manavathu, E K; Mobashery, S; Lerner, S A

    1994-01-01

    The mutation of Arg-244 to Ser (Arg-244-->Ser mutation) in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase has been shown to produce resistance to inactivation by clavulanate in the mutant enzyme and resistance to ampicillin plus clavulanate in a strain of Escherichia coli producing this enzyme. The Arg-164-->Ser mutation in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase (TEM-12 enzyme) is known to enhance the activity of the enzyme against ceftazidime, resulting in resistance to the drug in a strain producing the mutant enzyme (D. A. Weber, C. C. Sanders, J. S. Bakken, and J. P. Quinn, J. Infect. Dis. 162:460-465, 1990). The doubly mutated derivative of the TEM-1 enzyme (Ser-164/Ser-244) retains the characteristics of the Ser-164 mutant enzyme, i.e., enhanced activity against ceftazidime and sensitivity to inactivation by clavulanate. It also confers the same phenotype as the Ser-164 mutant enzyme, i.e., resistance to ceftazidime and ampicillin, with reversal of this resistance in the presence of clavulanate. Thus, the Arg-164-->Ser mutation in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase suppresses the effect of the Arg-244-->Ser mutation which, by itself, reduces the sensitivity of the enzyme to inactivation by clavulanate. PMID:8067751

  12. Diversity of CTX-M beta-lactamases and their promoter regions from Enterobacteriaceae isolated in three Parisian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michèle; Cao, Van Thi Bao; Lambert, Thierry; Donay, Jean-Luc; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Verdet, Charlotte; Delisle, Françoise; Philippon, Alain; Arlet, Guillaume

    2002-04-09

    Nine clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (six Escherichia coli and three Proteus mirabilis) isolated in three Parisian hospitals between 1989 and 2000 showed a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance profile characterized by resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam but not to ceftazidime. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and two novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M beta-lactamases (CTX-M-20, and CTX-M-21) were identified by polymerase chain reaction and isoelectric focusing (pI>8) and were associated in eight cases with TEM-1 (pI=5.4) or TEM-2 (pI=5.6) beta-lactamases. We used internal ISEcp1 and IS26 forward primers and the CTX-M consensus reverse primer to characterize the CTX-M beta-lactamase promoter regions and showed their high degree of structure diversity. We found upstream of some bla(CTX-M) genes, a 266-bp sequence 100% identical to the sequence upstream of the Kluyvera ascorbata beta-lactamase gene, suggesting that this chromosomal enzyme is the progenitor of the CTX-M-2/5 cluster.

  13. An altered zinc-binding site confers resistance to a covalent inactivator of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) discovered by high-throughput screening

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Pei W.; Spicer, Timothy; Cammarata, Michael; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Hodder, Peter; Fast, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Due to the global threat of antibiotic resistance mediated by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and the lack of structurally diverse inhibitors reported for this enzyme, we developed screening and counter-screening assays for manual and automated formats. The manual assay is a trans-well absorbance-based endpoint assay in 96-well plates and has a Z’ factor of 0.8. The automated assay is an epi-absorbance endpoint assay in 384-well plates, has a Z’ factor of ≥ 0.8, good signal / baseline ratios (> 3.8), and is likely scalable for high-throughput screening (HTS). A TEM-1-based counter-screen is also presented to eliminate false positives due to assay interference or off-target activities. A pilot screen of a pharmacologically characterized compound library identified two thiol-modifying compounds as authentic NDM-1 inhibitors: p-hloromecuribenzoate (p-CMB) and nitroprusside. Recombinant NDM-1 has one Cys residue that serves as a conserved active-site primary zinc ligand and is selectively modified by p-CMB as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. However a C208D mutation results in an enzyme that maintains almost full lactamase activity, yet is completely resistant to the inhibitor. These results predict that covalent targeting of the conserved active-site Cys residue may have drawbacks as a drug design strategy. PMID:23591260

  14. Suspected nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant E. coli, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, in an equine clinic.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Stamm, Ivonne; Gehlen, Heidrun; Barton, Ann Kristin; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli are common commensals as well as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. They cause a broad spectrum of infectious diseases in various hosts, including hospital-associated infections. In recent years, the rise of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) has been striking. However, reports on nosocomial infections are mostly anecdotic. Here we report on the suspected nosocomial spread of both ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing multi-drug resistant E. coli isolates in three equine patients within an equine clinic. Unlike easy-to-clean hospitalization opportunities available for small animal settings like boxes and cages made of ceramic floor tiles or stainless steel, clinical settings for horses are challenging environments for infection control programs due to unavoidable extraneous material including at least hay and materials used for horse bedding. The development of practice-orientated recommendations is needed to improve the possibilities for infection control to prevent nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant and other transmissible pathogens in equine clinical settings.

  15. Pyrosequencing using the single-nucleotide polymorphism protocol for rapid determination of TEM- and SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates and identification of the novel beta-lactamase genes blaSHV-48, blaSHV-105, and blaTEM-155.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Hal; Ruzin, Alexey; Tuckman, Margareta; Visalli, Melissa A; Petersen, Peter J; Bradford, Patricia A

    2009-03-01

    TEM- and SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most common ESBLs found in the United States and are prevalent throughout the world. Amino acid substitutions at a number of positions in TEM-1 lead to the ESBL phenotype, although substitutions at residues 104 (E to K), 164 (R to S or H), 238 (G to S), and 240 (E to K) appear to be particularly important in modifying the spectrum of activity of the enzyme. The SHV-1-derived ESBLs are a less diverse collection of enzymes; however, the majority of amino acid substitutions resulting in an ESBL mirror those seen in the TEM-1-derived enzymes. Pyrosequencing by use of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) protocol was applied to provide sequence data at positions critical for the ESBL phenotype spanning the bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) genes. Three novel beta-lactamases are described: the ESBLs TEM-155 (Q39K, R164S, E240K) and SHV-105 (I8F, R43S, G156D, G238S, E240K) and a non-ESBL, SHV-48 (V119I). The ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an Escherichia coli isolate expressing bla(SHV-105) were >128, 128, and >128 microg/ml, respectively. Likewise, the ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an E. coli isolate expressing bla(TEM-155) were >128, 64, and > 128 microg/ml, respectively. Pyrosequence analysis determined the true identity of the beta-lactamase on plasmid R1010 to be SHV-11 rather than SHV-1, as previously reported. Pyrosequencing is a real-time sequencing-by-synthesis approach that was applied to SNP detection for TEM- and SHV-type ESBL identification and represents a robust tool for rapid sequence determination that may have a place in the clinical setting.

  16. Multidrug-resistant human and animal Salmonella typhimurium isolates in France belong predominantly to a DT104 clone with the chromosome- and integron-encoded beta-lactamase PSE-1.

    PubMed

    Casin, I; Breuil, J; Brisabois, A; Moury, F; Grimont, F; Collatz, E

    1999-05-01

    Epidemiologic relationships were investigated in 187 ampicillin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium strains (86 human, 101 animal) from >2000 strains isolated in 1994. Of 23 resistance patterns, the most frequent (ampicillin [Am], chloramphenicol [Cm], tetracycline [Tc], streptomycin and spectinomycin [Sm], and sulfonamides [Su]) was found in 69.5% of human and 64.8% of animal isolates. Four beta-lactamase genes were identified, blaTEM (24%), blaPSE-1 (78%), and blaSHV and oxa-2 (each <3%). blaPSE-1 and the integrase gene, intI1, but not blaTEM, blaSHV or oxa-2, were chromosomeborne and found almost exclusively in the AmCmTcSmSu strains. In these, polymerase chain reaction mapping revealed two distinct integrons carrying blaPSE-1 or aadA2. Lysotypes, plasmid profiles, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (IS200) were determined for 50 representative isolates and for 3 DT104 strains from the United Kingdom (UK). The phage type of the PSE-1-producing AmCmTcSmSu strains was 12 atypic, indistinguishable from that of the DT104 strains. The combined data indicate that the same multiresistant clone has spread through human and animal ecosystems in the UK and France.

  17. Antibacterial activity and PK/PD of ceftriaxone against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2007-10-01

    The suitability of ceftriaxone for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (especially beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae) and the relationship between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. The values for percentage of time above the MIC (%T>MIC) for ceftriaxone, cefotiam, flomoxef, sulbactam/cefoperazone, sulbactam/ampicillin, and meropenem, using 400 S. pneumoniae isolates and 430 H. influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from more than 100 geographically diverse medical centers during January to July of 2005, were calculated by measuring the MIC for each isolate and by using patameters of pharmacokinetics. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the MIC, using the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Meropenem showed the lowest MIC against penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, followed by sulbactam/cefoperazone and ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone had the best activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative and beta-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. Ceftriaxone was unique, showing a long elimination half-life and low MIC values where its serum level duration time was above the MIC for longer than other cephalosporins. Accordingly, the %T>MIC of ceftriaxone for a once-daily administration greatly exceeded the efficacy levels of those for the other antibacterial agents tested. Ceftriaxone has an excellent balance between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic profiles; and therefore remains effective as a therapeutic agent against PRSP and BLNAR H. influenzae in CAP.

  18. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    PubMed

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  19. Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States in 1994 and 1995 and detection of beta-lactamase-positive strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate: results of a national multicenter surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Doern, G V; Brueggemann, A B; Pierce, G; Holley, H P; Rauch, A

    1997-02-01

    A total of 1,537 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were recovered in 30 U.S. medical center laboratories between 1 November 1994 and 30 April 1995 and were characterized in a central laboratory with respect to serotype and beta-lactamase production and the in vitro activities of 15 oral antimicrobial agents. Overall, 36.4% of the isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. The rank order of activity of six cephalosporins on the basis of MICs was cefixime > cefpodoxime > cefuroxime > loracarbef > or = cefaclor > cefprozil. On the basis of current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) breakpoints ages of isolates found to be resistant or intermediate to these agents were as follows: 0.1, 0.3, 6.4, 16.3, 18.3, and 29.8, respectively (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 4th ed. M7-A4, 1995). Azithromycin was, on a weight basis, the most potent of the macrolides tested in this study, followed by erythromycin and then clarithromycin. Azithromycin was typically fourfold more active than erythromycin, which was, in turn, slightly more active than clarithromycin. However, when compared on the basis of the frequency of resistance determined by using current NCCLS breakpoints, there was essentially no difference between azithromycin and clarithromycin, i.e., 0.5 and 1.9%, respectively (P = 0.086). Interpretive breakpoints for erythromycin MIC tests versus H. influenzae have not been developed. Resistance to other non- beta-lactam agents was variable, as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 9.0%; chloramphenicol, 0.2%; tetracycline, 1.3%; and rifampin, 0.3%. Two conspicuous findings in this study were the identification of 39 strains H. influenzae that were beta-lactamase negative but ampicillin intermediate or resistant (BLNAR) and, even more surprisingly, 17 beta-lactamase-positive isolates that were resistant to amoxicillin

  20. Identification of a new allelic variant of the Acinetobacter baumannii cephalosporinase, ADC-7 beta-lactamase: defining a unique family of class C enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hujer, Kristine M; Hamza, Nashaat S; Hujer, Andrea M; Perez, Federico; Helfand, Marion S; Bethel, Christopher R; Thomson, Jodi M; Anderson, Vernon E; Barlow, Miriam; Rice, Louis B; Tenover, Fred C; Bonomo, Robert A

    2005-07-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are emerging as opportunistic hospital pathogens that demonstrate resistance to many classes of antibiotics. In a metropolitan hospital in Cleveland, a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii that tested resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime (MIC = 32 microg/ml) was identified. Herein, we sought to determine the molecular basis for the extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance. Using analytical isoelectric focusing, a beta-lactamase with a pI of > or = 9.2 was detected. PCR amplification with specific A. baumannii cephalosporinase primers yielded a 1,152-bp product which, when sequenced, identified a novel 383-amino-acid class C enzyme. Expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B, this beta-lactamase demonstrated greater resistance against ceftazidime and cefotaxime than cefepime (4.0 microg/ml versus 0.06 microg/ml). The kinetic characteristics of this beta-lactamase were similar to other cephalosporinases found in Acinetobacter spp. In addition, this cephalosporinase was inhibited by meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, and sulopenem (K(i) < 40 microM). The amino acid compositions of this novel enzyme and other class C beta-lactamases thus far described for A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species 3, and Oligella urethralis in Europe and South Africa suggest that this cephalosporinase defines a unique family of class C enzymes. We propose a uniform designation for this family of cephalosporinases (Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases [ADC]) found in Acinetobacter spp. and identify this enzyme as ADC-7 beta-lactamase. The coalescence of Acinetobacter ampC beta-lactamases into a single common ancestor and the substantial phylogenetic distance separating them from other ampC genes support the logical value of developing a system of nomenclature for these Acinetobacter cephalosporinase genes.

  1. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone. PMID:28152085

  2. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone.

  3. Strategic Design of an Effective beta-Lactamase Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanaik, P.; Bethel, C; Hujer, A; Hujer, K; Distler, A; Taracila, M; Anderson, V; Fritsche, T; Jones, R; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to devise strategies for overcoming bacterial beta-lactamases, we studied LN-1-255, a 6-alkylidene-2'-substituted penicillin sulfone inhibitor. By possessing a catecholic functionality that resembles a natural bacterial siderophore, LN-1-255 is unique among beta-lactamase inhibitors. LN-1-255 combined with piperacillin was more potent against Escherichia coli DH10B strains bearing bla(SHV) extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases than an equivalent amount of tazobactam and piperacillin. In addition, LN-1-255 significantly enhanced the activity of ceftazidime and cefpirome against extended-spectrum cephalosporin and Sme-1 containing carbapenem-resistant clinical strains. LN-1-255 inhibited SHV-1 and SHV-2 beta-lactamases with nm affinity (K(I) = 110 +/- 10 and 100 +/- 10 nm, respectively). When LN-1-255 inactivated SHV beta-lactamases, a single intermediate was detected by mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of LN-1-255 in complex with SHV-1 was determined at 1.55A resolution. Interestingly, this novel inhibitor forms a bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen pointing out of the oxyanion hole and forming hydrogen bonds with Lys-234 and Ser-130 in the active site. Electron density for the 'tail' of LN-1-255 is less ordered and modeled in two conformations. Both conformations have the LN-1-255 carboxyl group interacting with Arg-244, yet the remaining tails of the two conformations diverge. The observed presence of the bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen positioned outside of the oxyanion hole provides a rationale for the stability of this inhibitory intermediate. The 2'-substituted penicillin sulfone, LN-1-255, is proving to be an important lead compound for novel beta-lactamase inhibitor design.

  4. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing-enterobacteriaceae].

    PubMed

    Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Doit, C; Bingen, E

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) are defined as ß-lactamase able to hydrolyze all penicillins and cephalosporins with the exception of cephamycins (cefotixin, cefotetan), moxalactam and carbapenems and are encoded by mobile genes. The most frequently encountered ESBLs belong to the CTX-M, SHV, and TEM families. ESBLs were found first in Klebsiella pneumonia and then predominantly in E. coli. The incidence of patients with ESBLs E. coli increase since 2000 in Robert Debré Hospital in Paris. They were mainly implicated in urinary tract infections and less frequently in other infections such as materno-foetal infections or neonatal meningitis. An increase of consumption of carbapenems may lead to spread of carbapenem resistant organisms. Thus alternative to carbapenems for treatment of ESBL producers are needed.

  5. KHM-1, a novel plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase from a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Morita, Koji; Kitao, Tomoe; Watanabe, Noboru; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kanamori, Masato; Kirikae, Teruo

    2008-11-01

    A novel gene, bla(KHM-1), encoding a metallo-beta-lactamase, KHM-1, was cloned from a clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics. Escherichia coli expressing bla(KHM-1) was resistant to all broad-spectrum beta-lactams except for monobactams and showed reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. Recombinant KHM-1 exhibited EDTA-inhibitable hydrolytic activity against most beta-lactams, with an overall preference for cephalosporins.

  6. Population Distribution of Beta-Lactamase Conferring Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Human Clinical Enterobacteriaceae in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Guido M.; Platteel, Tamara N.; Fluit, Ad C.; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia M.; Stuart, James Cohen; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hall, Maurine A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, blaCTX-M-15 was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%), followed by blaCTX-M-1 (n = 47, 15%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 15, 5%), blaSHV-12 (n = 24, 8%) and blaTEM-52 (n = 13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained blaCTX-M-15. Our findings demonstrate that blaCTX-M-15 is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:23284886

  7. Population distribution of Beta-lactamase conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in human clinical Enterobacteriaceae in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Voets, Guido M; Platteel, Tamara N; Fluit, Ad C; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia M; Stuart, James Cohen; Bonten, Marc J M; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Hall, Maurine A L

    2012-01-01

    There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15) was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%), followed by bla(CTX-M-1) (n = 47, 15%), bla(CTX-M-14) (n = 15, 5%), bla(SHV-12) (n = 24, 8%) and bla(TEM-52) (n = 13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15). Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15) is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  8. The role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in an endemic setting

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Peleg, Anton Y.; D’Agata, Erika MC

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of horizontal gene transmission (HGT) in the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria during periods of endemicity is unclear. Over a 12-month period, rectal colonization with SHV-5 and SHV-12 producing-Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was quantified among a cohort of residents in a long-term care facility. Demographic and clinical data were collected on colonized residents. Transferability of SHV-encoding plasmids and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to quantify the contribution of HGT and cross-transmission, respectively. A total of 25 (12%) of 214 enrolled patients were colonized with 11 SHV-5- and 17 SVH-12-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clonally-related isolates were detected among multiple residents residing on the same and different wards. Among 12 clonally-distinct isolates, HGT of SHV-5- and SHV-12-encoding plasmids was identified among 6 (50%) isolates. HGT among clonally-distinct strains contributes to the transmission dynamics of these ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria and should be considered when evaluating the spread of these pathogens. PMID:22722012

  9. Molecular Exploration of Beta-Lactamases in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is one of the most prevalent maize fungal pathogens. Fv mycotoxins are a significant food safety issue and have given rise to exposure concerns worldwide. The FDB1 locus, a beta-lactamase-containing Fv gene cluster, was previously shown to be in...

  10. Laboratory surveillance for prospective plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Komatsu, Masaru; Abe, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kaneyuki; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Jikimoto, Takumi; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Hirai, Itaru; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2010-09-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (PABLs), and plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamases confer resistance to many beta-lactams. In Japan, although several reports exist on the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo-beta-lactamases, the prevalence and characteristics of PABLs remain unknown. To investigate the production of PABLs, a total of 22,869 strains of 4 enterobacterial species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected during six 6-month periods from 17 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan. PABLs were detected in 29 (0.13%) of 22,869 isolates by the 3-dimensional test, PCR analysis, and DNA sequencing analysis. PABL-positive isolates were detected among isolates from 13 laboratories. Seventeen of 13,995 (0.12%) E. coli isolates, 8 of 5,970 (0.13%) K. pneumoniae isolates, 3 of 1,722 (0.17%) K. oxytoca isolates, and 1 of 1,182 (0.08%) P. mirabilis isolates were positive for PABLs. Of these 29 PABL-positive strains, 20 (69.0%), 6 (20.7%), 2 (6.9%), and 1 (3.4%) carried the genes for CMY-2, DHA-1, CMY-8, and MOX-1 PABLs, respectively. Pattern analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis revealed that the prevalence of CMY-2-producing E. coli strains was not due to epidemic strains and that 3 DHA-1-producing K. pneumoniae strains were identical, suggesting their clonal relatedness. In conclusion, the DHA-1 PABLs were predominantly present in K. pneumoniae strains, but CMY-2 PABLs were predominantly present in E. coli strains. The present findings will provide significant information to assist in preventing the emergence and further spread of PABL-producing bacteria.

  11. Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(NDM-1), and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India.

    PubMed

    Yong, Dongeun; Toleman, Mark A; Giske, Christian G; Cho, Hyun S; Sundman, Kristina; Lee, Kyungwon; Walsh, Timothy R

    2009-12-01

    A Swedish patient of Indian origin traveled to New Delhi, India, and acquired a urinary tract infection caused by a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that typed to the sequence type 14 complex. The isolate, Klebsiella pneumoniae 05-506, was shown to possess a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) but was negative for previously known MBL genes. Gene libraries and amplification of class 1 integrons revealed three resistance-conferring regions; the first contained bla(CMY-4) flanked by ISEcP1 and blc. The second region of 4.8 kb contained a complex class 1 integron with the gene cassettes arr-2, a new erythromycin esterase gene; ereC; aadA1; and cmlA7. An intact ISCR1 element was shown to be downstream from the qac/sul genes. The third region consisted of a new MBL gene, designated bla(NDM-1), flanked on one side by K. pneumoniae DNA and a truncated IS26 element on its other side. The last two regions lie adjacent to one another, and all three regions are found on a 180-kb region that is easily transferable to recipient strains and that confers resistance to all antibiotics except fluoroquinolones and colistin. NDM-1 shares very little identity with other MBLs, with the most similar MBLs being VIM-1/VIM-2, with which it has only 32.4% identity. As well as possessing unique residues near the active site, NDM-1 also has an additional insert between positions 162 and 166 not present in other MBLs. NDM-1 has a molecular mass of 28 kDa, is monomeric, and can hydrolyze all beta-lactams except aztreonam. Compared to VIM-2, NDM-1 displays tighter binding to most cephalosporins, in particular, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cephalothin (cefalotin), and also to the penicillins. NDM-1 does not bind to the carbapenems as tightly as IMP-1 or VIM-2 and turns over the carbapenems at a rate similar to that of VIM-2. In addition to K. pneumoniae 05-506, bla(NDM-1) was found on a 140-kb plasmid in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the patient's feces, inferring the

  12. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in intra-abdominal infection isolates in Latin America, 2008-2012. Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Lob, Sibylle H; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K

    2015-07-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends has monitored the in vitro activity of several recommended antimicrobials used in the management of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) globally since 2002. In this report, we document the changing susceptibility patterns to recommended antimicrobials in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients with IAIs in 11 Latin American countries between 2008 and 2012 and describe the beta-lactamases encoded by phenotypically extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive and ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates. Overall, the incidence of phenotypically ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae did not change significantly from 2008 (40.4%) to 2012 (41.2%) (P > 0.05). However, trend analysis documented an increase in isolates encoding K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or both KPC and an ESBL. Decreasing susceptibility (P < 0.05) was noted for cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and imipenem among all K. pneumoniae, as well as for cefepime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and imipenem among ESBL-positive isolates, while susceptibility of ESBL-negative isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam actually increased (P < 0.05).

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of a class A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, C J; Unsal, I; Chambers, H F

    1997-01-01

    A cosmid library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra was introduced into Mycobacterium smegmatis, and eight recombinant clones with increased resistance to cefoxitin were identified. Isoelectric focusing detected an M. tuberculosis-derived beta-lactamase in one of these recombinant clones. A sequence analysis identified it as a class A beta-lactamase whose expression correlated with the increased resistance phenotype. PMID:9145897

  14. Novel TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-134, in a Citrobacter koseri clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Mugnaioli, Claudia; Luzzaro, Francesco; Fiore, Marianna; Stefani, Stefania; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2005-04-01

    A new natural TEM derivative with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase activity, TEM-134, was identified in a ceftazidime-resistant clinical isolate of Citrobacter koseri. Compared to TEM-1, TEM-134 contains the following mutations: Q39K, E104K, R164H, and G238S. The bla(TEM-134) gene was not transferable by conjugation and, apparently, was chromosomally encoded. Expression studies with Escherichia coli revealed efficient cefotaximase and ceftazidimase activity for TEM-134.

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the chromosome-encoded class A beta-lactamase BCL-1 from Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Girlich, Delphine; Leclercq, Roland; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-11-01

    A chromosomal beta-lactamase gene from Bacillus clausii NR, which is used as a probiotic, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It encodes a clavulanic acid-susceptible Ambler class A beta-lactamase, BCL-1, with a pI of 5.5 and a molecular mass of ca. 32 kDa. It shares 91% and 62% amino acid identity with the chromosomally encoded PenP penicillinases from B. clausii KSM-K16 and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. The hydrolytic profile of this beta-lactamase includes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefpirome. This chromosome-encoded enzyme was inducible in B. clausii, and its gene is likely related to upstream-located regulatory genes that share significant identity with those reported to be upstream of the penicillinase gene of B. licheniformis. The bla(BCL-1) gene was located next to the known chromosomal aadD2 gene and the erm34 gene, which encode resistance to aminoglycosides and macrolides, respectively. Similar genes were found in a collection of B. clausii reference strains.

  16. Crystallographic Studies of Two Bacterial AntibioticResistance Enzymes: Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (2')-Ic and GES-1\\beta-lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Brynes, Laura; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-10-31

    Guiana Extended-Spectrum-1 (GES-1) and Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (2')-Ic (APH(2')-Ic) are two bacteria-produced enzymes that essentially perform the same task: they provide resistance to an array of antibiotics. Both enzymes are part of a growing resistance problem in the medical world. In order to overcome the ever-growing arsenal of antibiotic-resistance enzymes, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of their action. Accurate structures of these proteins have become an invaluable tool to do this. Using protein crystallography techniques and X-ray diffraction, the protein structure of GES-1 bound to imipenem (an inhibitor) has been solved. Also, APH(2')-Ic has been successfully crystallized, but its structure was unable to be solved using molecular replacement using APH(2')-Ib as a search model. The structure of GES-1, with bound imipenem was solved to a resolution of 1.89A, and though the inhibitor is bound with only moderate occupancy, the structure shows crucial interactions inside the active site that render the enzyme unable to complete the hydrolysis of the {beta}-lactam ring. The APH(2')-Ic dataset could not be matched to the model, APH(2')-Ib, with which it shares 25% sequence identity. The structural information gained from GES-1, and future studies using isomorphous replacement to solve the APH(2')-Ic structure can aid directly to the creation of novel drugs to combat both of these classes of resistance enzymes.

  17. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Schets, Franciska M.; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. Methods The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs), seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs), and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes): ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol. Results Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×102, 4.0×104, 1.8×107, and 4.1×107 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX

  18. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  19. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  20. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ali, Mohamed S; Al-Ahdal, Mohammad N; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Shibl, Atef M

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences, genotypes, and clonal relationships of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains in 98 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Riyadh. The prevalence of ESBLs in these strains was 37·75%. All isolates that were confirmed to have ESBLs were completely resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, and gentamicin and were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and imipenem. In total, 16·6, 77, and 91·6% of isolates were resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam, respectively. The prevalences of isolates producing the beta-lactamases SHV, CTX-M, and TEM were 91·9, 86·5, and 54·05%, respectively. The most frequent ESBL gene detected was blaCTX-M-15, which was observed in 75% of isolates. Other frequent ESBL genes were blaSHV-12 (29·73% of isolates) and blaSHV-5 (5·4% of isolates); additionally, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-57, and blaCTX-M-82 were each detected in one isolate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed the presence of diverse and unrelated clones. The high prevalence of ESBL producers among the strains examined in our study was not due to the spread of a single clone of bacteria. Clone A was detected in six isolates, indicating intra-hospital spread. Our study documented a high prevalence of the CTX-M-15 product in K. pneumoniae and demonstrated that SHV-12 was also highly prevalent. This study represents the first report of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-57, and CTX-M-82 beta-lactamases in K. pneumoniae isolates from Saudi Arabia.

  1. Detection of Resistance to Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors in Strains with CTX-M Beta-Lactamases: a Multicenter External Proficiency Study Using a Well-Defined Collection of Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll, Aida; Rodríguez, Cristina; Tormo, Nuria; Gimeno, Concepción; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Cantón, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Quality Control program, 14 Escherichia coli strains masked as blood culture isolates were sent to 68 clinical microbiology laboratories for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to β-lactam antibiotics. This collection included three control strains (E. coli ATCC 25922, an IRT-2 producer, and a CMY-2 producer), six isogenic strains with or without the OmpF porin and expressing CTX-M β-lactamases (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, and CTX-M-14), one strain carrying a double mechanism for β-lactam resistance (i.e., carrying CTX-M-15 and OXA-1 enzymes), and four strains carrying CTX-M variants with different levels of resistance to β-lactams and β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations. The main objective of the study was to ascertain how these variants with reduced susceptibilities to BLBLIs are identified in clinical microbiology laboratories. CTX-M variants with high resistance to BLBLIs were mainly identified as inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) enzymes (68.0%); however, isogenic CTX-M mutant strains with reduced susceptibilities to BLBLIs and cephalosporins were mainly associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production alone (51 to 80%) or in combination with other mechanisms (14 to 31%). Concerning all β-lactams tested, the overall interpretative discrepancy rate was 11.5%, of which 38.1% were the consequence of postreading changes in the clinical categories when a resistance mechanism was inferred. Therefore, failure to recognize these complex phenotypes might contribute to an explanation of their apparent absence in the clinical setting and might lead to inadequate drug treatment selection. A proposal for improving recognition is to adhere strictly to the current CLSI or EUCAST guidelines for detecting reduced susceptibility to BLBLI combinations, without any interpretative modification. PMID:24153133

  2. Beta-lactamase targeted enzyme activatable photosensitizers for antimicrobial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang; Verma, Sarika; Sallum, Ulysses W.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a treatment modality for infectious disease has shown promise. However, most of the antimicrobial photosensitizers (PS) non-preferentially accumulate in both bacteria and host tissues, causing host tissue phototoxicity during treatment. We have developed a new antimicrobial PDT strategy which exploits beta-lactam resistance mechanism, one of the major drug-resistance bacteria evolved, to achieve enhanced target specificity with limited host damage. Our strategy comprises a prodrug construct with a PS and a quencher linked by beta-lactam ring, resulting in a diminished phototoxicity. This construct, beta-lactamase enzyme-activated-photosensitizer (beta-LEAP), can only be activated in the presence of both light and bacteria, and remains inactive elsewhere such as mammalian tissue. Beta-LEAP construct had shown specific cleavage by purified beta-lactamase and by beta-lactamase over-expressing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Specific photodynamic toxicity was observed towards MRSA, while dark and light toxicity were equivalent to reference strains. The prodrug design, synthesis and photophysical properties will be discussed.

  3. [Spreading and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Phenotypical screening for MBL producers (carbapenemases B1) among strains of Pseudomonas genus, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2007-01-01

    Intrahospital strains (215) of the bacterial genus Pseudomonas isolated from patients of 30 Medical centers of 15 Russian regions have been investigated for antibiotic resistance. The bacterial cultures resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem were considered as metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producers. Production of subclass B1 MBL (carbapenemases) was evaluated by means of the double-disk approximation test using MBL inhibitor, EDTA. There were 55 P. aeroginosa strains (25.6%) resistant to imipenem and meropenem simultaneously; 19 isolates (8.8%) of P. aeroginosa were characterized by synergism between carbapenem and EDTA. The subclass B1 MBL producers are widely distributed in the intrahospital strain obtained from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, and Tomsk hospitals.

  4. [Molecular characterization of BRO beta-lactamases of Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from carrier children].

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Ozgen; Ergin, Alper; Gürkan Aydin, Nazli; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2004-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Moraxella catarrhalis is a risk factor for upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media. In this study, we aimed to characterize BRO beta-lactamases of M. catarrhalis strains isolated from 64 children without any symptoms of respiratory disease. Gram negative diplococci grown on selective media and which are catalase, oxidase, DNase, nitrate reduction positive, glucose, maltose, sucrose and lactose fermentation negative, were diagnosed as M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method recommended by NCCLS. BRO beta-lactamases were differentiated by restriction enzyme analysis method. The resistance rate for ampicillin was 18.8% and all the isolates were found to be sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, cefaclor, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Out of 64 M. catarrhalis isolates, 57 (89%) were found beta-lactamase positive with nitrocefin disk test (Remel, USA). The presence of BRO beta-lactamases in these 57 strains (89%) was also confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis, while 7 (11%) of them were found to be negative. Among the positive strains, 47 (73.4%) were typed as BRO-1, and 10 (15.6%) were typed as BRO-2. The characterization of BRO beta-lactamases of M. catarrhalis strains in carrier children is important since the high rate of carriage predisposes to respiratory tract infections. As a result, BRO beta-lactamase typing will guide the treatment regimen against the respiratory infections that can occur due to M. catarrhalis in carrier children.

  5. A mutation in either dsbA or dsbB, a gene encoding a component of a periplasmic disulfide bond-catalyzing system, is required for high-level expression of the Bacteroides fragilis metallo-beta-lactamase, CcrA, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Alksne, L E; Keeney, D; Rasmussen, B A

    1995-01-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase gene, ccrA, from Bacteroides fragilis is functionally expressed in Escherichia coli only in the presence of a genomic mutation in iarA or iarB (increased ampicillin resistance), identified in this study as dsbA or dsbB, respectively. DsbA and DsbB are components of a periplasmic protein disulfide bond-catalyzing system. Data indicated that DsbA interacted with CcrA, creating aberrant disulfide bond linkages that render CcrA proteolytically unstable. Mutations in dsbA or dsbB permissive for CcrA expression eliminated or greatly reduced DsbA activity, allowing CcrA to assume a disulfide bond-free and proteolytically stable conformation. PMID:7814337

  6. Identification of residues in beta-lactamase critical for binding beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Palzkill, T

    1999-03-12

    beta-Lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is a potent inhibitor of several beta-lactamases including TEM-1 beta-lactamase (Ki = 0.1 nM). The co-crystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP has been solved, revealing the contact residues involved in the interface between the enzyme and inhibitor. To determine which residues in TEM-1 beta-lactamase are critical for binding BLIP, the method of monovalent phage display was employed. Random mutants of TEM-1 beta-lactamase in the 99-114 loop-helix and 235-240 B3 beta-strand regions were displayed as fusion proteins on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage. Functional mutants were selected based on the ability to bind BLIP. After three rounds of enrichment, the sequences of a collection of functional beta-lactamase mutants revealed a consensus sequence for the binding of BLIP. Seven loop-helix residues including Asp-101, Leu-102, Val-103, Ser-106, Pro-107, Thr-109, and His-112 and three B3 beta-strand residues including Ser-235, Gly-236, and Gly-238 were found to be critical for tight binding of BLIP. In addition, the selected beta-lactamase mutants A113L/T114R and E240K were found to increase binding of BLIP by over 6- and 11-fold, respectively. Combining these substitutions resulted in 550-fold tighter binding between the enzyme and BLIP with a Ki of 0.40 pM. These results reveal that the binding between TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP can be improved and that there are a large number of sequences consistent with tight binding between BLIP and beta-lactamase.

  7. Determinants of binding affinity and specificity for the interaction of TEM-1 and SME-1 beta-lactamase with beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-11-14

    The hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics by class A beta-lactamases is a common cause of bacterial resistance to these agents. The beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is able to bind and inhibit several class A beta-lactamases, including TEM-1 beta-lactamase and SME-1 beta-lactamase. Although the TEM-1 and SME-1 enzymes share 33% amino acid sequence identity and a similar fold, they differ substantially in surface electrostatic properties and the conformation of a loop-helix region that BLIP binds. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was performed to identify the residues on BLIP that contribute to its binding affinity for each of these enzymes. The results indicate that the sequence requirements for binding are similar for both enzymes with most of the binding free energy provided by two patches of aromatic residues on the surface of BLIP. Polar residues such as several serines in the interface do not make significant contributions to affinity for either enzyme. In addition, the specificity of binding is significantly altered by mutation of two charged residues, Glu73 and Lys74, that are buried in the structure of the TEM-1.BLIP complex as well as by residues located on two loops that insert into the active site pocket. Based on the results, a E73A/Y50A double mutant was constructed that exhibited a 220,000-fold change in binding specificity for the TEM-1 versus SME-1 enzymes.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase rates in aerobic gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in Vietnam: report from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART 2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith; Phuong, Doan Mai; Nga, Tran Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Tran My; Phuong, Tran Thi Lan; Badal, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Treatment options for multidrug-resistant pathogens remain problematic in many regions and individual countries, warranting ongoing surveillance and analysis. Limited antimicrobial susceptibility information is available for pathogens from Vietnam. This study determined the bacterial susceptibility of aerobic gram-negative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections among patients in Vietnam during 2009-2011. A total of 905 isolates were collected from 4 medical centers in this investigation as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) rates among the appropriate species were determined by a central laboratory using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Among the species collected, Escherichia coli (48.1% ESBL-positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.5% ESBL-positive) represented the majority (46.4%) of the isolates submitted for this study. Ertapenem MIC90 values were lowest for these 2 species at 0.12 and 0.25μg/mL and remained unchanged for ESBL-positive isolates. Imipenem MIC90 values were also the same for all isolates and ESBL-positive strains at 0.25 and 0.5μg/mL, respectively. Ertapenem MIC90 values for additional species with sufficient numbers for analysis, including Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were 1, 0.06, >4, and >4μg/mL, respectively. Analysis of beta-lactamases in a subset of 132 phenotypically ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated that CTX-M variants, particularly CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-15, were the predominant enzymes. High resistance rates in Vietnam hospitals dictate continuous monitoring as antimicrobial inactivating enzymes continue to spread throughout Asia and globally.

  9. Peptidase activity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rhazi, N; Galleni, M; Page, M I; Frère, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. PMID:10393100

  10. Characterization of Beta-lactamases in Faecal Enterobacteriaceae Recovered from Healthy Humans in Spain: Focusing on AmpC Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Porres-Osante, Nerea; Sáenz, Yolanda; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    The intestinal tract is a huge reservoir of Enterobacteriaceae, some of which are opportunist pathogens. Several genera of these bacteria harbour intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes, such as ampC genes in species of Citrobacter, Enterobacter or Escherichia genera. In this work, beta-lactamases and other resistance mechanisms have been characterized in Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from healthy human faecal samples, focusing on the ampC beta-lactamase genes. Fifty human faecal samples were obtained, and 70 Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were isolated: 44 Escherichia coli, 4 Citrobacter braakii, 9 Citrobacter freundii, 8 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Proteus vulgaris, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Serratia sp. and 1 Cronobacter sp. A high percentage of resistance to ampicillin was detected (57%), observing the AmpC phenotype in 22 isolates (31%) and the ESBL phenotype in 3 isolates. AmpC molecular characterization showed high diversity into bla CMY and bla ACT genes from Citrobacter and Enterobacter species, respectively, and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis demonstrated low clonality among them. The prevalence of people colonized by strains carrying plasmid-mediated ampC genes obtained in this study was 2%. The unique plasmid-mediated bla AmpC identified in this study was the bla CMY-2 gene, detected in an E. coli isolate ascribed to the sequence type ST405 which belonged to phylogenetic group D. The hybridization and conjugation experiments demonstrated that the ISEcp1-bla CMY-2-blc structure was carried by a ~78-kb self-transferable IncK plasmid. This study shows a high polymorphism among beta-lactamase genes in Enterobacteriaceae from healthy people microbiota. Extensive AmpC-carrier studies would provide important information and could allow the anticipation of future global health problems.

  11. Enterobacter cloacae with a novel variant of ACT AmpC beta-lactamase originating from glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) in Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Manga, Ivan; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chroma, Magdalena; Jamborova, Ivana; Dobiasova, Hana; Sedlakova, Miroslava Htoutou; Cizek, Alois

    2014-07-16

    We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n=215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n=15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23.

  12. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a chromosome-encoded carbapenem-hydrolyzing ambler class D beta-lactamase from Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Héritier, Claire; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-05-01

    A chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase gene from Shewanella algae clinical isolate KB-1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It encoded the Ambler class D enzyme OXA-55, sharing less than 55% identity with any other oxacillinases. Although conferring a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam resistance phenotype, OXA-55 had carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity that mirrored the reduced susceptibility to imipenem observed in S. algae KB-1. Very similar oxacillinases were found in other S. algae isolates.

  13. Beta-lactamase reporter system for selecting high-producing yeast clones.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Gorazd; Smilović, Vanja; Zupan, Ana Lenassi; Gaberc-Porekar, Vladka

    2008-04-01

    In modern production of protein biopharmaceuticals, a good screening and selection method of high-producing clones can dramatically influence the whole production process and lead to lower production costs. We have created a rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for selecting high-producing clones in the yeast Pichia pastoris that is based on the beta-lactamase reporter system. By integrating the reporter gene and the gene of interest into the same genome locus, it was possible to use beta-lactamase activity as a measure of the expression level of the protein of interest. A novel expression vector with two independent expression cassettes was designed and tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model. The first cassette contained the GFP gene under the control of a strong, inducible AOX1 promoter, while the second cassette consisted of the beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of a weak constitutive YPT1 promotor. High-producing GFP clones were selected directly on the plates based on the color change after hydrolysis of the beta-lactamase substrate added to the medium. beta-lactamase activity was found to positively correlate with GFP fluorescence. The reporter system described is widely applicable-it can be easily applied to other, also pharmaceutically relevant proteins and to other yeast expression systems, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula polymorpha.

  14. Induction of beta-lactamase influences the course of development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K A; Zusman, D R

    1999-10-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium that develops in response to starvation on a solid surface. The cells assemble into multicellular aggregates in which they differentiate from rod-shaped cells into spherical, environmentally resistant spores. Previously, we have shown that the induction of beta-lactamase is associated with starvation-independent sporulation in liquid culture (K. A. O'Connor and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 24:839-850, 1997). In this paper, we show that the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase of M. xanthus is autogenously induced during development. The specific activity of the enzyme begins to increase during aggregation, before spores are detectable. The addition of inducers of beta-lactamase in M. xanthus, such as ampicillin, D-cycloserine, and phosphomycin, accelerates the onset of aggregation and sporulation in developing populations of cells. In addition, the exogenous induction of beta-lactamase allows M. xanthus to fruit on media containing concentrations of nutrients that are normally too high to support development. We propose that the induction of beta-lactamase is an integral step in the development of M. xanthus and that this induction is likely to play a role in aggregation and in the restructuring of peptidoglycan which occurs during the differentiation of spores. In support of this hypothesis, we show that exogenous induction of beta-lactamase can rescue aggregation and sporulation of certain mutants. Fruiting body spores from a rescued mutant are indistinguishable from wild-type fruiting body spores when examined by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that the signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of beta-lactamase plays an important role in aggregation and sporulation in M. xanthus.

  15. Systematic mutagenesis of the active site omega loop of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Petrosino, J F; Palzkill, T

    1996-01-01

    Beta-Lactamase is a bacterial protein that provides resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. TEM-1 beta-lactamase is the most prevalent plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in gram-negative bacteria. Normally, this enzyme has high levels of hydrolytic activity for penicillins, but mutant beta-lactamases have evolved with activity toward a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. It has been shown that active site substitutions are responsible for changes in the substrate specificity. Since mutant beta-lactamases pose a serious threat to antimicrobial therapy, the mechanisms by which mutations can alter the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase are of interest. Previously, screens of random libraries encompassing 31 of 55 active site amino acid positions enabled the identification of the residues responsible for maintaining the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. In addition to substitutions found in clinical isolates, many other specificity-altering mutations were also identified. Interestingly, many nonspecific substitutions in the N-terminal half of the active site omega loop were found to increase ceftazidime hydrolytic activity and decrease ampicillin hydrolytic activity. To complete the active sight study, eight additional random libraries were constructed and screened for specificity-altering mutations. All additional substitutions found to alter the substrate specificity were located in the C-terminal half of the active site loop. These mutants, much like the N-terminal omega loop mutants, appear to be less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Further analysis of a 165-YYG-167 triple mutant, selected for high levels of ceftazidime hydrolytic activity, provides an example of the correlation which exists between enzyme instability and increased ceftazidime hydrolytic activity in the ceftazidime-selected omega loop mutants. PMID:8606154

  16. Nanomolar Inhibitors of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, Federica; Caselli, Emilia; Morandi, Stefania; Focia, Pamela J.; Blazquez, Jesus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In an effort to combat these enzymes, a combination of stereoselective organic synthesis, enzymology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography was used to design and evaluate new carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analogue inhibitors of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over 2 orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with K{sub i} values as low as 1 nM. On the basis of the differential binding of different analogues, the introduced carboxylate alone contributes about 2.1 kcal/mol in affinity. This carboxylate corresponds to the ubiquitous C3(4)' carboxylate of {beta}-lactams, and this energy represents the first thermodynamic measurement of the importance of this group in molecular recognition by class C {beta}-lactamases. The structures of AmpC in complex with two of these inhibitors were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.72 and 1.83 {angstrom} resolution. These structures suggest a structural basis for the high affinity of the new compounds and provide templates for further design. The highest affinity inhibitor was 5 orders of magnitude more selective for AmpC than for characteristic serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. This inhibitor reversed the resistance of clinical pathogens to the third generation cephalosporin ceftazidime; it may serve as a lead compound for drug discovery to combat bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  17. SME-3, a novel member of the Serratia marcescens SME family of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Queenan, Anne Marie; Shang, Wenchi; Schreckenberger, Paul; Lolans, Karen; Bush, Karen; Quinn, John

    2006-10-01

    Imipenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates were cultured from a lung transplant patient given multiple antibiotics over several months. The strains expressed SME-3, a beta-lactamase of the rare SME carbapenem-hydrolyzing family. SME-3 differed from SME-1 by a single amino acid substitution of tyrosine for histidine at position 105, but the two beta-lactamases displayed similar hydrolytic profiles.

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of beta-lactamases (ESBL and KPC) among enterobacteria isolated from community-acquired monomicrobial urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Dias, Vanessa Cordeiro; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Barros, Renata; Bastos, André Netto; de Andrade Bastos, Lucas Quinnet; de Andrade Bastos, Victor Quinnet; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-12-01

    Beta-lactamases enzymes such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemase type beta-lactamases (KPC) confer resistance to beta-lactam drugs among Gram-negative rods, mainly Enterobacteriaceae, as those frequently related to urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this study was to evaluate ESBL and KPC among enterobacteria isolated from monomicrobial UTI and to establish correlations between the presence of genetic markers and the phenotypic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Out of 12 304 urine samples collected during 2009, 93 enterobacteria showing an ESBL phenotype were recovered. Imipenem was used for KPC screening and modified disk approximation assay was used for detection of ESBL phenotype. Polymerase chain reaction was used for screening of bla(SHV), bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), and bla(KPC). Considering the isolated bacteria showing ESBL phenotype 56% of the isolates were positive for two genes. The bla(TEM) was the most frequent (87·1%). Neither KPC phenotype nor bla(KPC)-harboring bacteria were observed. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance is extremely important to sustain empirical therapy of community-acquired urinary tract infections (Co-UTI).

  19. Structural Aspects for Evolution of [beta]-Lactamases from Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Meroueh, Samy O.; Minasov, George; Lee, Wenlin; Shoichet, Brian K.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2010-03-08

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), biosynthetic enzymes of bacterial cell wall assembly, and {beta}-lactamases, resistance enzymes to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, are related to each other from an evolutionary point of view. Massova and Mobashery (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1998, 42, 1-17) have proposed that for {beta}-lactamases to have become effective at their function as antibiotic resistance enzymes, they would have had to undergo structure alterations such that they would not interact with the peptidoglycan, which is the substrate for PBPs. A cephalosporin analogue, 7{beta}-[N-Acetyl-L-alanyl-{gamma}-D-glutamyl-L-lysine]-3-acetoxymethyl-3-cephem-carboxylic acid (compound 6), was conceived and synthesized to test this notion. The X-ray structure of the complex of this cephalosporin bound to the active site of the deacylation-deficient Q120L/Y150E variant of the class C AmpC {beta}-lactamase from Escherichia coli was solved at 1.71 {angstrom} resolution. This complex revealed that the surface for interaction with the strand of peptidoglycan that acylates the active site, which is present in PBPs, is absent in the {beta}-lactamase active site. Furthermore, insertion of a peptide in the {beta}-lactamase active site at a location where the second strand of peptidoglycan in some PBPs binds has effectively abolished the possibility for such interaction with the {beta}-lactamase. A 2.6 ns dynamics simulation was carried out for the complex, which revealed that the peptidoglycan surrogate (i.e., the active-site-bound ligand) undergoes substantial motion and is not stabilized for binding within the active site. These factors taken together disclose the set of structure modifications in the antibiotic resistance enzyme that prevent it from interacting with the peptidoglycan, en route to achieving catalytic proficiency for their intended function.

  20. Using steric hindrance to design new inhibitors of class C beta-lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Trehan, Indi; Morandi, F.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases confer resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. However, {beta}-lactams that form an acyl-intermediate with the enzyme but subsequently are hindered from forming a catalytically competent conformation seem to be inhibitors of {beta}-lactamases. This inhibition may be imparted by specific groups on the ubiquitous R1 side chain of {beta}-lactams, such as the 2-amino-4-thiazolyl methoxyimino (ATMO) group common among third-generation cephalosporins. Using steric hindrance of deacylation as a design guide, penicillin and carbacephem substrates were converted into effective {beta}-lactamase inhibitors and antiresistance antibiotics. To investigate the structural bases of inhibition, the crystal structures of the acyl-adducts of the penicillin substrate amoxicillin and the new analogous inhibitor ATMO-penicillin were determined. ATMO-penicillin binds in a catalytically incompetent conformation resembling that adopted by third-generation cephalosporins, demonstrating the transferability of such sterically hindered groups in inhibitor design.

  1. Interactions of biapenem with active-site serine and metallo-beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Felici, A; Perilli, M; Segatore, B; Franceschini, N; Setacci, D; Oratore, A; Stefani, S; Galleni, M; Amicosante, G

    1995-01-01

    Biapenem, formerly LJC 10,627 or L-627, a carbapenem antibiotic, was studied in its interactions with 12 beta-lactamases belonging to the four molecular classes proposed by R. P. Ambler (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Biol. Sci. 289:321-331, 1980). Kinetic parameters were determined. Biapenem was readily inactivated by metallo-beta-lactamases but behaved as a transient inhibitor of the active-site serine enzymes tested, although with different acylation efficiency values. Class A and class D beta-lactamases were unable to confer in vitro resistance toward this carbapenem antibiotic. Surprisingly, the same situation was found in the case of class B enzymes from Aeromonas hydrophila AE036 and Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 when expressed in Escherichia coli strains. PMID:7574520

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems.

  3. Novel plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece.

    PubMed

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José

    2002-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of bla(MOX-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC beta-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  4. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of VIM-12, a novel hybrid VIM-1/VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate, reveal atypical substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Kontou, Maria; Pournaras, Spyros; Kristo, Ioulia; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Maniatis, Antonios N; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2007-11-13

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are considered an emerging family of Zn2+-dependent enzymes that significantly contribute to the resistance of many nosocomial pathogens against beta-lactam antimicrobials. Since these plasmid-encoded enzymes constitute specific molecular targets for beta-lactams, their exact mode of action is greatly important in deploying efficient anti-infective treatments and for the control of severe multi-resistant nosocomial infections, which becomes a global problem. A novel hybrid VIM-1/VIM-2-type beta-lactamase (named VIM-12) has recently been identified in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece. The sequence of this enzyme is highly similar with that of VIM-1 at its N-terminal region and with that of VIM-2 at its C-terminal region, raising the question of whether this sequence similarity reflects also a similar functional role. Moreover, the possible contribution of this novel beta-lactamase to the overall antibiotic resistance of this specific clinical isolate was investigated. The gene encoding VIM-12 was cloned and expressed, and the recombinant enzyme was used for detailed kinetic analysis, using a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. VIM-12 was found to exhibit narrow substrate specificity, compared to other known beta-lactamases, limited mainly to penicillin and to a much lesser extent to imipenen. Interestingly, meropenem was found to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme, although the active site of VIM-12 exhibited complete conservation of residues among VIM enzymes. We conclude that VIM-12 represents a novel and unique member of the family of known metallo-beta-lactamases, exhibiting atypical substrate specificity.

  5. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  6. Occurrence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae from foods of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, İsmail Hakkı; Özpınar, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    Presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria is a growing health concern of global significance. The local, regional, national, and international epidemiological studies for extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their encoding genes in foods are still incomplete. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and the characteristics of their encoding genes from a total of 250 samples of various foods of animal-origin (100 raw chicken meat, 100 raw cow milk, and 50 raw cow milk cheese) sold in Turkey. Overall, 55 isolates were positive as extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The most prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strain were identified as Escherichia coli (80%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (9.1%), Citrobacter braakii (5.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%), and Citrobacter werkmanii (1.8%) by Vitek(®) MS. The simultaneous production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC was detected in five isolates (9.1%) in E. coli (80%) and E. cloacae (20%). The frequency rates of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were 96.4%, 53.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The co-existence of bla-genes was observed in 82% of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producers with a distribution of blaTEM &blaCTX-M (52.7%), blaTEM &blaSHV (20%), blaTEM &blaCTX-M &blaSHV (12.7%), and blaSHV &blaCTX-M (1.8%). The most prevalent variant of blaCTX-M clusters was defined as blaCTX-M-1 (97.2%), followed by blaCTX-M-8 (2.8%). In summary, the analysed foods were found to be posing a health risk for Turkish consumers due to contamination by Enterobacteriaceae with a diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases encoding genes.

  7. New system based on site-directed mutagenesis for highly accurate comparison of resistance levels conferred by SHV beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, M T; Hächler, H; Kayser, F H

    1995-01-01

    We developed a system based on site-directed mutagenesis that allows a precise comparison of SHV enzymes under isogenic conditions. In addition, the influences of two different, naturally occurring promoters were examined for each SHV derivative. The system comprised two separately cloned DNA fragments, each the size of 3.6 kb. Both fragments encoded an SHV gene originating from clinical isolates but with different promoters. The structural genes were made identical by site-directed mutagenesis. Other mutations were then introduced into both fragments by means of site-directed mutagenesis, resulting in the SHV derivatives SHV-1, SHV-2, SHV-2a, SHV-3, and SHV-5. The amino acid exchange of glutamic acid at position 235 for lysine in SHV-5 resulted in the highest resistance levels. SHV-3, differing from SHV-2 by the exchange of arginine at position 201 for leucine and previously described as indistinguishable from SHV-2, was shown to cause slightly higher resistance to ceftazidime and lower resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefepime than SHV-2. The point mutation in SHV-2a, with the leucine-to-glutamine replacement at the unusual position 31, previously considered almost insignificant, proved to increase resistance to ceftazidime but reduced the MICs of all other cephalosporins tested when compared with those for SHV-2. For all clones harboring SHV derivatives, resistance was increased by a stronger promoter, in some cases masking the effect of the point mutation itself and demonstrating the importance of regulatory mechanisms of resistance. PMID:7486909

  8. Novel genetic structure associated with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaVEB gene in a Providencia stuartii clinical isolate from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Daniel; Naas, Thierry; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-08-01

    A ceftazidime-resistant Providencia stuartii isolate from Algeria harbored a ca. 160-kb conjugative plasmid that contained a truncated bla(VEB-1b) gene flanked by three 135-bp repeated elements. This work gives further evidence of the worldwide spread of bla(VEB) genes that are associated with genetic structures other than class 1 integrons.

  9. Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    versus nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: clinical features, treatment outcomes, and clinical implication of antimicrobial resistance. J...Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients Jason W Bennett, MD, MSPH, Janelle...Significantly higher mortality has been demonstrated in patients who suffer severe burns com- plicated by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. The specific

  10. Functional characterization of OXA-57, a class D beta-lactamase from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Keith, Karen E; Oyston, Petra C; Crossett, Ben; Fairweather, Neil F; Titball, Richard W; Walsh, Timothy R; Brown, Katherine A

    2005-04-01

    Class D beta-lactamase OXA-57 was identified in a range of isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis. Comparative kinetic analyses of wild-type and mutant forms of B. pseudomallei OXA-57 are reported. Implications of these data for beta-lactam resistance and the proposed role of Ser-104 in beta-lactam hydrolysis are discussed.

  11. SME-type carbapenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamases from geographically diverse Serratia marcescens strains.

    PubMed

    Queenan, A M; Torres-Viera, C; Gold, H S; Carmeli, Y; Eliopoulos, G M; Moellering, R C; Quinn, J P; Hindler, J; Medeiros, A A; Bush, K

    2000-11-01

    Three sets of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates have been identified in the United States: 1 isolate in Minnesota in 1985 (before approval of carbapenems for clinical use), 5 isolates in Los Angeles (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]) in 1992, and 19 isolates in Boston from 1994 to 1999. All isolates tested produced two beta-lactamases, an AmpC-type enzyme with pI values of 8.6 to 9.0 and one with a pI value of approximately 9.5. The enzyme with the higher pI in each strain hydrolyzed carbapenems and was not inhibited by EDTA, similar to the chromosomal class A SME-1 beta-lactamase isolated from the 1982 London strain S. marcescens S6. The genes encoding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. The enzyme from the Minnesota isolate had an amino acid sequence identical to that of SME-1. The isolates from Boston and UCLA produced SME-2, an enzyme with a single amino acid change relative to SME-1, a substitution from valine to glutamine at position 207. Purified SME enzymes from the U. S. isolates had beta-lactam hydrolysis profiles similar to that of the London SME-1 enzyme. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the isolates showed some similarity but differed by at least three genetic events. In conclusion, a family of rare class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases first described in London has now been identified in S. marcescens isolates across the United States.

  12. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.

    PubMed

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M

    1997-09-01

    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  13. Detection of cfxA2, cfxA3, and cfxA6 genes in beta-lactamase producing oral anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    BINTA, Buhle; PATEL, Mrudula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to identify β-lactamase-producing oral anaerobic bacteria and screen them for the presence of cfxA and BlaTEM genes that are responsible for β-lactamase production and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Material and Methods Periodontal pocket debris samples were collected from 48 patients with chronic periodontitis and anaerobically cultured on blood agar plates with and without β-lactam antibiotics. Presumptive β-lactamase-producing isolates were evaluated for definite β-lactamase production using the nitrocefin slide method and identified using the API Rapid 32A system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion and microbroth dilution tests as described by CLSI Methods. Isolates were screened for the presence of the β-lactamase-TEM (BlaTEM) and β-lactamase-cfxA genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Amplified PCR products were sequenced and the cfxA gene was characterized using Genbank databases. Results Seventy five percent of patients carried two species of β-lactamase-producing anaerobic bacteria that comprised 9.4% of the total number of cultivable bacteria. Fifty one percent of β-lactamase-producing strains mainly Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides carried the cfxA gene, whereas none of them carried blaTEM. Further characterization of the cfxA gene showed that 76.7% of these strains carried the cfxA2 gene, 14% carried cfxA3, and 9.3% carried cfxA6. The cfxA6 gene was present in three Prevotella spp. and in one Porphyromonas spp. Strains containing cfxA genes (56%) were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion This study indicates that there is a high prevalence of the cfxA gene in β-lactamase-producing anaerobic oral bacteria, which may lead to drug resistance and treatment failure. PMID:27119762

  14. High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Mark F; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Smit, Juanita; Whitelaw, Andrew; Zar, Heather J

    2008-01-01

    (MIC ≤ 0.06 μg/ml), 9 (50%) had intermediate resistance (MIC 0.12 – 1 μg/ml) and 2 (11.1%) had high level resistance (MIC ≥2 μg/ml). Fifty percent of Enterobacteriaceae produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (resistant to third generation cephalosporins) and 56% were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-seven percent of S. aureus were MRSA. Carriage of resistant organisms was not associated with hospitalization. On multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for colonization with Enterobacteriaceae were age ≤ one year (Odds ratio 4.4; 95% Confidence Interval 1.9–10.9; p = 0.0008) and CDC stage C disease (Odds ratio 3.6; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5–8.6; p = 0.005) Nineteen (9.4%) subjects had 23 episodes of bacteremia. Enterobacteriaceae were most commonly isolated (13 of 25 isolates), of which 6 (46%) produced ESBL and were resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion HIV-infected children are colonized with potential pathogens, most of which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. TMP-SMX resistance is extremely common. Antibiotic resistance is widespread in colonizing organisms and those causing invasive disease. Antibiotic recommendations should take cognizance of resistance patterns. Antibiotics appropriate for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA should be used for severely ill HIV-infected children in our region. Further study of antibiotic resistance patterns in HIV-infected children from other areas is needed. PMID:18380900

  15. Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and of Enterobacteriaceae Expressing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases on a Model Pig Farm

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Sophia Ricarda; Schulze-Geisthoevel, Sophia Veronika; Hack, Sylvia; Engelhart, Steffen; Bodenstein, Isabel; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Reif, Marion; Fimmers, Rolf; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Harlizius, Jürgen; Hoerauf, Achim; Exner, Martin; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Petersen, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of livestock with bacteria resistant to antibiotics is considered a risk for the entry of drug-resistant pathogens into the food chain. For this reason, there is a need for novel concepts to address the eradication of drug-resistant commensals on farms. In the present report, we evaluated the decontamination measures taken on a farm contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E). The decontamination process preceded the conversion from piglet breeding to gilt production. Microbiological surveillance showed that the decontamination measures eliminated the MRSA and ESBL-E strains that were detected on the farm before the complete removal of pigs, cleaning and disinfection of the stable, and construction of an additional stable meeting high-quality standards. After pig production was restarted, ESBL-E remained undetectable over 12 months, but MRSA was recovered from pigs and the environment within the first 2 days. However, spa (Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene) typing revealed acquisition of an MRSA strain (type t034) that had not been detected before decontamination. Interestingly, we observed that a farmworker who had been colonized with the prior MRSA strain (t2011) acquired the new strain (t034) after 2 months. In summary, this report demonstrates that decontamination protocols similar to those used here can lead to successful elimination of contaminating MRSA and ESBL-E in pigs and the stable environment. Nevertheless, decontamination protocols do not prevent the acquisition of new MRSA strains. PMID:26341200

  16. Quinolone Resistance Mechanisms among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Rivers and Lakes in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Abgottspon, Helga; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Stephan, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Sixty extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland were screened for individual strains additionally exhibiting a reduced quinolone susceptibility phenotype. Totally, 42 such isolates were found and further characterized for their molecular (fluoro)quinolone resistance mechanisms. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE and to describe the occurrence of the following plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes: qepA, aac-6′-Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS. The contribution of efflux pumps to the resistance phenotype of selected strains was further determined by the broth microdilution method in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Almost all strains, except two isolates, showed at least one mutation in the QRDR of gyrA. Ten strains showed only one mutation in gyrA, whereas thirty isolates exhibited up to four mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, parC and/or parE. No mutations were detected in gyrB. Most frequently the amino-acid substitution Ser83→Leu was detected in GyrA followed by Asp87→Asn in GyrA, Ser80→Ile in ParC, Glu84→Val in ParC and Ser458→Ala in ParE. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms were found in twenty isolates bearing QnrS1 (4/20), AAC-6′-Ib-cr (15/20) and QepA (1/20) determinants, respectively. No qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrD were found. In the presence of PAβN, the MICs of nalidixic acid were decreased 4- to 32-fold. (Fluoro) quinolone resistance is due to various mechanisms frequently associated with ESBL-production in E. coli from surface waters in Switzerland. PMID:24755830

  17. Quinolone resistance mechanisms among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Abgottspon, Helga; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Stephan, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Sixty extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland were screened for individual strains additionally exhibiting a reduced quinolone susceptibility phenotype. Totally, 42 such isolates were found and further characterized for their molecular (fluoro)quinolone resistance mechanisms. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE and to describe the occurrence of the following plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes: qepA, aac-6'-Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS. The contribution of efflux pumps to the resistance phenotype of selected strains was further determined by the broth microdilution method in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Almost all strains, except two isolates, showed at least one mutation in the QRDR of gyrA. Ten strains showed only one mutation in gyrA, whereas thirty isolates exhibited up to four mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, parC and/or parE. No mutations were detected in gyrB. Most frequently the amino-acid substitution Ser83→Leu was detected in GyrA followed by Asp87→Asn in GyrA, Ser80→Ile in ParC, Glu84→Val in ParC and Ser458→Ala in ParE. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms were found in twenty isolates bearing QnrS1 (4/20), AAC-6'-Ib-cr (15/20) and QepA (1/20) determinants, respectively. No qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrD were found. In the presence of PAβN, the MICs of nalidixic acid were decreased 4- to 32-fold. (Fluoro) quinolone resistance is due to various mechanisms frequently associated with ESBL-production in E. coli from surface waters in Switzerland.

  18. Rarity of transferable beta-lactamase production by Klebsiella species.

    PubMed

    Leung, M; Shannon, K; French, G

    1997-06-01

    We report a survey of beta-lactamases and their transferability in Klebsiella spp. isolated from blood during 1992-95. beta-Lactamases were characterized by determination of isoelectric point (pI), by hybridization of plasmid DNA preparations with probes for SHV and TEM sequences and by PCR with SHV- or TEM-specific primers. There were 80 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 22 isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca. Most isolates of K. pneumoniae had a chromosomally encoded SHV-1 beta-lactamase (or a closely related enzyme); K. oxytoca also produced chromosomal beta-lactamases, but these were distinct from SHV-1. Plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases were rare in Klebsiella spp., being found in six (7.5%) isolates of K. pneumoniae and in none of the K. oxytoca. beta-Lactamase activities were relatively low (< 100 nmoles nitrocefin hydrolysed per minute per mg of protein) and ampicillin MICs were < or = 128 mg/L for most isolates of both species. However, all isolates of K. pneumoniae with plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases, three other isolates of K. pneumoniae and three isolates of K. oxytoca had high beta-lactamase activities (> 100 nmoles/mg/min) and very high ampicillin MICs (> or = 1024 mg/L).

  19. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  20. A novel SHV-type beta-lactamase variant (SHV-89) in clinical isolates in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Bin; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Qian; Chen, Yan; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and one isolate of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were collected from two large general hospitals in China. Conjugation experiment, susceptibility testing, isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing techniques as well as clone, expression, purification and kinetics were carried out to describe the characterization of the novel SHV-tpye enzyme. The analysis of plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the novel enzyme were performed to investigate epidemiology. These isolates had CTX-M-14 and SHV-89 beta-lactamases. SHV-89 beta-lactamase of pI 7.6 is a novel variant with two substitutions compared with the sequence of SHV-1: Leu35Gln and Met129Val. Its gene also had two silent mutations at positions 369 and 774, respectively. The results of substrate profiles and MIC determinations showed the activity of the novel enzyme was insufficient for the enzyme to count as an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The substrates of the enzyme were also characterized. Furthermore, the three novel SHV enzyme-producing strains were epidemiologically unrelated. The emergence of a novel SHV-type beta-lactamase is rarely described in other areas. This study illustrates the importance of molecular survelliance in tracking SHV-producing strains in large teaching hospitals and emphasizes the need for epidemiological monitoring.

  1. High-level carbapenem resistance in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate is due to the combination of bla(ACT-1) beta-lactamase production, porin OmpK35/36 insertional inactivation, and down-regulation of the phosphate transport porin phoe.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Frank M; Dib-Hajj, Fadia; Shang, Wenchi; Gootz, Thomas D

    2006-10-01

    Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems and essentially all other antibiotics (multidrug resistant) are being isolated from some hospitals in New York City with increasing frequency. A highly related pair of K. pneumoniae strains isolated on the same day from one patient in a hospital in New York City were studied for antibiotic resistance. One (KP-2) was resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and sulopenem (MICs of 16 to 32 microg/ml) while the other (KP-1) was susceptible (MIC of 0.5 microg/ml); both contained the bla(ACT-1), bla(SHV-1), and bla(TEM-1) beta-lactamases. bla(ACT-1) in both strains was encoded on a large approximately 150-kb plasmid. Both isolates contained an identical class 1 integron encoding resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol. They each had identical insertions in ompK35 and ompK36, resulting in disruption of these key porin genes. The carbapenem-resistant and -susceptible isolates were extensively studied for differences in the structural and regulatory genes for the operons acrRAB, marORAB, romA-ramA, soxRS, micF, micC, phoE, phoBR, rpoS, and hfq. No changes were detected between the isolates except for a significant down-regulation of ompK37, phoB, and phoE in KP-2 as deduced from reverse transcription-PCR analysis of mRNA and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of outer membrane proteins. Backcross analysis was conducted using the wild-type phoE gene cloned into the vector pGEM under regulation of its native promoter as well as the lacZ promoter following transformation into the resistant KP-2 isolate. The wild-type gene reversed carbapenem resistance only when under control of the heterologous lacZ promoter. In the background of ompK35-ompK36 gene disruption, the up-regulation of phoE in KP-1 apparently compensated for porin loss and conferred carbapenem susceptibility. Down-regulation of phoE in KP-2 may represent the normal state of this gene, or it may have been selected from KP-1 in vivo

  2. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases: Definition, Classification and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Soheili, Sara; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are defined as enzymes produced by certain bacteria that are able to hydrolyze extended spectrum cephalosporin. They are therefore effective against beta-lactam antibiotics such as ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and oxyimino-monobactam. The objective of the current review is to provide a better understanding of ESBL and the epidemiology of ESBL producing organisms which are among those responsible for antibiotic resistant strains. Globally, ESBLs are considered to be problematic, particularly in hospitalized patients. There is an increasing frequency of ESBL in different parts of the world. The high risk patients are those contaminated with ESBL producer strains as it renders treatment to be ineffective in these patients. Thus, there an immediate needs to identify EBSL and formulate strategic policy initiatives to reduce their prevalence.

  3. Structure of the imipenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase SME-1 from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Sougakoff, Wladimir; L'Hermite, Guillaume; Pernot, Lucile; Naas, Thierry; Guillet, Valérie; Nordmann, Patrice; Jarlier, Vincent; Delettré, Jean

    2002-02-01

    The structure of the beta-lactamase SME-1 from Serratia marcescens, a class A enzyme characterized by its significant activity against imipenem, has been determined to 2.13 A resolution. The overall structure of SME-1 is similar to that of other class A beta-lactamases. In the active-site cavity, most of the residues found in SME-1 are conserved among class A beta-lactamases, except at positions 104, 105 and 237, where a tyrosine, a histidine and a serine are found, respectively, and at position 238, which is occupied by a cysteine forming a disulfide bridge with the other cysteine residue located at position 69. The crucial role played by this disulfide bridge in SME-1 was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of Cys69 to Ala, which resulted in a mutant unable to confer resistance to imipenem and all other beta-lactam antibiotics tested. Another striking structural feature found in SME-1 was the short distance separating the side chains of the active serine residue at position 70 and the strictly conserved glutamate at position 166, which is up to 1.4 A shorter in SME-1 compared with other class A beta-lactamases. Consequently, the SME-1 structure cannot accommodate the essential catalytic water molecule found between Ser70 and Glu166 in the other class A beta-lactamases described so far, suggesting that a significant conformational change may be necessary in SME-1 to properly position the hydrolytic water molecule involved in the hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate.

  4. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Proteus penneri: a rare missed pathogen?

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Verma, Himani; Asthana, Ashish K; Madan, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as Proteus mirabilis, often missing out isolates of Proteus penneri. We report a case of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing and multidrug-resistant P. penneri isolated from pus from pressure sore of a patient of road traffic accident. Correct and rapid isolation and identification of such resistant pathogen are important as they are significant nosocomial threat.

  5. [Enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases].

    PubMed

    Lucet, J C; Régnier, B

    1998-04-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were first observed in 1983. Since then, the number and variety of ESBLs have increased rapidly, particularly in France, and their distribution is now worldwide. The number of ESBLs has now reached more than 30, some of them spreading largely in several countries, such as SHV-4 in France. Intensive care units were first involved. Patients from nursing homes may recirculate ESBLs into acute care units. ESBL clinical epidemiology does not differ from other enterobacteriaceae. Digestive tract is the main reservoir, hands are the route of transmission. Infection develops in about 50% of colonized patients, more than one-half being urinary tract infections. Risk factors for colonization or infection are length of exposure to an epidemic strain and frequency of health-care-worker contact. Strategies for containing spreading of ESBL-producing strains include use of barrier precautions for carriers. Judicious use of antimicrobial agents is also important, by decreasing antibiotic selective pressure.

  6. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Seck, Abdoulaye; Dia, Mouhamadou Lamine; Timbiné, Lassina Gadi; Niang, Aïssatou Ameth; Ndiaye, El Hadji Momar; Sonko, Mouhamadou Abdoulaye; Wane, Abdoul Aziz; Bercion, Raymond; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Cissé, Moussa Fafa; Gassama-Sow, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants’ stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL). blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella. PMID:27355480

  7. Successive emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter aerogenes isolates in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Thomas, D; Rousseau, F; Hamdad, F; Adjide, C; Laurans, G; Eb, F

    2008-03-01

    Sixty-two clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins were collected between July 2003 and May 2005. Among these isolates, 23 (37.1%) were imipenem (IPM) susceptible, and 39 (62.9%) were IPM insusceptible, of which 89.7% (35/39) were resistant and 10.3% (4/39) were intermediate. Isolate genotypes were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 62 isolates, 48 belonged to epidemic pulsotype A (77.4%). This pulsotype included 37.5% and 58.4% of beta-lactam phenotypes b and a, respectively. Nine isolates (14.5%) belonged to pulsotype E, which included 22.3% and 77.7% of phenotypes b and a, respectively. The beta-lactamases with pIs of 5.4, 6.5, 8.2, and 8.2 corresponded to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-20, TEM-24, SHV-5, and SHV-12, respectively. Of 39 IPM-insusceptible E. aerogenes isolates, 26 (66.6%) were determined to be metallo-beta-lactamase producers, by using a phenotypic method. Of these isolates, 24 harbored a bla(IMP-1) gene encoding a protein with a pI of >9.5, and two carried the bla(VIM-2) gene encoding a protein with a pI of 5.3, corresponding to beta-lactamases IMP-1 and VIM-2, respectively. The remaining 13 (33.4%) isolates were negative for the bla(IMP-1) and bla(VIM-2) genes but showed an alteration of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ten of these isolates produced the two possible OMPs (32 and 42 kDa), with IPM MICs between 8 and 32 microg/ml, and three others produced only a 32-kDa OMP with IPM MICs >32 microg/ml. This work demonstrates that, in addition to resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, IPM resistance can occur in ESBL-producing E. aerogenes isolates by carbapenemase production or by the loss of porin in the outer membrane.

  8. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  9. Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone with CP-45,899 against large inocula of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P K; Washington, J A

    1981-01-01

    Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone, alone and in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitor CP-45,899, was tested against inocula of 10(7) colony-forming units of beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b per ml. Of 19 strains tested, 10 required greater than or equal to 64 microgram of cefoperazone per ml for killing, whereas no strains were killed by less than 64 microgram of CP-45,899 per ml. Synergy occurred with the combination of 4 microgram of each agent per ml against 9 of the 10 cefoperazone-resistant strains. PMID:6269484

  10. Prevalence and Clonal Dissemination of Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kermanshah

    PubMed Central

    Akya, Alisha; Salimi, Afsaneh; Nomanpour, Bizhan; Ahmadi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The emergence and dissemination of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) has contributed to the high rate of resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and the clonal dissemination of MBL- producing P. aeruginosa isolates collected from major hospitals in Kermanshah. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The MBLs were investigated using the Double-Disk Synergy Test (DDST) and Polymerase Chain Reaction. Molecular typing was performed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Of the 60 P. aeruginosa isolates included in this study, 30 (50%) were resistant to Gentamicin, 38 (63.3%) to Piperacillin, 42 (70%) to Ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to Cefepime. Twenty-nine (48.3%) isolates were MBL producers in the DDST test. Five (8.3%) isolates were positive for the VIM gene. PFGE analysis among the MBL producers revealed 12 distinct clonal patterns. Conclusions: The inter- and intra-hospital dissemination of resistant clones is a matter of concern and is an indicator of the level of the improvement and surveillance of standard hygiene, particularly disinfection and hand washing before and after contact with patients. Given the emergence of MBL-producing strains, surveillance has become an important procedure to control the transmission of resistant strains. PMID:26421137

  11. Induction of beta-lactamases: in vitro phenomena and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, B; Peter, K

    1990-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to stimulate the plasma concentration-time curves for cefotaxime and cefoxitin as they would appear during treatment of patients with infections due to Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The data showed that the induction of the chromosomally mediated beta-lactamase took place in both bacteria but that it had little or no effect on the bacterial kill. It is concluded that treatment failures in these settings were due to the selection of resistant mutants.

  12. Beta-lactamase inactivation by mechanism-based reagents.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Belasco, J G; Charnas, R L; Khosla, S; Knowles, J R

    1980-05-16

    The mechanistic pathway followed by the E. coli RTEM beta-lactamase has been studied with a view to clarifying the mode of action of a number of recently discovered inactivators of the enzyme. There is clear evidence that the beta-lactamase-catalysed hydrolysis of the 7-alpha-methoxycephem, cefoxitin, proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. An analysis of the inactivation reactions of all the known beta-lactam derivatives that result in irreversible loss of enzyme activity permits the identification of three structural features required for a beta-lactamase inactivator. The application of these principles suggests a new group of mechanism-based inactivators of the enzyme: the sulphones of N-acyl derivatives of 6-beta-aminopenicillanic acid that are themselves poor substrates for the enzyme. These sulphones are powerful inactivators of the beta-lactamase.

  13. Comparative possession of Shiga toxin, intimin, enterohaemolysin and major extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from backyard and farmed poultry

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Das, P. K.; Sar, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to compare the occurrence of Escherichia coli possessing virulence and ESBL genes in backyard and farmed poultry. Three hundred and sixty samples from the poultry kept in backyard system and 120 samples from the farmed birds were collected from West Bengal, India. Among the E. coli isolates of backyard poultry (O2, O10, O25, O55, O60, O106, UT), none of them possessed any of the Shiga toxin genes and eight E. coli isolates (8/272; 2.9%) harboured eaeA gene alone. Whereas among the E. coli isolated from the farmed poultry (O17, O20, O22, O102, O114, O119, rough, UT), four isolates (4/78, 5.1%) harboured stx1/stx2 gene and 11 isolates (11/78, 14.1%) possessed eaeA gene. None of the E. coli isolates from the backyard poultry harboured any studied ESBL gene. Whereas 29.4% of E. coli isolates from the farmed poultry were found to possess the ESBL genes. PMID:27175158

  14. Properties of a class C beta-lactamase from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Joris, B; De Meester, F; Galleni, M; Masson, S; Dusart, J; Frère, J M; Van Beeumen, J; Bush, K; Sykes, R

    1986-11-01

    A beta-lactamase produced by a penicillin-resistant strain of Serratia marcescens was isolated and purified. The kcat. value for benzylpenicillin was about 5% of that observed for the best cephalosporin substrates. However, the low Km of the penam resulted in a high catalytic efficiency (kcat./Km) and the classification of the enzyme as a cephalosporinase might not be completely justified. It also exhibited a low but measurable activity against cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefoxitin and moxalactam. Substrate-induced inactivation was observed both with a very good (cephalothin) or a very bad (moxalactam) substrate. The active site was labelled by beta-iodopenicillanate. Trypsin digestion produced a 19-residue active-site peptide whose sequence clearly allowed the classification of the enzyme as a class C beta-lactamase.

  15. Is multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) a new threat for kidney transplant recipients?

    PubMed

    Karczewski, M; Tomczak, H; Piechocka-Idasiak, I; Cichanska, L; Adamska, Z; Stronka, M

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most frequent infections among kidney transplant (KT) patients. This case documents the emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) Klebsiella pneumonia--a factor of recurrent post-KT UTI, leading to graft loss. Spreading globally, and multidrug resistant, NDM-1 may become a great threat to transplant patients all over the world.

  16. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014).

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey, were screened for perianal ESBL-E carriage. Perianal swabs were taken and cultured using an enrichment broth and a selective agar plate. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect the production of ESBL, presence of ESBL-genes and clonal relatedness. Out of 2,695 patients, 135 (5.0%) were tested ESBL-E positive. The overall ESBL-E prevalence was stable over the years. Overall 5.2% of all ESBL-E were acquired by nosocomial transmission. A relative decrease of CTX-M-1-1-like ESBL genes (from 44 to 25%, p = 0.026) was observed, possibly related to the strong (>60%) decrease in antibiotic use in livestock in our country during the same period.

  17. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Latifpour, Mohammad; Gholipour, Abolfazl; Damavandi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a family member of Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates of K. pneumoniae produce enzymes that cause decomposition of third generation cephalosporins. These enzymes are known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Resistance of K. pneumoniae to beta-lactamase antibiotics is commonly mediated by beta-lactamase genes. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the ESBL produced by K. pneumoniae isolates that cause community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections within a one-year period (2013 to 2014) in Kashani and Hajar university hospitals of Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods From 2013 to 2014, 150 strains of K. pneumoniae isolate from two different populations with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were collected. The strains were then investigated by double disk synergism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The study population of 150 patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were divided to two groups of 75 each. We found that 48 of the K. pneumoniae isolates in the patients with nosocomial infection and 39 isolates in those with community-acquired infections produced ESBL. The prevalence of TEM1, SHV1 and VEB1 in ESBL-producing isolates in nosocomial patients was 24%, 29.3% and 10.6%, and in community-acquired patients, 17.3%, 22.7% and 8%, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolate is of great concern; therefore, continuous investigation seems essential to monitor ESBL-producing bacteria in patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections. PMID:27226874

  18. A putative low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding protein (PBP) of Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibits prominent physiological characteristics of DD-carboxypeptidase and beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Kar, Debasish; Murugan, Rajagopal A; Mallick, Sathi; Dutta, Mouparna; Pandey, Satya Deo; Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-05-01

    DD-carboxypeptidases (DD-CPases) are low-molecular-mass (LMM) penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that are mainly involved in peptidoglycan remodelling, but little is known about the dd-CPases of mycobacteria. In this study, a putative DD-CPase of Mycobacterium smegmatis, MSMEG_2433 is characterized. The gene for the membrane-bound form of MSMEG_2433 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in its active form, as revealed by its ability to bind to the Bocillin-FL (fluorescent penicillin). Interestingly, in vivo expression of MSMEG_2433 could restore the cell shape oddities of the septuple PBP mutant of E. coli, which was a prominent physiological characteristic of DD-CPases. Moreover, expression of MSMEG_2433 in trans elevated beta-lactam resistance in PBP deletion mutants (ΔdacAdacC) of E. coli, strengthening its physiology as a dd-CPase. To confirm the biochemical reason behind such physiological behaviours, a soluble form of MSMEG_2433 (sMSMEG_2433) was created, expressed and purified. In agreement with the observed physiological phenomena, sMSMEG_2433 exhibited DD-CPase activity against artificial and peptidoglycan-mimetic DD-CPase substrates. To our surprise, enzymic analyses of MSMEG_2433 revealed efficient deacylation for beta-lactam substrates at physiological pH, which is a unique characteristic of beta-lactamases. In addition to the MSMEG_2433 active site that favours dd-CPase activity, in silico analyses also predicted the presence of an omega-loop-like region in MSMEG_2433, which is an important determinant of its beta-lactamase activity. Based on the in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies, we conclude that MSMEG_2433 is a dual enzyme, possessing both DD-CPase and beta-lactamase activities.

  19. Critical hydrogen bonding by serine 235 for cephalosporinase activity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, U; Manavathu, E K; Lerner, S A; Mobashery, S

    1993-01-01

    The role of Ser-235 in the catalytic mechanism of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase has been explored by the study of a mutant enzyme in which Ser-235 has been substituted by alanine (Ala-235 mutant enzyme). A comparative kinetic analysis of both the wild-type and the Ala-235 TEM-1 enzymes revealed little effect of this substitution of residue 235 on the turnover of penicillins but a greater effect on the turnover of cephalosporins. Susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli strains harboring the wild-type TEM-1 beta-lactamase and the Ala-235 mutant enzyme revealed an effect of the mutation similar to that observed in the enzymological studies. The MICs of two representative cephalosporins for the strain containing the mutant enzyme were much lower than those for the isogenic strain bearing the wild-type TEM-1 beta-lactamase. On the other hand, the strain with the mutant enzyme was still highly resistant to penicillins. PMID:8285630

  20. Functional diversity among metallo-beta-lactamases: characterization of the CAR-1 enzyme of Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed

    Stoczko, Magdalena; Frère, Jean-Marie; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2008-07-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are zinc-dependent bacterial enzymes characterized by an efficient hydrolysis of carbapenems and a lack of sensitivity to commercially available beta-lactamase inactivators. Apart from the acquired subclass B1 enzymes, which exhibit increasing clinical importance and whose evolutionary origin remains unclear, most MBLs are encoded by resident genes found in the genomes of organisms belonging to at least three distinct phyla. Using genome database mining, we identified an open reading frame (ORF) (ECA2849) encoding an MBL-like protein in the sequenced genome of Erwinia carotovora, an important plant pathogen. Although no detectable beta-lactamase activity could be found in E. carotovora, a recombinant Escherichia coli strain in which the ECA2849 ORF was cloned showed decreased susceptibility to several beta-lactams, while carbapenem MICs were surprisingly poorly affected. The enzyme, named CAR-1, was purified by means of ion-exchange chromatography steps, and its characterization revealed unique structural and functional features. This new MBL was able to efficiently hydrolyze cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime and, to a lesser extent, penicillins and the other cephalosporins but only poorly hydrolyzed meropenem, while imipenem was not recognized. CAR-1 is the first example of a functional naturally occurring MBL in the family Enterobacteriaceae (order Enterobacteriales) and highlights the extraordinary structural and functional diversity exhibited by MBLs.

  1. A detailed kinetic study of Mox-1, a plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Alba, Jimena; Bauvois, Cedric; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Galleni, Moreno; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Ito, Masahiko; Frere, Jean-Marie; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2003-08-29

    Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an overproduction system for Mox-1, a plasmid class C beta-lactamase, by cloning the gene encoding this enzyme, and placing it under the control of a T7 promoter, using vector pET 28a. The enzyme, purified by ion exchange chromatography, was used to obtain the molecular mass (38246), the N-terminal sequence (GEASPVDPLRPVV), and pI (8.9), and to perform a detailed kinetic study. Cephalotin was used as reporter substrate in the case of poor substrates. The kinetic study showed that benzylpenicillin, cephalotin, cefcapene and moxalactam were good substrates for Mox-1 (k(cat)/K(m) values >2.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). On the other hand, ceftazidime and cefepime were poor substrates for this enzyme (K(m) values >200 microM). Clavulanic acid had no inhibitory effect on Mox-1 (K(m)=30.2 mM), however aztreonam behaved as an inhibitor of Mox-1 (K(i)=2.85 microM).

  2. Amino acid residues that contribute to substrate specificity of class A beta-lactamase SME-1.

    PubMed

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-08-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 beta-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A beta-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket.

  3. Longitudinal monitoring of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli at German broiler chicken fattening farms.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Käsbohrer, A; Kreienbrock, L; Roesler, U

    2013-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli to modern beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and/or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) represents an emerging and increasing resistance problem that dramatically limits therapeutic options in both human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL/AmpC genes in commensal E. coli from food-producing animals like broilers may pose a human health hazard. However, there are no data available concerning the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler flocks using selective methods. In this longitudinal study, samples were taken from seven conventional broiler fattening farms at three different times within one fattening period. Various samples originating from the animals as well as from their direct environment in the barn were investigated for the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Average detection levels of 51, 75, and 76% in animal samples collected during the three samplings in the course of the fattening period demonstrate a colonization of even 1-day-old chicks, as well as a continuous significant (P < 0.001) increase in prevalence thereafter. The detection frequencies in housing environmental samples were relatively high, with an increase over time, and ranged between 54.2 and 100%. A total of 359 E. coli isolates were characterized by PCR and partly via the disc diffusion method. This study shows that prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli increases during the fattening period of the broiler flocks examined. Both colonized day-old chicks and contaminated farm environments could represent significant sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler fattening farms.

  4. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the environment.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Ewa; Harnisz, Monika

    2013-10-15

    The spread of Gram-negative bacteria with plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a worldwide problem. Their prevalence is increasing, both in hospitals and in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the ambient air and the river receiving effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the group of 455 isolated strains, up to 19.8% (90 isolates) were phenotypic ESBL-producers. They were detected in the 63 (100%) of sewage samples analyzed, 7 (33.3%) of river water and in 10 (23.8%) of air samples collected at the WWTP area. The plasmid-mediated genes encoding beta-lactams resistance were detected in almost 10% out of bacteria of the WWTP's final effluents and in above 32% out of bacteria of air at the WWTP area. It confirms that those genes are released into the environment, which might facilitate further dissemination among environmental bacteria. Moreover, genes encoding antibiotic resistance were shown to be transferrable to an Escherichia coli recipient strain, which indicates a high possibility of horizontal gene transfer among strains of different genera within the sewage and environmental samples. This study demonstrated that despite the treatment, the municipal sewage may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes. This may pose a public health risk, which requires future evaluation and control.

  5. Survey and molecular genetics of SHV beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Switzerland: two novel enzymes, SHV-11 and SHV-12.

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, M T; Kayser, F H; Hächler, H

    1997-01-01

    Sixty isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics were collected over a period of 2 years in Switzerland and screened by hybridization for the carriage of SHV genes. Thirty-four positive strains were found, and their SHV genes were amplified and sequenced. SHV extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were found: 13 strains contained SHV-2a, 12 harbored SHV-2, and SHV-5 was found twice. Four strains were shown to contain SHV-1. In addition, we report two new SHV variants, termed SHV-11 (non-ESBL) and SHV-12 (ESBL). In spite of the carriage of SHV ESBLs, many strains showed only low resistance to one or more third-generation cephalosporins. In addition, 26 did not transfer the blaSHV gene in mating experiments. PMID:9145849

  6. The K1 beta-lactamase of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Joris, B; De Meester, F; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Van Beeumen, J

    1987-01-01

    beta-Lactamase K1 was purified from Klebsiella pneumoniae SC10436. It is very similar to the enzyme produced by Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E and described by Emanuel, Gagnon & Waley [Biochem. J. (1986) 234, 343-347]. An active-site peptide was isolated after labelling of the enzyme with tritiated beta-iodopenicillanate. A cysteine residue was found just before the active-site serine residue. This result could explain the properties of the enzyme after modification by thiol-blocking reagents. The sequence of the active-site peptide clearly established the enzyme as a class A beta-lactamase. PMID:3307765

  7. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in community- and hospital-associated intra-abdominal infections in Europe: results of the 2008 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Hawser, Stephen P; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Badal, Robert E; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    From 2002 to 2008, there was a significant increase in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli isolates in European intra-abdominal infections, from 4.3% in 2002 to 11.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001), but not for ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (16.4% to 17.9% [P > 0.05]). Hospital-associated isolates were more common than community-associated isolates, at 14.0% versus 6.5%, respectively, for E. coli (P < 0.001) and 20.9% versus 5.3%, respectively, for K. pneumoniae (P < 0.01). Carbapenems were consistently the most active drugs tested.

  8. First Report of Group CTX-M-9 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Merida-Vieyra, Jocelin; De Colsa, Agustin; Calderon Castañeda, Yair; Arzate Barbosa, Patricia; Aquino Andrade, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected. ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed using a diffusion method with cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs alone and in combination with clavulanic acid. blaESBL gene identification was performed through PCR amplification and sequencing. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed to establish the clonal relationships of the E. coli isolates. CTX-M-9-type ESBLs were detected in 2.5% of the isolates. The subtypes corresponded to blaCTX-M-14 (n = 4) and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 6). Additionally, coexistence with other beta-lactamases was observed. A clonal relationship was established in three isolates; the rest were classified as non-related. We found seven different sequence type (ST) in CTX-M-9- producing E. coli isolates. ST38 was the most frequent. This study is the first report in Mexico to document the presence of group CTX-M-9 ESBLs in E. coli isolates from pediatric patients. PMID:27992527

  9. Ligand-Dependent Disorder of Loop Observed in Extended-Spectrum SHV-Type beta-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    J Sampson; W Ke; C Bethel; S Pagadala; M Nottingham; R Bonomo; J Buynak; F van den Akker

    2011-12-31

    Among Gram-negative bacteria, resistance to {beta}-lactams is mediated primarily by {beta}-lactamases (EC 3.2.6.5), periplasmic enzymes that inactivate {beta}-lactam antibiotics. Substitutions at critical amino acid positions in the class A {beta}-lactamase families result in enzymes that can hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins, thus demonstrating an 'extended-spectrum' {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. Using SHV ESBLs with substitutions in the {Omega} loop (R164H and R164S) as target enzymes to understand this enhanced biochemical capability and to serve as a basis for novel {beta}-lactamase inhibitor development, we determined the spectra of activity and crystal structures of these variants. We also studied the inactivation of the R164H and R164S mutants with tazobactam and SA2-13, a unique {beta}-lactamase inhibitor that undergoes a distinctive reaction chemistry in the active site. We noted that the reduced K{sub i} values for the R164H and R164S mutants with SA2-13 are comparable to those with tazobactam (submicromolar). The apo enzyme crystal structures of the R164H and R164S SHV variants revealed an ordered {Omega} loop architecture that became disordered when SA2-13 was bound. Important structural alterations that result from the binding of SA2-13 explain the enhanced susceptibility of these ESBL enzymes to this inhibitor and highlight ligand-dependent {Omega} loop flexibility as a mechanism for accommodating and hydrolyzing {beta}-lactam substrates.

  10. Prevalence and molecular characterization of ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Ahmed M; Ishida, Yojiro; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to address the prevalence and the molecular characteristics of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria isolated from one of the most popular types of Egyptian cheese. A total of 215 ampicillin-resistant enterobacterial isolates were obtained from 80 samples of Domiati cheese, and they were screened by PCR for a large pool of antibiotic resistance markers, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), class 1 and class 2 integrons, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. It was determined that the most frequent mechanism of ampicillin resistance was from a TEM-1-type beta-lactamase. As well, SHV beta-lactamases, including SHV-1, SHV-25, and SHV-26, showed a high prevalence, and two novel SHV beta-lactamases, SHV-110 and SHV-111, were identified. Type CTX-M-14, OXY-1, OXA-1, and CMY-4 beta-lactamases were also detected in a few isolates. In addition, a novel AmpC beta-lactamase was detected that was designated CMY-41. Sequencing results of class 1 integrons revealed that the uncommon aminoglycoside resistance gene cassette aadA22 was found for the first time in an Escherichia coli strain. The other class 1 integrons harbored various common gene cassettes, including aadA1, aadA1a, aadA2, aadA12, dfr5, dfr7, dfr12, and dfr15. The only isolate that carried a class 2 integron contained dfrA1, sat2, and aadA1. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnrS and qnrB showed a low prevalence. This study provides meaningful data on high antimicrobial resistance contained in Domiati cheese samples and reports for the first time the presence of beta-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, and integrons in isolates from food of Egyptian animal origin.

  11. Effect of pH on activities of novel beta-lactamases and beta-lactamase inhibitors against these beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Ohsuka, S; Arakawa, Y; Horii, T; Ito, H; Ohta, M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of acidic conditions on activities of seven beta-lactamases--TEM-1 (class A), KOXY (class A), IMP-1 (class B), AmpC (class C), MOX-1 (class C), OXA-5 (class D), and PSE-2 (class D)--and their inhibitors were measured. The enzymatic activities of KOXY, IMP-1, and MOX-1 at pH 5.8 were slightly lower than those at pH 7.5. However, the activities of PSE-2 and OXA-5 were greatly reduced at pH 5.8. All of the beta-lactamase inhibitors tested had poorer inhibitory activities at pH 5.8 than at pH 7.5 except clavulanic acid for TEM-1. PMID:7486932

  12. Biochemical properties of beta-lactamase produced by Legionella gormanii.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, T; Sato, K; Miyata, K; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1986-01-01

    beta-Lactamase was purified from a strain of Legionella gormanii. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 25,000, and its isoelectric point was 10.5. The enzyme hydrolyzed oxyiminocephalosporins, cephamycins, penicillins, and imipenem. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, Hg2+, and Cu2+, but not by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, or imipenem. PMID:3488020

  13. Identification of São Paulo metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Central-West region of Brazil: a case study.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Wirlaine Glauce; Silva, Kesia Esther da; Bampi, José Victor Bortolotto; Bet, Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos; Ramos, Ana Carolina; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase production is an important mechanism for carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which represents an emerging public health challenge. We report the case of a patient admitted to an intensive care unit, with sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant São Paulo Metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing P. aeruginosa . This is the first case of infection by this pathogenic strain in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Thus, infection control measures are required for preventing future spread and outbreaks.

  14. Impact of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase on beta-lactam antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Zmarlicka, Monika T; Nailor, Michael D; Nicolau, David P

    2015-01-01

    Since the first New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) report in 2009, NDM has spread globally causing various types of infections. NDM-positive organisms produce in vitro resistance phenotypes to carbapenems and many other antimicrobials. It is thus surprising that the literature examining clinical experiences with NDM does not report corresponding poor clinical outcomes. There are many instances where good clinical outcomes are described, despite a mismatch between administered antimicrobials and resistant in vitro susceptibilities. Available in vitro data for either monotherapy or combination therapy does not provide an explanation for these observations. However, animal studies do begin to shed more light on this phenomenon. They imply that the in vivo expression of NDM may not confer clinical resistance to all cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics as predicted by in vitro testing but other resistance mechanisms need to be present to generate a resistant phenotype. As such, previously abandoned therapies, particularly carbapenems and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, may retain utility against infections caused by NDM producers. PMID:26345624

  15. CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in the intensive care unit of Tlemcen Hospital, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Z Baba; Ayad, A; Mesli, E; Messai, Y; Bakour, R; Drissi, M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Tlemcen hospital in north-western Algeria. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing, characterization of ESBL-encoding genes and the genetic environment, conjugation experiments and plasmid analysis were carried out. In all, 28 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were isolated from specimens recovered from patients in the ICU and 2 from surfaces of the unit. Of these, 11 isolates (4 Escherichia coli, 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 2 Enterobacter cloacae) produced ESBL of the CT-X-M-15 type. Molecular typing of the isolates showed the clonal nature of 4 K. pneumoniae isolates. The bla(CTXM-15) gene was genetically linked to insertion sequence lSEcp1B and was transferable by conjugation from 3 isolates. Regular monitoring of resistance mechanisms, the establishment of a prevention strategy, and more rational and appropriate use of antibiotics are needed.

  16. Reduced Susceptibility to Cefepime in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae Producing OXA-1 Beta-Lactamase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Eva; López-Cerero, Lorena; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Manuel; Pascual, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    An increase of Enterobacteriaceae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefepime (FEP) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC) has been observed in our area. The aim of this study was to characterize this antibiotic resistance phenotype and its molecular epidemiology. A total of 33 Enterobacteriaceae strains were studied. blaOXA-1 genes and their genetic environment were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Plasmids were transferred by conjugation and/or transformation and classified using PCR-based inc/rep typing and IncF subtyping. Escherichia coli isolates were typed by phylogroup, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Outer membrane proteins were studied by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and expression of blaOXA-1 genes by reverse transcription-PCR. FEP minimum inhibitory concentration yielded values of 1-16 mg/L. Twenty-nine (87.9%) isolates produced OXA-1, of which 24 (82.7%) were located in class 1 integron, and 9 (27.3%) produced TEM-1. Among the 24 E. coli OXA-1-producers, PFGE revealed two main clusters: one belonged to C-ST88 and the other to B23-ST131. Thirteen plasmids containing blaOXA-1 were transferred, nine belonged to IncF replicon (4 F2:A1:B-, 2 F1:A1:B1, 1 F1:A2:B-, 1 F18:A2:B1, 1 F5:A-:B1) and four were nontypeable. In conclusion, reduced susceptibility to FEP was mostly due to OXA-1 beta-lactamase. In E. coli, this increase is mainly due to the dissemination of two clones, which have captured different IncF plasmids. Among non-E. coli strains, five isolates produced OXA-1 and one isolate produced only TEM-1.

  17. High diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in an urban river sediment habitat.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Li; Geng, Sui-Na; Li, Tian-Yu; Ye, Zhuo-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Zou, Fei; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2010-09-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been surveyed widely in water bodies, but few studies have determined the diversity of ARB in sediment, which is the most taxon-abundant habitat in aquatic environments. We isolated 56 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria from a single sediment sample taken from an urban river in China. All strains were confirmed for ESBL-producing capability by both the clavulanic acid combination disc method and MIC determination. Of the isolated strains, 39 were classified as Enterobacteriaceae (consisting of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Aeromonas) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical analysis. The present study identifies, for the first time, ESBL-producing strains from the families Brucellaceae and Moraxellaceae. The bla(CTX-M) gene was the most dominant of the ESBL genes (45 strains), while the bla(TEM) gene was the second-most dominant (22 strains). A total of five types of bla(CTX-M) fragments were identified, with both known and novel sequences. A library of bla(CTX-M) cloned from the sediment DNA showed an even higher diversity of bla(CTX-M) sequences. The discovery of highly diverse ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, particularly bla(CTX), in urban river sediment raises alarms for potential dissemination of ARB in communities through river environments.

  18. Biosynthesis of ketomycin. (II) biomimetic model for beta-lactamase catalysis: host-guest interactions in cyclodextrin-penicillin inclusion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The antibiotic ketomycin is formed from shikimic acid via chorismic acid and prephenic acid. Phenylalanine and 2',5'-dihydrophenylalanine derived from shikimic acid are not intermediates in the biosynthesis. Degradation of ketomycin derived from (1,6-/sup 14/C)shikimic acid showed that prephenic acid is converted into ketomycin with stereospecific discrimination between the two enantiotopic edges of the ring, the pro-S-R edge giving rise to the C-2', C-3' side of the cyclohexane ring of ketomycin. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to the action of ..beta..-lactam antibiotics is mainly ascribed to their ability to produce ..beta..-lactamase to cleave the ..beta..-lactam ring. It is essential to understand the molecular nature of ..beta..-lactamase-penicillin recognition for designing and formulating more effective ..beta..-lactam antibiotics. A biomimetic study of ..beta..-lactamase is therefore initiated. To meet the requirements of hydrophobic and serine protease characteristics of ..beta..-lactamase, ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin is chosen as a biomimetic model for ..beta..-lactamase. The structural specificity and the chemical dynamics of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-phenoxymethyl penicillin inclusion complex in solid state and in solution have been determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The spectral results strongly indicate that the phenyl portion of the phenoxymethyl penicillin forms a stable inclusion complex with the hydrophobic cavity of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin in solution as well as in the solid state. Kinetic studies followed by /sup 1/HNMR and HPLC analyses under alkaline condition have shown that the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin mimics the catalytic function of serine of ..beta..-lactamase in the stereospecific hydrolysis of the ..beta..-lactam ring of phenoxymethyl penicillin.

  19. Specific chemical modification of the readily nitrated tyrosine of the RTEM beta-lactamase and of bacillus cereus beta-lactamase I. The role of the tyrosine in beta-lactamase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wolozin, B L; Myerowitz, R; Pratt, R F

    1982-02-18

    The function of the hydroxyl group of the tyrosine residue readily nitrated by tetranitromethane (tyrosine-105) in the RTEM plasmid-derived beta-lactamase (penicillinase; penicillin amido beta-lactam-hydrolase, EC 3.5.1.6) from E. coli and in Bacillus cereus beta-lactamase I has been investigated by chemical modification methods. In the case of B. cereus beta-lactamase I the nitrated tyrosine can be acetylated by acetic anhydride without effect on beta-lactamase activity The nitrated tyrosine of the E. coli enzyme can also be acetylated but in this case beta-lactamase activity is lost in a manner which directly correlates with extent of acetylation. However, deacetylation of the nitrotyrosine does not restore activity. The dilemma created by the latter result has been resolved by development of a new method of tyrosine hydroxyl modification at low pH. The nitrated enzyme is reduced by dithionite and then treated with either carbonyldiimidazole or N-(2.2.2-trifluoroethoxycarbonyl)imidazole, both of which convert 3-aminotyrosine into benzoxazolinonylalanine. That the final modification has been achieved is demonstrated both by classical chemical methods and by employment of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to detect the characteristic benzoxazolinone carbonyl absorption. Further, it is shown that no significant loss of beta-lactamase activity is associated with this modification. Hence in neither the B. cereus or the E. coli enzyme does the readily nitrated tyrosine residue have a direct chemical function at the beta-lactamase active site.

  20. Enzymatic assay of beta-lactamase using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry.

    PubMed

    Long, D M

    1997-05-01

    A method for measuring the rates of enzymatic hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics based on circular dichroism spectropolarimetry is described. Unhydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics have high molar ellipticities, but the hydrolyzed compounds are circular dichroism (CD) inactive in the case of penams or have significantly different CD spectra in the case of cephems. By measuring CD at constant wavelength as a function of time for reaction mixtures containing beta-lactamase and beta-lactam antibiotics, rates of hydrolysis and steady-state enzyme kinetic constants can be derived. The method was applied to measurement of a wide range of enzymatic reaction constants for wild-type and four mutant RTEM-1 beta-lactamases. Compared to the commonly employed assay based on ultraviolet spectroscopy, the new method offers several advantages. These include the ability to measure larger enzymatic Michaelis-Menten constants, less interference from high concentrations of beta-lactamase, higher sensitivity, and potentially less interference from other uv-absorbing components of complex reaction mixtures.

  1. An overlay gel method for identification and isolation of bacterial beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Rafiee, Roya

    2006-01-01

    A modification of the iodometric technique using an overlay gel was employed for fast identification and isolation of beta-lactamase types TEM, SHV and AmpC from non-denaturing gels. Osmotic shock preparations of the three beta-lactamases were run on polyacrylamide gels without SDS and ampicillin containing overlay gels were flooded with the iodine solution before being placed on polyacrylamide gel strips. Distinct clear bands appeared in dark blue backgrounds indicating beta-lactamase activity.

  2. Engineered Mononuclear Variants in Bacillus cereus Metallo-beta-lactamase BcII Are Inactive

    SciTech Connect

    Abriata,L.; Gonzalez, L.; Llarrull, L.; Tomatis, P.; Myers, W.; Costello, A.; Tierney, D.; Vila, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metallo-{beta}-lactamases (M{beta}Ls) are zinc enzymes able to hydrolyze almost all {beta}-lactam antibiotics, rendering them inactive, at the same time endowing bacteria high levels of resistance. The design of inhibitors active against all classes of M{beta}Ls has been hampered by their structural diversity and by the heterogeneity in metal content in enzymes from different sources. BcII is the metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Bacillus cereus, which is found in both the mononuclear and dinuclear forms. Despite extensive studies, there is still controversy about the nature of the active BcII species. Here we have designed two mutant enzymes in which each one of the metal binding sites was selectively removed. Both mutants were almost inactive, despite preserving most of the structural features of each metal site. These results reveal that neither site isolated in the M{beta}L scaffold is sufficient to render a fully active enzyme. This suggests that only the dinuclear species is active or that the mononuclear variants can be active only if aided by other residues that would be metal ligands in the dinuclear species.

  3. The 1.4 Å Crystal Structure of the Class D [beta]-Lactamase OXA-1 Complexed with Doripenem

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kyle D.; Karpen, Mary E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Leonard, David A.; Powers, Rachel A.

    2010-01-12

    The clinical efficacy of carbapenem antibiotics depends on their resistance to the hydrolytic action of {beta}-lactamase enzymes. The structure of the class D {beta}-lactamase OXA-1 as an acyl complex with the carbapenem doripenem was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Unlike most class A and class C carbapenem complexes, the acyl carbonyl oxygen in the OXA-1-doripenem complex is bound in the oxyanion hole. Interestingly, no water molecules were observed in the vicinity of the acyl linkage, providing an explanation for why carbapenems inhibit OXA-1. The side chain amine of K70 remains fully carboxylated in the acyl structure, and the resulting carbamate group forms a hydrogen bond to the alcohol of the 6{alpha}-hydroxyethyl moiety of doripenem. The carboxylate attached to the {beta}-lactam ring of doripenem is stabilized by a salt bridge to K212 and a hydrogen bond with T213, in lieu of the interaction with an arginine side chain found in most other {beta}-lactamase-{beta}-lactam complexes (e.g., R244 in the class A member TEM-1). This novel set of interactions with the carboxylate results in a major shift of the carbapenem's pyrroline ring compared to the structure of the same ring in meropenem bound to OXA-13. Additionally, bond angles of the pyrroline ring suggest that after acylation, doripenem adopts the {Delta}{sup 1} tautomer. These findings provide important insights into the role that carbapenems may have in the inactivation process of class D {beta}-lactamases.

  4. Inactivation of the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. Interaction of penam sulfones with enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Charnas, R L; Bradley, S M; Knowles, J R

    1981-05-12

    The characteristics of the reaction of a number of mechanism-based inactivators of the RTEM beta-lactamase have suggested that a common mechanistic pathway may be followed by many of these compounds. These ideas have been tested by the synthesis and evaluation of some penam sulfones as beta-lactamase inactivators. The sulfones of poor beta-lactamase substrates are, as predicted, potent inactivators of the enzyme. A unique serin residue (Ser-70) is labeled by quinacillin sulfone, and it is likely that this serine acts nucleophilically in the normal hydrolytic reaction of the beta-lactamase to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate.

  5. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Baurin, Stéphane; Frère, Jean-Marie; Ngassam, Pierre; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Azebaze, Anatole; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Watchueng, Jean; Goffin, Colette; Galleni, Moreno

    2007-03-01

    In efforts to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated 16 Cameroonian plants belonging to 10 families which were evaluated for anti-beta-lactamase activity. The investigation showed that extracts 2, 6, 3 and 5 of the 16 plants investigated presented interesting in vitro beta-lactamase inhibition (over 90%), respectively, of the beta-lactamases TEM-1, OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99. These extracts were from Mammea africana (all beta-lactamases), Garcinia lucida, G. kola (OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99), Bridelia micrantha (OXA-10, P99), Ochna afzelii (OXA-10, P99), Prunus africana (IMP-1) and Adenia lobata (TEM-1). After elimination of tannins (according to the European Pharmacopoeia) the extracts from B. micrantha, G. lucida and M. africana were tested further for their anti-beta-lactamase activity. The extracts from B. micrantha and G. lucida exhibited potent inhibitory activity, respectively, of beta-lactamase OXA-10 (IC(50) = 0.02 mg/mL) and P99 (IC(50) = 0.01 mg/mL). The anti-beta-lactamase activity of M. africana extract was weak. The isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents of G. lucida and B. micrantha will provide useful leads in the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  6. In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem and Imipenem against Clinical Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Collected in Military Teaching Hospital Mohammed V of Rabat.

    PubMed

    Elouennass, M; Zohoun, A; El Ameri, A; Alem, N; Kasouati, J; Benlahlou, Y; El Yaagoubi, I; Frikh, M; Lemnouer, A; Benouda, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the sensitivity level of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae to Carbapenems (Imipenem, Ertapenem) marketed in Morocco and discusses the place of Ertapenem in the treatment of extended spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 110 extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates obtained from blood cultures, superficial and deep pus, and catheters were conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Imipenem and Ertapenem were done by the E-test. The modified Hodge test was conducted for resistant or intermediate strains. Results. 99.1% of isolates were susceptible to Imipenem. For Ertapenem, 4 were resistant and 4 intermediate. The modified Hodge test was positive for all 08 isolates. A minimum inhibitory concentration comparison of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and E. coli for Imipenem has noted a significant difference between E. cloacae on one hand and E. coli, K. pneumoniae on the other hand (P < 0.01). No significant difference was noted for minimum inhibitory concentration of Ertapenem. Conclusion. Our results confirm in vitro effectiveness of Ertapenem against extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as reported elsewhere. However, the emergence of resistance to Carbapenems revealed by production of carbapenemases in this study confirmed a necessary bacteriological documented infection before using Ertapenem.

  7. Rapidly spreading CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Akiko; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Saika, Takeshi; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, increased isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis has been reported in Japan. We undertook an investigation to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolated in Japan and to characterise the genotype. Seventy-four P. mirabilis isolates recovered from specimens at 54 hospitals in Japan between March and October 2006 were included in the study. Of the 74 P. mirabilis isolates examined, 28 (37.8%) were ESBL-producers. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene was found in 27 isolates, whilst 1 isolate possessed bla(CTX-M-3). Amongst the 28 ESBL-producers, 25 (89.3%) were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whilst 11 (23.9%) of 46 ESBL-non-producing isolates were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the 28 ESBL-producing isolates from 19 hospitals revealed 17 clusters. The same PFGE type was observed in two or more hospitals especially in the greater Tokyo area, suggesting possible clonal spread and the need for monitoring to determine whether emergence of a dominant clone occurs. Our results show that in Japan there is a high prevalence of CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis. Moreover, these isolates are characterised by reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.

  8. SHV-Type Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production Is Associated with Reduced Cefepime Susceptibility in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Dóra; Bonomo, Robert A.; Silveira, Fernanda; Pasculle, A. William; Baxter, Carla; Linden, Peter K.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Hujer, Kristine M.; Deeley, Kathleen; Paterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Cefepime is a potentially useful antibiotic for treatment of infections with Enterobacter cloacae. However, in our institution the MIC90 for E. cloacae bloodstream isolates is 16 μg/ml. PCR amplification of bla genes revealed that one-third (15/45) of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates produced SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in addition to hyperproduction of AmpC-type beta-lactamases. The majority (11/15) of ESBL producers also produced the TEM-1 beta-lactamase. The SHV types included SHV-2, -5, -7, -12, -14, and -30. All but two of the ESBL-producing E. cloacae isolates, but none of the non-ESBL-producing strains, had MICs of cefepime of ≥2 μg/ml. The MIC90 for cefepime for ESBL-producing strains was 64 μg/ml, while for non-ESBL producers it was 0.5 μg/ml. Using current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints for cefepime, two thirds (10/15) of ESBL-producing isolates would have been regarded as susceptible to cefepime. Phenotypic ESBL detection methods were generally unreliable with these E. cloacae isolates. Based on these results, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical reevaluation of cefepime breakpoints for E. cloacae may be prudent. PMID:16207962

  9. [Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vodovar, D; Marcadé, G; Raskine, L; Malissin, I; Mégarbane, B

    2013-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major worldwide health public concern. It results from the growing increase in antibiotic prescriptions, which are responsible for selection pressure on bacteria. In France like in other countries, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (EESBL) are the predominant multidrug-resistant bacteria. EESBL may be responsible for severe infections and require prescription of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The current EESBL outbreak is different from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak that occurred in the early 1980. Consistently, EESBL are isolated both in hospital and community. Moreover, standard hygiene measures appear ineffective since EESBL prevalence is still increasing. The current inability to contain EESBL outbreak is due to several factors, including the existence of a wide community- and hospital-acquired tank of EESBL, failure to follow strict rules for hygiene, and the current irrational prescription of antibiotics.

  10. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection: report of a survivor.

    PubMed

    Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Schmitt, Graciane Jacinta; Araújo, Jane Martins de; Souza, Liliane Braga de; Nazário, Juliana Gomes; Januário, Raquel Landuchi; Mello, Rogério Sobroza de; Trevisol, Daisson José

    2016-02-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a bacterial enzyme that renders the bacteria resistant to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized several times for surgical treatment and complications caused by a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Although the patient acquired several multidrug-resistant infections, this study focuses on the NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection. As it was resistant to all antimicrobials tested, the medical team developed a 20-day regimen of 750mg/day metronidazole, 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B, and 100mg/day tigecycline. The treatment was effective, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.

  11. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria isolated from hematologic patients in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristina Motta; Ferreira, William Antunes; Almeida, Nayanne Cristina Oliveira da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy in hematologic patients, often weak and susceptible to a wide range of infections, particularly nosocomial infections derived from long hospitalization periods, is a challenging issue. This paper presents ESBL-producing strains isolated from such hematologic patients treated at the Amazon Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation (HEMOAM) in the Brazilian Amazon Region to identify the ESBL genes carried by them as well as the susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents using the E-test method. A total of 146 clinical samples were obtained from July 2007 to August 2008, when 17 gram-negative strains were isolated in our institution. The most frequent isolates confirmed by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing were E. coli (8/17), Serratia spp. (3/17) and B.cepacia (2/17). All gram-negative strains were tested for extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBLs), where: (12/17) strains carried ESBL; among these, (8/12) isolates carried blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA , blaSHV genes, (1/12) blaTEM gene and (3/12) blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA genes. Antibiotic resistance was found in (15/17) of the isolates for tetracycline, (12/17) for ciprofloxacin, (1/17) resistance for cefoxitin and chloramphenicol, (1/17) for amikacin and (3/17) cefepime. This research showed the presence of gram-negative ESBL-producing bacteria infecting hematologic patients in HEMOAM. These strains carried the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaOXA genes and were resistant to different antibiotics used in the treatment. This finding was based on a period of 13 months, during which clinical samples from specific populations were obtained. Therefore, caution is required when generalizing the results that must be based on posological orientations and new breakpoints for disk diffusion and microdilution published by CLSI 2010. PMID:24031725

  12. The metallo-. beta. -lactamases of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6: Expression in Echierichia coli, purification, and characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Clark, S.D.; Hilliard, N.P.; Harman, J.G. )

    1991-03-11

    The gene for the B. cereus 5/B/6 metallo-{beta}-lactamase was subcloned into the E. coli expression vector pRE-2. The resultant recombinants displayed a low level of enzyme activity. Generation of a site-directed mutant of the {beta}-lactamase gene containing both a Nde I site and an initiator codon allowed us to separate the {beta}-lactamase structural gene from its leader sequence. When only the structural gene was cloned into pRE-2, the B. cereus {beta}-lactamase activity was increased 9.8-fold. Purification of the recombinant enzyme from E. coli by ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, anion and cation exchange chromatography allowed the enzyme to be purified to homogeneity with an overall yield of 87%. The properties of the recombinant enzyme were identical to those of the B. cereus enzyme; e.g., the electrophoretic mobilities of the purified recombinant enzyme and the purified B. cereus enzyme were identical in both native and SDS gel electrophoresis As with the B. cereus enzyme, K{sub m} and V{sub max} for the recombinant enzyme are 0.39 mM and 1,333 units/mg protein, respectively. Likewise, the Co(II)-reconstituted recombinant enzyme has electronic spectra with maxima at 347, 551, 617 and 646 nm and extinction coefficients of 900, 250, 173 and 150 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. This heterologous construct and purification scheme will be used to produce and purify site-directed mutant proteins for use in exploring the reaction mechanisms of B. cereus metallo-{beta}-lactamases.

  13. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases among Enterobacter Isolates Obtained in Tel Aviv, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Jacob; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Chmelnitsky, Inna; Hammer-Münz, Orly; Leavitt, Azita; Gold, Howard S.; Schwaber, Mitchell J.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype is frequent among Enterobacter isolates at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. We examined the clonal relatedness and characterized the ESBLs of a collection of these strains. Clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and transconjugation experiments were performed. ESBL gene families were screened by colony hybridization and PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaIBC, blaPER, blaOXA, blaVEB, and blaSFO; and the PCR products were sequenced. The 17 Enterobacter isolates studied comprised 15 distinct genotypes. All isolates showed at least one IEF band (range, one to five bands) whose appearance was suppressed by addition of clavulanate; pIs ranged from 5.4 to ≥8.2. Colony hybridization identified at least one family of beta-lactamase genes in 11 isolates: 10 harbored blaTEM and 9 harbored blaSHV. PCR screening and sequence analysis of the PCR products for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M identified TEM-1 in 11 isolates, SHV-12 in 7 isolates, SHV-1 in 1 isolate, a CTX-M-2-like gene in 2 isolates, and CTX-M-26 in 1 isolate. In transconjugation experiments with four isolates harboring blaTEM-1 and blaSHV-12, both genes were simultaneously transferred to the recipient strain Escherichia coli HB101. Plasmid mapping, PCR, and Southern analysis with TEM- and SHV-specific probes demonstrated that a single transferred plasmid carried both the TEM-1 and the SHV-12 genes. The widespread presence of ESBLs among Enterobacter isolates in Tel Aviv is likely due not to clonal spread but, rather, to plasmid-mediated transfer, at times simultaneously, of genes encoding several types of enzymes. The dominant ESBL identified was SHV-12. PMID:15728917

  14. Structural and kinetic studies on beta-lactamase K1 from Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, E L; Gagnon, J; Waley, S G

    1986-01-01

    beta-Lactamase K1 from Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E hydrolyses both penicillins and cephalosporins comparably and is inhibited by mercurials but not by cloxacillin. These properties distinguish it from those other beta-lactamases that have been allotted to classes on the basis of their amino sequences. beta-Lactamase K1 has been isolated by affinity chromatography; its composition shows resemblances to class A beta-lactamases. Moreover, the N-terminal sequence is similar to those of class A beta-lactamases: there is about 30% identity over the first 32 residues. Furthermore, a putative active-site octapeptide has been isolated and its sequence is similar to the region around the active-site serine residue in class A beta-lactamases. There is one thiol group in beta-lactamase K1; it is not essential for activity. The pH-dependence of kcat. and kcat./Km for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin by beta-lactamase K1 were closely similar, suggesting that the rate-determining step is cleavage of the beta-lactam ring. PMID:3521585

  15. Characterization of the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase CKO from Citrobacter koseri.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Stephanie; Renard, Murielle; Ziental-Gelus, Nathalie; Clermont, Dominique; Jarlier, Vincent; Sougakoff, Wladimir

    2006-01-01

    The gene bla(CKO) encoding the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase of Citrobacter koseri was cloned and sequenced. CKO was found to display only 41% identity with SED-1 from Citrobacter sedlakii and 36% with CdiA from Citrobacter amalonaticus (formerly Citrobacter diversus). No transcriptional regulator was found upstream from bla(CKO). Silent and missense mutations were detected in four bla(CKO) genes amplified from different C. koseri clinical isolates, but the CKO variants displayed identical biochemical behaviours. A bla(CKO)-specific polymerase chain reaction confirmed that bla(CKO) is present only in C. koseri and therefore represents an interesting tool with which to differentiate C. koseri from the other Citrobacter spp.

  16. Penicillinase (beta-lactamase) formation by blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Kushner, D J; Breuil, C

    1977-03-01

    Beta-Lactamase (penicillinase) activity was found in a number of strains of blue-green algea. In some cases, this enzyme permitted algae to overcome the inhibitory effects of penicillin. Production and localization of beta-lactamase were studied in a unicellular species, Coccochloris elabens (strain 7003), and in a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena species (strain 7120). When cells were grown in a neutral medium with NaNO3 as N source, the pH rose during growth; at a pH of about 10, most of the enzyme was expressed equally well in intact or disrupted cells. If the pH was kept near neutrality during growth by gassing with CO2 in N2 or by growth under conditions of N2 fixation, the enzyme remained cell-bound and cryptic for most of the growth phase, being measurable only after cells were disrupted. The enzymes from strains 7003 and 7120 had greater activity on benzyl penicillin and other penicillins than on cephalosporins. Some differences were observed in the "substrate proliles" of penicillinases from the two strains against different penicillins.

  17. Secondary structure characterization of beta-lactamase inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Przybycien, T M; Dunn, J P; Valax, P; Georgiou, G

    1994-01-01

    The secondary structure of proteins in E. coli inclusion bodies was investigated via Raman spectroscopy. Inclusion bodies were purified from cells expressing different forms of RTEM beta-lactamase and grown at either 37 or 42 degrees C. All of the solid phase inclusion body samples examined gave amide I band spectra that were perturbed from that of the native, purified protein in both solution and powder forms; secondary structure estimates indicated significant decreases in alpha-helix and increases in beta-sheet contents in the inclusion body samples. The structure estimates for inclusion bodies isolated from 37 degrees C cultures were similar, regardless of aggregate localization in the E. coli cytoplasmic or periplasmic spaces or beta-lactamase precursor content. Inclusion bodies obtained from 42 degrees C cells exhibited a further reduction of alpha-helix and augmentation of beta-sheet contents relative to those from 37 degrees C cultures. These results are consistent with the paradigm for inclusion body formation via the self-association of intra-cellular folding intermediates having extensive secondary structure content. Further, the overall secondary structure content of inclusion bodies is not significantly affected by subcellular compartmentalization, but may be altered at increased temperatures.

  18. Membrane-bound beta-lactamase forms in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Plückthun, A; Pfitzinger, I

    1988-10-05

    Frameshift pseudo-revertants of Escherichia coli RTEM beta-lactamase were obtained by a selection procedure, starting from frameshift mutants at the signal-processing site. These pseudo-revertant proteins, which have a totally altered COOH-terminal part of the signal sequence, are attached to the outer face of the inner membrane. The mutant proteins are enzymatically active in vitro and in vivo, and the membrane localization has no deleterious effect on cell growth. We conclude that initiation of transport across the membrane does not require the COOH-terminal part of the signal, but this part of the sequence determines whether the protein is released to the periplasm either with or without cleavage of the signal, or whether the protein remains anchored to the membrane. Mutants with two signals in series were used to show that a truncated signal is not refractory to transport per se. If neither signal contains a functional cleavage site, the protein is at least partially found on the outer face of the inner membrane. If both signals contain functional cleavage sites, both are removed and the protein is released to the periplasm. If only the first signal contains a cleavage site, a longer fusion protein is transported and released. The results presented here show that a pre-beta-lactamase-like protein can fold properly even as a membrane-bound species.

  19. Evaluation of meat, fruit and vegetables from retail stores in five United Kingdom regions as sources of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Randall, L P; Lodge, M P; Elviss, N C; Lemma, F L; Hopkins, K L; Teale, C J; Woodford, N

    2017-01-16

    We determined the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in raw retail beef, chicken, pork, fruit and vegetables in five UK regions in 2013-14. Raw meat (n=397), and fruit and vegetable samples (n=400) were purchased from retail stores in London, East Anglia, North West England, Scotland and Wales. Samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli by plating enriched samples on CHROMagar CTX and CHROMagar ESBL, for AmpC-type E. coli by plating on "CHROMagar FOX" (CHROMagar ECC+16mg/L cefoxitin), and for carbapenem-resistant E. coli by plating on CHROMagar KPC. Additionally, pre-enrichment counts were performed on the above agars, and on CHROMagar ECC. Isolates of interest were characterised by MALDI-ToF to confirm identification, by PCR for blaCIT,blaCTX-M,blaOXA, blaSHV and blaTEM genes; ESBL or blaCIT genes were sequenced. Only 1.9% and 2.5% of beef and pork samples, respectively were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli after enrichment compared with 65.4% of chicken samples. 85.6% positive samples from chicken meat carried blaCTX-M-1; blaCTX-M-15 was not detected. None of the fruits or vegetables yielded ESBL-producing E. coli and none of the meat, fruit or vegetable samples yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Retail chicken was more frequently a source of ESBL-producing E. coli than were beef, pork, fruit or vegetables. None of the foodstuffs yielded E. coli with CTX-M-15 ESBL, which dominates in human clinical isolates in the UK, and none yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli.

  20. Structure of the Covalent Adduct Formed Between Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase and Clavulanate

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay,L.; Hugonnet, J.; Blanchard, J.

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the {beta}-lactam class of antibiotics arises from a chromosomally encoded, extended spectrum, class A {beta}-lactamase, BlaC. Herein, we report the X-ray crystallographic structure of BlaC inhibited with clavulanate at a resolution of 1.7 Angstroms with an R-factor value of 0.180 and R-free value of 0.212 for the m/z +154 clavulanate-derived fragment observed in the active site. Structural evidence reveals the presence of hydrogen bonds to the C1 carbonyl along with a coplanar arrangement of C1, C2, C3, and N4, which favors enolization to generate a trans-a, {beta}-eneamine, stabilizing the +154 adduct from hydrolysis. The irreversible inhibition of BlaC suggests that treatment of M. tuberculosis with a combination of a {beta}-lactam antibiotic and clavulanate may lead to rapid bactericidal activity.

  1. Novel Insights Into The Mode of Inhibition of Class A SHV-1 Beta-Lactamases Revealed by Boronic Acid Transition State Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    W Ke; J Sampson; C Ori; F Prati; S Drawz; C Bethel; R Bonomo; F van den Akker

    2011-12-31

    Boronic acid transition state inhibitors (BATSIs) are potent class A and C {beta}-lactamase inactivators and are of particular interest due to their reversible nature mimicking the transition state. Here, we present structural and kinetic data describing the inhibition of the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase, a clinically important enzyme found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, by BATSI compounds possessing the R1 side chains of ceftazidime and cefoperazone and designed variants of the latter, compounds 1 and 2. The ceftazidime and cefoperazone BATSI compounds inhibit the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase with micromolar affinity that is considerably weaker than their inhibition of other {beta}-lactamases. The solved crystal structures of these two BATSIs in complex with SHV-1 reveal a possible reason for SHV-1's relative resistance to inhibition, as the BATSIs adopt a deacylation transition state conformation compared to the usual acylation transition state conformation when complexed to other {beta}-lactamases. Active-site comparison suggests that these conformational differences might be attributed to a subtle shift of residue A237 in SHV-1. The ceftazidime BATSI structure revealed that the carboxyl-dimethyl moiety is positioned in SHV-1's carboxyl binding pocket. In contrast, the cefoperazone BATSI has its R1 group pointing away from the active site such that its phenol moiety moves residue Y105 from the active site via end-on stacking interactions. To work toward improving the affinity of the cefoperazone BATSI, we synthesized two variants in which either one or two extra carbons were added to the phenol linker. Both variants yielded improved affinity against SHV-1, possibly as a consequence of releasing the strain of its interaction with the unusual Y105 conformation.

  2. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Teikyo University Hospital--the second report].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, S; Ono, Y; Yamamoto, M; Matumura, M; Okamoto, R; Inoue, M; Miyazawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    We studied the high-level resistant to cefotaxime (CTX, MIC > or = 512 micrograms/ml) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Teikyo University Hospital. The CTX-resistance could be transferred to E. coli K-12 chi 1037 or ML4903 strains from 30 of the 33 isolates by conjugation at a frequency of 10(-4). When the hydrolysis rate of benzylpenicillin was 100%, the beta-lactamases which were extracted from the transconjugants hydrolyzed CTX, CAZ and AZT at the rate of 38-95%, 0-8.6% and 0-56%, respectively. These results demonstrate that these enzymes should be categorized into ESBL. The nucleotide sequence of CTX-resistant gene was identified to that of the CTX-M2 gene which was first described in Argentina. It was found to have 99.9% homology to Toho-1 gene in Japan and 99.6% homology to CMY-2 gene. Using a PCR methods for the detection of one of ESBL gene such as CTX-M2, Toho-1 or CMY-2, the DNA was amplified from all strains (11 isolates of E. coli and 21 isolates of K. pneumoniae).

  3. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase with the Carbapenems Ertapenem and Doripenem

    SciTech Connect

    L Tremblay; F Fan; J Blanchard

    2011-12-31

    Despite the enormous success of {beta}-lactams as broad-spectrum antibacterials, they have never been widely used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) due to intrinsic resistance that is caused by the presence of a chromosomally encoded gene (blaC) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our previous studies of TB BlaC revealed that this enzyme is an extremely broad-spectrum {beta}-lactamase hydrolyzing all {beta}-lactam classes. Carbapenems are slow substrates that acylate the enzyme but are only slowly deacylated and can therefore act also as potent inhibitors of BlaC. We conducted the in vitro characterization of doripenem and ertapenem with BlaC. A steady-state kinetic burst was observed with both compounds with magnitudes proportional to the concentration of BlaC used. The results provide apparent K{sub m} and k{sub cat} values of 0.18 {micro}M and 0.016 min{sup -1} for doripenem and 0.18 {micro}M and 0.017 min{sup -1} for ertapenem, respectively. FTICR mass spectrometry demonstrated that the doripenem and ertapenem acyl-enzyme complexes remain stable over a time period of 90 min. The BlaC-doripenem covalent complex obtained after a 90 min soak was determined to 2.2 {angstrom}, while the BlaC-ertapenem complex obtained after a 90 min soak was determined to 2.0 {angstrom}. The 1.3 {angstrom} diffraction data from a 10 min ertapenem-soaked crystal revealed an isomerization occurring in the BlaC-ertapenem adduct in which the original {Delta}2-pyrroline ring was tautomerized to generate the {Delta}1-pyrroline ring. The isomerization leads to the flipping of the carbapenem hydroxyethyl group to hydrogen bond to carboxyl O2 of Glu166. The hydroxyethyl flip results in both the decreased basicity of Glu166 and a significant increase in the distance between carboxyl O2 of Glu166 and the catalytic water molecule, slowing hydrolysis.

  4. Stability of wild-type and mutant RTEM-1 beta-lactamases: effect of the disulfide bond.

    PubMed

    Schultz, S C; Dalbadie-McFarland, G; Neitzel, J J; Richards, J H

    1987-01-01

    Uniquely among class A beta-lactamases, the RTEM-1 and RTEM-2 enzymes contain a single disulfide bond between Cys 77 and Cys 123. To study the possible role of this naturally occurring disulfide in stabilizing RTEM-1 beta-lactamase and its mutants at residue 71, this bond was removed by introducing a Cys 77----Ser mutation. Both the wild-type enzyme and the single mutant Cys 77----Ser confer the same high levels of resistance to ampicillin in vivo to Escherichia coli; at 30 degrees C the specific activity of purified Cys 77----Ser mutant is also the same as that of the wild-type enzyme. Also, neither wild-type enzyme nor the Cys 77----Ser mutant is inactivated by brief exposure to p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. However, above 40 degrees C the mutant enzyme is less stable than wild-type enzyme. After introduction of the Cys 77----Ser mutation, none of the double mutants (containing the second mutations at residue 71) confer resistance to ampicillin in vivo at 37 degrees C; proteins with Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Pro, His, Cys, and Ser at residue 71 confer low levels of resistance to ampicillin in vivo at 30 degrees C. The use of electrophoretic blots stained with antibodies against beta-lactamase to analyze the relative quantities of mutant proteins in whole-cell extracts of E. coli suggests that all 19 of the doubly mutant enzymes are proteolyzed much more readily than their singly mutant analogues (at Thr 71) that contain a disulfide bond.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Reconstitution of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 metallo-[beta]-lactamase activity with copper

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, N.P.; Shaw, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria become resistant to [beta]-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins through the production of enzymes called [beta]-lactamases. The authors have successfully reconstituted the enzymatic activity of the metallo-[beta]-lactamase of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 purified from an E. coli expression vector system by the addition of Cu(II) to the apoenzyme. This is the first report that copper supports catalytic activity in this enzyme. Maximal activity of the copper-reconstituted enzyme was achieved by a careful addition of a stoichiometric amount of CuSO[sub 4] to 200 [mu]M apoenzyme. Using either benzylpenicillin or cephalosporin C as the substrate, reconstitution of the activity by addition of copper to the apoenzyme resulted in the recovery of approximately 35% of the control activity of the native Zn(II) enzyme. In agreement with previous reports, in the presence of excess Cu(II), the preparation did not possess measurable catalytic activity. Electronic spectra of the copper-reconstituted enzyme displayed adsorption maxima at 394, 698 and 1,022 nm with extinction coefficients of 2,656, 55 and < 3 M[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]1] respectively. Circular dichorism spectra in the ultraviolent region (UVCD) of the copper-reconstituted enzyme were identical with those of the native Zn(II) enzyme. Addition of excess cephalosporin C to the copper-reconstituted enzyme caused a decrease of about 50% of the absorbance of the 394 nm band and the formation of a new feature at 350 nm.

  6. Sequence of pNL194, a 79.3-kilobase IncN plasmid carrying the blaVIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Miriagou, V; Papagiannitsis, C C; Kotsakis, S D; Loli, A; Tzelepi, E; Legakis, N J; Tzouvelekis, L S

    2010-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of pNL194, a VIM-1-encoding plasmid, is described in this study. pNL194 (79,307 bp) comprised an IncN-characteristic segment (38,940 bp) and a mosaic structure (40,367 bp) including bla(VIM-1), aacA7, aadA1, aadA2, dfrA1, dfrA12, aphA1, strA, strB, and sul1. Tn1000 or Tn5501 insertion within fipA probably facilitated recruitment of additional mobile elements carrying resistance genes.

  7. Escherichia coli-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15 in a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    PubMed

    Klimes, Jiri; Machalkova, Marketa; Dolejska, Monika; Cizek, Alois; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Alexa, Pavel; Albrechtova, Katerina; Vojtech, Jiri; Literak, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Only a few reports exist on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in zoo animals. Therefore, an isolation of multiresistant Escherichia coli from the lungs of a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) lead to its characterization and further investigation of samples from animals inhabiting the same paddock and from the shared environment. The tapir suffered from an intermandibular abscess and pneumonia and was euthanatized after unsuccessful therapy, including administration of antibiotics. The authors performed selective isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli strains and identification of resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction. Seven multiresistant, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained, all belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group and showing identical profile on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These isolates carried several resistance genes, including the gene bla(CTX-M-15). This case demonstrates the transmission of related epidemiologically important E. coli isolates whose potential transmission to other animals and zoo staff can be assumed.

  8. Active-site mutants of beta-lactamase: use of an inactive double mutant to study requirements for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dalbadie-McFarland, G; Neitzel, J J; Richards, J H

    1986-01-28

    We have studied the catalytic activity and some other properties of mutants of Escherichia coli plasmid-encoded RTEM beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6) with all combinations of serine and threonine residues at the active-site positions 70 and 71. (All natural beta-lactamases have conserved serine-70 and threonine-71.) From the inactive double mutant Ser-70----Thr, Thr-71----Ser [Dalbadie-McFarland, G., Cohen, L. W., Riggs, A. D., Morin, C., Itakura, K., & Richards, J. H. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 6409-6413], an active revertant, Thr-71----Ser (i.e., residue 70 in the double mutant had changed from threonine to the serine conserved at position 70 in the wild-type enzyme), was isolated by an approach that allows identification of active revertants in the absence of a background of wild-type enzyme. This mutant (Thr-71----Ser) has about 15% of the catalytic activity of wild-type beta-lactamase. The other possible mutant involving serine and threonine residues at positions 70 and 71 (Ser-70----Thr) shows no catalytic activity. The primary nucleophiles of a serine or a cysteine residue [Sigal, I. S., Harwood, B. G., & Arentzen, R. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7157-7160] at position 70 thus seem essential for enzymatic activity. Compared to wild-type enzyme, all three mutants show significantly reduced resistance to proteolysis; for the active revertant (Thr-71----Ser), we have also observed reduced thermal stability and reduced resistance to denaturation by urea.

  9. Characterization of a beta-lactamase produced in Mycobacterium fortuitum D316.

    PubMed Central

    Amicosante, G; Franceschini, N; Segatore, B; Oratore, A; Fattorini, L; Orefici, G; Van Beeumen, J; Frere, J M

    1990-01-01

    A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 was purified and some physico-chemical properties and substrate profile determined. On the basis of its N-terminal sequence and of its sensitivity to beta-iodopenicillanate inactivation, the enzyme appeared to be a class A beta-lactamase, but its substrate profile was quite unexpected, since nine cephalosporins were among the eleven best substrates. The enzyme also hydrolysed ureidopenicillins and some so-called 'beta-lactamase-stable' cephalosporins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2123098

  10. 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate as a probe for the classification of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    De Meester, F; Frère, J M; Waley, S G; Cartwright, S J; Virden, R; Lindberg, F

    1986-01-01

    An inactivator of serine beta-lactamases, 6 beta-iodopenicillanate, can be utilized as a probe in the classification of beta-lactamases. It is a substrate for class-B Zn2+-containing beta-lactamase II. Although it inactivates enzymes from both classes A and C, it is much more efficient for the former group, with which it sometimes interacts following a branched pathway. On the basis of these observations, predictions are made concerning the class to which several enzymes belong. PMID:3030266

  11. B1-Metallo-beta-Lactamases: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Maria F.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Fast, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-beta-Lactamases (MBLs) are class B β-lactamases that hydrolyze almost all clinically-available β-lactam antibiotics. MBLs feature the distinctive αβ/βα sandwich fold of the metallo-hydrolase / oxidoreductase superfamily and possess a shallow active-site groove containing one or two divalent zinc ions, flanked by flexible loops. According to sequence identity and zinc ion dependence, MBLs are classified into three subclasses (B1, B2 and B3), of which the B1 subclass enzymes have emerged as the most clinically significant. Differences among the active site architectures, the nature of zinc ligands, and the catalytic mechanisms have limited the development of a common inhibitor. In this review, we will describe the molecular epidemiology and structural studies of the most prominent representatives of class B1 MBLs (NDM-1, IMP-1 and VIM-2) and describe the implications for inhibitor design to counter this growing clinical threat. PMID:26424398

  12. Monitoring and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli strains from healthy and sick animals in Spain in 2003.

    PubMed

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2005-03-01

    Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 beta-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored bla(CTX-M) genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.

  13. In vitro potentiation of carbapenems with ME1071, a novel metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitor, against metallo-beta-lactamase- producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshikazu; Eto, Maki; Mano, Yoko; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    ME1071, a maleic acid derivative, is a novel specific inhibitor for metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL). In this study, the potentiation of ME1071 in combination with several beta-lactams was evaluated using MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The rates of susceptibility of MBL producers to carbapenems (imipenem, biapenem, and doripenem) and ceftazidime were increased by 8 to 27% in the presence of 32 microg/ml of ME1071. The corresponding resistance rates were decreased by 13 to 46%, respectively. On the other hand, ME1071 showed weaker or no potentiation with non-MBL producers. The K(i) value of ME1071 for IMP-1 was 0.4 microM, significantly lower than the K(m) values of carbapenems for the IMP-1 enzyme. On the other hand, the K(i) value of ME1071 for VIM-2 was 120 microM, higher than the K(m) values of carbapenems for the VIM-2 enzyme. Results of this study indicate that ME1071 can potentiate the activity of ceftazidime and carbapenems against MBL-producing strains of P. aeruginosa.

  14. Family disintegration: one fusarium verticillioides beta-lactamase at a time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a mycotoxigenic fungus found commonly on maize, where it primarily exhibits asymptomatic endophytic growth. The F. verticillioides genome possesses approximately 30 regions that potentially encode beta-lactamase enzymatic domains. These enzymes are classically involved ...

  15. The production and molecular properties of the zinc beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas maltophilia IID 1275.

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, R; Emanuel, E L; Gagnon, J; Waley, S G

    1985-01-01

    The production and purification of a tetrameric zinc beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas maltophilia IID 1275 were greatly improved. Three charge variants were isolated by chromatofocusing. The subunits each contain two atomic proportions of zinc and (in two of the variants) one residue of cysteine. The thiol group is not required for activity, nor does it appear to bind to the metal. Replacement of zinc by cobalt, cadmium or nickel takes place at a measurable rate, and gives enzymes that are less active than the zinc enzyme. The properties of this enzyme differ from those of the other known zinc beta-lactamase, beta-lactamase II from Bacillus cereus. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal 32 residues was determined; there is no similarity to the N-terminal sequences of other beta-lactamases. PMID:3931629

  16. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    PubMed

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  17. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  18. Detection of a variant metallo-beta-lactamase, IMP-10, from two unrelated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an alcaligenes xylosoxidans strain.

    PubMed

    Iyobe, Shizuko; Kusadokoro, Haruko; Takahashi, Ayako; Yomoda, Sachie; Okubo, Toyoji; Nakamura, Akio; O'Hara, Koji

    2002-06-01

    The gene bla(IMP-10) of a variant metallo-beta-lactamase, IMP-10, had a single base replacement of G by T at nucleotide 145, which led to an amino acid alteration of Val49 to Phe compared to the IMP-1 enzyme, indicating that IMP-10 was a point mutation derivative of IMP-1. Highly purified enzymes revealed that IMP-10 was different from IMP-1 in its extremely low hydrolyzing activities for penicillins, such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin.

  19. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Dayna M.; Schmidt, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two “low impact” environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar

  20. Structural Milestones in the Reaction Pathway of an Amide Hydrolase: Substrate, Acyl, and Product Complexes of Cephalothin with AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Trehan, Indi; Focia, Pamela J.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-05

    {beta}-lactamases hydrolyze {beta}-lactam antibiotics and are the leading cause of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Although {beta}-lactamases have been extensively studied, structures of the substrate-enzyme and product-enzyme complexes have proven elusive. Here, the structure of a mutant AmpC in complex with the {beta}-lactam cephalothin in its substrate and product forms was determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.53 {angstrom} resolution. The acyl-enzyme intermediate between AmpC and cephalothin was determined to 2.06 {angstrom} resolution. The ligand undergoes a dramatic conformational change as the reaction progresses, with the characteristic six-membered dihydrothiazine ring of cephalothin rotating by 109{sup o}. These structures correspond to all three intermediates along the reaction path and provide insight into substrate recognition, catalysis, and product expulsion.

  1. Prevalence and genotypes of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human stool and chicken meat in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Belmar Campos, Cristina; Fenner, Ines; Wiese, Nicole; Lensing, Carmen; Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Fenner, Thomas; Hentschke, Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Chicken meat has been proposed to constitute a source for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae that colonize and infect humans. In this study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool samples from ambulatory patients who presented in the emergency department of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf with gastrointestinal complains and in chicken meat samples from the Hamburg region were analysed and compared with respect to ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance profiles. Twenty-nine (4.1%) of 707 stool samples and 72 (60%) of 120 chicken meat samples were positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The distribution of ESBL genes in the stool vs. chicken meat isolates (given as % of total isolates from stool vs. chicken meat) was as follows: CTX-M-15 (38% vs. 0%), CTX-M-14 (17% vs. 6%), CTX-M-1 (17% vs. 69%), SHV-12 (3% vs. 18%) and TEM-52 (3% each). Comparison of ESBL- and multilocus sequence type revealed no correlation between isolates of human and chicken. Furthermore, ESBL-producing E. coli from stool samples were significantly more resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than chicken isolates. The differences in ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance patterns indicate that in our clinical setting chicken meat is not a major contributor to human colonization with ESBL-carrying Enterobacteriaceae.

  2. Structures of the Michaelis Complex (1.2A) and the Covalent Acyl Intermediate (2.0A ) of Cefamandole Bound in the Active Sites of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase K72A and E166A Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    L Tremblay; h Xu; J Blanchard

    2011-12-31

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) contains a gene that encodes a highly active {beta}-lactamase, BlaC, that imparts TB with resistance to {beta}-lactam chemotherapy. The structure of covalent BlaC-{beta}-lactam complexes suggests that active site residues K73 and E166 are essential for acylation and deacylation, respectively. We have prepared the K73A and E166A mutant forms of BlaC and have determined the structures of the Michaelis complex of cefamandole and the covalently bound acyl intermediate of cefamandole at resolutions of 1.2 and 2.0 {angstrom}, respectively. These structures provide insight into the details of the catalytic mechanism.

  3. The amino acid sequence of the zinc-requiring beta-lactamase II from the bacterium Bacillus cereus 569.

    PubMed

    Ambler, R P; Daniel, M; Fleming, J; Hermoso, J M; Pang, C; Waley, S G

    1985-09-23

    The amino acid sequence of the zinc-requiring beta-lactamase II from Bacillus cereus strain 569 has been determined. It consists of a single polypeptide chain of 227 residues. It is the only example so far fully characterized of a class B beta-lactamase, and is structurally and mechanistically distinct from both the widely distributed class A beta-lactamases (such as the Escherichia coli RTEM enzyme) and from the chromosomally encoded class C enzymes from Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Evolutionary perspectives on multiresistance beta-lactamase transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, M; Couture, F; Vézina, G; Levesque, R C

    1989-01-01

    A series of intragenic DNA probes, encoding the major part of the transposase resolvase and inverted repeats of transposons Tn3, Tn21, and Tn2501, were used in hybridization assays for homologous DNA sequences in 18 transposons studied. The tnpA and tnpR probes detected extensive homology with Tn3-like and Tn21-like elements for 11 transposons. This high degree of homology was confirmed with the 38- and 48-base-pair inverted-repeat oligonucleotide probes of Tn3, Tn21, and Tn2501. The Southern-type gel hybridization experiments localized the tnpA-homologous sequences on the physical DNA maps constructed. The genetic and physical maps of the transposons were compared, as were their nucleic acid sequence homologies. These comparisons suggested a subfamily of mobile elements distinct from but related to the Tn21 group. Based on these results, an evolutionary model is proposed and a pedigree is presented for the genesis of multiresistance beta-lactamase transposons. Images PMID:2556363

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of Colonization Rates with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Four Swiss Refugee Centres

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Roxana; Zillig, Daniela; Schibli, Urs; Bassetti, Stefano; Meinel, Dominik; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Background The recent crisis of refugees seeking asylum in European countries challenges public health on many levels. Most refugees currently arrive from Syria, Afghanistan, or Eritrea. Data about multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) prevalence are not present for these countries. However, when entering the European heath care systems, data about colonisation rates regarding highly resistant bacterial pathogens are important. Methods We performed a cross-sectional screening in four Swiss refugee centres to determine the colonization rates for MRSA and ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We used pharyngeal, nasal, and inguinal swabs for MRSA and rectal swabs and urine for ESBL and carbapenemase screening using standard microbiological procedures. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to determine the relatedness of MRSA isolates with high resolution due to a suspected outbreak. Results 41/261(15.7%) refugees were colonized with MRSA. No differences regarding the country of origin were observed. However, in a single centre significantly more were colonized, which was confirmed to be a recent local outbreak. 57/241 (23.7%) refugees were colonized with ESBL with significantly higher colonisation in persons originating from the Middle East (35.1%, p<0.001). No carbapenemase producers were detected. Conclusion The colonisation rate of the refugees was about 10 times higher for MRSA and 2–5 times higher for ESBL compared to the Swiss population. Contact precaution is warranted for these persons if they enter medical care. In cases of infections, MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should be considered regarding antibiotic treatment choices. PMID:28085966

  6. TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a scaffold for protein recognition and assay.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Daniel; Vucic, Bénédicte; Hougardy, Vincent; Girboux, Anne-Lise; Henrioul, Christophe; Van Haute, Julien; Soumillion, Patrice; Fastrez, Jacques

    2002-06-01

    A large number of different proteins or protein domains have been investigated as possible scaffolds to engineer antibody-like molecules. We have previously shown that the TEM-1 beta-lactamase can accommodate insertions of random sequences in two loops surrounding its active site without compromising its activity. From the libraries that were generated, active enzymes binding with high affinities to monoclonal antibodies raised against prostate-specific antigen, a protein unrelated to beta-lactamase, could be isolated. Antibody binding was shown to affect markedly the enzyme activity. As a consequence, these enzymes have the potential to be used as signaling molecules in direct or competitive homogeneous immunoassay. Preliminary results showed that beta-lactamase clones binding to streptavidin could also be isolated, indicating that some enzymes in the libraries have the ability to recognize proteins other than antibodies. In this paper, we show that, in addition to beta-lactamases binding to streptavidin, beta-lactamase clones binding to horse spleen ferritin and beta-galactosidase could be isolated. Affinity maturation of a clone binding to ferritin allowed obtaining beta-lactamases with affinities comprised between 10 and 20 nM (Kd) for the protein. Contrary to what was observed for beta-lactamases issued from selections on antibodies, enzyme complexation induced only a modest effect on enzyme activity, in the three cases studied. This kind of enzyme could prove useful in replacement of enzyme-conjugated antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) or in other applications that use antibodies conjugated to an enzyme.

  7. Coevolutionary Landscape Inference and the Context-Dependence of Mutations in Beta-Lactamase TEM-1

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, Matteo; Jacquier, Hervé; Schug, Alexander; Tenaillon, Oliver; Weigt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of mutational landscapes is a task of outstanding importance in evolutionary and medical biology: It is, for example, of central importance for our understanding of the phenotypic effect of mutations related to disease and antibiotic drug resistance. Here we develop a novel inference scheme for mutational landscapes, which is based on the statistical analysis of large alignments of homologs of the protein of interest. Our method is able to capture epistatic couplings between residues, and therefore to assess the dependence of mutational effects on the sequence context where they appear. Compared with recent large-scale mutagenesis data of the beta-lactamase TEM-1, a protein providing resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics, our method leads to an increase of about 40% in explicative power as compared with approaches neglecting epistasis. We find that the informative sequence context extends to residues at native distances of about 20 Å from the mutated site, reaching thus far beyond residues in direct physical contact. PMID:26446903

  8. Evaluation of Zataria MultiFlora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, F.; Taherpour, A.; Borhan, R.S.; Hashemi, A.; Habibi, M.; Sajadi Nia, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Carbapenem resistance due to acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is considered to be more serious than other resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum plants on IMP-producing P.aeruginosa strains. This experimental study was carried out on hospitalized burn patients during 2011 and 2012. Antibiotics and extracts susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. MBL detection was performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Using Combination Disk Diffusion test method, it was found that among 83 imipenem resistant P.aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) were MBL producers. PCR and sequencing methods proved that these isolates were positive for blaIMP-1 genes, whereas none were positive for bla(VIM) genes. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients with MBL-producing Pseudomonas infection was 4/48 (8.3%). It was shown that Zataria multiflora and Carum copticum extracts had a high antibacterial effect on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains in 6.25 mg/ml concentration. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients is very high. In our study, all MBL-producing isolates carry the blaIMP-1 gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa, and in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of Z. multiflora and C. copticum have high antibacterial effects on ß-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains. PMID:24799849

  9. Evaluation of Zataria MultiFlora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Fallah, F; Taherpour, A; Borhan, R S; Hashemi, A; Habibi, M; Sajadi Nia, R

    2013-12-31

    Carbapenem resistance due to acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is considered to be more serious than other resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum plants on IMP-producing P.aeruginosa strains. This experimental study was carried out on hospitalized burn patients during 2011 and 2012. Antibiotics and extracts susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. MBL detection was performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Using Combination Disk Diffusion test method, it was found that among 83 imipenem resistant P.aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) were MBL producers. PCR and sequencing methods proved that these isolates were positive for blaIMP-1 genes, whereas none were positive for bla(VIM) genes. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients with MBL-producing Pseudomonas infection was 4/48 (8.3%). It was shown that Zataria multiflora and Carum copticum extracts had a high antibacterial effect on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains in 6.25 mg/ml concentration. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients is very high. In our study, all MBL-producing isolates carry the blaIMP-1 gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa, and in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of Z. multiflora and C. copticum have high antibacterial effects on ß-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains.

  10. The use of analytical isoelectric focusing for detection and identification of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Mathew, A; Harris, A M; Marshall, M J; Ross, G W

    1975-05-01

    BETA-Lactamases (EC. 3.5.2.6) from strains of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied using analytical isoelectric focusing. This permits a visual comparison of the patterns of beta-lactamase bands produced by enzymes from different organisms. Purification of crude intracellular preparations is unnecessary and the technique is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate beta-lactamase in mutants previously reported to lack the enzyme. R that have not been distinguished from one another biochemically or immunologically can be differentiated by isoelectric focusing. Conversely, the enzymes specified by the R factors RTEM, R1 and RGN14, with identical isoelectric focusing patterns have the same biochemical properties. Chromosomal and R-factor-mediated beta-lactamases from single strains have been separated and their identities confirmed by immunoisoelectric focusing. R factor-mediated enzymes gave identical isoelectric focusing patterns irrespective of the host strain. Isoelectric focusing can therefore be used to observe the transfer of beta-lactamases carried by R factors.

  11. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Kabiru O; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Alafe, Olajide O; Mudashiru, Sulaiman A; Fakorede, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients. Methods Patients (158 total) made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment. Results Thirty-five (25.9%) Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7%) were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7%) S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05). A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8%) Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8%) of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2%) isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co-transferred with cefotaxime and augmentin resistance to Escherichia coli j53-2 transconjugants. Conclusion This study revealed the emergence of blaCTX-M-I S. typhi as an agent of persistent pyrexia with potential to spread to other Enterobacteriaceae in Lagos, Nigeria. Cautionary

  12. Detection of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing NDM-1 in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Herte, Rima I; Araj, George F; Matar, Ghassan M; Baroud, Maysa; Kanafani, Zeina A; Kanj, Souha S

    2012-05-14

    Carbapenem resistance has been encountered globally with poor outcome of infected patients. NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase) gene containing organisms have emerged and are now spreading in all continents. This is the first report of Iraqi patients referred to Lebanon from whom carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae were recovered. The genes involved in carbapenem resistance were bla-OXA-48 and the novel NDM-1. This report highlights the alarming introduction of such resistance among Enterobacteriaecae to this country.

  13. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rashmi; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known. PMID:26904307

  14. Covalent docking of selected boron-based serine beta-lactamase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Novati, Beatrice; Colombo, Giorgio; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    AmpC β-lactamase is a hydrolytic enzyme conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, identification of non-β-lactam compounds able to inhibit the enzyme is crucial for the development of novel antibacterial therapies. In general, AmpC inhibitors have to engage the highly solvent-exposed catalytic site of the enzyme. Therefore, understanding the implications of ligand-protein induced-fit and water-mediated interactions behind the inhibitor-enzyme recognition process is fundamental for undertaking structure-based drug design process. Here, we focus on boronic acids, a promising class of beta-lactamase covalent inhibitors. First, we optimized a docking protocol able to reproduce the experimentally determined binding mode of AmpC inhibitors bearing a boronic group. This goal was pursued (1) performing rigid and flexible docking calculations aiming to establish the role of the side chain conformations; and (2) investigating the role of specific water molecules in shaping the enzyme active site and mediating ligand protein interactions. Our calculations showed that some water molecules, conserved in the majority of the considered X-ray structures, are needed to correctly predict the binding pose of known covalent AmpC inhibitors. On this basis, we formalized our findings in a docking and scoring protocol that could be useful for the structure-based design of new boronic acid AmpC inhibitors.

  15. Biochemical characterization of a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 802.

    PubMed

    Rejiba, Samia; Limam, Ferid; Belhadj, Cherifa; Belhadj, Omrane; Ben-Mahrez, Kamel

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa 802 was isolated at Rabta hospital in Tunis and was resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. It produced a pI 7.6 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The ESBL, named LBT 802, was purified to homogeneity by filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by CM-Sepharose chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a TSK-gel SP-5PW column. The LBT 802 enzyme had a molecular mass of 30 kDa. It showed a broad-substrate profile by hydrolyzing benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefpirome but not ceftazidime, cefoxitin, imipenem, or aztreonam. The highest hydrolytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) was obtained for ampicillin, cephalothin, cephaloridine, and benzylpenicillin. Among extended-spectrum cephalosporins the best substrate was ceftriaxone followed by cefotaxime and cefpirome. LBT 802 activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, imipenem, cefoxitin, and aztreonam. It showed its lowest Ki values for clavulanic acid, imipenem and sulbactam.

  16. Mechanism of suppression of piperacillin resistance in enterobacteria by tazobactam.

    PubMed

    Kadima, T A; Weiner, J H

    1997-10-01

    Resistance to piperacillin in several isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae was investigated and confirmed to occur at a frequency of 10(-7) to 10(-6). Development of resistance to piperacillin was significantly suppressed by tazobactam but not by clavulanic acid. To elucidate the mechanism by which resistance suppression occurs, the effect of piperacillin plus tazobactam on the induction of AmpC beta-lactamase was analyzed by monitoring the beta-galactosidase activity of an inducible ampC-lacZ gene fusion in Escherichia coli. The combination exerted no inhibitory effect on AmpC beta-lactamase induction. Tazobactam also had no effect on the accumulation of a key intermediate in the AmpC beta-lactamase induction pathway, 1,6-anhydromurotripeptide, in an ampD mutant strain of E. coli. However, the addition of tazobactam to liquid cultures of E. cloacae 40001 in the presence of piperacillin at four times the MIC caused a delay in the recovery of the culture to piperacillin-induced stress. At 16 times the MIC, a complete suppression of regrowth occurred. Analysis of culture viability on piperacillin plates showed that the culture recovery was due to growth by moderately resistant mutants preexisting in the cell population, which at 16 times the MIC became susceptible to the combination. Evidence from the kinetics of inhibition of the E. cloacae 40001 AmpC beta-lactamase by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam and from the effects of these drugs on the frequency of resistance to piperacillin suggests that the suppressive effect of tazobactam on the appearance of resistance is primarily mediated by the beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

  17. Characteristics of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality.

  18. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sangare, S A; Maiga, A I; Guindo, I; Maiga, A; Camara, N; Savadogo, S; Diallo, S; Bougoudogo, F; Armand-Lefevre, L; Andremont, A; Maiga, I I

    2015-09-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from many regions of the world. Epidemiological studies are being conducted in Europe, North America, and Asia. No study has however been conducted in Africa to determine the prevalence and distribution of ESBLs on the continent. This literature review aimed at describing the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures, as well as the ESBL genes involved at the international level. Our focus was mainly on Africa. We conducted a literature review on PubMed. Articles related to our study field and published between 1996 and 2014 were reviewed and entirely read for most of them, while we only focused on the abstracts of some other articles. Relevant articles to our study were then carefully reviewed and included in the review. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae differs from one country to another. The results of our literature review however indicate that class A ESBLs prevail over the other types. We took into consideration articles focusing on various types of samples to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but information on isolates from blood cultures is limited. The worldwide prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased over time. Evidence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae can be found in all regions of the world. Studies conducted in Africa mainly focused on the Northern and Eastern parts of the continent, while only rare studies were carried out in the rest of the continent.

  19. Inactivation of RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli by clavulanic acid and 9-deoxyclavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Charnas, R L; Knowles, J R

    1981-05-26

    The interaction of the TEM-2 beta-lactamase with 9-deoxyclavulanic acid (3) and with both extensively labeled (2) and specifically labeled (1) clavulanic acid has been studied. The close similarity between 9-doexyclavulanate and clavulanate in kinetics, spectroscopic, and protein chemical terms show that the allyl alcohol group of clavulanate is irrelevant to its action as a beta-lactamase inactivator. Use of the radiolabeled samples of clavulanate shows that, of three irreversibly inactivated forms of the enzymes, two contain the whole clavulanate skeleton and the third only retains the carbon atoms of the original beta-lactam ring. These findings allow the complex interaction between clavulanic acid and the beta-lactamase to be defined more narrowly in chemical terms.

  20. A self-assembled quantum dot probe for detecting {beta}-lactamase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chenjie; Xing Bengang; Rao Jianghong . E-mail: jrao@stanford.edu

    2006-06-09

    This communication describes a quantum dot probe that can be activated by a reporter enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. Our design is based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A biotinylated {beta}-lactamase substrate was labeled with a carbocyanine dye, Cy5, and immobilized on the surface of quantum dots through the binding of biotin to streptavidin pre-coated on the quantum dots. In assembling this nanoprobe, we have found that both the distance between substrates and the quantum dot surface, and the density of substrates are important for its function. The fluorescence emission from quantum dots can be efficiently quenched (up to 95%) by Cy5 due to FRET. Our final quantum dot probe, assembled with QD605 and 1:1 mixture of biotin and a Cy5-labeled lactam, can be activated by 32 {mu}g/mL of {beta}-lactamase with 4-fold increase in the fluorescence emission.

  1. Kinetic interactions of tazobactam with beta-lactamases from all major structural classes.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, K; Macalintal, C; Rasmussen, B A; Lee, V J; Yang, Y

    1993-01-01

    Tazobactam was shown to be a potent inhibitor of group 1, 2a, 2b, and 2b' beta-lactamases. Extended kinetic studies with class A and C serine beta-lactamases showed that the PC1, TEM-2, and P99 enzymes all were reversibly inhibited prior to inactivation of the enzymes. The CcrA metallo-beta-lactamase was less well inhibited, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at least 3 orders of magnitude less favorable than those for most serine beta-lactamases. The numbers of hydrolytic turnovers of tazobactam before inactivation were 2 for PC1, 125 for TEM-2, 50 for P99, and 4,000 for the CcrA enzyme. In spectral studies, transient intermediates were formed after reaction of tazobactam with the PC1, TEM-2, and CcrA beta-lactamases, corresponding to enzyme-associated intermediates responsible for hydrolysis of tazobactam. Chromophores absorbing at 270 nm (CcrA) and 288 nm (TEM-2 and PC1) were observed for these reaction intermediates. The P99 cephalosporinase formed a stable complex with a UV maximum at 295 nm. Incubation of tazobactam with all of the enzymes resulted in accumulation of a tazobactam reaction product with a short-wavelength absorbance. This product has characteristics similar to those of the major eucaryotic metabolite of tazobactam. Possible reaction mechanisms are presented to explain the findings. In conclusion, both serine-based and metallo-beta-lactamases were irreversibly inactivated by tazobactam following an initial transient inhibition phase. Images PMID:8388201

  2. Contributions of aspartate 49 and phenylalanine 142 residues of a tight binding inhibitory protein of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, J; Rudgers, G; Gilbert, H; Palzkill, T

    1999-01-22

    beta-Lactamases are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze beta-lactam antibiotics to render them inactive. The beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) of Streptomyces clavuligerus, is a potent inhibitor of several beta-lactamases, including the TEM-1 enzyme (Ki = 0.6 nM). Evidence from the TEM-1/BLIP co-crystal suggests that two BLIP residues, Asp-49 and Phe-142, mimic interactions made by penicillin G when bound in the active site of TEM-1. To determine the importance of these two residues, a heterologous expression system for BLIP was established in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change Asp-49 and Phe-142 to alanine, and inhibition constants (Ki) for both mutants were determined. Each mutation increases the Ki for BLIP inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase approximately 100-fold. To address how these two positions effect the specificity of beta-lactamase binding, Ki values were determined for the interaction of wild-type BLIP, as well as the D49A and F142A mutants, with two extended spectrum beta-lactamases (the G238S and the E104K TEM variants). Positions 104 and 238 are located in the BLIP/beta-lactamase interface. Interestingly, the three BLIP proteins inhibited the G238S beta-lactamase mutant to the same degree that they inhibited TEM-1. However, wild-type BLIP has a higher Ki for the E104K beta-lactamase mutant, suggesting that interactions between BLIP and beta-lactamase residue Glu-104 are important for wild-type levels of BLIP inhibition.

  3. Genetic Environment of Plasmid Mediated CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from Clinical and Food Borne Bacteria in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Supriya; Hussain, Abbas; Mishra, Shweta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The study investigated the presence of CTX-M-15 type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), compared their genetic arrangements and plasmid types in gram negative isolates of hospital and food origin in north-east India. From September 2013 to April 2014, a total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates and 88 gram negative food isolates were selected. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL genes was performed. Presence of integrons and gene cassettes were analyzed by integrase and 59 base-element PCR respectively. The molecular environments surrounding blaCTX-M and plasmid types were investigated by PCR and PCR-based replicon typing respectively. Transformation was carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaCTX-M-15 genes. DNA fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Results Prevalence of ESBL was found to be 40.8% (103/252) in clinical and 31.8% (28/88) in food-borne isolates. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of 56.3% (58/103) and 53.5% (15/28) blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates respectively. Strains of clinical and food origin were non-clonal. Replicon typing revealed that IncI1 and IncFII plasmid were carrying blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates and were horizontally transferable. The ISEcp1 element was associated with blaCTX-M-15 in both clinical and food isolates. Conclusions The simultaneous presence of resistance determinants in non-clonal isolates of two different groups thus suggests that the microbiota of common food products consumed may serve as a reservoir for some of the drug resistance genes prevalent in human pathogens. PMID:26361395

  4. Occurrence of efflux mechanism and cephalosporinase variant in a population of Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Tran, Que-Tien; Dupont, Myrielle; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Sotto, Albert; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of multidrug resistance in 44 Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Efflux was involved in resistance in E. aerogenes isolates more frequently than in K. pneumoniae isolates (100 versus 38% of isolates) and was associated with the expression of phenylalanine arginine beta-naphthylamide-susceptible active efflux. AcrA-TolC overproduction in E. aerogenes isolates was noted. An analysis of four E. aerogenes isolates for which cefepime MICs were high revealed no modification in porin expression but a new specific mutation in the AmpC beta-lactamase.

  5. Activity of imipenem against VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the murine thigh infection model.

    PubMed

    Daikos, G L; Panagiotakopoulou, A; Tzelepi, E; Loli, A; Tzouvelekis, L S; Miriagou, V

    2007-02-01

    The in-vivo activity of imipenem against VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (VPKP) was assessed in a thigh infection model in neutropenic mice. Animals were infected with three VPKP isolates (imipenem MICs 2, 4 and 32 mg/L, respectively) and a susceptible clinical isolate (MIC 0.125 mg/L) that did not produce any beta-lactamase with broad-spectrum activity. Bacterial density at the site of infection was determined after imipenem treatment (30 and 60 mg/kg every 2 h for 24 h). The log(10) reduction in CFU/thigh was greatest for the wild-type isolate, intermediate for the two imipenem-susceptible VPKP isolates, and lowest for the imipenem-resistant VPKP isolate. Whilst in-vivo imipenem activity appeared reduced against in-vitro susceptible VIM-1 producers compared with a VIM-1-negative control, an increased drug dosage could moderate this reduction.

  6. An overview of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in veterinary medicine and their public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2014-08-13

    Serious human and animal infections caused by bacteria are usually treated with beta-lactams. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute the most clinically and economically important enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine. The spread of ESBLs represents a serious threat to healthcare systems, drastically undermining therapeutic options. The relationship between drug usage and the emergence of resistance has been extensively reported. Nevertheless, the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and the emergence of ESBLs in animals remains a matter of debate. Moreover, there is still controversy about whether antibiotic usage in farm animals poses a potential public health risk. This review will (i) deal with aspects related to the presence of ESBLs in veterinary medicine, (ii) its link with human medicine, and (iii) discuss strategies to be implemented to preserve antimicrobial effectiveness. New insights relative to old questions concerning antimicrobial use in domestic animals are also presented.

  7. Cefotetan, a new cephamycin: comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activity with other cephems, beta-lactamase stability, and preliminary recommendations for disk diffusion testing.

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, L W; Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C; Fuchs, P C; Gavan, T L; Gerlach, E H; Sommers, H M

    1982-01-01

    Cefotetan is a new, potent, 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporin (cephamycin). The in vitro activity of cefotetan tested in a multiphasic, collaborative study against 12,260 consecutive clinical isolates and 448 selected isolates showed 93% of Enterobacteriaceae, 90% of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (broth dilution), 83% of Bacteroides fragilis, and 72% of non-enterococcal streptococci to be inhibited by less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. Beta-Lactamase-producing and -nonproducing Haemophilus influenzae strains were inhibited by less than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/ml. Cefotetan's inhibitory spectrum paralleled those of the newest generation of cephems and exceeded those of cefoxitin and cefamandole. No useful activity was present against Streptococcus faecalis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefotetan was bactericidal without significant inoculum effect and was highly resistant to hydrolysis by Richmond-Sykes types I, III, and IV beta-lactamases. Hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin PADAC (pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline cephalosporin) by type I beta-lactamases was markedly inhibited by concentrations of cefotetan similar to those of the potent inhibitor dicloxacillin. Analysis of agar disk diffusion for several disk potencies and broth dilution susceptibility tests by regression and error rate-bounding methods produced preliminary tentative zone standards (30-micrograms disk, using minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml susceptible and greater than 32 micrograms/ml resistant, or 75-micrograms disk, using minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml susceptible and greater than or equal to 64 micrograms/ml resistant) of greater than or equal to 18 mm susceptible, less than or equal to 14 mm resistant, and 15 to 17 mm indeterminate. Staphylococcus aureus testing with the 30-micrograms disk is not recommended. PMID:6983862

  8. Characterization of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains involved in maternal-fetal colonization: prevalence of E. coli ST131.

    PubMed

    Birgy, André; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bidet, Philippe; Doit, Catherine; Genel, Nathalie; Courroux, Céline; Arlet, Guillaume; Bingen, Edouard

    2013-06-01

    Maternal-fetal Escherichia coli infections, such as neonatal bacteremia and meningitis, are important causes of morbidity and mortality. From 2006 to 2010, we studied newborns and their mothers who were colonized with E. coli in a French hospital in order to document (i) the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains, (ii) the prevalence of associated virulence genes, (iii) the prevalence of clone sequence type 131 (ST131), and (iv) the genetic relationship among ESBL-producing strains. Among the 2,755 E. coli cultures recovered from vaginal or neonatal samples, 68 were ESBL producers (2.46%). We found a wide diversity of ESBL genes, with the majority being bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-1), and bla(CTX-M-15), distributed among the 4 main phylogenetic groups. Genes encoding virulence factors were found in 90.7% of the isolates, with ≥ 2 virulence genes present in 76% of cases. The prevalence of ST131 among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was 9.4% (6/64). Five of these 6 ST131 isolates possessed bla(CTX-M-15) enzymes (and also were resistant to quinolones), and one possessed bla(CTX-M-2) enzymes. Two possessed virulence genes, suggesting the presence of pathogenicity island IIJ96 (PAI IIJ96)-like domains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a high level of genomic diversity overall, except for 3 closely related isolates belonging to clonal group ST131. Repetitive PCR showed that the six ST131 isolates were closely related to ST131 control strains (>95% similarity). This study shows a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli strains and clonal group ST131 in the French maternal-fetal population. These results suggest a widespread distribution of ESBL enzymes in the community and highlight the early transmission between mothers and neonates. These findings are worrisome, especially for this particularly vulnerable population.

  9. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli infections in children: are community-acquired strains different from nosocomial strains?

    PubMed

    Morgand, Marjolaine; Vimont, Sophie; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Boyd, Anders; Thien, Hoang Vu; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Denamur, Erick; Arlet, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children. We compared 58 epidemiologically unrelated ESBL-producing E. coli strains that caused infections. They were isolated between 2008 and 2012 in two Parisian pediatric hospitals and grouped according to their origin into either community-acquired (CA) (n=37) or nosocomially acquired (NA) (n=21) strains. Molecular characteristics of the ESBLs, phylogenetic traits of the strains including their belonging to clone O25b-ST131, prevalence of associated virulence genes, growth capacities in different media, metabolic phenotype and biofilm formation abilities were studied. ESBL type, associated resistance and distribution of phylogenetic groups were similar in the CA and NA groups. More than 60% of the B2 phylogroup strains in both groups belonged to the ST131 clone. Interestingly, CA strains possessed more genes encoding virulence factors and the distribution of these genes differed significantly between the two groups: fyuA, hlyC, papC and papGII were more frequent in the CA group, whereas iroN was more frequent in the NA group. CA strains also showed enhanced growth capacities in Luria Bertani rich medium. They tended to produce more biofilm but the difference was not significant. This study confirms the wide spread of clone ST131 among infected children, regardless of whether their infections were community- or nosocomially acquired. It highlights genotypic and phenotypic differences according to the origin of the strains that could indicate adaptability of these multi-resistant bacteria to specific environmental and host factors.

  10. Frequent use of colistin-based drug treatment to eliminate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in backyard chicken farms in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Jinnai, Michio; Kawahara, Ryuji; Diep, Khong Thi; Thang, Nguyen Nam; Hoa, Tran Thi; Hanh, Le Kieu; Khai, Pham Ngoc; Sumimura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Reports of livestock infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) are increasing. Based on interviews conducted over a 6-month period, we found that veterinarians in the Vietnamese province of Thai Binh prefer to prescribe colistin-based drugs (CBD) in chicken farms. We aimed to clarify whether CBD use selects for strains of colistin-resistant ESBL-E. With the cooperation of seven local households, we detected ESBL-E in chickens' feces after treating chickens with CBD. Phylogenetic groupings and the presence of CTX-M/AmpC genes were determined, and the multi-antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was analyzed. Our results showed that ESBL-E presented in seven chickens' feces from two households. Seventy-two percent of ESBL-E isolates harbored CTX-M9 and the phylogenetic group A; the colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all isolated ESBL-E ranged from 0.064 to 1 μg mL(-1). Moreover, ESBL-E isolates were used to experimentally select for colistin resistance, and the effect of commercial CBD on ESBL-E was investigated. The results showed that an ESBL-E strain with a colistin MIC of 4 μg mL(-1) was able to grow in media with CBD. Although CBD treatment was effective, in vitro experiments demonstrated that ESBL-E can easily acquire colistin resistance. Therefore, restrictions on colistin use are necessary to prevent the emergence of colistin-resistant bacteria.

  11. [Detection of resistance phenotypes in gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ferran; Calvo, Jorge; Cantón, Rafael; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Detecting resistance in gram-negative microorganisms has a strong clinical and epidemiological impact, but there is still a great deal of debate about the most sensitive phenotypic method and whether in vitro susceptibility results should be interpreted. The present work reviews the phenotypes and mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams, quinolones and aminoglycosides in gram-negative bacilli and also revises the different phenotypic methods used for their detection. A clinical interpretation of in vitro susceptibility results is also discussed. Extended-spectrum and inhibitor resistant beta-lactamases, AmpC type beta-lactamases and carbapenemases are thoroughly reviewed. As regards quinolones, the resistance mediated both by plasmids and by mutations in the DNA gyrase and the topoisomerase IV genes is also reviewed. This report includes resistance patterns to aminoglycosides caused by modifying enzymes. Phenotypic detection of beta-lactam resistance in Neisseria spp. and Haemophilus influenzae is also reviewed in a separate section.

  12. Improved purification and characterization of the OXA-2 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, S; Dale, J W

    1984-01-01

    An improved and scaled-up procedure has been developed for purifying the OXA-2 plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase. This has enabled us to improve the characterization of this enzyme, including a revised determination of its amino acid composition and the sequence of the N-terminal region of the protein. PMID:6335398

  13. Chromogenic depsipeptide substrates for beta-lactamases and penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M; Damblon, C; Plaitin, B; Christiaens, L; Frère, J M

    1990-01-01

    Various ester and thioester derivatives of hippuric acid have been prepared which were substrates of both beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. The thioesters were more rapidly hydrolysed by nearly all the enzymes. Surprisingly, the enzymes acted rather efficiently on substrates which did not contain any chiral centre. PMID:2400398

  14. beta-Lactamase hydrolysis of cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopapadakou, N H; McCaffrey, C

    1994-01-01

    The beta-lactam hydrolysis of five cephalosporin 3'-quinolones (dual-action cephalosporins) by three gram-negative beta-lactamases was examined. The dual-action cephalosporins tested were the ester Ro 23-9424; the carbamates Ro 25-2016, Ro 25-4095, and Ro 25-4835; and the tertiary amine Ro 25-0534. Also tested were cephalosporins with similar side chains (cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cephalothin, cephacetrile, and Ro 09-1227 [SR 0124]) and standard beta-lactams (penicillin G, cephaloridine). The beta-lactamases used were the plasmid-mediated TEM-1 and TEM-3 enzymes and the chromosomal AmpC. The cephacetrile-related compounds Ro 25-4095 and Ro 25-4835 were hydrolyzed by all three beta-lactamases with catalytic efficiencies (relative to penicillin G) ranging from approximately 5 (TEM-1, AmpC) to approximately 25 (TEM-3). The cephalothin-related Ro 25-2016 was also hydrolyzed by all three beta-lactamases, particularly the AmpC enzyme (relative catalytic efficiency, 110). The cefotaxime-related compounds Ro 25-0534 and Ro 23-9424 were hydrolyzed to any significant extent only by the TEM-3 enzyme (relative catalytic efficiencies, 1.2 and 4.7, respectively. PMID:8067776

  15. CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P

    2004-02-01

    We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia.

  16. Novel bacteriophage therapy for controlling metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage therapy is an effective antimicrobial approach with potentially important applications in medicine and biotechnology which can be seen as an additional string in the bow. Emerging drug resistant bacteria in aquaculture industry due to unrestricted use of antibiotics warrants more sustainable and environmental friendly strategies for controlling fish infections. The isolated bacteria from fish lesions was characterised based on isolation on selective and differential medium like Pseudomonas agar, gram staining, biochemical tests and 16SrRNA sequencing. The metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing bacterial isolate was evaluated using Imipenem - Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disk method. The specific bacteriophage was isolated and concentrated using coal bed developed in our lab at CSIR-NEERI. The isolated and enriched bacteriophage was characterised by nucleotide sequencing and electron microscopy. The phage therapy was applied for treating ulcerative lesion in fish. Results The pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing ulcerative lesions in catfish species (Clarias gariepinus) was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One out of twenty P. aeruginosa isolate showing multi drug resistance (MDR) was incidentally found to be MBL producing as determined by Imipenem-EDTA disk method. The phage therapy effectively cured the ulcerative lesions of the infected fish in 8–10 days of treatment, with a sevenfold reduction of the lesion with untreated infection control. Conclusion Bacteriophage therapy can have potential applications soon as an alternative or as a complement to antibiotic treatment in the aquaculture. We present bacteriophage therapy as a treatment method for controlling MDR P. aeruginosa infection in C. gariepinus. To the best of our knowledge this is a first report of application of phage therapy against MBL producing P. aeruginosa isolated from aquatic ecosystem. PMID:24369750

  17. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in North-East Italy.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, B; Mazzariol, A; Kocsis, E; Koncan, R; Fontana, R; Cornaglia, G

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in 756 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae originating from Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratories of North-East Italy. Five point zero two percent of isolates carried a qnr determinant while the aac(6')-Ib-cr determinant was detected in 9·25% of isolates. We also investigated the association between the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and the beta-lactamase genes, and characterized the plasmids carrying these determinants of resistance.

  18. Colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in international travelers returning to Germany.

    PubMed

    Lübbert, Christoph; Straube, Laurentia; Stein, Claudia; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Schubert, Stefan; Mössner, Joachim; Pletz, Mathias W; Rodloff, Arne C

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five healthy German volunteers traveling to 53 different countries (mostly in Asia, Africa and South America) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Stool samples and data on potential travel-associated risk factors (such as type of travel, nutritional habits, occurrence of gastroenteritis) were collected before and after traveling. Screening for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was performed using selective media (CHROMagar™ ESBL/CPE plates). Isolates with confirmed ESBL-phenotype were examined for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA-48 genes by PCR amplification and sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using conventional microbroth dilution. Pre-travel analysis of 205 fully evaluable participants revealed an ESBL-PE prevalence rate of 6.8% (14/205). Among 191 participants that were ESBL-negative before travel, 58 (30.4%) were colonized by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, and 5 (8.6%) additionally carried ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae upon return. However, no carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected. ESBL-genotyping revealed that 52/54 (96.6%) E. coli and 4/4 (100%) K. pneumoniae strains available for sequencing produced CTX-M enzymes, mostly CTX-M-15 (33/56, 58.9%), and 2/54 (3.7%) E. coli strains produced SHV-12 enzymes. Travel to India was associated with the highest ESBL-PE acquisition rate (11/15, 73.3%; p=0.015), followed by South East Asia (22/46, 47.8%; p=0.038). Evaluation of travel-associated risk factors demonstrated significance for the occurrence of gastroenteritis (p=0.011). Strictly practiced hand hygiene and exclusive consumption of packaged beverages showed no protective effect. The ESBL-PE persistence rate after 6 months was 8.6% (3/35). We conclude that global efforts are needed to address the further spread of ESBL-PE in the

  19. Neutron Diffraction Studies of a Class A beta-Lactamase Toho-1 E166A/R274N/R276N Triple Mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeley, Matthew P.; Chen, Yu; Afonine, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    beta-Lactam antibiotics have been used effectively over several decades against many types of bacterial infectious diseases. However, the most common cause of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase enzymes that inactivate beta-lactams by rapidly hydrolyzing the amide group of the beta-lactam ring. Specifically, the class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and inhibitor-resistant enzymes arose that were capable of hydrolyzing penicillins and the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams in resistant bacteria, which lead to treatment problems in many clinical settings. A more complete understanding of the mechanism of catalysis of these ESBL enzymes will impact current antibiotic drug discovery efforts. Here, we describe the neutron structure of the class A, CTX-M-type ESBL Toho-1 E166A/R274N/R276N triple mutant in its apo form, which is the first reported neutron structure of a beta-lactamase enzyme. This neutron structure clearly reveals the active-site protonation states and hydrogen-bonding network of the apo Toho-1 ESBL prior to substrate binding and subsequent acylation. The protonation states of the active-site residues Ser70, Lys73, Ser130, and Lys234 in this neutron structure are consistent with the prediction of a proton transfer pathway from Lys73 to Ser130 that is likely dependent on the conformation of Lys73, which has been hypothesized to be coupled to the protonation state of Glu166 during the acylation reaction. Thus, this neutron structure is in agreement with a proposed mechanism for acylation that identifies Glu166 as the general base for catalysis.

  20. Nosocomial outbreak due to extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- producing Enterobacter cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Adriana; Tubau, Fe; Pujol, Miquel; Calatayud, Laura; Dominguez, Maria Angeles; Peña, Carmen; Sora, Mercedes; Gudiol, Francesc; Ariza, Javier

    2007-08-01

    Enterobacter cloacae has been associated with several outbreaks, usually involving strains that overproduce chromosomal beta-lactamase or, uncommonly, strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Only sporadic cases of ESBL-producing E. cloacae have been identified in our hospital in recent years. We describe the epidemiology and clinical and microbiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by ESBL-producing E. cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CT-ICU). Prospective surveillance of patients with infection or colonization by ESBL-producing E. cloacae among patients admitted to the CT-ICU was performed during the outbreak. Production of ESBL was determined by decreased susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and a positive double-disk test result. Clone relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From July to September 2005, seven patients in the CT-ICU with ESBL-producing E. cloacae were identified (four males; median age, 73 years; range, 45 to 76 years); six patients had cardiac surgery. Four patients developed infections; three had primary bacteremia, one had ventilator-associated pneumonia, and one had tracheobronchitis. ESBL-producing E. cloacae showed resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides. PFGE revealed two patterns. Five isolates belonged to clone A; two carried a single ESBL (pI 8.2 and a positive PCR result for the SHV type), and three carried two ESBLs (pIs 8.1 and 8.2 and positive PCR results for the SHV and CTX-M-9 types). Isolates belonging to clone B carried a single ESBL (pI 5.4 and a positive PCR result for the TEM type). Review of antibiotic consumption showed increased use of cefepime and quinolones during June and July 2005. The outbreak was stopped by the implementation of barrier measures and cephalosporin restriction. ESBL production could be increasingly common in nosocomial pathogens other than Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  1. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Tzelepi, E; Giakkoupi, P; Sofianou, D; Loukova, V; Kemeroglou, A; Tsakris, A

    2000-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in a consecutive collection of clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. The abilities of various screening methods to detect ESBLs in enterobacters were simultaneously tested. Among the 68 consecutive isolates (56 Enterobacter cloacae and 12 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates) that were analyzed for beta-lactamase content, 21 (25 and 58%, respectively) possessed transferable ESBLs with pIs of 8.2 and phenotypic characteristics of SHV-type enzymes, 8 (14.3%) of the E. cloacae isolates produced a previously nondescribed, clavulanate-susceptible ESBL that exhibited a pI of 6.9 and that conferred a ceftazidime resistance phenotype on Escherichia coli transconjugants, and 2 E. cloacae isolates produced both of these enzymes. Among the total of 31 isolates that were considered ESBL producers, the Vitek ESBL detection test was positive for 2 (6.5%) strains, and the conventional double-disk synergy test (DDST) with amoxicillin-clavulanate and with expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam was positive for 5 (16%) strains. Modifications of the DDST consisting of closer application of the disks (at 20 instead of 30 mm), the use of cefepime, and the use of both modifications increased the sensitivity of this test to 71, 61, and 90%, respectively. Of the 37 isolates for which isoelectric focusing failed to determine ESBLs, the Vitek test was false positive for 1 isolate and the various forms of DDSTs were false-positive for 3 isolates.

  2. Kinetic study of interaction between BRL 42715, beta-lactamases, and D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Matagne, A; Ledent, P; Monnaie, D; Felici, A; Jamin, M; Raquet, X; Galleni, M; Klein, D; François, I; Frère, J M

    1995-01-01

    A detailed kinetic study of the interactions between BRL 42715, a beta-lactamase-inhibiting penem, and various beta-lactamases (EC 3.5.2.6) and D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases (DD-peptidases, EC 3.4.16.4) is presented. The compound was a very efficient inactivator of all active-site serine beta-lactamases but was hydrolyzed by the class B, Zn(2+)-containing enzymes, with very different kcat values. Inactivation of the Streptomyces sp. strain R61 extracellular DD-peptidase was not observed, and the Actinomadura sp. strain R39 DD-peptidase exhibited a low level of sensitivity to the compound. PMID:7695311

  3. Ceftazidime/avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jose A; Vinluan, Celeste M; Antony, Nishaal

    2016-01-01

    There has been greater interest in developing additional antimicrobial agents due to the increasing health care costs and resistance resulting from bacterial pathogens to currently available treatment options. Gram-negative organisms including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are some of the most concerning threats due to their resistance mechanisms: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase enzymes. Ceftazidime is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against P. aeruginosa and avibactam is a novel nonbeta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor. Avycaz®, the trade name for this new combination antibiotic, restores the activity of ceftazidime against some of the previously resistant pathogens. Avycaz was approved in 2015 for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis, and complicated intra-abdominal infections with the addition of metronidazole in patients with little to no other treatment options. This review article assesses the clinical trials and data that led to the approval of this antibiotic, in addition to its spectrum of activity and limitations. PMID:27528799

  4. Recovery of active beta-lactamases from Proteus vulgaris and RTEM-1 hybrid by random mutagenesis by using a dnaQ strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Mazinani, S M; Nakajima, E; Ihara, Y; Kameyama, K Z; Sugimoto, K

    1996-01-01

    Proteus vulgaris and RTEM-1 beta-lactamases that belong to molecular class A with 37% amino acid similarity were examined to find the relationship between amino acid residues and activity of enzymes. MICs of ampicillin were > 2,000 micrograms/ml for Escherichia coli cells producing these enzymes. We have made 18 hybrid genes by substituting the coding region of the P. vulgaris beta-lactamase gene with the equivalent portions from the RTEM-1 gene. Most of these hybrids produced inactive proteins, but a few hybrid enzymes had partial or trace activity. From one of the hybrid genes (MIC of ampicillin, 100 micrograms/ml), we recovered three kinds of active mutants which provided ampicillin MICs of 1,000 micrograms/ml by the selection of spontaneous mutations in a dnaQ strain of E. coli. In these mutants, Leu-148, Met-182, and Tyr-274 were replaced with Val, Thr, and His, respectively. These amino acids have not been identified as residues with functional roles in substrate hydrolysis. Furthermore, from these hybrid mutants, we obtained a second set of mutants which conferred ampicillin MICs of 1,500 micrograms/ml. Interestingly, the second mutations were limited to these three amino acid substitutions. These amino acid residues which do not directly interact with substrates have an effect on enzyme activity. These mutant enzymes exhibited lower K(m) values for cephaloridine than both parental enzymes. PMID:8878598

  5. Recovery of active beta-lactamases from Proteus vulgaris and RTEM-1 hybrid by random mutagenesis by using a dnaQ strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Mazinani, S M; Nakajima, E; Ihara, Y; Kameyama, K Z; Sugimoto, K

    1996-09-01

    Proteus vulgaris and RTEM-1 beta-lactamases that belong to molecular class A with 37% amino acid similarity were examined to find the relationship between amino acid residues and activity of enzymes. MICs of ampicillin were > 2,000 micrograms/ml for Escherichia coli cells producing these enzymes. We have made 18 hybrid genes by substituting the coding region of the P. vulgaris beta-lactamase gene with the equivalent portions from the RTEM-1 gene. Most of these hybrids produced inactive proteins, but a few hybrid enzymes had partial or trace activity. From one of the hybrid genes (MIC of ampicillin, 100 micrograms/ml), we recovered three kinds of active mutants which provided ampicillin MICs of 1,000 micrograms/ml by the selection of spontaneous mutations in a dnaQ strain of E. coli. In these mutants, Leu-148, Met-182, and Tyr-274 were replaced with Val, Thr, and His, respectively. These amino acids have not been identified as residues with functional roles in substrate hydrolysis. Furthermore, from these hybrid mutants, we obtained a second set of mutants which conferred ampicillin MICs of 1,500 micrograms/ml. Interestingly, the second mutations were limited to these three amino acid substitutions. These amino acid residues which do not directly interact with substrates have an effect on enzyme activity. These mutant enzymes exhibited lower K(m) values for cephaloridine than both parental enzymes.

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity and beta-lactamase stability of CP-70,429 a new penem antibiotic.

    PubMed Central

    Minamimura, M; Taniyama, Y; Inoue, E; Mitsuhashi, S

    1993-01-01

    In in vitro susceptibility tests, the new penem CP-70,429 showed potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas maltophilia. CP-70,429 was stable to various types of beta-lactamases except for the enzyme from X. maltophilia and was 16- to 128-fold more active than the other compounds against beta-lactamase-producing strains of Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii. PMID:8363389

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity and beta-lactamase stability of CP-70,429 a new penem antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Minamimura, M; Taniyama, Y; Inoue, E; Mitsuhashi, S

    1993-07-01

    In in vitro susceptibility tests, the new penem CP-70,429 showed potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas maltophilia. CP-70,429 was stable to various types of beta-lactamases except for the enzyme from X. maltophilia and was 16- to 128-fold more active than the other compounds against beta-lactamase-producing strains of Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended- Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Saeide; Amini Boroujeni, Negar; Ahmadi, Hassan; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli isolates make many serious infections, especially urinary tract infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of some natural plant extracts against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM gene in urine samples of the patients who have urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Evaluation has to be exactly determined for both methods of disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separately. We evaluated 120 strains of E. coli isolates from the urine culture of the patients in Boo-Ali Hospital (Zahedan, south-eastern Iran) who were suffering from urinary tract infections. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion test and PCR through TEM gene detection. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of commonly used antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxon, amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin along with the MIC of the alcoholic extract of different natural plants including Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae), Amaranthus retraflexus (Amaranthaceae), Cyminum cuminum L (Apiaceae), Marrubium vulgare (Laminaceae) and Peganum. harmala (Zygrophyllaceae) against the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM genes, were determined using the microdulition method. Results: Results of this study showed that in disk diffusion method, 80 samples of E. coli produced ESBLs. In PCR method, the TEM gene distribution in the isolated ESBL-producing organisms was 50 (41.6%). Amikacin was the most effective anti-bacterial agent and ciprofloxacin was the least effective against E. coli isolates. All the natural plant extracts mentioned above, especially P. harmala, were effective against the selected isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli. The most frequent ESBL rate producing E. coli isolates (32 out of 50) had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol extract of P. harmala. Conclusions: The alcoholic

  9. 6-(Methoxymethylene)penicillanic acid: inactivator of RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D G; Knowles, J R

    1984-11-20

    The Z and E isomers of 6-(methoxymethylene)-penicillanic acid have been synthesized, and their interaction with the RTEM beta-lactamase has been studied. The Z isomer is an inhibitor and an inactivator of the enzyme, and there is some similarity between its behavior and that of other mechanism-based inactivators such as clavulanic acid and the penam sulfones. Kinetic analysis of the interaction of the enzyme with the Z isomer has allowed a detailed evaluation of the factors that are important in the design of anti-beta-lactamase agents. In contrast to the Z compound, the E isomer of 6-(methoxymethylene)penicillanic acid is not a substrate, an inhibitor, or an inactivator of the enzyme.

  10. Synthesis of new sulfonylamido-penicillanic acid sulfones inhibitors of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Vanwetswinkel, S; Fastrez, J; Marchand-Brynaert, J

    1994-09-01

    Three new sulfonylamido-penicillanic acid sulfones have been prepared by reaction of 6-aminopenicillanic esters with the monoester or monoamide derivatives obtained in nucleophilic substitution reactions by alcohol or aniline on the carboxyl chloride function of sulfoacetic dichloride followed by oxidation. These penicillin sulfones are converted to beta-lactamases suicide inhibitors by removal of the C3 ester protecting group. This synthetic strategy can give access to sulfonamidopenam sulfones bearing a variety of 6-amino side chain. These inhibitors inactivate the RTEM beta-lactamase rapidly. The kinetics of inactivation are consistent with the partitioning of an acylenzyme intermediate between two main pathways: regeneration of free enzyme and irreversible inactivation, little transient inactivation is observed. A slow inhibition by the product of enzymatic hydrolysis of the sulfones is also observed.

  11. Motion of the Zinc Ions in Catalysis by a di-Zinc Metallo-beta-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    R Breece; Z Hu; M Crowder; D Tierney

    2011-12-31

    We report rapid-freeze-quench X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a dizinc metallo-beta-lactamase (MbetaL) reaction intermediate. The Zn(II) ions in the dinuclear active site of the S. maltophilia Class B3 MbetaL move away from each other, by approximately 0.3 A after 10 ms of reaction with nitrocefin, from 3.4 to 3.7 A. Together with our previous characterization of the resting enzyme and its nitrocefin product complex, where the Zn(II) ion separation relaxes to 3.6 A, these data indicate a scissoring motion of the active site that accompanies the ring-opening step. The average Zn(II) coordination number of 4.5 in the resting enzyme appears to be maintained throughout the reaction with nitrocefin. This is the first direct structural information available on early stage dizinc metallo-beta-lactamase catalysis.

  12. Frequency and diversity of CTX-M enzymes among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Caracas, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Carlos; Chalbaud, Adriana; Alonso, Guillermina

    2013-02-01

    CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been previously reported in Venezuela. We assessed the frequency and diversity of CTX-M enzymes among 97 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates as well as to establish the genetic relationship among CTX-M producers collected from six hospitals in Caracas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays identified the bla(CTX-M) genes in 42 isolates (43.3%). The bla(CTX-M-1) group was the most common in Escherichia coli (91 %) and the bla(CTX-M-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae (56.6%). Presence of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-15), and bla(CTX-M-14) was revealed by sequencing analysis. The CTX-M producers were mainly isolated from urine samples (46%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that a high proportion of CTX-M-producing isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Analysis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR profiles revealed several genetic clusters between isolates carrying the bla(CTX-M-1) group, while complete genotypic diversity among isolates carrying the bla(CTX-M-2) group was observed. This study documented that CTX-M has achieved a citywide distribution, with the CTX-M-1 group as the most frequent (66.7%). The CTX-M clusters detected suggest that patient-patient transmission may have played an important role in the widespread and high prevalence of the CTX-M-1 group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the CTX-M-15 in Venezuela.

  13. Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae: role of carbapenem therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chi; Lee, Nan-Yao; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Po-Lin; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Chi-Jung; Ko, Nai-Ying; Wang, Li-Rong; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2010-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is an important nosocomial pathogen. However, few studies specifically dealing with the clinical characteristics and outcome of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. cloacae infections have been published. During an 8-year period in a medical center, of 610 E. cloacae bacteremic isolates, 138 (22.6%) with ESBL genes were designated the ESBL group, and 120 (19.6%) cefotaxime-nonsusceptible isolates without the ESBL phenotype and genes were designated the control group. Of the former group of isolates, 133 (96.3%) carried the bla(SHV-12) gene, 3 (2.1%) had bla(CTX-M3), and 2 (1.4%) had both the bla(SHV-12) and bla(CTX-M3) genes. After patients under the age of 18 years were excluded, there were 206 adults with E. cloacae bacteremia, and these consisted of 121 patients in the ESBL group and 85 in the control group. More episodes of hospital-onset and polymicrobial bacteremia, increased severity of illness, more cases of bacteremia onset in intensive care units (ICUs), and longer stays in the hospital and ICU after bacteremia onset were noted in the ESBL group. However, the crude and sepsis-related mortality rates in two groups were similar. Of the ESBL group, the in-hospital sepsis-related mortality rate of patients definitively treated by a carbapenem was lower than that of those treated by noncarbapenem beta-lactams (5/53, or 9.4%, versus 13/44, or 29.5%; P = 0.01) though the difference was not significant in the hierarchical multivariate analysis (P = 0.46). Among 62 patients with follow-up blood cultures within 14 days of bacteremia onset, breakthrough bacteremia was more common in those treated by a noncarbapenem beta-lactam agent than in those treated by a carbapenem (18/31, or 58.0%, versus 3/31, or 9.6%; P < 0.001). Thus, carbapenem therapy for ESBL-producing E. cloacae that cause bacteremia may provide therapeutic benefits.

  14. Evidence for an oxyanion hole in serine beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, B P; Pratt, R F

    1988-01-01

    A thionocephalosporin is shown to be a much poorer substrate of representative serine beta-lactamases of class A (RTEM-2) and class C (Enterobacter cloacae P99) and a much poorer inhibitor of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase than is the analogous oxo beta-lactam. These results provide kinetic evidence for the existence of a catalytic oxyanion hole in these enzymes. PMID:3066349

  15. Evidence for an oxyanion hole in serine beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B P; Pratt, R F

    1988-12-01

    A thionocephalosporin is shown to be a much poorer substrate of representative serine beta-lactamases of class A (RTEM-2) and class C (Enterobacter cloacae P99) and a much poorer inhibitor of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase than is the analogous oxo beta-lactam. These results provide kinetic evidence for the existence of a catalytic oxyanion hole in these enzymes.

  16. Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Effector Translocation into Host Cells Using Beta-lactamase Effector Fusions.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Manuel; Zobiak, Bernd; Nauth, Theresa; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2015-10-13

    Many gram-negative bacteria including pathogenic Yersinia spp. employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells. Inside the host cell the effector proteins manipulate cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. To better understand the control of type III secretion during host cell interaction, sensitive and accurate assays to measure translocation are required. We here describe the application of an assay based on the fusion of a Yersinia enterocolitica effector protein fragment (Yersinia outer protein; YopE) with TEM-1 beta-lactamase for quantitative analysis of translocation. The assay relies on cleavage of a cell permeant FRET dye (CCF4/AM) by translocated beta-lactamase fusion. After cleavage of the cephalosporin core of CCF4 by the beta-lactamase, FRET from coumarin to fluorescein is disrupted and excitation of the coumarin moiety leads to blue fluorescence emission. Different applications of this method have been described in the literature highlighting its versatility. The method allows for analysis of translocation in vitro and also in in vivo, e.g., in a mouse model. Detection of the fluorescence signals can be performed using plate readers, FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy. In the setup described here, in vitro translocation of effector fusions into HeLa cells by different Yersinia mutants is monitored by laser scanning microscopy. Recording intracellular conversion of the FRET reporter by the beta-lactamase effector fusion in real-time provides robust quantitative results. We here show exemplary data, demonstrating increased translocation by a Y. enterocolitica YopE mutant compared to the wild type strain.

  17. The flavonoid galangin inhibits the L1 metallo-beta-lactamase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Denny, Brian J; Lambert, Peter A; West, Patrick W J

    2002-02-19

    The flavonoid galangin inhibits the partially purified metallo-beta-lactamase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The effect was not reversed by the addition of ZnCl(2) suggesting that the inhibitory effect is not related to metal chelation. The flavonoid quercetin also has some inhibitory effect against the enzyme. Using the crystal structure of the enzyme, a molecular modelling study predicts a possible orientation of galangin at the active site of the enzyme.

  18. Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility and characterization of antibiotic resistant genes among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and yeast in intestinal flora of cancer patients in North Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Christophy, Rima; Osman, Marwan; Mallat, Hassan; Achkar, Marcel; Ziedeh, Azzam; Moukaddem, Walid; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer

    2017-02-15

    The emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant bacteria are a significant clinical and public health concern. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of carbapenem-resistant bacteria and yeasts in cancer patients under chemotherapy. 41 stool samples collected from cancer patients in Nini hospital in Tripoli, North Lebanon have been analyzed. After isolating yeasts and carbapenem-resistant bacteria, a biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile were determined. The mechanism of enzymatic carbapenem-resistance was detected by searching for carbapenemases by both Hodge test and PCR assays. The association of several mechanisms of resistance was also searched. 46.3% (19/41) of patients were colonized by yeast. Candida glabrata (6/19) was the major species. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria was 24.4% (10/41) including Escherichia coli (5/10), Enterobacter cloacae (1/10), Enterobacter aerogenes (1/10) Edwardsiella hoshinae (1/10) Pantoea agglomerans (1/10) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (1/10). PCR and sequencing of the amplified fragments revealed that Pseudomonas stutzeri (1/1) carried VIM gene and Enterobacter aerogenes (1/1) and E. coli (1/5) carried OXA-48 gene. The other Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to carbapenems by mechanisms other than a carbapenemase including hyperproduction of cephalosporinase (4/10), extended spectrum beta-lactamases (1/10) and both cephalosporinase and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (2/10). High prevalence of intestinal carriage of carbapenem-resistant bacteria and yeasts were detected in cancer patients under chemotherapy. In order to prevent the development of endogenous infection and the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance, an implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and infection control measures is required in hospitals particularly in the department of chemotherapy.

  19. High-level carbapenem resistance in a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate is due to a combination of KPC-2 production and decreased porin expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Yang, Lijiang; Cai, Jia Chang; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2008-03-01

    An imipenem-resistant isolate of Citrobacter freundii ZJ163 (MIC 256 microg ml(-1)) isolated from a Chinese hospital was investigated. The C. freundii ZJ163 isolate exhibited high-level resistance to carbapenems, penicillins, cephalosporins, cefoxitin, aztreonam, quinolones and aminoglycosides. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) demonstrated three beta-lactamases with pIs of 5.4 (TEM-1), 6.7 (KPC-2) and 7.9 (CTX-M-14). Two different transconjugants (types A and B) were obtained by conjugation studies. The type A transconjugant exhibited reduced susceptibility or resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and aztreonam, but was susceptible to carbapenems, quinolones and aminoglycosides. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the type B transconjugant were similar to that of type A, except for its significantly reduced carbapenem susceptibility (imipenem MIC 2 microg ml(-1)). IEF, specific PCRs and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the type A transconjugant produced CTX-M-14 beta-lactamase with a pI of 7.9, that the type B transconjugant produced KPC-2 beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.7 and that the beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.4 was TEM-1. PCR analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of the ampC gene in the chromosomal DNA from C. freundii ZJ163, although no activity of AmpC beta-lactamase was detected by IEF. Urea/SDS-PAGE analysis of outer-membrane proteins revealed that the levels of the 41 and 38 kDa porins were decreased in C. freundii ZJ163. It was concluded that production of KPC-2 combined with decreased expression of porins contributes to high-level resistance to carbapenems in C. freundii ZJ163.

  20. Penem derivatives: beta-lactamase stability and affinity for penicillin-binding proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Sugawara, S; Yamazaki, M

    1982-03-01

    Penem derivatives, a new group of beta-lactam antibiotics with potent activities against a wide range of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were tested for their stability against hydrolysis by beta-lactamases purified from clinical isolates of Morganella morganii. Proteus vulgaris, and Escherichia coli and by a penicillinase from Bacillus cereus. Penems having 6 alpha substituents, such as hydroxyethyl, hydroxymethyl, and ethyl groups, were very stable against hydrolysis by each of the enzymes. Penems having no 6 alpha substituents were easily hydrolyzed by P. vulgaris and E. coli enzymes, whereas they were rather stable against hydrolysis by M. morganii and B. cereus enzymes, a typical cephalosporinase and penicillinase, respectively. Affinity of the penems for E. coli penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) was also tested. beta-Lactamase-stable penems having a 6 alpha-hydroxyethyl group showed high affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 as well as for PBP-1A, -1Bs, and -2. However, the penems having no 6 alpha substituents showed a far lower affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 than that shown by the corresponding 6 alpha-hydroxyethyl penems. Among the penems tested, affinity for PBP-4, -5, and -6 was closely related to their beta-lactamase stability, as was the case among cephamycins and cephalosporins. Effects of the penems on the morphology of a strain of E. coli are also described.

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis of beta-lactamase I: role of Glu-166.

    PubMed

    Leung, Y C; Robinson, C V; Aplin, R T; Waley, S G

    1994-05-01

    Two Glu-166 mutants of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus 569/H were constructed: one with a lengthened side chain (E166Cmc, the S-carboxymethylcysteine mutant) and the other with the side chain shortened and made non-polar (E166A). Their kinetic properties were studied and compared with those of the wild-type and the E166D mutant (with a shortened side chain) previously made by Gibson, Christensen and Waley (1990) (Biochem. J. 272, 613-619). Surprisingly, with good penicillin substrates, Km, kcat. and kcat./Km of the two conservative mutants (E166Cmc and E166D) are similar to those of the non-conservative mutant E166A. Their kcat. values are 3000-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme, showing that Glu-166 is a very important residue. The acylenzyme intermediate of E166A and a good substrate, penicillin V, was trapped by acid-quench and observed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, suggesting that Glu-166 is more important in catalysing the deacylation step than the acylation step. The beta-lactamase I E166A mutant is about 200-fold more active than the Bacillus licheniformis E166A mutant with nitrocefin or 6 beta-furylacryloyl-amidopenicillanic acid as substrate. This suggested that other groups in the active site of the beta-lactamase I mutant may activate the catalytic water molecule for deacylation.

  2. Effects of site-specific mutagenesis of tyrosine 105 in a class A beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, W A; Miller, J; Fink, A L

    1994-01-01

    Tyr-105 is a conserved residue in the Class A beta-lactamases and is in close proximity to the active-site. Tyr-105 in beta-lactamase from Bacillus licheniformis was converted into Phe by site-directed mutagenesis. This mutation caused no significant effect on the structure of the enzyme and had only small effects on the catalytic properties. In particular, in comparison to the wild-type, kcat. for benzylpenicillin was increased slightly, whereas it was decreased slightly for several other substrates. For each substrate examined, Km increased 3-4-fold in the mutant compared with the wild-type enzyme. Examination of the effect of pH on the catalytic reaction revealed only small perturbations in the pK values for the acidic and basic limbs of the kcat./Km pH profiles due to the mutation. Overall effects of the Y105F substitution on the catalytic efficiency for different penicillin and cephalosporin substrates ranged from 14% to 56% compared with the wild-type activity. We conclude that Tyr-105 is not an essential residue for beta-lactamase catalysis, but does contribute to substrate binding. PMID:7980417

  3. Site-directed mutagenesis of beta-lactamase I: role of Glu-166.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Y C; Robinson, C V; Aplin, R T; Waley, S G

    1994-01-01

    Two Glu-166 mutants of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus 569/H were constructed: one with a lengthened side chain (E166Cmc, the S-carboxymethylcysteine mutant) and the other with the side chain shortened and made non-polar (E166A). Their kinetic properties were studied and compared with those of the wild-type and the E166D mutant (with a shortened side chain) previously made by Gibson, Christensen and Waley (1990) (Biochem. J. 272, 613-619). Surprisingly, with good penicillin substrates, Km, kcat. and kcat./Km of the two conservative mutants (E166Cmc and E166D) are similar to those of the non-conservative mutant E166A. Their kcat. values are 3000-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme, showing that Glu-166 is a very important residue. The acylenzyme intermediate of E166A and a good substrate, penicillin V, was trapped by acid-quench and observed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, suggesting that Glu-166 is more important in catalysing the deacylation step than the acylation step. The beta-lactamase I E166A mutant is about 200-fold more active than the Bacillus licheniformis E166A mutant with nitrocefin or 6 beta-furylacryloyl-amidopenicillanic acid as substrate. This suggested that other groups in the active site of the beta-lactamase I mutant may activate the catalytic water molecule for deacylation. PMID:7910734

  4. Structure of an extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamase from Proteus vulgaris K1.

    PubMed

    Nukaga, Michiyoshi; Mayama, Kayoko; Crichlow, Gregg V; Knox, James R

    2002-03-15

    The structure of a chromosomal extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) having the ability to hydrolyze cephalosporins including cefuroxime and ceftazidime has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.75 A resolution. The species-specific class A beta-lactamase from Proteus vulgaris K1 was crystallized at pH 6.25 and its structure solved by molecular replacement. Refinement of the model resulted in crystallographic R and R(free) of 16.9 % and 19.3 %, respectively. The folding of the K1 enzyme is broadly similar to that of non-ESBL TEM-type beta-lactamases (2 A rmsd for C(alpha)) and differs by only 0.35 A for all atoms of six conserved residues in the catalytic site. Other residues promoting extended-spectrum activity in K1 include the side-chains of atypical residues Ser237 and Lys276. These side-chains are linked by two water molecules, one of which lies in the position normally filled by the guanidinium group of Arg244, present in most non-ESBL enzymes but absent from K1. The ammonium group of Lys276, ca 3.5 A from the virtual Arg244 guanidinium position, may interact with polar R2 substitutents on the dihydrothiazene ring of cephalosporins.

  5. Differences in the antibiotic susceptibility of human Escherichia coli with poultry-associated and non-poultry-associated extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Platteel, T N; Leverstein-Van Hall, M A; Cohen Stuart, J W; Voets, G M; van den Munckhof, M P; Scharringa, J; van de Sande, N; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M

    2013-08-01

    The concurrent presence of bla CTX-M-1 and bla TEM-52 genes on similar plasmids of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, chicken meat and humans supports the occurrence of food-borne transmission of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes. ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-E. coli) are most frequently detected in hospitalised patients and are known to spread in healthcare settings. We hypothesised that poultry-associated (PA) ESBL genes are predominant in the community, where acquisition is fuelled by food contamination, whereas non-PA ESBL genes are predominant in hospitals, with acquisition fuelled by cross-transmission. Then, differences in antimicrobial selective pressure in hospitals and poultry would create differences in co-resistance between PA and non-PA ESBL-E. coli. We, therefore, determined the prevalence and co-resistance of PA and non-PA ESBL-E. coli in community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections in humans and bla CTX-M-1 and bla TEM-52 isolates from poultry. A total of 134 human ESBL-E. coli urine isolates were included in this study. Isolates containing bla CTX-M-1 or bla TEM-52 were considered to be PA, with the remainder being non-PA. Also, 72 poultry ESBL-E. coli were included. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by broth microdilution. The prevalence of PA ESBL genes in isolates obtained in general practice and hospitals was 28 % versus 30 % (n.s.). Human PA ESBL-E. coli were more frequently susceptible to ciprofloxacin (51 % vs. 25 %; p = 0.0056), gentamicin (86 % vs. 63 %; p = .0.0082), tobramycin (91 % vs. 34 %; p = 0.0001) and amikacin (98 % vs. 67 %; p = 0.0001) compared to human non-PA ESBL-E. coli. PA ESBL-E. coli are not more prevalent in community acquired than nosocomial urine samples, but are more often susceptible to ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides than non-PA ESBL-E. coli. This does not support the existence of different reservoirs of ESBL genes.

  6. An Ultrahigh Resolution Structure of TEM-1 beta-Lactamase Suggests a Role for Glu166 as the General Base in Acylation

    SciTech Connect

    Minasov, George; Wang, Xiaojun; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Although TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is among the best studied enzymes, its acylation mechanism remains controversial. To investigate this problem, the structure of TEM-1 in complex with an acylation transition-state analogue was determined at ultrahigh resolution (0.85 {angstrom}) by X-ray crystallography. The quality of the data was such as to allow for refinement to an R-factor of 9.1% and an R{sub free} of 11.2%. In the resulting structure, the electron density features were clear enough to differentiate between single and double bonds in carboxylate groups, to identify multiple conformations that are occupied by residues and loops, and to assign 70% of the protons in the protein. Unexpectedly, even at pH 8.0 where the protein was crystallized, the active site residue Glu166 is clearly protonated. This supports the hypothesis that Glu166 is the general base in the acylation half of the reaction cycle. This structure suggests that Glu166 acts through the catalytic water to activate Ser70 for nucleophilic attack on the {beta}-lactam ring of the substrate. The hydrolytic mechanism of class A {beta}-lactamases, such as TEM-1, appears to be symmetrical, as are the serine proteases. Apart from its mechanistic implications, this atomic resolution structure affords an unusually detailed view of the structure, dynamics, and hydrogen-bonding networks of TEM-1, which may be useful for the design of inhibitors against this key antibiotic resistance target.

  7. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Ethiopian children

    PubMed Central

    Legese, Melese Hailu; Weldearegay, Gebru Mulugeta; Asrat, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging problem in children nowadays. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among children suspected of septicemia and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2014. A total of 322 study participants suspected of septicemia and UTIs were recruited. All blood and urine samples were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar. All positive cultures were characterized by colony morphology, Gram stain, and standard biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on Muller-Hinton agar using disk diffusion. ESBL was detected using combination disk and double-disk synergy methods, and the results were compared. Carbapenemase was detected by modified Hodge method using meropenem. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results The overall prevalence of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 78.57% (n=22/28) and 12.12%, respectively. Among the Enterobacteriaceae tested, Klebsiella pneumoniae (84.2%, n=16/19), Escherichia coli (100%, n=5/5), and Klebsiella oxytoca (100%, n=1/1) were positive for ESBL. Double-disk synergy method showed 90.9% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, 95.2% positive predictive value, and 50% negative predictive value. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were K. pneumoniae (9.09%, n=3/33) and Morganella morganii (3.03%, n=1/33). Conclusion Screening Enterobacteriaceae for ESBL production is essential for better antibiotics selection and preventing its further emergence and spread. In resource-limited settings, double-disk synergy method can be implemented for screening and confirming ESBL production. Moreover, occurrence of CRE in countries where no carbapenems are sold is worrying microbiologists as well as clinicians. Hence, identifying factors that induce

  8. Altering enzymatic activity: recruitment of carboxypeptidase activity into an RTEM beta-lactamase/penicillin-binding protein 5 chimera.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y H; Labgold, M R; Richards, J H

    1990-04-01

    The D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidases/transpeptidases (penicillin-binding proteins, PBPs) share considerable structural homology with class A beta-lactamases (EC 3.5.2.6), although these beta-lactamases have no observable D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase activity. With the objective of recruiting such activity into a beta-lactamase background, we have prepared a chimeric protein by inserting a 28-amino acid segment of PBP-5 of Escherichia coli in place of the corresponding region of the RTEM-1 beta-lactamase. The segment thus inserted encompasses two residues conserved in both families: Ser-70, which forms the acyl-enzyme intermediate during beta-lactam hydrolysis, and Lys-73, whose presence has been shown to be necessary for catalysis. This chimera involves changes of 18 residues and gives a protein that differs at 7% of the residues from the parent. Whereas RTEM beta-lactamase has no D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase activity, that of the chimera is significant and is, in fact, about 1% the activity of PBP-5 on diacetyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala; in terms of free energy of activation, the chimera stabilizes the transition state for the reaction to within about 2.7 kcal/mol of the stabilization achieved by PBP-5. Furthermore, the chimera catalyzes hydrolysis exclusively at the carboxyl-terminal amide bond which is the site of cleavage by D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase. Though containing all those residues that are conserved throughout class A beta-lactamases and are thought to be essential for beta-lactamase activity, the chimera has considerably reduced activity (approximately 10(-5) on penams such as penicillins and ampicillins as substrates. As a catalyst, the chimera shows an induction period of approximately 30 min, reflecting a slow conformational rearrangement from an inactive precursor to the active enzyme.

  9. Susceptibility patterns for amoxicillin/clavulanate tests mimicking the licensed formulations and pharmacokinetic relationships: do the MIC obtained with 2:1 ratio testing accurately reflect activity against beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis?

    PubMed

    Pottumarthy, Sudha; Sader, Helio S; Fritsche, Thomas R; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-11-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate has recently undergone formulation changes (XR and ES-600) that represent 14:1 and 16:1 ratios of amoxicillin/clavulanate. These ratios greatly differ from the 2:1 ratio used in initial formulations and in vitro susceptibility testing. The objective of this study was to determine if the reference method using a 2:1 ratio accurately reflects the susceptibility to the various clinically used amoxicillin/clavulanate formulations and their respective serum concentration ratios. A collection of 330 Haemophilus influenzae strains (300 beta-lactamase-positive and 30 beta-lactamase-negative) and 40 Moraxella catarrhalis strains (30 beta-lactamase-positive and 10 beta-lactamase-negative) were tested by the broth microdilution method against eight amoxicillin/clavulanate combinations (4:1, 5:1, 7:1, 9:1, 14:1, and 16:1 ratios; 0.5 and 2 microg/mL fixed clavulanate concentrations) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were compared with those obtained with the reference 2:1 ratio testing. For the beta-lactamase-negative strains of both genera, there was no demonstrable change in the MIC values obtained for all ratios analyzed (2:1 to 16:1). For the beta-lactamase-positive strains of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, at ratios >or=4:1 there was a shift in the central tendency of the MIC scatterplot compared with the results of testing 2:1 ratio. As a result, there was a 2-fold dilution increase in the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values, most evident for H. influenzae and BRO-1-producing M. catarrhalis strains. For beta-lactamase-positive strains of H. influenzae, the shift resulted in a change in the interpretive result for 3 isolates (1.0%) from susceptible using the reference method (2:1 ratio) to resistant (8/4 microg/mL; very major error) at the 16:1 ratio. In addition, the number of isolates with MIC values at or 1 dilution lower than the breakpoint (4/2 microg/mL) increased from 5% at 2:1 ratio to 32-33% for ratios 14:1 and 16:1. Our

  10. Control of a prolonged outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Lucet, J C; Decré, D; Fichelle, A; Joly-Guillou, M L; Pernet, M; Deblangy, C; Kosmann, M J; Régnier, B

    1999-12-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) were isolated from clinical specimens from 130 to 140 patients/year in 1989-1991 in our hospital. In February 1992, a control program was initiated: screening tests in 3 intensive care units (ICUs) and contact-isolation precautions in all units. The septic surgical unit served as an isolation ward for surgical patients from whom ESBLPE was isolated. In 1992, the incidence of ESBLPE acquisition failed to decrease, and most acquisitions occurred in 3 ICUs. Critical evaluation of implementation of isolation procedures in these ICUs prompted corrective measures for barrier precautions. The incidence of acquired cases subsequently decreased, and a second evaluation determined that these measures had been correctly applied. The incidence of acquired cases in the septic surgical unit was lower than those in the other units. Decreases were also found in the incidence of acquisition of other hand-transmitted multidrug-resistant organisms. Barrier precautions, screening tests for ICU patients, and grouping of cohorts after ICU discharge are effective in controlling the spread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms by cross-contamination. The outbreak was effectively controlled without restricting antimicrobial use.

  11. Characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and pAmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae of water samples in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Leila; Jouini, Ahlem; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-04-15

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Eb and pAmpC-Eb, respectively) was analyzed in 57 wastewater and 57 surface-water samples in Tunisia. Twenty-four of the 57 wastewater samples (42.1%) and one of the 57 surface-water samples (1.7%, a river that received effluents of a wastewater-treatment-plant) contained ESBL-Eb or pAmpC-Eb; one ESBL/pAmpC-Eb per positive sample was further characterized. Beta-lactamase genes detected were as follows: blaCTX-M-1 (10 Escherichia coli),blaCTX-M-15 (eight E. coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Citrobacter freundii), blaCTX-M-14 (one E. coli) and blaCMY-2 (four E. coli). The blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1 or blaSHV-1 genes were also found in 72% of these isolates. The ISEcp1, orf477 or IS903 sequences were found upstream or downstream of blaCTX-M genes. Class 1 integrons were present in 16 of the 25 ESBL-Eb/pAmpC-Eb strains (64%), and contained five different gene-cassette arrays. Most of the strains (76%) showed a multiresistant phenotype and qnr genes were identified in four strains. Molecular typing of ESBL/CMY-2-producing E. coli isolates showed 23 different PFGE-patterns and 15 different sequence-types (ST10, ST46, ST48, ST58, ST69, ST101, ST117, ST131, ST141, ST288, ST359, ST399, ST405, ST617, and the new ST4530); these strains were ascribed to phylogroups A (11 isolates), B1 (3 isolates), D (6 isolates) and B2 (3 isolates). From one to five plasmids were detected in each strain (size from 30kb to >240kb) and ESBL or pAmpC genes were transferred by conjugation in 69.5% of the E. coli strains. In conclusion, ESBL-Eb and pAmpC-Eb strains are frequently detected in wastewater samples and they might be a source for dissemination in other environments with repercussion in public health.

  12. Characterization of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Involved in Maternal-Fetal Colonization: Prevalence of E. coli ST131

    PubMed Central

    Birgy, André; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bidet, Philippe; Doit, Catherine; Genel, Nathalie; Courroux, Céline; Bingen, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Maternal-fetal Escherichia coli infections, such as neonatal bacteremia and meningitis, are important causes of morbidity and mortality. From 2006 to 2010, we studied newborns and their mothers who were colonized with E. coli in a French hospital in order to document (i) the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains, (ii) the prevalence of associated virulence genes, (iii) the prevalence of clone sequence type 131 (ST131), and (iv) the genetic relationship among ESBL-producing strains. Among the 2,755 E. coli cultures recovered from vaginal or neonatal samples, 68 were ESBL producers (2.46%). We found a wide diversity of ESBL genes, with the majority being blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-15, distributed among the 4 main phylogenetic groups. Genes encoding virulence factors were found in 90.7% of the isolates, with ≥2 virulence genes present in 76% of cases. The prevalence of ST131 among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was 9.4% (6/64). Five of these 6 ST131 isolates possessed blaCTX-M-15 enzymes (and also were resistant to quinolones), and one possessed blaCTX-M-2 enzymes. Two possessed virulence genes, suggesting the presence of pathogenicity island IIJ96 (PAI IIJ96)-like domains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a high level of genomic diversity overall, except for 3 closely related isolates belonging to clonal group ST131. Repetitive PCR showed that the six ST131 isolates were closely related to ST131 control strains (>95% similarity). This study shows a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli strains and clonal group ST131 in the French maternal-fetal population. These results suggest a widespread distribution of ESBL enzymes in the community and highlight the early transmission between mothers and neonates. These findings are worrisome, especially for this particularly vulnerable population. PMID:23515552

  13. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates from Colombian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Miranda, Maria Consuelo; Zuluaga, Tania; Quinn, John P

    2004-07-01

    Gram-negative pathogens harboring extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are widely prevalent in Latin America, but little is known about their prevalence in Colombia. A network of 8 tertiary care hospitals in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, was formed in January 2002 to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. We characterized and established the molecular epidemiology of ESBLs from these hospitals. Data from 1074 E. coli and 394 K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from hospital laboratories during 6 months. Isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins or aztreonam were sent to a central laboratory. The prevalence of strains with this phenotype was 32.6% in K. pneumoniae and 11.8% in E. coli from the intensive care units, with slightly lower percentages from wards. Although TEM and SHV enzymes were present, the dominant class was CTX-M. Molecular typing of chromosomal DNA showed that most strains were not clonal.

  14. Molecular characterization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella spp. in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Li, B; Ni, Y; Sun, J

    2015-03-01

    Shigellosis is a public health concern in China. We tested 216 Shigella isolates collected in Shanghai in 2007 for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBL-producing isolates were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping, conjugation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and DNA sequence analysis of regions adjacent to bla genes. Plasmids containing genes encoding ESBLs were analyzed using plasmid replicon typing. ESBLs were produced by 18.1 % (39/216) of Shigella isolates, and all 39 ESBL-producing strains harbored bla CTX-M genes. CTX-M-14 was the most frequent variant (69.2 %, 27/39), followed by CTX-M-15 (15.4 %, 6/39). All bla CTX-M genes were transferable by conjugation, and the insertion sequence ISEcp1 was detected upstream of all bla CTX-M genes. The CTX-M-producing Shigella isolates showed high clonal diversity. IncI1, IncFII, IncN, and IncB/O replicons were respectively detected in 23 (58.9 %), 9 (23.1 %), 1 (2.6 %), and 1 (2.6 %) of the 39 transconjugants carrying bla CTX-M. The bla CTX-M-14 genes were most frequently carried by IncI1 (n = 13, 48.1 %) or IncFII (n = 9, 33.3 %) plasmids, and the bla CTX-M-15 genes were closely associated with IncI1 (n = 5, 83.3 %). Our findings demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Shigella in Shanghai, the importance of plasmids and ISEcp1 as carriers of bla CTX-M genes, and the close association between certain bla CTX-M genes with a specific plasmid.

  15. Penicillanic acid sulfone: nature of irreversible inactivation of RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D G; Knowles, J R

    1984-11-20

    When penicillanic acid sulfone in large molar excess is incubated with the RTEM beta-lactamase, the enzyme becomes inactivated irreversibly. From studies of the consequential spectroscopic changes, from the use of specifically tritiated penicillanic acid sulfone, and from comparison by isoelectric focusing of the enzyme after inactivation by the sulfone and by clavulanic acid, the inactivated enzyme appears to be cross-linked by a beta-aminoacrylate fragment deriving from C-5, C-6, and C-7 of the original beta-lactam. Model studies on the behavior of alcoholic solutions of penicillanic acid sulfone in the presence of amines are entirely consistent with this interpretation.

  16. beta-Lactamase proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Interaction of the Escherichia coli RTEM enzyme with cefoxitin.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Belasco, J G; Khosla, S; Knowles, J R

    1980-06-24

    The use of cefoxitin, a poor substrate of the RTEM beta-lactamase, has allowed the kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The rate of reappearance of catalytic activity in an enzyme sample diluted from an incubation with cefoxitin is nearly identical with the observed Kcat. Burst kinetics are observed with this substrate, consistent with the rate-limiting deacylation of the cefoxitinoyl-enzyme. That the reaction intermediate involves a covalent link between enzyme and substrate was shown by gel filtration after rapid denaturation of an enzyme-[14C]cefoxitin reaction at the steady state. Fourier transform infrared measurements indicate that the intermediate is an acyl-enzyme involving a hydroxyl group of the beta-lactamase. The evident relationship between the acylation-deacylation sequence of the beta-lactamases and the acylation reaction suffered by the D-Ala-D-Ala-carboxypeptidases is discussed.

  17. High Prevalence of Escherichia coli-Producing CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Poultry and Human Clinical Isolates in Romania.

    PubMed

    Maciuca, Iuliana E; Williams, Nicola J; Tuchilus, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Guguianu, Eleonora; Carp-Carare, Catalin; Rimbu, Cristina; Timofte, Dorina

    2015-12-01

    Use of antibiotics in food animals may contribute to development and spread of resistant organisms, particularly so in some countries. The aim of this study was two-fold; first, to establish the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in chicken production in a region within Romania. Second, to study the relatedness of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from broilers, abattoir workers where the chickens were slaughtered and from the human clinical specimens from two regional hospitals. The results indicated a very high (69%) rate of carriage of ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli in chickens with 36% CTX-M producers. Sequencing showed that chickens in Romania have the highest worldwide prevalence (53%) of blaCTX-M-15 reported in poultry E. coli isolates. The majority (53%) of the extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli carried plasmid-mediated blaampC genes, mostly blaCMY-2 type, one of the highest prevalences reported in Europe. The predominant CTX-M type found in the human clinical E. coli isolates was blaCTX-M-15 and most isolates coharbored blaOXA-1, blaTEM, and aac(6')-ib-cr. The majority (60%) of the human clinical isolates belonged to the pandemic virulent clone B2-ST131. The clonal relationship between broiler and the human CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates was assessed by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which indicated strain diversity with no common STs found between human and poultry isolates. Moreover, IncI1 was the most prevalent replicon found in broiler ESBL-producing E. coli isolates and also in transconjugants, indicating that plasmids and not clonal spread may play a role in the transfer of blaCTX-M genes. This study identifies a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli from broiler chickens in Romania with a high occurrence incidence of blaCTX-M-15, which reflects the main ESBL type found in human E. coli infections in this

  18. Cefotaxime-resistant Citrobacter freundii in isolates from blood in a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Pan; Weng, Li-Chuan; Tseng, Hsiang-Kuang; Wang, Nai-Yu; Lee, Chun-Ming

    2007-10-01

    From January 2002 to December 2003, 12 patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in northern Taiwan had bloodstream infections caused by Citrobacter freundii. Seven of the 12 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. Using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, 3 of the 7 cefotaxime-resistant C. freundii isolates were found to carry extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). AmpC beta-lactamase genes were also detected in all strains of C. freundii. All strains of C. freundii with MICs >or=4 mg/L for cefepime were positive for ESBL. Rather than performing PCR on all cefotaxime-resistant C. freundii isolates, assessment of the MIC for cefepime might be a practical way to choose between treatment with cefepime or with carbapenems.

  19. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential pathogens is inhibited (MIC90). A previous study showed that most hospitalized COPD patients had sputum amoxicillin concentrations beta-lactamase activity in the lungs. This study investigated whether patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations beta-lactamase activity in sputum than patients with a concentration ≥MIC90. Methods In total, 23 patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were included. Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum. Results We found no difference in beta-lactamase activity between patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations beta-lactamase activity and sputum amoxicillin concentrations beta-lactamase activity did not differ between those with sputum amoxicillin concentrations

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase complexed with cephalothin.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas; Merz, Kenneth M; Sordo, Tomás L

    2005-02-10

    Herein, we present theoretical results aimed at elucidating the origin of the kinetic preference for penicillins over cephalosporins characteristic of the TEM/SHV subgroup of class A beta-lactamases. First, we study the conformational properties of cephalothin showing that the C2-down conformer of the dihydrothiazine ring is preferred over the C2-up one by approximately 2 kcal/mol in solution (0.4-1.4 kcal/mol in the gas phase). Second, the TEM-1 beta-lactamase complexed with cephalothin is investigated by carrying out a molecular dynamics simulation. The DeltaG(binding) energy is then estimated using molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) and quantum chemical PBSA (QM-PBSA) computational schemes. The preferential binding of benzylpenicillin over cephalothin is reproduced by the different energetic calculations, which predict relative DeltaDeltaG(binding) energies ranging from 1.8 to 5.7 kcal/mol. The benzylpenicillin/cephalothin DeltaDeltaG(binding) energy is most likely due to the lower efficacy of cephalosporins than that of penicillins in order to simultaneously bind the "carboxylate pocket" and the "oxyanion hole" in the TEM-1 active site.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of the epidemic multiresistant Escherichia coli ST131 clonal group among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Bente; Hansen, Dennis S; Nilsson, Frida; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Leihof, Rikke Fleron; Struve, Carsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Johnston, Brian; Krogfelt, Karen A; Johnson, James R

    2013-06-01

    We report the characteristics of 115 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates, from 115 unique Danish patients, over a 1-year study interval (1 October 2008 to 30 September 2009). Forty-four (38%) of the ESBL isolates represented sequence type 131 (ST13)1, from phylogenetic group B2. The remaining 71 isolates were from phylogenetic groups D (27%), A (22%), B1 (10%), and B2 (3%). Serogroup O25 ST131 isolates (n = 42; 95% of ST131) comprised 7 different K antigens, whereas two ST131 isolates were O16:K100:H5. Compared to non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates were associated positively with CTX-M-15 and negatively with CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-14. They also were associated positively with 11 virulence genes, including afa and dra (Dr family adhesins), the F10 papA allele (P fimbria variant), fimH (type 1 fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin receptor), iha (adhesin siderophore), iutA (aerobactin receptor), kpsM II (group 2 capsules), malX (pathogenicity island marker), ompT (outer membrane protease), sat (secreted autotransporter toxin), and usp (uropathogenicity-specific protein) and negatively with hra (heat-resistant agglutinin) and iroN (salmochelin receptor). The consensus virulence gene profile (>90% prevalence) of the ST131 isolates included fimH, fyuA, malX, and usp (100% each), ompT and the F10 papA allele (95% each), and kpsM II and iutA (93% each). ST131 isolates were also positively associated with community acquisition, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) status, and the O25, K100, and H4 antigens. Thus, among ESBL E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, ST131 was the most prevalent clonal group, was community associated, and exhibited distinctive and comparatively extensive virulence profiles, plus a greater variety of capsular antigens than reported previously.

  2. In vitro Effectiveness of Commercial Bacteriophage Cocktails on Diverse Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gundogdu, Aycan; Bolkvadze, Darajen; Kilic, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Georgian bacteriophage cocktails on multidrug resistant (MDR) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolated from patients’ blood and urine cultures. A total of 615 E. coli isolates were included in this study. Phene Plate (PhP)-typing and phylogenetic grouping were used for the typing. Antimicrobial resistance profiles and ESBL production of all isolates were confirmed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. The activities of four bacteriophage cocktails (Enko-phage, SES-bacteriophage, Pyo-bacteriophage, and Intesti-bacteriophage) were determined against 142 ESBL-EC using in vitro spot tests. According to this, Enko-phage were active against 87.3% of the tested strains while that ratio was 81.7% for Intesti-bacteriophage, 81.7% for Pyo-bacteriophage, and 59.2% for SES-bacteriophage cocktails. Based on the contingency tests, the phage cocktails were observed to be statistically significantly (p < 0.001) more effective on ESBL-EC strains belonging to phylogenetic groups D and B2. The employed phage cocktails were found to be affective against all tested resistant types. These results are promising especially for the infections that are caused by MDR pathogens that are difficult to treat. As this is a preliminary step to the potential clinical trials to be designed for the country, in vitro confirmation of their success on a MDR ESBL-EC collection should be accepted as an initial action, which is encouraging to consider clinical trials of phage therapy especially in countries which are not introduce phage therapy. PMID:27857711

  3. [Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams of gram-negative microorganisms--causative agents of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Krapivina, I V; Galeeva, E V; Veshutova, N S; Ivanov, D V; Sidorenko, S V

    2007-01-01

    Profiles and mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics of isolates of Gram-negative microorganisms, which are causative agents of infections in Intensive Care Unit of hospital surgery department, were studied. Two hundred and ten clinical isolates were studied: Pseudomonas aeruginosa--86 strains (40.9%), Acinetobacter baummanii--45 strains (21.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae--52 strains (24.8%), Escherichia coli--23 strains (11%), Enterobacter spp.--4 strains (1.9%). Profiles of antibiotic resistance were studied by the method of serial microdilutions; detection of most widespread and clinically significant genes of beta-lactamases of Gram-negative bacteria was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Carbapenems and cefoperazone/sulbactam were the most active antibiotics. Local features of distribution of beta-lactamase coding genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) in K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were revealed. Eleven strains of P. aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems and possessing genetic determinants of VIM-group, which codes metallo-beta-lactamases, were isolated. Obtained data allows to assess the parameters of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and to reveal the main mechanisms of such resistance in etiologic agents of nosocomial infections, that, in its turn, allows to choose preparations for etiotropic therapy.

  4. Chemical modification of the RTEM-1 thiol beta-lactamase by thiol-selective reagents: evidence for activation of the primary nucleophile of the beta-lactamase active site by adjacent functional groups.

    PubMed

    Knap, A K; Pratt, R F

    1989-01-01

    The RTEM-1 thiol beta-lactamase (Sigal, I.S., Harwood, B.G., Arentzen, R., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:7157-7160, 1982) is inactivated by thiol-selective reagents such as iodoacetamide, methyl methanethiosulfonate, and 4,4'-dipyridyldisulfide, which modify the active site thiol group. The pH-rate profiles of these inactivation reactions show that there are two nucleophilic forms of the enzyme, EH2 and EH, both of which, by analogy with the situation with cysteine proteinases, probably contain the active site nucleophile in the thiolate form. The pKa of the active site thiol is therefore shown by the data to be below 4.0. This low pKa is thought to reflect the presence of adjacent functionality which stabilizes the thiolate anion. The low nucleophilicity of the thiolate in both EH2 and EH, with respect to that of cysteine proteinases and model compounds, suggests that the thiolate of the thiol beta-lactamase is stabilized by two hydrogen-bond donors. One of these, of pKa greater than 9.0, is suggested to be the conserved and essential Lys-73 ammonium group, while the identity of the other group, of pKa around 6.7, is less clear, but may be the conserved Glu-166 carboxylic acid. beta-Lactamase activity is associated with the EH2 form, and thus the beta-lactamase active site is proposed to contain one basic or nucleophilic group (the thiolate in the thiol beta-lactamase) and two acidic (hydrogen-bond donor) groups (one of which is likely to be the above-mentioned lysine ammonium group).

  5. Fulminant mediastinitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: atypical presentation and spreading following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Horacio; Carrascal, Yolanda; Maroto, Laura; Arce, Nuria

    2013-05-01

    Mediastinitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, related to thoracic wall contamination after cardiac surgery, has rarely been described. We aim to report a case of fulminant mediastinitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae, secondary to a disseminated concomitant pulmonary infection. The patient remained pauci-symptomatic until clinical manifestations of sepsis acutely appeared.

  6. Detection of Citrobacter koseri carrying beta-lactamase KPC-2 in a hospitalised patient, Greece, July 2011.

    PubMed

    Mavroidi, A; Neonakis, I; Liakopoulos, A; Papaioannou, A; Ntala, M; Tryposkiadis, F; Miriagou, V; Petinaki, E

    2011-10-13

    This report describes the detection of Citrobacter koseri carrying K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-2) isolated in July 2011 from a Greek patient, who was also colonised by a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain coproducing KPC-2 and Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM)-1.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of inactivation of the RTEM-2 beta-lactamase by phenylpropynal. Identification of the characteristic chromophore.

    PubMed

    Grace, M E; Schenkein, D P; Pratt, R F

    1987-12-15

    beta-Lactamases of all three classes, A, B, and C, are inactivated by phenylpropynal and p-nitrophenylpropynal. The inactivation of RTEM-2 beta-lactamase and of Bacillus cereus beta-lactamase I is accelerated in the presence of A type substrates such as dicloxacillin, quinacillin, and cefoxitin, which are thought to expand or loosen the conformation of these enzymes. In the presence and absence of cefoxitin the inactivation of the RTEM-2 beta-lactamase is first and second order, respectively, in phenylpropynal concentration. The additional phenylpropynal molecule in the latter case may serve the same function as cefoxitin, viz. catalyze access to sensitive functional groups. Correlation of the loss of activity of the RTEM-2 enzyme with the extent of modification suggests that the modification of any one of about four kinetically equivalent groups leads to inactivation. Modification of all of the above mentioned enzymes leads to formation of a characteristic chromophore of unusual stability to nucleophiles, which absorbs maximally between 315 and 320 nm. A consideration of the properties of model compounds demonstrated that the protein-bound chromophore is that of a 1-phenyl-3-imino-1-propen-1-ammonium ion (Formula: see text), formed by reaction of phenylpropynal with two enzymic amine groups, and thus cross-linking the enzyme intramolecularly. Phenylpropynal may be a convenient general reagent for rapid and stable intramolecular cross-linking of proteins through lysine.

  8. Beta-lactamases as fully efficient enzymes. Determination of all the rate constants in the acyl-enzyme mechanism.

    PubMed

    Christensen, H; Martin, M T; Waley, S G

    1990-03-15

    The rate constants for both acylation and deacylation of beta-lactamase PC1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli were determined by the acid-quench method [Martin & Waley (1988) Biochem. J. 254, 923-925] with several good substrates, and, for a wider range of substrates, of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus. The values of the acylation and deacylation rate constants for benzylpenicillin were approximately the same (i.e. differing by no more than 2-fold) for each enzyme. The variation of kcat./Km for benzylpenicillin with the viscosity of the medium was used to obtain values for all four rate constants in the acyl-enzyme mechanism for all three enzymes. The reaction is partly diffusion-controlled, and the rate constant for the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex has approximately the same value as the rate constants for acylation and deacylation. Thus all three first-order rate constants have comparable values. Here there is no single rate-determining step for beta-lactamase action. This is taken to be a sign of a fully efficient enzyme.

  9. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 μg/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 μg/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:  The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient.

  10. Susceptibility Pattern and Distribution of Oxacillinases and blaPER-1 Genes among Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Teaching Hospital in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri Josheghani, Sareh; Moniri, Rezvan; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Sehat, Mojtaba; Dasteh Goli, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an important nosocomial pathogen in healthcare institutions. β-Lactamase-mediated resistance is the most common mechanism for carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, to detect OXA encoding genes, class A, blaPER-1, and to detect the presence of ISAba1. A total of 124 A. baumannii isolates were collected from hospitalized patients in a teaching hospital in Kashan, Iran. The susceptibility of isolates to different antibiotics was determined by disk-diffusion method. PCR was used to detect blaPER-1, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, and ISAba1 genes. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime. All of the isolates revealed susceptibility to polymyxin B and colistin. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were extensive drug resistance (XDR), 5.6% extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), and 54.8% metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL). All isolates were positive for blaOXA-51 and ISAba1. blaOXA-23,  blaOXA-24, and blaOXA-58 were found in 79.8%, 25%, and 3.2%, respectively. The frequency rate of blaPER-1 gene was 52.4%. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii isolates are increasing in our setting and extensively limit therapeutic options. The high rate presence of class D carbapenemase-encoding genes, mainly blaOXA-23 carbapenemases, is worrying and alarming as an emerging threat in our hospital. PMID:26881082

  11. Folding and aggregation of TEM beta-lactamase: analogies with the formation of inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, G.; Valax, P.; Ostermeier, M.; Horowitz, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    The enzyme TEM beta-lactamase has been used as a model for understanding the pathway leading to formation of inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The equilibrium denaturation of TEM beta-lactamase revealed that an intermediate that has lost enzymatic activity, native protein fluorescence, and UV absorption, but retains 60% of the native circular dichroism signal, becomes populated at intermediate (1.0-1.4 M) concentrations of guanidium chloride (GdmCl). This species exhibits a large increase in bis-1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid fluorescence, indicating the presence of exposed hydrophobic surfaces. When TEM beta-lactamase was unfolded in different initial concentrations of GdmCl and refolded to the same final conditions by dialysis a distinct minimum in the yield of active protein was observed for initial concentrations of GdmCl in the 1.0-1.5 M range. It was shown that the lower reactivation yield was solely due to the formation of noncovalently linked aggregates. We propose that the aggregation of TEM beta-lactamase involves the association of a compact state having partially exposed hydrophobic surfaces. This hypothesis is consistent with our recent findings that TEM beta-lactamase inclusion bodies contains extensive secondary structure (Przybycien TM, Dunn JP, Valax P, Georgiou G, 1994, Protein Eng 7:131-136). Finally, we have also shown that protein aggregation was enhanced at higher temperatures and in the presence of 5 mM dithiothreitol and was inhibited by the addition of sucrose. These conditions exert a similar effect on the formation of inclusion bodies in vivo. PMID:7703842

  12. Transfer of a gonococcal beta-lactamase plasmid to conjugation-deficient Neisseria cinerea strains by transformation.

    PubMed

    Genco, C A; Clark, V L

    1988-12-01

    We have previously shown that some strains of Neisseria cinerea can serve as recipients in conjugation (Con+) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae while others cannot (Con-). To determine if a replication defect contributes to the inability of certain strains of N. cinerea to serve as recipients in conjugation, we attempted to introduce a naturally occurring gonococcal beta-lactamase plasmid into N. cinerea by transformation. Various methods were employed, and all proved unsuccessful. Since specific sequences are required for DNA uptake in transformation of N. gonorrhoeae, we constructed a number of hybrid plasmids containing N. cinerea chromosomal DNA inserted into the N. gonorrhoeae/Escherichia coli beta-lactamase shuttle vector, pLES2. When nine randomly selected plasmids with inserts were used to transform an N. cinerea strain which did not accept the gonococcal beta-lactamase plasmid by conjugation, transformants were observed with four of the hybrid plasmids. The presence of one of the hybrid plasmids, pCAG9, in transformants was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern hybridization, and beta-lactamase production. When an N. gonorrhoeae donor strain containing pCAG9 was used in conjugation with several N. cinerea strains, only those strains that were previously shown to act as recipients could accept and maintain pCAG9. The ability of pCAG9 and the other three hybrid plasmids to transform Con- strains demonstrates that the beta-lactamase plasmid can replicate in Con- strains, and, therefore, the Con- phenotype is due to a block in some other stage of the conjugation process.

  13. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Producing E. coli in Wildlife, yet Another Form of Environmental Pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife is normally not exposed to clinically used antimicrobial agents but can acquire antimicrobial resistant bacteria through contact with humans, domesticated animals and the environment, where water polluted with feces seems to be the most important vector. Escherichia coli, an ubiquitous commensal bacterial species colonizing the intestinal tract of mammals and birds, is also found in the environment. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing E. coli (ESBL-E. coli) represent a major problem in human and veterinary medicine, particular in nosocomial infections. Additionally an onset of community-acquired ESBL-E. coli infections and an emergence in livestock farming has been observed in recent years, suggesting a successful transmission as well as persistence of ESBL-E. coli strains outside clinical settings. Another parallel worldwide phenomenon is the spread of ESBL-E. coli into the environment beyond human and domesticated animal populations, and this seems to be directly influenced by antibiotic practice. This might be a collateral consequence of the community-onset of ESBL-E. coli infections but can result (a) in a subsequent colonization of wild animal populations which can turn into an infectious source or even a reservoir of ESBL-E. coli, (b) in a contribution of wildlife to the spread and transmission of ESBL-E. coli into fragile environmental niches, (c) in new putative infection cycles between wildlife, domesticated animals and humans, and (d) in problems in the medical treatment of wildlife. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on ESBL-E. coli in wildlife, in turn underlining the need for more large scale investigations, in particular sentinel studies to monitor the impact of multiresistant bacteria on wildlife. PMID:22203818

  14. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in long-term-care facilities.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Jarlier, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Although the first reports on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) appeared 10 years ago, there are still scanty data on this topic. A long-term survey starting in 1993 by the microbial laboratories of the Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris and covering 21,000 beds, 7000 of them in LTCFs, indicated that the incidence of ESBL-producing isolates/1000 hospitalisation days in LTCFs increased from 0.07 in 1996 to 0.28 in 2005. Escherichia coli accounted for 80% of ESBL-positive isolates in 2005, whereas it accounted for <45% in 2001. This rise in E. coli with ESBLs reflected clonal spread, as found elsewhere, with CTX-M types now the predominant enzyme types.

  15. Kinetic studies on the inactivation of Escherichia coli RTEM beta-lactamase by clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Charnas, R L; Knowles, J R

    1978-05-30

    The kinetic details of the irreversible inactivation of the Escherichia coli RTEM beta-lactamase by clavulanic acid have been elucidated. Clavulanate is destroyed by the enzyme and simultaneously inhibits it by producing two catalytically inactive forms. One of these is transiently stable and decomposes to free enzyme (k = 3.8 X 10(-3) S-1), while the other corresponds to an irreversibly inactivated form. The transient complex is formed from the Michaelis complex at a rate (k approximately 3 X 10(-2) S-1) which is some threefold faster than the rate of formation of the irreversibly inactivated complex. The transient complex is, therefore, the principle enzyme form present after short time periods. In the presence of excess clavulanate, however, all the enzyme accumulates into the irreversibly inactivated form. The number of clavulanate turnovers that occur prior to complete enzyme inactivation is 115.

  16. Chemical studies on the inactivation of Escherichia coli RTEM beta-lactamase by clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Charnas, R L; Fisher, J; Knowles, J R

    1978-05-30

    Incubation of clavulanic acid with the beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli RTEM leads to enzyme-catalyzed depletion of clavulanic acid, to transient inhibition, and to irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Both the transiently inhibited and the irreversibly inactivated species show a marked increase in the absorbance at 281 nm that is proportional to the decrease in enzyme activity. Hydroxylamine treatment of irreversibly inactivated enzyme restores about one-third of the catalytic activity, with a concomitant decrease in absorbance at 281 nm. Polyacrylamide isoelectric focusing of the irreversibly inactivated enzyme shows three bands of approximately equal intensity, different from native enzyme. Upon hydroxylamine treatment, one of the three bands disappears and now focuses identically with native enzyme. It is evident that the irreversible inactivation of enzyme by an excess of clavulanic acid generates three products, one of which can be reactivated by hydroxylamine.

  17. The crystal structure of beta-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus at 0.5 nm resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Moult, J; Sawyer, L; Herzberg, O; Jones, C L; Coulson, A F; Green, D W; Harding, M M; Ambler, R P

    1985-01-01

    The preparation, crystallization and low-resolution structure determination of beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6, 'penicillinase') from Staphylococcus aureus is described. The enzyme crystallizes in space group I222 with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit and cell dimensions a = 5.45(1), b = 9.39(1) and c = 13.87(2) nm. The structure was determined at 0.5 nm resolution by using phases calculated from (NH4)2Pt(CN)4 and KAu(CN)2 derivatives. The mean figure of merit mean value of m, for the 1106 reflexions used was 0.70. Difference Fourier syntheses for data collected from crystals soaked in platinum D-methionine and in 6-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-iodobenzamido)penicilloic acid revealed the likely position of the active site of the enzyme. Images Fig. 2. (cont.) Fig. 2. PMID:2983660

  18. Molecular Detection of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Positive Bacteria from Environmental and Drinking Water Samples by Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification of bla NDM-1.

    PubMed

    Rathinasabapathi, P; Hiremath, Deepak S; Arunraj, Rex; Parani, M

    2015-12-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 gene (bla NDM-1 ) codes for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme that cleaves the amide bond of β-lactam ring, and provides resistance against major classes of β-lactam antibiotics. Dissemination of the plasmid borne bla NDM-1 through horizontal gene transfer is a potential threat to the society. In this study, a rapid non-culture method for detecting NDM-1 positive bacteria was developed by Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of bla NDM-1 . Sensitivity of this method was found to be one femtogram of plasmid DNA, which translates into 2.6-25.8 copies depending on the size of the plasmid DNA. This method was applied to detect NDM-1 positive bacteria in 81 water samples that were collected from environmental and drinking water sources. NDM-1 positive bacteria were detected in three drinking water samples by LAMP but not by PCR. These three samples were collected from the water sources that were treated with chlorine for decontamination before public distribution. NDM-1 positive bacteria were not detected in lake water samples or in the samples that were collected from the water sources that were purified by reverse osmosis before public distribution. Detection of NDM-1 positive bacteria using LAMP was found to be safe, sensitive and rapid for screening large number of samples from diverse sources. This method could be developed as on-field detection kit by using fluorescent dyes to visualize the amplified bla NDM-1 gene.

  19. Complete genome sequence analysis and identification of putative metallo-beta-lactamase and SpoIIIE homologs in Bacillus cereus group phage BCP8-2, a new member of the proposed Bastille-like group.

    PubMed

    Asare, Paul Tetteh; Bandara, Nadeeka; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Ryu, Sangryeol; Klumpp, Jochen; Kim, Kwang-Pyo

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus cereus group-specific bacteriophage BCP8-2 exhibits a broad lysis spectrum among food and human isolates (330/364) of B. cereus while not infecting B. subtilis (50) or B. licheniformis (12) strains. Its genome is 159,071 bp long with 220 open reading frames, including genes for putative methyltransferases, metallo-beta-lactamase, and a sporulation-related SpoIIIE homolog, as wells as 18 tRNAs. Comparative genome analysis showed that BCP8-2 is related to the recently proposed Bastille-like phages, but not with either SPO1-like or Twort-like phages of the subfamily Spounavirinae.

  20. Comparison of a novel, inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test with other methods for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Chow, K H; Yuen, K Y; Ng, W S; Chau, P Y

    1998-07-01

    A novel, inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test for detecting extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in bacteria was evaluated. This test uses the principle of augmentation (by > or = 10 mm) of inhibition zones produced by ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone or aztreonam discs on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with clavulanate (4 mg/L). The test was initially compared with the double-disc synergy test, Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion test and Etest ESBL screen with a panel of 45 reference strains with known resistance profiles. This panel consisted of 27 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli strains expressing 14 Bush group 2be enzymes and 18 other E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (14 non-ESBL beta-lactamase producers and four non-beta-lactamase producers). The Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion test was the least sensitive method: 11-44% of the ESBL-positive control strains were misclassified as susceptible to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone or aztreonam when interpreted by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) criteria. The sensitivities of the inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test, the double-disc synergy test (when discs were 25 or 30 mm apart) and the Etest ESBL screen (with a breakpoint of > 4-fold reduction in ceftazidime MIC in the presence of clavulanate) were 100%, 96% and 89-96%, respectively. The inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test was further evaluated with 81 E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, which were identified as putative ESBL-producers by the double-disc synergy test. For these isolates, the sensitivity of both the inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test and the Etest ESBL screen was 100%. In conclusion, the inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test is a sensitive, convenient and inexpensive method of screening for ESBLs in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, with potential for incorporation into routine clinical laboratory service.

  1. In vivo selection of Enterobacter aerogenes with reduced susceptibility to cefepime and carbapenems associated with decreased expression of a 40 kDa outer membrane protein and hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jose Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Pascual, Alvaro

    2006-06-01

    The mechanism(s) of resistance or decreased susceptibility to cefepime (FEP) and/or imipenem (IMP) in three consecutive isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea1, Ea2 and Ea3) cultured from bronchial aspirates of the same patient after treatment with ceftriaxone and FEP were studied. Identification was performed with the VITEK 2 system. All three isolates showed identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)) to cefoxitin (MIC, >1024 mg/L), cefotaxime (CTX; MIC, 32-128 mg/L) and ceftazidime (CAZ; MIC, 32-128 mg/L) but susceptible to meropenem (MIC, beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was not detected using the disk diffusion method (NCCLS) or Etest (CTX/CTX-CLV and CAZ/CAZ-CLV). TEM- or SHV-type ESBL genes were not detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The three isolates showed the same pattern of five beta-lactamases (isoelectric points 7.9-8.3, inhibited by CLX but not by CLV) by isoelectric focusing of crude extracts. Hydrolysis (nmol/mg) of cefaloridine (CF) was 3741.0 (Ea1), 4000.6 (Ea2) and 3797.4 (Ea3), suggesting that AmpC is hyperproduced. Hydrolysis of FEP was much lower than that of CF: 1.3 (Ea1), 2.1 (Ea2) and 17.3 (Ea3). The nucleotide sequences of the ampR-ampC genes of Ea1 and Ea2 were identical to that of E. aerogenes strain deposited in GenBank (accession no.). For Ea3, however, a point mutation in position 311 of ampC caused a change of Val-->Glu. Three outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of 51 k

  2. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A V; Arais, L R; Ribeiro, P F; Carneiro, V C; Cerqueira, A M F

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n=134), their owners (n=134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n=44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains.

  3. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, A.C.; Barbosa, A.V.; Arais, L.R.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Carneiro, V.C.; Cerqueira, A.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134), their owners (n = 134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. PMID:26887238

  4. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and its correlation with clinical laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing in enterobacteriaceae isolates in Thaialnd.

    PubMed

    Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Tiengrim, Surapee; Onsomang, Supiluck; Pati, Naratchaphan; Aswapokee, Nalinee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2012-11-01

    We performed extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic testing and molecular characterization of three ESBL genes (TEM, SHV and CTX-M) and susceptibility testing by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disk diffusion method against three cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime) and a cephamycin (cefoxitin) among 128 Thai Escherichia coli and 84 Thai Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. ESBL production was discovered in 62% of E. coli and 43% of K. pneumoniae isolates. All isolates susceptible to ceftriaxone were ESBL-negative. Nearly all isolates non-susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefepime produced ESBL; the presence of CTX-M genes in the isolates correlated with a ceftriaxone non-susceptible phenotype. Thirty-nine of 83 isolates (47%) of ceftazidime-susceptible E. coli and 50 of 99 isolates (50.5%) of cefepime-susceptible E. coli were ESBL-producing. SHV-type beta-lactamase genes were more prevalent among K. pneumoniae than E. coli isolates. CTX-M was the major ESBL gene harbored by ESBL-producers in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Non-CTX-M ESBL-producers were found only among K. pneumoniae isolates. This study reveals an increase in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among Thai isolates and demonstrates gaps in the current CLSI disk diffusion susceptibility guidelines; it indicates the results of ceftazidime and cefepime disk diffusion susceptibility testing using CLSI criteria should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Iranian patients: first identification of blaKPC gene in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nobari, Saman; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Rahmati Ghezelgeh, Fatemeh; Valizadeh, Babak

    2014-08-01

    Multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered a serious global threat. This study was initiated to investigate carbapenem resistance among K. pneumoniae isolates in Iran and to detect carbapenemases in resistant strains. From 2009 to 2012, 180 K. pneumoniae strains were collected from Tehran hospitals. Of the isolates, 42 isolates (23.3%) were resistant to meropenem, 29 isolates (16.1%) were resistant to ertapenem, and 14 isolates (7.7%) were resistant to imipenem. All of carbapenem-resistant isolates were also resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins. modified Hodge test was positive in 25 (59.5%) of carbapenem-resistant isolates showing carbapenemase production. bla(NDM) and bla(VIM) genes were identified in three and five carbapenem-resistant isolates, respectively. One isolate showed presence of bla(KPC) gene. Class 1 integrons were detected in 14 carbapenem-resistant isolates. The most important finding about class 1 integrons was identification of an integron containing metallo-β-lactamase gene VIM-1 that also harbored dfrA27 and arr3 genes. It is important to note that K. pneumoniae carbapenemase and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-positive isolates identified in this study showed resistance to the majority of routine antimicrobial agents, including all β-lactams and other classes of antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of bla(KPC) and bla(VIM-1) genes among isolates of K. pneumoniae in Iran.

  6. Functional analyses of AmpC beta-lactamase through differential stability.

    PubMed Central

    Beadle, B. M.; McGovern, S. L.; Patera, A.; Shoichet, B. K.

    1999-01-01

    Despite decades of intense study, the complementarity of beta-lactams for beta-lactamases and penicillin binding proteins is poorly understood. For most of these enzymes, beta-lactam binding involves rapid formation of a covalent intermediate. This makes measuring the equilibrium between bound and free beta-lactam difficult, effectively precluding measurement of the interaction energy between the ligand and the enzyme. Here, we explore the energetic complementarity of beta-lactams for the beta-lactamase AmpC through reversible denaturation of adducts of the enzyme with beta-lactams. AmpC from Escherichia coli was reversibly denatured by temperature in a two-state manner with a temperature of melting (Tm) of 54.6 degrees C and a van't Hoff enthalpy of unfolding (deltaH(VH)) of 182 kcal/mol. Solvent denaturation gave a Gibbs free energy of unfolding in the absence of denaturant (deltaG(u)H2O) of 14.0 kcal/mol. Ligand binding perturbed the stability of the enzyme. The penicillin cloxacillin stabilized AmpC by 3.2 kcal/mol (deltaTm = +5.8 degrees C); the monobactam aztreonam stabilized the enzyme by 2.7 kcal/mol (deltaTm = +4.9 degrees C). Both acylating inhibitors complement the active site. Surprisingly, the oxacephem moxalactam and the carbapenem imipenem both destabilized AmpC, by 1.8 kcal/mol (deltaTm = -3.2 degrees C) and 0.7 kcal/mol (deltaTm = -1.2 degrees C), respectively. These beta-lactams, which share nonhydrogen substituents in the 6(7)alpha position of the beta-lactam ring, make unfavorable noncovalent interactions with the enzyme. Complexes of AmpC with transition state analog inhibitors were also reversibly denatured; both benzo(b)thiophene-2-boronic acid (BZBTH2B) and p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonate (PNPP) stabilized AmpC. Finally, a catalytically inactive mutant of AmpC, Y150F, was reversibly denatured. It was 0.7 kcal/mol (deltaTm = -1.3 degrees C) less stable than wild-type (WT) by thermal denaturation. Both the cloxacillin and the moxalactam

  7. Nationwide study of the prevalence, characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in France.

    PubMed

    Galas, Muriel; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Breton, Nelly; Godard, Thierry; Allouch, Pierre Yves; Pina, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Among 10,872 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from a nationwide study of 88 French hospitals in 2005, 169 (1.7%) expressed an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. The most prevalent species were Escherichia coli (48.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (23.7%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.8%). Molecular analysis underlined the polyclonal spread of CTX-M-expressing E. coli, primarily isolates of the CTX-M-1 subgroup.

  8. SCO-1, a novel plasmid-mediated class A beta-lactamase with carbenicillinase characteristics from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, C C; Loli, A; Tzouvelekis, L S; Tzelepi, E; Arlet, G; Miriagou, V

    2007-06-01

    A novel class A beta-lactamase (SCO-1) encoded by an 80-kb self-transferable plasmid from Escherichia coli is described. The interaction of SCO-1 with beta-lactams was similar to that of the CARB-type enzymes. Also, SCO-1 exhibited a 51% amino acid sequence identity with the RTG subgroup of chromosomal carbenicillinases (RTG-1, CARB-5, and CARB-8).

  9. Emergence of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC-2) in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Jennifer; Clay, Cornelis G.; Sithole, Sindi; Richards, Guy A.; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    This report documents emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-2) in K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae in South Africa. NDM-1 producers have not been described in South Africa, and this is the first instance that KPC producers have been identified in Africa. The two patients infected with these carbapenemase-producing bacteria demised. PMID:22116157

  10. The precursor of beta-lactamase: purification, properties and folding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Laminet, A A; Plückthun, A

    1989-05-01

    The precursor of Escherichia coli RTEM beta-lactamase was purified to homogeneity on a milligram scale by a procedure independent of the binding properties of the protein and refolded to an active, reduced form. For comparing the folding kinetics, the wild-type enzyme was reduced and a mutant was constructed, in which the two cysteines that form a very stable disulfide bond in the RTEM enzyme were both changed into alanines. The rate of folding was determined by directly measuring the increase in enzymatic activity. The reduced precursor folds at least 15 times more slowly than either the reduced mature enzyme or the mature Cys----Ala double mutant under identical conditions. The wild-type enzyme, the Cys----Ala double mutant and the precursor protein all had similar KM values, demonstrating a very similar native state. The slow folding of the precursor compared with the mature form may be an essential and general feature to secure a transport competent conformation necessary for the translocation through a membrane in protein export. This folding assay of a precursor by directly following its enzymatic activity may facilitate the characterization of putative folding modulators in bacterial membrane transport.

  11. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Teikyou University Hospital--the first report].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, S; Ono, Y; Yamamoto, M; Matumura, M; Okamoto, R; Inoue, M; Miyazawa, Y

    1999-11-01

    We studied the cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant (MIC > or = 32 micrograms/ml) clinical isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae in Teikyo University Hospital from 1990 to 1996. The incidence of CTX-resistant isolates was 0.4% (6/1,282) in E. coli and 0.6% (7/1,044) in K. pneumoniae, in 1990. In 1995, the incidence of CTX-resistance increased to 1.7% (50/2,910) in E. coli (p = 0.0013) and 7.2% (144/1,996) in K. pneumoniae (p < 0.0001). These species have been detected in the stool (86 isolates), urine (59 isolates), sputum (15 isolates), pus (15 isolates), throat (10 isolates) and others (12 isolates) in 1995. MIC50 of ampicillin (ABPC), ABPC with clavlanic acid (CVA) 5 micrograms/ml, piperacillin (PIPC), PIPC with CVA 5 micrograms/ml, ceftazidime, CTX, ceftizoxime, cefpodoxime, cefepime, aztreonam, cefmetazole, latamoxef, and imipenem used against 33 isolates (11 isolates of E. coli, 22 isolates of K. pneumoniae), which were detected in 1996-1997, was > 512 micrograms/ml, 8 micrograms/ml, > 512 micrograms/ml, 8 micrograms/ml, 4 micrograms/ml, > 512 micrograms/ml, 16 micrograms/ml, > 512 micrograms/ml, 256 micrograms/ml, 32 micrograms/ml, 2 micrograms/ml, 0.25 microgram/ml and 0.25 microgram/ml, respectively. This susceptibility pattern were very similar to the Toho-1 type beta-lactamases producing strains.

  12. E240V substitution increases catalytic efficiency toward ceftazidime in a new natural TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-149, from Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia marcescens clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Celenza, Giuseppe; De Santis, Francesca; Pellegrini, Cristina; Forcella, Chiara; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Stefani, Stefania; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that belongs to the TEM family, the TEM-149 enzyme, and that was isolated from the urine of two hospitalized patients from different hospitals in southern Italy. The peculiarity of this enzyme was the finding of a valine residue at position 240. The array of amino acid substitutions found in TEM-149 was as follows: E104K, R164S, M182T, and E240V. A reversion of a threonine residue at position 182 was also performed to create a new mutant, TEM-149 T182M, in order to assess the contribution of this substitution on the kinetic profile and the stability of TEM-149. The bla TEM-149 and bla TEM-149/T182M genes were cloned into pBC-SK, and the corresponding enzymes were purified from recombinant Escherichia coli HB101 by the same procedure. Both enzymes hydrolyzed all beta-lactams tested, with a preference for ceftazidime, which was found to be the best substrate. By comparison of the kinetic parameters of the TEM-149 and the TEM-149 T182M enzymes, a reduction of the catalytic efficiency for the TEM-149 T182M mutant was observed against all substrates tested except benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. Tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam were good inhibitors of the TEM-149 beta-lactamase.

  13. Validation of Minim typing for fast and accurate discrimination of extended-spectrum, beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Brhelova, Eva; Kocmanova, Iva; Racil, Zdenek; Hanslianova, Marketa; Antonova, Mariya; Mayer, Jiri; Lengerova, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Minim typing is derived from the multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). It targets the same genes, but sequencing is replaced by high resolution melt analysis. Typing can be performed by analysing six loci (6MelT), four loci (4MelT) or using data from four loci plus sequencing the tonB gene (HybridMelT). The aim of this study was to evaluate Minim typing to discriminate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KLPN) isolates at our hospital. In total, 380 isolates were analyzed. The obtained alleles were assigned according to both the 6MelT and 4MelT typing scheme. In 97 isolates, the tonB gene was sequenced to enable HybridMelT typing. We found that the presented method is suitable to quickly monitor isolates of ESBL-KLPN; results are obtained in less than 2 hours and at a lower cost than MLST. We identified a local ESBL-KLPN outbreak and a comparison of colonizing and invasive isolates revealed a long term colonization of patients with the same strain.

  14. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing microorganisms in nosocomial patients and molecular characterization of the shv type isolates

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Caio Fernando; Salla, Adenilde; Lara, Valéria Maria; Rieger, Alexandre; Horta, Jorge André; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing microorganisms in Brazilian hospitals is a challenge that concerns scientists, clinicians and healthcare institutions due to the serious risk they pose to confined patients. The goal of this study was the detection of ESBL production by clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. isolated from pus, urine and blood of patients at Hospital Universitário Santa Maria, Rio Grande Sul, RS, Brazil and the genotyping of the isolates based on bla SHV genes. The ESBL study was carried out using the Combined Disc Method, while Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to study the bla SHV genes. Of the 90 tested isolates, 55 (61.1%) were identified as ESBL-producing by the combined disk method. The bla SHV genes were found in 67.8% of these microorganisms. K. pneumoniae predominated in the samples, presenting the highest frequency of positive results from the combined disk and PCR. PMID:24031491

  15. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in a tertiary care hospital in Madrid: epidemiology, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Perez, Ines; Martin-Perez, Elena; Garcia, Diego Domingo; Calvo, Manuel Lopez-Brea; Barrera, Eduardo Larrañaga

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported as causal agents of nosocomial infection worldwide. Resistance patterns vary internationally, and even locally, from one institution to the other. We investigated the clinical isolates positive for ESBL-producing bacteria in our institution, a tertiary care hospital in Madrid (Spain), during a 2-year period (2007–2008). Methods Clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study. Results Advanced age, diabetes, use of catheters, previous hospitalization and previous antibiotic treatment were some of the risk factors found among patients. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolate, and urinary tract the most common site of isolation. Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and General Surgery presented the highest number of isolates. There were no outbreaks during the study period. Antibiotic patterns showed high resistance rates to quinolones in all isolates. There was 100% sensitivity to carbapenems. Conclusion Carbapenems continue to be the treatment of choice for ESBL-producing bacteria. Infection control measures are of great importance to avoid the spread of these nosocomial infections. PMID:22822411

  16. Comparative assessment of inoculum effects on the antimicrobial activity of amoxycillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-non-producing Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    López-Cerero, L; Picón, E; Morillo, C; Hernández, J R; Docobo, F; Pachón, J; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A

    2010-02-01

    A significant inoculum-size effect has been observed with piperacillin-tazobactam, and has been associated with beta-lactamase production in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. This association has not been previously studied in the case of amoxycillin-clavulanate. Piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxycillin-clavulanate were compared, using high inocula of susceptible strains either harbouring ESBLs or not. Two non-ESBL-producing and 15 amoxycillin-clavulanate-susceptible and piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates, and their respective transconjugants, were tested in dilution susceptibility tests using standard and 100-fold higher inocula. Three ESBL-producing strains and E. coli ATCC 25922 were selected for time-kill studies using standard and high initial inocula. At high inocula, MICs of piperacillin increased >eight-fold for non-ESBL-producing strains, and MICs of piperacillin-tazobactam (8:1 ratio or with tazobactam fixed at 4 mg/L) increased>eight-fold for all ESBL-producing strains. However, amoxycillin MICs were not affected by a high inoculum with non-ESBL-producing strains, whereas the MICs of amoxycillin-clavulanate (2:1 and 4:1) increased beta-lactamase production.

  17. Silver Resistance Genes Are Overrepresented among Escherichia coli Isolates with CTX-M Production

    PubMed Central

    Edquist, Petra; Sandegren, Linus; Adler, Marlen; Tängdén, Thomas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn; Melhus, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type have disseminated rapidly in recent years and have become a threat to public health. In parallel with the CTX-M type expansion, the consumption and widespread use of silver-containing products has increased. To determine the carriage rates of silver resistance genes in different Escherichia coli populations, the presence of three silver resistance genes (silE, silP, and silS) and genes encoding CTX-M-, TEM-, and SHV-type enzymes were explored in E. coli isolates of human (n = 105) and avian (n = 111) origin. The antibiotic profiles were also determined. Isolates harboring CTX-M genes were further characterized, and phenotypic silver resistance was examined. The silE gene was present in 13 of the isolates. All of them were of human origin. Eleven of these isolates harbored ESBLs of the CTX-M type (P = 0.007), and eight of them were typed as CTX-M-15 and three as CTX-M-14. None of the silE-positive isolates was related to the O25b-ST131 clone, but 10 out of 13 belonged to the ST10 or ST58 complexes. Phenotypic silver resistance (silver nitrate MIC > 512 mg/liter) was observed after silver exposure in 12 of them, and a concomitant reduced susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam developed in three. In conclusion, 12% of the human E. coli isolates but none of the avian isolates harbored silver resistance genes. This indicates another route for or level of silver exposure for humans than that caused by common environmental contamination. Since silE-positive isolates were significantly more often found in CTX-M-positive isolates, it is possible that silver may exert a selective pressure on CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates. PMID:25128339

  18. Silver resistance genes are overrepresented among Escherichia coli isolates with CTX-M production.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Susanne; Edquist, Petra; Sandegren, Linus; Adler, Marlen; Tängdén, Thomas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn; Melhus, Asa

    2014-11-01

    Members of the Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type have disseminated rapidly in recent years and have become a threat to public health. In parallel with the CTX-M type expansion, the consumption and widespread use of silver-containing products has increased. To determine the carriage rates of silver resistance genes in different Escherichia coli populations, the presence of three silver resistance genes (silE, silP, and silS) and genes encoding CTX-M-, TEM-, and SHV-type enzymes were explored in E. coli isolates of human (n = 105) and avian (n = 111) origin. The antibiotic profiles were also determined. Isolates harboring CTX-M genes were further characterized, and phenotypic silver resistance was examined. The silE gene was present in 13 of the isolates. All of them were of human origin. Eleven of these isolates harbored ESBLs of the CTX-M type (P = 0.007), and eight of them were typed as CTX-M-15 and three as CTX-M-14. None of the silE-positive isolates was related to the O25b-ST131 clone, but 10 out of 13 belonged to the ST10 or ST58 complexes. Phenotypic silver resistance (silver nitrate MIC > 512 mg/liter) was observed after silver exposure in 12 of them, and a concomitant reduced susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam developed in three. In conclusion, 12% of the human E. coli isolates but none of the avian isolates harbored silver resistance genes. This indicates another route for or level of silver exposure for humans than that caused by common environmental contamination. Since silE-positive isolates were significantly more often found in CTX-M-positive isolates, it is possible that silver may exert a selective pressure on CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates.

  19. [Drug sensitivity and beta-lactamase producibility of various types of bacteria clinically isolated during the period from December 1999 to February 2000].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kouji; Kinosita, Chie; Yoshinaga, Hideko; Sonda, Yukari; Itoyama, Takako; Oyamada, Kazunori; Kajimura, Katsunari; Kondou, Masaharu; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Ouno, Tadashi; Kawamoto, Keiko; Souda, Katsumi; Hara, Kazumi; Kakihara, Miyako; Tanaka, Tetsuo; Ryutou, Miwako; Shichiji, Akiko; Nakashima, Kayoko; Ishibashi, Kazushige; Tabira, Reiko; Yamamoto, Shigeko; Nishida, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Yasunori

    2002-09-01

    beta-Lactamase activity and drug sensitivity were measured in 744 strains from 8 species of bacteria isolated at medical institutions in Chikugo District of Fukuoka Prefecture during the period from December 1999 to February 2000. Nitrocefin test revealed that beta-lactamase was positive in 48% of S. aureus, 7% of H. influenzae, and 92% of M. catarrhalis, and acidometry revealed that penicillinase/cephalosporinase were positive in 13%/14% of E. coli, 22%/8% of K. pneumoniae, 47%/97% of E. cloacae, 3%/65% of S. marcescens, and 10%/36% of P. aeruginosa. Based on the assessment of the MIC values of various types of antibacterial drugs for beta-lactamase-producing strains, there were 11 strains (1 strain of K. pneumonia, 6 strains of E. cloacae, and 4 strains of P. aeruginosa) of class-B beta-lactamase-producing bacteria out of a total of 496 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of PCR analysis suggested that 1 strain of K. pneumonia, 1 strain of E. cloacae, and 4 strains of P. aeruginosa produced metallo-beta-lactamase. There was no strain (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) of ESBL-producing bacteria. BLNAR strains, on the other hand, were found in 9% (9/100) of H. influenzae.

  20. Synthesis, spectral and extended spectrum beta-lactamase studies of transition metal tetraaza macrocyclic complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Nutan; Nair, Manjula

    2017-01-18

    Urinary tract infections commonly occur in humans due to microbial pathogens invading the urinary tract, which can bring about a range of clinical symptoms and potentially fatal sequelae. The present study is aimed at addressing the development of a new antimicrobial agent against extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli bacteria. We have synthesised some biologically potent (NNNN) donor macrocycles (L 1  = dibenzo[f,n]dipyrido[3,4-b:4',3'-j][1,4,9,12]tetraazacyclohexadecine-6,11,18,23(5H,12H, 7H, 24H)-tetraone, and L 2  = 6,12,19,25-tetraoxo-4,6,11,12,16,18,23,24-octahydrotetrabenzo [b,g,k,p][1,5,10,14]tetra azacyclooctadecine-2,13-dicarboxylic acid) and their Ti and Zr metal complexes in alcoholic media using microwave protocol. Macrocyclic ligands were synthesised by incorporating of 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid, phthalic acid and 3,4-diaminopyridine in 1:1:1 molar ratio. The macrocyclic ligands and their metal complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, magnetic measurement and their structure configurations have been determined by various spectroscopic (FTIR, (1)H/(13)C NMR, UV-Vis, LC-MS mass, XRD and TGA) techniques. [ZrL2Cl2]Cl2 metal complex shows excellent antibacterial activity against ESBLs. A zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by McFarland and the dilution method, respectively. The spectral studies confirm the binding sites of the nitrogen atom of the macrocycles. An octahedral geometry has been assigned to the metal complexes based on the findings.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological study of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated in Portugal. The Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bajanca-Lavado, M P; Casin, I; Vaz Pato, M V

    1996-10-01

    In the course of a multicentric surveillance study, nine laboratories sent 375 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to the Sector de Resistência aos Antibióticos (SRA) from the National Institute of Health in Lisbon, between 1 January and 31 December 1992. The majority of the H. influenzae isolates were from the respiratory tract (84.8%); only 5.1% were of invasive origin. Overall resistance for ampicillin was 11.7%, tetracycline 3.7%, and chloramphenicol 2.4%. All isolates tested were fully susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Multiresistance was rare, occurring only in 2.4% of the isolates, although 50% of the ampicillin resistant strains had at least one additional resistance marker. Forty two isolates (11.2%) produced a TEM-1 type beta-lactamase, as shown by isoelectric focusing. beta-lactamase production was not detected in two of the ampicillin resistant strains. Fifteen of the 42 beta-lactamase producing strains (35.7%) contained detectable DNA plasmid: nine harboured large plasmids with an apparent molecular mass of 45 or 54 kb depending on their resistance phenotype and six harboured a small plasmid of 5 kb. In order to study transfer of resistance in both ampicillin and multiresistant strains conjugation experiments were performed for 14 isolates, seven of which harboured a large plasmid and seven had no detectable plasmid DNA. All 14 transferred their resistance phenotype but only a single large plasmid could be demonstrated in ten transconjugants. Restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmids from six representative transconjugants, isolated in different hospitals, revealed that there was no dissemination of a single R plasmid, which suggests an independent process of acquisition of resistance genes.

  2. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae by use of semiautomated microbiology systems and manual detection procedures.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Irith; Geiss, Heinrich K; Mack, Dietrich; Stürenburg, Enno; Seifert, Harald

    2007-04-01

    Three commercially available microbiology identification and susceptibility testing systems were compared with regard to their ability to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceae, i.e., the Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD), the VITEK 2 System (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and the MicroScan WalkAway-96 System (Dade Behring, Inc., West Sacramento, CA), using routine testing panels. One hundred fifty putative ESBL producers were distributed blindly to three participating laboratories. Conventional phenotypic confirmatory tests such as the disk approximation method, the CLSI double-disk synergy test, and the Etest ESBL were also evaluated. Biochemical and molecular characterization of beta-lactamases performed at an independent laboratory was used as the reference method. One hundred forty-seven isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii were investigated. Of these isolates, 85 were identified as ESBL producers by the reference method. The remaining isolates were identified as non-ESBL producers; they were either hyperproducers of their chromosomal AmpC, Koxy, or SHV enzymes or lacked any detectable beta-lactamase activity. The system with the highest sensitivity for the detection of ESBLs was the Phoenix (99%), followed by the VITEK 2 (86%) and the MicroScan (84%); however, specificity was more variable, ranging from 52% (Phoenix) to 78% (VITEK 2). The performance of the semiautomated systems differed widely with the species investigated. The sensitivities of the conventional test methods ranged from 93 to 94%. The double-disk synergy test showed the highest specificity and positive predictive value among all test methods, i.e., 97% and 98%, respectively.

  3. TEM-1 AND ROB-1 PRESENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE STRAINS, ISTANBUL, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Kuvat, Nuray; Nazik, Hasan; Berkiten, Rahmiye; Öngen, Betigül

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will

  4. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter spp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens isolates from a Bulgarian hospital.

    PubMed

    Markovska, Rumyana Donkova; Stoeva, Temenuga Jekova; Bojkova, Kalina Dineva; Mitov, Ivan Gergov

    2014-04-01

    Forty-two extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Serratia marcescens, collected consecutively during the period January-November 2011 from the University Hospital in Varna, Bulgaria, were studied to characterize their ESBLs by isoelectric focusing, group-specific PCR, and sequencing. The epidemiological relationship was evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). Transferability of ESBL genes was determined by conjugation experiments. Plasmid analysis was done by replicon typing and PstI fingerprinting. The overall rate of ESBL production was 20%. The most widespread enzyme was CTX-M-3, found in 64%. It was dominant in E. aerogenes (100%) and S. marcescens (83%). SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found among E. cloacae isolates in 50%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Three main CTX-M-3-producing epidemic clones of E. aerogenes and S. marcescens have been detected. Among E. cloacae isolates, six different RAPD profiles were discerned. The plasmids harboring blaCTX-M-3 belonged to IncL/M type and demonstrated similar PstI fingerprinting profiles. IncFII plasmids were detected in two CTX-M-15-producing E. cloacae isolates. Our results demonstrate wide intrahospital dissemination of clonal E. aerogenes and S. marcescens isolates, carrying IncL/M conjugative plasmids.

  5. A catalytically and genetically optimized beta-lactamase-matrix based assay for sensitive, specific, and higher throughput analysis of native henipavirus entry characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Mike C; Wang, Yao; Freiberg, Alexander N; Aguilar, Hector C; Holbrook, Michael R; Lee, Benhur

    2009-07-31

    Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are the only paramyxoviruses requiring Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Thus, study of henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions necessitates the use of cell-cell fusion or pseudotyped reporter virus assays. Yet, these surrogate assays may not fully emulate the biological properties unique to the virus being studied. Thus, we developed a henipaviral entry assay based on a beta-lactamase-Nipah Matrix (betala-M) fusion protein. We first codon-optimized the bacterial betala and the NiV-M genes to ensure efficient expression in mammalian cells. The betala-M construct was able to bud and form virus-like particles (VLPs) that morphologically resembled paramyxoviruses. betala-M efficiently incorporated both NiV and HeV fusion and attachment glycoproteins. Entry of these VLPs was detected by cytosolic delivery of betala-M, resulting in enzymatic and fluorescent conversion of the pre-loaded CCF2-AM substrate. Soluble henipavirus receptors (ephrinB2) or antibodies against the F and/or G proteins blocked VLP entry. Additionally, a Y105W mutation engineered into the catalytic site of betala increased the sensitivity of our betala-M based infection assays by 2-fold. In toto, these methods will provide a more biologically relevant assay for studying henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae from bloodstream infections and risk factors for mortality.

    PubMed

    Gürntke, Stephan; Kohler, Christian; Steinmetz, Ivo; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Eller, Christoph; Gastmeier, Petra; Schwab, Frank; Leistner, Rasmus

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae is growing worldwide. Infections with these bacteria are suspected to be related to increased mortality. We aimed to estimate the distribution of ESBL genotypes and to assess the impact on mortality associated with ESBL positivity in cases of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to K. pneumoniae. We performed a cohort study on patients with K. pneumoniae BSI between 2008 and 2011. Presence of ESBL genes was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors for mortality were analyzed by Cox-proportional hazard regression. We identified 286 ESBL-negative (81%) and 66 (19%) ESBL-positive cases. 97% (n = 64) of the ESBL-positive isolates were susceptible for meropenem. The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-15 (60%), SHV-5 (27%) and CTX-M-3 (5%). Significant risk factors for mortality were chronic pulmonary disease (HR 1.747) and moderate/severe renal disease (HR 2.572). ESBL positivity was not associated with increased mortality.

  7. Synthesis and processing of Escherichia coli TEM-beta-lactamase and Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in E. coli: the role of signal peptidase I.

    PubMed

    van Dijl, J M; Smith, H; Bron, S; Venema, G

    1988-09-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli, in which signal peptidase I synthesis can be regulated, was constructed. The mutant was used to study the effects of signal peptidase I limitation on the synthesis and efficiency of processing of two proteins: the periplasmic E. coli TEM-beta-lactamase and Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase, which also accumulates in the periplasm of E. coli. Signal peptidase I limitation resulted in reduced rates of processing of pre-beta-lactamase and in strong inhibition of synthesis of alpha-amylase. The data suggest that beta-lactamase is processed post-translationally and that an intimate relationship exists between the synthesis and processing of alpha-amylase.

  8. High prevalence of the PER-1 gene among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR

  9. Emergence of clonally related multidrug resistant Haemophilus influenzae with penicillin-binding protein 3-mediated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, Norway, 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Skaare, D; Anthonisen, I L; Kahlmeter, G; Matuschek, E; Natås, O B; Steinbakk, M; Sundsfjord, A; Kristiansen, B E

    2014-12-11

    Resistance to cephalosporins in Haemophilus influenzae is usually caused by characteristic alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), encoded by the ftsI gene. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with high-level PBP3-mediated resistance (high-rPBP3), defined by the second stage S385T substitution in addition to a first stage substitution (R517H or N526K). The third stage L389F substitution is present in some high-rPBP3 strains. High-rPBP3 H. influenzae are considered rare outside Japan and Korea. In this study, 30 high-rPBP3 isolates from Norway, collected between 2006 and 2013, were examined by serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ftsI sequencing, detection of beta-lactamase genes and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were interpreted according to clinical breakpoints from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Respiratory isolates predominated (proportion: 24/30). The 30 isolates included one serotype f isolate, while the remaining 29 lacked polysaccharide capsule genes. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefixime, 29 isolates/30 isolates; cefepime, 28/30; cefotaxime, 26 /30; ceftaroline, 26/30; ceftriaxone, 14/30), beta-lactamase production (11/30) and co-resistance to non-beta-lactams (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 13/30; tetracycline, 4/30; chloramphenicol, 4/30; ciprofloxacin, 3/30) was frequent. The N526K substitution in PBP3 was present in 23 of 30 isolates; these included a blood isolate which represents the first invasive S385T + N526K isolate reported from Europe. The L389F substitution, present in 16 of 30 isolates, coincided with higher beta-lactam MICs. Non-susceptibility to meropenem was frequent in S385T + L389F + N526K isolates (8/12). All 11 beta-lactamase positive isolates were TEM-1. Five clonal groups of two to 10 isolates with identical MLST-ftsI allelic profiles were observed, including the first reported high-rPBP3

  10. Varying high levels of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural villages in Shandong, China: implications for global health.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Tärnberg, Maria; Zhao, Lingbo; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Song, Yanyan; Grape, Malin; Nilsson, Maud; Tomson, Göran; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to global health and is affected by many factors, of which antibiotic use is probably one of the more important. Other factors include hygiene, crowding and travel. The rapid resistance spread in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), is a global challenge, leading to increased mortality, morbidity and health systems costs worldwide. Knowledge about resistance in commensal flora is limited, including in China. Our aim was to establish the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-E and find its association with known and suspected risk factors in rural residents of all ages in three socio-economically different counties in the Shandong Province, China. Faecal samples and risk-factor information (questionnaire) were collected in 2012. ESBL-E carriage was screened using ChromID ESBL agar. Risk factors were analysed using standard statistical methods. Data from 1000 individuals from three counties and in total 18 villages showed a high and varying level of ESBL-E carriage. Overall, 42% were ESBL-E carriers. At county level the carriage rates were 49%, 45% and 31%, respectively, and when comparing individual villages (n = 18) the rate varied from 22% to 64%. The high level of ESBL-E carriage among rural residents in China is an indication of an exploding global challenge in the years to come as resistance spreads among bacteria and travels around the world with the movement of people and freight. A high carriage rate of ESBL-E increases the risk of infection with multi-resistant bacteria, and thus the need for usage of last resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems and colistin, in the treatment of common infections.

  11. Use of the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase of Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 to study potentially poor substrates and inhibitory beta-lactam compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Galleni, M; Franceschini, N; Quinting, B; Fattorini, L; Orefici, G; Oratore, A; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen different compounds usually considered beta-lactamase stable or representing potential beta-lactam inhibitors and inactivators were tested against the beta-lactamase produced by Mycobacterium fortuitum. The compounds exhibiting the most interesting properties were BRL42715, which was by far the best inactivator, and CGP31608 and ceftazidime, which were not recognized by the enzyme. These compounds thus exhibited adequate properties for fighting mycobacterial infections. Although cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, cefoxitin, and CP65207-2 exhibited poor inhibitory efficiency against the enzyme, they were also rather poor substrates and might be considered potential antimycobacterial agents. By contrast, CGP31523A and ceftamet were good substrates. PMID:7979294

  12. Enhancement of fluorescence development of end products by use of a fluorescence developer solution in a rapid and sensitive fluorescent spot test for specific detection of microbial beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Chen, K C; Holmes, K K

    1986-03-01

    A fluorescent spot test method for specific detection of microbial beta-lactamases as previously published (K. C. S. Chen, J. S. Knapp, and K. K. Holmes, J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:818-825, 1984) was improved by the use of a fluorescence developer solution. The fluorescence developer solution used in this study consisted of 0.78 M sodium tartrate buffer containing 12% formaldehyde at a final pH of 4.5. An addition of 1 volume of fluorescence developer solution to 5 volumes of ampicillin or cephalex substrate solution incubated with beta-lactamase-producing organisms, followed by heating the mixture at 45 degrees C for 10 min resulted in enhancement of fluorescence of the end products of beta-lactamase activity. This provides a more sensitive assay for microbial beta-lactamases and offers the potential for direct detection of beta-lactamases in clinical specimens.

  13. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality.

  14. Characterization of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in clinical clones of Escherichia coli in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Dong; Yan, Ping; Guan, Hai-Ning; Zhang, Qun-Zhi

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread dissemination of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) Escherichia coli in most of the provinces in China has been previously characterized; however, these enzymes have been rarely reported among minority regions. A prospective study using 180 E. coli clones from three hospitals in the minority district of Dali Bai was conducted between January 2009 and June 2010 to characterize the profiles of bla(CTX-M) -producing E. coli. Overall, 87 of the isolates (48.3%) encoded the resistance phenotypes of ESBLs. Among these 87 isolates, 56 (64.4%) exconjugants were successfully obtained. The genotypes of bla(CTX-M) were evaluated by PCR and DNA sequencing. In total, 22 and 53 E. coli isolates possessed CTX-M cluster 1 and CTX-M cluster 9, respectively. Five bla(CTX-M) subtypes were detected, namely, bla(CTX-M3) (n = 12), bla(CTX-M15) (n = 4), bla(CTX-M22) (n = 2), bla(CTX-M14) (n = 41), and bla(CTX-M9) (n = 8). The broth microdilution method was performed to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 13 antibiotics. Most CTX-M producers were multiply resistant to both β-lactam and non-β-lactam antibiotics. Imipenem showed excellent activity, and only one isolate harboring bla(CTX-M14+CTX-M3) exhibited resistance to it. In conclusion, there seems to be great concern regarding the distribution and drug resistance of CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli.

  15. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography for simultaneous detection of bacterial beta-lactam acylases and beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K C

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and specific procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of bacterial acylases and beta-lactamases, using ampicillin and cephalexin as substrates. Bacterial suspensions from agar plates were incubated separately with each beta-lactam substrate for 1 h at 37 degrees C. The supernatant of the reaction mixture was dansylated, and the dansyl derivatives were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on polyamide sheets. The end products resulting from acylase hydrolysis, including the intact beta-lactam nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid or 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid, and the acyl side chain acid, D-(-)-alpha-aminophenylacetic acid, and the end product resulting from beta-lactamase hydrolysis (D-phenylglycylpenicilloic acid or D-phenylglycyldeacetoxycephalosporoic acid) were separated from each unhydrolyzed substrate and amino acids by this procedure. The presence of the intact beta-lactam nucleus in the reaction mixture is the indication of acylase activity. This method is sensitive and reproducible and has been successfully applied to screening for acylase activity in a variety of bacteria. It may be pharmaceutically useful for identifying organisms capable of removing the acyl side chain from naturally occurring beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, penicillin V, and cephalosporin C for production of the beta-lactam nuclei which serve as the starting materials for semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. Images PMID:3539008

  16. Impact of different cultivation and induction regimes on the structure of cytosolic inclusion bodies of TEM1-beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Margreiter, Gerd; Schwanninger, Manfred; Bayer, Karl; Obinger, Christian

    2008-10-01

    The enzyme TEM1-beta-lactamase has been used as a model to study the impact of different cultivation and induction regimes on the structure of cytosolic inclusion bodies (IBs). The protein has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in fed-batch cultivations at different temperatures (30, 37, and 40 degrees C) as well as induction regimes that guaranteed distinct product formation rates and ratios of soluble to aggregated protein. Additionally, shake flask cultivations at 20, 30, and 37 degrees C were performed. IBs were sampled during the whole bioprocess and structural analysis was performed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy. This work clearly demonstrates that the tested production regimes and rates had no impact on the IB structure, which was characterized by decreased alpha-helical and increased and modified beta-sheet contents compared to the native protein. Moreover, aggregates formed during refolding of IBs by solubilization and simple dilution showed very similar FT-IR spectra suggesting (i) the existence of only one critical folding step from which either aggregation (IB formation) or native folding branches off, and (ii) underlining the important role of the specific amino acid sequence in aggregation. The findings are discussed with respect to the known structure of TEM1-beta-lactamase and the reported kinetics of its (un)folding as well as contradictory data on the effect of cultivation regimes on IB structure(s) of other proteins.

  17. Site-directed mutagenesis of beta-lactamase I. Single and double mutants of Glu-166 and Lys-73.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Christensen, H; Waley, S G

    1990-12-15

    Two single mutants and the corresponding double mutant of beta-lactamase I from Bacillus cereus 569/H were constructed and their kinetics investigated. The mutants have Lys-73 replaced by arginine (K73R), or Glu-166 replaced by aspartic acid (E166D), or both (K73R + E166D). All four rate constants in the acyl-enzyme mechanism were determined for the E166D mutant by the methods described by Christensen, Martin & Waley [(1990) Biochem. J. 266, 853-861]. Both the rate constants for acylation and deacylation for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin were decreased about 2000-fold in this mutant. In the K73R mutant, and in the double mutant, the rate constants for acylation were decreased about 100-fold and 10,000-fold respectively. All three mutants also had lowered values for the rate constants for the formation and dissociation of the non-covalent enzyme-substrate complex. The specificities of the mutants did not differ greatly from those of wild-type beta-lactamase, but the hydrolysis of cephalosporin C by the K73R mutant gave 'burst' kinetics.

  18. Penicillanic acid sulfone: interaction with RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Kemal, C; Knowles, J R

    1981-06-23

    The interaction of the sulfone of penicillanic acid with the TEM-2 beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli has been investigated as a function of pH between pH 7.0 and 9.6. The first-formed acyl-enzyme suffers one of three fates: deacylation, tautomerization to a bound enamine that transiently inhibited the enzyme, and a process (possibly transimination) that leads to enzyme inactivation. The observed changes in ultraviolet absorbance are consistent with the initially observed product of deacylation being the enamine tautomer (4) of the imine from malonsemialdehyde and penicillamine sulfinate. The same enamine can be generated nonenzymically from the sulfone at high pH. The transiently inhibited enzyme appears to be the same enamine attached to the enzyme by an ester linkage. The rather complex kinetic behavior can be deconvuluted by exploiting the effect of pH on the partitioning of the acyl-enzyme between deacylation and the transiently inhibited form of the enzyme. The pathways followed by penicillanic acid sulfone provide a model for the behavior of a number of other reagents that inactivate the beta-lactamase.

  19. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Ligand-Efficient Inhibitors of CTX-M Class A [beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Derek A.; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Larson, Wayne; Smith, Emmanuel; Liu, Guoqing; Beyrouthy, Racha; Bonnet, Richard; Renslo, Adam R.; Chen, Yu

    2012-07-11

    The emergence of CTX-M class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases poses a serious health threat to the public. We have applied structure-based design to improve the potency of a novel noncovalent tetrazole-containing CTX-M inhibitor (K{sub i} = 21 {mu}M) more than 200-fold via structural modifications targeting two binding hot spots, a hydrophobic shelf formed by Pro167 and a polar site anchored by Asp240. Functional groups contacting each binding hot spot independently in initial designs were later combined to produce analogues with submicromolar potencies, including 6-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid [3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-amide, which had a K{sub i} value of 89 nM and reduced the MIC of cefotaxime by 64-fold in CTX-M-9 expressing Escherichia coli. The in vitro potency gains were accompanied by improvements in ligand efficiency (from 0.30 to 0.39) and LipE (from 1.37 to 3.86). These new analogues represent the first nM-affinity noncovalent inhibitors of a class A {beta}-lactamase. Their complex crystal structures provide valuable information about ligand binding for future inhibitor design.

  20. Conjugation of plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to other Neisseria species: potential reservoirs for the beta-lactamase plasmid.

    PubMed

    Genco, C A; Knapp, J S; Clark, V L

    1984-09-01

    The discovery that penicillinase production in Neisseria gonorrhoeae was plasmid mediated and the spread of the beta-lactamase encoding plasmids in gonococcal isolates since 1976, raise the possibility that a nonpathogenic indigenous bacterium could serve as a reservoir for these plasmids. We initiated studies to define the ability of commensal Neisseria species and Branhamella catarrhalis strains, as well as strains of the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, to serve as recipients in conjugation with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We found that with N. gonorrhoeae as the donor, 3 of 5 Neisseria cinerea, 2 of 5 Neisseria flava, 0 of 1 Neisseria flavescens, 1 of 3 Neisseria subflava, 0 of 6 B. catarrhalis, 0 of 7 Neisseria lactamica, 1 of 5 Neisseria mucosa, 1 of 7 Neisseria perflava/sicca, and 0 of 13 N. meningitidis strains gave detectable conjugation frequencies (greater than 10(-8). N. cinerea was the only species found to maintain the gonococcal conjugal plasmid (pLE2451). A N. cinerea transconjugant containing pLE2451 was observed to transfer both the beta-lactamase plasmid and pLE2451 to N. gonorrhoeae at high frequency.

  1. Novel VIM metallo-beta-lactamase variant, VIM-24, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Correa, Adriana; Briceño, David F; Rosas, Natalia C; De La Cadena, Elsa; Ruiz, Sory J; Mojica, Maria F; Camargo, Ruben Dario; Zuluaga, Ivan; Marin, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2011-05-01

    We report the emergence of a novel VIM variant (VIM-24) in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in Colombia. The isolate displays MICs for carbapenems below the resistance breakpoints, posing a real challenge for its detection. The blaVIM-24 gene was located within a class 1 integron carried on a large plasmid. Further studies are needed to clarify its epidemiological and clinical impact.

  2. Biochemical characterization of beta-lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Materon, Isabel C; Queenan, Anne Marie; Koehler, Theresa M; Bush, Karen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    The Sterne and Ames strains of Bacillus anthracis carry chromosomal genes bla1 and bla2, which confer beta-lactam resistance when expressed in Escherichia coli. MIC measurements and steady-state kinetic analyses indicate that Bla1 possesses penicillinase activity while Bla2 possesses penicillinase, cephalosporinase, and carbapenem-hydrolyzing activities.

  3. [Prevalence of beta-lactamase CTX-M-15 in phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients in the community of Merida, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Erick; Araque, María; Millán, Ysheth; Millán, Beatriz; Vielma, Silvana

    2014-03-01

    In this study we determined the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in the community. Twenty one UPEC strains with reduced susceptibility to broad-spectrum cephalosporins were collected between January 2009 and July 2010, from patients with urinary tract infection who attended the Public Health Laboratory in Mérida, Venezuela. Genotypic characterization determined that all UPEC strains harbored blaBLEEs genes: 76.2% of the strains showed the presence of a single ESBL-producer gene, represented by blaCTX-M-15, whereas 23.8% of UPEC showed various combinations of bla genes (blacCTX-M-15 + blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 + blaSHV and blaSHV + blaTEM-1). In this study, 61.9% of the isolates were placed in phylogroup A and the remaining strains were assigned to group B2 (38.1%). There was no evidence of spread of a particular UPEC clone; only seven strains belonged to a clonal group with an index of similarity greater than 85%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of blxCTX-M-15 in UPEC from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections, which shows that Venezuela is also part of the so-called CTX-M-15 pandemic. The findings in this study, as well as its clinical and epidemiological implications, lead to the need for monitoring and controlling the spread of CTX-M-15 producing UPECs, not only regionally, but also nationwide.

  4. Ceftriaxone-sulbactam combination in rabbit endocarditis caused by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-broad-spectrum TEM-3 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Caron, F; Gutmann, L; Bure, A; Pangon, B; Vallois, J M; Pechinot, A; Carbon, C

    1990-01-01

    We studied the activity of the combination of sulbactam and ceftriaxone against a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain producing TEM-3, a new extended-broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, in an endocarditis model. In vitro, ceftriaxone was strongly inactivated in the presence of TEM-3 (MBC, 128 micrograms/ml with an inoculum of 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml). A marked inoculum effect was demonstrated with sulbactam: effective concentrations of inhibitor needed to reduce the MIC and MBC of ceftriaxone to similar levels increased from 1 microgram/ml in the presence of an inoculum of 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml to 20 micrograms/ml in the presence of an inoculum of 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In vivo, sulbactam given at 200 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h, a dosage higher than that previously reported to be effective against rabbit endocarditis caused by other microorganisms, was not sufficient to restore the complete activity of ceftriaxone given at 30 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. This insufficient activity may be correlated with the presence of a high level of beta-lactamase inside the vegetations, as indicated by a quantitative in vitro assay of beta-lactamase activity in the cardiac vegetation, suggesting an insufficient inactivation of the extended-broad-spectrum beta-lactamase in vivo. PMID:2073099

  5. Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase VEB-1-producing isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Carbonne, A; Naas, T; Blanckaert, K; Couzigou, C; Cattoen, C; Chagnon, J-L; Nordmann, P; Astagneau, P

    2005-05-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of epidemiologically related VEB-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii occurred in 33 patients in an intensive care unit. A case-control study identified previous treatment with third-generation cephalosporins as the only risk factor for A. baumannii acquisition. Rationale for antibiotic use should be strengthened.

  6. Empiric Piperacillin-Tazobactam versus Carbapenems in the Treatment of Bacteraemia Due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tat Ming; Khong, Wendy X; Harris, Patrick N A; De, Partha P; Chow, Angela; Tambyah, Paul A; Lye, David C

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a common cause of bacteraemia in endemic countries and may be associated with high mortality; carbapenems are considered the drug of choice. Limited data suggest piperacillin-tazobactam could be equally effective. We aimed to compare 30-day mortality of patients treated empirically with piperacillin-tazobactam versus a carbapenem in a multi-centre retrospective cohort study in Singapore. Only patients with active empiric monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam or a carbapenem were included. A propensity score for empiric carbapenem therapy was derived and an adjusted multivariate analysis of mortality was conducted. A total of 394 patients had ESBL-Escherichia.coli and ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia of which 23.1% were community acquired cases. One hundred and fifty-one received initial active monotherapy comprising piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 94) or a carbapenem (n = 57). Patients who received carbapenems were less likely to have health-care associated risk factors and have an unknown source of bacteraemia, but were more likely to have a urinary source. Thirty-day mortality was comparable between those who received empiric piperacillin-tazobactam and a carbapenem (29 [30.9%] vs. 17 [29.8%]), P = 0.89). Those who received empiric piperacillin-tazobactam had a lower 30-day acquisition of multi-drug resistant and fungal infections (7 [7.4%] vs. 14 [24.6%]), P<0.01). After adjusting for confounders, use of empiric piperacillin-tazobactam was not associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR 1.00, 95% CI; 0.45-2.17). Empiric piperacillin-tazobactam was not associated with increased 30-day mortality and may result in fewer multi-drug resistant and fungal infections when compared with a carbapenem.

  7. Clinical and bacteriological efficacy of amikacin in the treatment of lower urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ipekci, Tumay; Seyman, Derya; Berk, Hande; Celik, Orcun

    2014-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become a growing problem limiting therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of amikacin treatment in adult patients with lower UTIs due to ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (Ec) or Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp). We conducted a retrospective study of 36 outpatients aged >18 years with dysuria or problems with frequency or urgency in passing urine; pyuria and a positive urine culture (10(5) cfu/ml) for ESBL producing Ec or Kp which is also resistant to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, quinolones and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, between January 2013 and February 2014. Patients received intramuscular amikacin 15 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Clinical success was defined as disappearance of symptoms. Bacteriological success was defined as sterile control urine cultures. 58.3% of patients were female. Age range was 18-89 years. All of the patients had at least one complicating factor. 77.8% of the isolates were E. coli. Clinical success rate was 97.2%. Overall bacteriological success rates were 91.7% on the 3 day of treatment, 97.1% at the end of the treatment and 94.1% on the 7-10 days after treatment. After 28-32 days following the treatment, reinfection was found in 12% whereas relapse was not determined. Nephrotoxicity was developed in one patient. The clinicians should keep in mind that amikacin treatment is an efficient and safe alternative treatment option before the carbapenem treatment especially in patients with lower UTIs caused by ESBL-producing Ec or Kp that are resistant to all oral antibiotics.

  8. Inhibition of beta-lactamase of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C by compound PS-5, a new beta-lactam antibiotic.

    PubMed Central

    Fukagawa, Y; Takei, T; Ishikura, T

    1980-01-01

    By use of a new computer-assisted u.v.-spectrophotometric assay method, the kinetic parameters of the reaction catalysed by Bacillus licheniformis 749/C beta-lactamase were re-examined and the mode of inhibition of the enzyme by compound PS-5, a novel beta-lactam antibiotic, was studied with benzylpenicillin as substrate. (1) The fundamental assay conditions for the determination of Km and V were examined in detail with benzylpenicillin as substrate. In 0.1 M-sodium/potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, at 30 degrees C, initial substrate concentrations of benzylpenicillin above 0.7 mM were very likely to lead to substrate inhibition. The Km value of the enzyme for benzylpenicillin at initial concentrations from 1.96 to 0.07 mM was calculated to be 97-108 microM. (2) The Km values of the enzyme for 6-aminopenicillanic acid, ampicillin and cephaloridine were found to be 25, 154-161 and 144-161 microM respectively. (3) Compound PS-5 was virtually unattacked by Bacillus licheniformis 749/C beta-lactamase. (4) The activity of the enzyme was diminished by compound PS-5, to extents depending on the duration of incubation and the concentration of the inhibitor. The rate of inactivation of the enzyme by compound PS-5 followed first-order kinetics. (5) In an Appendix, a new computer-assisted u.v.-spectrophotometric enzyme assay method, in which a single reaction progress curve of time-absorbance was analysed by the integrated Michaelis-Menten equation, was devised for the accurate and precise determination of the kinetic constants of beta-lactamase. For conversion of absorbance readings into molar substrate concentrations, the initial or final absorbance reading that was independent of the reaction time was used as the basis of calculation. In calculation of Km and V three systematic methods of data combination were employed for finer analysis of the reaction progress curve. A list of the computer program named YF6TAIM is obtainable from the author on request or as

  9. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  10. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in different surface waters and wastewaters of Guadeloupe

    PubMed Central

    Guyomard-Rabenirina, Stéphanie; Dartron, Celia; Falord, Mélanie; Sadikalay, Syndia; Ducat, Célia; Richard, Vincent; Breurec, Sébastien; Gros, Olivier; Talarmin, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Objective The first aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in different water environments of Guadeloupe and especially those impacted by waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. The second objective was to characterize the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (ESBLE and AmpCE). Methods We have collected 70 surface waters (river and sea samples) impacted or not by WWTP and 18 waste waters from 2 WWTPs in 2012 and 2013. We i) determined the total and resistant bacterial counts and ii) tested isolated Enterobacteriaceae for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We also studied the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance of ESBLE and AmpCE, and the genetic background of Escherichia coli. Results In rivers, contamination with Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistant coliforms (ARC) increased from the source to the mouth. Highest levels of river contamination with E. coli (9.26 x 105 MPN/100mL) and ARC (2.26 x 108 CFU/mL) were observed in surface water sampled near the discharge. A total of 246 Enterobacteriaceae strains resistant to antibiotics were isolated, mostly from waste waters and from river water collected near the discharge. Among these strains, 33 were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBLE) and 8 E. coli were AmpC beta-lactamase producers. All the ESBLE were isolated from waste waters or from river water collected near the discharge. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 29 of the 33 ESBLE strains, with 24 belonging to group 1. Numerous strains (68.7%) showed more than one acquired antibiotic resistance mechanism. E. coli strains belonged to different phylogenetic groups; among the B2 group, most strains belonged to the ST131 clone. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that many human activities can supply antibiotic-resistant bacteria in surface water. Nevertheless, WWTPs were the most important supplier

  11. The kinetics of non-stoichiometric bursts of beta-lactam hydrolysis catalysed by class C beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Page, M G

    1993-10-01

    Class C beta-lactamases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and several species of the Enterobacteriaceae have been observed to undergo a rapid burst in hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics before relaxation to a steady-state rate of hydrolysis. The amplitude of the burst corresponds to the hydrolysis of between 1 and 10,000 mol of the substrate per mol of enzyme. The decay of the rate of hydrolysis in the burst phase comprises two exponential reactions, which indicates that there are three different reactive states of the enzymes. Examination of the kinetics of acylation by slowly reacting beta-lactams suggests that there are three forms of the free enzyme in slow equilibrium. Thus it would appear that the burst kinetics exhibited by class C enzymes can be attributed to redistribution of the enzyme between different conformations induced by the reaction with substrate.

  12. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-Producing Microorganisms in Patients Admitted at KRRH, Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Baguma; Kagirita, Atek

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing pathogenic bacteria at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH), located in southwestern Uganda, is of great concern: a phenomenon that worries clinicians and other healthcare workers due to the serious threat they pose to patients. This current study aimed at determining the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. isolated from clinical specimens and their prevalence in patients admitted at KRRH. We used combined disc diffusion technique to detect and establish the presence of ESBLs-producing bacteria. Of the 100 tested bacterial isolates, 89 (89%) were identified as ESBL-producing bacteria. Klebsiella sp. predominated in the samples (46 (52%)), presenting the highest frequency of ESBLs producing followed by E. coli (39 (44%)) and Proteus mirabilis (4 (4.5%)) from the combined disk diffusion. PMID:28270849

  13. Inhibition of the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. Interaction of enzyme with derivatives of olivanic acid.

    PubMed

    Charnas, R L; Knowles, J R

    1981-05-12

    The interaction of the RTEM beta-lactamase with two derivatives of olivanic acid has been studied. The compound MM22382 (1) behaves simply as a good substrate for the enzyme and is a relatively ineffective inhibitor. In contrast, the sulfate ester MM13902 (2) is a poor substrate and an excellent inhibitor of the enzyme. The inhibition derives from a branching of the normal hydrolytic pathway of the enzyme. At long times, all the catalytic activity of the enzyme returns. Free sulfate ion is not produced during the interaction with the enzyme, which rules out a mechanistic pathway involving beta elimination between C-6 and C-8. The validity of a number of alternative schemes is assessed.

  14. Inhibition of the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. Interaction of the enzyme with derivatives of olivanic acid.

    PubMed

    Easton, C J; Knowles, J R

    1982-06-08

    From chemical and kinetic studies of the interaction of the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli with three derivatives of olivanic acid, MM22382 (1), MM13902 (2), and MM4550 (3), a mechanism for the inhibition of the enzyme by these compounds is proposed: the interaction proceeds by formation of an acyl-enzyme, the delta 2-pyrroline, which may either deacylate or undergo tautomerization to the more tightly bound delta 1-pyrroline. The ability of olivanic acids to inhibit the enzyme thus depends on the partitioning of the acyl-enzyme to the delta 1-pyrroline ( a process that competes with the normal hydrolytic pathway) and on the rate of regeneration of free enzyme from this complex.

  15. Role of ser-237 in the substrate specificity of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase Sme-1.

    PubMed

    Sougakoff, W; Naas, T; Nordmann, P; Collatz, E; Jarlier, V

    1999-08-17

    The role of the serine residue found at position 237 in the carbapenemase Sme-1 has been investigated by constructing a mutant in which Ser-237 was replaced by an alanine. The S237A mutant showed a catalytic behavior against penicillins and aztreonam very similar to that of Sme-1. By contrast, S237A was characterized by a reduced catalytic efficiency against cephems, such as cephalothin and cephaloridine. In addition, the weak activity of Sme-1 against the cephamycin cefoxitin was hardly detectable with the mutant enzyme. Finally, the Ser-237-->Ala mutation resulted in a marked decrease in catalytic activity against imipenem, showing that Ser-237 contributes to the carbapenemase activity of the class A beta-lactamase Sme-1.

  16. Site-protected fixation and immobilization of Escherichia coli cells displaying surface-anchored beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Freeman, A; Abramov, S; Georgiou, G

    1999-01-20

    Bacteria displaying heterologous receptors or enzymes on their surface hold great potential as whole-cell adsorbents and biocatalysts, respectively. For industrial applications, such surface-engineered cells need to be killed and chemically fixed to prevent disintegration and leakage of the displayed proteins under process conditions. It is also highly desirable to couple the chemically stabilized cells onto a solid support matrix for additional mechanical stability, flexibility in reactor choice, and easy separation from processed medium. Recently, we described the development of a readily scalable methodology for cell killing, fixation, and outer membrane stabilization via glutaraldehyde fixation followed by secondary crosslinking (Freeman, A., Abramov, S. and Georgiou, G. 1996. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 52: 625-630). Glutaraldehyde treatment was also found, however, to reduce the specific activity of a model enzyme, beta-lactamase displayed on the surface of E. coli. Here, we show that crosslinking carried out in the presence of beta-lactamase inhibitors, namely phenyl boronic acid or sodium borate, protects the active site from chemical modification resulting in up to threefold higher specific activities without affecting the cell-stabilizing effect of the glutaraldehyde treatment. To prepare an immobilized whole cell biocatalyst, residual unreacted surface aldehyde groups were employed to immobilize covalently the fixed bacteria onto chitosan-coated cellulose powder. The binding of the bacteria onto chitosan-coated cellulose was quantitative up to cell loading of 83 mg dry cell weight/g of support. Cell immobilization did not introduce mass transfer limitations and created only a modest reduction in Vmax. Thus, chemical crosslinking, affected in presence of reversible active-site inhibitors and coupled with cell immobilization on chitosan-coated cellulose represents a widely useful methodology for the process application of recombinant bacteria displaying surface

  17. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacter cloacae with High MICs of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in a Hematology Ward Associated with Contaminated Sinks

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Angélique; Amoureux, Lucie; Bador, Julien; Gavalas, Arthur; Siebor, Eliane; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Caillot, Denis; Janin, Marion; de Curraize, Claire; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae that occurred in the Hematology ward (24-bed unit) of the François Mitterrand University Hospital (Dijon, France) between January 2011 and December 2013. The outbreak involved 43 patients (10 infected and 33 colonized). Design: We performed environmental analysis to detect multiresistant E. cloacae for comparison with clinical isolates (genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST as well as ESBL-typing) and determined the MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC). A bleach-based cleaning-disinfection program was implemented in December 2012 after mechanical removal of the biofilm in all sinks. Results: We have detected 17 ESBL-producing E. cloacae in patients sink drains, shower drains and medical sink drains. Sequencing of the bla genes performed on 60 strains recovered from patients and environment (n = 43 clinical and n = 17 environmental) revealed that bla CTX−M15 was predominant (37 isolates) followed by bla CTX−M9 plus bla SHV−12 (20 isolates). We observed a great diversity among the isolates: 14 pulsotypes (11 STs) in clinical isolates and 9 pulsotypes (7 STs) in environmental isolates. Six pulsotypes were identical between clinical and environmental isolates. MICs of the quaternary ammonium compounds widely used for disinfection were very high in clinical and environmental isolates. Immediately after the implementation of the disinfection program we noticed a substantial fall in cases number. Our findings demonstrate the role of drains as important reservoir of ESBL-producing E. cloacae and highlight the necessity to settle drains accessible to achieve correct cleaning as well as to use disinfectant with proved activity against nosocomial pathogens. PMID:27462306

  18. Persistence and prevalence of pathogenic and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in municipal wastewater treatment plant receiving slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Brugère, Hubert; Kérourédan, Monique; Dupouy, Véronique; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Oswald, Eric; Bibbal, Delphine

    2013-09-01

    We compared the prevalence of pathogenic and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli in effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving wastewater from a slaughterhouse. A total of 1248 isolates were screened for the presence of virulence genes associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) (stx1, stx2, and eae) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (sfa/focDE, kpsMT K1, hlyA, papEF, afa/draBC, clbN, f17A and cnf). The prevalence of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was 0.7%, 0.2% and 0.5% in city wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater and in the treated effluent, respectively. One stx1a and stx2b-positive E. coli isolate was detected in city wastewater. The prevalence of ExPEC was significantly higher in city wastewater (8.4%), compared to slaughterhouse wastewater (1.2%). Treatment in the WWTP did not significantly impact the prevalence of ExPEC in the outlet effluent (5.0%) compared to city wastewater. Moreover, the most potentially pathogenic ExPEC were isolated from city wastewater and from the treated effluent. ESBL-producing E. coli was also mainly detected in city wastewater (1.7%), compared to slaughterhouse wastewater (0.2%), and treated effluent (0.2%). One ESBL-producing E. coli, isolated from city wastewater, was eae-β1 positive. These results showed that pathogenic and/or ESBL-producing E. coli were mainly detected in human wastewater, and at a lesser extend in animal wastewater. Treatment failed to eliminate these strains which were discharged into the river, and then these strains could be transmitted to animals and humans via the environment.

  19. Direct identification of antibiotic resistance genes on single plasmid molecules using CRISPR/Cas9 in combination with optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Vilhelm; Rajer, Fredrika; Frykholm, Karolin; Nyberg, Lena K.; Quaderi, Saair; Fritzsche, Joachim; Kristiansson, Erik; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Sandegren, Linus; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial plasmids are extensively involved in the rapid global spread of antibiotic resistance. We here present an assay, based on optical DNA mapping of single plasmids in nanofluidic channels, which provides detailed information about the plasmids present in a bacterial isolate. In a single experiment, we obtain the number of different plasmids in the sample, the size of each plasmid, an optical barcode that can be used to identify and trace the plasmid of interest and information about which plasmid that carries a specific resistance gene. Gene identification is done using CRISPR/Cas9 loaded with a guide-RNA (gRNA) complementary to the gene of interest that linearizes the circular plasmids at a specific location that is identified using the optical DNA maps. We demonstrate the principle on clinically relevant extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates. We discuss how the gRNA sequence can be varied to obtain the desired information. The gRNA can either be very specific to identify a homogeneous group of genes or general to detect several groups of genes at the same time. Finally, we demonstrate an example where we use a combination of two gRNA sequences to identify carbapenemase-encoding genes in two previously not characterized clinical bacterial samples.

  20. Direct identification of antibiotic resistance genes on single plasmid molecules using CRISPR/Cas9 in combination with optical DNA mapping

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Vilhelm; Rajer, Fredrika; Frykholm, Karolin; Nyberg, Lena K.; Quaderi, Saair; Fritzsche, Joachim; Kristiansson, Erik; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Sandegren, Linus; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids are extensively involved in the rapid global spread of antibiotic resistance. We here present an assay, based on optical DNA mapping of single plasmids in nanofluidic channels, which provides detailed information about the plasmids present in a bacterial isolate. In a single experiment, we obtain the number of different plasmids in the sample, the size of each plasmid, an optical barcode that can be used to identify and trace the plasmid of interest and information about which plasmid that carries a specific resistance gene. Gene identification is done using CRISPR/Cas9 loaded with a guide-RNA (gRNA) complementary to the gene of interest that linearizes the circular plasmids at a specific location that is identified using the optical DNA maps. We demonstrate the principle on clinically relevant extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates. We discuss how the gRNA sequence can be varied to obtain the desired information. The gRNA can either be very specific to identify a homogeneous group of genes or general to detect several groups of genes at the same time. Finally, we demonstrate an example where we use a combination of two gRNA sequences to identify carbapenemase-encoding genes in two previously not characterized clinical bacterial samples. PMID:27905467

  1. Haemophilus influenzae resistance in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, N F; Jerris, R C

    1991-06-01

    We prospectively tabulated all isolates of Haemophilus influenzae at DeKalb Medical Center from 1987 through 1989 to assess the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in patients of different ages. Of 325 total strains isolated, 24% produced beta-lactamase, rendering them resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Antibiotic resistance was as common in patients older than age 60 (24%) as in younger patients (23%). Sensitivity testing by disk diffusion and microdilution techniques on 71 isolates (37 beta-lactamase-positive) showed uniform susceptibility to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, and chloramphenicol, but three beta-lactamase-positive isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The high rate of ampicillin resistance noted in elderly patients has implications for the choice of antimicrobial therapy for these infections.

  2. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from imported flamingos in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Maiko; Ahmed, Ashraf M; Noda, Ayako; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Fukumoto, Yukio; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2009-11-24

    Imported animals, especially those from developing countries, may constitute a potential hazard to native animals and to public health. In this study, a new flock of lesser flamingos imported from Tanzania to Hiroshima Zoological Park were screened for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes. Thirty-seven Gram-negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the flamingos. Seven isolates (18.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, the most common being against: ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid. Molecular analyses identified class 1 and class 2 integrons, beta-lactamase-encoding genes, blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-2 and the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnrS and qnrB. This study highlights the role of animal importation in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria, integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes from one country to another.

  3. Characterization of the penA and penR genes of Burkholderia cepacia 249 which encode the chromosomal class A penicillinase and its LysR-type transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Trépanier, S; Prince, A; Huletsky, A

    1997-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia is recognized as an important pathogen in the lung infections of patients with cystic fibrosis. An inducible beta-lactamase activity has been associated with increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in clinical isolates of B. cepacia. In this study, we report the revised sequence of the penA gene, which encodes the inducible penicillinase of B. cepacia, and show that it belongs to the molecular class A beta-lactamases and exhibits a high degree of similarity to the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Klebsiella oxytoca. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the DNA region directly upstream of the penA coding sequence revealed an open reading frame (penR), the transcription of which was oriented opposite to that of penA and whose initiation was 130 bp away from that of penA. Two potential ribosome-binding sites and two overlapping -10 and -35 promoter sequences were identified in the intercistronic region. The predicted translation product of penR was a polypeptide of 301 amino acids with an estimated molecular size of 33.2 kDa. The deduced polypeptide of penR showed a high degree of similarity with AmpR-like transcriptional activators of class A and C beta-lactamases, with identities of 59 and 58.7% with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 AmpR and Proteus vulgaris B317 CumR, respectively. The N-terminal portion of B. cepacia PenR was predicted to include a helix-turn-helix motif, which may bind the LysR motif identified in the intercistronic region. Induction of PenA by imipenem was shown to be dependent upon the presence of PenR. Expression of the cloned B. cepacia penA and penR genes in Escherichia coli SNO302 (ampD) resulted in a high basal and hyperinducible PenA activity. These results suggest that the regulation of the PenA penicillinase of B. cepacia 249 is similar to that observed in other class A and class C beta-lactamases that are under the control of a divergently transcribed AmpR-like regulator. PMID:9371340

  4. Developing bifunctional beta-lactamase molecules with built-in target-recognizing module for prodrug therapy: identification of Enterobacter Cloacae P99 cephalosporinase loops suitable for randomization and phage-display selection.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Girja S; Krag, David N

    2009-01-01

    This study was focused on developing catalytically active beta-lactamase enzyme molecules that have target-recognizing sites built within their scaffold. Using phage-display approach, nine libraries were constructed by inserting the randomized linear or cysteine-constrained heptapeptides in the five different loops on the outer surface of P99 beta-lactamase molecule. The pIII signal peptide of Sec-pathway was employed for a periplasmic translocation of the beta-lactamase fusion protein, which we found more efficient than the DsbA signal peptide of SRP-pathway. The randomized heptapeptide loops replaced native amino acids between positions (34)Y-(37)K, (238)M-(246)A, (275)N-(280)A, (305)A-(311)S, or (329)I-(334)I of the P99 beta-lactamase molecules for generating the loop-1 to -5 libraries, respectively. The diversity of each loop library was judged by counting the primary and beta-lactamase-active clones. The linear peptide inserts in the loop-2 library showed the maximum number of the beta-lactamase-active clones, followed by the loop-5, loop-3, and loop-4. The insertion of the cysteine-constrained loops exhibited a dramatic loss of the enzyme-active beta-lactamase clones. The complexity of the loop-2 linear library, as determined by the frequency and diversity of amino acid distributions in the randomized region, appears consistent with the standards of other types of phage display library systems. The selection of the loop-2 linear library on streptavidin protein as a test target identified several beta-lactamase clones that specifically bound to streptavidin. In conclusion, this study identified the suitability of the loop-2 of P99 beta-lactamase for constructing a phage-display library of the beta-lactamase enzyme-active molecules that can be selected against a target. This is an enabling step in our long-term goal of developing bifunctional beta-lactamase molecules against cancer-specific targets for enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer.

  5. Bacterial Cheating Limits the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Xiao Chao, Hui; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tatiana; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removal of the antibiotic. The presence of a cooperative mechanism of resistance suggests that a cheater strain - which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic - may be able to take advantage of resistant cells. We find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We use a simple model in conjunction with difference equations to explain the observed population dynamics as a function of cell density and antibiotic concentration. Our experimental difference equations resemble the logistic map, raising the possibility of oscillations or even chaotic dynamics.

  6. First study on characterization of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in verotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized traditional cheeses in Romania.

    PubMed

    Tabaran, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Colobatiu, Liora; Reget, Oana; Borzan, Mihai Marian; Dan, Sorin Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The study focused on the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) in raw milk and traditional dairy cheeses marketed in Romania, characterizing the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of these isolates. One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk and 80 samples of unpasteurized telemy cheese were collected and cultured according to the international standard protocol. All the characteristic E. coli cultures were analyzed for the presence of STa, STb, LT, stx1, and stx2 toxicity genes. The ETEC/VTEC strains were tested for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, such as aadA1, tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, dfrA1, qnrA, aaC, sul1, bla SHV , bla CMY , bla TEM , and ere(A), using PCR. The results showed that 27 samples (18.62%) were positive for one of the virulence genes investigated. 48.1% (n = 13) tested positive at the genes encoding for tetracycline resistance, tetA being the most prevalent one (61.5%; n = 8). A high percent (33.3%; n = 9) revealed the beta-lactamase (bla TEM ) resistance gene, and none of the samples tested positive for bla CMY and bla SHV genes. The genes responsible for resistance to sulfonamides (sul1) and trimethoprim (dfrA1) were detected in rates of 14.8% (n = 4) and 7.4% (n = 2), respectively. E. coli is highly prevalent in raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses marketed in Romania. These strains might represent an important reservoir of resistance genes which can easily spread into other European countries, given the unique market.

  7. Identification of CTX-M beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli from hospitalized patients and residents of long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Urban, Carl; Mariano, Noriel; Bradford, Patricia A; Tuckman, Margareta; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Wehbeh, Wehbeh; Grenner, Louise; Colon-Urban, Rita; Johnston, Brian; Johnson, James R; Rahal, James J

    2010-04-01

    Bacteria harboring CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been identified worldwide, with most reports coming from regions outside North America. We have identified CTX-M enzymes in 31% of ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates from our hospital and more than half (53%) of the isolates from associated long-term care facilities. Approximately 3/4 of all CTX-M-bearing isolates were from urine specimens, with a predominance of CTX-M-15. A large proportion of such isolates were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and all beta-lactam antimicrobials with the exception of the carbapenems, requiring carbapenem therapy for acute urinary tract infection or urinary tract-related sepsis. CTX-M beta-lactamases have emerged within our location, and detection of bacteria harboring these enzymes in the clinical microbiology laboratory remains problematic because molecular methods are needed for their identification.

  8. Impact of three ampicillin dosage regimens on selection of ampicillin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and excretion of blaTEM genes in swine feces.

    PubMed

    Bibbal, D; Dupouy, V; Ferré, J P; Toutain, P L; Fayet, O; Prère, M F; Bousquet-Mélou, A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of three ampicillin dosage regimens on ampicillin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae recovered from swine feces by use of phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Phenotypically, ampicillin resistance was determined from the percentage of resistant Enterobacteriaceae and MICs of Escherichia coli isolates. The pool of ampicillin resistance genes was also monitored by quantification of bla(TEM) genes, which code for the most frequently produced beta-lactamases in gram-negative bacteria, using a newly developed real-time PCR assay. Ampicillin was administered intramuscularly and orally to fed or fasted pigs for 7 days at 20 mg/kg of body weight. The average percentage of resistant Enterobacteriaceae before treatment was between 2.5% and 12%, and bla(TEM) gene quantities were below 10(7) copies/g of feces. By days 4 and 7, the percentage of resistant Enterobacteriaceae exceeded 50% in all treated groups, with some highly resistant strains (MIC of >256 microg/ml). In the control group, bla(TEM) gene quantities fluctuated between 10(4) and 10(6) copies/g of feces, whereas they fluctuated between 10(6) to 10(8) and 10(7) to 10(9) copies/g of feces for the intramuscular and oral routes, respectively. Whereas phenotypic evaluations did not discriminate among the three ampicillin dosage regimens, bla(TEM) gene quantification was able to differentiate between the effects of two routes of ampicillin administration. Our results suggest that fecal bla(TEM) gene quantification provides a sensitive tool to evaluate the impact of ampicillin administration on the selection of ampicillin resistance in the digestive microflora and its dissemination in the environment.

  9. Inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate. The nature of active-site functional groups and comparisons with the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Knap, A K; Pratt, R F

    1991-01-01

    The pH-rate profile for inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate supports previous evidence [Knap & Pratt (1989) Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 6, 316-323] for the activation of the active-site thiol group by adjacent functional groups. The enhanced reactivity of iodoacetate, with respect to that of iodoacetamide, suggests the influence of a positive charge in the active site. The reactivity of iodoacetate is not affected by dissociation of an active-site functional group of pKa 6.7, which increases the reactivity of neutral reagents, probably because of a compensation phenomenon; it is, however, lost on dissociation of an acid of pKa 8.1. It is concluded that the active cysteine beta-lactamase has four functional groups at the active site, one nucleophilic thiolate of Cys-70, one neutral acid (most probably the carboxy group of Glu-166, from the crystal structures) and two cationic residues (most probably Lys-73 and Lys-234). A comparison of these results with the pH-dependence of reactivity of the native RTEM-2 beta-lactamase suggests that the active form of the latter enzyme is also monocationic, although the nucleophile (Ser-70) is likely to be neutral in this case and the carboxylic acid dissociated. A mechanism of class A beta-lactamase catalysis is discussed where the Glu-166 carboxylate acts as a general base/acid catalyst and Lys-73 is principally required for electrostatic stabilization of the anionic tetrahedral intermediate.

  10. Epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli in Japan: Characteristics of community-associated versus healthcare-associated ESBL E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Nagamatsu, Maki; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Sugiki, Yuko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Kei; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-02-01

    Data on community-associated extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (CA-ESBLEC) infections in Japan are scarce. We compared the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of CA-ESBLEC infections with that of healthcare-associated-ESBLEC infections among 76 patients with ESBLEC infections. We identified a high prevalence (26%) of CA-ESBLEC infections in Japan; only a small proportion (15%) of patients with CA-ESBLEC infections had recent exposure to antibiotics.

  11. Sensitive and specific modified Hodge test for KPC and metallo-beta- lactamase detection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by use of a novel indicator strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Veliz, Omar; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of the modified Hodge test to discriminate between KPC- and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and carbapenemase nonproducers. With Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the indicator strain, the MHT resulted in low sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability. Replacing the indicator strain with Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 led to an improved performance (100%, 97%, 0%, and 100% sensitivity, specificity, indeterminate results and repeatability, respectively).

  12. Crystal structures of the class D beta-lactamase OXA-13 in the native form and in complex with meropenem.

    PubMed

    Pernot, L; Frénois, F; Rybkine, T; L'Hermite, G; Petrella, S; Delettré, J; Jarlier, V; Collatz, E; Sougakoff, W

    2001-07-20

    The therapeutic problems posed by class D beta-lactamases, a family of serine enzymes that hydrolyse beta-lactam antibiotics following an acylation-deacylation mechanism, are increased by the very low level of sensitivity of these enzymes to beta-lactamase inhibitors. To gain structural and mechanistic insights to aid the design of new inhibitors, we have determined the crystal structure of OXA-13 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the apo form and in complex with the carbapenem meropenem. The native form consisted of a dimer displaying an overall organisation similar to that found in the closely related enzyme OXA-10. In the acyl-enzyme complex, the positioning of the antibiotic appeared to be ensured mainly by (i) the covalent acyl bond and (ii) a strong salt-bridge involving the carboxylate moiety of the drug. Comparison of the structures of OXA-13 in the apo form and in complex with meropenem revealed an unsuspected flexibility in the region of the essential serine 115 residue, with possible consequences for the catalytic properties of the enzyme. In the apo form, the Ser115 side-chain is oriented outside the active site, whereas the general base Lys70 adopts a conformation that seems to be incompatible with the activation of the catalytic water molecule required for the deacylation step. In the OXA-13:meropenem complex, a 3.5 A movement of the backbone of the 114-116 loop towards the side-chain of Lys70 was observed, which seems to be driven by a displacement of the neighbouring 91-104 loop and which results in the repositioning of the side-chain hydroxyl group of Ser115 toward the catalytic centre. Concomitantly, the side-chain of Lys70 is forced to curve in the direction of the deacylating water molecule, which is then strongly bound and activated by this residue. However, a distance of ca 5 A separates the catalytic water molecule from the acyl carbonyl group of meropenem, a structural feature that accounts for the inhibition of OXA-13 by this drug. Finally

  13. Involvement of a Novel Class C Beta-Lactamase in the Transglutaminase Mediated Cross-Linking Cascade of Streptomyces mobaraensis DSM 40847

    PubMed Central

    Zindel, Stephan; Ehret, Vera; Ehret, Marina; Hentschel, Madeleine; Witt, Samantha; Krämer, Andreas; Fiebig, David; Jüttner, Norbert; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces mobaraensis DSM 40847 secretes transglutaminase that cross-links proteins via γ-glutamyl-ε-lysine isopeptide bonds. Characterized substrates are inhibitory proteins acting against various serine, cysteine and metalloproteases. In the present study, the bacterial secretome was examined to uncover additional transglutaminase substrates. Fractional ethanol precipitation of the exported proteins at various times of culture growth, electrophoresis of the precipitated proteins, and sequencing of a 39 kDa protein by mass spectrometry revealed the novel beta-lactamase Sml-1. As indicated by biotinylated probes, Sml-1, produced in E. coli, exhibits glutamine and lysine residues accessible for transglutaminase. The chromogenic cephalosporin analogue, nitrocefin, was hydrolyzed by Sml-1 with low velocity. The obtained Km and kcat values of the recombinant enzyme were 94.3±1.8 μM and 0.39±0.03 s-1, respectively. Penicillin G and ampicillin proved to be weak inhibitors of nitrocefin hydrolysis (Ki of 0.1 mM and 0.18 mM). Negligible influence of metals on β-lactamase activity ruled out that Sml-1 is a Zn2+-dependent class B beta-lactamase. Rather, sequence motifs such as SITK, YSN, and HDG forming the active core in a hypothetical structure may be typical for class C beta-lactamases. Based on the results, we assume that the novel transglutaminase substrate ensures undisturbed growth of aerial hyphae in Streptomyces mobaraensis by trapping and inactivating hostile beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:26886195

  14. Site-directed mutants, at position 166, of RTEM-1 beta-lactamase that form a stable acyl-enzyme intermediate with penicillin.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Ohta, T; Matsuzawa, H

    1991-02-15

    Class A beta-lactamases are known to hydrolyze substrates through a Ser70-linked acyl-enzyme intermediate, although the detailed mechanism remains unknown. On the basis of the tertiary structure of the active site, the role of Glu166 of class A enzymes was investigated by replacing the residue in RTEM-1 beta-lactamase with Ala, Asp, Gln, or Asn. All the mutants, in contrast to the wild-type, accumulated a covalent complex with benzylpenicillin which corresponds to an acyl-enzyme intermediate. For the Asp mutant, the complex decayed slowly and the hydrolytic activity was slightly retained both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, the other mutants lost the hydrolytic activity completely and their complexes were stable. These results indicate that the side-chain carboxylate of Glu166 acts as a special catalyst for deacylation. Residues for deacylation have not been identified in other acyl enzymes, such as serine proteases and class C beta-lactamases. Furthermore, the acyl-enzyme intermediates obtained are so stable that they are considered to be ideal materials for crystallographic studies for elucidating the catalytic mechanism in more detail. In addition, the mutants can more easily form inclusion bodies than the wild-type, when they are produced in a large amount, suggesting that the residue also plays an important role in proper folding of the enzyme.

  15. Mechanism of synergistic action of a combination of ampicillin and dicloxacillin against a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, J; Suginaka, H; Kotani, S

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of synergistic activity of a combination of ampicillin and dicloxacillin was studied on beta-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii GN346 and its derived beta-lactamaseless mutant GN346/16. The synergistic activity was exhibited against the parent strain but not against the mutant strain. Precultivation of the parent strain with the combination reduced the amount of the subsequent binding of [14C]penicillin G to the membrane fraction from the treated cells, but no reduction was observed in the case of cells treated with ampicillin or dicloxacillin alone. On the other hand, the amount of binding of [14C]penicillin G to the membrane fraction from the mutant strain was reduced by ampicillin treatment alone. These results clearly indicated that dicloxacillin inhibited the beta-lactamase activity produced by the parent strain, and, consequently, ampicillin can penetrate through the outer membrane and periplasmic beta-lactamase barrier into its target sites on the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:316307

  16. Differential stability of beta-sheets and alpha-helices in beta-lactamase: a high temperature molecular dynamics study of unfolding intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, S; Vishveshwara, S; Ravishanker, G; Beveridge, D L

    1993-01-01

    beta-Lactamase, which catalyzes beta-lactam antibiotics, is prototypical of large alpha/beta proteins with a scaffolding formed by strong noncovalent interactions. Experimentally, the enzyme is well characterized, and intermediates that are slightly less compact and having nearly the same content of secondary structure have been identified in the folding pathway. In the present study, high temperature molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on the native enzyme in solution. Analysis of these results in terms of root mean square fluctuations in cartesian and [phi, psi] space, backbone dihedral angles and secondary structural hydrogen bonds forms the basis for an investigation of the topology of partially unfolded states of beta-lactamase. A differential stability has been observed for alpha-helices and beta-sheets upon thermal denaturation to putative unfolding intermediates. These observations contribute to an understanding of the folding/unfolding processes of beta-lactamases in particular, and other alpha/beta proteins in general. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:8312470

  17. Development of SYN-004, an oral beta-lactamase treatment to protect the gut microbiome from antibiotic-mediated damage and prevent Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Kaleko, Michael; Bristol, J Andrew; Hubert, Steven; Parsley, Todd; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul; Subramanian, Poorani; Hasan, Nur; Koski, Perrti; Kokai-Kun, John; Sliman, Joseph; Jones, Annie; Connelly, Sheila

    2016-10-01

    The gut microbiome, composed of the microflora that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and their genomes, make up a complex ecosystem that can be disrupted by antibiotic use. The ensuing dysbiosis is conducive to the emergence of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. A novel approach to protect the microbiome from antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis is the use of beta-lactamase enzymes to degrade residual antibiotics in the gastrointestinal tract before the microflora are harmed. Here we present the preclinical development and early clinical studies of the beta-lactamase enzymes, P3A, currently referred to as SYN-004, and its precursor, P1A. Both P1A and SYN-004 were designed as orally-delivered, non-systemically available therapeutics for use with intravenous beta-lactam antibiotics. SYN-004 was engineered from P1A, a beta-lactamase isolated from Bacillus licheniformis, to broaden its antibiotic degradation profile. SYN-004 efficiently hydrolyses penicillins and cephalosporins, the most widely used IV beta-lactam antibiotics. In animal studies, SYN-004 degraded ceftriaxone in the GI tract of dogs and protected the microbiome of pigs from ceftriaxone-induced changes. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated SYN-004 safety and tolerability. Phase 2 studies are in progress to assess the utility of SYN-004 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile disease.

  18. The Escherichia coli heat shock proteins GroEL and GroES modulate the folding of the beta-lactamase precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Laminet, A A; Ziegelhoffer, T; Georgopoulos, C; Plückthun, A

    1990-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in biochemistry is the role of accessory proteins in the process of protein folding. The Escherichia coli heat shock protein complex GroEL/ES has been suggested to be a 'chaperonin' and be involved in both oligomer assembly as well as protein transport through the membrane. We show here that the folding of the purified precursor of beta-lactamase is inhibited by purified GroEL or the GroEL/ES complex with a stoichiometry of one particle per molecule of pre-beta-lactamase. Purified GroES alone has no effect on folding. After Mg2+ ATP addition folding resumes and the yield of active enzyme is higher than in the absence of GroEL or GroEL/ES. Unexpectedly, GroEL or GroEL/ES, when added to folded pre-beta-lactamase, lead to an apparent net 'unfolding', probably to a collapsed state of the protein, which can be reversed by the addition of Mg2+ ATP. The reversible and Mg2+ ATP-dependent association of GroEL/ES with non-native proteins might explain its postulated role in both protein transport and oligomer assembly. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2192863

  19. Ceftiofur-Resistant Salmonella Strains Isolated from Dairy Farms Represent Multiple Widely Distributed Subtypes That Evolved by Independent Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Alcaine, S. D.; Sukhnanand, S. S.; Warnick, L. D.; Su, W.-L.; McGann, P.; McDonough, P.; Wiedmann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of known food-borne bacterial infections in the United States, with an incidence rate of approximately 15 cases per 100,000 people. The rise of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella subtypes, including the appearance of subtypes resistant to ceftriaxone, represents a particular concern. Ceftriaxone is used to treat invasive cases of Salmonella in children and is closely related to ceftiofur, an antibiotic commonly used to treat diseases of cattle. In order to develop a better understanding of the evolution and transmission of ceftiofur resistance in Salmonella, we characterized ceftiofur-resistant and -sensitive Salmonella isolates from seven New York dairy farms. A total of 39 isolates from these seven farms were analyzed for evolutionary relatedness (by DNA sequencing of the Salmonella genes fimA, manB, and mdh), antibiotic resistance profiles, and the presence of blaCMY-2, a beta-lactamase gene associated with resistance to cephalosporins. Our data indicate that (i) resistance to ceftriaxone and ceftiofur was highly correlated with the presence of blaCMY-2; (ii) ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella strains were geographically widespread, as shown by their isolation from farms located throughout New York State; (iii) ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from farms represent multiple distinct subtypes and evolutionary lineages, as determined by serotyping, DNA sequence typing, and antimicrobial-resistance profiles; and (iv) ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella strains evolved by multiple independent acquisitions of an identical blaCMY-2 allele and by clonal spread of ceftiofur-resistant subtypes. PMID:16189081

  20. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in duck and fish production ponds with integrated or non-integrated mode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Xu, Yan-Bin; Xu, Jia-Xin; Ling, Jia-Yin; Chen, Jin-Liang; Zhou, Jia-Le; Zheng, Li; Du, Qing-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging micropollutants with environmental persistence. Aquaculture environments are considered as potential reservoirs for ARGs pollution and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This study analyzed water and sediment from eight culture ponds (integrated culture: duck-fish pond; monoculture: duck pond and fish pond) and a control pond (without any aquaculture activity) in Zhongshan, South China. Seventeen types of ARGs were detected in all ponds, which conferring resistance to four classes of antibiotics including tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetG, tetL, tetA-P, tetM, tetO, tetS, tetW and tetX), AmpC beta-lactamase products (EBC and FOX), sulfonamide (sul1 and sul2) and erythromycin (ermA), with class 1 integron (intI1) as motility gene. The total concentrations of detected ARGs in culture pond water were much higher than control (about 1.6-4.0 times). Integrated culture showed lowest absolute abundance of ∑ARGs in water (3.686 × 10(7) copies mL(-1)) and the highest in sediment (4.574 × 10(8) copies g(-1)). Monoculture ponds showed higher relative abundance of ∑ARGs both in water (fish pond: 0.5149) and sediment (duck pond: 0.4919). As the main contributor to the ARGs abundance and significant correlations with ∑tet, ∑ARGs and intI1 (P < 0.01), tetA was suggested to be a potential indicator for the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes in these classes of aquaculture modes in the Pearl River Delta. This study provides a case for the ARGs abundance in aquaculture and as a reference for the upcoming health risk assessment in aquatic environment.

  1. Effect of redox environment on the in vitro and in vivo folding of RTEM-1 beta-lactamase and Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Walker, K W; Gilbert, H F

    1994-11-11

    The oxidative folding mechanisms of two Escherichia coli periplasmic proteins, alkaline phosphatase and RTEM-1 beta-lactamase, have been examined in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to eukaryotic proteins, which require a relatively reducing environment for optimal folding rates, both alkaline phosphatase and beta-lactamase fold fastest under very oxidizing conditions. For example, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease exhibits an optimal folding rate in a redox buffer consisting of 1 mM GSH and 0.2 mM GSSG (Lyles, M. M., and Gilbert, H. F. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 613-619); however, both E. coli alkaline phosphatase and beta-lactamase exhibit optimal in vitro folding rates at low concentrations of GSH (< 0.4 mM) and very high concentrations of GSSG (4-8 mM). For both bacterial proteins, GSH inhibits oxidative folding. Under optimal redox conditions, the rate-limiting step for the in vitro oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase depends on the concentration of the protein, consistent with a mechanism involving rapid oxidation followed by slow dimerization. With beta-lactamase, the oxidative folding mechanism involves a competition between disulfide bond formation and folding of the molecule into a catalytically active conformation that buries the 2 reduced cysteines in the core of the enzyme. The effects of including a thiol reductant in the growth medium on the in vivo folding of alkaline phosphatase and beta-lactamase are similar to the effects observed during in vitro folding of these enzymes. The levels of both oxidized proteins are decreased by GSH in the growth medium. However, addition of a disulfide oxidant to the growth medium does not positively affect the production of either enzyme. These observations are consistent with the idea that the oxidative folding mechanisms of E. coli periplasmic proteins and, by inference, proteins of the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum have evolved to accommodate constraints placed on the folding reaction by the folding environment

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of class C beta-lactamase from Citrobacter freundii: insights into the base catalyst for acylation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas; Sordo, Tomás L

    2006-01-17

    Herein, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the class C beta-lactamase from Citrobacter freundii and its Michaelis complex with aztreonam. Four different configurations of the active site were modeled in aqueous solution, and their relative stability was estimated by means of quantum mechanical energy calculations. For the free enzyme, the energetically most stable configurations present a neutral Lys67 residue or an anionic Tyr150 side chain. Our calculations predict that these two configurations are quite close in terms of free energy, the anionic Tyr150 state being favored by approximately 1 kcal/mol. In contrast, for the noncovalent complex formed between the C. freundii enzyme and aztreonam, the energetic analyses predict that the configuration with the neutral Lys67 residue is much more stable than the anionic Tyr150 one (approximately 20 kcal/mol). Moreover, the MD simulations reveal that the neutral Lys67 state results in a proper enzyme-aztreonam orientation for nucleophilic attack and in a very stable contact between the nucleophilic hydroxyl group of Ser64 and the neutral amino side chain of Lys67. Thus, both the computed free energies and the structural analyses support the assignation of Lys67 as the base catalyst for the acylation step in the native form of the C. freundii enzyme.

  3. Sequential necrotizing fasciitis caused by the monomicrobial pathogens Streptococcus equisimilis and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akiko; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressing bacterial infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue that is associated with a high mortality rate and is caused by a single species of bacteria or polymicrobial organisms. Escherichia coli is rarely isolated from patients with monomicrobial disease. Further, there are few reports of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli associated with necrotizing fasciitis. We report here our treatment of an 85-year-old man who was admitted because of necrotizing fasciitis of his right thigh. Streptococcus equisimilis was detected as a monomicrobial pathogen, and the infection was cured by amputation of the patient's right leg and the administration of antibiotics. However, 5 days after discontinuing antibiotic therapy, he developed necrotizing fasciitis on his right upper limb and died. ESBL-producing E. coli was the only bacterial species isolated from blood and skin cultures. This case demonstrates that ESBL-producing E. coli can cause monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, particularly during hospitalization and that a different bacterial species can cause disease shortly after a previous episode.

  4. Decreased transmission of Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in an intensive care unit by nursing reorganization.

    PubMed

    Soulier, A; Barbut, F; Ollivier, J M; Petit, J C; Lienhart, A

    1995-10-01

    In our gastrointestinal surgical intensive care unit (SICU), the large number of patients with multiple enterostomies enhances the risk of nosocomial transmission of gut extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) by health care workers. A control study performed in our SICU from June-August 1992 showed an ESBLE gut colonization rate of 70%. To reduce this rate, nursing procedures were intensified or modified, particularly handwashing, single-use equipment and waste control. To test the efficiency of these procedures, 64 patients hospitalized for more than two days from September 1992-March 1993 were screened for gut acquisition of ESBLE. Rectal samples were taken within 48 h after admission and then weekly. After nursing reorganization, the ESBLE colonization rate dropped significantly to 40% (P < 0.001). Twenty patients (31.7%) acquired a gut ESBLE, after a mean of 24.3 +/- 13.7 days. Each patient was colonized with one, two or three ESBLE (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes). Baseline characteristics of the 20 colonized and 39 non-colonized patients showed no significant difference (Student's t-test, P > 0.05). The nursing workload, estimated as a omega index, was greater in the colonized group (P < 0.001). These findings show that strict observance of nursing procedures can significantly reduce ESBLE acquisition in a high-risk surgical unit.

  5. Characterization of a molten globule intermediate during GdnHCl-induced unfolding of RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D; DasGupta, C

    1996-08-15

    GdnHCl-induced unfolding and reversible folding of beta-lactamase from E. coli have been investigated by measuring enzymatic activity, fluorescence emission and far-UV circular dichroism as indices of the extent of denaturation. The non-coincidence of far-UV CD and fluorescence data and existence of an inflection point clearly suggest the presence of an equilibrium intermediate. The existence of the equilibrium intermediate at around 1 M is corroborated by its enhanced binding of fluorophobic probe 1,8-ANS. The intermediate was found to have a compact shape as measured by its Stokes radius by size-exclusion chromatography. Furthermore, near-UV CD analysis of this enzymatically inactive intermediate showed a significantly disrupted tertiary structure with only a minor change in the secondary structure, which is a characteristic of typical molten globule states. Estimation of the activation energy from the kinetics of unfolding of the protein monitored by fluorescence and CD suggests that the intermediate may be separated from the native and the unfolded state by a high activation-energy barrier.

  6. Efficient catalysis by beta-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus PC1 accompanied by accumulation of an acyl-enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X; Virden, R

    1996-01-01

    The pH- and temperature-dependence of steady-state kinetic parameters for 6-beta-(2-furyl)-acryloylamido-penicillanic acid showed it to be a good substrate of staphylococcal PC1 beta-lactamase, and the viscosity-dependence of K(m)/k(cat) indicated that steps up to the formation of the acyl-enzyme were partially diffusion-limited. In the pH range 4-9, a pre-steady-state transient blue shift in the UV absorption spectrum of the bound furyl-acryloylamido chromophore was of constant amplitude and decayed to the spectrum of the product with a first-order rate constant equal to k(cat). The spectrum of the isolated denatured acyl-enzyme was similar to that of the methyl ester of furyl-acryloylpenicilloic acid, pointing to non-covalent interactions with the folded protein, possibly associated with the charge on Glu-166, as the source of the blue-shifted spectrum. Taken together, these results point to a rapid acylation and slower deacylation at Ser-70 and imply that ionization of groups affecting enzyme activity at alkaline pH, for which likely candidates are Lys-73 and Lys-234, affect the rate of deacylation. PMID:8615826

  7. [Simultaneous determination of three beta-lactamase inhibitor residues in dairy products by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qin

    2013-05-01

    An improved method has been developed for the determination of clavulanate potassium, tazobactam and sulbactam in dairy products. High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) was used in this method. The separation was performed on a CAPCELL PAK MG-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was 0.03% (volume fraction unless otherwise specified) phosphate-acetonitrile. This method offered effective sample preparation procedures including dissolution with water, protein isolation with acetone, clean-up and enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with PWAX cartridges (60 mg/3 mL) under weak acidic condition and further elution with 0.05% ammonia-methanol solution. The analytical method was well validated and good results were obtained with the RSDs of 2.2% - 7.4% and the recoveries of 84.6% - 101.7%. The detection limits of clavulanate potassium, tazobactam and sulbactam were 0.03 mg/L. All of the target compounds exhibited good linearities (r > 0.999) over the mass concentration range of 0.05 - 5 mg/L. With the advantages of good purification effect, high sensitivity, good recovery and repeatability, the method is suitable for the detection of beta-lactamase inhibitors in dairy products.

  8. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  9. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase gene blaVIM-1 in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in the hospitals of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mansour; Vaez, Hamid; Moghoofeie, Mohsen; Hadifar, Shima; Oryan, Golfam; Faghri, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious problems, especially in people, who have immunodeficiency. In recent times, metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs) resistance in this bacterium has led to some difficulties in treating bacterial infections. The metallo-beta-lactamase family of genes, including blaVIM-1, is being reported with increasing frequency worldwide. The aim of this study is the detection of the metallo-β-lactamase gene blaVIM-1 in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (IRPA) strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, 106 P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from various nosocomial infections. The isolates were identified, tested for susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and all the imipenem-resistant isolates were screened for the presence of MBLs by using the combined disk (IMP-EDTA). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was determined by E-test on the Mueller-Hinton agar. To detect the blaVIM-1 gene, the isolates were subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Of all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 62 (58.5%) were found to be imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (MIC ≥32 μg/ml). Twenty-six (42%) of the imipenem-resistant isolates were MBL positive. None of these isolates carried the blaVIM-1 gene using the PCR assay. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the serious therapeutic threat of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa populations. The rate of imipenem resistance due to MBL was increased dramatically. Early detection and infection-control practices are the best antimicrobial strategies for this organism. None of MBL-producing isolates in this study carry the blaVIM-1 gene; therefore, another gene in the MBL family should be investigated. PMID:25802826

  10. Cooperative Bacterial Growth Dynamics Predict the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Hsin-Jung Li, Sophia; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have been our primary weapon against bacterial infections. Unfortunately, bacteria can gain resistance to penicillin by acquiring the gene that encodes beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. However, mutations in this gene are necessary to degrade the modern antibiotic cefotaxime. Understanding the conditions that favor the spread of these mutations is a challenge. Here we show that bacterial growth in beta-lactam antibiotics is cooperative and that the nature of this growth determines the conditions in which resistance evolves. Quantitative analysis of the growth dynamics predicts a peak in selection at very low antibiotic concentrations; competition between strains confirms this prediction. We also find significant selection at higher antibiotic concentrations, close to the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the strains. Our results argue that an understanding of the evolutionary forces that lead to antibiotic resistance requires a quantitative understanding of the evolution of cooperation in bacteria.

  11. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria.

  12. Putative connection between zoonotic multiresistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in dog feces from a veterinary campus and clinical isolates from dogs

    PubMed Central

    Schaufler, Katharina; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ewers, Christa; Kohn, Barbara; Wieler, Lothar H.; Guenther, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To contribute to the understanding of multiresistant bacteria, a ‘One Health’ approach in estimating the rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and getting insights into the transmission from clinical settings to the surrounding environment was employed by collecting fecal samples of dogs in a public area. Isolates were compared to those from samples of diseased dogs from a nearby small-animal clinic. Materials and methods One hundred fecal samples of dogs were collected on a single day in the public area of a veterinary faculty with a small-animal clinic and adjacent residential neighborhoods. All identified ESBL-producing strains were isolated by selective plating, genotypically analyzed by DNA microarray, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and compared to 11 clinical ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from diseased dogs treated in the small-animal clinic 2 months before and 2 months following the environmental sampling collection. Results and discussion Fourteen percent (14/100) of the extra-clinical samples harbored phenotypic ESBL/putative AmpC-producing E. coli with additional resistances against other antimicrobials. One ESBL-strain displayed an identical macrorestriction pattern to one clinical, another one to three clinical clonal ESBL-producing strains. The genotypic ESBL-determinants (bla CTX-M-1 and bla CTX-M-15) and detection rates (10%) in dog feces collected outside of the small-animal clinic are comparable to the rates and ESBL-types in the healthy human population in Germany and to clinical and non-clinical samples of humans and companion animals in Europe. The occurrence of identical strains detected both outside and inside the clinical setting suggests a connection between the small-animal clinic and the surrounding environment. In conclusion, dog feces collected in proximity to veterinary facilities should be considered as a non-point infection

  13. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from neonatal intensive care unit patients involved in hospital infection cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins-Loureiro, M; de Moraes, B A; de Mendonça, V L; Rocha-Quadra, M R; dos Santos-Pinheiro, G; Dutra-Asensi, M

    2001-01-01

    During a two years period, in this study was analyzed the demographic and bacteriologic data of 42 hospitalized newborns attempted by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit of a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The newborns mean age was 10.4 days, with a major prevalence of hospital infection in males (55.0%) than females (45.0%), and a major frequency in vaginal delivery (65.0%) than cesarean delivery (35.0%). 31 patients (77.5%) received a mean of 3 antimicrobials during a 7.9 days before positive blood cultures. The most important underlying risk conditions were prematurely (87.5%), very low birth weight (55.0%) and asphyxia (40.0%). Among the isolated strains were detected high resistance proportion to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. 6 distinct clones in a cluster of 42 epidemiologically related strains were detected through PFGE profiles. The isolated strains presented 9 different antimicrobial resistance profiles (ARPs), where the most frequent clones (A, B and D) were distributed in 5, 3 and 5 ARPs, respectively. Based in the PFGE profiles and isolation periods, apparently the clones A plus A1, B and D caused 3 distinct outbreaks during the study period.

  14. A fungal metallo-beta-lactamase necessary for biotransformation of maize phytoprotectant compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xenobiotic compounds such as phytochemicals, microbial metabolites, and agrochemicals can impact the diversity and frequency of fungal species occurring in agricultural environments. Resistance to xenobiotics may allow plant pathogenic fungi to dominate the overall fungal community, with potential ...

  15. Diversity of Escherichia coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Spain: second nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Miguel A; Hernández-Bello, José R; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Calvo, Jorge; Blanco, Jorge; Pascual, Alvaro

    2010-08-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) in Spain increased 8-fold from 2000 to 2006. ESBL type, clonal relationship, antimicrobial susceptibility, and clinical data about infections caused by ESBLEC are evaluated in a second nationwide study developed in 2006. From 1008 clinical isolates obtained over 2 months from 44 hospitals, 254 were used for further analysis. ESBL production was evaluated by synergy testing, PCR, and sequencing. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by microdilution. The clonal relationship was evaluated by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR). The O25b subtype and the new afa operon FM955459 were determined by triplex PCR in isolates producing CTX-M-15. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on these isolates. A total of 72% of all ESBLs were of the CTX-M type, 26.8% were of the SHV type, and 1.2% were of the TEM type. The most prevalent ESBLs were CTX-M-14 (119 isolates), SHV-12 (68 isolates), CTX-M-15 (37 isolates), and CTX-M-9 (21 isolates). By REP-PCR, 214 clones were detected. All but five CTX-M-15 ESBLEC isolates corresponded to the international O25b/ST131 clone. This clone had not been detected in the first study (published in 2000). Epidemiological and clinical features were studied in 304 representative patients. A total of 60% of the patients were older than 60 and had nonfatal underlying diseases, and 55% had recently received antibiotics. Urinary tract infections accounted for 71% of cases, and 9% were bacteremic. There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of ESBLEC in Spain, with most of these strains being CTX-M-producing isolates, including the pandemic O25b-ST131. SHV-12-producing E. coli remains an important cause of community-acquired infection.

  16. Epidemiology of extended spectrum beta-lactamase E. coli (CTX-M-15) on a commercial dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eamon; Jeckel, Sonja; Snow, Lucy; Stubbs, Rebecca; Teale, Chris; Wearing, Heather; Horton, Robert; Toszeghy, Monique; Tearne, Oliver; Ellis-Iversen, Joey; Coldham, Nick

    2012-01-27

    The epidemiology of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli (CTX-M-15) was observed and described on a commercial dairy farm located in the United Kingdom. During 2008 longitudinal sampling of faecal pat samples from different cattle groups comprising milking and non-milking cows, calving cows, calves, and the environment was carried out. The proportion of CTX-M-15 E. coli positive samples was significantly (p<0.0.01) higher in milking cows (30.3%, CI(95%) 26.8; 33.8) than in the herd as a whole (17.0%, CI(95%) 14.9; 19.0). In 2008 95.6% of sampled calves tested positive for CTX-M-15 E. coli at two days of age. A more detailed investigation in 2009 revealed that cows and heifers were approximately eight times more likely to test positive in the 10 days after calving than the 9 days before (OR 7.6, CI(95%) 2.32; 24.9). The CTX-M15 E. coli was also readily isolated from the immediate calving pen environment, including the water troughs. A cyclic pattern was apparent where cows immediately after calving and as high yielders were highly positive, but where the prevalence decreased during the dry period. The increased prevalence of the CTX-M-15 E. coli in certain cattle groups and farm environments including calving pens suggested that husbandry, antimicrobial usage and hygiene may play a significant role on a farm with regards to the epidemiology of CTX-M-15. This may offer a practical opportunity to reduce further dissemination through good practice and hygiene around calving.

  17. Structural and Biochemical Evidence That a TEM-1 [beta]-Lactamase N170G Active Site Mutant Acts via Substrate-assisted Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas G.; Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy

    2010-03-12

    TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the most common plasmid-encoded {beta}-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria and is a model class A enzyme. The active site of class A {beta}-lactamases share several conserved residues including Ser{sup 70}, Glu{sup 166}, and Asn{sub 170} that coordinate a hydrolytic water involved in deacylation. Unlike Ser{sup 70} and Glu{sup 166}, the functional significance of residue Asn{sup 170} is not well understood even though it forms hydrogen bonds with both Glu{sup 166} and the hydrolytic water. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of Asn{sup 170} for catalysis and substrate specificity of {beta}-lactam antibiotic hydrolysis. The codon for position 170 was randomized to create a library containing all 20 possible amino acids. The random library was introduced into Escherichia coli, and functional clones were selected on agar plates containing ampicillin. DNA sequencing of the functional clones revealed that only asparagine (wild type) and glycine at this position are consistent with wild-type function. The determination of kinetic parameters for several substrates revealed that the N170G mutant is very efficient at hydrolyzing substrates that contain a primary amine in the antibiotic R-group that would be close to the Asn{sup 170} side chain in the acyl-intermediate. In addition, the x-ray structure of the N170G enzyme indicated that the position of an active site water important for deacylation is altered compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, the results suggest the N170G TEM-1 enzyme hydrolyzes ampicillin efficiently because of substrate-assisted catalysis where the primary amine of the ampicillin R-group positions the hydrolytic water and allows for efficient deacylation.

  18. Structure of GES-1 at Atomic Resolution: Insights Into the Evolution of Carbapenamase Activity in the Class a Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.A.; Caccamo, M.; Kantardjieff, K.A.; Vakulenko, S.; /Notre Dame U.

    2007-10-08

    The structure of the class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase GES-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae has been determined to 1.1 Angstrom resolution. GES-1 has the characteristic active-site disulfide bond of the carbapenemase family of {beta}-lactamases and has a structure that is very similar to those of other known carbapenemases, including NMC-A, SME-1 and KPC-2. Most residues implicated in the catalytic mechanism of this class of enzyme are present in the GES-1 active site, including Ser70, which forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl C atom of the {beta}-lactam ring of the substrate during the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate, Glu166, which is implicated as both the acylation and deacylation base, and Lys73, which is also implicated as the acylation base. A water molecule crucial to catalysis is observed in an identical location as in other class A {beta}-lactamases, interacting with the side chains of Ser70 and Glu166. One important residue, Asn170, also normally a ligand for the hydrolytic water, is missing from the GES-1 active site. This residue is a glycine in GES-1 and the enzyme is unable to hydrolyze imipenem. This points to this residue as being critically important in the hydrolysis of this class of {beta}-lactam substrate. This is further supported by flexible-docking studies of imipenem with in silico-generated Gly170Asn and Gly170Ser mutant GES-1 enzymes designed to mimic the active sites of imipenem-hydrolyzing point mutants GES-2 and GES-5.

  19. Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics in Aquatic Systems: Anthropogenic Activities Modulate the Dissemination of blaCTX-M-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tacão, Marta; Henriques, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    We compared the resistomes within polluted and unpolluted rivers, focusing on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, in particular blaCTX-M. Twelve rivers from a Portuguese hydrographic basin were sampled. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of water quality were determined, and the results showed that 9 rivers were classified as unpolluted (UP) and that 3 were classified as polluted (P). Of the 225 cefotaxime-resistant strains isolated, 39 were identified as ESBL-producing strains, with 18 carrying a blaCTX-M gene (15 from P and 3 from UP rivers). Analysis of CTX-M nucleotide sequences showed that 17 isolates produced CTX-M from group 1 (CTX-M-1, -3, -15, and -32) and 1 CTX-M that belonged to group 9 (CTX-M-14). A genetic environment study revealed the presence of different genetic elements previously described for clinical strains. ISEcp1 was found in the upstream regions of all isolates examined. Culture-independent blaCTX-M-like libraries were comprised of 16 CTX-M gene variants, with 14 types in the P library and 4 types in UP library, varying from 68% to 99% similarity between them. Besides the much lower level of diversity among CTX-M-like genes from UP sites, the majority were similar to chromosomal ESBLs such as blaRAHN-1. The results demonstrate that the occurrence and diversity of blaCTX-M genes are clearly different between polluted and unpolluted lotic ecosystems; these findings favor the hypothesis that natural environments are reservoirs of resistant bacteria and resistance genes, where anthropogenic-driven selective pressures may be contributing to the persistence and dissemination of genes usually relevant in clinical environments. PMID:22492443

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enteritidis, southern Italy, 1990-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Nastasi, A.; Mammina, C.; Cannova, L.

    2000-01-01

    During 1990 to 1998, we identified multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis in southern Italy. Plasmids containing class I integrons and codifying for synthesis of extended- spectrum beta-lactamases were detected. Active surveillance for resistance to antimicrobial agents is needed to guard against the possible spread of resistant clones. PMID:10905977

  1. Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples of the Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Raghabendra; Neupane, Sanjeev; Neupane, Mukesh; Bhattarai, Roshan; Bhatta, Sabita; Chaudhary, Raina; Lekhak, Binod

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study. The Staphylococcus aureus was identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram's stain, and biochemical tests. A total of 110 (15.47%) S. aureus isolates were recovered, of which 39 (35.50%) isolates were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. By oxacillin broth microdilution method, 31.82% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be MRSA. However, mecA gene was present in only 29.1% of the isolates. Further, beta-lactamase production was observed in 71.82% of the isolates, while inducible clindamycin resistance was found in 10% of S. aureus isolates. The MIC value of vancomycin for S. aureus ranged from 0.016 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL. On the basis of the absolute sensitivity (100%), both phenotypic methods could be employed for routine diagnosis of MRSA in clinical microbiology laboratory; however cefoxitin disc diffusion could be preferred over MIC method considering time and labour factor. PMID:28154581

  2. Chromophoric spin-labeled beta-lactam antibiotics for ENDOR structural characterization of reaction intermediates of class A and class C beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Hofer, Jennifer E; Huang, Wanzhi; Palzkill, Timothy; Makinen, Marvin W

    2004-05-01

    The chromophoric spin-label substrate 6-N-[3-(2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxypyrrolin-3-yl)-propen-2-oyl]penicillanic acid (SLPPEN) was synthesized by acylation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid with the acid chloride of 3-(2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxypyrrolinyl)-2-propenoic acid and characterized by physical methods. By application of angle-selected electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), we have determined the molecular structure of SLPPEN in solution. SLPPEN exhibited UV absorption properties that allowed accurate monitoring of the kinetics of its enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. The maximum value of the (substrate-product) difference extinction coefficient was 2824 M(-1) cm(-1) at 275 nm compared to 670 M(-1) cm(-1) at 232 nm for SLPEN [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117 (1995) 6739]. For SLPPEN, the steady-state kinetic parameters kcat and kcat/KM, determined under initial velocity conditions, were 637 +/- 36 s(-1) and 13.8 +/- 1.4 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, for hydrolysis catalyzed by TEM-1 beta-lactamase of E. coli, and 0.5 +/- 0.04 s(-1) and 3.9 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) for hydrolysis catalyzed by the beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. We have also observed "burst kinetics" for the hydrolysis of SLPPEN with P99 beta-lactamase, indicative of formation of an acylenzyme reaction intermediate. In DMSO:H2O (30:70, v:v) cryosolvent mixtures buffered to pH* 7.0, the half-life of the acylenzyme intermediate formed with the P99 enzyme at -5 degrees C was > or = 3 min, suitable for optical characterization. The observation of burst kinetics in the hydrolysis of SLPPEN catalyzed by P99 beta-lactamase suggests that this chromophoric spin-labeled substrate is differentially sensitive to active site interactions underlying the cephalosporinase and penicillinase reactivity of this class C enzyme.

  3. Structures of the acyl-enzyme complexes of the Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase mutant Glu166Asp:Asn170Gln with benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Herzberg, O

    2001-02-27

    The serine-beta-lactamases hydrolyze beta-lactam antibiotics in a reaction that proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. The double mutation, E166D:N170Q, of the class A enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus results in a protein incapable of deacylation. The crystal structure of this beta-lactamase, determined at 2.3 A resolution, shows that except for the mutation sites, the structure is very similar to that of the native protein. The crystal structures of two acyl-enzyme adducts, one with benzylpenicillin and the other with cephaloridine, have been determined at 1.76 and 1.86 A resolution, respectively. Both acyl-enzymes show similar key features, with the carbonyl carbon atom of the cleaved beta-lactam bond covalently bound to the side chain of the active site Ser70, and the carbonyl oxygen atom in an oxyanion hole. The thiadolizine ring of the cleaved penicillin is located in a slightly different position than the dihydrothiazine ring of cephaloridine. Consequently, the carboxylate moieties attached to the rings form different sets of interactions. The carboxylate group of benzylpenicillin interacts with the side chain of Gln237. The carboxylate group of cephaloridine is located between Arg244 and Lys234 side chains and also interacts with Ser235 hydroxyl group. The interactions of the cephaloridine resemble those seen in the structure of the acyl-enzyme of beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli with benzylpenicillin. The side chains attached to the cleaved beta-lactam rings of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine are located in a similar position, which is different than the position observed in the E. coli benzylpenicillin acyl-enzyme complex. The three modes of binding do not show a trend that explains the preference for benzylpenicillin over cephaloridine in the class A beta-lactamases. Rather, the conformational variation arises because cleavage of the beta-lactam bond provides additional flexibility not available when the fused rings are intact. The structural

  4. Comparison of Molecular and Phenotypic Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Somily, Ali M; Garaween, Ghada A; Abukhalid, Norah; Absar, Muhammad M; Senok, Abiola C

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid dissemination of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). This study aimed to compare phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and characterization of CRE isolates at a large tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out between January 2011 and November 2013 at the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Saudi Arabia. Determination of presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance was in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phenotypic classification was done by the MASTDISCS(TM) ID inhibitor combination disk method. Genotypic characterization of ESBL and carbapenemase genes was performed by the Check-MDR CT102. Diversilab rep-PCR was used for the determination of clonal relationship. Of the 883 ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae detected during the study period, 14 (1.6%) isolates were carbapenem resistant. Both the molecular genotypic characterization and phenotypic testing were in agreement in the detection of all 8 metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producing isolates. Of these 8 MBL-producers, 5 were positive for blaNDM gene and 3 were positive for blaVIM gene. Molecular method identified additional blaOXA gene isolates while MASTDISCS(TM) ID detected one AmpC producer isolate. Both methods agreed in identifying 2 carbapenem resistant isolates which were negative for carbapenemase genes. Diversilab rep-PCR analysis of the 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed polyclonal distribution into eight clusters. MASTDISCS(TM) ID is a reliable simple cheap phenotypic method for detection of majority of carbapenemase genes with the exception of the blaOXA gene. We recommend to use such method in the clinical laboratory.

  5. Clavulanic Acid: a Beta-Lactamase-Inhibiting Beta-Lactam from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    PubMed Central

    Reading, C.; Cole, M.

    1977-01-01

    A novel β-lactamase inhibitor has been isolated from Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 and given the name clavulanic acid. Conditions for the cultivation of the organism and detection and isolation of clavulanic acid are described. This compound resembles the nucleus of a penicillin but differs in having no acylamino side chain, having oxygen instead of sulfur, and containing a β-hydroxyethylidine substituent in the oxazolidine ring. Clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of many β-lactamases, including those found in Escherichia coli (plasmid mediated), Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, the inhibition being of a progressive type. The cephalosporinase type of β-lactamase found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae P99 and the chromosomally mediated β-lactamase of E. coli are less well inhibited. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and cephaloridine against β-lactamase-producing, penicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus, K. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and E. coli have been shown to be considerably reduced by the addition of low concentrations of clavulanic acid. Images PMID:879738

  6. Bovine intestinal bacteria inactivate and degrade ceftiofur and ceftriaxone with multiple beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R Doug; Johnson, Shemedia J; Cerniglia, Carl E; Erickson, Bruce D

    2011-11-01

    The veterinary cephalosporin drug ceftiofur is rapidly degraded in the bovine intestinal tract. A cylinder-plate assay was used to detect microbiologically active ceftiofur, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to quantify the amount of ceftiofur remaining after incubation with bovine intestinal anaerobic bacteria, which were isolated from colon contents or feces from 8 cattle. Ninety-six percent of the isolates were able to inactivate ceftiofur to some degree, and 54% actually degraded the drug. None of 9 fungal isolates inactivated or degraded ceftiofur. Facultative and obligate anaerobic bacterial species that inactivated or degraded ceftiofur were identified with Vitek and Biolog systems, respectively. A subset of ceftiofur degraders also degraded the chemically similar drug ceftriaxone. Most of the species of bacteria that degraded ceftiofur belonged to the genera Bacillus and Bacteroides. PCR analysis of bacterial DNA detected specific β-lactamase genes. Bacillus cereus and B. mycoides isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases. Seven isolates of Bacteroides spp. produced multiple β-lactamases, including possibly CepA, and metallo-β-lactamases. Isolates of Eubacterium biforme, Bifidobacterium breve, and several Clostridium spp. also produced ceftiofur-degrading β-lactamases. An agar gel overlay technique on isoelectric focusing separations of bacterial lysates showed that β-lactamase enzymes were sufficient to degrade ceftiofur. These results suggest that ceftiofur is inactivated nonenzymatically and degraded enzymatically by multiple β-lactamases from bacteria in the large intestines of cattle.

  7. PCR amplfication on a microarray of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides : detection of bacterial toxin- and drug-resistent genes and their mutations.

    SciTech Connect

    Strizhkov, B. N.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Mikhailovich, V. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-10-01

    PCR amplification on a microarray of gel-immobilized primers (microchip) has been developed. One of a pair of PCR primers was immobilized inside a separate microchip polyacrylamide porous gel pad of 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.02 (or 0.04) micron in size and 0.2 (or 0.4) nL in volume. The amplification was carried out simultaneously both in solution covering the microchip array and inside gel pads. Each gel pad contained the immobilized forward primers, while the fluorescently labeled reverse primers, as well as all components of the amplification reaction, diffused into the gel pads from the solution. To increase the amplification efficiency, the forward primers were also added into the solution. The kinetics of amplification was measured in real time in parallel for all gel pads with a fluorescent microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The accuracy of the amplification was assessed by using the melting curves obtained for the duplexes formed by the labeled amplification product and the gel-immobilized primers during the amplification process; alternatively, the duplexes were produced by hybridization of the extended immobilized primers with labeled oligonucleotide probes. The on-chip amplification was applied to detect the anthrax toxin genes and the plasmid-borne beta-lactamase gene responsible for bacterial ampicillin resistance. The allele-specific type of PCR amplification was used to identify the Shiga toxin gene and discriminate it from the Shiga-like one. The genomic mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were detected by the same type of PCR amplification of the rpoB gene fragment isolated from sputum of tuberculosis patients. The on-chip PCR amplification has been shown to be a rapid, inexpensive and powerful tool to test genes responsible for bacterial toxin production and drug resistance, as well as to reveal point nucleotide mutations.

  8. [Investigation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from bloodstream infections].

    PubMed

    Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Öztel Ocak, Hikmet; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk

    2016-04-01

    One of the treatment options of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. infections which are the most common opportunistic pathogens of gram-negative sepsis is quinolones. Resistance to quinolones which act by disrupting DNA synthesis has been increasing. Horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes play an important role in the spread of resistance. The data about the prevalence of PMQR genes in our country is quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of known PMQR genes namely qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and oqxAB amongst quinolone-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from blood cultures. One hundred twenty seven E.coli and 66 Klebsiella isolates detected as nalidixic acid- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant by phenotypical methods, from 193 blood samples of 187 patients admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Bacteriology Unit of Patient Service Laboratory between January 2012 to August 2013 were included in the study. The presence of PMQR genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the detection of aac(6')-Ib-cr variants PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used. The positive bands were sequenced using the same primers, and aligned with formerly defined resistance gene sequences, and confirmed. In the study, 56.7% (72/127) of E.coli and 19.7% (13/66) of Klebsiella spp. isolates, with a total of 44% (85/193) of all the isolates were found to be phenotypically resistant to quinolones. Of the 13 resistant Klebsiella isolates, 11 were K.pneumoniae, and two were K.oxytoca. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates showed higher resistance (50/80, 62.5%) to quinolones than the negative ones (35/113, 30.9%). The prevalence of quinolone resistance genes among resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates was determined as qnrA, 1.4% and 15.4%; qnrB, 4

  9. Interaction of oxyimino beta-lactams with a class C beta-lactamase and a mutant with a spectrum extended to beta-lactams.

    PubMed Central

    Nukaga, M; Tsukamoto, K; Yamaguchi, H; Sawai, T

    1994-01-01

    The class C beta-lactamase of Citrobacter freundii GN346 is a typical cephalosporinase comprising 361 amino acids, and substitution of the glutamic acid at position 219 in the enzyme by lysine was previously shown to broaden its substrate spectrum to oxyimino beta-lactams (K. Tsukamoto, R. Ohno, and T. Sawai, J. Bacteriol. 172:4348-4351, 1990). To clarify this spectrum extension from the kinetic point of view, the interactions of cefuroxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam with the wild-type and mutant enzymes were analyzed. In addition to aztreonam, known as a progressive inhibitor of class C beta-lactamases, cefuroxime and ceftazidime were found to act as progressive inhibitors of the wild-type enzyme. On the other hand, only aztreonam showed weak progressive inhibition of the mutant enzyme. On the basis of kinetic parameters, a minimum scheme for interaction of the oxyimino beta-lactams with the wild-type enzyme was proposed, and the rate-limiting step of the hydrolysis of unfavorable substrates was indicated to be conversion of the stable acyl-enzyme intermediate to the unstable intermediate. In aztreonam hydrolysis by the mutant enzyme, the reaction rate at the rate-limiting step was 2,000 times that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that the mutation at position 219 disturbs the stabilization of the stable intermediate. PMID:8092840

  10. Kinetic and thermodynamic consequences of the removal of the Cys-77-Cys-123 disulphide bond for the folding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Vanhove, M; Guillaume, G; Ledent, P; Richards, J H; Pain, R H; Frère, J M

    1997-01-01

    Class A beta-lactamases of the TEM family contain a single disulphide bond which connects cysteine residues 77 and 123. To clarify the possible role of the disulphide bond in the stability and folding kinetics of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase, this bond was removed by introducing a Cys-77-->Ser mutation, and the enzymically active mutant protein was studied by reversible guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation. The unfolding and refolding rates were monitored using tryptophan fluorescence. At low guanidine hydrochloride concentrations, the refolding of the wild-type and mutant enzymes followed biphasic time courses. The characteristics of the two phases were not significantly affected by the mutation. Double-jump experiments, in which the protein was unfolded in a high concentration of guanidine hydrochloride for a short time period and then refolded by diluting out the denaturant, indicated that, for both the wild-type and mutant enzymes, the two refolding phases could be ascribed to proline isomerization reactions. Equilibrium unfolding experiments monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy and far-UV CD indicated a three-state mechanism (N<-->H<--U). Both the folded mutant protein (N) and, to a lesser extent the thermodynamically stable intermediate, H. were destabilized relative to the fully unfolded state, U. Removal of the disulphide bond resulted in a decrease of 14.2 kJ/mol (3.4 kcal/mol) in the global free energy of stabilization. Similarly, the mutation also induced a drastic increase in the rate of thermal inactivation. PMID:9020874

  11. [Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in a Buenos Aires hospital].

    PubMed

    Cejas, D; Almuzara, M; Santella, G; Tuduri, A; Palombarani, S; Figueroa, S; Gutkind, G; Radice, M

    2008-01-01

    From 129 P. aeruginosa isolated at a health care centre located in Buenos Aires (Hospital "Eva Perón"), 14% produced IMP-13. Although 18 isolates were metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producers, only those isolates that displayed altered outer membrane protein profiles correlated with the resistant category according to CLSI or even Subcomisión de Antimicrobianos, SADEBAC, AAM. Phenotypic screening of metallo-beta-lactamases proved to be appropriate for detecting MBL producing isolates. IMP-13 producing isolates corresponded to at least five different clonal types, which not only suggests the dissemination of the resistant strain but also of the resistant marker.

  12. Evaluation of a DNA microarray, the check-points ESBL/KPC array, for rapid detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and KPC carbapenemases.

    PubMed

    Naas, T; Cuzon, G; Truong, H; Bernabeu, S; Nordmann, P

    2010-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC carbepenemases) have rapidly emerged worldwide and require rapid identification. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array, a new commercial system based on genetic profiling for the direct identification of ESBL producers (SHV, TEM, and CTX-M) and of KPC producers, was evaluated. Well-characterized Gram-negative rods (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii) expressing various ss-lactamases (KPC-2, SHV, TEM, and CTX-M types) were used as well as wild-type reference strains and isolates harboring ss-lactamase genes not detected by the assay. In addition, phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers isolated in clinical samples over a 3-month period at the Bicetre hospital were analyzed using the Check-Points ESBL/KPC array and by standard PCR. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array allowed fast detection of all TEM, SHV, and CTX-M ESBL genes and of the KPC-2 gene. The assay allowed easy differentiation between non-ESBL TEM and SHV and their ESBL derivatives. None of the other tested ss-lactamase genes were detected, underlining its high specificity. The technique is suited for Enterobacteriaceae but also for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. However, for nonfermenters, especially P. aeruginosa, a 1:10 dilution of the total DNA was necessary to detect KPC-2 and SHV-2a genes reliably. The Check-Points ESBL/KPC array is a powerful high-throughput tool for rapid identification of ESBLs and KPC producers in cultures. It provided definitive results within the same working day, allowing rapid implementation of isolation measures and appropriate antibiotic treatment. It showed an interesting potential for routine laboratory testing.

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella from retail chicken meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimabukuro, Hirofumi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2009-09-01

    Sixty-nine Escherichia coli and 10 Salmonella isolates, recovered from retail chicken meat in Hiroshima prefecture, Japan, were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes. Twenty-eight out of 69 (40.6%) of E. coli and all 10 Salmonella isolates were exhibited multidrug resistance phenotypes. The most commonly reported resistance phenotypes were against ampicillin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PCR screening for integrons showed that 8 (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were positive for the class 1 integrons and 1 isolate (1.4%) was positive for the class 2 integrons. Among the 10 Salmonella isolates, 9 were positive for class 1 integrons and none was positive for class 2 integrons. The identified antibiotic resistance gene cassettes within the class 1 integrons were dfrA1, dfrA7, aadA1, aadB, and catB3, while dfrA1, sat2, and aadA1 were identified within class 2 integron. The beta-lactamase resistance gene bla(TEM-1) was identified in 12 (17.3%) of E. coli isolates and in only one of the Salmonella isolates. The bla(CMY-2) gene, encoding AmpC beta-lactamase, was detected in 16 (23.2%) of the E. coli isolates only. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that there was plasmid-mediated transfer of bla(CMY-2) and bla(TEM-1). These results highlighted the role of retail chicken meat as a potential source for multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli and Salmonella. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 1st report of isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli from retail chicken meat in Japan.

  14. Dissemination of Cephalosporin Resistance Genes between Escherichia coli Strains from Farm Animals and Humans by Specific Plasmid Lineages

    PubMed Central

    de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Fluit, Ad C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type) that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of cephalosporin-resistant E

  15. The role of outer membrane in Serratia marcescens intrinsic resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L; R