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Sample records for beta-lactamase resistance genes

  1. Exploring divergent antibiotic resistance genes in ancient metagenomes and discovery of a novel beta-lactamase family.

    PubMed

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Telke, Amar; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean Marc; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-08-12

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major problem for human health. We analyzed metagenomic datasets from ancient and remote samples from diverse environmental sources and observed the presence of all the eleven antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) groups evaluated. Since ancient samples are not subjected to modern effects of antibiotic misuse, they represent a clean model to explore the natural diversity of ARG in the environment. Most sequences showed high divergence compared with known ARG, representing a much larger universe than the currently known and characterized ARGs. We explored whether proteins within the "divergent resistome" may correspond to functional ARG by characterizing a beta-lactamase hit with very low similarity to any known sequence (<45% to best BLAST hit in NCBI). By starting from purely in-silico data, we revived a new family of class B beta-lactamases from ancient medieval samples, which exhibited a very high penicillinase activity. In this work, we explored ancient resistomes and added novel support to previous works showing that the universe of ARG is naturally vast and diverse in microbial communities. Our results bring a new perspective to the exploration of environmental ARG and indicate that this gigantic reservoir represents a natural endless source of emerging resistances. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes and plasmids among Escherichia coli isolates from zoo animals, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Dolejska, Monika; Jamborova, Ivana; Brhelova, Eva; Blazkova, Lucie; Papousek, Ivo; Kozlova, Marketa; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy zoo animals kept in Ostrava Zoological Garden, Czech Republic, were investigated to evaluate the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. A total of 160 faecal samples of various animal species were inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg L(-1)) or ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg L(-1)) to obtain ESBL- or PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. Clonality of E. coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-nine (71%, n = 69) cefotaxime-resistant and 15 (16%, n = 94) ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates harboured ESBL or PMQR genes. Isolates were assigned to 18 sequence types (ST) and 20 clusters according to their macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genes blaCTX -M-1 and qnrS1 were detected on highly related IncI1 plasmids assigned to clonal complex 3 (ST3, ST38) and on non-related IncN plasmids of ST1 and ST3, respectively. The gene qnrS1 was located on related IncX1 plasmids. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance is associated with spreading of particular E. coli clones and plasmids of specific incompatibility groups among various animal species.

  3. beta-Lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Livermore, D M

    1995-01-01

    beta-Lactamases are the commonest single cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Numerous chromosomal and plasmid-mediated types are known and may be classified by their sequences or phenotypic properties. The ability of a beta-lactamase to cause resistance varies with its activity, quantity, and cellular location and, for gram-negative organisms, the permeability of the producer strain. beta-Lactamases sometimes cause obvious resistance to substrate drugs in routine tests; often, however, these enzymes reduce susceptibility without causing resistance at current, pharmacologically chosen breakpoints. This review considers the ability of the prevalent beta-lactamases to cause resistance to widely used beta-lactams, whether resistance is accurately reflected in routine tests, and the extent to which the antibiogram for an organism can be used to predict the type of beta-lactamase that it produces. PMID:8665470

  4. Determination of extended spectrum beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases and AmpC-beta-lactamases among carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients.

    PubMed

    Neyestanaki, Davood Kalantar; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Rezagholizadeh, Fereshteh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Taherikalani, Morovat; Emaneini, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burns. A total of 214 nonduplicated burn wound isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered from burn patients. Identification of carbapenem resistant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was carried out using the phenotypic methods. The presence of genes encoding extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) enzymes were determined by PCR. The genetic relationships between carbapenem resistant isolates were determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Of 214 investigated P. aeruginosa isolates, 100 (46.7%) were carbapenem resistant. All carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa were resistant to imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, carbenicillin, aztreonam, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but susceptible to polymyxin B. Among 100 carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, 3%, 65% and 52% were identified as ESBLs, carbapenemase and AmpC overproduction positive isolates respectively. The most prevalent ESBLs and MBLs genes included blaOXA-10 (97%), blaTEM (61%), blaVIM (55%), blaPER (13%), blaIMP (3%) and blaAIM (1%). RAPD analysis yielded 13 distinct profiles among 92 isolates. A dominant RAPD type was designated as A that consisting of 80 isolates. This is the first report of Adelaide IMipenmase (AIM) MBLs producing P. aeruginosa from Iran and also of the high prevalence of AmpC overproduction isolates. According to the results of current study, P. aeruginosa isolates producing OXA-10, TEM, VIM, PER and IMP beta-lactamases are frequent and the population structures of these isolates are highly similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Nucleotide sequence of SHV-2 beta-lactamase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarg-Chenon, A.; Godard, V.; Labia, R.; Nicolas, J.C. )

    1990-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase SHV-2 from Salmonella typhimurium (SHV-2pHT1) was determined. The gene was very similar to chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase LEN-1 of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Compared with the sequence of the Escherichia coli SHV-2 enzyme (SHV-2E.coli) obtained by protein sequencing, the deduced amino acid sequence of SHV-2pHT1 differed by three amino acid substitutions.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  7. Phenotypic Characterization of Multidrug-resistant Escherichia Coli with Special Reference to Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases and Metallo-beta-lactamases in a Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B; Shrestha, S; Mishra, S K; Kattel, H P; Tada, T; Ohara, H; Kirikae, T; Rijal, B P; Sherchand, J B; Pokhrel, B M

    2015-01-01

    The increasing reports on extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli have addressed a potential threat to global health since it is found to be highly resistance to most of the currently available antibiotics including carbapenems. The present study was aimed to determine the antibiogram of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase producing MDR E. coli isolates from various clinical samples. This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of seven months from December 2013 to July 2014 at bacteriology laboratory of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. A total of 250 clinical specimens (urine, pus, sputum, blood, body fluid, bile, tissue and central venous pressure line tip) were processed from inpatients, with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli infections. Standard microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of the isolates. The presence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase was detected by phenotypic confirmatory test recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and imipenem (IMP) /EDTA combined disc method was performed to detect metallo-beta-lactamase mediated resistance mechanism. We found high level of beta lactamase mediated resistance mechanism as part of multidrug resistance. Among 250 MDR isolates, 60% isolates were extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producers and 17.2% isolates were metallo-beta-lactamase producers. Co-existence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase and metallo-beta-lactamase identified in 6.8% isolates. Beta-lactamase mediated resistance mechanisms are accounting very high in the multidrug resistant isolates of E. coli. Therefore, early detection of beta lactamase mediated resistant strains and their current antibiotic susceptibility pattern is necessary to avoid treatment failure and prevent the spread of MDR.

  8. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A.

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with blaTEM being the most abundant (50/61) and blaCTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, blaSHV + blaTEM or blaCTX + blaTEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic blaTEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27563674

  10. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and its association with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and AmpC beta-lactamase in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Haeng Soon; Bae, Il Kwon; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Hee Jung; Kim, Si Hyun; Lee, Ja Young; Oh, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hye Ran; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Lee, Jeong Nyeo

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and its association with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase in Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 347 non-duplicated isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected between August and October 2006 from 2 hospitals. Qnr determinant screening was conducted using PCR amplification, and all positive results were confirmed by direct sequencing. Qnr-positive strains were determined on the basis of the presence of ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamase genes. The qnr gene was detected in 47 of 347 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Among the 47 qnr-positive strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N=29) was the most common, followed by Escherichia coli (N=6), Enterobacter cloacae (N=6), Citrobacter freundii (N=5), and Enterobacter aerogenes (N=1). These isolates were identified as qnrA1 (N=6), 8 qnrB subtypes (N=40), and qnrS1 (N=1). At least 1 ESBL was detected in 38 of the 47 qnr-positive strains. Qnr-positive strains also showed high positive rates of ESBL or AmpC beta-lactamase, such as TEM, SHV, CTX-M, and DHA. DHA-1 was detected in 23 of 47 qnr-positive strains, and this was co-produced with 1 qnrA1 and 22 qnrB4. Strains harboring MIR-1T and CMY were also detected among the qnr-positive strains. Antimicrobial-resistance rates of qnr-positive strains to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, and moxifloxacin were 51.1%, 46.8%, 46.8%, 74.5%, and 53.2%, respectively. The qnr genes were highly prevalent in Enterobacteriaceae, primarily the qnrB subtypes. They were closely associated with EBSL and AmpC beta-lactamase.

  11. High percentage of resistance to ciprofloxacin and qnrB19 gene identified in urinary isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Esther; Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Hernandez, Elena; Picazo, Juan Jose

    2010-08-01

    The presence of qnr genes in 191 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from 2005, with 75% of resistance to ciprofloxacin, was evaluated. An SHV-12-producing E. coli carried qnrB19; both genes were transferred by conjugation. No qnrA- or qnrS-positive strains were detected. In addition, we identified 3 new parC mutations (S80W, E84R, and E84A).

  12. Rapid Electrochemical Detection of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase Genes To Enable Point-of-Care Testing of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jimmy Ming-Yuan; Henihan, Grace; Macdonald, Daniel; Michalowski, Annette; Templeton, Kate; Gibb, Alan P; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T

    2015-08-04

    The alarming rate at which antibiotic resistance is occurring in human pathogens causes a pressing need for improved diagnostic technologies aimed at rapid detection and point-of-care testing to support quick decision making regarding antibiotic therapy and patient management. Here, we report the successful development of an electrochemical biosensor to detect bla(NDM), the gene encoding the emerging New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, using label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of this gene is of critical concern because organisms harboring bla(NDM) tend to be multiresistant, leaving very few treatment options. For the EIS assay, we used a bla(NDM)-specific PNA probe that was designed by applying a new approach that combines in silico probe design and fluorescence-based DNA microarray validation with electrochemical testing on gold screen-printed electrodes. The assay was successfully demonstrated for synthetic targets (LOD = 10 nM), PCR products (LOD = 100 pM), and direct, amplification-free detection from a bla(NDM)-harboring plasmid. The biosensor's specificity, preanalytical requirements, and performance under ambient conditions were demonstrated and successfully proved its suitability for further point-of-care test development.

  13. Molecular characterisation of the metallo-beta-lactamase genes in imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from a university hospital in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Feng; Peng, Chien-Fang; Hsu, Hui-Jine; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2008-12-01

    In this study, 260 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated between January 2002 and December 2006 were subjected to a screening test for detection of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) using the Etest containing imipenem and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Among the 260 strains, 123 (47.3%) appeared to produce MBL. Of these 123 strains, 113 (91.9%) were found by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to carry MBL genes of types blaVIM-2, blaVIM-3, blaVIM-11 (blaVIM-11a), blaIMP-8 and novel blaIMP-24. One strain of Serratia marcescens harboured two MBL genes (blaVIM-11 and blaIMP-8) simultaneously. Of the 123 strains, 116 strains (94.3%) carrying the intI1 gene and 21 strains carrying integron-associated blaVIM-3, blaVIM-11 and blaIMP-8 genes were identified among Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter haemolyticus and S. marcescens. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern hybridisation with the blaVIM gene probe for I-CeuI-digested genomic DNA, P. aeruginosa 9527 strain harboured two class 1 integron-associated MBL genes in the chromosome, including blaVIM-3-orf2-aacA4 and novel bla(VIM-3)-orf2-aacA4-aadB-aacA4. This is the first description of the blaVIM-11 gene spreading among P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains in southern Taiwan. This finding suggests that clinical spread of this blaVIM-11 gene is a matter of great concern for carbapenem resistance in southern Taiwan.

  14. Isolation of an ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, S M

    1980-01-01

    A 79-year-old female developed endocarditis and meningitis due to an ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Carbenicillin and gentamicin therapy resulted in bacteriological and clinical cure. The mechanism of resistance of ampicillin-resistant, non-beta-lactamase-producing strains of H. influenzae is unknown. PMID:6965443

  15. Presence and diversity of the beta-lactamase gene in cat and dog staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Malik, Seidu; Christensen, Henrik; Peng, Haihong; Barton, Mary D

    2007-07-20

    Staphylococci are part of the normal microflora of humans and animals and some are potential pathogens that have become resistant to almost all known antibiotics. Despite the widespread reports of penicillin resistance in cat and dog staphylococci, the mechanism underlying penicillin resistance has not been examined. This study was aimed at investigating the molecular basis of resistance to penicillin in cat and dog staphylococcal isolates that showed phenotypic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. An 861 bp fragment of the structural blaZ gene which codes for beta-lactamase production in staphylococci was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products were sequenced. Sequenced fragments were analysed by protein signature typing and sequences were compared to published blaZ sequences of human and bovine staphylococcal strains held in a public database. Four known protein signature types (1, 3, 5 and 6) and one new type (12) were identified in this study. When sequences were compared with published blaZ sequences, gene phylogenetic analysis revealed three major groups. The four variants of beta-lactamases types (A, B, C and D) belonged to each major group except for types A and D which were both in group II. These findings confirm that the blaZ gene is responsible for beta-lactamase production leading to subsequent resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in feline and canine staphylococci and that the gene shows similar diversity and relatedness as found with blaZ sequences obtained from human and bovine staphylococci.

  16. Cloning and sequence of the gene encoding a cefotaxime-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Ohno, A; Taguchi, H; Imajo, S; Ishiguro, M; Matsuzawa, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli TUH12191, which is resistant to piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotiam, ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, and aztreonam but is susceptible to cefoxitin, latamoxef, flomoxef, and imipenem, was isolated from the urine of a patient treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. The beta-lactamase (Toho-1) purified from the bacteria had a pI of 7.8, had a molecular weight of about 29,000, and hydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Toho-1 was markedly inhibited by beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid and tazobactam. Resistance to beta-lactams, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was transferred by conjugational transfer from E. coli TUH12191 to E. coli ML4903, and the transferred plasmid was about 58 kbp, belonging to incompatibility group M. The cefotaxime resistance gene for Toho-1 was subcloned from the 58-kbp plasmid by transformation of E. coli MV1184. The sequence of the gene for Toho-1 was determined, and the open reading frame of the gene consisted of 873 or 876 bases (initial sequence, ATGATG). The nucleotide sequence of the gene (DDBJ accession number D37830) was found to be about 73% homologous to the sequence of the gene encoding a class A beta-lactamase produced by Klebsiella oxytoca E23004. According to the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence, the precursor consisted of 290 or 291 amino acid residues, which contained amino acid motifs common to class A beta-lactamases (70SXXK, 130SDN, and 234KTG). Toho-1 was about 83% homologous to the beta-lactamase mediated by the chromosome of K. oxytoca D488 and the beta-lactamase mediated by the plasmid of E. coli MEN-1. Therefore, the newly isolated beta-lactamase Toho-1 produced by E. coli TUH12191 is similar to beta-lactamases produced by K. oxytoca D488, K. oxytoca E23004, and E. coli MEN-1 rather than to mutants of TEM or SHV enzymes

  17. Genetic and biochemical analysis of a novel Ambler class A beta-lactamase responsible for cefoxitin resistance in Bacteroides species.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, A C; Smith, C J

    1993-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Bacteroides vulgatus was resistant to tetracycline, clindamycin, ampicillin, cephaloridine, cefoxitin, and other beta-lactam antibiotics except imipenem. beta-Lactam resistance was mediated by a membrane-associated, clavulanate-sensitive cephalosporinase capable of degrading cephalosporins and penicillins. Cefoxitin also was degraded but at a slow rate. The cefoxitin resistance (Fxr) determinant was cloned from B. vulgatus genomic libraries that were prepared in Escherichia coli and then mated with Bacteroides fragilis for the identification of Fxr strains. Analysis of B. fragilis strains with the cloned Fxr determinant revealed the presence of a new beta-lactamase protein with the physical and enzymatic properties of the beta-lactamase found in the original B. vulgatus isolate. The beta-lactamase gene (cfxA) was subcloned on a 2.2-kb DraI-HindIII fragment, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. These results showed that cfxA encoded a protein of 321 amino acids and 35,375 molecular weight. Mutant strains in which the cfxA structural gene was disrupted by insertional inactivation lost both Fxr and beta-lactamase activity. Comparison of CfxA with other beta-lactamases showed a relationship with the active-site serine beta-lactamases in the Ambler molecular class A, although CfxA had apparently diverged significantly. This was exemplified by the substitution in CfxA at 13 of 25 amino acid residues previously identified as being invariant in class A beta-lactamases. These results suggest that CfxA may represent a new class A homology group which diverged very early. Images PMID:8517690

  18. The effects on the expression of. beta. -lactamase by targeted insertion of a Kirsten murine leukemia virus variant into the coding region of the gene

    SciTech Connect

    Dias-Ferrao, V.P.T.

    1988-01-01

    The product of this plasmid gene protects bacteria from the antibiotic, ampicillin. When the Kirsten murine leukemia virus variant DNA (MuLV-K-Vd) was inserted into the Pst 1 site of the {beta}-lactamase gene, the transformed bacteria (E. coli, DH5) were resistant to ampicillin. The purpose of this study is to explain the presence of a functional {beta}-lactamase gene with additional nucleotides inserted into the coding region of the gene. The recombinant plasmid codes for a functional {beta}-lactamase. Northern blot analysis of RNA using a {sup 32}P-labelled 16{sup mer} oligonucleotide as a probe revealed the {beta}-lactamase transcript from the recombinant plasmid to be shorter than the transcript from the wild-type {beta}-lactamase gene. Also, greater levels of {beta}-lactamase mRNA were present in cells containing the recombinant plasmid compared to those containing the wild-type plasmid. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the 3{prime} end of MuLV-K-Vd insert contains sequences of {beta}-lactamase. Nucleic acid sequencing substantiated the hybridization data that {beta}-lactamase sequences are present in the 3{prime} end of MuLV-K-Vd. However, exact sequence homology is not evident.

  19. Beta-Lactamase Activity in Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, W. Edmund; O'Dell, Noel M.

    1974-01-01

    The specific activity, substrate profile, response to inhibitors, inducibility, and cellular localization of the beta-lactamase produced by an ampicillin-resistant strain of Haemophilus influenzae type B were investigated. In these properties the enzyme resembles β-lactamases produced by other gram-negative bacilli more closely than those produced by gram-positive organisms. It is quite similar to an enzyme found in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and differs significantly from those described in other gram-negative bacilli. Comparison of the substrate profile with the minimal inhibitory concentrations of various β-lactamase antibiotics suggests that the β-lactamase plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance of this organism. PMID:15825317

  20. Cloning and characterization of the endogenous cephalosporinase gene, cepA, from Bacteroides fragilis reveals a new subgroup of Ambler class A beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M B; Parker, A C; Smith, C J

    1993-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis CS30 is a clinical isolate resistant to high concentrations of benzylpenicillin and cephaloridine but not to cephamycin or penem antibiotics. beta-Lactam resistance is mediated by a chromosomally encoded cephalosporinase produced at a high level. The gene encoding this beta-lactamase was cloned from genomic libraries constructed in Escherichia coli and then mated with B. fragilis 638 for identification of ampicillin-resistant (Apr) strains. Apr transconjugants contained a nitrocefin-reactive protein with the physical and enzymatic properties of the original CS30 isolate. The beta-lactamase gene (cepA) was localized by deletion analysis and subcloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The 903-bp cepA open reading frame encoded a 300-amino-acid precursor protein (predicted molecular mass, 34,070 Da). A beta-lactamase-deficient mutant strain of B. fragilis 638 was constructed by insertional inactivation with the cepA gene of CS30, demonstrating strict functional homology between these chromosomal beta-lactamase genes. An extensive comparison of the CepA protein sequence by alignment with other beta-lactamases revealed the strict conservation of at least four elements common to Ambler class A. A further comparison of the CepA protein sequence with protein sequences of beta-lactamases from two other Bacteroides species indicated that they constitute their own distinct subgroup of class A beta-lactamases. Images PMID:8285623

  1. A fitness cost associated with the antibiotic resistance enzyme SME-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Marciano, David C; Karkouti, Omid Y; Palzkill, Timothy

    2007-08-01

    The bla(TEM-1) beta-lactamase gene has become widespread due to the selective pressure of beta-lactam use and its stable maintenance on transferable DNA elements. In contrast, bla(SME-1) is rarely isolated and is confined to the chromosome of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens strains. Dissemination of bla(SME-1) via transfer to a mobile DNA element could hinder the use of carbapenems. In this study, bla(SME-1) was determined to impart a fitness cost upon Escherichia coli in multiple genetic contexts and assays. Genetic screens and designed SME-1 mutants were utilized to identify the source of this fitness cost. These experiments established that the SME-1 protein was required for the fitness cost but also that the enzyme activity of SME-1 was not associated with the fitness cost. The genetic screens suggested that the SME-1 signal sequence was involved in the fitness cost. Consistent with these findings, exchange of the SME-1 signal sequence for the TEM-1 signal sequence alleviated the fitness cost while replacing the TEM-1 signal sequence with the SME-1 signal sequence imparted a fitness cost to TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness costs associated with some beta-lactamases may limit their dissemination.

  2. [Investigation of beta-lactamase genes and clonal relationship among the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing nosocomial Escherichia coli isolates].

    PubMed

    Görgeç, Sündüz; Kuzucu, Çiğdem; Otlu, Barış; Yetkin, Funda; Ersoy, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing microorganisms currently cause a major problem. Among theseCTX-M beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli has also disseminated worldwide as an important cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the beta-lactamase genes, antibiotic susceptibilities and clonal relationships of ESBL-producing nosocomial E.coli isolates. A total of 76 ESBL-producing E.coli strains isolated from urine (n= 26), blood (n= 25) and wound (n= 25) specimens of hospitalized patients identified as nosocomial infection agents according to the CDC criteria between June 2010-June 2011 were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were detected by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. ESBL production was tested by double disc diffusion method, and cefotaxime/cefotaxime-clavulanic acid E-test strips (AB Biodisk, Sweden) were used for indeterminate results. Presence of TEM, SHV, CTX-M, OXA-2 group, 0XA-10 group, PER, VEB and GES beta-lactamase genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method was used for the detection of clonal relationships among the strains. Most of the ESBL-producing E.coli strains were isolated from samples of inpatients in intensive care (35%), internal medicine (16%) and general surgery (13%) units. All of the 76 strains were found susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin; however all were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to cefoxitin, ertapenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam and ceftazidime were 96%, 83%, 63%, 61%, 50%, 41%, 25%, 21%, 20% and 18%, respectively. Among E.coli isolates, the frequency of CTX-M, TEM, OXA-2 group, PER, SHV and OXA-10 group beta-lactamase

  3. TEM-E1: a novel beta-lactamase conferring resistance to ceftazidime.

    PubMed

    Payne, D J; Marriott, M S; Amyes, S G

    1989-05-01

    A novel beta-lactamase, conferring resistance to ceftazidime, has been identified to be encoded by a 31 kb plasmid (pUK720) in a clinical E. coli strain isolated in Belgium. The beta-lactamase, new designated TEM-E1, has a pI of approximately 5.4 and lies in between the iso-electric focused bands of the beta-lactamases TEM-1 and TEM-7. The TEM-E1 beta-lactamase has a similar molecular weight of 22,000 to the TEM-1 and it is also inhibited by clavulanic acid. However, the TEM-E1 enzyme differs from TEM-1 by its low rates and efficiency of hydrolysis for ceftazidime and cefotaxime, TEM-E1 has similar efficiency of hydrolysis values for ceftazidime and cefotaxime, but only confers resistance to ceftazidime.

  4. Beta-Lactamase Production and Resistance to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Nocardia

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Richard J.; Vance, Paula; Weissfeld, Alice; Martin, R. Russell

    1978-01-01

    Although ampicillin has been suggested as a useful agent for the treatment of nocardiosis in man, little is known regarding the presence of beta-lactamase in Nocardia or its possible role in determining resistance to ampicillin and the other beta-lactam antibiotics. We have evaluated 55 isolates of Nocardia for susceptibility to five beta-lactam antibiotics and for the presence of beta-lactamase. Nocardia were resistant to penicillin G, cloxacillin, and cefazolin, but 27 and 62% were susceptible to 3.1 and 25 μg of ampicillin per ml, respectively. Almost 90% of these ampicillin-susceptible or intermediate strains were also susceptible to carbenicillin. The combination of ampicillin and cloxacillin was synergistic against many ampicillin-resistant strains. Beta-lactamase was detected in 89% of Nocardia isolates when intact cells were used and in six of six strains after cell fractionation. This beta-lactamase was most active against penicillin G and ampicillin, with lesser activity against carbenicillin and cephaloridine. These studies suggest that beta-lactamase may be present in all clinical isolates of Nocardia and that mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance other than or in addition to beta-lactamase are responsible for resistance of Nocardia to ampicillin and carbenicillin. PMID:310280

  5. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32, TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.

  6. [Presence of metallo beta-lactamases in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Pérez I, Alfonso; García C, Patricia; Poggi M, Helena; Braun J, Stephanie; Castillo V, Claudia; Román, Juan Carlos; Lagos, Marcela; Romeo O, Eliana; Porte T, Lorena; Labarca L, Jaime; González R, Gerardo

    2008-04-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) confer high resistance to carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae). They are encoded in mobile elements of different genes (VIM, IMP, SMP, GIM), along with other resistance genes. To detect the presence of MBL in imipenem resistant Psae strains. Fifty-nine imipenem resistant Psae strains isolated from January 2004 to August 2005 in a University Clinical Hospital, were included. The presence of MBL was studied by Etest (phenotypic) and genotypic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. To rule out a nosocomial outbreak, MBL positive strains were studied by pulse field gel electrophoresis. The presence of MBL was detected in eleven strains. AH were type VIM and were not clonally related. There was no concordance between phenotypic and genotypic MBL detecting methods. All the strains were also multiresistant. The presence of MBL was detected in 19% of imipenem resistant Psae strains.

  7. Use of DNA Microarrays for Rapid Genotyping of TEM Beta-Lactamases That Confer Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Verena; Ezaki, Satoshi; Susa, Milorad; Knabbe, Cornelius; Schmid, Rolf. D.; Bachmann, Till T.

    2004-01-01

    Standard clinical procedures for pathogen resistance identification are laborious and usually require 2 days of cultivation before the resistance can be determined unequivocally. In contrast, clinicians and patients face increasing threats from antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in terms of their frequencies and levels of resistance. A major class of microbial resistance stems from the occurrence of beta-lactamases, which, if mutated, can cause the severe extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) phenotype, which cause resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and beta-lactamase inhibitors. We describe an oligonucleotide microarray for identification of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 96% of the TEM beta-lactamase variants described to date which are related to the ESBL and/or IRT phenotype. The target DNA, originating from Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae cells isolated from clinical samples, was amplified and fluorescently labeled by PCR with consensus primers in the presence of cyanine 5-labeled nucleotides. The total assay, including PCR, hybridization, and image analysis, could be performed in 3.5 h. The microarray results were validated by standard clinical procedures. The microarray outperformed the standard procedures in terms of assay time and the depth of information provided. In conclusion, this array offers an attractive option for the identification and epidemiologic monitoring of TEM beta-lactamases in the routine clinical diagnostic laboratory. PMID:15297528

  8. Occurrence of bacteria producing broad-spectrum beta-lactamases and qnr genes in hospital and urban wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Röderová, Magdaléna; Sedláková, Miroslava Htoutou; Pudová, Vendula; Hricová, Kristýna; Silová, Romana; Imwensi, Peter Eghonghon Odion; Bardoň, Jan; Kolář, Milan

    2016-04-01

    The aims were to investigate the level of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital and urban wastewater and to determine the similarity of isolates obtained from wastewater and hospitalized patients. Wastewater samples were collected in September 2013 and 2014. After identification using MALDI-TOF MS, beta-lactamase production was determined by relevant phenotypic tests. Genes responsible for the production of single beta-lactamase groups and Qnr proteins were established. The epidemiological relationship of the isolates from wastewater and hospitalized patients was determined by PFGE. A total of 51 isolates of enterobacteria were obtained. Overall, 45.1% of them produced broad-spectrum beta-lactamases. Genes encoding TEM, SHV, CTX-M, CIT, DHA and EBC types of enzymes and Qnr proteins were detected. No broad-spectrum beta-lactamase production was confirmed in the urban wastewater treatment plant. The most important finding was the detection of two identical isolates of K. pneumoniae in 2013, one from a patient's urinary catheter and the other from a wastewater sample.

  9. Beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Phenotypic characteristics and molecular identification of virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Rahman, Hazir; Jie, Yan; Muhammad, Noor

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes common infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. However, drug resistance capability and release of virulence factors play a key role in bacterial pathogenicity. Beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were screened for biofilm formation and pigment production. Subsequently, all the isolates were subjected to the detection of six virulence genes (OprI, OprL, LasB, PlcH, ExoS, and ToxA). Among beta-lactamase-producing isolates (n=54), about 85.18% (n=46) were biofilm producers. Pigment production was observed in 92.59% (n=50) isolates. Clinical samples were subsequently screened for detection of virulence factors. Among them, 40.74% (n=22) isolates were found to be OprI positive, while 29.62% (n=16) were OprL producers. In the case of LasB and PlcH, 24% (n=13) and 18.5% (n=10) isolates produced these virulence genes, respectively. Among the isolates, 37.03% (n=20) and 33.33% (n=18) expressed virulence factors ExoS and ToxA, respectively. Furthermore, 42.59% (n=23) isolates coproduced more than one type of virulence factors. In the current study, pigment display, biofilm formation, and virulence genes were detected in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Such factors could be crucial in the development of drug resistance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  10. Combating bacterial resistance in skin and skin-structure infection: importance of beta-lactamase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chan, J C

    1999-01-01

    Serious skin and skin-structure infections may require parenteral antibiotic therapy. Such infections are generally polymicrobial, and they often involve both gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes as well as anaerobic bacteria. Effective treatment thus requires the use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic or combination therapy. The development of antibiotic resistance by clinically important pathogens has significantly increased the difficulty of treating skin and skin-structure infections. One of the major mechanisms of resistance observed in organisms likely to be associated with such infections is the development of beta-lactamases that inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Two approaches have been taken to combat this problem: the use of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and the development of beta-lactamase-stable drugs. Both strategies have resulted in treatments that are clinically and bacteriologically effective in patients with skin and skin-structure infections. The use of one beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination, ampicillin/sulbactam, has been demonstrated to be more cost-effective than treatment with beta-lactamase-stable antibiotics, such as cefoxitin and imipenem/cilastatin, for this indication.

  11. CFE-1, a novel plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase with an ampR gene originating from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Okamoto, Ryoichi; Nakano, Yumiko; Kaneko, Kenichi; Okitsu, Naohiro; Hosaka, Yoshio; Inoue, Matsuhisa

    2004-04-01

    A clinical isolate of Escherichia coli from a patient in Japan, isolate KU6400, was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase that conferred resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins. Resistance arising from production of a beta-lactamase could be transferred by either conjugation or transformation with plasmid pKU601 into E. coli ML4947. The substrate and inhibition profiles of this enzyme resembled those of the AmpC beta-lactamase. The resistance gene of pKU601, which was cloned and expressed in E. coli, proved to contain an open reading frame showing 99.8% DNA sequence identity with the ampC gene of Citrobacter freundii GC3. DNA sequence analysis also identified a gene upstream of ampC whose sequence was 99.0% identical to the ampR gene from C. freundii GC3. In addition, a fumarate operon (frdABCD) and an outer membrane lipoprotein (blc) surrounding the ampR-ampC genes in C. freundii were identified, and insertion sequence (IS26) elements were observed on both sides of the sequences identified (forming an IS26 composite transposon); these results confirm the evidence of the translocation of a beta-lactamase-associated gene region from the chromosome to a plasmid. Finally, we describe a novel plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase, CFE-1, with an ampR gene derived from C. freundii.

  12. Insertions of IS256-like element flanking the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene of Enterococcus faecalis CX19.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, L B; Marshall, S H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified an inverted repeat characteristic of staphylococcal beta-lactamase transposons adjacent to the chromosomal beta-lactamase genes of Enterococcus faecalis CH19 and its beta-lactamase-producing transconjugant CX19. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the CH19 beta-lactamase structural gene (blaZ) reveals it to be identical to the blaZ gene from E. faecalis HH22 and to the blaZ gene from the staphylococcal beta-lactamase transposon Tn552. We also report the presence of nucleotide sequence identical to a 317-bp region of the staphylococcal insertion sequence IS256 upstream of the blaZ gene in both CH19 and CX19. The identical segment of IS256 is present downstream of the blaZ gene of CX19, suggesting a second insertion of the element (in the inverted orientation) accompanying transfer to the recipient strain. Restriction analysis of the areas beyond the ClaI sites used to clone these regions suggests that full copies of the IS256-like element (designated IS256E) are present in all positions but that these elements were not directly involved in the transfer of the beta-lactamase gene to the recipient strain. We have also identified a region downstream of the second IS256E insertion site which exhibits substantial homology to ISSIW, an iso-ISSI insertion originally identified in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. These data suggest that the two enterococcal blaZ genes sequenced to date evolved from a common ancestor and may at one time have been incorporated into a transposon similar to Tn552. They also suggest that IS256-like elements are mobile in E. faecalis and capable of inserting in a manner consistent with the formation of novel composite transposons. Finally, they provide the first confirmation of the presence of an ISSI-like element in enterococci, raising the possibility that these elements play a role in the exchange of chromosomal antimicrobial resistance determinants. Images PMID:8031032

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamase production of clinical isolates of prevotella and porphyromonas species.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Hrisi; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal; Demirci, Mehmet; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2005-03-01

    This study determined the beta-lactamase production and the antimicrobial resistance of 72 Prevotella species and 48 Porphyromonas species isolated from different clinical specimens. All strains were identified using API 32 ID. The beta-lactamase production was determined by nitrocefin disks. E test strips of benzylpenicillin, ampicillin + sulbactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole and imipenem were tested for each strain. Nineteen Prevotella melaninogenica, 18 Prevotella intermedia, 16 Prevotella denticola, 11 Prevotella loescheii and 8 Prevotella bivia strains were identified. Four were clindamycin resistant. The highest beta-lactamase production was found at a rate of 68.4% in P. melaninogenica species. Additionally, 33 Porphyromonas asaccharolytica and 15 Porphyromonas gingivalis strains were identified. None of them produced beta-lactamase. In view of the emerging antibiotic resistance among anaerobes, the current local susceptibility profile of our Prevotella and Porphyromonas species will establish the basis for additional surveys tracing significant changes in the antimicrobial resistance of our clinical isolates. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Novel chimeric beta-lactamase CTX-M-64, a hybrid of CTX-M-15-like and CTX-M-14 beta-lactamases, found in a Shigella sonnei strain resistant to various oxyimino-cephalosporins, including ceftazidime.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yukiko; Nagano, Noriyuki; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2009-01-01

    The plasmid-mediated novel beta-lactamase CTX-M-64 was first identified in Shigella sonnei strain UIH-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 1,024 microg/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC, 32 microg/ml). The amino acid sequence of CTX-M-64 showed a chimeric structure of a CTX-M-15-like beta-lactamase (N- and C-terminal moieties) and a CTX-M-14-like beta-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. The introduction of a recombinant plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-64) conferred resistance to cefotaxime in Escherichia coli, and the activities of cefotaxime and ceftazidime were restored in the presence of clavulanic acid. Of note, CTX-M-64 production could also confer consistent resistance to ceftazidime, which differs from the majority of CTX-M-type enzymes, which poorly hydrolyze ceftazidime. These results were consistent with the kinetic parameters determined with the purified CTX-M-64 enzyme. The bla(CTX-M-64) gene was flanked upstream by an ISEcp1 sequence and downstream by an orf477 sequence. The sequence of the 45-bp spacer region between the right inverted repeat (IRR) of ISEcp1 and bla(CTX-M-64) was exactly identical to that of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15-like). Moreover, the presence of a putative IRR of ISEcp1 at the right end of truncated orf477 is indicative of an ISEcp1-mediated transposition event in the bla(CTX-M-64) gene. The emergence of CTX-M-64 by probable homologous recombination would suggest the natural potential of an alternative mechanism for the diversification of CTX-M-type beta-lactamases.

  15. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marta S; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M; Castro, Bruno B; Correia, António C M; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes bla TEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (bla CTX-M-1 and bla SHV-12) and seagull feces (bla CMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  16. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Marta S.; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M.; Castro, Bruno B.; Correia, António C. M.; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12) and seagull feces (blaCMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health. PMID:25191308

  17. Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteria, Including Strains with Genes Encoding the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and QnrS, in Waterbirds on the Baltic Sea Coast of Poland▿

    PubMed Central

    Literak, Ivan; Dolejska, Monika; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Hrusakova, Jolana; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Rzyska, Hanna; Bzoma, Szymon; Cizek, Alois

    2010-01-01

    Individual cloacal swabs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), as well as samples of waterbird feces obtained in 2008 and 2009, were cultivated for Escherichia coli. Isolates of E. coli were tested for susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. Moreover, the samples were subcultivated on MacConkey agar (MCA) containing cefotaxime (2 mg liter−1) to detect E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and subsequently on MCA supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg liter−1) and MCA with nalidixic acid (20 mg liter−1) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. PCR was used to detect specific antibiotic resistance genes. We found 9 E. coli isolates producing ESBL with bla genes: blaCTX-M-1 (6 isolates), blaCTX-M-9 plus blaTEM-1b (1 isolate), blaCTX-M-15 plus blaOXA-1 (1 isolate), and blaSHV-12 (1 isolate). In the isolate with blaCTX-M-15, the gene aac(6)-Ib-cr was also detected. The bla genes were harbored by transferable plasmids of the IncN and IncI1 groups. Nine quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates with qnrS genes were found and characterized. The gene qnrS was associated with a Tn3-like transposon on the IncX1 plasmid together with blaTEM-1 in two isolates. The gene qnrS was also harbored by conjugative plasmids of the IncN and IncX2 groups. Even if populations of wild birds are not directly influenced by antibiotic practice, we have demonstrated that antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, including strains with various ESBL and qnrS genes, are found in the feces of wild birds on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Poland. PMID:20952638

  18. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria, including strains with genes encoding the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and QnrS, in waterbirds on the Baltic Sea Coast of Poland.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Dolejska, Monika; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Hrusakova, Jolana; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Rzyska, Hanna; Bzoma, Szymon; Cizek, Alois

    2010-12-01

    Individual cloacal swabs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), as well as samples of waterbird feces obtained in 2008 and 2009, were cultivated for Escherichia coli. Isolates of E. coli were tested for susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. Moreover, the samples were subcultivated on MacConkey agar (MCA) containing cefotaxime (2 mg liter(-1)) to detect E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and subsequently on MCA supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg liter(-1)) and MCA with nalidixic acid (20 mg liter(-1)) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. PCR was used to detect specific antibiotic resistance genes. We found 9 E. coli isolates producing ESBL with bla genes: bla(CTX-M-1) (6 isolates), bla(CTX-M-9) plus bla(TEM-1b) (1 isolate), bla(CTX-M-15) plus bla(OXA-1) (1 isolate), and bla(SHV-12) (1 isolate). In the isolate with bla(CTX-M-15), the gene aac(6)-Ib-cr was also detected. The bla genes were harbored by transferable plasmids of the IncN and IncI1 groups. Nine quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates with qnrS genes were found and characterized. The gene qnrS was associated with a Tn3-like transposon on the IncX1 plasmid together with bla(TEM-1) in two isolates. The gene qnrS was also harbored by conjugative plasmids of the IncN and IncX2 groups. Even if populations of wild birds are not directly influenced by antibiotic practice, we have demonstrated that antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, including strains with various ESBL and qnrS genes, are found in the feces of wild birds on the coast of the Baltic Sea in Poland.

  19. Antibiotic resistance and genotype of beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in nosocomial infections in Cotonou, Benin.

    PubMed

    Anago, Eugénie; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie; Akpovi, Casimir D; Hounkpe, Wilfried B; Agassounon-Djikpo Tchibozo, Micheline; Bankole, Honoré S; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-17

    Beta lactams are the most commonly used group of antimicrobials worldwide. The presence of extended-spectrum lactamases (ESBL) affects significantly the treatment of infections due to multidrug resistant strains of gram-negative bacilli. The aim of this study was to characterize the beta-lactamase resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from nosocomial infections in Cotonou, Benin. Escherichia coli strains were isolated from various biological samples such as urine, pus, vaginal swab, sperm, blood, spinal fluid and catheter. Isolated bacteria were submitted to eleven usual antibiotics, using disc diffusion method according to NCCLS criteria, for resistance analysis. Beta-lactamase production was determined by an acidimetric method with benzylpenicillin. Microbiological characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and the resistance genes TEM and SHV were screened by specific PCR. ESBL phenotype was detected in 29 isolates (35.5%). The most active antibiotic was imipenem (96.4% as susceptibility rate) followed by ceftriaxone (58.3%) and gentamicin (54.8%). High resistance rates were observed with amoxicillin (92.8%), ampicillin (94%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (85.7%). The genotype TEM was predominant in ESBL and non ESBL isolates with respectively 72.4% and 80%. SHV-type beta-lactamase genes occurred in 24.1% ESBL strains and in 18.1% of non ESBL isolates. This study revealed the presence of ESBL producing Eschericiha coli in Cotonou. It demonstrated also high resistance rate to antibiotics commonly used for infections treatment. Continuous monitoring and judicious antibiotic usage are required.

  20. Beta-lactamase characterization in Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility or resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins recovered from sick animals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Zarazaga, Myriam; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, Concepción; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1439 Escherichia coli isolates from sick animals were received from the Spanish Network of Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (VAV) from 1997 to 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed and diminished susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was identified in 2.5% and 2.8% of the isolates, respectively. Beta-lactamase characterization was carried out in the group of 20 E. coli isolates with both characteristics. The MIC ranges of different beta-lactams showed by these 20 isolates were as follows (in microg/ml): ampicillin (64-->256), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (4-64), ticarcillin (8-->128), cefazolin (32-->256), cefoxitin (4-->128), cefotaxime (1-64), ceftazidime (2-->64), ceftriaxone (0.5-64), imipenem (< or = 0.06-0.25), and aztreonam (2-->32). TEM, SHV, CMY, and FOX beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The beta-lactamase genes detected were the following ones (number of isolates): bla(TEM-1b) (3), bla(TEM-1a) (1), bla(TEM-30f) (2), bla(TEM-1b) + bla(CMY-2) (2), and bla(SHV-12) (1). Sequences of the promoter and/or attenuator region of the chromosomal ampC gene were studied in all the 20 isolates. Mutations at position -42 or -32 were detected in 16 isolates and these mutations were associated with the presence of a TEM type beta-lactamase in 6 isolates. Besides, a high variety of plasmidic beta-lactamases was detected including TEM-30 and CMY-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that TEM-30 beta-lactamase has been detected in E. coli isolates of animal origin.

  1. Gene Network Analysis of Metallo Beta Lactamase Family Proteins Indicates the Role of Gene Partners in Antibiotic Resistance and Reveals Important Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Parimelzaghan, Anitha; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2016-06-01

    Metallo Beta (β) Lactamases (MBL) are metal dependent bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam antibiotics. In recent years, MBL have received considerable attention because it inactivates most of the β-lactam antibiotics. Increase in dissemination of MBL encoding antibiotic resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria often results in unsuccessful treatments. Gene interaction network of MBL provides a complete understanding on the molecular basis of MBL mediated antibiotic resistance. In our present study, we have constructed the MBL network of 37 proteins with 751 functional partners from pathogenic bacterial spp. We found 12 highly interconnecting clusters. Among the 37 MBL proteins considered in the present study, 22 MBL proteins are from B3 subclass, 14 are from B1 subclass and only one is from B2 subclass. Global topological parameters are used to calculate and compare the probability of interactions in MBL proteins. Our results indicate that the proteins associated within the network have a strong influence in antibiotic resistance mechanism. Interestingly, several drug targets are identified from the constructed network. We believe that our results would be helpful for researchers exploring MBL-mediated antibiotic resistant mechanisms.

  2. Imipenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is associated with the combination of ACT-1, a plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase, and the foss of an outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, P A; Urban, C; Mariano, N; Projan, S J; Rahal, J J; Bush, K

    1997-01-01

    Six Escherichia coli and 12 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a single hospital expressed a common beta-lactamase with a pI of approximately 9.0 and were resistant to cefoxitin and cefotetan (MIC ranges, 64 to > 128 and 16 to > 128 micrograms/ml, respectively). Seventeen of the 18 strains produced multiple beta-lactamases. Most significantly, three K. pneumoniae strains were also resistant to imipenem (MICs, 8 to 32 micrograms/ml). Spectrophotometric beta-lactamase assays with purified enzyme indicated hydrolysis of cephamycins, in addition to cephaloridine and benzylpenicillin. The 4ene encoding the pI 9.0 beta-lactamase (designated ACT-1 for AmpC type) was cloned and sequenced, which revealed an ampC-type beta-lactamase gene that originated from Enterobacter cloacae and that had 86% sequence homology to the P99 beta-lactamase and 94% homology to the partial sequence of MIR-1. Southern blotting revealed that the gene encoding ACT-1 was on a large plasmid in some of the K. pneumoniae strains as well as on the chromosomes of all of the strains, suggesting that the gene is located on an easily mobilized element. Outer membrane protein profiles of the K. pneumoniae strains revealed that the three imipenem-resistant strains were lacking a major outer membrane protein of approximately 42 kDa which was present in the imipenem-susceptible strains. ACT-1 is the first plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase derived from Enterobacter which has been completely sequenced. This work demonstrates that in addition to resistance to cephamycins, imipenem resistance can occur in K. pneumoniae when a high level of the ACT-1 beta-lactamase is produced in combination with the loss of a major outer membrane protein. PMID:9055993

  3. In vivo development of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes producing multiple beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Gang; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Yun-Song; Qu, Ting-Ting; Wei, Ze-Qing; Shen, Ping; Li, Lan-Juan

    2008-10-01

    Four clinical strains of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and AmpC-producing Enterobacter aerogenes were isolated successively from a liver transplantation patient. Isolates C(1) and C(2) were isolated prior to carbapenem therapy, whilst isolates C(3) and C(4) were recovered after 40 days of carbapenem therapy. The homology of these strains was analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). beta-Lactamases were analysed by isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Outer membrane proteins were analysed by PCR, sequencing, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Disruption of OmpE36 in C(1) in vitro was also performed by homologous gene recombination. The isolates demonstrated an indistinguishable PFGE pattern. Molecular characterisation revealed that, in addition to the pre-existing multiple beta-lactamases (DHA-1, TEM-1, SHV-5, CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-14) found in C(1) and C(2), isolates C(3) and C(4) failed to express OmpE36 owing to insertional inactivation by an IS903-like insertion sequence. Other resistance mechanisms, such as production of carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes or expression of chromosomal efflux, were apparently not involved. Completely replacing OmpE36 by the kanamycin resistance gene (kan) resulted in a significant increase in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations of an ompE36 mutant. Thus, C(3) and C(4) were apparently derived from the previously imipenem-susceptible isolates C(1) and C(2). Following carbapenem exposure, depletion of OmpE36 expression resulted in the collateral effect of carbapenem resistance.

  4. Worldwide diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Truong, HaVy; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Wisell, Karin T; Carmeli, Yehuda; Gales, Ana C; Venezia, Shiri Navon; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniaeisolates that produce carbapenemases (KPCs) are rapidly disseminating worldwide. To determine their genetic background, we investigated 16 blaKPC-2-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates from 5 countries. The isolates were multidrug resistant, possessed the blaKPC-2 gene, and differed by additional Beta-lactamase content. They harbored a naturally chromosome-encoded bla gene (blaSHV-1 [12.5%], blaSHV-11 [68.7%], or blaOKP-AVB [18.8%]) and several acquired and plasmid-encoded genes (blaTEM-1 [81.3%], blaCTX-M-2 [31.3%], blaCTX-M-12 [12.5%], blaCTX-M-15 [18.7%], and blaOXA-9 [37.5%]). The blaKPC-2 gene was always associated with 1 of the Tn4401 isoforms (a, b, or c). Tn4401 was inserted on different-sized plasmids that belonged to different incompatibility groups. Several blaKPC-containing K. pneumoniae clones were found: 9 different pulsotypes with 1 major (sequence type 258) and 7 minor distinct allelic profiles. Different clones harboring different plasmids but having identical genetic structure, Tn4401, could be at the origin of the worldwide spread of this emerging resistance gene.

  5. BRO beta-lactamase alleles, antibiotic resistance and a test of the BRO-1 selective replacement hypothesis in Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Levy, F; Walker, E S

    2004-02-01

    The hypothesis that BRO-1 selectively replaced the BRO-2 isoform of the Moraxella catarrhalis BRO beta-lactamase was tested by examining the temporal distribution, antibiotic resistance and epidemiological characteristics of isolates from a long-term collection at a single locale. A rapid, one-step PCR assay conducted on 354 isolates spanning 1984-1994 distinguished bro alleles in over 97% of the beta-lactamase-producing isolates. Probes of dot blots were used to distinguish PCR failure from non-beta-lactamase-mediated penicillin resistance. BRO-2 isolates comprised 0-10% of the population per year with no evidence of a decline over time. All beta-lactamase producers exceeded the clinical threshold for penicillin resistance. Bimodality of penicillin MICs for beta-lactamase producers was caused by variation within BRO-1 rather than differences between BRO-1 and BRO-2. Non-beta-lactamase factors also confer resistance to penicillin and may contribute to the BRO-1 bimodality. The 13 BRO-2 isolates were associated with diverse genotypes within which there was evidence of epidemiologically linked clusters. The exclusive association of BRO-2 with four unrelated genotypes suggested maintenance of BRO-2 by recurrent mutation or horizontal exchange. The relative rarity of BRO-2 throughout the study, the absence of a declining temporal trend, and genetic diversity within BRO-2 all failed to support the hypothesis that BRO-2 was more common in the past and has been selectively replaced by BRO-1.

  6. Postneurosurgical meningitis due to Proteus penneri with selection of a ceftriaxone-resistant isolate: analysis of chromosomal class A beta-lactamase HugA and its LysR-type regulatory protein HugR.

    PubMed

    Liassine, Nadia; Madec, Stéphanie; Ninet, Béatrice; Metral, Catherine; Fouchereau-Peron, Martine; Labia, Roger; Auckenthaler, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    We report on a case of a postneurosurgical meningitis due to ceftriaxone-susceptible Proteus penneri, with selection of a ceftriaxone-resistant isolate following treatment with ceftriaxone. The isolates presented identical patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and produced a single beta-lactamase named HugA with an isoelectric point of 6.7. The ceftriaxone-resistant isolate hyperproduced the beta-lactamase (increase in the level of production, about 90-fold). The sequences of the hugA beta-lactamase gene and its regulator, hugR, were identical in both P. penneri strains and had 85.96% homology with those of Proteus vulgaris. The HugA beta-lactamase belongs to molecular class A, and the transcriptional regulator HugR belongs to the LysR family.

  7. Horizontol dissemination of TEM- and SHV-typr beta-lactamase genes-carrying resistance plasmids amongst clonical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ozgumus, Osman Birol; Tosun, Ilknur; Aydin, Faruk; Kilic, Ali Osman

    2008-01-01

    The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been isolated at increasing frequency worldwide. Expression of ESBL is often associated with multidrug resistance and dissemination by resistance plasmids. During a two-month period in 2000, 133 clinical isolates of enterobacterial strains were randomly collected from outpatients and inpatients at a university hospital in Turkey. The ESBL producing strains were determined by double-disk synergy (DDS) testing. Twenty ESBL producing strains (15%) including Escherichia coli (n = 9), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 2) and Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2) were detected and further analyzed for their resistance transfer features, plasmid profile and nature of the resistance genes. Plasmid transfer assays were performed using broth mating techniques. TEM- and SHV- genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization using specific probes. EcoRI restriction enzyme analyses of R plasmids were used in the detection of epidemic plasmids. Fourteen plasmid profiles (A, B1, B2, C1, and C2 to L) were obtained with EcoRI restriction enzyme analysis. Most of these plasmids were detected to carry both TEM- and SHV-derived genes by PCR, and confirmed by localizing each gene by hybridization assay. Epidemiological evidence indicated that there was an apparent horizontal dissemination of conjugative R plasmids among multidrug-resistant enterobacterial genera and species in this hospital. PMID:24031280

  8. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher's test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy.

  9. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Results: Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher’s test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27563634

  10. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  11. Beta-lactamase production in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and resistance to beta-lactam-enzyme inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, K S; Weber, D A; Sanders, C C; Sanders, W E

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that produce high levels of certain beta-lactamases are often resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate prompted this study to assess the relationship between type and amount of enzyme produced and susceptibility to ticarcillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Agar dilution MICs were determined by using 73 strains of Enterobacteriaceae that produced a single beta-lactamase that had been characterized and quantified and a beta-lactamase-negative control strain of Escherichia coli. For E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, MICs of each combination increased as levels of TEM, SHV-1, or class IV enzymes increased. However, the percentage of strains that were resistant was highest for ticarcillin-clavulanate (32%), with only 18 and 6% resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam, respectively. Strains producing PSE-1, regardless of level, were resistant or moderately susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate but were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. HMS-1 and OHIO-1 beta-lactamases were associated with resistance to ticarcillin-clavulanate and piperacillin-tazobactam, respectively. High levels of class IV enzymes in Klebsiella oxytoca were associated with resistance to all three combinations. These results indicate that the level and type of beta-lactamase produced by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are important determinants of susceptibility to beta-lactam-inhibitor combinations, especially ticarcillin-clavulanate. PMID:2344169

  12. Presence of the bla(Z) beta-lactamase gene in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus that appear penicillin susceptible by conventional phenotypic methods.

    PubMed

    El Feghaly, Rana E; Stamm, Jennifer E; Fritz, Stephanie A; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2012-12-01

    Beta-lactamase production may not be reliably detected by commonly used susceptibility testing methods such as Kirby-Bauer penicillin disk diffusion and nitrocefin beta-lactamase detection. We assayed 105 apparently penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates using multiple methods to detect beta-lactamase production. The bla(Z) beta-lactamase gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 10 (9.5%) of the 105 isolates. The average disk diffusion zone diameter was 34 and 38 mm for the bla(Z)-positive and -negative isolates, respectively (P < 0.001). Qualitative description of the zone edge was observer-dependent. The "cloverleaf assay" was positive in 6 of the 10 phenotypically susceptible isolates possessing bla(Z). The results of this study suggest that conventional methods for S. aureus penicillin susceptibility testing may not reliably detect penicillin resistance in all isolates; however, increasing the disk diffusion zone size interpretive criteria to 35 mm for this antimicrobial/organism combination from the current 29-mm breakpoint may improve the sensitivity of phenotypic penicillin susceptibility testing.

  13. Contribution of PBP3 Substitutions and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 Beta-Lactamases to Cefotaxime Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase conferred CTX resistance on both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. A nitrocefin hydrolysis assay showed TEM-15 to be a less efficient enzyme compared to TEM-1. TEM-15 and PBP3 substitutions impose an additive effect on resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in both H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. The effect of PBP3 substitutions on beta-lactam resistance in H. parainfluenzae can be addressed by transfer of ftsI genes in vitro.

  14. Genetic structures at the origin of acquisition of the beta-lactamase bla KPC gene.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Cuzon, Gaelle; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Genetic structures surrounding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing Ambler class A bla KPC gene were characterized in several KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from the United States, Colombia, and Greece. The bla KPC genes were associated in all cases with transposon-related structures. In the K. pneumoniae YC isolate from the United States, the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene was located on a novel Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. Tn4401 was 10 kb in size, was delimited by two 39-bp imperfect inverted repeat sequences, and harbored, in addition to the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene, a transposase gene, a resolvase gene, and two novel insertion sequences, ISKpn6 and ISKpn7. Tn4401 has been identified in all isolates. However, two isoforms of this transposon were found: Tn4401a was found in K. pneumoniae YC and K. pneumoniae GR from the United States and Greece, respectively, and differed by a 100-bp deletion, located just upstream of the bla KPC-2 gene, compared to the sequence of Tn4401b, which was found in the Colombian isolates. In all isolates tested, Tn4401 was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication, the signature of a recent transposition event, and was inserted in different open reading frames located on plasmids that varied in size and nature. Tn4401 is likely at the origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC mobilization to plasmids and its further insertion into various-sized plasmids identified in nonclonally related K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates.

  15. [Investigation of OXA type beta-lactamases and PFGE patterns in Acinetobacter baumannii strains resistant to carbapenems].

    PubMed

    Keyik, Serafettin; Arslan, Uğur; Türk Dağı, Hatice; Seyhan, Tuba; Fındık, Duygu

    2014-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic and multidrug-resistant pathogen leading to nosocomial infections. Over the last 10 years, a significant and threatening increase in resistance to carbapenems, mainly due to the dissemination of class D beta-lactamases, has been reported in A.baumannii worldwide. The most common types of beta-lactamases causing carbapenem resistance in A.baumannii are the OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-40, OXA-58 and OXA-143 type serine beta-lactamases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of OXA type beta-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii strains and the clonal relationship between the strains. A total of 105 non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii strains isolated from various clinical samples (68 blood, 18 bronchoalveolar lavage, 13 drainage, 3 urine, 2 cerebrospinal fluid and 1 catheter samples) in the Microbiology Laboratories of Selcuk University, Meram (2009-2012) and Selcuklu (2007-2008) Medical School Hospitals, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 BD (BD Diagnostic, USA) and Vitek II (bioMerieux, France) automated systems. Carbapenem susceptibility test was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the CLSI standards. bla(OXA 23-like), bla(OXA 24-like), bla(OXA 58-like) and bla(OXA 51-like) genes were amplified by multiplex PCR assay and clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using ApaI enzyme. The bla(OXA 51-like) gene was determined in all carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii isolates, while the bla(OXA 23-like) and bla(OXA 58-like) genes were detected in 46.6% and 53.3% of isolates, respectively. However bla(OXA 24-like) gene was not demonstrated in any isolates. bla(OXA 23-like) gene was determined in both Meram and Selcuklu Medical School hospitals, but bla(OXA 58-like) gene was detected only in Meram Medical School hospital. PFGE analysis of the isolates revealed 32 different

  16. Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sabry A.; Shobrak, Mohammed Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the genetic basis and types of beta-lactamase encountered among enterobacterial isolates of wild pets from the animal exhibit. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria recovered from fecal samples of wild pet animals were analyzed for a selected beta-lactamase gene by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Molecular analysis identified one or more β-lactamase-encoding genes in 14 enterobacterial isolates as a single or gene combination. The most frequent extended-spectrum β-lactamases types were TEM and CTX-M, and the most common AmpC enzymes were CMY-2 and DHA types. Conclusions: The study is the first in Saudi Arabia, have established the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes in the fecal isolates of wild pets. PMID:27047051

  17. Analysis of AmpC beta-lactamase expression and sequence in biochemically atypical ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Avison, Matthew B; Underwood, Sarah; Okazaki, Aki; Walsh, Timothy R; Bennett, Peter M

    2004-04-01

    To analyse the variation of ampC beta-lactamase gene sequence and expression in biochemically atypical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, and to identify them definitively. beta-Lactamase gene-containing recombinant plasmids transformed into Escherichia coli were selected using ampicillin. PCR analysis was used to locate specific ampC and 16S rRNA genes, and the amplicons were sequenced. Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR was used to group isolates and API 20E biochemical profiling was used to identify them putatively. Of 50 ceftazidime-resistant clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 36 were identified (>95% confidence)-using API 20E test strips-as being organisms known to express inducible class C beta-lactamases (Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Morganella morganii or Hafnia alvei). The rest were biochemically atypical. Of these, isolate I113, putatively identified as E. coli, possesses a chromosomally encoded ampC which differs by 15% from C. freundii OS60 ampC and by >30% from E. coli ampC. A related ampC gene was found in another seven of the atypical isolates. The use of various identification methods, including ampC sequence analysis, revealed that these I113-like ampC-positive isolates represent Citrobacter murliniae and Citrobacter youngae. We report sequences for two new Citrobacter spp. ampC genes, and provide evidence that ampC sequencing is a discriminatory method for identifying atypical Citrobacter spp. isolates.

  18. Therapeutic and epidemiologic recommendations to reduce the spread of type-I beta-lactamase resistance.

    PubMed

    Neu, H C; Duma, R J; Jones, R N; McGowan, J E; O'Brien, T F; Sabath, L D; Sanders, C C; Schaffner, W; Tenover, F C; Young, L S

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of this United States Consensus Panel meeting were to evaluate the effectiveness of current surveillance systems for the detection of bacterial resistance as well as to formulate recommendations that can assist hospitals in determining actions that should be taken when a resistance problem is detected. These recommendations may be particularly helpful in controlling the emergence and spread of type-I beta-lactamase resistance. Numerous case reports of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens known to produce type-I beta-lactamases have appeared in the literature since the introduction of the newer "third-generation" cephalosporins. The widespread use of these newer antimicrobial agents, often selected as standard therapy for serious hospital-acquired infections, has been associated with a corresponding increase in resistance to them. The failure of hospitalwide surveillance methods to describe the scope of this problem, especially among the most critically ill patients, may have resulted in a false sense of security among some infectious disease specialists and clinicians prescribing these antimicrobials as empiric therapy. High-level resistance in individual hospital units may be masked in hospitalwide antibiograms. A variety of conclusions and recommendations were formulated based on the collective experiences of the Consensus Panel members. Microbiology laboratories must make it a high priority to identify markers that will assist in rapidly identifying resistant organisms. Cooperative efforts are needed among users of commercial and automated microbiology test instruments to standardize results and to improve quality control, thereby making the data more directly comparable between laboratories.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Excess positional mutual information predicts both local and allosteric mutations affecting beta lactamase drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cortina, George A; Kasson, Peter M

    2016-11-15

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics, particularly plasmid-encoded resistance to beta lactam drugs, poses an increasing threat to human health. Point mutations to beta-lactamase enzymes can greatly alter the level of resistance conferred, but predicting the effects of such mutations has been challenging due to the large combinatorial space involved and the subtle relationships of distant residues to catalytic function. Therefore we desire an information-theoretic metric to sensitively and robustly detect both local and distant residues that affect substrate conformation and catalytic activity. Here, we report the use of positional mutual information in multiple microsecond-length molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to predict residues linked to catalytic activity of the CTX-M9 beta lactamase. We find that motions of the bound drug are relatively isolated from motions of the protein as a whole, which we interpret in the context of prior theories of catalysis. In order to robustly identify residues that are weakly coupled to drug motions but nonetheless affect catalysis, we utilize an excess mutual information metric. We predict 31 such residues for the cephalosporin antibiotic cefotaxime. Nine of these have previously been tested experimentally, and all decrease both enzyme rate constants and empirical drug resistance. We prospectively validate our method by testing eight high-scoring mutations and eight low-scoring controls in bacteria. Six of eight predicted mutations decrease cefotaxime resistance greater than 2-fold, while only one control shows such an effect. The ability to prospectively predict new variants affecting bacterial drug resistance is of great interest to clinical and epidemiological surveillance. Excess mutual information code is available at https://github.com/kassonlab/positionalmi CONTACT: kasson@virginia.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genetic diversity of genes encoding OKP and LEN beta-lactamases produced by clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela

    2009-03-01

    Of the 308 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected in 21 Portuguese health institutions, 11 encoded for LEN and 9 for OKP enzymes; of these, 15 were new enzymes. Ninety-one percent of LEN and all OKP producer strains were resistant to amoxicillin. We demonstrate that these beta-lactamase were highly diverse.

  1. Detection of extended spectrum beta lactamases, ampc beta lactamases and metallobetalactamases in clinical isolates of ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, Sivaraman; Joseph, Noyal M; Kumari, Kandha; Easow, Joshy M; Kumar, Shailesh; Stephen, Selvaraj; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Raj, Sruthi

    2011-10-01

    We studied the prevalence of ceftazidime resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production among the ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A very high rate of MBL production was observed, which suggested it to be an important contributing factor for ceftazidime resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  3. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce Retailed for Human Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Natasha; Muraleedharan, Chithra; Talreja, Deepa; Rana, Sonia Walia; Walia, Sandeep; Kumar, Ashok; Walia, Satish K

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global problem exacerbated by the dissemination of resistant bacteria via uncooked food, such as green leafy vegetables. New strains of bacteria are emerging on a daily basis with novel expanded antibiotic resistance profiles. In this pilot study, we examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria against five classes of antibiotics on iceberg lettuce retailed in local convenience stores in Rochester, Michigan. In this study, 138 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies from 9 iceberg lettuce samples were randomly picked and tested for antibiotic resistance. Among these isolates, the vast majority (86%) demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, and among the resistant bacteria, the majority showed multiple drug resistance, particularly against cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Three bacterial isolates (2.17%) out of 138 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Two ESBL producers (T1 and T5) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen with transferable sulfhydryl variable- (SHV-) and TEM-type ESBLs, respectively. The DNA sequence analysis of the bla SHV detected in K. pneumoniae isolate T1 revealed 99% relatedness to bla SHV genes found in clinical isolates. This implies that iceberg lettuce is a potential reservoir of newly emerging and evolving antibiotic resistant bacteria and its consumption poses serious threat to human health.

  4. Increase in isolation of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing multidrug resistant non typhoidal Salmonellae in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Kauser; Zafar, Afia; Irfan, Seema; Khan, Erum; Mehraj, Vikram; Hasan, Rumina

    2010-04-22

    Increasing resistance to quinolones and ceftriaxone in non typhoidal Salmonellae is a global concern. Resistance to quinolone and 3rd generation cephalosporin amongst non typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) from Pakistan has been reported in this study. Retrospective analysis of laboratory data was conducted (1990-2006). NTS were isolated and identified from clinical samples using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer. Extended spectrum beta lactamase production (ESBL) was detected using combined disc method. Ciprofloxacin sensitivity was detected by nalidixic acid screening method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13. Analysis of 1967 NTS isolates showed a significant increase in ciprofloxacin resistance from 23% in 2002 to 50.5% in 2006, with increased mean MIC values from 0.6 to 1.3 ug/mL. Ceftriaxone resistant NTS also increased and ESBL production was seen in 98.7% isolates. These isolates exhibited high resistance against amoxicillin clavulanic acid (57%), gentamicin (69%), amikacin (44%) and piperacillin tazobactam (30%). No resistance to carbapenem was seen. Ceftriaxone resistance was significantly higher in children <1 year, in invasive isolates and in Salmonella Typhimurium. Increase in quinolone and ceftriaxone NTS is a serious threat to public health requiring continuous surveillance and use of appropriate screening tests for laboratory detection.

  5. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli among Uropathogens of Pediatrics in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Rafiei, Alireza; Rafati, Mohammadreza; Shafahi, Kheironesa

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains as one of the most important bacteria causing infections in pediatrics and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) making them resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In this study we aimed to genotype ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pediatric patients for ESBL genes and determine their association with antimicrobial resistance. One hundred of the E. coli isolates were initially considered ESBL producing based on their MIC results. These isolates were then tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of CTX, TEM, SHV, GES, and VEB beta-lactamase genes. About 30.5% of isolated E. coli was ESBL-producing strain. The TEM gene was the most prevalent (49%) followed by SHV (44%), CTX (28%), VEB (8%), and GES (0%) genes. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were susceptible to carbapenems (66%) and amikacin (58%) and showed high resistance to cefixime (99%), colistin (82%), and ciprofloxacin (76%). In conclusion, carbapenems were the most effective antibiotics against ESBl-producing E. coli in urinary tract infection in North of Iran. The most prevalent gene is the TEM-type, but the other resistant genes and their antimicrobial resistance are on the rise. PMID:26064896

  6. Emergency (clonal spread) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum (ESBL)--and AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria infections at Pediatric Department, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Uzunović, Selma; Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Kamberović, Farah; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Delić-Bikić, Sabina; Sivec, Sara; Meštrović, Tomislav; Varda Brkić, Dijana; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2014-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria in children. Antibiotic susceptibility of MRSA and beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria was determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by the presence of mecA gene by PCR. The genetic characterization of S. aures was performed using spa-typing and the algorithm based upon repeat pattern (BURP). Double-disk synergy test was used to screen for ESBL production. PCR was used to detect bla ESBL alleles. Genetic relatedness of the strains was tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among 23 MRSA, 12 (52.2 %) were obtained from newborns. MLST CC152 (spa-CC 355-595) (Balkan clone) was the most prevalent, 20 (87 %) cases. Among 24 beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria, 10 (41.7 %) were obtained from each newborns and one-year-old children; 14 (58.3 %) were from urine. Among 11 Klebsiella strains isolated from urine eight (73 %) produced CTX-M-15, and one CTX-M-3 beta-lactamase. Twenty (83 %) of CTX-M producers were coproduced by other types of beta-lactamases. Fifteen (65.2 %) MRSA isolates were clonally related. Five clones among 13 K. pneumoniae isolates were detected by PFGE suggesting clonal spread of β-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria. Pediatric infections caused by clonal spread of MRSA and beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are of major concern. Proper infection control measures should be implemented in order to avoid the transmission and major outbreaks.

  7. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing multidrug resistant urinary isolates from children visiting Kathmandu Model Hospital.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, S; Manandhar, S; Shrestha, B; Dhakal, R; Pudasaini, M

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the status of the multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates producing Extended Spectrum of beta-lactamase (ESBL) among the uropathogens infecting children less than 15 years from November 2010 to April 2011 in the Bacteriology laboratory, Kathmandu Model Hospital. Urine samples received in the laboratory were processed for routine culture. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was determined following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) recommended Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion method. The defining criterion in this study for an isolate to be multidrug resistant was resistance to two or more drugs of different structural classes. Isolates were confirmed for ESBL-production by performing the Inhibitor Potentiated Disk Diffusion (IPDD) Test/ Combined Disk Assay for ESBL confirmation. Out of 252 urine samples received in the laboratory, 59(23.41%) showed significant growth of which 54.23% (32/59) were MDR isolates. Additionally, 25 isolates (21 Escherichia coli and 3 Citrobacter freundii and single Enterobacter aerogenes) among them were ESBL producers. Among the first line drugs used against gram negative isolates, Nitrofurantoin was drug of choice; meanwhile among the second line drugs Cefoperazone/Sulbactum was drug of choice, whereas, Cephotaxime, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Gentamicin were the drug of choice for Gram positive isolates. Significant association was found between ESBL production and spectrum of drug resistance (p < 0.05).

  8. Influence of beta-lactamase inhibitors on the activity of oxacillin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T

    1995-02-01

    We studied the in vitro susceptibility to oxacillin of 46 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 8 micrograms/ml of oxacillin, with and without adding clavulanic acid, sulbactam, or tazobactam in three different concentrations (2, 4, and 8 micrograms/ml). All 46 strains were found by the rapid chromogenic cephalosporin method to be beta-lactamase producers. For those strains with low-level resistance (MIC of 16 or 32 micrograms/ml), the MICs of oxacillin decreased four- to 32-fold and two- to 32-fold after adding sulbactam and tazobactam, respectively. For those with high-level resistance (MIC of > or = 64 micrograms/ml), the MICs either did not change or decreased only two-fold after we added one of three beta-lactamase inhibitors. The results suggest that beta-lactamase production probably plays a role in resistance to oxacillin in those MRSA strains of low-level oxacillin resistance.

  9. Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase beta-lactamases associated with long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Urban, Carl; Bradford, Patricia A; Tuckman, Margareta; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Wehbeh, Wehbeh; Grenner, Louise; Colon-Urban, Rita; Mariano, Noriel; Rahal, James J

    2008-06-01

    Nine carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2 or KPC-3 enzymes were identified in patients residing in 7 distinct long-term care facilities. Cefotaxime-hydrolyzing (CTX-M)-type beta-lactamases were also documented in 3 isolates. The identification of these enzymes in patients staying in long-term care facilities should be of great concern to all components of health care systems.

  10. beta-Lactamase-producing Moraxella catarrhalis may prevent the emergence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Veli-Pekka; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Puhakka, Heikki

    2002-05-15

    We studied the effect of concomitant nasopharyngeal carriage of beta-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae on the occurrence of penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We took nasopharyngeal samples from 306 children with recurrent otitis media and a history of several antibiotic treatments. We could isolate at least one of the pathogens in 89 subjects. Of these children 13% carried more than one pathogen. Of the isolated M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae strains 93% and 43% produced beta-lactamase, respectively. Of the S. pneumoniae strains 25% were non-susceptible (I/R) to penicillin. However, in patients carrying beta-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis together with pneumococci all strains were susceptible to penicillin (P=0.0353). This finding suggests that beta-lactamase producing M. catarrhalis may hinder the emergence of penicillin resistance of S. pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

  11. Combination of IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase production and porin deficiency causes carbapenem resistance in a Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jia-Chang; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2009-10-01

    This study shows for the first time the mechanism of carbapenem resistance of a Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolate ZC101 recovered from a Zhejiang University Hospital in Hangzhou, China. MIC values of imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem for K. oxytoca ZC101 were 16, 16, and 128 microg/mL, respectively. Conjugation experiments demonstrated the transferability of a resistance determinant from K. oxytoca ZC101 to Escherichia coli EC600. Results from isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reactions, and DNA sequencing confirmed that K. oxytoca ZC101 produced IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) and CTX-M-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, whereas E. coli transconjugant only produced the IMP-4. Amplification of integron revealed that bla(IMP-4) gene is located within a class I integron that was carried in a plasmid approximately 55 kb in size. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiling of outer membrane proteins of K. oxytoca ZC101 indicated lack of expression of the OmpK36 porin. DNA sequence analysis of ompK36 gene of K. oxytoca ZC101 showed the gene was disrupted by an insertion sequence IS5. In all, the results show that plasmid-mediated IMP-4 MBL production combined with the loss of OmpK36 porin caused the resistance in K. oxytoca ZC101 to carbapenems.

  12. Staphylococci isolated from animals and food with phenotypically reduced susceptibility to beta-lactamase-resistant beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Sz; Keseru, Judit; Gál, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, I; Veres, Z; Somogyi, P

    2004-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance pattern of 1921 Staphylococcus strains isolated from animals and food within the last two years were examined using diffusion tests. Among them there were only 35 strains of S. aureus having an inhibition zone diameter of 15 mm or less, and 4 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) having a zone diameter of 18 mm or less to 1-microg oxacillin disk. These 39 strains were examined also by E-test to oxacillin and for the detection of the mecA gene by PCR in order to determine whether they might be real methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Among the 39 strains there were only two that were susceptible to penicillin by disk diffusion method; however, further examination by the penicillinase test showed that they produced beta-lactamase. While 19 (15 S. aureus, 4 CNS) strains were resistant and 7 strains were intermediate to oxacillin in disk diffusion test, the E-test gave 8 resistant and 5 intermediate results. Six out of the 8 oxacillin-resistant strains examined by disk diffusion and E-test harboured the mecA gene. Thus only 6 out of the examined 1921 strains proved to be mecA positive. These methicillin-resistant, mecA-positive strains (5 of the S. aureus strains and 1 of the S. epidermidis) originated from two dairy herds. The results prove that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in animals are really rare in Hungary. Eighteen strains were chosen and screened for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin with or without clavulanic acid or sulbactam, and three of them produced methicillinase enzyme.

  13. The bla gene of the cephamycin cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus encodes a class A beta-lactamase of low enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Llarena, F; Martín, J F; Galleni, M; Coque, J J; Fuente, J L; Frère, J M; Liras, P

    1997-01-01

    A gene (bla) encoding a beta-lactamase is present in the cephamycin gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus, the strain producing clavulanic acid and a beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. The bla gene is located 5.1 kb downstream from and in the opposite orientation to cefE, encoding the deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase. The bla gene encodes a 332-residue protein (Mr, 35,218), similar to other class A beta-lactamases produced by actinomycetes. Modification (to SDG) of the SDN conserved motif of class A beta-lactamases as well as of amino acids in otherwise conserved regions in the molecule may explain the low penicillinase and cephalosporinase activities of the protein. The beta-lactamase has been purified to homogeneity and found to bind [3H]benzylpenicillin, a result reflecting a rate-limiting deacylation step. Nucleotide sequences homologous to bla were found in all tested cephamycin producers, but several other Streptomyces species which produce a beta-lactamase do not contain genes for beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis. PMID:9324249

  14. Emergence of Multidrug Resistance and Metallo-beta-lactamase Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Patients in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, MN; Motamedifar, M; Sarvari, J; Sedigh, Ebrahim-Saraie H; Mousavi, Same M; Moghadam, FN

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metallo-beta-lactamase (MβL) enzymes production is one of the most important resistance mechanisms against carbapenems in some bacteria including Acinetobacter baumannii. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the prevalence of MβL among carbapenem-resistant isolates of A. baumannii. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study from October 2012 to April 2013, 98 isolates were identified as A. baumannii using Microgen™ kits and confirmed by molecular method. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were further detected phenotypically by MβL minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)-test strips, and subsequently positive MβL isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Overall, 98% (96/98) of A. baumannii isolates were detected as carbapenem-resistant by MIC test. Highest sensitivity to the tested antibiotic with 42.9% (42/98) was observed to colistin. Of 96 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 43 were phenotypically positive for MβL; out of 43 isolates, 37 were confirmed for the presence of MβL genes by PCR. Conclusion: The frequency of drug resistance among the clinical samples of A. baumannii isolated in our study against most of the antibiotics was very high. Moreover, all MβL producing isolates were multidrug resistance. Therefore, systematic surveillance to detect MβL producing bacteria and rational prescription and use of carbapenems could be helpful to prevent the spread of carbapenem resistance. PMID:27398247

  15. Effects of azlocillin in combination with clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and N-formimidoyl thienamycin against beta-lactamase-producing, carbenicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, S B; Gardella, A; Philippon, A M; Jacoby, G A; Moellering, R C

    1982-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the combination of azlocillin with the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid and sulbactam and with N-formimidoyl thienamycin against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with R-factor-mediated carbenicillin resistance. The 10 strains tested (1 R-, 9 R+) were isogenic, except for the presence of individual plasmids determining each of nine plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases found in P. aeruginosa. We utilized a checkerboard technique for testing antibiotic combinations. Low concentrations of clavulanic acid produced synergy with azlocillin against the strains producing the TEM-1, TEM-2, PSE-1, PSE-3, and PSE-4 beta-lactamases; for the strains producing the OXA-1, OXA-2, OXA-3, and PSE-2 beta-lactamases, such synergy was not found. With sulbactam, synergy was demonstrated in all strains except that producing PSE-2 beta-lactamase; for several strains, however, the concentration of sulbactam required to produce synergy was substantially higher than that for clavulanic acid. N-Formimidoyl thienamycin was highly active as a single agent against all of the strains, regardless of beta-lactamase production. The combination of N-formimidoyl thienamycin and azlocillin produced synergy against only two of the strains tested. PMID:6100423

  16. Activity of cephalosporins against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci: minimal effect of beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    John, J F; McNeill, W F

    1980-01-01

    Eight cephalosporins were tested for their activity against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci and for their resistance to beta-lactamase from methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci. Susceptibility testing by the agar plate method was evaluated for the effect of inoculum size and duration of incubation. Methicillin-susceptible, coagulase-negative staphylococci were highly susceptible to the cephalosporins, with cephapirin and cepahlothin showing the greatest activity, followed by cefazolin and cefamandole. Methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci displayed nearly total cross-resistance to the cephalosporins. Resistance increased with increasing inoculum size. Beta-Lactamases produced by methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci had a minimal hydrolytic effect on cepahlothin, cephapirin, cefazolin, and cefamandole and no measurable effect on cefoxitin. There was no correlation between the anti-staphylococcal activity and resistance to beta-lactamases. PMID:6966906

  17. Spatial molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant and New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM)-producing Escherichia coli in the piglets of organized farms in India.

    PubMed

    Pruthvishree, B S; Vinodh Kumar, O R; Sinha, D K; Malik, Y P S; Dubal, Z B; Desingu, P A; Shivakumar, M; Krishnaswamy, N; Singh, B R

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government-organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in the Escherichia coli. In this study, fecal sample (n = 673) from non-diarrheic (n = 501) and diarrheic (n = 172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Of 673, E. coli isolate (n = 112) was genotyped for confirming the carbapenem resistance and associated virulence factors. Of the 112 isolates, 23 were phenotypically resistant to carbapenem and 8 were carrying the New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM) gene. The carbapenem-resistant isolates also produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases and were multidrug resistant. The PCR-based pathotyping revealed the presence of stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR dendrogram analysis of the isolates yielded three distinct clusters. The statistical analysis revealed no association between carriages of carbapenem-resistant E. coli in different breed of piglets however, location, sex, health status of piglets and age showed significant difference. The spatial analysis with SaTScan helped in identification of carbapenem-resistant clusters. The presence of carbapenem resistant E. coli isolates with virulence genes in the piglet poses a potential public health risk through possible access and spread via the food chain and environment. Efflux pump may also play an important role in carbapenem resistance in piglet E. coli isolates. Furthermore, identification of risk factors in relation to spatial clusters will help in designing preventive strategies for reducing the risk of spread of carbapenem resistant bacteria. 1. Piglets harbor carbapenem resistant E. coli and have great public health significance. 2. Apart from carbapenemase, efflux pump is also important for carbapenem resistance. 3. This is the first report of blaNDM in the piglets from India. © 2017

  18. Thiol-beta-lactamase: replacement of the active-site serine of RTEM beta-lactamase by a cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Sigal, I S; Harwood, B G; Arentzen, R

    1982-12-01

    We describe a procedure by which the codon (AGC) for the active-site serine-70 of pBR322 beta-lactamase (penicillinase, penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase, EC 3.5.2.6) is altered to that for cysteine (TGC). The pertinent nucleotide bases, A-G-C-A, positions 410-413, of pBR322 are excised by treating a limited HgiAI digest of pBR322 with the 3' leads to 5' exonuclease of T4 DNA polymerase. The new sequence, T-G-C-A, is inserted in two steps. First, the Kpn I molecular linker d(T-G-G-T-A-C-C-A) is ligated into the gap described above. The internal sequence G-T-A-C is then excised enzymatically with Kpn I and T4 DNA polymerase and the molecule is recircularized. This mutant gene, which codes for a thiol-beta-lactamase, confers on Escherichia coli K-12 hosts an ampicillin resistance that is reduced compared with that given by pBR322 yet is greater than that of E. coli lacking any intact beta-lactamase gene. Cell-free extracts of E. coli strains hosting the thiol-beta-lactamase gene possess a p-chloromercuribenzoate-sensitive beta-lactamase activity.

  19. Growing Menace of Antibacterial Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Nepal: An Insight of Beta-Lactamase Production

    PubMed Central

    Dhital, Rabindra; Puri, Ram; Chaudhary, Niraj; Khatiwada, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently isolated organism as it acts as the opportunistic pathogen and can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. The production of different types of beta-lactamases renders this organism resistant to many commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document the antibiotic resistance rate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods. Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered was identified by standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines and all the suspected isolates were tested for the production of ESBLs, MBLs, and AmpC. Results. Out of total (178) isolates, 83.1% were recovered from the inpatient department (IPD). Majority of the isolates mediated resistance towards the beta-lactam antibiotics, while nearly half of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Most of the aminoglycosides used showed resistance rate up to 75% but amikacin proved to be better option. No resistance to polymyxin was observed. ESBLs, MBLs, and AmpC mediated resistance was seen in 33.1%, 30.9%, and 15.7% isolates, respectively. Conclusions. Antibiotic resistance rate and beta-lactamase mediated resistance were high. Thus, regular surveillance of drug resistance is of utmost importance. PMID:27642599

  20. High prevalence of extensively drug-resistant and metallo beta-lactamase-producing clinical Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran.

    PubMed

    Maspi, Hossein; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-09-01

    Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method. The MBL-producing isolates were screened using combined disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the presence of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM, blaSIM and blaNDM was detected by PCR. 34.9% of isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 81 (94.2%) and 62 (71.2%) isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) and XDR, respectively. 44 (51.2%) and 65 (75.6%) isolates were MBL-producing strains with resistance to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. 2 (2.3%), 13 (15.1%), 2 (2.3%), 4 (4.7%) and 2 (2.3%) isolates carried blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM and blaSIM genes, respectively. Our data showed that the rate of XDR and MBL A. baumannii is on the rise.

  1. Prevalence of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M Beta-Lactamase genes in the urinary isolates of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Trupti; Pandey, M.; Varma, M.; Bhatambare, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are the major cause of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams. They are derived from the narrow-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1) by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the enzyme active site. Aim: To determine the prevalence of ESBL (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV) genes among the members of Enterobacteriaceae. Methodology: The present prospective study was carried out from January 2015 to June 2015 in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine of a Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital. A total of 526 urine samples were studied. Seventy-eight isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction for detection of ESBL genes. Results: In our study, ESBL genes were detected among 18 (45%) phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers and 20 (52.5%) phenotypically confirmed non-ESBL producers. The gene that predominated was blaTEM (48.7%), followed by blaCTX-M (7.6%) and blaSHV (5.1%). Conclusion: Definitive identification of ESBL genes is only possible by molecular detection methods. Phenotypic tests need to be evaluated periodically as their performance may change with the introduction of new enzymes. PMID:28182026

  2. New beta-lactamases in gram-negative bacteria: diversity and impact on the selection of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Bush, K

    2001-04-01

    Of the 340 discrete beta-lactamases that have been identified, the most important groups of enzymes that are continuing to proliferate include the plasmid-encoded cephalosporinases, the metallo-beta-lactamases, and the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Resistance to specific beta-lactam-containing antimicrobial agents frequently can be traced to a single beta-lactamase, but this task is becoming more difficult for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Other factors, such as multiple beta-lactamase production, transferable multidrug-resistance genes, alterations in outer-membrane porins, and possible antibiotic efflux, all may contribute to a resistance phenotype. Appreciation of these factors may help the physician make a more informed decision when choosing therapy to try to avoid selection of even more pathogenic strains.

  3. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of multidrug resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and cattle in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Kar, Debasish; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Bhattacharyya, Debaraj; Samanta, Indranil; Mahanti, Achintya; Nanda, Pramod K; Mondal, Bimalendu; Dandapat, Premanshu; Das, Arun K; Dutta, Tapan K; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and poultry in Odisha, India. Of 316 E. coli isolated from 305 samples (170 fecal samples from poultry and 135 milk samples from cattle), a total of 18 E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by combination disc method and ESBL E-test. The isolates were resistant to oxyimino cephalosporins and monobactam as revealed by disc diffusion assay and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Resistance against other antibiotics was frequently noted as well. Further, beta-lactamase genes viz., blaSHV, blaCTXM, blaTEM and blaampC were detected in 17, 13, 9 and 2 isolates, respectively in PCR. Of the 18 ESBL strains, 16 were positive for class I integron (int1), nine of them carried sulphonamide resistance gene (sul1) and one harbored quinolone resistance gene (qnrB). Virulence markers for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli like astA, tsh and iucD were also present in 4, 3 and 3 isolates, respectively. All the PCR amplified products were cloned and subjected to sequencing for homology analysis and data were submitted to gene bank. Sequence analysis of the amplified variable regions of class 1 integron of four representative isolates revealed the presence of aadA2 and dfrA12 gene cassettes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim, respectively. Most of the ESBL producing strains emerged as single lineage through phylogenetic analysis by RAPD and ERIC PCR. This is the first ever systemic study on multidrug resistant ESBL producing E. coli in food producing animals from India.

  4. Evolutionary Trajectories of Beta-Lactamase CTX-M-1 Cluster Enzymes: Predicting Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Comas, Iñaki; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Coque, Teresa M.; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando; Galán, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type β-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of specific mutations enhancing protein efficiency and fitness concomitantly. The existence of driver antibiotic molecules favoring protein divergence has been investigated by combining evolutionary analyses and experimental site-specific mutagenesis. Phylogenetic reconstruction with all the CTX-M variants described so far provided a hypothetical evolutionary scenario showing at least three diversification events. CTX-M-3 was likely the enzyme at the origin of the diversification in the CTX-M-1 cluster, which was coincident with positive selection acting on several amino acid positions. Sixty-three CTX-M-3 derivatives containing all combinations of mutations under positively selected positions were constructed, and their phenotypic efficiency was evaluated. The CTX-M-3 diversification process can only be explained in a complex selective landscape with at least two antibiotics (cefotaxime and ceftazidime), indicating the need to invoke mixtures of selective drivers in order to understand the final evolutionary outcome. Under this hypothesis, we found congruent results between the in silico and in vitro analyses of evolutionary trajectories. Three pathways driving the diversification of CTX-M-3 towards the most complex and efficient variants were identified. Whereas the P167S pathway has limited possibilities of further diversification, the D240G route shows a robust diversification network. In the third route, drift may have played a role in the early stages of CTX-M-3 evolution

  5. Beta-lactamases production and antimicrobial resistance ratio of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospitalized patients in Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toroglu, Sevil; Avan, Hatice; Keskin, Dilek

    2013-07-01

    Sixteen isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from different hospitals in Kahramanmaras among 2006-2007 and tested for the level of resistance to the widely used antipseudomonal antibiotics and used in local midicinal and veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance to P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Microbiology Laboratory of different hospitals in Kahramanmaras between 2006-2007. These strains were mostly isolated from urine and few from tracheolaringeal aspirate, tracheal secretion, mucus, bronchoalveolar lavage. The antibiotic resistance rates were as follows: Penicillin (PEN) 100%, Amoxicillin (AMO) 94%, Cefazolin (CEF) 87.5%, Cefoxitin (CEFX) 81%, Nitrofrantoin (NIT) 75%, Chlorampenicol (CHL) 62.5%, Tetracycline (TET) 56%, Ceftriaxone (CEFT) 44%, Oflaxain (OFL) and Gentamycin (GEN) 37.5%, Meropenem (MER) and Streptomycine (STR) 31%. Among 16 isolates of P. aeruginosa from wounds showed 8 (50%) beta-lactamase activity, whereas 8 isolates of P. aeruginosa from urine showed no beta-lactamase activity. All P. aeruginosa strains 16 (100%) isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance towards three to eleven antibiotics.

  6. Effects of tazobactam on the frequency of the emergence of resistant strains from Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris (beta-lactamase derepressed mutants).

    PubMed

    Higashitani, F; Nishida, K; Hyodo, A; Inoue, M

    1995-09-01

    When Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris were treated with piperacillin (PIPC) in combination with tazobactam (TAZ), the in vitro frequency of emergence of resistant strains (beta-lactamase producing mutants) was lower than with PIPC or ceftazidime (CAZ) treated bacteria. In a mouse intraperitoneal infection model caused by E. cloacae, beta-lactamase derepressed mutants were detected following therapy with PIPC or CAZ, although no derepressed mutants were detected after treatment with PIPC in combination with TAZ. This suppression of the selection of derepressed mutants, which produce large amounts of beta-lactamases, by the combination of TAZ and PIPC suggests that the combination delays the increase of resistant mutants compared with PIPC alone.

  7. Presence of AmpC beta-lactamases, CSA-1, CSA-2, CMA-1, and CMA-2 conferring an unusual resistance phenotype in Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andrea; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe the presence of two very similar but unusual variants of AmpC cephalosporinase in each Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus isolates conferring resistance exclusively to first generation cephalosporins. During a survey on the antibiotic resistance patterns of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus strains isolated from a milk powder production facility, originally two different phenotypes regarding the susceptibility/resistance for the two beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin (amp) and cephalothin (ceph) were observed: (i) isolates being susceptible for both antibiotics (amp(S)/ceph(S)), and (ii) strains exhibiting susceptibility to ampicillin but resistance to cephalothin (amp(S)/ceph(R)). The latter phenotype (amp(S)/ceph(R)) was observed in the majority of the environmental strains from the facility. Analysis of whole genome sequences of C. sakazakii revealed a gene putatively coding for an AmpC beta-lactamase. Consequently, the ampC genes from both species and both phenotypes were subjected to a cloning approach. Surprisingly, when expressed in Escherichia coli, all transformants exhibited the amp(S)/ceph(R) phenotype regardless of (i) the phenotypic backgrounds or (ii) the AmpC amino acid sequences of the original strains from which the clones were derived. The novel AmpC beta-lactamases were designated CSA-1 and CSA-2 (from C. sakazakii) and CMA-1 and CMA-2 (from C. malonaticus). The observed variations in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels for cephalothin (wt compared to transformants) suggest that this feature is a target of a yet unknown regulatory mechanism present in the natural Cronobacter background but absent in the neutral E. coli host.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and beta-lactamase production of Escherichia coli causing canine urinary tract infections: Passive surveillance of laboratory isolates in Saskatoon, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Courtice, Rachel; Sniatynski, Michelle; Rubin, Joseph E

    2016-11-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of canine urinary Escherichia coli (n = 113) isolated by a regional diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period was determined. Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined, and those isolates resistant to beta-lactams were screened for broad-spectrum beta-lactamases. Isolates were unexpectedly susceptible, 79.6% were susceptible to all drugs tested and no extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were identified. Our findings indicate that empiric treatment of canine urinary tract infections with first line drugs such as amoxicillin or trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole is likely to be successful.

  9. Ceftazidime and aztreonam resistance in Providencia stuartii: characterization of a natural TEM-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-60.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, N; Perilli, M; Segatore, B; Setacci, D; Amicosante, G; Mazzariol, A; Cornaglia, G

    1998-06-01

    A plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase produced from a clinical strain of Providencia stuartii has been purified and characterized. The gene coding for the beta-lactamase was cloned and sequenced. It appears to be a new natural TEM-derived enzyme, named TEM-60. Point mutations (Q39K, L51P, E104K, and R164S) are present with respect to the TEM-1 enzyme; the mutation L51P has never been previously reported, with the exception of the chromosomally encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase PER-1. Kinetic parameters relative to penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams other than mechanism-based inactivators were related to the in vitro susceptibility phenotype.

  10. Commensal Enterobacteriaceae as reservoirs of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, integrons, and sul genes in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Elisabete; Coque, Teresa M.; Cantón, Rafael; Sousa, João C.; Peixe, Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria colonizing the human intestine have a relevant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans from Portugal and analyzed the distribution of sul genes and class 1 and 2 integrons. Faecal samples (n = 113) were recovered from healthy persons (North/Centre of Portugal, 2001–2004) and plated on MacConkey agar with and without ceftazidime (1 mg/L) or cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Isolates representing different morphotypes/plate and antibiotic susceptibility patterns (n = 201) were selected. Isolates resistant to sulfonamides and/or streptomycin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim were screened (PCR and sequencing) for sul genes (sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integrons. Presence of ESBLs was inferred using the double disk synergy test (DDST) and further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. ESBL producers were selected for clonal analysis, plasmid characterization and conjugation assays by standard methods. ESBL-producing isolates were found in 1.8% (2/113) of samples, corresponding to Escherichia coli of phylogroups A (n = 1) and B1 (n = 1) carrying transferable blaCTX-M-14 and the new blaTEM-153, respectively. A 80kb IncK plasmid bearing blaCTX-M-14 was found, being highly related to that widely spread among CTX-M-14 producers of humans and animals from Portugal and other European countries. sul genes were found in 88% (22/25; sul2-60%, sul1-48%, sul3-4%) of the sulfonamide resistant isolates. Class 1 integrons were more frequently found than class 2 (7%, 14/201 vs. 3%, 6/201). Interestingly, gene cassette arrangements within these platforms were identical to those commonly observed among Enterobacteriaceae from Portuguese food-producing animals, although aadA13 is here firstly described in Morganella morganii. These results reinforce the relevance of human commensal flora as reservoir of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes including

  11. TLA-1: a new plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Silva, J; Aguilar, C; Ayala, G; Estrada, M A; Garza-Ramos, U; Lara-Lemus, R; Ledezma, L

    2000-04-01

    Escherichia coli R170, isolated from the urine of an infected patient, was resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin but was susceptible to amikacin, cefotetan, and imipenem. This particular strain contained three different plasmids that encoded two beta-lactamases with pIs of 7.0 and 9.0. Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole was transferred by conjugation from E. coli R170 to E. coli J53-2. The transferred plasmid, RZA92, which encoded a single beta-lactamase, was 150 kb in length. The cefotaxime resistance gene that encodes the TLA-1 beta-lactamase (pI 9.0) was cloned from the transconjugant by transformation to E. coli DH5alpha. Sequencing of the bla(TLA-1) gene revealed an open reading frame of 906 bp, which corresponded to 301 amino acid residues, including motifs common to class A beta-lactamases: (70)SXXK, (130)SDN, and (234)KTG. The amino acid sequence of TLA-1 shared 50% identity with the CME-1 chromosomal class A beta-lactamase from Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum; 48.8% identity with the VEB-1 class A beta-lactamase from E. coli; 40 to 42% identity with CblA of Bacteroides uniformis, PER-1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and PER-2 of Salmonella typhimurium; and 39% identity with CepA of Bacteroides fragilis. The partially purified TLA-1 beta-lactamase had a molecular mass of 31.4 kDa and a pI of 9.0 and preferentially hydrolyzed cephaloridine, cefotaxime, cephalothin, benzylpenicillin, and ceftazidime. The enzyme was markedly inhibited by sulbactam, tazobactam, and clavulanic acid. TLA-1 is a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of Ambler class A.

  12. Survey of CTX-M Gene Frequency in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the Combination Disk and PCR Methods in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Ahmadkhosravy, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background A common mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase by Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, nonderivative extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) from the TEM and SHV enzymes, such as CTX-M, that were related to different geographical regions have been recognized. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in hospitalized patients in the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Methods Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens (other than stool), such as wounds, blood, urine, trachea, discharge, and abscess, were collected and examined. All the isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests. The combination test was carried out based on CLSI criteria for the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing isolates. After DNA extraction, the CTX-M and CTX-M-1 genes were amplified using PCR among phenotypically positive ESBL isolates. Results Among 240 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter were the most common isolates with 171 (71.3%) and 65 (27.1%), respectively. The combination test results also showed that 108 (45%) Enterobacteriaceae isolates were phenotypic ESBL producers, but 104 (96%) isolates were positive for the blaCTX-M gene and 99 (92%) were positive for the blaCTX-M-1 gene according to the PCR method. Conclusions The results of this study phenotypically and genotypically confirmed the high frequency of ESBL-producing strains, such as the CTX-M and CTX-M-1 genes, among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in our region. Therefore, use of antibiotic susceptibility testing for the detection of ESBL isolates prior to the prescription of beta-lactam antibiotics is recommended. This could help prevent the spread of bacteria strains that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:28138376

  13. Contribution of enzymatic properties, cell permeability, and enzyme expression to microbiological activities of beta-lactams in three Bacteroides fragilis isolates that harbor a metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, B A; Yang, Y; Jacobus, N; Bush, K

    1994-09-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase gene, ccrA, has been cloned from three clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, TAL3636, QMCN3, and QMCN4. Although all three isolates harbored a gene encoding a potent beta-lactamase, the MICs of benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and biapenem for the three isolates varied from 4- to > 128-fold. QMCN4 was the most susceptible of the three isolates, followed by QMCN3. TAL3636 was resistant to all of the beta-lactams. Previous DNA sequence analysis of the three ccrA genes revealed that the enzymes differed at 5 amino acid residues (B. A. Rasmussen, Y. Gluzman, and F. P. Tally, Mol. Microbiol. 5:1211-1219, 1991). Biochemical characterization of the three enzymes revealed only small differences in kcat and Km values for the majority of beta-lactams tested. Thus, the 5 amino acid substitutions affected the hydrolyzing activity of the enzymes only modestly. Crypticity differences between the three isolates showed that QMCN4 was the least permeable of the isolates to cephaloridine, followed by TAL3636, and that QMCN3 was highly permeable to cephaloridine. Therefore, neither catalytic activity nor permeability was a major contributor to the dramatic differences in the MICs. Instead, microbiological susceptibility was closely related to the level of metallo-beta-lactamase present in each isolate. Both biochemical and physical studies indicated that TAL3636 produced 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold more metallo-beta-lactamase than QMCN3 and QMCN4, respectively. Therefore, the level of CcrA enzyme production is the dominant contributing factor to high-level resistance among strains harboring a ccrA gene.

  14. Contribution of enzymatic properties, cell permeability, and enzyme expression to microbiological activities of beta-lactams in three Bacteroides fragilis isolates that harbor a metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B A; Yang, Y; Jacobus, N; Bush, K

    1994-01-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase gene, ccrA, has been cloned from three clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, TAL3636, QMCN3, and QMCN4. Although all three isolates harbored a gene encoding a potent beta-lactamase, the MICs of benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, and biapenem for the three isolates varied from 4- to > 128-fold. QMCN4 was the most susceptible of the three isolates, followed by QMCN3. TAL3636 was resistant to all of the beta-lactams. Previous DNA sequence analysis of the three ccrA genes revealed that the enzymes differed at 5 amino acid residues (B. A. Rasmussen, Y. Gluzman, and F. P. Tally, Mol. Microbiol. 5:1211-1219, 1991). Biochemical characterization of the three enzymes revealed only small differences in kcat and Km values for the majority of beta-lactams tested. Thus, the 5 amino acid substitutions affected the hydrolyzing activity of the enzymes only modestly. Crypticity differences between the three isolates showed that QMCN4 was the least permeable of the isolates to cephaloridine, followed by TAL3636, and that QMCN3 was highly permeable to cephaloridine. Therefore, neither catalytic activity nor permeability was a major contributor to the dramatic differences in the MICs. Instead, microbiological susceptibility was closely related to the level of metallo-beta-lactamase present in each isolate. Both biochemical and physical studies indicated that TAL3636 produced 5- to 10-fold and 50- to 100-fold more metallo-beta-lactamase than QMCN3 and QMCN4, respectively. Therefore, the level of CcrA enzyme production is the dominant contributing factor to high-level resistance among strains harboring a ccrA gene. Images PMID:7811029

  15. Gene fusion analysis of membrane protein topology: a direct comparison of alkaline phosphatase and beta-lactamase fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, W A; Beckwith, J

    1994-01-01

    To compare two approaches to analyzing membrane protein topology, a number of alkaline phosphatase fusions to membrane proteins were converted to beta-lactamase fusions. While some alkaline phosphatase fusions near the N terminus of cytoplasmic loops of membrane proteins have anomalously high levels of activity, the equivalent beta-lactamase fusions do not. This disparity may reflect differences in the folding of beta-lactamase and alkaline phosphatase in the cytoplasm. PMID:7929016

  16. Structure-based virtual screening to identify the beta-lactamase CTX-M-9 inhibitors: An in silico effort to overcome antibiotic resistance in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Davari, Kambiz; Nowroozi, Jamileh; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Mirzaie, Sako

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the quick spreads of broad-spectrum beta-lactams antibiotic resistance in pathogenic strains of bacteria have become a major global health problem. These new emerging resistances cause ineffectiveness of antibiotics and increasing the severity of diseases and treatment costs. Among different and diverse resistance targets, we chose a class A beta lactamase, CTX-M-9, with the aim of identifying new chemical entities to be used for further rational drug design. Based on this purpose, a set of 5000 molecules from the Zinc database have been screened by docking experiments using AutoDock Vina software. The best ranked compound, with respect of the previously proved inhibitor compound 19, was further tested by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our molecular modeling analysis demonstrates that ZINC33264777 has ideal characteristics a potent beta lactamase CTX-M-9 inhibitor. In the free form of beta lactamase, NMR relaxation studies showed the extensive motions near the active site and in the Ω-loop. However, our molecular dynamics studies revealed that in the compound 1: beta lactamase complex, the flexibility of Ω-loop was restricted.

  17. Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs).

    PubMed

    Giamarellou, H

    2005-07-01

    In 1983, just two years after the introduction of the oxymino-beta-lactams to the market , the first extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were isolated in Germany from Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Since then several outbreaks have been reported in many European countries and the USA, and nowadays in several places worldwide the problem seems to reach endemic dimensions, with rates exceeding 50% in some countries, such as Portugal and Turkey. On the other hand not only K. pneumoniae but also Escherichia coli strains, with Enterobacter aerogenes predominating among the other enterobacteriaceal species, are increasingly reported as ESBL producers. In this review types, molecular characteristics, detection methods, epidemiology as well as interventions for therapy and antibiotic strategies to prevent and control infections caused by ESBL-producing microorganisms, are presented and discussed.

  18. Metallo-beta-lactamases as emerging resistance determinants in Gram-negative pathogens: open issues.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Akova, Murat; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Cantón, Rafael; Cauda, Roberto; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Edelstein, Mikhail; Frère, Jean-Marie; Fuzi, Miklós; Galleni, Moreno; Giamarellou, Helen; Gniadkowski, Marek; Koncan, Raffaella; Libisch, Balázs; Luzzaro, Francesco; Miriagou, Vivi; Navarro, Ferran; Nordmann, Patrice; Pagani, Laura; Peixe, Luisa; Poirel, Laurent; Souli, Maria; Tacconelli, Evelina; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2007-04-01

    The rapid spread of acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among major Gram-negative pathogens is a matter of particular concern worldwide and primarily in Europe, one of first continents where the emergence of acquired MBLs has been reported and possibly the geographical area where the increasing diversity of these enzymes and the number of bacterial species affected are most impressive. This spread has not been paralleled by accuracy/standardisation of detection methods, completeness of epidemiological knowledge or a clear understanding of what MBL production entails in terms of clinical impact, hospital infection control and antimicrobial chemotherapy. A number of European experts in the field met to review the current knowledge on this phenomenon, to point out open issues and to reinforce and relate to one another the existing activities set forth by research institutes, scientific societies and European Union-driven networks.

  19. Amino acid sequence requirements at residues 69 and 238 for the SME-1 beta-lactamase to confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics have been used to counteract resistant strains of bacteria harboring beta-lactamases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Four enzymes from the class A group of beta-lactamases, NMC-A, IMI-1, SME-1, and KPC-1, efficiently hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Sequence comparisons and structural information indicate that cysteines at amino acid residues 69 and 238, which are conserved in all four of these enzymes, form a disulfide bond that is unique to these beta-lactamases. To test whether this disulfide bond is required for catalytic activity, the codons for residues Cys69 and Cys238 were randomized individually and simultaneously by PCR-based mutagenesis to create random replacement libraries for these positions. Mutants that were able to confer resistance to ampicillin, imipenem, or cefotaxime were selected from these libraries. The results indicate that positions Cys69 and Cys238 are critical for hydrolysis of all of the antibiotics tested, suggesting that the disulfide bond is generally required for this enzyme to catalyze the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics.

  20. Increased gene dosage plays a predominant role in the initial stages of evolution of duplicate TEM-1 beta lactamase genes.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Riddhiman; Bergmiller, Tobias; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Gene duplication is important in evolution, because it provides new raw material for evolutionary adaptations. Several existing hypotheses about the causes of duplicate retention and diversification differ in their emphasis on gene dosage, subfunctionalization, and neofunctionalization. Little experimental data exist on the relative importance of gene expression changes and changes in coding regions for the evolution of duplicate genes. Furthermore, we do not know how strongly the environment could affect this importance. To address these questions, we performed evolution experiments with the TEM-1 beta lactamase gene in Escherichia coli to study the initial stages of duplicate gene evolution in the laboratory. We mimicked tandem duplication by inserting two copies of the TEM-1 gene on the same plasmid. We then subjected these copies to repeated cycles of mutagenesis and selection in various environments that contained antibiotics in different combinations and concentrations. Our experiments showed that gene dosage is the most important factor in the initial stages of duplicate gene evolution, and overshadows the importance of point mutations in the coding region. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase, modifying enzyme, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenru; Ling, Baodong; Zhou, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a worldwide problem, and methylation of 16S rRNA has recently emerged as a new mechanism of resistance to aminoglycosides, which is mediated by a newly recognized group of 16S rRNA methylases. 16S rRNA methylase confers a high-level resistance to all 4,6-substituted deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides that are currently used in clinical practice. Some of the A. baumannii isolates have been found to coproduce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), contributing to their multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to detect the determinants of the 16S rRNA methylase genes armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA, the modifying enzyme genes aac(6')-Ib, ant(3″)-Ia, aph(3')-I, and the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M-3) among A. baumannii isolates in northeastern Sichuan, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 different antimicrobial agents against the A. baumannii isolates were determined. The clinical isolates showed a high level of resistance (MIC≧256 μg/ml) to aminoglycosides, which ranged from 50·1 to 83·8%. The resistances to meropenem and imipenem, two of the beta-lactam antibiotics and the most active antibiotics against A. baumannii, were 9·1 and 8·2%, respectively. Among 60 amikacin-resistant isolates, only the 16S rRNA methylase gene armA was found to be prevalent (66·7%), but the other 16S rRNA methylase genes rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA were not detected. The prevalences of the modifying enzyme genes aac (6')-Ib, ant (3″)-Ia, and aph (3')-I were 51·7, 81·7, and 58·3%, respectively, which are different from a previous study in which the occurrences of these genes were 3, 64, and 72%, respectively. Among the 40 isolates that were armA-positive, the prevalences of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M-3) genes were detected for the first time in China, and their occurrences were 45, 65, and 52·5%, respectively. In all, A

  2. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Shu, Weiqun; Chang, Xiaosong; Chen, Ji-an; Guo, Yebin; Tan, Yao

    2010-07-01

    The spreading of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla(TEM+CTx-M) was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. Structures of ceftazidime and its transition-state analogue in complex with AmpC beta-lactamase: Implications for resistance mutations and inhibitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, R.A.; Caselli, E.; Focia, P.J.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-08

    Third-generation cephalosporins are widely used {beta}-lactam antibiotics that resist hydrolysis by {beta}-lactamases. Recently, mutant {beta}-lactamases that rapidly inactivate these drugs have emerged. To investigate why third-generation cephalosporins are relatively stable to wild-type class C {beta}-lactamases and how mutant enzymes might overcome this, the structures of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC in complex with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and with a transition-state analogue of ceftazidime were determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.0 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Comparison of the acyl-enzyme structures of ceftazidime and loracarbef, a {beta}-lactam substrate, reveals that the conformation of ceftazidime in the active site differs from that of substrates. Comparison of the structures of the acyl-enzyme intermediate and the transition-state analogue suggests that ceftazidime blocks formation of the tetrahedral transition state, explaining why it is an inhibitor of AmpC. Ceftazidime cannot adopt a conformation competent for catalysis due to steric clashes that would occur with conserved residues Val211 and Tyr221. The X-ray crystal structure of the mutant {beta}-lactamase GC1, which has improved activity against third-generation cephalosporins, suggests that a tandem tripeptide insertion in the {Omega} loop, which contains Val211, has caused a shift of this residue and also of Tyr221 that would allow ceftazidime and other third-generation cephalosporins to adopt a more catalytically competent conformation. These structural differences may explain the extended spectrum activity of GC1 against this class of cephalosporins. In addition, the complexed structure of the transition-state analogue inhibitor (K{sub i} 20 nM) with AmpC reveals potential opportunities for further inhibitor design.

  4. Investigation for antimicrobial resistance-modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Mirzaie, Sako; Najafi, Kambiz; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Fathi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics in bacteria, is one of the major problems of mankind. Each year, a large number of patients due to infection, lose their lives. One of the main mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is beta-lactamase secretion. This enzyme hydrolyzes the amide bond of a lactam ring in beta-lactam antibiotics. Bacillus licheniformis is a mesophilic gram-positive bacterium, which has a high potential to produce beta-lactamase class A. In this study, the inhibitory effects of some malate analogous were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the effects of inhibitor binding on beta-lactamase were studied using MD simulations. Our results showed that diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate can decrease the MIC value of benzyl penicillin by sixteen and eight-fold, respectively. Data derived from in vitro studies revealed that decrease in MIC values is correlated with beta-lactamase inhibition. Molecular docking studies predicted the binding mode of inhibitors with the beta-lactamase active site. The structural analysis from MD simulations exhibits that binding of citrate and diethyl malate causes earlier equilibrium of beta-lactamase. After binding, the fluctuation of Ser 70 is also decreased. Based on our data, diethyl malate can be used to design the potent inhibitor against beta-lactamase class A.

  5. Phenotypic Detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamases in Carbapenem Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muneeza; Ejaz, Hassan; Zafar, Aizza; Hamid, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant A. baumannii has emerged as an important and problematic human pathogen as it is the causative agent of several types of infections especially in neonates and immunocompromised patients because they have least capacity to fight against infections. Carbapenems are used as last resort antibiotics for treating these infections but currently resistance against carbapenems due to MBL production is on the rise. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii and also to compare the efficacy of combined disk test and double disk synergy test for detection of metallo-beta-lactamases. A total of 112 A. baumannii were identified from various clinical samples and antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion method. Out of 112, 66 (58.9%) isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem (OXOID). These resistant isolates were tested for carbapenemase production, and 55 (83.3%) were carbapenemase producers by Modified Hodge Test. These isolates were further tested for MBL production by combined disk test and double disk synergy test. Out of 66, 49 isolates were positive by both methods, CDT and DDST, and only one isolate was detected as negative (with kappa value = 0.038). All MBL producing strains showed remarkable resistance to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin/tazobactam (OXOID). The antibiotic resistance was very high in A. baumannii which were isolated from children in Pakistan specially attending a nephrology unit.

  6. Accumulation of plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes, qepA and qnrS1, in Enterobacter aerogenes co-producing RmtB and class A beta-lactamase LAP-1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon-Joon; Yu, Jin Kyung; Kim, Sang-Il; Lee, Kyungwon; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2009-01-01

    A new plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone efflux pump gene, qepA, is known to be associated with the rmtB gene, which confers high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. We investigated the qepA gene in 573 AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae including one Citrobacter freundii known to harbor rmtB. Of them, two clonally unrelated E. aerogenes harbored qepA. Both isolates co-harbored rmtB, qnrS1, qepA, and bla(LAP-1) on an IncFI type plasmid. The qepA was flanked by two copies of IS26 containing ISCR3C, tnpA, tnpR, bla(TEM), and rmtB. The qnrS1 and bla(LAP-1) were located upstream of qepA. All the resistance determinants (qepA, qnrS1, rmtB, and bla(LAP-1)) were co-transferred to E. coli J53 by filter mating from both isolates. Although the prevalence of qepA is currently low, considering the presence of ISCR3C and the possibility of co-selection and co-transferability of plasmids, more active surveillance for these multi-drug resistant bacteria and prudent use of antimicrobials are needed.

  7. [Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant and metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from blood cultures from children and teenagers with cancer].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Thais Avila; Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Petrili, Antônio Sergio; Pignatari, Antônio Carlos Campos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant and metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from blood-stream samples (2000-2005) that were collected from patients admitted to the Institute of Pediatric Oncology, UNIFESP (IOP-GRAACC). Fifty-six P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from 49 patients. Thirty-two of these samples were classified as carbapenem-resistant using the disc diffusion method and were subjected to the PCR reaction in order to detect MBL genes. Eighteen of these 32 isolates showed the blaSPM-1 gene. Eight samples selected in different years over the study period presented the same genetic profile according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The antimicrobial therapy was considered adequate for only 23.5% of the patients with bacteremia due to P. aeruginosa carrying the blaSPM-1 gene, and a high lethality rate of 70.6% was observed during the 30-day period after bacteremia and an inadequate initial antibiotic regimen. We detected the presence of a clone of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa carrying blaSPM-1 that persisted in blood culture samples over a six-year period at the institution, with high lethality, thus justifying rigorous epidemiological surveillance and a rearrangement of the antimicrobial therapy regimens at the institution.

  8. Prevalence and antibacterial resistance patterns of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, G; Ramakrishnan, R; Shivkumar, C; Meenakshi, R; Anitha, V; Venugopal Reddy, Y C; Maneksha, V

    2016-04-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) mediated resistance is more prevalent worldwide, especially among Gram-negative bacterial isolates, conferring resistance to the expanded spectrum cephalosporins. As limited data were available on the prevalence of ESBLs in this area, the current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, antibacterial resistance patterns, and molecular detection and characterization of ESBL encoding resistance genes among ocular Gram-negative bacterial isolates from ocular infections. A prospective study was done on 252 ocular Gram-negative bacterial isolates recovered from ocular infections during a study period from February 2011 to January 2014. All isolates were subjected to detection of ESBLs by cephalosporin/clavulanate combination disc test and their antibacterial resistance pattern was studied. Molecular detection and characterization of ESBL encoding blaTEM -, blaSHV , blaOXA -, and blaCTX-M (phylogenetic groups 1, 2, 9, and 8/25) resistance genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis. Of all Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44%) was the most common strain, followed by Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae each (10%). Among the 252, 42 (17%) were ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers were corneal scraping specimens, highest ESBL production was observed in P. aeruginosa 16 (38%) and Escherichia coli 7 (16.6%). Among ESBL-producing genes, the prevalence of blaTEM -gene was the highest (83%) followed by blaOXA -gene (35%), blaSHV -gene (18.5%), and blaCTX-M-1 -gene (18.5%) alone or together. The higher rate of prevalence of ESBLs-encoding genes among ocular Gram-negative bacteria is of great concern, as it causes limitation to therapeutic options. This regional knowledge will help in guiding appropriate antibiotic use which is highly warranted.

  9. Prevalence and antibacterial resistance patterns of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, G; Ramakrishnan, R; Shivkumar, C; Meenakshi, R; Anitha, V; Venugopal Reddy, Y C; Maneksha, V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) mediated resistance is more prevalent worldwide, especially among Gram-negative bacterial isolates, conferring resistance to the expanded spectrum cephalosporins. As limited data were available on the prevalence of ESBLs in this area, the current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, antibacterial resistance patterns, and molecular detection and characterization of ESBL encoding resistance genes among ocular Gram-negative bacterial isolates from ocular infections. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done on 252 ocular Gram-negative bacterial isolates recovered from ocular infections during a study period from February 2011 to January 2014. All isolates were subjected to detection of ESBLs by cephalosporin/clavulanate combination disc test and their antibacterial resistance pattern was studied. Molecular detection and characterization of ESBL encoding blaTEM-, blaSHV, blaOXA-, and blaCTX-M (phylogenetic groups 1, 2, 9, and 8/25) resistance genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis. Results: Of all Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44%) was the most common strain, followed by Enterobacter agglomerans and Klebsiella pneumoniae each (10%). Among the 252, 42 (17%) were ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers were corneal scraping specimens, highest ESBL production was observed in P. aeruginosa 16 (38%) and Escherichia coli 7 (16.6%). Among ESBL-producing genes, the prevalence of blaTEM-gene was the highest (83%) followed by blaOXA-gene (35%), blaSHV-gene (18.5%), and blaCTX-M-1-gene (18.5%) alone or together. Conclusion: The higher rate of prevalence of ESBLs-encoding genes among ocular Gram-negative bacteria is of great concern, as it causes limitation to therapeutic options. This regional knowledge will help in guiding appropriate antibiotic use which is highly warranted. PMID:27221683

  10. Study of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in healthy broilers of Jabalpur

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Arpita; Sharma, R. K.; Sahni, Y. P.; Shrivastav, Neeraj; Gautam, Vidhi; Jain, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in samples collected from the ceca of healthy broilers of poultry sale outlets (PSOs) Jabalpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 cecal swab samples were taken randomly from freshly slaughtered poultry of 39 PSOs located at four different zones or areas of Jabalpur and were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli using standard methods. Further they were characterized phenotypically by standard methods. Results: All the 400 samples were screened for E. coli producing ESBL enzyme. Among the samples positive for E. coli 135 were positive for ESBL E. coli giving an overall prevalence of 33.5%. Conclusion: This study related to the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy broilers in Jabalpur is indicative of antibiotic resistance prevalent in the healthy birds which are used for human consumption as well. It also signifies resistance prevalent against beta-lactam antibiotics including third and fourth generations of cephalosporins. PMID:27956778

  11. Genetic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-containing Escherichia coli isolates and vancomycin-resistant enterococci in fecal samples of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Bruno; Barreto, Angela; Radhouani, Hajer; Figueiredo, Nicholas; Gaspar, Eurico; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2009-09-01

    One hundred twelve fecal samples of healthy children were recovered in Portugal during October 2007 and February 2008 and were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) containing Escherichia coli isolates and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Three of the 112 fecal samples (2.7%) harbored ESBL-positive E. coli isolates and the bla(CTX-M-1), bla(TEM-52), and bla(SHV-12) genes were identified in these isolates. The bla(TEM-52)-containing isolate showed a phenotype of multiresistance that included fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol; sul1, sul3, and cmlA genes were detected in this isolate, in addition to two amino acid changes in GyrA (Ser83Leu + Asp87Asn) and one in ParC protein (Ser80Ile). The ESBL isolates corresponded to phylogroup A (one isolate), B1 (one isolate), and D (one isolate). vanA-containing Escherichia faecium isolates were detected in 13 of the 112 fecal samples (11.6%), and vanC-1 isolates were found in 2 samples. A diversity of resistance genes [(tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia, catA, and vat(E)] were found in VRE isolates. These results show that the intestinal tract of healthy children constitutes a reservoir of ESBL-containing E. coli and VRE isolates.

  12. Transferable cefoxitin resistance in enterobacteria from Greek hospitals and characterization of a plasmid-mediated group 1 beta-lactamase (LAT-2).

    PubMed Central

    Gazouli, M; Tzouvelekis, L S; Prinarakis, E; Miriagou, V; Tzelepi, E

    1996-01-01

    Cefoxitin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Escherichia coli strains isolated in Greek hospitals was found to be due to the acquisition of similar plasmids coding for group 1 beta-lactamases. The plasmids were not self-transferable but were mobilized by conjugative plasmids. These elements have also been spread to Enterobacter aerogenes. The most common enzyme was a Citrobacter freundii-derived cephalosporinase (LAT-2) which differed from LAT-1 by three amino acids. PMID:8807075

  13. Prevalence of Class 1 Integrons and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour Moghaddam, Mohammad Javad; Mirbagheri, Adeleh Alsadat; Salehi, Zivar; Habibzade, Seyyed Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) are an important cause of transferable multidrug resistance (MDR) in gram-negative bacteria. The most described ESBL genes are generally found within integron-like structures as mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to identify the accompanying of class 1 integrons and ESBLs in the MDR E. coli isolates. Methods: Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for 33 E. coli strains by the disk diffusion method. Double-disk synergy test was applied for screening ESBL. To identify the strains carrying integrons, the conserved regions of integron-encoded integrase gene intI1 were amplified. For detection of gene cassettes, 5′CS and 3′CS primers were used. Results: All E. coli isolates were identified as multi-drug resistant. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, cephalothin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and third generation cephalosporines. Nearly all of the isolates displayed sensitivity to piperacillin. There was a significant correlation between production of ESBL and resistance to all antibiotics except for ciprofloxacin and piperacillin (P < 0.01). Thirty two MDR strains (97%) included class 1 integron, and some isolates that included integrons were similar in the size of gene cassettes. The isolates were different in the resistance profiles; however, some others had similar resistance profiles. Of eight ESBL positive isolates, seven (87.5%) carried class 1 integrons. Conclusion: Class 1 integrons were frequent in MDR and also ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. High prevalence of class 1 integrons confirms that integron-mediated antimicrobial gene cassettes are important in E. coli resistance profile. PMID:26220727

  14. [Investigation of the frequency and distribution of beta-lactamase genes in the clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii collected from different regions of Turkey: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Budak, Emine Esra; Gülek, Duygu; Uzun, Aytül; Çizmeci, Zeynep; Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Direkel, Şahin; Çetinkol, Yeliz; Ay Altıntop, Yasemin; Iraz, Meryem; Dal, Tuba; Say Coşkun, Safiye Umut; Balcı, Pervin Özlem; Kayman, Tuba; Çalışkan, Ahmet; Yazıcı, Yelda; Tosun, İsmail; Ertürk, Ayşe; Çopur Çiçek, Ayşegül

    2016-10-01

    The diversity and distribution of TEM, SHV and CTX-M type of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are important for the treatment and control of infections. Determination of ESBL genes in clinical isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing can obtain useful data for their molecular epidemiology and risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of beta-lactamase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from different regions of Turkey. A total of 519 A.baumannii strains collected from hospitals located at 12 different provinces of Turkey (Bolu (n= 67), Tokat (n= 47), Trabzon (n= 25), Ordu (n= 27), Diyarbakır (n= 47), Niğde (n=31), Kayseri (n= 36), Ankara (n= 41), Kirikkale (n= 26), Kahramanmaraş (n= 25), Mersin (n= 40), Istanbul (n= 107)] between 2011-2012 period were included in the study. Identification of the isolates were performed by both conventional methods and automated systems, VITEK2 Compact (BioMerieux, France) and API 32GN (BioMerieux, France). Disc diffusion method was used for the detection of antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates and the results were evaluated according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) criteria. Tigecycline and colistin sensitivities of the isolates were evaluated according to BSAC (British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) criteria. The presence of beta-lactamase genes, namely blaoxa-51, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M1, blaCTX-M2, blaGES and blaVIM were detected by PCR. In our study, the resistance rates against colistin, tigecycline, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoperazone/sulbactam, tobramycin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cefepime, piperacillin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and ceftazidime were detected as; 0.6%, 2.7%, 11.9%, 15.2%, 21%, 22.9%, 23.9%, 48.6%, 59.5%, 61.8%, 66.3%, 67.8%, 69.2%, 71.1%, 77.5%, 78.6%, 81.1%, 82

  15. Carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates producing Bush group 2f beta-lactamase (SME-1) in the United States: results from the MYSTIC Programme.

    PubMed

    Gales, A C; Biedenbach, D J; Winokur, P; Hacek, D M; Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N

    2001-02-01

    Two carbapenem (imipenem, meropenem)-resistant Serratia marcescens strains were isolated in the United States (Chicago, IL) through the 1999 MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) Programme. The S. marcescens antimicrobial susceptible patterns were: susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime (MICs, < or = 0.25 microg/ml), and resistance to the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem; MIC, > 32 microg/ml) and aztreonam (MIC, > = 16 microg/ml). Each S. marcescens isolate shared an identical epidemiologic type (ribotype and PFGE) and the outer membrane protein profile was also identical to those of the wild type susceptible strains from the same medical center. The PCR utilizing bla(sme-1) primers amplified a gene product that was identified as consistent with SME-1 after DNA sequencing. Imipenem and meropenem resistance due to production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes among clinical isolates is still very rare, but microbiology laboratories should be aware of these chromosomally encoded enzymes among class C beta-lactamases producing enteric bacilli such as S. marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae.

  16. The Structural Bases of Antibiotic Resistance in the Clinically Derived Mutant beta-Lactamases TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-34

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    Widespread use of {beta}-lactam antibiotics has promoted the evolution of {beta}-lactamase mutant enzymes that can hydrolyze ever newer classes of these drugs. Among the most pernicious mutants are the inhibitor-resistant TEM {beta}-lactamases (IRTs), which elude mechanism-based inhibitors, such as clavulanate. Despite much research on these IRTs, little is known about the structural bases of their action. This has made it difficult to understand how many of the resistance substitutions act as they often occur far from Ser-130. Here, three IRT structures, TEM-30 (R244S), TEM-32 (M69I/M182T), and TEM-34 (M69V), are determined by x-ray crystallography at 2.00, 1.61, and 1.52 {angstrom}, respectively. In TEM-30, the Arg-244 {yields} Ser substitution (7.8 {angstrom} from Ser-130) displaces a conserved water molecule that usually interacts with the {beta}-lactam C3 carboxylate. In TEM-32, the substitution Met-69 {yields} Ile (10 {angstrom} from Ser-130) appears to distort Ser-70, which in turn causes Ser-130 to adopt a new conformation, moving its O{gamma} further away, 2.3 {angstrom} from where the inhibitor would bind. This substitution also destabilizes the enzyme by 1.3 kcal/mol. The Met-182 {yields} Thr substitution (20 {angstrom} from Ser-130) has no effect on enzyme activity but rather restabilizes the enzyme by 2.9 kcal/mol. In TEM-34, the Met-69 {yields} Val substitution similarly leads to a conformational change in Ser-130, this time causing it to hydrogen bond with Lys-73 and Lys-234. This masks the lone pair electrons of Ser-130 O{gamma}, reducing its nucleophilicity for cross-linking. In these three structures, distant substitutions result in accommodations that converge on the same point of action, the local environment of Ser-130. TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is the predominant source of resistance to {beta}-lactams, such as the penicillins. TEM-1 and related class A {beta}-lactamases confer resistance by hydrolyzing the {beta}-lactam ring of these antibiotics

  17. Molecular characterization of TEM-type beta-lactamases identified in cold-seep sediments of Edison Seamount (south of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Seok; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sang Hee

    2005-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and genotypes of beta-lactamases among clones of a metagenomic library from the cold-seep sediments of Edison seamount (10,000 years old), we performed pulse-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic susceptibility testing, pI determination, and DNA sequencing analysis. Among the 8,823 clones of the library, thirty clones produced beta-lactamases and had high levels of genetic diversity. Consistent with minimum inhibitory concentration patterns, we found that five (16.7%) of thirty clones produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. 837- and 259-bp fragments specific to blaTEM genes were amplified, as determined by banding patterns of PCR amplification with designed primers. TEM-1 was the most prevalent beta-lactamase and conferred resistance to ampicillin, piperacillin, and cephalothin. TEM-116 had a spectrum that was extended to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam. The resistance levels conferred by the pre-antibiotic era alleles of TEM-type beta-lactamases were essentially the same as the resistance levels conferred by the TEM-type alleles which had been isolated from clinically resistant strains of bacteria of the antibiotic era. Our first report on TEM-type beta-lactamases of the pre-antibiotic era indicates that TEM-type beta-lactamases paint a picture in which most of the diversity of the enzymes may not be the result of recent evolution, but that of ancient evolution.

  18. Cloning and biochemical characterization of FOX-5, an AmpC-type plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase from a New York City Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Queenan, A M; Jenkins, S; Bush, K

    2001-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 5064, isolated in New York, carried plasmid-mediated resistance to multiple beta-lactams and was unresponsive to clavulanic acid. The beta-lactamase gene responsible for cephalosporin resistance encoded FOX-5, with 96 to 97% amino acid identities to other members of the FOX family of beta-lactamases. The bla(FOX-5) coding region was located next to a transposase gene from the Aeromonas salmonicida insertion element ISAS2.

  19. Detection of Metallo-Beta Lactamases Among Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Rostami, Soodabeh; Jolodar, Abbas; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Khorvash, Farzin; Saki, Azadeh; Shoja, Saeed; Sheikhi, Raheleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carbapenems are important drugs used for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, however metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) are able to efficiently hydrolyze these classes of drugs. Immediate detection of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa is necessary in order to accurately treat infections caused by this organism. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of MBL producing P. aeruginosa in burn and non-burn patients by two phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare phenotypic tests with PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 223 non-duplicate strains of P. aeruginosa were collected from three teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and E-test methods. Combined disk (CD) test, MBL E-test and PCR were performed for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Results: Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 58.7% were resistant to imipenem while 31.8%, 13.5% and 74.4% were resistant to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem, respectively. Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 44.4% were multidrug resistant and 13.45% were resistant to all of the carbapenems. The CD test with doripenem disk / 750 μg ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) had the highest efficiency compared to the other phenotypic tests. blaIMP and blaVIM genes were detected in 11.7% and 0.4% of isolates, respectively. blaSPM and blaNDM genes were not observed. Conclusions: Epidemiological and regional evaluation of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa through simple and inexpensive methods should be considered for effective treatment of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:25774271

  20. Resistance to cefepime and cefpirome due to a 4-amino-acid deletion in the chromosome-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase of a Serratia marcescens clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Bemer, Pascal; Drugeon, Henri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-03-01

    A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The bla(AmpC) gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(AmpC) gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the bla(AmpC) gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the beta-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type beta-lactamases.

  1. Automatic phylogenetic classification of bacterial beta-lactamase sequences including structural and antibiotic substrate preference information.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianmin; Eisenhaber, Frank; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    Beta lactams comprise the largest and still most effective group of antibiotics, but bacteria can gain resistance through different beta lactamases that can degrade these antibiotics. We developed a user friendly tree building web server that allows users to assign beta lactamase sequences to their respective molecular classes and subclasses. Further clinically relevant information includes if the gene is typically chromosomal or transferable through plasmids as well as listing the antibiotics which the most closely related reference sequences are known to target and cause resistance against. This web server can automatically build three phylogenetic trees: the first tree with closely related sequences from a Tachyon search against the NCBI nr database, the second tree with curated reference beta lactamase sequences, and the third tree built specifically from substrate binding pocket residues of the curated reference beta lactamase sequences. We show that the latter is better suited to recover antibiotic substrate assignments through nearest neighbor annotation transfer. The users can also choose to build a structural model for the query sequence and view the binding pocket residues of their query relative to other beta lactamases in the sequence alignment as well as in the 3D structure relative to bound antibiotics. This web server is freely available at http://blac.bii.a-star.edu.sg/.

  2. Purification and properties of thiol beta-lactamase. A mutant of pBR322 beta-lactamase in which the active site serine has been replaced with cysteine.

    PubMed

    Sigal, I S; DeGrado, W F; Thomas, B J; Petteway, S R

    1984-04-25

    The specifically mutated enzyme thiol beta-lactamase has been expressed in Escherichia coli by means of the trp promoter and purified to homogeneity. The gene for this enzyme results from a single base change N410 A----T in the gene of pBR322 RTEM beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6, penicillinase, penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase) which alters the codon for the active site Ser 70 to that for Cys. Precursor thiol beta-lactamase is processed to give the same NH2-terminal sequence as that for wild type enzyme. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, thiol beta-lactamase contains one free titratable thiol group/molecule. Thiol beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-lactams with a substrate specificity that is distinct from that of wild type enzyme. For benzyl-penicillin and ampicillin, the Km values are similar to wild type values although the kcat values are 1-2% that of wild type enzyme. For the cephalosporin nitrocefin, the Km is greater than 10-fold that of the wild type and the kcat is at least as large as the kcat for the wild type enzyme. Thiol beta-lactamase is different from wild type beta-lactamase in that it is not competitively inhibited by boric acid although a small degree of noncompetitive inhibition does occur. Whereas the circular dichroism spectra of both enzymes are nearly identical, thiol beta-lactamase at 40 degrees C is 3-fold more resistant to trypsin than is the wild type enzyme.

  3. Antibiotic resistance patterns and beta-lactamase identification in Escherichia coli isolated from young children in rural Limpopo Province, South Africa: The MAL-ED cohort.

    PubMed

    DeFrancesco, A S; Tanih, N F; Samie, A; Guerrant, R L; Bessong, P O

    2017-02-27

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. Mechanisms of resistance vary, and some can confer resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. To characterise the antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from stool samples of young rural children exposed or unexposed to antibiotics. The samples were collected from children aged 4 - 12 months who were participants in the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) project at the South Africa research site. We isolated 87 E. coli samples (clones) from 65 individual participants, all of which were subjected to disc diffusion assay to determine resistance. We characterised the minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics in a subset of strains as well as the mechanism by which these strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Our results revealed high resistance rates to co-trimoxazole (54.0%), penicillin (47.1%) and tetracycline (44.8%) in our isolates, and indicated that the beta-lactamase TEM-1 is a prevalent source of beta-lactam resistance. We also identified two isolates with the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-14. This study identified antibiotic-resistant E. coli in children with and without prior exposure to antibiotics, with some isolates showing resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Clinicians should bear in mind that transmission of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-resistant E. coli exists at the community level, and that children as young as 2 years may be harbouring these resistant phenotypes.

  4. Identical plasmid AmpC beta-lactamase genes and plasmid types in E. coli isolates from patients and poultry meat in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Voets, Guido M; Fluit, Ad C; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Stuart, James Cohen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Recent studies showed that poultry meat and humans share identical Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase genes, plasmid types, and Escherichia coli strain types, suggesting that transmission from poultry meat to humans may occur. The aim of this study was to compare plasmid-encoded Ambler class C beta-lactamase (pAmpC) genes, their plasmids, and bacterial strain types between E. coli isolates from retail chicken meat and clinical isolates in the Netherlands. In total, 98 Dutch retail chicken meat samples and 479 third-generation cephalosporin non-susceptible human clinical E. coli isolates from the same period were screened for pAmpC production. Plasmid typing was performed using PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). E coli strains were compared using Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST). In 12 of 98 chicken meat samples (12%), pAmpC producing E. coli were detected (all blaCMY-2). Of the 479 human E. coli, 25 (5.2%) harboured pAmpC genes (blaCMY-2 n = 22, blaACT n = 2, blaMIR n = 1). PBRT showed that 91% of poultry meat isolates harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 9% on an IncI1 plasmid. Of the human blaCMY-2 producing isolates, 42% also harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 47% on an IncI1 plasmid. Thus, 68% of human pAmpC producing E. coli have the same AmpC gene (blaCMY-2) and plasmid type (IncI1 or IncK) as found in poultry meat. MLST showed one cluster containing one human isolate and three meat isolates, with an IncK plasmid. These findings imply that a foodborne transmission route of blaCMY-2 harbouring plasmids cannot be excluded and that further evaluation is required.

  5. [Spreading and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams of Klebsiella spp. strains, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotic sensivity of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains (n = 212), isolated from patients treated in 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia was investigated. The Klebsiella genus was represented by the following species: Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae--182 (85.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. ozaenae--1 (0.5%), Klebsiella oxytoca--29 (13.7%) isolates. The most active antibacterial agents against the investigated strains were carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). Among 3rd generation cephalosporine the lowest MICs were observed for ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (MIC50--0.25 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml) and cefoperazone/sulbactam (MIC50--16 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml). Beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) were detected in 42 Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae strains by PCR. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 16 (38.1%) isolates, SHV--in 29 (69%), and CTX--in 27 (64.3%). Combinations of 2 different determinants were detected in 23.8% of the isolates, 3--in 26.2%. There were not isolates producing MBL class B among resistant to carbapenems nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains.

  6. Evaluation of susceptibility patterns and BRO beta-lactamase types among clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Esel, D; Ay-Altintop, Y; Yagmur, G; Gokahmetoglu, S; Sumerkan, B

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to detect BRO beta-lactamase types and to evaluate any correlation with the susceptibility patterns of 90 clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis. The overall prevalences of the bro-1 and bro-2 genes were 78% and 12%, respectively. Penicillin G MICs for BRO-1+ isolates were significantly higher than those for BRO-2+ isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin-clavulanate, levofloxacin and cefixime. Resistance to clarithromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was 1.1%, 2.2% and 1.1%, respectively. One-step, length-based PCR was an efficient method to screen for BRO beta-lactamase genes.

  7. Phylogenetic tree and sequence similarity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, H

    1993-06-01

    beta-Lactamases are the main cause of beta-lactam resistance in many pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes can be detected in a variety of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria. The cyanobacteria are also known to produce a beta-lactamase. Recently, the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional structures of some of these beta-lactamases have been clarified. On the basis of the amino acid sequences of 47 beta-lactamases and the computer-aided analysis, a phylogenetic tree is proposed in this paper. According to the tree, beta-lactamases are classified into six groups. Group 1 beta-lactamases are mainly composed of plasmid-mediated enzymes from gram-negative bacteria. However, chromosome-derived beta-lactamases from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata take part in this group. Group 2 enzymes consist of a part of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from Streptomyces, and chromosome-mediated enzymes from Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter diversus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria form group 3. Group 4 is composed of metalloenzymes, whereas group 5 consists of OXA type beta-lactamases. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from gram-positive bacteria form group 6. Comparison of the amino acid sequences among these groups confirmed the phylogenetic tree and the classification: the beta-lactamases in each group have its particular conserved amino acid sequences. In addition, the tree provides more detailed classification and time-scale mutual relationships and predicts new types of beta-lactamases that may be found. Furthermore, the classification deduced from the tree is generally in accord with the one based on the amino acid sequences reported previously. However, the class A beta-lactamases are clearly divided into three groups: groups 1, 2, and 6. RDF2 analysis shows that some combinations between beta-lactamases and beta-lactam-interacting proteins as well as eukaryotic proteins

  8. Wide dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing beta-lactamase blaKPC-2 gene in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    Ten bla(KPC-2)-harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitals located in five different Colombian cities have been characterized. Isolates were multidrug resistant, belonged to five different pulsotypes, and possessed naturally chromosome-encoded bla(AmpC) and bla(OXA-50) genes and the acquired bla(KPC-2) gene. In most cases, the bla(KPC-2) genes were carried by plasmids of different sizes and were associated with Tn4401b or a new structure containing only part of the Tn4401 sequence. This study revealed that several clones of P. aeruginosa producing bla(KPC-2) are disseminating in Colombia.

  9. [Investigation of the presence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) by PCR in carbapenem-resistant gram-negative isolates].

    PubMed

    Yanık, Keramettin; Emir, Dilek; Eroğlu, Cafer; Karadağ, Adil; Güney, Akif Koray; Günaydın, Murat

    2013-04-01

    Bacteria producing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) exhibit high level resistance to beta-lactams including carbapenems. This broad-spectrum resistance limits treatment options for infections caused by NDM-1 producers. NDM-1 was first isolated from an Indian patient in Sweden; since then, NDM-1 producing isolates have been identified in many countries including Turkey. In this study, we investigated the presence of NDM-1 by PCR method in various gram-negative isolates recovered from clinical specimens in tertiary care hospitals in Samsun, Turkey. A total of 210 carbapenem-resistant gram-negative isolates (132 Acinetobacter baumannii, 54 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 Pseudomonas putida, 8 Enterobacter cloacae, 3 Enterobacter aerogenes, 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Providencia rettgeri, 2 Escherichia coli and 1 Citrobacter freundii) were included in the study. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates were performed by using Vitek-2 Compact (bioMerieux, France) and BD Phoenix (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD) automated systems. The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing were interpreted according to the CLSI recommendations. In our study, NDM-1 gene was not detected in any of the clinical isolates by PCR. There was only one case study that reported the presence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates from Turkey [Poirel L et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012;56:2784]. Our data, together with the others, indicated that the existence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates is not common in Turkey. However, since NDM-1 is a plasmid-encoded enzyme, there is always a risk of spread of this resistance through the bacterial strains in our country. Therefore, continuous surveillance and investigation of carbapenem-resistant isolates with resistance patterns suggestive of NDM-1 may enable to identify NDM-1 producing isolates. Meanwhile special care should be given on rational antibiotic use and establishment of appropriate infection control policies to prevent

  10. Nosocomial acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients: a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The risk of acquisition of antibiotic resistant-bacteria during or shortly after antibiotic therapy is still unclear and it is often confounded by scarce data on antibiotic usage. Primary objective of the study is to compare rates of acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients, after starting antibiotic therapy. Methods/Design The study, running in three European hospitals, is a multicenter, prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] within the project 'Impact of Specific Antibiotic Therapies on the prevalence of hUman host ResistaNt bacteria' (acronym SATURN). Nasal and rectal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae will be obtained at hospital admission, discharge, at antibiotic start (t0, within one hour) and at the following intervals: day 3 (t1), 7 (t2), 15 (t3), and 30 (t4). Two nested case-control studies will be performed. The objective of the first study will be to define individual level of risk related to specific antibiotics. Patients acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (cases) will be compared with patients not acquiring antibiotic-resistant strains after starting antibiotic therapy (controls; ratio 1:4). To define the impact of antibiotics on new acquisition of target antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a second nested case-control study will be done (ratio 1:4). Control group will be selected among patients not receiving antibiotics, admitted in the same ward on the day of the corresponding case, with negative cultures at admission. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data will be prospective collected. Discussion The rationale of this study is to better understand the impact

  11. Identification of clinical isolates of indole-positive Klebsiella spp., including Klebsiella planticola, and a genetic and molecular analysis of their beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Mee, B J; Mulgrave, L

    1997-01-01

    In a collection of 43 indole-positive Klebsiella clinical isolates, which were initially identified as Klebsiella oxytoca, there were 18 isolates which exhibited a pattern characteristic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) resistance. This study aimed to confirm their identity by biochemical tests and by PCR and to determine the genetic basis for their resistance to the beta-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Chromosomal beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by PCR, and plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase genes were analyzed by conjugation and transformation. There were 39 isolates which grew on melezitose but failed to grow on 3-hydroxybutyrate, confirming them as K. oxytoca. PCR analysis of their beta-lactamase genes divided these isolates into two groups, the bla(OXY-1) group and the bla(OXY-2) group. Each group had beta-lactamases with different isoelectric points; the bla(OXY-1) group had beta-lactamases with isoelectric points at 7.2, 7.8, 8.2, and 8.8, and the more common bla(OXY-2) group had beta-lactamases with pIs at 5.2, 5.4 (TEM-1), 5.7, 5.9, 6.4, and 6.8. A pI of 5.2 was the most frequently detected and accounted for 59% of all the bla(OXY-2) beta-lactamases. Hyperproduction of clavulanate-inhibited chromosomal beta-lactamases was detected in 17 K. oxytoca isolates, resulting in an ESBL phenotype. K. oxytoca isolates having a plasmid-mediated genetic basis for their ESBL phenotype were not found, confirming that, in K. oxytoca, plasmids are rarely involved in conferring resistance to the newer cephalosporins. Four isolates proved to be isolates of K. planticola in which the beta-lactamase genes failed to react with the primers used in the PCR. One K. planticola isolate contained a transferable plasmid harboring the SHV-5 beta-lactamase gene and showed an ESBL phenotype, while the other non-ESBL K. planticola isolates contained chromosomal beta-lactamases with isoelectric points at 7.2, 7.7, and 7.9 plus 7.2. PMID:9276417

  12. Presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) & AmpC positive non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli among Intensive Care Unit patients with special reference to molecular detection of blaCTX-M & blaAmpC genes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Ahmed, Moied

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii have been implicated in a variety of infections, particularly in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs). This study was aimed to overview the burden of multidrug-resistant NFGNB causing infections in ICU and also to assess the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among these isolates. Methods: Bacterial culture, identification and antibiotic susceptibility were carried out. ESBLs and AmpC were detected both phenotypically and genotypically. MBL was detected by modified Hodge and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid double-disc synergy test. Results: NFGNB represented 45 (37%) of total 121 Gram negative isolates. Multidrug resistance was observed in 66.9 per cent and 72.5 per cent isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. Detection by phenotypic methods showed presence of ESBL, AmpC and MBL in 21.4, 51.1 and 21.4 per cent isolates, respectively. When detected genotypically by polymerase chain reaction, ESBL and AmpC were detected in 21.4 and 41.4 per cent of NFGNB isolates, respectively. BlaCTX-M (21.4%) was the most prevalent gene responsible for ESBL production. Interpretation & conclusions: Most of the NFGNB isolated from ICU patients were multidrug-resistant and producers of ESBL, AmpC and MBL. A regular surveillance is required to detect ESBL, AmpC and MBL producers, especially in ICU patients. PMID:27934808

  13. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

    PubMed

    Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Emergence of Acinetobacter pittii harboring New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase genes in Daejeon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Carbapenemase production has been reported worldwide in gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter species. We detected carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter pittii in clinical isolates in Daejeon, Korea. Twenty-one ertapenem-resistant A. pittii isolates screened with a disk diffusion method were characterized by using the Epsilon test, four multiplex PCR assays, and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. A total of 21 A. pittii isolates harbored the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene bla(IMP-1) or bla(NDM-1). Nineteen isolates containing bla(IMP-1) were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, but two isolates harboring bla(NDM-1) were susceptible to them. The sequence types (STs) of the two New Delhi MBL (NDM-1)-producing A. pittii isolates were ST70 and ST207, which differed from the STs (ST63, ST119, ST396, and a novel ST) of the IMP-1-producing A. pittii. This is the first report on NDM-1-producing A. pittii isolates in Korea. Our results emphasize that the study of NDM-1-producing gram-negative bacteria should involve carbapenem-susceptible as well as carbapenem-resistant isolates.

  15. In vivo topological analysis of Ste2, a yeast plasma membrane protein, by using beta-lactamase gene fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, C P; Tipper, D J

    1991-01-01

    Gene fusions were constructed between Ste2, the receptor for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor, and beta la, the secreted form of beta-lactamase encoded by the bla gene of pBR322. The Ste2 and beta la components were linked by a processing fragment (P) from the yeast killer preprotoxin containing a C-terminal lysine-arginine site for cleavage by the Golgi-associated Kex2 protease. Ste2 is predicted to have a rhodopsinlike topology, with an external N terminus and seven transmembrane segments. Fusions to three of the four Ste2 domains predicted to be external resulted in beta la secretion from yeast cells. A fusion at a site just preceding the first transmembrane segment was an exception; the product was cell associated, indicating that the first 44 residues of Ste2 are insufficient to direct secretion of beta la; translocation of this domain presumably requires the downstream transmembrane segment. Expression of fusions located in two domains predicted to be cytoplasmic failed to result in beta la secretion. Following insertion of the preprotoxin signal peptide (S) between the Ste2 and P components of these cytoplasmic fusions, secretion of beta la activity occurred, which is consistent with inversion of the orientation of the beta la reporter. Conversely, insertion of S between Ste2 and P in an external fusion sharply reduced beta la secretion. Complementary information about both cytoplasmic and external domains of Ste2 was therefore provided, and most aspects of the predicted topology were confirmed. The steady-state levels of beta la detected were low, presumably because of efficient degradation of the fusions in the secretory pathway; levels, however, were easily detectable. This method should be valuable in the analysis of in vivo topologies of both homologous and foreign plasma membrane proteins expressed in yeast cells. Images PMID:2017168

  16. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem.

  17. Characterization and sequence analysis of extended-spectrum-{beta}-lactamase-encoding genes from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Hal; Tuckman, Margareta; Keeney, David; Ruzin, Alexey; Bradford, Patricia A

    2009-02-01

    In concert with the development of novel beta-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded beta-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(OXA), and bla(CTX) genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the bla(CMY), bla(ACT), bla(FOX), and bla(DHA) families as well as the bla(KPC) genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of > or =2 microg/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, bla(CTX-M)-type beta-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas bla(SHV) genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC(90) = 2 microg/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting.

  18. Risk Factor Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Pathogen-Induced Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young; Lee, Dong Gi; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoo, Koo Han

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate risk factors and the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP). We reviewed the medical records of 307 patients who were diagnosed with ABP between January 2006 and December 2015. The etiologic pathogens and risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing microbes, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and the incidence of ESBL in patients with ABP were described. History of prior urologic manipulation was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant (P = 0.005) and ESBL-producing microbes (P = 0.005). Advanced age (over 60 years) was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant microbes (P = 0.022). The ciprofloxacin susceptibility for Escherichia coli in groups without prior manipulation was documented 85.7%. For groups with prior manipulation, the susceptibility was 10.0%. Incidence of ESBL-producing microbes by pathogen was 3.8% for E. coli and 1.0% for Klebsiella pneumonia in the absence of manipulation group, and 20% and 33.3% in the presence of manipulation group, respectively. Initial treatment of ABP must consider patient's age and the possibility of prior manipulation to optimize patient treatment. With the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolone, cephalosporins with amikacin, or carbapenems, or extended-spectrum penicillin with beta lactamase inhibitor should be considered as the preferred empirical ABP treatment in the patients with history of prior urologic manipulation.

  19. Integron mediated multidrug resistance in extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Mobarak-Qamsari, Maryam; Ashayeri-Panah, Mitra; Eftekhar, Freshteh; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes integron mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. One hundred and four clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from two Iranian hospitals were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase production and susceptibility of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates was determined to 17 antibiotics by disc diffusion. Presence of integron classes 1, 2 and 3 was detected by PCR and integrase specific primers. Isolates harboring class 1 integron were then screened for variable regions using PCR. Fifty isolates (48%) produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases among which, 22 (44%) harbored class 1, 3 (6%) carried class 2 and none contained class 3 integons. Integron carriage was significantly associated with higher rates of multiple antibiotic resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. Integron harboring isolates were more resistant to aztreonam (51.3%), ceftazidime (42.6%), cefotaxime (43.3%), cefepime (24.6%), kanamycin (43.2%), tobramycin (30.7%), norfloxcacin (32%) and spectinomycin (25.6%) compared to the organisms without integrons. On the other hand, resistance to nitrofurantoin and streptomycin was significantly higher among the integron negative isolates. PCR amplification of class1 integron variable regions revealed 9 different sized DNA fragments and isolates with similar profiles for class 1 integron variable regions showed the same antibiotic resistance phenotypes. PMID:24516451

  20. Iodometric Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Beta-Lactamase: Rapid Presumptive Test for Ampicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B. Wesley

    1975-01-01

    Strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b sporadically isolated from clinical specimens are ampicillin resistant due to production of a β-lactamase. This enzyme which inactivates ampicillin and penicillin G is not produced by ampicillin-susceptible strains. Various characteristics of β-lactamase production and ampicillin resistance of three H. influenzae type b isolates were investigated. A sensitive iodometric test was employed to detect β-lactamase; positive results were obtained in 5 min with 109 bacteria taken from cultures on a nutritionally adequate agar medium. This simple chemical test will enable the hospital laboratory to obtain presumptive evidence of ampicillin resistance on the same day that H. influenzae is isolated. PMID:1079712

  1. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in turkey meat production farms in the Czech Republic: national survey reveals widespread isolates with bla(SHV-12) genes on IncFII plasmids.

    PubMed

    Dolejska, M; Matulova, M; Kohoutova, L; Literak, I; Bardon, J; Cizek, A

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in the environment of turkey farms in the Czech Republic were studied. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates were found on 8 (20%) of 40 turkey farms surveyed. A total of 200 environmental smears were examined, and a total of 25 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated. These isolates were analysed using XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and divided into nine pulsotypes. Most of the isolates harboured the gene bla(SHV-12) on a 40-kb plasmid of the IncFII group with an identical EcoRV restriction profile. Indistinguishable or clonally related SHV-12-producing isolates belonging to the same pulsotypes were found at some unrelated farms. Widespread occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates with bla(SHV-12) carried on IncFII plasmids in meat production flocks in the Czech Republic was demonstrated. Results indicate vertical transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli within the turkey production pyramid. The study shows the risk of multiresistant ESBL-producing bacteria and antibiotic-resistance genes being transmitted to humans via the food chain. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Binding properties of a peptide derived from beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Huang, W; Palzkill, T

    2001-12-01

    To overcome the antibiotic resistance mechanism mediated by beta-lactamases, small-molecule beta-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, have been used. This approach, however, has applied selective pressure for mutations that result in beta-lactamases no longer sensitive to beta-lactamase inhibitors. On the basis of the structure of beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP), novel peptide inhibitors of beta-lactamase have been constructed. BLIP is a 165-amino-acid protein that is a potent inhibitor of TEM-1 beta-lactamase (K(i) = 0.3 nM). The cocrystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP indicates that residues 46 to 51 of BLIP make critical interactions with the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. A peptide containing this six-residue region of BLIP was found to retain sufficient binding energy to interact with TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Inhibition assays with the BLIP peptide reveal that, in addition to inhibiting TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the peptide also inhibits a class A beta-lactamase and a class C beta-lactamase that are not inhibited by BLIP. The crystal structures of class A and C beta-lactamases and two penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) reveal that the enzymes have similar three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the active site. This similarity suggests that the BLIP peptide inhibitor may have a broad range of activity that can be used to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors of various classes of beta-lactamases and PBPs.

  3. BRL 17421, a novel beta-lactam antibiotic, highly resistant to beta-lactamases, giving high and prolonged serum levels in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, B; Basker, M J; Bentley, P H; Clayton, J P; Cole, M; Comber, K R; Dixon, R A; Edmondson, R A; Jackson, D; Merrikin, D J; Sutherland, R

    1981-01-01

    BRL 17421 is a new semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotic with an unusual spectrum of antibacterial activity. The compound exhibits exceptional stability to a wide range of bacterial beta-lactamases and is active against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae, including strains highly resistant to many of the penicillins and cephalosporins currently available. Among the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae tested, the frequency of strains resistant to BRL 17421 was found to be low, and there was a slow rate of emergence of resistance during in vitro studies. BRL 17421 was highly active against Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. The compound was markedly less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteroides fragilis than against the Enterobacteriaceae. Against the gram-positive bacteria, BRL 17421 showed a very low level of activity. BRL 17421 was found to be 85% bound to human serum, and the antibacterial activity was diminished two- to fourfold in the presence of human serum. Against experimental infections in mice, the activity of BRL 17421 reflected the properties observed in vitro. Studies in human volunteers showed unusually high and prolonged serum concentrations of the compound after parenteral dosage, with a serum half-life of about 5 h, and approximately 85% of the dose was recovered unchanged in the urine. BRL 17421 was poorly absorbed after oral administration. The compound was well tolerated after intramuscular and intravenous administration in volunteers, with no adverse side effects. PMID:6974539

  4. Evolution of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases by mutation.

    PubMed

    Gniadkowski, M

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria belong to the most rapidly evolving DNA sequences, which results in an enormous structural diversity of resistance effectors. Structural modifications of resistance genes by mutation and recombination, together with a multitude of events that stimulate their mobility and expression, allow microorganisms to survive in environments saturated with antimicrobial agents of various types and generations. Genes coding for beta-lactamases in Gram-negative bacteria are a fascinating example of this multifocal and multidirectional evolution, with the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) being one of the most spectacular 'achievements'. Some of the ESBLs known today are 'ready-to-use' enzymes in their natural producers but these are often of low pathogenic potential, or none at all. The problem appears upon mobilisation of a gene encoding such an ESBL, and its acquisition and sufficient expression by a more virulent organism. Many ESBLs are generated by mutations in genes coding for broad-spectrum enzymes, which have been mobile since at least the 1960s and which have disseminated very widely in populations of pathogenic bacteria. Strong selection pressure exerted by antimicrobial use, especially with newer-generation beta-lactam antibiotics, efficiently promotes these two modes of ESBL emergence and subsequent spread. It also stimulates further evolution of ESBLs by accumulation of other mutations with an astonishing variety of effects on beta-lactamase structure and activity. Remarkably, more than 300 natural ESBL variants have been identified since the mid-1980s but in-vitro studies suggest that ESBL evolution has certainly not come to an end; they may also help in predicting future developments. The aim of this review is to briefly overview the role of various mutations in ESBL evolution.

  5. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  6. Effect of the inhibitor-resistant M69V substitution on the structures and populations of trans-enamine beta-lactamase intermediates.

    PubMed

    Totir, Monica A; Padayatti, Pius S; Helfand, Marion S; Carey, Marianne P; Bonomo, Robert A; Carey, Paul R; van den Akker, Focco

    2006-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine the molecular factors that lead to beta-lactamase inhibitor resistance for the M69V variant in SHV-1 beta-lactamase. With mechanism-based inhibitors, the beta-lactamase forms an acyl-enzyme intermediate that consists of a trans-enamine derivative in the active site. This study focuses on these intermediates by introducing the E166A mutation that greatly retards deacylation. Thus, by comparing the properties of the E166A and M69V/E166A forms, we can explore the consequences of the resistance mutation at the level of the enamine acyl-enzyme forms. The reactions between the beta-lactamase and the inhibitors tazobactam, sulbactam, and clavulanic acid are followed in single crystals of the enzymes by using a Raman microscope. The resulting Raman difference spectroscopic data provide detailed information about conformational events involving the enamine species as well as an estimate of their populations. The Raman difference spectra for each of the inhibitors in the E166A and M69V/E166A variants are very similar. In particular, detailed analysis of the main enamine Raman vibration near 1595 cm(-1) reveals that the structure and flexibility of the enamine fragments are essentially identical for each of the three inhibitors in E166A and in the M69V/E166A double mutant. This finding is in accord with the X-ray-derived structures, presented herein at 1.6-1.75 A resolution, of the trans-enamine intermediates formed by the three inhibitors in M69V/E166A. However, a comparison of Raman results for M69V/E166A and E166A shows that the M69V mutation results in a 40%, 25%, and negligible reductions in the enamine population when the beta-lactamase crystals are soaked in 5 mM tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and sulbactam solutions, respectively. The levels of enamine from tazobactam and clavulanic acid can be increased by increasing the concentrations of inhibitor in the mother liquor. Thus, the sensitivity of population levels to the

  7. Characterization of a laboratory-generated variant of BPS beta-lactamase from Burkholderia pseudomallei that hydrolyses ceftazidime.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Cheung, Terence K M; Yam, W C; Yuen, K Y

    2002-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei produces an Ambler class A beta-lactamase, known as BPS-1. The beta-lactamase gene from a laboratory-derived, ceftazidime-resistant strain of B. pseudomallei (LH-1-2) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The beta-lactamase, named BPS-1m, had an identical isoelectric focusing point (pI 7.7) to that of BPS-1, but differed in having a stronger hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime. Susceptibility testing showed that BPS-1m when expressed in E. coli conferred resistance to ceftazidime (MIC >or= 32 mg/L). The amino acid sequence of BPS-1m differed from that of BPS-1 by a Pro-to-Ser change at position 167 in the omega loop.

  8. Susceptibility to new beta-lactams of enterobacterial extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva, J; Aguilar, C; Estrada, M A; Echániz, G; Carnalla, N; Soto, A; López-Antuñano, F J

    1998-04-01

    The activities of several beta-lactam antimicrobial agents, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin, were determined against 62 clinical isolates of enterobacteria resistant to oxyimino cephalosporins (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers), collected during 1991 to 1993, and 16 penicillin-resistant invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected during 1994-1996. The numbers and percentages of susceptible enterobacterial strains to tested antibiotics were: imipenem 60 (97%), ciprofloxacin 57 (92%), cefepime 56 (90%), cefpirome 34 (55%), aztreonam 13 (21%), cefotaxime 7 (11%), ceftazidime 0 (0%), amikacin 11 (18%) and gentamicin 16 (26%). Despite the fact that these strains had never been exposed previously to cefepime or cefpirome, the susceptibility was 90% and 55%, respectively. No penicillin-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae were susceptible to cefotaxime, imipenem or cefepime. Only one strain was susceptible to ceftazidime and 4 (25%) were susceptible to cefpirome. Erythromycin showed the greatest activity with 12 (75%) susceptible strains.

  9. Chromosome-encoded narrow-spectrum Ambler class A beta-lactamase GIL-1 from Citrobacter gillenii.

    PubMed

    Naas, Thierry; Aubert, Daniel; Ozcan, Ayla; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-04-01

    A novel beta-lactamase gene was cloned from the whole-cell DNA of an enterobacterial Citrobacter gillenii reference strain that displayed a weak narrow-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant phenotype and was expressed in Escherichia coli. It encoded a clavulanic acid-inhibited Ambler class A beta-lactamase, GIL-1, with a pI value of 7.5 and a molecular mass of ca. 29 kDa. GIL-1 had the highest percent amino acid sequence identity with TEM-1 and SHV-1, 77%, and 67%, respectively, and only 46%, 31%, and 32% amino acid sequence identity with CKO-1 (C. koseri), CdiA1 (C. diversus), and SED-1 (C. sedlaki), respectively. The substrate profile of the purified GIL-1 was similar to that of beta-lactamases TEM-1 and SHV-1. The blaGIL-1 gene was chromosomally located, as revealed by I-CeuI experiments, and was constitutively expressed at a low level in C. gillenii. No gene homologous to the regulatory ampR genes of chromosomal class C beta-lactamases was found upstream of the blaGIL-1 gene, which fits the noninducibility of beta-lactamase expression in C. gillenii. Rapid amplification of DNA 5' ends analysis of the promoter region revealed putative promoter sequences that diverge from what has been identified as the consensus sequence in E. coli. The blaGIL-1 gene was part of a 5.5-kb DNA fragment bracketed by a 9-bp duplication and inserted between the d-lactate dehydrogenase gene and the ydbH genes; this DNA fragment was absent in other Citrobacter species. This work further illustrates the heterogeneity of beta-lactamases in Citrobacter spp., which may indicate that the variability of Citrobacter species is greater than expected.

  10. Imported chicken meat as a potential source of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the UK.

    PubMed

    Warren, R E; Ensor, V M; O'Neill, P; Butler, V; Taylor, J; Nye, K; Harvey, M; Livermore, D M; Woodford, N; Hawkey, P M

    2008-03-01

    Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15 enzyme began to rapidly spread in the UK from around 2003 but other types also occur, notably CTX-M-14. We examined breasts from UK-reared (n = 62) and imported (n = 27) chickens as potential sources of quinolone-resistant E. coli with bla(CTX-M) genes. A further 40 samples for which the country of rearing could not be identified were examined. During 2006, 129 fresh and frozen chicken breast fillets were purchased from retail outlets in the West Midlands. These were cultured for E. coli on CLED agar containing 8 mg/L ciprofloxacin and carrying a 10 microg cefpodoxime disc. Resistant isolates were identified and typed by RAPD fingerprinting; bla(CTX-M) was identified by PCR and genotyped by reverse-line hybridization. The country of rearing was identified from the packaging for 89 of 129 purchased samples. Only one of the 62 UK-reared chicken samples carried E. coli producing a CTX-M-1 enzyme, whereas 10 of 27 samples reared overseas had E. coli with CTX-M enzymes. Specifically, 4/10 Brazilian, 3/4 Brazilian/Polish/French, and 2/2 Dutch samples had E. coli with CTX-M-2 enzymes. Six of 40 samples for which the country of rearing was not known had producers of CTX-M enzymes, 5 of them with CTX-M-14. Quinolone-resistant E. coli with various CTX-M beta-lactamase genes that are common in human infections worldwide were found in imported chicken breasts, indicating a possible source for gut colonization. Samples from Brazil were commonly positive for E. coli with CTX-M-2, the dominant bla(CTX-M) genotype from human infections in South America, which is currently rare in clinical infections in the UK. CTX-M-15, the dominant CTX-M type in human infections in the UK, was not found in chicken isolates, suggesting that the UK-reared chickens are not a reservoir of CTX-M-15.

  11. Risk Factor Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Pathogen-Induced Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate risk factors and the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in patients with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP). We reviewed the medical records of 307 patients who were diagnosed with ABP between January 2006 and December 2015. The etiologic pathogens and risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing microbes, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and the incidence of ESBL in patients with ABP were described. History of prior urologic manipulation was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant (P = 0.005) and ESBL-producing microbes (P = 0.005). Advanced age (over 60 years) was an independent risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant microbes (P = 0.022). The ciprofloxacin susceptibility for Escherichia coli in groups without prior manipulation was documented 85.7%. For groups with prior manipulation, the susceptibility was 10.0%. Incidence of ESBL-producing microbes by pathogen was 3.8% for E. coli and 1.0% for Klebsiella pneumonia in the absence of manipulation group, and 20% and 33.3% in the presence of manipulation group, respectively. Initial treatment of ABP must consider patient’s age and the possibility of prior manipulation to optimize patient treatment. With the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolone, cephalosporins with amikacin, or carbapenems, or extended-spectrum penicillin with beta lactamase inhibitor should be considered as the preferred empirical ABP treatment in the patients with history of prior urologic manipulation. PMID:27709861

  12. Regulation of the beta-lactamase BlaL of Streptomyces cacaoi: the product of the blaB regulatory gene is an internal membrane-bound protein.

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, J; Joris, B; Van Beeumen, J; Brasseur, R; Dusart, J

    1995-01-01

    The beta-lactamase-encoding gene blaL, cloned from Streptomyces cacaoi in Streptomyces lividans, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. This regulation has been shown to depend on the products of two open reading frames, ORF1 (blaA) and ORF2 (blaB) [Lenzini, Magdalena, Fraipont, Joris, Matagne and Dusart (1992) Mol. Gen. Genet. 235, 41-48]. BlaA belongs to the LysR family of transcription activators, whereas BlaB shares some features with the penicillin-recognizing proteins. BlaB has now been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for antibody preparation. Immunoblotting of cell-fractionated materials from S. cacaoi showed that BlaB is attached to the internal face of the cytoplasmic membrane. It could not be released by high salt concentrations or EDTA, but only by protease treatment. Under the assay conditions, BlaB did not act as a penicillin-binding protein, a beta-lactamase, a D-amino-peptidase or a target in a phosphorylation step. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7575447

  13. Notes from the field: hospital outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase--Denver, Colorado, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-02-15

    On August 16, 2012, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment was notified of two patients at an acute-care hospital in Denver with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), specifically Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), isolated from respiratory specimens during July-August. Both isolates produced New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM). A review of microbiology records identified a third patient with NDM-producing CRKP isolated from a respiratory specimen, admitted in May. Active surveillance cultures in September identified an additional five patients colonized with NDM-producing CRKP. An investigation was launched by the hospital and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment to guide infection control measures and limit transmission.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H. Sohn, S. G. Jung, H. I. An, Y. J. Lee, S. H.

    2013-07-15

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates {beta}-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino {beta}-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 A. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  15. [Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae after exposure to oral antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Naoko; Morozumi, Miyuki; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2012-10-01

    Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (BLNAR) after exposure to oral antibacterial agents could be observed over time under a phase-contrast microscope. Morphological changes in BLNAR were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The organisms used in this study were ME19F strain identified as genotypic(g) gPRSP (serotype: 19F) and JPH002 strain identified as gBLNAR (serotype: b). The antibacterial agents used were amoxicillin (AMPC), cefditoren (CDTR), tebipenem (TBPM), and tosufloxacin (TFLX). The concentration of each antibacterial agent to which the bacteria were exposed was set at the blood level one hour after Cmax when administered to children at the usual dose. Bacteriolysis of gPRSP cells started after exposure of only 20minutes to TBPM, and 90% of the cells were lysed within 2 hours. A high bactericidal action of TBPM on gPRSP was supported by these findings. When gBLNAR was exposed to AMPC and TBPM, lysis from spheroplasts and cells with vacuoles were sometimes observed. In contrast, after gBLNAR was exposed to CDTR, lysis occurred after marked filamentation in the cells, but after exposure to TFLX, cells deduced to be killed after mild filamentation without lysis. Time-dependent morphological changes that reflect the differences in bactericidal activity and PBP affinity among beta-lactams provide beneficial information to select antibacterial agents.

  16. [Investigation of the frequency of PER-1 type beta-lactamase and antimicrobial resistance rates in nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Atilla, Aynur; Eroğlu, Cafer; Esen, Saban; Sünbül, Mustafa; Leblebicioğlu, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is a common cause of nosocomial infections, usually leads to treatment difficulties due to multi-drug resistance. PER-1 type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are shown to be common in Turkey. Since limited number of antibiotics such as antipseudomonal penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems are available for the treatment of P.aeruginosa infections, it is essential to monitor and eventually control the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of PER-1 type ESBLs in nosocomial P.aeruginosa isolates and to evaluate their resistance to some commonly used antibiotics. A total of 110 P.aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical samples [40 urine, 26 exudate, 20 blood, 24 others (sputum, tracheal aspirate, tissue biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, conjunctiva)] of the inpatients who were proven to have nosocomial infections in Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between May 2002-June 2003 were included in the study. Identification of the isolates was performed by ATB system ID 32 GN (bio-Merieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibilities were detected by standard disk diffusion method and PER-1 type ESBL was searched by polymerase chain reaction using PER-1 and PER- 2 primers. PER-1 positivity was detected in 62 of 110 (56.4%) P.aeruginosa isolates and 51 of 65 (78.5%) ceftazidime-resistant strains. The highest susceptibility rate was detected for ciprofloxacin (76.4%), while the lowest susceptibility rate was for ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (22.7%). Rates of resistance to beta-lactam agents (excluding piperacillin/tazobactam), amikacin and gentamicin were statistically significantly higher for PER-1 positive strains than PER-1 negative ones. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, piperacillin and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid in PER-1 positive isolates versus negative ones were as 82.3% vs

  17. Frequency and distribution per species, biotypes, resistance to antibiotics and beta-lactamase production of the haemophils isolated from patients with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Mihancea, N

    1998-01-01

    A number of 150 samples were prelevated from respiratory tract secretions of 88 patients with respiratory infections and three healthy subjects; 162 haemophilus strains were isolated, identified and studied and the following results were obtained: H. parainfluenzae was isolated from tonsillitis and laryngitis--over 70%, bronchitis--58% and pharyngitis--56.6%; H. influenzae was isolated from pharyngitis--26.4%, bronchitis--16.1% and tonsillitis--13.6% cases; H. parahaemolyticus from bronchitis--19.3%, tonsillitis--13.6% and laryngitis. H. paraphrophilus was isolated (6.8%) from pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, bronchitis and pulmonary abscess and H. paraphrohaemolyticus was isolated--4.5% from pharyngitis, synusitis, bronchitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Most of the isolates belonged to biotype II H. influenzae and biotypes II, I, III H. parainfluenzae. Haemophils were 100% sensitive to Ofloxacin and resistant to Cro--13.5%, Do--17.9%, C and Caz--22.2%, Aml--24.6%, Rd--40.7%, Amp--41.9% and Te--63.5%; varying according to the haemophilus species. H. influenzae was resistant to Do--14.2%, Caz and C--21.4%, H. parainfluenzae was resistant to Cro--11%, Do--22%, whilst H. parahaemolyticus was resistant to Do--9% and to Aml, Caz and Cro--13.6%. Haemophils isolated from sputum showed a resistance higher by 12-34% and 6-17% than those isolated from other specimens, such as pharyngeal exudate, where the resistance to rifadin was lower by 10%. beta-lactamases were present in 27.7% of the strains: H. parainfluenzae--36%, H. paraphrohaemolyticus--25%, H. influenzae--17.8% and H. parahaemolyticus--15.7%; in strains from sputum--34.2%, pharyngeal exudate--28.8% and from other specimens--6.6%. No correlations were noticed between the biotype and the clinical manifestation or the resistance to the antibiotic, a higher frequency of beta-lactamase production being reported in H. influenzae biotype V and H. parainfluenzae biotypes II and IV.

  18. Novel class A beta-lactamase Sed-1 from Citrobacter sedlakii: genetic diversity of beta-lactamases within the Citrobacter genus.

    PubMed

    Petrella, S; Clermont, D; Casin, I; Jarlier, V; Sougakoff, W

    2001-08-01

    Citrobacter sedlakii 2596, a clinical strain resistant to aminopenicillins, carboxypenicillins, and early cephalosporins such as cephalothin, but remaining susceptible to acylureidopenicillins, carbapenems, and later cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, was isolated from the bile of a patient treated with beta-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. The isolate produced an inducible class A beta-lactamase of pI 8.6, named Sed-1, which was purified. Characterized by a molecular mass of 30 kDa, Sed-1 preferentially hydrolyzed benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, and cloxacillin. The corresponding gene, bla(Sed-1), was cloned and sequenced. Its deduced amino acid sequence shared more than 60% identity with the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases from Citrobacter koseri (formerly C. diversus) (84%), Klebsiella oxytoca (74%), Serratia fonticola (67%), and Proteus vulgaris (63%) and 71% identity with the plasmid-mediated enzyme MEN-1. A gene coding for a LysR transcriptional regulator was found upstream from bla(Sed-1). This regulator, named SedR, displayed 90% identity with the AmpR sequence of the chromosomal beta-lactamase from C. koseri and 63 and 50% identity with the AmpR sequences of P. vulgaris and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively. By using DNA-DNA hybridization, a bla(Sed-1)-like gene was identified in two reference strains, C. sedlakii (CIP-105037) and Citrobacter rodentium (CIP-104675), but not in the 18 strains of C. koseri studied. Two DNA fragments were amplified and sequenced from the reference strains of C. sedlakii CIP-105037 and C. rodentium CIP-104675 using two primers specific for bla(Sed-1). They shared 98 and 80% identity with bla(Sed-1), respectively, confirming the diversity of the chromosomally encoded class A beta-lactamases found in Citrobacter.

  19. The impact of antibiotic use on the incidence and resistance pattern of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in primary and secondary healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Aldeyab, Mamoon A; Harbarth, Stephan; Vernaz, Nathalie; Kearney, Mary P; Scott, Michael G; Darwish Elhajji, Feras W; Aldiab, Motasem A; McElnay, James C

    2012-07-01

    • The emergence and spread of bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has important therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. • A key target for the establishment of hospital antibiotic stewardship is reducing the occurrence of additional antibiotic resistance. • Further research is needed to accumulate supporting evidence that reducing antibiotic use will result in a parallel reduction in antibiotic resistance. • Fluoroquinolone restriction reversed ciprofloxacin resistance in primary and secondary healthcare settings. • Fluoroquinolone restriction reduced ESBL-producing bacteria incidence rates in both the primary and secondary healthcare settings. • This study highlights the value of time-series analysis in designing efficient antibiotic stewardship. The objective of the present study was to study the relationship between hospital antibiotic use, community antibiotic use and the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in hospitals, while assessing the impact of a fluoroquinolone restriction policy on ESBL-producing bacteria incidence rates. The study was retrospective and ecological in design. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate antibiotic use to ESB-producing bacteria incidence rates and resistance patterns over a 5 year period (January 2005-December 2009). Analysis showed that the hospital incidence of ESBLs had a positive relationship with the use of fluoroquinolones in the hospital (coefficient = 0.174, P= 0.02), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the community (coefficient = 1.03, P= 0.03) and mean co-morbidity scores for hospitalized patients (coefficient = 2.15, P= 0.03) with various time lags. The fluoroquinolone restriction policy was implemented successfully with the mean use of fluoroquinolones (mainly ciprofloxacin) being reduced from 133 to 17 defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 bed days (P < 0.001) and from 0.65 to 0.54 DDDs/1000

  20. [blaTEM, blaSHV y blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacterias isolated from patients with hospital-acquired infections].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Militza; Rodríguez, Eliosmar; Antón, Karen; Silva, Suyin; Navarro, Jhonilys; Lastra, Loriannys; Salazar, Elsa; Alonso, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to identify the blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates, collected between September and November 2005. In addition to third-generation cephalosporin resistance, the isolates also showed resistance to chloramphenicol (59.2%), amikacin (37.0%) and gentamicin (40.7%), and demonstrated sensitivity to imipenem and meropenem. Nine strains were capable of transferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance, as well as the production of ESBL. In the clinical isolates, the genes blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected, being more prevalent the types blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-5 blaSHV-5-2a and blaCTX-M-1; while in the trans-conjugated only blaTEM-1, blaSHV-5 y blaSHV-5-2awere found. In total, seven types of genes were identified, five of which were codifying genes for ESBL-type enzymes. This demonstrates that in the hospital center, resistance to third-generation cephalosporin is mediated by several enzymes.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures in an Istanbul University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Fatma; Ak, Kenan; Kucukbasmaci, Omer; Samasti, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Between January 2001 and September 2006, a total of 459 Escherichia coli and 226 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were isolated from blood samples of patients with bacteremia who were hospitalized at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Blood cultures were analyzed with the Bactec 9120 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). Antimicrobic resistance of the E. coli or K. pneumoniae strains was determined by the disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was examined with the double-disk synergy test. The percentage of ESBL was 40% (182/459) for E. coli and 49% (111/226) for K. pneumoniae. ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were highly resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (60 and 40.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.5 and 48.6%), ciprofloxacin (57.6 and 35%) and gentamicin (38 and 40.5%), respectively; however, lower resistance rates were found for amikacin (19.7 and 16%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (29.6 and 24%). None of the strains were resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains isolated from blood cultures is high and antimicrobial resistance increases. Considerable effort should be made to decrease the ESBL-positive organisms. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. High levels of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in a major teaching hospital in Ghana: the need for regular monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Twum-Danso, Kingsley; Krogfelt, Karen A; Newman, Mercy J

    2013-11-01

    Infections with bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing across Africa. This study reports on ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae as significant causes of infections and antibiotic resistance at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Of 300 isolates examined, 49.3% produced ESBLs. The prevalence of ESBLs was significantly high among isolates from neonates (28 of 43, 65.1%; relative risk = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-2.13, P = 0.002) and adult patients > 65 years of age (36 of 51, 70.5%; relative risk = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-2.40, P = 0.001). A marked increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations of ESBL-positive species was noticed compared with those for the other strains. Using these concentrations, we found that 26 (17%) ESBL producers were resistant to two or more antibiotics (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamide, and carbapenems) whereas 5 (3.2%) non-ESBL producers were multidrug resistant. Regular ESBL detection and evaluation of antibiotic resistance may help reduce the spread of ESBLs and antibiotic resistance in Ghana.

  3. High Levels of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in a Major Teaching Hospital in Ghana: The Need for Regular Monitoring and Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Twum-Danso, Kingsley; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Newman, Mercy J.

    2013-01-01

    Infections with bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing across Africa. This study reports on ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae as significant causes of infections and antibiotic resistance at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Of 300 isolates examined, 49.3% produced ESBLs. The prevalence of ESBLs was significantly high among isolates from neonates (28 of 43, 65.1%; relative risk = 1.62, 95% confidence interval = 1.33–2.13, P = 0.002) and adult patients > 65 years of age (36 of 51, 70.5%; relative risk = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.41–2.40, P = 0.001). A marked increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations of ESBL-positive species was noticed compared with those for the other strains. Using these concentrations, we found that 26 (17%) ESBL producers were resistant to two or more antibiotics (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamide, and carbapenems) whereas 5 (3.2%) non–ESBL producers were multidrug resistant. Regular ESBL detection and evaluation of antibiotic resistance may help reduce the spread of ESBLs and antibiotic resistance in Ghana. PMID:24043693

  4. [Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized patients in Goiânia, State of Goiás].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Diana Christina Pereira Santos; Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; Leão, Lara Stefania Netto de Oliveira; Filho, José Rodrigues do Carmo; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium frequently isolated from hospital environments. This study had the aims of evaluating the susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously isolated from patients in a hospital in Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil), performing phenotypic screening for metallo-beta-lactamase production and detecting its genes using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Seventy-five 75 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were evaluated between January 2005 and January 2007. Biochemical identification was performed using the API 20E system and an antibiogram was produced using the Kirby-Bauer method. Among the 62 isolates that were resistant to imipenem and ceftazidime, 35 (56.4%) produced metallo-beta-lactamase, while 26 (74.3%) showed the bla(SPM-1) gene. The frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produces metallo-beta-lactamase suggests that greater control over the dissemination of resistance in hospital environments is needed.

  5. Reversal of clavulanate resistance conferred by a Ser-244 mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a result of a second mutation (Arg to Ser at position 164) that enhances activity against ceftazidime.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, U; Manavathu, E K; Mobashery, S; Lerner, S A

    1994-01-01

    The mutation of Arg-244 to Ser (Arg-244-->Ser mutation) in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase has been shown to produce resistance to inactivation by clavulanate in the mutant enzyme and resistance to ampicillin plus clavulanate in a strain of Escherichia coli producing this enzyme. The Arg-164-->Ser mutation in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase (TEM-12 enzyme) is known to enhance the activity of the enzyme against ceftazidime, resulting in resistance to the drug in a strain producing the mutant enzyme (D. A. Weber, C. C. Sanders, J. S. Bakken, and J. P. Quinn, J. Infect. Dis. 162:460-465, 1990). The doubly mutated derivative of the TEM-1 enzyme (Ser-164/Ser-244) retains the characteristics of the Ser-164 mutant enzyme, i.e., enhanced activity against ceftazidime and sensitivity to inactivation by clavulanate. It also confers the same phenotype as the Ser-164 mutant enzyme, i.e., resistance to ceftazidime and ampicillin, with reversal of this resistance in the presence of clavulanate. Thus, the Arg-164-->Ser mutation in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase suppresses the effect of the Arg-244-->Ser mutation which, by itself, reduces the sensitivity of the enzyme to inactivation by clavulanate. PMID:8067751

  6. Diversity of CTX-M beta-lactamases and their promoter regions from Enterobacteriaceae isolated in three Parisian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michèle; Cao, Van Thi Bao; Lambert, Thierry; Donay, Jean-Luc; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Verdet, Charlotte; Delisle, Françoise; Philippon, Alain; Arlet, Guillaume

    2002-04-09

    Nine clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (six Escherichia coli and three Proteus mirabilis) isolated in three Parisian hospitals between 1989 and 2000 showed a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance profile characterized by resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam but not to ceftazidime. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and two novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M beta-lactamases (CTX-M-20, and CTX-M-21) were identified by polymerase chain reaction and isoelectric focusing (pI>8) and were associated in eight cases with TEM-1 (pI=5.4) or TEM-2 (pI=5.6) beta-lactamases. We used internal ISEcp1 and IS26 forward primers and the CTX-M consensus reverse primer to characterize the CTX-M beta-lactamase promoter regions and showed their high degree of structure diversity. We found upstream of some bla(CTX-M) genes, a 266-bp sequence 100% identical to the sequence upstream of the Kluyvera ascorbata beta-lactamase gene, suggesting that this chromosomal enzyme is the progenitor of the CTX-M-2/5 cluster.

  7. bro {beta}-lactamase and antibiotic resistances in a global cross-sectional study of Moraxella catarrhalis from children and adults.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mushtaq A; Northwood, John Blackman; Levy, Foster; Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; Farrell, David J; Van Belkum, Alex; Hays, John P

    2010-01-01

    To compare and contrast the geographic and demographic distribution of bro beta-lactamase and antibiotic MIC(50/90) for 1440 global Moraxella catarrhalis isolates obtained from children and adults between 2001 and 2002. One thousand four hundred and forty M. catarrhalis isolates originating from seven world regions were investigated. The isolates were recovered from 411 children <5 years of age and 1029 adults >20 years of age. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to determine bro prevalence and to distinguish between bro types. MIC values of 12 different antibiotics were determined using the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) broth microdilution method. Of the 1440 isolates, 1313 (91%) possessed the bro-1 gene and 64 (4%) possessed the bro-2 gene. Additionally, the prevalence of bro positivity between the child and adult age groups was significantly different (P < 0.0001), though bro-1 and bro-2 prevalences within age groups were not significantly different. Consistently higher beta-lactam MICs were observed for M. catarrhalis isolates originating in the Far East. Significant correlations in MICs were observed for several antibiotic combinations, including all five beta-lactams with each other, and among the two quinolones. The worldwide prevalence of bro gene carriage in clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis is now approaching 95%, with children significantly more likely to harbour bro-positive isolates than adults. Further, statistically significant differences in the distribution of beta-lactam MICs were observed between different world regions, particularly with respect to the Far East.

  8. Suspected nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant E. coli, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, in an equine clinic.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Stamm, Ivonne; Gehlen, Heidrun; Barton, Ann Kristin; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli are common commensals as well as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. They cause a broad spectrum of infectious diseases in various hosts, including hospital-associated infections. In recent years, the rise of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) has been striking. However, reports on nosocomial infections are mostly anecdotic. Here we report on the suspected nosocomial spread of both ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing multi-drug resistant E. coli isolates in three equine patients within an equine clinic. Unlike easy-to-clean hospitalization opportunities available for small animal settings like boxes and cages made of ceramic floor tiles or stainless steel, clinical settings for horses are challenging environments for infection control programs due to unavoidable extraneous material including at least hay and materials used for horse bedding. The development of practice-orientated recommendations is needed to improve the possibilities for infection control to prevent nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant and other transmissible pathogens in equine clinical settings.

  9. An altered zinc-binding site confers resistance to a covalent inactivator of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) discovered by high-throughput screening

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Pei W.; Spicer, Timothy; Cammarata, Michael; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Hodder, Peter; Fast, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Due to the global threat of antibiotic resistance mediated by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and the lack of structurally diverse inhibitors reported for this enzyme, we developed screening and counter-screening assays for manual and automated formats. The manual assay is a trans-well absorbance-based endpoint assay in 96-well plates and has a Z’ factor of 0.8. The automated assay is an epi-absorbance endpoint assay in 384-well plates, has a Z’ factor of ≥ 0.8, good signal / baseline ratios (> 3.8), and is likely scalable for high-throughput screening (HTS). A TEM-1-based counter-screen is also presented to eliminate false positives due to assay interference or off-target activities. A pilot screen of a pharmacologically characterized compound library identified two thiol-modifying compounds as authentic NDM-1 inhibitors: p-hloromecuribenzoate (p-CMB) and nitroprusside. Recombinant NDM-1 has one Cys residue that serves as a conserved active-site primary zinc ligand and is selectively modified by p-CMB as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. However a C208D mutation results in an enzyme that maintains almost full lactamase activity, yet is completely resistant to the inhibitor. These results predict that covalent targeting of the conserved active-site Cys residue may have drawbacks as a drug design strategy. PMID:23591260

  10. Surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLE) in Northern France: a five-year multicentre incidence study.

    PubMed

    Albertini, M T; Benoit, C; Berardi, L; Berrouane, Y; Boisivon, A; Cahen, P; Cattoen, C; Costa, Y; Darchis, P; Delière, E; Demontrond, D; Eb, F; Golliot, F; Grise, G; Harel, A; Koeck, J L; Lepennec, M P; Malbrunot, C; Marcollin, M; Maugat, S; Nouvellon, M; Pangon, B; Ricouart, S; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Vachée, A; Carbonne, Anne; Marty, Lawrence; Jarlier, Vincent

    2002-10-01

    In order to measure the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLE), and to evaluate the impact of the national guidelines for multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) prevention in hospitals of Northern France, a multicentre study was conducted for three months every year starting in 1996, in volunteer hospital laboratories. All clinical specimens positive for MRSA and ESBLE were prospectively surveyed. During the five-year surveillance period, the overall proportion of MRSA was 38.4% in the 28,534 strains of S. aureus, and that of ESBLE was 11.4% in the 6121 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 47.7% in the 2353 strains of Enterobacter aerogenes. The overall incidence rates of clinical specimens positive for MRSA, ESBL-K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes were 0.84. 0.05 and 0.12/1000 hospital-days (HD), respectively. In the 23 hospitals that participated in the survey every year, the proportion and incidence of ESBLE decreased. Hence, despite recommendations as for isolation precautions, MRSA remains poorly controlled and requires more effective measures. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society

  11. Pyrosequencing using the single-nucleotide polymorphism protocol for rapid determination of TEM- and SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates and identification of the novel beta-lactamase genes blaSHV-48, blaSHV-105, and blaTEM-155.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Hal; Ruzin, Alexey; Tuckman, Margareta; Visalli, Melissa A; Petersen, Peter J; Bradford, Patricia A

    2009-03-01

    TEM- and SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most common ESBLs found in the United States and are prevalent throughout the world. Amino acid substitutions at a number of positions in TEM-1 lead to the ESBL phenotype, although substitutions at residues 104 (E to K), 164 (R to S or H), 238 (G to S), and 240 (E to K) appear to be particularly important in modifying the spectrum of activity of the enzyme. The SHV-1-derived ESBLs are a less diverse collection of enzymes; however, the majority of amino acid substitutions resulting in an ESBL mirror those seen in the TEM-1-derived enzymes. Pyrosequencing by use of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) protocol was applied to provide sequence data at positions critical for the ESBL phenotype spanning the bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) genes. Three novel beta-lactamases are described: the ESBLs TEM-155 (Q39K, R164S, E240K) and SHV-105 (I8F, R43S, G156D, G238S, E240K) and a non-ESBL, SHV-48 (V119I). The ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an Escherichia coli isolate expressing bla(SHV-105) were >128, 128, and >128 microg/ml, respectively. Likewise, the ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an E. coli isolate expressing bla(TEM-155) were >128, 64, and > 128 microg/ml, respectively. Pyrosequence analysis determined the true identity of the beta-lactamase on plasmid R1010 to be SHV-11 rather than SHV-1, as previously reported. Pyrosequencing is a real-time sequencing-by-synthesis approach that was applied to SNP detection for TEM- and SHV-type ESBL identification and represents a robust tool for rapid sequence determination that may have a place in the clinical setting.

  12. Multidrug-resistant human and animal Salmonella typhimurium isolates in France belong predominantly to a DT104 clone with the chromosome- and integron-encoded beta-lactamase PSE-1.

    PubMed

    Casin, I; Breuil, J; Brisabois, A; Moury, F; Grimont, F; Collatz, E

    1999-05-01

    Epidemiologic relationships were investigated in 187 ampicillin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium strains (86 human, 101 animal) from >2000 strains isolated in 1994. Of 23 resistance patterns, the most frequent (ampicillin [Am], chloramphenicol [Cm], tetracycline [Tc], streptomycin and spectinomycin [Sm], and sulfonamides [Su]) was found in 69.5% of human and 64.8% of animal isolates. Four beta-lactamase genes were identified, blaTEM (24%), blaPSE-1 (78%), and blaSHV and oxa-2 (each <3%). blaPSE-1 and the integrase gene, intI1, but not blaTEM, blaSHV or oxa-2, were chromosomeborne and found almost exclusively in the AmCmTcSmSu strains. In these, polymerase chain reaction mapping revealed two distinct integrons carrying blaPSE-1 or aadA2. Lysotypes, plasmid profiles, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (IS200) were determined for 50 representative isolates and for 3 DT104 strains from the United Kingdom (UK). The phage type of the PSE-1-producing AmCmTcSmSu strains was 12 atypic, indistinguishable from that of the DT104 strains. The combined data indicate that the same multiresistant clone has spread through human and animal ecosystems in the UK and France.

  13. Antibacterial activity and PK/PD of ceftriaxone against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2007-10-01

    The suitability of ceftriaxone for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (especially beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae) and the relationship between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. The values for percentage of time above the MIC (%T>MIC) for ceftriaxone, cefotiam, flomoxef, sulbactam/cefoperazone, sulbactam/ampicillin, and meropenem, using 400 S. pneumoniae isolates and 430 H. influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from more than 100 geographically diverse medical centers during January to July of 2005, were calculated by measuring the MIC for each isolate and by using patameters of pharmacokinetics. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the MIC, using the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Meropenem showed the lowest MIC against penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, followed by sulbactam/cefoperazone and ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone had the best activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative and beta-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. Ceftriaxone was unique, showing a long elimination half-life and low MIC values where its serum level duration time was above the MIC for longer than other cephalosporins. Accordingly, the %T>MIC of ceftriaxone for a once-daily administration greatly exceeded the efficacy levels of those for the other antibacterial agents tested. Ceftriaxone has an excellent balance between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic profiles; and therefore remains effective as a therapeutic agent against PRSP and BLNAR H. influenzae in CAP.

  14. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    PubMed

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  15. Role of Asp104 in the SHV beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Christopher R; Hujer, Andrea M; Hujer, Kristine M; Thomson, Jodi M; Ruszczycky, Mark W; Anderson, Vernon E; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Taracila, Magdalena; Helfand, Marion S; Bonomo, Robert A

    2006-12-01

    Among the TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), an amino acid change at Ambler position 104 (Glu to Lys) results in increased resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime when found with other substitutions (e.g., Gly238Ser and Arg164Ser). To examine the role of Asp104 in SHV beta-lactamases, site saturation mutagenesis was performed. Our goal was to investigate the properties of amino acid residues at this position that affect resistance to penicillins and oxyimino-cephalosporins. Unexpectedly, 58% of amino acid variants at position 104 in SHV expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B resulted in beta-lactamases with lowered resistance to ampicillin. In contrast, increased resistance to cefotaxime was demonstrated only for the Asp104Arg and Asp104Lys beta-lactamases. When all 19 substitutions were introduced into the SHV-2 (Gly238Ser) ESBL, the most significant increases in cefotaxime and ceftazidime resistance were noted for both the doubly substituted Asp104Lys Gly238Ser and the doubly substituted Asp104Arg Gly238Ser beta-lactamases. Correspondingly, the overall catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of hydrolysis for cefotaxime was increased from 0.60 +/- 0.07 microM(-1) s(-1) (mean +/- standard deviation) for Gly238Ser to 1.70 +/- 0.01 microM(-1) s(-1) for the Asp104Lys and Gly238Ser beta-lactamase (threefold increase). We also showed that (i) k3 was the rate-limiting step for the hydrolysis of cefotaxime by Asp104Lys, (ii) the Km for cefotaxime of the doubly substituted Asp104Lys Gly238Ser variant approached that of the Gly238Ser beta-lactamase as pH increased, and (iii) Lys at position 104 functions in an energetically additive manner with the Gly238Ser substitution to enhance catalysis of cephalothin. Based on this analysis, we propose that the amino acid at Ambler position 104 in SHV-1 beta-lactamase plays a major role in substrate binding and recognition of oxyimino-cephalosporins and influences the interactions of Tyr105 with penicillins.

  16. Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States in 1994 and 1995 and detection of beta-lactamase-positive strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate: results of a national multicenter surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Doern, G V; Brueggemann, A B; Pierce, G; Holley, H P; Rauch, A

    1997-02-01

    A total of 1,537 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were recovered in 30 U.S. medical center laboratories between 1 November 1994 and 30 April 1995 and were characterized in a central laboratory with respect to serotype and beta-lactamase production and the in vitro activities of 15 oral antimicrobial agents. Overall, 36.4% of the isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. The rank order of activity of six cephalosporins on the basis of MICs was cefixime > cefpodoxime > cefuroxime > loracarbef > or = cefaclor > cefprozil. On the basis of current National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) breakpoints ages of isolates found to be resistant or intermediate to these agents were as follows: 0.1, 0.3, 6.4, 16.3, 18.3, and 29.8, respectively (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 4th ed. M7-A4, 1995). Azithromycin was, on a weight basis, the most potent of the macrolides tested in this study, followed by erythromycin and then clarithromycin. Azithromycin was typically fourfold more active than erythromycin, which was, in turn, slightly more active than clarithromycin. However, when compared on the basis of the frequency of resistance determined by using current NCCLS breakpoints, there was essentially no difference between azithromycin and clarithromycin, i.e., 0.5 and 1.9%, respectively (P = 0.086). Interpretive breakpoints for erythromycin MIC tests versus H. influenzae have not been developed. Resistance to other non- beta-lactam agents was variable, as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 9.0%; chloramphenicol, 0.2%; tetracycline, 1.3%; and rifampin, 0.3%. Two conspicuous findings in this study were the identification of 39 strains H. influenzae that were beta-lactamase negative but ampicillin intermediate or resistant (BLNAR) and, even more surprisingly, 17 beta-lactamase-positive isolates that were resistant to amoxicillin

  17. Identification of a new allelic variant of the Acinetobacter baumannii cephalosporinase, ADC-7 beta-lactamase: defining a unique family of class C enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hujer, Kristine M; Hamza, Nashaat S; Hujer, Andrea M; Perez, Federico; Helfand, Marion S; Bethel, Christopher R; Thomson, Jodi M; Anderson, Vernon E; Barlow, Miriam; Rice, Louis B; Tenover, Fred C; Bonomo, Robert A

    2005-07-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are emerging as opportunistic hospital pathogens that demonstrate resistance to many classes of antibiotics. In a metropolitan hospital in Cleveland, a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii that tested resistant to cefepime and ceftazidime (MIC = 32 microg/ml) was identified. Herein, we sought to determine the molecular basis for the extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance. Using analytical isoelectric focusing, a beta-lactamase with a pI of > or = 9.2 was detected. PCR amplification with specific A. baumannii cephalosporinase primers yielded a 1,152-bp product which, when sequenced, identified a novel 383-amino-acid class C enzyme. Expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B, this beta-lactamase demonstrated greater resistance against ceftazidime and cefotaxime than cefepime (4.0 microg/ml versus 0.06 microg/ml). The kinetic characteristics of this beta-lactamase were similar to other cephalosporinases found in Acinetobacter spp. In addition, this cephalosporinase was inhibited by meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, and sulopenem (K(i) < 40 microM). The amino acid compositions of this novel enzyme and other class C beta-lactamases thus far described for A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species 3, and Oligella urethralis in Europe and South Africa suggest that this cephalosporinase defines a unique family of class C enzymes. We propose a uniform designation for this family of cephalosporinases (Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases [ADC]) found in Acinetobacter spp. and identify this enzyme as ADC-7 beta-lactamase. The coalescence of Acinetobacter ampC beta-lactamases into a single common ancestor and the substantial phylogenetic distance separating them from other ampC genes support the logical value of developing a system of nomenclature for these Acinetobacter cephalosporinase genes.

  18. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone.

  19. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone. PMID:28152085

  20. Strategic Design of an Effective beta-Lactamase Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanaik, P.; Bethel, C; Hujer, A; Hujer, K; Distler, A; Taracila, M; Anderson, V; Fritsche, T; Jones, R; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to devise strategies for overcoming bacterial beta-lactamases, we studied LN-1-255, a 6-alkylidene-2'-substituted penicillin sulfone inhibitor. By possessing a catecholic functionality that resembles a natural bacterial siderophore, LN-1-255 is unique among beta-lactamase inhibitors. LN-1-255 combined with piperacillin was more potent against Escherichia coli DH10B strains bearing bla(SHV) extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases than an equivalent amount of tazobactam and piperacillin. In addition, LN-1-255 significantly enhanced the activity of ceftazidime and cefpirome against extended-spectrum cephalosporin and Sme-1 containing carbapenem-resistant clinical strains. LN-1-255 inhibited SHV-1 and SHV-2 beta-lactamases with nm affinity (K(I) = 110 +/- 10 and 100 +/- 10 nm, respectively). When LN-1-255 inactivated SHV beta-lactamases, a single intermediate was detected by mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of LN-1-255 in complex with SHV-1 was determined at 1.55A resolution. Interestingly, this novel inhibitor forms a bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen pointing out of the oxyanion hole and forming hydrogen bonds with Lys-234 and Ser-130 in the active site. Electron density for the 'tail' of LN-1-255 is less ordered and modeled in two conformations. Both conformations have the LN-1-255 carboxyl group interacting with Arg-244, yet the remaining tails of the two conformations diverge. The observed presence of the bicyclic aromatic intermediate with its carbonyl oxygen positioned outside of the oxyanion hole provides a rationale for the stability of this inhibitory intermediate. The 2'-substituted penicillin sulfone, LN-1-255, is proving to be an important lead compound for novel beta-lactamase inhibitor design.

  1. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing-enterobacteriaceae].

    PubMed

    Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Doit, C; Bingen, E

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) are defined as ß-lactamase able to hydrolyze all penicillins and cephalosporins with the exception of cephamycins (cefotixin, cefotetan), moxalactam and carbapenems and are encoded by mobile genes. The most frequently encountered ESBLs belong to the CTX-M, SHV, and TEM families. ESBLs were found first in Klebsiella pneumonia and then predominantly in E. coli. The incidence of patients with ESBLs E. coli increase since 2000 in Robert Debré Hospital in Paris. They were mainly implicated in urinary tract infections and less frequently in other infections such as materno-foetal infections or neonatal meningitis. An increase of consumption of carbapenems may lead to spread of carbapenem resistant organisms. Thus alternative to carbapenems for treatment of ESBL producers are needed.

  2. Multi drug resistance and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella: A study from New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Prabhav; Uppal, Beena; Ghosh, Roumi; Krishna Prakash, S; Chakravarti, Anita; Jha, Arun Kumar; Rajeshwari, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is an important cause of gastroenteritis in local Indian population, as well as of traveler's diarrhea in the international visitors to India. These patients often require appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, rapid development of antimicrobial resistance poses a major hurdle in achieving this goal. A prospective study was conducted during 2009-12 in New Delhi, India, including 6339 stool samples from gastroenteritis patients. 121 Shigella strains were identified on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical reactions, serotyping and ipaH gene based PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion, MIC determination by Vitek(®) 2 and phenotypic tests for ESBL/AmpC production were done. Nineteen percent strains (23/121) were found to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins and all were phenotypically confirmed to be ESBL producers; one strain was positive for AmpC. ESBL producing strains were also found to be significantly more resistant (p < 0.05) to several other antimicrobials agents in comparison to ESBL non-producers, [ampicillin (100% vs. 62.2%), ampicillin/sulbactam (100% vs. 30.6%), cotrimoxazole (100% vs. 77.6%), ciprofloxacin (87.0% vs. 49.0%), ofloxacin (87.0% vs. 52.0%) and gentamicin (30.4% vs. 7.1%)]. Multidrug resistance was seen in 76% strains. Inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents puts high selection pressure on the higher-end antibiotics. Multi-drug resistance and high rates of ESBL production by Shigella is a matter of concern for the local population as well as international travelers. Therefore, better national level antimicrobial management programs are the priority needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in an endemic setting

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Peleg, Anton Y.; D’Agata, Erika MC

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of horizontal gene transmission (HGT) in the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacteria during periods of endemicity is unclear. Over a 12-month period, rectal colonization with SHV-5 and SHV-12 producing-Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was quantified among a cohort of residents in a long-term care facility. Demographic and clinical data were collected on colonized residents. Transferability of SHV-encoding plasmids and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to quantify the contribution of HGT and cross-transmission, respectively. A total of 25 (12%) of 214 enrolled patients were colonized with 11 SHV-5- and 17 SVH-12-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clonally-related isolates were detected among multiple residents residing on the same and different wards. Among 12 clonally-distinct isolates, HGT of SHV-5- and SHV-12-encoding plasmids was identified among 6 (50%) isolates. HGT among clonally-distinct strains contributes to the transmission dynamics of these ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria and should be considered when evaluating the spread of these pathogens. PMID:22722012

  4. Population Distribution of Beta-Lactamase Conferring Resistance to Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Human Clinical Enterobacteriaceae in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Guido M.; Platteel, Tamara N.; Fluit, Ad C.; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia M.; Stuart, James Cohen; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Hall, Maurine A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, blaCTX-M-15 was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%), followed by blaCTX-M-1 (n = 47, 15%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 15, 5%), blaSHV-12 (n = 24, 8%) and blaTEM-52 (n = 13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained blaCTX-M-15. Our findings demonstrate that blaCTX-M-15 is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:23284886

  5. Population distribution of Beta-lactamase conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in human clinical Enterobacteriaceae in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Voets, Guido M; Platteel, Tamara N; Fluit, Ad C; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia M; Stuart, James Cohen; Bonten, Marc J M; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Hall, Maurine A L

    2012-01-01

    There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne β-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15) was most prevalent (n = 124, 39%), followed by bla(CTX-M-1) (n = 47, 15%), bla(CTX-M-14) (n = 15, 5%), bla(SHV-12) (n = 24, 8%) and bla(TEM-52) (n = 13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ≥16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15). Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15) is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, beta-lactamases, and biochemical identification of Yokenella regensburgei strains.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo; Sherwood, Kimberley J; Wiedemann, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    Yokenella regensburgei is an opportunistic human pathogen that phenotypically resembles Hafnia alvei. The susceptibility of 10 Y. regensburgei strains to 75 antimicrobial agents was examined, applying a microdilution procedure in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) and IsoSensitest broth (ISB). beta-Lactamases were characterized phenotypically with beta-lactamase activity and induction assays. Genotypically, PCR experiments applying degenerated primer pairs for the detection of AmpC beta-lactamase genes were performed. Examining the phenotypic properties of Yokenella and 76 H. alvei strains with commercial identification systems and conventional tests, a database for an accurate biochemical separation of Y. regensburgei from H. alvei was established. In CAMHB, all tested yokenellae were resistant or at least of intermediate susceptibility to penicillin G, oxacillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefazoline, loracarbef, cefoxitin, all tested macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, ketolides, fusidic acid, glycopeptides, linezolid, and rifampicin. All Yokenella strains were sensitive to several beta-lactams, all tested aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, folate-pathway inhibitors, fosfomycin, nitrofurantion, quinolones, and tetracyclines. In ISB, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of several beta-lactams were one to four MIC doubling dilution steps lower than those found in CAMHB (depending on the beta-lactam). All yokenellae yielded specific amplification products for ampC, and all of these strains expressed beta-lactamases that were strongly inducible. Hydroxyproline amidase, maltosidase, tri-peptidase, proline deaminase, catalase reaction, Voges-Proskauer test, and fermentation of glycerol, melibiose and myo-inositol were suitable parameters to separate Y. regensburgei from H. alvei.

  7. The impact of antibiotic use on the incidence and resistance pattern of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in primary and secondary healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Aldeyab, Mamoon A; Harbarth, Stephan; Vernaz, Nathalie; Kearney, Mary P; Scott, Michael G; Darwish Elhajji, Feras W; Aldiab, Motasem A; McElnay, James C

    2012-01-01

    AIMS The objective of the present study was to study the relationship between hospital antibiotic use, community antibiotic use and the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in hospitals, while assessing the impact of a fluoroquinolone restriction policy on ESBL-producing bacteria incidence rates. METHODS The study was retrospective and ecological in design. A multivariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was built to relate antibiotic use to ESB-producing bacteria incidence rates and resistance patterns over a 5 year period (January 2005–December 2009). RESULTS Analysis showed that the hospital incidence of ESBLs had a positive relationship with the use of fluoroquinolones in the hospital (coefficient = 0.174, P = 0.02), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the community (coefficient = 1.03, P = 0.03) and mean co-morbidity scores for hospitalized patients (coefficient = 2.15, P = 0.03) with various time lags. The fluoroquinolone restriction policy was implemented successfully with the mean use of fluoroquinolones (mainly ciprofloxacin) being reduced from 133 to 17 defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 bed days (P < 0.001) and from 0.65 to 0.54 DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day (P = 0.0007), in both the hospital and its surrounding community, respectively. This was associated with an improved ciprofloxacin susceptibility in both settings [ciprofloxacin susceptibility being improved from 16% to 28% in the community (P < 0.001)] and with a statistically significant reduction in ESBL-producing bacteria incidence rates. DISCUSSION This study supports the value of restricting the use of certain antimicrobial classes to control ESBL, and demonstrates the feasibility of reversing resistance patterns post successful antibiotic restriction. The study also highlights the potential value of the time-series analysis in designing efficient antibiotic stewardship. PMID:22150975

  8. Worldwide experience with the use of doripenem against extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing and ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: analysis of six phase 3 clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Kaniga, Koné; Flamm, Robert; Tong, Shin-Yir; Lee, Michael; Friedland, Ian; Redman, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    The worldwide increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae pathogens has led to doripenem and other carbapenems assuming a greater role in the treatment of serious infections. We analyzed data from 6 phase 3 multinational doripenem clinical trials on ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates consisting of all genera (CIPRE) and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates consisting of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus spp. with ceftazidime MICs of >or=2 microg/ml (ESBLE) for prevalence by geographic region and disease type, in vitro activities of doripenem and comparator agents, and clinical or microbiologic outcomes in doripenem- and comparator-treated patients across disease types (complicated intra-abdominal infection [cIAI], complicated urinary tract infection [cUTI], and nosocomial pneumonia [NP]). Of 1,830 baseline Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 88 (4.8%) were ESBLE and 238 (13.0%) were CIPRE. The incidence of ESBLE was greatest in Europe (7.8%); that of CIPRE was higher in South America (15.9%) and Europe (14.4%). ESBLE incidence was highest in NP (12.9%) cases; that of CIPRE was higher in cUTI (18.3%) and NP (14.9%) cases. Against ESBLE and CIPRE, carbapenems appeared more active than other antibiotic classes. Among carbapenems, doripenem and meropenem were most potent. Doripenem had low MIC(90)s for CIPRE (0.5 microg/ml) and ESBLE (0.25 microg/ml). Doripenem and comparators were highly clinically effective in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae, irrespective of their ESBL statuses. The overall cure rates were the same for doripenem (82%; 564/685) and the comparators (82%; 535/652) and similar for ESBLE (73% [16/22] versus 72% [21/29]) and CIPRE (68% [47/69] versus 52% [33/64]). These findings indicate that doripenem is an important therapeutic option for treating serious infections caused by ESBLE and CIPRE.

  9. Molecular Exploration of Beta-Lactamases in Fusarium verticillioides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides (Fv) is one of the most prevalent maize fungal pathogens. Fv mycotoxins are a significant food safety issue and have given rise to exposure concerns worldwide. The FDB1 locus, a beta-lactamase-containing Fv gene cluster, was previously shown to be in...

  10. Laboratory surveillance for prospective plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Komatsu, Masaru; Abe, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Saori; Miyamoto, Yugo; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ono, Tamotsu; Nishio, Hisaaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kida, Kaneyuki; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishi, Isao; Sakamoto, Masako; Akagi, Masahiro; Nakai, Isako; Kofuku, Tomomi; Orita, Tamaki; Wada, Yasunao; Jikimoto, Takumi; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Hirai, Itaru; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2010-09-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (PABLs), and plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamases confer resistance to many beta-lactams. In Japan, although several reports exist on the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and metallo-beta-lactamases, the prevalence and characteristics of PABLs remain unknown. To investigate the production of PABLs, a total of 22,869 strains of 4 enterobacterial species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis, were collected during six 6-month periods from 17 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan. PABLs were detected in 29 (0.13%) of 22,869 isolates by the 3-dimensional test, PCR analysis, and DNA sequencing analysis. PABL-positive isolates were detected among isolates from 13 laboratories. Seventeen of 13,995 (0.12%) E. coli isolates, 8 of 5,970 (0.13%) K. pneumoniae isolates, 3 of 1,722 (0.17%) K. oxytoca isolates, and 1 of 1,182 (0.08%) P. mirabilis isolates were positive for PABLs. Of these 29 PABL-positive strains, 20 (69.0%), 6 (20.7%), 2 (6.9%), and 1 (3.4%) carried the genes for CMY-2, DHA-1, CMY-8, and MOX-1 PABLs, respectively. Pattern analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis revealed that the prevalence of CMY-2-producing E. coli strains was not due to epidemic strains and that 3 DHA-1-producing K. pneumoniae strains were identical, suggesting their clonal relatedness. In conclusion, the DHA-1 PABLs were predominantly present in K. pneumoniae strains, but CMY-2 PABLs were predominantly present in E. coli strains. The present findings will provide significant information to assist in preventing the emergence and further spread of PABL-producing bacteria.

  11. Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(NDM-1), and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India.

    PubMed

    Yong, Dongeun; Toleman, Mark A; Giske, Christian G; Cho, Hyun S; Sundman, Kristina; Lee, Kyungwon; Walsh, Timothy R

    2009-12-01

    A Swedish patient of Indian origin traveled to New Delhi, India, and acquired a urinary tract infection caused by a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that typed to the sequence type 14 complex. The isolate, Klebsiella pneumoniae 05-506, was shown to possess a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) but was negative for previously known MBL genes. Gene libraries and amplification of class 1 integrons revealed three resistance-conferring regions; the first contained bla(CMY-4) flanked by ISEcP1 and blc. The second region of 4.8 kb contained a complex class 1 integron with the gene cassettes arr-2, a new erythromycin esterase gene; ereC; aadA1; and cmlA7. An intact ISCR1 element was shown to be downstream from the qac/sul genes. The third region consisted of a new MBL gene, designated bla(NDM-1), flanked on one side by K. pneumoniae DNA and a truncated IS26 element on its other side. The last two regions lie adjacent to one another, and all three regions are found on a 180-kb region that is easily transferable to recipient strains and that confers resistance to all antibiotics except fluoroquinolones and colistin. NDM-1 shares very little identity with other MBLs, with the most similar MBLs being VIM-1/VIM-2, with which it has only 32.4% identity. As well as possessing unique residues near the active site, NDM-1 also has an additional insert between positions 162 and 166 not present in other MBLs. NDM-1 has a molecular mass of 28 kDa, is monomeric, and can hydrolyze all beta-lactams except aztreonam. Compared to VIM-2, NDM-1 displays tighter binding to most cephalosporins, in particular, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cephalothin (cefalotin), and also to the penicillins. NDM-1 does not bind to the carbapenems as tightly as IMP-1 or VIM-2 and turns over the carbapenems at a rate similar to that of VIM-2. In addition to K. pneumoniae 05-506, bla(NDM-1) was found on a 140-kb plasmid in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the patient's feces, inferring the

  12. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in intra-abdominal infection isolates in Latin America, 2008-2012. Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Lob, Sibylle H; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K

    2015-07-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends has monitored the in vitro activity of several recommended antimicrobials used in the management of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) globally since 2002. In this report, we document the changing susceptibility patterns to recommended antimicrobials in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients with IAIs in 11 Latin American countries between 2008 and 2012 and describe the beta-lactamases encoded by phenotypically extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive and ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates. Overall, the incidence of phenotypically ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae did not change significantly from 2008 (40.4%) to 2012 (41.2%) (P > 0.05). However, trend analysis documented an increase in isolates encoding K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or both KPC and an ESBL. Decreasing susceptibility (P < 0.05) was noted for cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and imipenem among all K. pneumoniae, as well as for cefepime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and imipenem among ESBL-positive isolates, while susceptibility of ESBL-negative isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam actually increased (P < 0.05).

  13. Inhibition of OXA-1 beta-lactamase by penems.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Christopher R; Distler, Anne M; Ruszczycky, Mark W; Carey, Marianne P; Carey, Paul R; Hujer, Andrea M; Taracila, Magda; Helfand, Marion S; Thomson, Jodi M; Kalp, Matthew; Anderson, Vernon E; Leonard, David A; Hujer, Kristine M; Abe, Takao; Venkatesan, Aranapakam M; Mansour, Tarek S; Bonomo, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    The partnering of a beta-lactam with a beta-lactamase inhibitor is a highly effective strategy that can be used to combat bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics mediated by serine beta-lactamases (EC 3.2.5.6). To this end, we tested two novel penem inhibitors against OXA-1, a class D beta-lactamase that is resistant to inactivation by tazobactam. The K(i) of each penem inhibitor for OXA-1 was in the nM range (K(i) of penem 1, 45 +/- 8 nM; K(i) of penem 2, 12 +/- 2 nM). The first-order rate constant for enzyme and inhibitor complex inactivation of penems 1 and 2 for OXA-1 beta-lactamase were 0.13 +/- 0.01 s(-1) and 0.11 +/- 0.01 s(-1), respectively. By using an inhibitor-to-enzyme ratio of 1:1, 100% inactivation was achieved in beta-lactamase activity was not detected at 24 h. Covalent adducts of penems 1 and 2 (changes in molecular masses, +306 +/- 3 and +321 +/- 3 Da, respectively) were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After tryptic digestion of OXA-1 inactivated by penems 1 and 2, ESI-MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS identified the adducts of 306 +/- 3 and 321 +/- 3 Da attached to the peptide containing the active-site Ser67. The base hydrolysis of penem 2, monitored by serial (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, suggested that penem 2 formed a linear imine species that underwent 7-endo-trig cyclization to ultimately form a cyclic enamine, the 1,4-thiazepine derivative. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that the penem inhibitors at 4 mg/liter effectively restored susceptibility to piperacillin. Penem beta-lactamase inhibitors which demonstrate high affinities and which form long-lived acyl intermediates may prove to be extremely useful against the broad range of inhibitor-resistant serine beta-lactamases present in gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Cloning and sequence analysis of a class A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra.

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, C J; Unsal, I; Chambers, H F

    1997-01-01

    A cosmid library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra was introduced into Mycobacterium smegmatis, and eight recombinant clones with increased resistance to cefoxitin were identified. Isoelectric focusing detected an M. tuberculosis-derived beta-lactamase in one of these recombinant clones. A sequence analysis identified it as a class A beta-lactamase whose expression correlated with the increased resistance phenotype. PMID:9145897

  15. Novel TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-134, in a Citrobacter koseri clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Mariagrazia; Mugnaioli, Claudia; Luzzaro, Francesco; Fiore, Marianna; Stefani, Stefania; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2005-04-01

    A new natural TEM derivative with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase activity, TEM-134, was identified in a ceftazidime-resistant clinical isolate of Citrobacter koseri. Compared to TEM-1, TEM-134 contains the following mutations: Q39K, E104K, R164H, and G238S. The bla(TEM-134) gene was not transferable by conjugation and, apparently, was chromosomally encoded. Expression studies with Escherichia coli revealed efficient cefotaximase and ceftazidimase activity for TEM-134.

  16. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the chromosome-encoded class A beta-lactamase BCL-1 from Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Girlich, Delphine; Leclercq, Roland; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-11-01

    A chromosomal beta-lactamase gene from Bacillus clausii NR, which is used as a probiotic, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It encodes a clavulanic acid-susceptible Ambler class A beta-lactamase, BCL-1, with a pI of 5.5 and a molecular mass of ca. 32 kDa. It shares 91% and 62% amino acid identity with the chromosomally encoded PenP penicillinases from B. clausii KSM-K16 and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively. The hydrolytic profile of this beta-lactamase includes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefpirome. This chromosome-encoded enzyme was inducible in B. clausii, and its gene is likely related to upstream-located regulatory genes that share significant identity with those reported to be upstream of the penicillinase gene of B. licheniformis. The bla(BCL-1) gene was located next to the known chromosomal aadD2 gene and the erm34 gene, which encode resistance to aminoglycosides and macrolides, respectively. Similar genes were found in a collection of B. clausii reference strains.

  17. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the beta-lactamases of Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii and "Y. ruckeri" strains.

    PubMed

    Schiefer, Andrea Maria; Wiegand, Irith; Sherwood, Kimberley Jane; Wiedemann, Bernd; Stock, Ingo

    2005-06-01

    The beta-lactamases of five strains each of Y. aldovae and "Y. ruckeri", and 10 strains each of Y. bercovieri and Y. frederiksenii were examined phenotypically and genetically. Beta-lactamase activity and induction assays and SDS-PAGE were applied for phenotypic characterization of these enzymes. Genotypically, PCR experiments applying degenerated primer pairs for the detection of AmpC beta-lactamase genes were performed. All yersiniae yielded specific amplification products for ampC and all these strains expressed beta-lactamases. Each species produced its own, species-specific AmpC beta-lactamase. Inducibility of these enzymes was shown for Y. bercovieri, but not for the low-level enzyme producing species Y. aldovae and "Y. ruckeri". In contrast to these species, induction tests for Y. frederiksenii revealed heterogeneous results. Whereas the beta-lactamases of 6 of 10 strains were inducible, the enzyme activities after induction in the remaining four were similar to those measured without an inducer. In addition to the AmpC enzyme, all Y. frederiksenii strains expressed a second beta-lactamase belonging to Ambler class A. The present study enlarges the knowledge about the beta-lactamases of four novel Yersinia species that are likely to be involved in human disease. Beta-lactamases of Y. aldovae and "Y. ruckeri" have been characterized for the first time.

  18. Crystallographic Studies of Two Bacterial AntibioticResistance Enzymes: Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (2')-Ic and GES-1\\beta-lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Brynes, Laura; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-10-31

    Guiana Extended-Spectrum-1 (GES-1) and Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (2')-Ic (APH(2')-Ic) are two bacteria-produced enzymes that essentially perform the same task: they provide resistance to an array of antibiotics. Both enzymes are part of a growing resistance problem in the medical world. In order to overcome the ever-growing arsenal of antibiotic-resistance enzymes, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of their action. Accurate structures of these proteins have become an invaluable tool to do this. Using protein crystallography techniques and X-ray diffraction, the protein structure of GES-1 bound to imipenem (an inhibitor) has been solved. Also, APH(2')-Ic has been successfully crystallized, but its structure was unable to be solved using molecular replacement using APH(2')-Ib as a search model. The structure of GES-1, with bound imipenem was solved to a resolution of 1.89A, and though the inhibitor is bound with only moderate occupancy, the structure shows crucial interactions inside the active site that render the enzyme unable to complete the hydrolysis of the {beta}-lactam ring. The APH(2')-Ic dataset could not be matched to the model, APH(2')-Ib, with which it shares 25% sequence identity. The structural information gained from GES-1, and future studies using isomorphous replacement to solve the APH(2')-Ic structure can aid directly to the creation of novel drugs to combat both of these classes of resistance enzymes.

  19. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Schets, Franciska M.; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. Methods The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs), seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs), and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes): ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol. Results Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×102, 4.0×104, 1.8×107, and 4.1×107 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX

  20. Expression of beta-lactamases in Yersinia enterocolitica strains of biovars 2, 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Stock, I; Heisig, P; Wiedemann, B

    1999-11-01

    Characteristic patterns of susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics are associated with different biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica. To elucidate the basis for these differences, the beta-lactamases of strains of Y. enterocolitica biovars 4 (n = 63), 2 (n = 12) and 5 (n = 10) were characterised. PCR fragments were generated from the beta-lactamase A (blaA) and B (blaB) genes; in addition, beta-lactamase induction tests were performed with imipenem as the inducer and beta-lactamase inhibition assays were undertaken with aztreonam and clavulanic acid. All the strains yielded PCR amplification fragments with primers to blaA and blaB. Biovar 4 strains had uniform patterns of beta-lactamase induction and inhibition: uninduced biovar 4 strains predominantly expressed BlaA, but low-level expression of BlaB was also detected; after induction, biovar 4 strains predominantly produced BlaB. Beta-lactamase expression varied between and within biovars 2 and 5: uninduced strains predominantly expressed either BlaA or BlaB, or exclusively BlaB; after induction BlaB was predominantly or exclusively expressed. Both the basal and induced levels of beta-lactamase varied within biovars 2 and 5. Some biovar 5 strains were not inducible; these predominantly produced BlaA. The results of this study show that biovar 2, 4 and 5 strains contain both blaA and blaB, but that the expression of the enzymes is regulated differently between the biovars, and varies within biovars 2 and 5. There was some correlation between antibiogram and the clusters defined from the beta-lactamase induction and inhibition tests, but it was not possible to predict beta-lactamase expression profiles from MIC data.

  1. Relation of beta-lactamase activity to antimicrobial susceptibility in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Tsang, J C; Sansing, G A; Miller, M A

    1975-09-01

    One-hundred clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens were tested for susceptibility to cephalothin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, and cefoxitin. The majority of the 100 isolates (>/=70%) were susceptible to carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and cefoxitin; less than one-half were susceptible to ampicillin; none were susceptible to cephalothin. Ten isolates from the 100 organisms tested were selectively assayed for their beta-lactamase activity. Enzyme activity was measured using either iodometric or spectrophotometric methods, and the microbiological assay technique. It was concluded that beta-lactamase production was not the sole determinant in beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. Resistance without demonstrable beta-lactamase was evident in strains for cephalothin, ampicillin, and cefoxitin. In addition, one strain which was susceptible to all antibiotics except cephalothin, elaborated considerable beta-lactamase activity.

  2. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  3. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  4. Characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Ali, Mohamed S; Al-Ahdal, Mohammad N; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Shibl, Atef M

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalences, genotypes, and clonal relationships of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains in 98 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Riyadh. The prevalence of ESBLs in these strains was 37·75%. All isolates that were confirmed to have ESBLs were completely resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, and gentamicin and were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and imipenem. In total, 16·6, 77, and 91·6% of isolates were resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam, respectively. The prevalences of isolates producing the beta-lactamases SHV, CTX-M, and TEM were 91·9, 86·5, and 54·05%, respectively. The most frequent ESBL gene detected was blaCTX-M-15, which was observed in 75% of isolates. Other frequent ESBL genes were blaSHV-12 (29·73% of isolates) and blaSHV-5 (5·4% of isolates); additionally, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-57, and blaCTX-M-82 were each detected in one isolate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed the presence of diverse and unrelated clones. The high prevalence of ESBL producers among the strains examined in our study was not due to the spread of a single clone of bacteria. Clone A was detected in six isolates, indicating intra-hospital spread. Our study documented a high prevalence of the CTX-M-15 product in K. pneumoniae and demonstrated that SHV-12 was also highly prevalent. This study represents the first report of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-57, and CTX-M-82 beta-lactamases in K. pneumoniae isolates from Saudi Arabia.

  5. Detection of Resistance to Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors in Strains with CTX-M Beta-Lactamases: a Multicenter External Proficiency Study Using a Well-Defined Collection of Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll, Aida; Rodríguez, Cristina; Tormo, Nuria; Gimeno, Concepción; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Cantón, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Quality Control program, 14 Escherichia coli strains masked as blood culture isolates were sent to 68 clinical microbiology laboratories for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to β-lactam antibiotics. This collection included three control strains (E. coli ATCC 25922, an IRT-2 producer, and a CMY-2 producer), six isogenic strains with or without the OmpF porin and expressing CTX-M β-lactamases (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, and CTX-M-14), one strain carrying a double mechanism for β-lactam resistance (i.e., carrying CTX-M-15 and OXA-1 enzymes), and four strains carrying CTX-M variants with different levels of resistance to β-lactams and β-lactam–β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations. The main objective of the study was to ascertain how these variants with reduced susceptibilities to BLBLIs are identified in clinical microbiology laboratories. CTX-M variants with high resistance to BLBLIs were mainly identified as inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) enzymes (68.0%); however, isogenic CTX-M mutant strains with reduced susceptibilities to BLBLIs and cephalosporins were mainly associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production alone (51 to 80%) or in combination with other mechanisms (14 to 31%). Concerning all β-lactams tested, the overall interpretative discrepancy rate was 11.5%, of which 38.1% were the consequence of postreading changes in the clinical categories when a resistance mechanism was inferred. Therefore, failure to recognize these complex phenotypes might contribute to an explanation of their apparent absence in the clinical setting and might lead to inadequate drug treatment selection. A proposal for improving recognition is to adhere strictly to the current CLSI or EUCAST guidelines for detecting reduced susceptibility to BLBLI combinations, without any interpretative modification. PMID:24153133

  6. Beta-lactamase targeted enzyme activatable photosensitizers for antimicrobial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang; Verma, Sarika; Sallum, Ulysses W.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a treatment modality for infectious disease has shown promise. However, most of the antimicrobial photosensitizers (PS) non-preferentially accumulate in both bacteria and host tissues, causing host tissue phototoxicity during treatment. We have developed a new antimicrobial PDT strategy which exploits beta-lactam resistance mechanism, one of the major drug-resistance bacteria evolved, to achieve enhanced target specificity with limited host damage. Our strategy comprises a prodrug construct with a PS and a quencher linked by beta-lactam ring, resulting in a diminished phototoxicity. This construct, beta-lactamase enzyme-activated-photosensitizer (beta-LEAP), can only be activated in the presence of both light and bacteria, and remains inactive elsewhere such as mammalian tissue. Beta-LEAP construct had shown specific cleavage by purified beta-lactamase and by beta-lactamase over-expressing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Specific photodynamic toxicity was observed towards MRSA, while dark and light toxicity were equivalent to reference strains. The prodrug design, synthesis and photophysical properties will be discussed.

  7. Characterization of SFO-1, a plasmid-mediated inducible class A beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Inoue, M

    1999-02-01

    Enterobacter cloacae 8009 produced an inducible class A beta-lactamase which hydrolyzed cefotaxime efficiently. It also hydrolyzed other beta-lactams except cephamycins and carbapenems. The activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid and imipenem. The bla gene was transferable to Escherichia coli by electroporation of plasmid DNA. The molecular mass of the beta-lactamase was 29 kDa and its pI was 7.3. All of these phenotypic characteristics of the enzyme except for inducible production resemble those of some extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamases like FEC-1. The gene encoding this beta-lactamase was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the beta-lactamase was homologous to the AmpA sequences of the Serratia fonticola chromosomal enzyme (96%), MEN-1 (78%), Klebsiella oxytoca chromosomal enzymes (77%), TOHO-1 (75%), and FEC-1 (72%). The conserved sequences of class A beta-lactamases, including the S-X(T)-X(S)-K motif, in the active site were all conserved in this enzyme. On the basis of the high degree of homology to the beta-lactamase of S. fonticola, the enzyme was named SFO-1. The ampR gene was located upstream of the ampA gene, and the AmpR sequence of SFO-1 had homology with the AmpR sequences of the chromosomal beta-lactamases from Citrobacter diversus (80%), Proteus vulgaris (68%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (60%). SFO-1 was also inducible in E. coli. However, a transformant harboring plasmid without intact ampR produced a small amount of beta-lactamase constitutively, suggesting that AmpR works as an activator of ampA of SFO-1. This is the first report from Japan describing an inducible plasmid-mediated class A beta-lactamase in gram-negative bacteria.

  8. [Spreading and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Phenotypical screening for MBL producers (carbapenemases B1) among strains of Pseudomonas genus, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M

    2007-01-01

    Intrahospital strains (215) of the bacterial genus Pseudomonas isolated from patients of 30 Medical centers of 15 Russian regions have been investigated for antibiotic resistance. The bacterial cultures resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem were considered as metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producers. Production of subclass B1 MBL (carbapenemases) was evaluated by means of the double-disk approximation test using MBL inhibitor, EDTA. There were 55 P. aeroginosa strains (25.6%) resistant to imipenem and meropenem simultaneously; 19 isolates (8.8%) of P. aeroginosa were characterized by synergism between carbapenem and EDTA. The subclass B1 MBL producers are widely distributed in the intrahospital strain obtained from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, and Tomsk hospitals.

  9. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×10(3), 6.624×10(3) and 2.244×10(3) (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Machado, Elisabete; Coque, Teresa M; Cantón, Rafael; Novais, Angela; Sousa, João Carlos; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence and the diversity of Ambler class A ESBLs among Enterobacteriaceae from different Portuguese clinical settings over a 2 year period (2002-04). One hundred and nine extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five geographically distant health institutions in Portugal were studied. ESBLs were characterized by isoelectric focussing, PCR and further sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, transfer of resistance genes and clonal diversity were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid relatedness was established by comparison of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. ESBLs were identified as TEM (46%), SHV (30%), CTX-M (22%) and GES (2%) types; TEM-24, TEM-52, SHV-12 and CTX-M-15 enzymes being the most frequently found. Inter-hospital dissemination of epidemic strains harbouring the most prevalent ESBLs was detected, including the TEM-24-producing Enterobacter aerogenes European epidemic clone. Conjugative transfer of ESBLs was achieved for 67% of isolates and epidemic plasmids containing specific bla genes were detected (bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-24)). We describe two new ESBLs, SHV-90 (A187T, G238S and E240K) and SHV-91 (P20S and E240K), and a new TEM-type enzyme conferring a phenotype resembling that of a complex mutant TEM beta-lactamase, designated as TEM-154 (M69L and R164S). The broad-spectrum beta-lactamases SHV-26, SHV-36 and TEM-110 were first observed in our country. We describe a complex ESBL epidemiology in Portugal, including widespread dissemination of known strains and plasmids coding for TEM-24 and CTX-M-15 enzymes as observed in other European countries.

  11. [Molecular characterization of BRO beta-lactamases of Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from carrier children].

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Ozgen; Ergin, Alper; Gürkan Aydin, Nazli; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2004-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Moraxella catarrhalis is a risk factor for upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media. In this study, we aimed to characterize BRO beta-lactamases of M. catarrhalis strains isolated from 64 children without any symptoms of respiratory disease. Gram negative diplococci grown on selective media and which are catalase, oxidase, DNase, nitrate reduction positive, glucose, maltose, sucrose and lactose fermentation negative, were diagnosed as M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method recommended by NCCLS. BRO beta-lactamases were differentiated by restriction enzyme analysis method. The resistance rate for ampicillin was 18.8% and all the isolates were found to be sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, cefaclor, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Out of 64 M. catarrhalis isolates, 57 (89%) were found beta-lactamase positive with nitrocefin disk test (Remel, USA). The presence of BRO beta-lactamases in these 57 strains (89%) was also confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis, while 7 (11%) of them were found to be negative. Among the positive strains, 47 (73.4%) were typed as BRO-1, and 10 (15.6%) were typed as BRO-2. The characterization of BRO beta-lactamases of M. catarrhalis strains in carrier children is important since the high rate of carriage predisposes to respiratory tract infections. As a result, BRO beta-lactamase typing will guide the treatment regimen against the respiratory infections that can occur due to M. catarrhalis in carrier children.

  12. CMT-type beta-lactamase TEM-125, an emerging problem for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detection.

    PubMed

    Robin, Frédéric; Delmas, Julien; Archambaud, Maryse; Schweitzer, Cédric; Chanal, Catherine; Bonnet, Richard

    2006-07-01

    The clinical strain Escherichia coli TO799 was resistant to penicillin-clavulanate combinations and ceftazidime and was not reproducibly detected as an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) according to the standards of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI; formerly NCCLS) and the national guidelines of the French Society for Microbiology (Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie). A novel beta-lactamase, designated TEM-125, was responsible for this phenotype. TEM-125 harbors a complex association of mutations previously described in the ESBL TEM-12 and in the inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamase TEM-39. TEM-125 is the first complex mutant TEM to present hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime (kcat, 3.7 s(-1)) together with a high level of resistance to clavulanate (50% inhibitory concentration, 13.6 microM). The discovery of such an ESBL, which is difficult to detect by the usual ESBL detection methods, confirms the emergence of a complex mutant TEM subgroup and highlights the need to evaluate detection methods so as to avoid possible therapeutic failures.

  13. A mutation in either dsbA or dsbB, a gene encoding a component of a periplasmic disulfide bond-catalyzing system, is required for high-level expression of the Bacteroides fragilis metallo-beta-lactamase, CcrA, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Alksne, L E; Keeney, D; Rasmussen, B A

    1995-01-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase gene, ccrA, from Bacteroides fragilis is functionally expressed in Escherichia coli only in the presence of a genomic mutation in iarA or iarB (increased ampicillin resistance), identified in this study as dsbA or dsbB, respectively. DsbA and DsbB are components of a periplasmic protein disulfide bond-catalyzing system. Data indicated that DsbA interacted with CcrA, creating aberrant disulfide bond linkages that render CcrA proteolytically unstable. Mutations in dsbA or dsbB permissive for CcrA expression eliminated or greatly reduced DsbA activity, allowing CcrA to assume a disulfide bond-free and proteolytically stable conformation. PMID:7814337

  14. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacteriaceae in Buenos Aires, Argentina, public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Quinteros, M; Radice, M; Gardella, N; Rodriguez, M M; Costa, N; Korbenfeld, D; Couto, E; Gutkind, G

    2003-09-01

    Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is often associated with plasmid encoded extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). In order to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of ESBLs in enterobacteria in our city, a 1-month-period survey was carried out from April to May 2000. Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant strains, isolated from inpatient clinical specimens other than stools, were collected among 17 participating hospitals. From a total of 427 enterobacterial strains that were collected during this period, 39 were extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards' Screening and Confirmatory Tests for ESBL production were performed using cefotaxime and ceftazidime; cefepime and cefepime-clavulanic acid-containing disks were included. beta-Lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing and PCR amplification using specific primers. Three different ESBLs were detected: SHV-related (4 isolates), PER-2-type (9 isolates), and CTX-M-2-related (26 isolates). Sequencing of the corresponding genes confirmed CTX-M-2 in 19 of 21 and CTX-M-31 (an allelic variant) in the remaining 2 of 21. CTX-M-2 (or its variant) was detected in all Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, and Providencia stuartii strains, while PER-2 was detected in Enterobacter cloacae, E. aerogenes, and Klebsiella pneumoniae; SHV-related ESBL were found only in K. pneumoniae. These results clearly show that CTX-M-2 is the most prevalent ESBL produced by enterobacterial species isolated from public hospitals in Buenos Aires.

  15. Identification of residues in beta-lactamase critical for binding beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Palzkill, T

    1999-03-12

    beta-Lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is a potent inhibitor of several beta-lactamases including TEM-1 beta-lactamase (Ki = 0.1 nM). The co-crystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP has been solved, revealing the contact residues involved in the interface between the enzyme and inhibitor. To determine which residues in TEM-1 beta-lactamase are critical for binding BLIP, the method of monovalent phage display was employed. Random mutants of TEM-1 beta-lactamase in the 99-114 loop-helix and 235-240 B3 beta-strand regions were displayed as fusion proteins on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage. Functional mutants were selected based on the ability to bind BLIP. After three rounds of enrichment, the sequences of a collection of functional beta-lactamase mutants revealed a consensus sequence for the binding of BLIP. Seven loop-helix residues including Asp-101, Leu-102, Val-103, Ser-106, Pro-107, Thr-109, and His-112 and three B3 beta-strand residues including Ser-235, Gly-236, and Gly-238 were found to be critical for tight binding of BLIP. In addition, the selected beta-lactamase mutants A113L/T114R and E240K were found to increase binding of BLIP by over 6- and 11-fold, respectively. Combining these substitutions resulted in 550-fold tighter binding between the enzyme and BLIP with a Ki of 0.40 pM. These results reveal that the binding between TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP can be improved and that there are a large number of sequences consistent with tight binding between BLIP and beta-lactamase.

  16. Determinants of binding affinity and specificity for the interaction of TEM-1 and SME-1 beta-lactamase with beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-11-14

    The hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics by class A beta-lactamases is a common cause of bacterial resistance to these agents. The beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is able to bind and inhibit several class A beta-lactamases, including TEM-1 beta-lactamase and SME-1 beta-lactamase. Although the TEM-1 and SME-1 enzymes share 33% amino acid sequence identity and a similar fold, they differ substantially in surface electrostatic properties and the conformation of a loop-helix region that BLIP binds. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was performed to identify the residues on BLIP that contribute to its binding affinity for each of these enzymes. The results indicate that the sequence requirements for binding are similar for both enzymes with most of the binding free energy provided by two patches of aromatic residues on the surface of BLIP. Polar residues such as several serines in the interface do not make significant contributions to affinity for either enzyme. In addition, the specificity of binding is significantly altered by mutation of two charged residues, Glu73 and Lys74, that are buried in the structure of the TEM-1.BLIP complex as well as by residues located on two loops that insert into the active site pocket. Based on the results, a E73A/Y50A double mutant was constructed that exhibited a 220,000-fold change in binding specificity for the TEM-1 versus SME-1 enzymes.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase rates in aerobic gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in Vietnam: report from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART 2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith; Phuong, Doan Mai; Nga, Tran Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Tran My; Phuong, Tran Thi Lan; Badal, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Treatment options for multidrug-resistant pathogens remain problematic in many regions and individual countries, warranting ongoing surveillance and analysis. Limited antimicrobial susceptibility information is available for pathogens from Vietnam. This study determined the bacterial susceptibility of aerobic gram-negative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections among patients in Vietnam during 2009-2011. A total of 905 isolates were collected from 4 medical centers in this investigation as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) rates among the appropriate species were determined by a central laboratory using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Among the species collected, Escherichia coli (48.1% ESBL-positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.5% ESBL-positive) represented the majority (46.4%) of the isolates submitted for this study. Ertapenem MIC90 values were lowest for these 2 species at 0.12 and 0.25μg/mL and remained unchanged for ESBL-positive isolates. Imipenem MIC90 values were also the same for all isolates and ESBL-positive strains at 0.25 and 0.5μg/mL, respectively. Ertapenem MIC90 values for additional species with sufficient numbers for analysis, including Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were 1, 0.06, >4, and >4μg/mL, respectively. Analysis of beta-lactamases in a subset of 132 phenotypically ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated that CTX-M variants, particularly CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-15, were the predominant enzymes. High resistance rates in Vietnam hospitals dictate continuous monitoring as antimicrobial inactivating enzymes continue to spread throughout Asia and globally.

  18. Peptidase activity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rhazi, N; Galleni, M; Page, M I; Frère, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. PMID:10393100

  19. Characterization of Beta-lactamases in Faecal Enterobacteriaceae Recovered from Healthy Humans in Spain: Focusing on AmpC Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Porres-Osante, Nerea; Sáenz, Yolanda; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    The intestinal tract is a huge reservoir of Enterobacteriaceae, some of which are opportunist pathogens. Several genera of these bacteria harbour intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes, such as ampC genes in species of Citrobacter, Enterobacter or Escherichia genera. In this work, beta-lactamases and other resistance mechanisms have been characterized in Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from healthy human faecal samples, focusing on the ampC beta-lactamase genes. Fifty human faecal samples were obtained, and 70 Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were isolated: 44 Escherichia coli, 4 Citrobacter braakii, 9 Citrobacter freundii, 8 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Proteus vulgaris, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Serratia sp. and 1 Cronobacter sp. A high percentage of resistance to ampicillin was detected (57%), observing the AmpC phenotype in 22 isolates (31%) and the ESBL phenotype in 3 isolates. AmpC molecular characterization showed high diversity into bla CMY and bla ACT genes from Citrobacter and Enterobacter species, respectively, and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis demonstrated low clonality among them. The prevalence of people colonized by strains carrying plasmid-mediated ampC genes obtained in this study was 2%. The unique plasmid-mediated bla AmpC identified in this study was the bla CMY-2 gene, detected in an E. coli isolate ascribed to the sequence type ST405 which belonged to phylogenetic group D. The hybridization and conjugation experiments demonstrated that the ISEcp1-bla CMY-2-blc structure was carried by a ~78-kb self-transferable IncK plasmid. This study shows a high polymorphism among beta-lactamase genes in Enterobacteriaceae from healthy people microbiota. Extensive AmpC-carrier studies would provide important information and could allow the anticipation of future global health problems.

  20. Enterobacter cloacae with a novel variant of ACT AmpC beta-lactamase originating from glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) in Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Manga, Ivan; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chroma, Magdalena; Jamborova, Ivana; Dobiasova, Hana; Sedlakova, Miroslava Htoutou; Cizek, Alois

    2014-07-16

    We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n=215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n=15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23.

  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a chromosome-encoded carbapenem-hydrolyzing ambler class D beta-lactamase from Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Héritier, Claire; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2004-05-01

    A chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase gene from Shewanella algae clinical isolate KB-1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It encoded the Ambler class D enzyme OXA-55, sharing less than 55% identity with any other oxacillinases. Although conferring a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam resistance phenotype, OXA-55 had carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity that mirrored the reduced susceptibility to imipenem observed in S. algae KB-1. Very similar oxacillinases were found in other S. algae isolates.

  2. Sequence analysis of PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and comparison with class A beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, P; Naas, T

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence (EMBL accession number, Z 21957) of the cloned chromosomal PER-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase gene from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa RNL-1 clinical isolate, blaPER-1 corresponds to a 924-bp open reading frame which encodes a polypeptide of 308 amino acids. This open reading frame is preceded by a -10 and a -35 region consistent with a putative P. aeruginosa promoter. Primer extension analysis of the PER-1 mRNA start revealed that this promoter was active in P. aeruginosa but not in Escherichia coli, in which PER-1 expression was driven by vector promoter sequences. N-terminal sequencing identified the PER-1 26-amino-acid leader peptide and enabled us to calculate the molecular mass (30.8 kDa) of the PER-1 mature form. Analysis of the percent GC content of blaPER-1 and of its 5' upstream sequences, as well as the codon usage for blaPER-1, indicated that blaPER-1 may have been inserted into P. aeruginosa genomic DNA from a nonpseudomonad bacterium. The PER-1 gene showed very low homology with other beta-lactamase genes at the DNA level. By using computer methods, assessment of the extent of identity between PER-1 and 10 beta-lactamase amino acid sequences indicated that PER-1 is a class A beta-lactamase. PER-1 shares around 27% amino acid identity with the sequenced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases of the TEM-SHV series and MEN-1 from Enterobacteriaceae species. The use of parsimony methods showed that PER-1 is not more closely related to gram-negative than to gram-positive bacterial class A beta-lactamases. Surprisingly, among class A beta-lactamases, PER-1 was most closely related to the recently reported CFXA from Bacteroides vulgatus, with which it shared 40% amino acid identity. This work indicates that non-Enterobacteriaceae species such as P. aeruginosa may possess class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes possibly resulting from intergeneric DNA transfer. Images PMID:8141562

  3. Systematic mutagenesis of the active site omega loop of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Petrosino, J F; Palzkill, T

    1996-01-01

    Beta-Lactamase is a bacterial protein that provides resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. TEM-1 beta-lactamase is the most prevalent plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in gram-negative bacteria. Normally, this enzyme has high levels of hydrolytic activity for penicillins, but mutant beta-lactamases have evolved with activity toward a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. It has been shown that active site substitutions are responsible for changes in the substrate specificity. Since mutant beta-lactamases pose a serious threat to antimicrobial therapy, the mechanisms by which mutations can alter the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase are of interest. Previously, screens of random libraries encompassing 31 of 55 active site amino acid positions enabled the identification of the residues responsible for maintaining the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. In addition to substitutions found in clinical isolates, many other specificity-altering mutations were also identified. Interestingly, many nonspecific substitutions in the N-terminal half of the active site omega loop were found to increase ceftazidime hydrolytic activity and decrease ampicillin hydrolytic activity. To complete the active sight study, eight additional random libraries were constructed and screened for specificity-altering mutations. All additional substitutions found to alter the substrate specificity were located in the C-terminal half of the active site loop. These mutants, much like the N-terminal omega loop mutants, appear to be less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Further analysis of a 165-YYG-167 triple mutant, selected for high levels of ceftazidime hydrolytic activity, provides an example of the correlation which exists between enzyme instability and increased ceftazidime hydrolytic activity in the ceftazidime-selected omega loop mutants. PMID:8606154

  4. Induction of beta-lactamase influences the course of development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K A; Zusman, D R

    1999-10-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium that develops in response to starvation on a solid surface. The cells assemble into multicellular aggregates in which they differentiate from rod-shaped cells into spherical, environmentally resistant spores. Previously, we have shown that the induction of beta-lactamase is associated with starvation-independent sporulation in liquid culture (K. A. O'Connor and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 24:839-850, 1997). In this paper, we show that the chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase of M. xanthus is autogenously induced during development. The specific activity of the enzyme begins to increase during aggregation, before spores are detectable. The addition of inducers of beta-lactamase in M. xanthus, such as ampicillin, D-cycloserine, and phosphomycin, accelerates the onset of aggregation and sporulation in developing populations of cells. In addition, the exogenous induction of beta-lactamase allows M. xanthus to fruit on media containing concentrations of nutrients that are normally too high to support development. We propose that the induction of beta-lactamase is an integral step in the development of M. xanthus and that this induction is likely to play a role in aggregation and in the restructuring of peptidoglycan which occurs during the differentiation of spores. In support of this hypothesis, we show that exogenous induction of beta-lactamase can rescue aggregation and sporulation of certain mutants. Fruiting body spores from a rescued mutant are indistinguishable from wild-type fruiting body spores when examined by transmission electron microscopy. These results show that the signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of beta-lactamase plays an important role in aggregation and sporulation in M. xanthus.

  5. Beta-lactamase reporter system for selecting high-producing yeast clones.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Gorazd; Smilović, Vanja; Zupan, Ana Lenassi; Gaberc-Porekar, Vladka

    2008-04-01

    In modern production of protein biopharmaceuticals, a good screening and selection method of high-producing clones can dramatically influence the whole production process and lead to lower production costs. We have created a rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for selecting high-producing clones in the yeast Pichia pastoris that is based on the beta-lactamase reporter system. By integrating the reporter gene and the gene of interest into the same genome locus, it was possible to use beta-lactamase activity as a measure of the expression level of the protein of interest. A novel expression vector with two independent expression cassettes was designed and tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model. The first cassette contained the GFP gene under the control of a strong, inducible AOX1 promoter, while the second cassette consisted of the beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of a weak constitutive YPT1 promotor. High-producing GFP clones were selected directly on the plates based on the color change after hydrolysis of the beta-lactamase substrate added to the medium. beta-lactamase activity was found to positively correlate with GFP fluorescence. The reporter system described is widely applicable-it can be easily applied to other, also pharmaceutically relevant proteins and to other yeast expression systems, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula polymorpha.

  6. Evaluation of restriction endonuclease analysis of BRO beta-lactamases in clinical and carrier isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Köseoglu, Ozgen; Ergin, Alper; Hascelik, Gülsen

    2004-01-01

    A rapid increase in the prevalance of beta-lactamase producing M. catarrhalis isolates has highlighted its pathogenic potential. In this study, we aimed to detect the BRO beta-lactamases of our clinical (n = 32) and carrier (n =32) strains of Moraxella catarrhalis and compare the relationship of the enzyme type in assesment of MIC results of the antibiotics tested. BRO beta-lactamases were differentiated by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar dilution method recommended by NCCLS (M7A5). The clinical isolates produced 96.9%, whereas the carrier strains produced 90.6% beta-lactamase positivity by the restriction enzyme analysis. BRO-1 was isolated as 90.6% (n =29) while the BRO-2 and non-beta-lactamase producers (NBLP) were isolated as 6.3% (n =2) and 3.1% (n =1) respectively among clinical isolates. The rate of BRO-1 in the carrier strains was 75.0% (n =24), BRO-2 was 15.6% (n =5) and NBLP was 9.4%, (n =3). The beta-lactamase production with nitrocefin test was 96.9% (31/32) in clinical isolates and 90.6% (29/32) in carrier strains. M. catarrhalis needs a continous monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility; in this era restriction endonuclease analysis could be useful to screen BRO beta-lactamase genes.

  7. Probing the active site of beta-lactamase R-TEM1 by informational suppression.

    PubMed

    Lenfant, F; Labia, R; Masson, J M

    1990-01-01

    Using a new extended set of 13 amber suppressors in E coli, systematic amino-acid replacements were performed at positions 104(E) and 238(G) of TEM-1 beta-lactamase from PUC19. The enzyme is tolerant to most substitutions tested at position 104. Missense revertants E104K, E104S or E104Y exhibited only minor changes in enzyme activity with respect to wild-type TEM-1. Several substitutions at position 238 resulted in a new cefotaxime hydrolysing capacity, but to an extent that did not confer cefotaxime resistance for the bacteria producing the mutated enzymes. Only when the mutations at codons 104 and 238 were combined on the same gene, did a true cefotaxime resistant phenotype appear, mimicking the situation encountered with 3rd generation cephalosporins resistant clinical isolates.

  8. Nanomolar Inhibitors of AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, Federica; Caselli, Emilia; Morandi, Stefania; Focia, Pamela J.; Blazquez, Jesus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases are the most widespread resistance mechanism to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. In an effort to combat these enzymes, a combination of stereoselective organic synthesis, enzymology, microbiology, and X-ray crystallography was used to design and evaluate new carboxyphenyl-glycylboronic acid transition-state analogue inhibitors of the class C {beta}-lactamase AmpC. The new compounds improve inhibition by over 2 orders of magnitude compared to analogous glycylboronic acids, with K{sub i} values as low as 1 nM. On the basis of the differential binding of different analogues, the introduced carboxylate alone contributes about 2.1 kcal/mol in affinity. This carboxylate corresponds to the ubiquitous C3(4)' carboxylate of {beta}-lactams, and this energy represents the first thermodynamic measurement of the importance of this group in molecular recognition by class C {beta}-lactamases. The structures of AmpC in complex with two of these inhibitors were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.72 and 1.83 {angstrom} resolution. These structures suggest a structural basis for the high affinity of the new compounds and provide templates for further design. The highest affinity inhibitor was 5 orders of magnitude more selective for AmpC than for characteristic serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. This inhibitor reversed the resistance of clinical pathogens to the third generation cephalosporin ceftazidime; it may serve as a lead compound for drug discovery to combat bacterial resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  9. In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of U-63196E, a novel cephalosporin.

    PubMed Central

    Neu, H C; Labthavikul, P

    1983-01-01

    The in vitro activity of U-63196E, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, was studied against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and compared with the in vitro activities of cefotaxime, moxalactam, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Although U-63196E inhibited many ampicillin-resistant bacteria and its activity against gram-negative species was similar to cefoperazone, it was much less active than the other agents. U-63196E was less active than cefazolin against gram-positive species, and it was less active than cefoxitin or moxalactam against Bacteroides fragilis. U-63196E did not inhibit most cefoperazone- or cefsulodin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a difference between minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations for isolates which contained beta-lactamases. Plasmid beta-lactamases of the TEM, HSV, OXA, and PSE types hydrolyzed U-63196E. But U-63196E was relatively stable against hydrolysis by the chromosomal beta-lactamases. PMID:6605719

  10. Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases or transferable AmpC beta-lactamases and Salmonella on meat imported into Sweden.

    PubMed

    Egervärn, Maria; Börjesson, Stefan; Byfors, Sara; Finn, Maria; Kaipe, Caroline; Englund, Stina; Lindblad, Mats

    2014-02-03

    The presence of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) or transferable AmpC beta-lactamases (pAmpC) is increasingly being reported in humans and animals world-wide. Their occurrence in food-producing animals suggests that meat is a possible link between the two populations. This study investigated the occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella and ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli in 430 samples of beef, pork and broiler meat imported into Sweden, in order to provide data required for assessing the potential public health risk of these bacteria in food. Depending on region of origin, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli were found in 0-8% of beef samples, 2-13% of pork samples and 15-95% of broiler meat samples. The highest prevalence was in South American broiler meat (95%), followed by broiler meat from Europe (excluding Denmark) (61%) and from Denmark (15%). Isolates from meat outside Scandinavia were generally defined as multiresistant. A majority of the ESBL/pAmpC genes were transferable by conjugation. Bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-8) were the dominant genes in E. coli from South American broiler meat, whereas bla(CMY-2) and bla(CTX-M-1) dominated in European meat. The majority of bla(CMY-2) and bla(CTX-M-1) were situated on plasmids of replicon type incK and incI1, respectively. The same combinations of ESBL/pAmpC genes and plasmids have been described previously in clinical human isolates. Salmonella was found in five samples tested, from European pork and broiler meat. No Salmonella isolate was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. In conclusion, meat imported into Sweden, broiler meat in particular, is a potential source of human exposure to ESBL- and pAmpC-producing E. coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SME-3, a novel member of the Serratia marcescens SME family of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Queenan, Anne Marie; Shang, Wenchi; Schreckenberger, Paul; Lolans, Karen; Bush, Karen; Quinn, John

    2006-10-01

    Imipenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates were cultured from a lung transplant patient given multiple antibiotics over several months. The strains expressed SME-3, a beta-lactamase of the rare SME carbapenem-hydrolyzing family. SME-3 differed from SME-1 by a single amino acid substitution of tyrosine for histidine at position 105, but the two beta-lactamases displayed similar hydrolytic profiles.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of beta-lactamases (ESBL and KPC) among enterobacteria isolated from community-acquired monomicrobial urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Dias, Vanessa Cordeiro; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Barros, Renata; Bastos, André Netto; de Andrade Bastos, Lucas Quinnet; de Andrade Bastos, Victor Quinnet; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-12-01

    Beta-lactamases enzymes such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemase type beta-lactamases (KPC) confer resistance to beta-lactam drugs among Gram-negative rods, mainly Enterobacteriaceae, as those frequently related to urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this study was to evaluate ESBL and KPC among enterobacteria isolated from monomicrobial UTI and to establish correlations between the presence of genetic markers and the phenotypic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Out of 12 304 urine samples collected during 2009, 93 enterobacteria showing an ESBL phenotype were recovered. Imipenem was used for KPC screening and modified disk approximation assay was used for detection of ESBL phenotype. Polymerase chain reaction was used for screening of bla(SHV), bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), and bla(KPC). Considering the isolated bacteria showing ESBL phenotype 56% of the isolates were positive for two genes. The bla(TEM) was the most frequent (87·1%). Neither KPC phenotype nor bla(KPC)-harboring bacteria were observed. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance is extremely important to sustain empirical therapy of community-acquired urinary tract infections (Co-UTI).

  13. Structural Aspects for Evolution of [beta]-Lactamases from Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Meroueh, Samy O.; Minasov, George; Lee, Wenlin; Shoichet, Brian K.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2010-03-08

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), biosynthetic enzymes of bacterial cell wall assembly, and {beta}-lactamases, resistance enzymes to {beta}-lactam antibiotics, are related to each other from an evolutionary point of view. Massova and Mobashery (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1998, 42, 1-17) have proposed that for {beta}-lactamases to have become effective at their function as antibiotic resistance enzymes, they would have had to undergo structure alterations such that they would not interact with the peptidoglycan, which is the substrate for PBPs. A cephalosporin analogue, 7{beta}-[N-Acetyl-L-alanyl-{gamma}-D-glutamyl-L-lysine]-3-acetoxymethyl-3-cephem-carboxylic acid (compound 6), was conceived and synthesized to test this notion. The X-ray structure of the complex of this cephalosporin bound to the active site of the deacylation-deficient Q120L/Y150E variant of the class C AmpC {beta}-lactamase from Escherichia coli was solved at 1.71 {angstrom} resolution. This complex revealed that the surface for interaction with the strand of peptidoglycan that acylates the active site, which is present in PBPs, is absent in the {beta}-lactamase active site. Furthermore, insertion of a peptide in the {beta}-lactamase active site at a location where the second strand of peptidoglycan in some PBPs binds has effectively abolished the possibility for such interaction with the {beta}-lactamase. A 2.6 ns dynamics simulation was carried out for the complex, which revealed that the peptidoglycan surrogate (i.e., the active-site-bound ligand) undergoes substantial motion and is not stabilized for binding within the active site. These factors taken together disclose the set of structure modifications in the antibiotic resistance enzyme that prevent it from interacting with the peptidoglycan, en route to achieving catalytic proficiency for their intended function.

  14. Carriage of beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents in north Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Dandachi, Iman; Salem Sokhn, Elie; Najem, Elie; Azar, Eid; Daoud, Ziad

    2016-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae can cause severe infections with high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Individuals can be fecal carriers of these resistant organisms. Data on the extent of MDR Enterobacteriaceae fecal carriage in the community setting in Lebanon are very scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the fecal carriage of MDR Enterobacteriaceae among the elderly residents of two nursing homes located in north Lebanon. Over a period of 4 months, five fecal swab samples were collected from each of 68 elderly persons at regular intervals of 3-4 weeks. Fecal swabs were subcultured on selective media for the screening of resistant organisms. The phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) production was performed using the beta-lactamase inhibitors ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, phenylboronic acid, and cloxacillin. A temocillin disk was used for OXA-48. Multiplex PCRs were used for the genotypic detection of ESBL and carbapenemase genes, and sequencing was performed to identify CTX-M-15. The medical records of each subject were reviewed on a regular basis in order to assess the risk factors associated with MDR Enterobacteriaceae fecal carriage. Over the study period, 76.5% of the recruited elderly persons were at least one-time carriers. A total of 178 isolates were obtained. Phenotypic testing revealed that 91.5% of them were ESBL producers, 4% were AmpC producers, 2.8% were co-producers of ESBL and AmpC, and 1.7% were co-producers of OXA-48 and ESBL. Recent antibiotic intake was found to be the only independent risk factor associated with the fecal carriage of MDR Enterobacteriaceae. The high prevalence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae detected in this study and the emergence of carbapenem resistance is alarming. Efficient infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship programs are urgently needed in these settings in

  15. Using steric hindrance to design new inhibitors of class C beta-lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Trehan, Indi; Morandi, F.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases confer resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. However, {beta}-lactams that form an acyl-intermediate with the enzyme but subsequently are hindered from forming a catalytically competent conformation seem to be inhibitors of {beta}-lactamases. This inhibition may be imparted by specific groups on the ubiquitous R1 side chain of {beta}-lactams, such as the 2-amino-4-thiazolyl methoxyimino (ATMO) group common among third-generation cephalosporins. Using steric hindrance of deacylation as a design guide, penicillin and carbacephem substrates were converted into effective {beta}-lactamase inhibitors and antiresistance antibiotics. To investigate the structural bases of inhibition, the crystal structures of the acyl-adducts of the penicillin substrate amoxicillin and the new analogous inhibitor ATMO-penicillin were determined. ATMO-penicillin binds in a catalytically incompetent conformation resembling that adopted by third-generation cephalosporins, demonstrating the transferability of such sterically hindered groups in inhibitor design.

  16. Interactions of biapenem with active-site serine and metallo-beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Felici, A; Perilli, M; Segatore, B; Franceschini, N; Setacci, D; Oratore, A; Stefani, S; Galleni, M; Amicosante, G

    1995-01-01

    Biapenem, formerly LJC 10,627 or L-627, a carbapenem antibiotic, was studied in its interactions with 12 beta-lactamases belonging to the four molecular classes proposed by R. P. Ambler (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Biol. Sci. 289:321-331, 1980). Kinetic parameters were determined. Biapenem was readily inactivated by metallo-beta-lactamases but behaved as a transient inhibitor of the active-site serine enzymes tested, although with different acylation efficiency values. Class A and class D beta-lactamases were unable to confer in vitro resistance toward this carbapenem antibiotic. Surprisingly, the same situation was found in the case of class B enzymes from Aeromonas hydrophila AE036 and Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 when expressed in Escherichia coli strains. PMID:7574520

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece.

    PubMed

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José

    2002-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of bla(MOX-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC beta-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  19. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of VIM-12, a novel hybrid VIM-1/VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate, reveal atypical substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Kontou, Maria; Pournaras, Spyros; Kristo, Ioulia; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Maniatis, Antonios N; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2007-11-13

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are considered an emerging family of Zn2+-dependent enzymes that significantly contribute to the resistance of many nosocomial pathogens against beta-lactam antimicrobials. Since these plasmid-encoded enzymes constitute specific molecular targets for beta-lactams, their exact mode of action is greatly important in deploying efficient anti-infective treatments and for the control of severe multi-resistant nosocomial infections, which becomes a global problem. A novel hybrid VIM-1/VIM-2-type beta-lactamase (named VIM-12) has recently been identified in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece. The sequence of this enzyme is highly similar with that of VIM-1 at its N-terminal region and with that of VIM-2 at its C-terminal region, raising the question of whether this sequence similarity reflects also a similar functional role. Moreover, the possible contribution of this novel beta-lactamase to the overall antibiotic resistance of this specific clinical isolate was investigated. The gene encoding VIM-12 was cloned and expressed, and the recombinant enzyme was used for detailed kinetic analysis, using a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. VIM-12 was found to exhibit narrow substrate specificity, compared to other known beta-lactamases, limited mainly to penicillin and to a much lesser extent to imipenen. Interestingly, meropenem was found to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme, although the active site of VIM-12 exhibited complete conservation of residues among VIM enzymes. We conclude that VIM-12 represents a novel and unique member of the family of known metallo-beta-lactamases, exhibiting atypical substrate specificity.

  20. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  1. Occurrence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae from foods of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, İsmail Hakkı; Özpınar, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    Presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria is a growing health concern of global significance. The local, regional, national, and international epidemiological studies for extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their encoding genes in foods are still incomplete. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and the characteristics of their encoding genes from a total of 250 samples of various foods of animal-origin (100 raw chicken meat, 100 raw cow milk, and 50 raw cow milk cheese) sold in Turkey. Overall, 55 isolates were positive as extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The most prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strain were identified as Escherichia coli (80%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (9.1%), Citrobacter braakii (5.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%), and Citrobacter werkmanii (1.8%) by Vitek(®) MS. The simultaneous production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC was detected in five isolates (9.1%) in E. coli (80%) and E. cloacae (20%). The frequency rates of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were 96.4%, 53.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The co-existence of bla-genes was observed in 82% of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producers with a distribution of blaTEM &blaCTX-M (52.7%), blaTEM &blaSHV (20%), blaTEM &blaCTX-M &blaSHV (12.7%), and blaSHV &blaCTX-M (1.8%). The most prevalent variant of blaCTX-M clusters was defined as blaCTX-M-1 (97.2%), followed by blaCTX-M-8 (2.8%). In summary, the analysed foods were found to be posing a health risk for Turkish consumers due to contamination by Enterobacteriaceae with a diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases encoding genes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of a ROB-1 beta-lactamase in Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, I W; Slaney, L; Juteau, J M; Levesque, R C; Albritton, W L; Ronald, A R

    1992-01-01

    A collection of 100 clinical isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi from Thailand were all found to harbor a 5.4-kb plasmid, designated pTH126, which was shown to contain the bla ROB-1 gene. Restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed that pTH126 was similar to the ROB-1 beta-lactamase plasmid pVM105 from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In approximately one-half of the isolates, pTH126 was found together with pHD131, which mediates TEM-1 beta-lactamase production. Images PMID:1605612

  3. New system based on site-directed mutagenesis for highly accurate comparison of resistance levels conferred by SHV beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, M T; Hächler, H; Kayser, F H

    1995-01-01

    We developed a system based on site-directed mutagenesis that allows a precise comparison of SHV enzymes under isogenic conditions. In addition, the influences of two different, naturally occurring promoters were examined for each SHV derivative. The system comprised two separately cloned DNA fragments, each the size of 3.6 kb. Both fragments encoded an SHV gene originating from clinical isolates but with different promoters. The structural genes were made identical by site-directed mutagenesis. Other mutations were then introduced into both fragments by means of site-directed mutagenesis, resulting in the SHV derivatives SHV-1, SHV-2, SHV-2a, SHV-3, and SHV-5. The amino acid exchange of glutamic acid at position 235 for lysine in SHV-5 resulted in the highest resistance levels. SHV-3, differing from SHV-2 by the exchange of arginine at position 201 for leucine and previously described as indistinguishable from SHV-2, was shown to cause slightly higher resistance to ceftazidime and lower resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and cefepime than SHV-2. The point mutation in SHV-2a, with the leucine-to-glutamine replacement at the unusual position 31, previously considered almost insignificant, proved to increase resistance to ceftazidime but reduced the MICs of all other cephalosporins tested when compared with those for SHV-2. For all clones harboring SHV derivatives, resistance was increased by a stronger promoter, in some cases masking the effect of the point mutation itself and demonstrating the importance of regulatory mechanisms of resistance. PMID:7486909

  4. [Broad-spectrum beta-lactamases in Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Lundblad, Eirik Wasmuth; Samuelsen, Orjan

    2008-12-04

    beta-lactams are our most valuable and frequently used antibiotics. Resistance towards them, in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, challenges their antimicrobial effect. beta-lactamases are the most important resistance mechanism against beta-lactams in Gram-negative bacteria. This review is based on literature retrieved through a non-systematic search of Pubmed (with the terms "ESBL", "AmpC", and "carbapenemases"), as well as the authors' own research experience. We now observe a global dissemination of particularly broad spectrum beta-lactamases; extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated AmpC, and carbapenemases. These beta-lactamases are hosted by multidrug-resistant clones of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa with few, if any, therapeutic alternatives. We have observed that this pandemic has reached Norway with an increase in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in particular, but also pan-resistant carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa OG A. baumannii during the last years. The latter ones have been associated with import after hospitalization abroad, but this situation may change due to the epidemic potential of these resistant clones. Rapid diagnostic service and targeted infection control measures are important to prevent them from spreading.

  5. Novel genetic structure associated with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaVEB gene in a Providencia stuartii clinical isolate from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Daniel; Naas, Thierry; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-08-01

    A ceftazidime-resistant Providencia stuartii isolate from Algeria harbored a ca. 160-kb conjugative plasmid that contained a truncated bla(VEB-1b) gene flanked by three 135-bp repeated elements. This work gives further evidence of the worldwide spread of bla(VEB) genes that are associated with genetic structures other than class 1 integrons.

  6. Functional characterization of OXA-57, a class D beta-lactamase from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Keith, Karen E; Oyston, Petra C; Crossett, Ben; Fairweather, Neil F; Titball, Richard W; Walsh, Timothy R; Brown, Katherine A

    2005-04-01

    Class D beta-lactamase OXA-57 was identified in a range of isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis. Comparative kinetic analyses of wild-type and mutant forms of B. pseudomallei OXA-57 are reported. Implications of these data for beta-lactam resistance and the proposed role of Ser-104 in beta-lactam hydrolysis are discussed.

  7. Orally Administered Targeted Recombinant Beta-Lactamase Prevents Ampicillin-Induced Selective Pressure on the Gut Microbiota: a Novel Approach to Reducing Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Harmoinen, Jaana; Mentula, Silja; Heikkilä, Matti; van der Rest, Michel; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Frias, Rafael; Koski, Pertti; Wickstrand, Nina; Jousimies-Somer, Hannele; Westermarck, Elias; Lindevall, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotics that are excreted into the intestinal tract promote antibiotic resistance by exerting selective pressure on the gut microbiota. Using a beagle dog model, we show that an orally administered targeted recombinant β-lactamase enzyme eliminates the portion of parenteral ampicillin that is excreted into the small intestine, preventing ampicillin-induced changes to the fecal microbiota without affecting ampicillin levels in serum. In dogs receiving ampicillin, significant disruption of the fecal microbiota and the emergence of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and TEM genes were observed, whereas in dogs treated with ampicillin in combination with an oral β-lactamase, these did not occur. These results suggest a new strategy for reducing antimicrobial resistance in humans. PMID:14693521

  8. Beta-lactamases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium kansasii.

    PubMed

    Segura, C; Salvadó, M

    1997-09-01

    Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.

  9. SME-type carbapenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamases from geographically diverse Serratia marcescens strains.

    PubMed

    Queenan, A M; Torres-Viera, C; Gold, H S; Carmeli, Y; Eliopoulos, G M; Moellering, R C; Quinn, J P; Hindler, J; Medeiros, A A; Bush, K

    2000-11-01

    Three sets of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates have been identified in the United States: 1 isolate in Minnesota in 1985 (before approval of carbapenems for clinical use), 5 isolates in Los Angeles (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]) in 1992, and 19 isolates in Boston from 1994 to 1999. All isolates tested produced two beta-lactamases, an AmpC-type enzyme with pI values of 8.6 to 9.0 and one with a pI value of approximately 9.5. The enzyme with the higher pI in each strain hydrolyzed carbapenems and was not inhibited by EDTA, similar to the chromosomal class A SME-1 beta-lactamase isolated from the 1982 London strain S. marcescens S6. The genes encoding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes were cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced. The enzyme from the Minnesota isolate had an amino acid sequence identical to that of SME-1. The isolates from Boston and UCLA produced SME-2, an enzyme with a single amino acid change relative to SME-1, a substitution from valine to glutamine at position 207. Purified SME enzymes from the U. S. isolates had beta-lactam hydrolysis profiles similar to that of the London SME-1 enzyme. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the isolates showed some similarity but differed by at least three genetic events. In conclusion, a family of rare class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases first described in London has now been identified in S. marcescens isolates across the United States.

  10. Evolving beta-lactamase epidemiology in Enterobacteriaceae from Italian nationwide surveillance, October 2013: KPC-carbapenemase spreading among outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Giani, Tommaso; Antonelli, Alberto; Caltagirone, Mariasofia; Mauri, Carola; Nicchi, Jessica; Arena, Fabio; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Bracco, Silvia; Pantosti, Annalisa; Luzzaro, Francesco; Pagani, Laura; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC-type beta-lactamases (ACBLs) and carbapenemases are among the most important resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,352), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 697), and Proteus mirabilis (n = 275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4.3% were also non-susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaR). ESCR-carbaS isolates were contributed by all three species, with higher proportions among isolates from inpatients (20.3%) but remarkable proportions also among those from outpatients (11.1%). Most ESCR-carbaS isolates were ESBL-positive (90.5%), and most of them were contributed by E. coli carrying blaCTX-M group 1 genes. Acquired ACBLs were less common and mostly detected in P. mirabilis. ESCR-carbaR isolates were mostly contributed by K. pneumoniae (25.1% and 7.7% among K. pneumoniae isolates from inpatients and outpatients, respectively), with blaKPC as the most common carbapenemase gene. Results showed an increasing trend for both ESBL and carbapenemase producers in comparison with previous Italian surveys, also among outpatients. PMID:28797330

  11. Detection of cfxA2, cfxA3, and cfxA6 genes in beta-lactamase producing oral anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    BINTA, Buhle; PATEL, Mrudula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to identify β-lactamase-producing oral anaerobic bacteria and screen them for the presence of cfxA and BlaTEM genes that are responsible for β-lactamase production and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Material and Methods Periodontal pocket debris samples were collected from 48 patients with chronic periodontitis and anaerobically cultured on blood agar plates with and without β-lactam antibiotics. Presumptive β-lactamase-producing isolates were evaluated for definite β-lactamase production using the nitrocefin slide method and identified using the API Rapid 32A system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion and microbroth dilution tests as described by CLSI Methods. Isolates were screened for the presence of the β-lactamase-TEM (BlaTEM) and β-lactamase-cfxA genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Amplified PCR products were sequenced and the cfxA gene was characterized using Genbank databases. Results Seventy five percent of patients carried two species of β-lactamase-producing anaerobic bacteria that comprised 9.4% of the total number of cultivable bacteria. Fifty one percent of β-lactamase-producing strains mainly Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides carried the cfxA gene, whereas none of them carried blaTEM. Further characterization of the cfxA gene showed that 76.7% of these strains carried the cfxA2 gene, 14% carried cfxA3, and 9.3% carried cfxA6. The cfxA6 gene was present in three Prevotella spp. and in one Porphyromonas spp. Strains containing cfxA genes (56%) were resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion This study indicates that there is a high prevalence of the cfxA gene in β-lactamase-producing anaerobic oral bacteria, which may lead to drug resistance and treatment failure. PMID:27119762

  12. Eradication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and of Enterobacteriaceae Expressing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases on a Model Pig Farm

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Sophia Ricarda; Schulze-Geisthoevel, Sophia Veronika; Hack, Sylvia; Engelhart, Steffen; Bodenstein, Isabel; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Reif, Marion; Fimmers, Rolf; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Harlizius, Jürgen; Hoerauf, Achim; Exner, Martin; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Petersen, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of livestock with bacteria resistant to antibiotics is considered a risk for the entry of drug-resistant pathogens into the food chain. For this reason, there is a need for novel concepts to address the eradication of drug-resistant commensals on farms. In the present report, we evaluated the decontamination measures taken on a farm contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E). The decontamination process preceded the conversion from piglet breeding to gilt production. Microbiological surveillance showed that the decontamination measures eliminated the MRSA and ESBL-E strains that were detected on the farm before the complete removal of pigs, cleaning and disinfection of the stable, and construction of an additional stable meeting high-quality standards. After pig production was restarted, ESBL-E remained undetectable over 12 months, but MRSA was recovered from pigs and the environment within the first 2 days. However, spa (Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene) typing revealed acquisition of an MRSA strain (type t034) that had not been detected before decontamination. Interestingly, we observed that a farmworker who had been colonized with the prior MRSA strain (t2011) acquired the new strain (t034) after 2 months. In summary, this report demonstrates that decontamination protocols similar to those used here can lead to successful elimination of contaminating MRSA and ESBL-E in pigs and the stable environment. Nevertheless, decontamination protocols do not prevent the acquisition of new MRSA strains. PMID:26341200

  13. High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Mark F; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Smit, Juanita; Whitelaw, Andrew; Zar, Heather J

    2008-01-01

    (MIC ≤ 0.06 μg/ml), 9 (50%) had intermediate resistance (MIC 0.12 – 1 μg/ml) and 2 (11.1%) had high level resistance (MIC ≥2 μg/ml). Fifty percent of Enterobacteriaceae produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (resistant to third generation cephalosporins) and 56% were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-seven percent of S. aureus were MRSA. Carriage of resistant organisms was not associated with hospitalization. On multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for colonization with Enterobacteriaceae were age ≤ one year (Odds ratio 4.4; 95% Confidence Interval 1.9–10.9; p = 0.0008) and CDC stage C disease (Odds ratio 3.6; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5–8.6; p = 0.005) Nineteen (9.4%) subjects had 23 episodes of bacteremia. Enterobacteriaceae were most commonly isolated (13 of 25 isolates), of which 6 (46%) produced ESBL and were resistant to gentamicin. Conclusion HIV-infected children are colonized with potential pathogens, most of which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. TMP-SMX resistance is extremely common. Antibiotic resistance is widespread in colonizing organisms and those causing invasive disease. Antibiotic recommendations should take cognizance of resistance patterns. Antibiotics appropriate for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA should be used for severely ill HIV-infected children in our region. Further study of antibiotic resistance patterns in HIV-infected children from other areas is needed. PMID:18380900

  14. Outbreak of Serratia marcescens Coproducing ArmA and CTX-M-15 Mediated High Levels of Resistance to Aminoglycoside and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Batah, Rima; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is one of the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we have investigated the molecular support of antibiotic resistance and genetic relationships in a series of 54 S. marcescens clinical isolates collected from Eastern Algeria between December 2011 and July 2013. The 54 isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic transfer of antibiotic resistance was performed by conjugation using azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as the recipient strain, and plasmid analysis was done by PCR-based replicon typing. The relatedness of our isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of four protein-encoding genes (gyrB, rpoB, infB, and atpD) and then compared to MALDI-TOF MS clustering. Thirty-five out of 54 isolates yielded an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried bla(CTX-M-15) (n=32), bla(TEM-1) (n=26), bla(TEM-71) (n=1), bla(SHV-1a) (n=1), and bla(PER-2) (n=12). Among these isolates, we identified a cluster of 15 isolates from a urology unit that coharbored ESBL and the 16S rRNA methyltransferase armA. Conjugation was successful for five selected strains, demonstrating the transferability of a conjugative plasmid of incompatibility group incL/M type. Phylogenetic analysis along with MALDI-TOF clustering likely suggested an outbreak of such isolates in the urology unit. In this study, we report for the first time the co-occurrence of armA methyltransferase with ESBL in S. marcescens clinical isolates in Eastern Algeria.

  15. [Determination of beta-lactamase production in strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milk of cows].

    PubMed

    Mazura, F

    1990-05-01

    Determination of sensitivity to penicillin G by a standard disk assay diffusion method was compared with a iodometric method of test papers to determine beta-lactamase production after Jorgensen in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cow's milk from different farms. Out of 179 test strains, 32 strains 17.8%) were found to be well sensitive in the diffusion test; eight of these strains (25.0%) were demonstrated to produce beta-lactamase. 54 strains (30.2%) were sensitive. 27 strains (50%) of this group produced beta-lactamase. 93 strains (51.9%) were resistant to penicillin G in the diffusion test. 86 strains (92.5%) were found to produce beta-lactamase and seven strains were negative in this test. Using the diffusion test of sensitivity in these cultures, 86 strains were sensitive (48.1%) and 93 strains were resistant (51.9%). Beta-lactamase was produced by 121 strains (67.6%) and no beta-lactamase production was recorded in 58 strains (32.4%). Differences in the results of both tests were manifest mainly in the set of strains qualified as sensitive (inhibition zone diameter 24 to 16 mm) and well sensitive (inhibition zone diameter larger than 25 mm). The results indicate that the currently performed diffusion test of sensitivity to penicillin G should be accompanied by an assay of beta-lactamase production. The iodometric method of test papers is simple, rapid and cheap and can be made in any bacteriological laboratory. The high resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains to penicillin G documents that this antibiotic is little efficient in the treatment of mastitis of this etiology in the given region.

  16. [Emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: about 24 cases at Rouen University Hospital].

    PubMed

    David, M; Lemeland, J-F; Boyer, S

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted in order to characterize mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams and clonality of 24 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These strains were isolated from patients hospitalized in Rouen University Hospital between August 2004 and December 2006 and were resistant to cefepime and/or ceftazidime (PMR) by a mechanism not only related to overproduction of the cephalosporinase. Clinical strains of PMR were characterized by conventional biochemical methods, antibiotic susceptibility testing by disk diffusion in agar with or without cloxacillin and RAPD for genetic comparison. Identification of beta-lactamase was performed by PCR amplification followed by sequencing of bla genes. All strains produced the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-116. Epidemiological study identified eight unrelated strains, eight related strains originating from a single unit, three related strains isolated in different wards and five related strains coproducing TEM-116 and SHV-2a but isolated in different units. Detection of ESBL in these strains was difficult due to a low level of ESBL production. This is the first report of TEM-116 in France in 24 strains of P. aeruginosa and its association with SHV-2a in five cases. SHV-2a has been described in P. aeruginosa in France but not TEM-116 which was recently reported in this species, in China and in Netherlands (in a strain coproducing SHV-12). ESBL detection in PMR remains indispensable since these strains can cause therapeutic failures.

  17. Emergence in Spain of a multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate producing SFO-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Pereira, María José; Suárez, José Manuel; Poza, Margarita; Treviño, Mercedes; Villalón, Pilar; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Regueiro, Benito José; Villanueva, Rosa; Bou, Germán

    2011-03-01

    Between February 2006 and October 2009, 38 patients in different wards at the A Coruña University Hospital (northwest Spain) were either infected with or colonized by an epidemic, multidrug-resistant (MDR), and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain of Enterobacter cloacae (EbSF), which was susceptible only to carbapenems. Semiautomated repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed that all of the E. cloacae isolates belonged to the same clone. Cloning and sequencing enabled the detection of the SFO-1 ESBL in the epidemic strain and the description of its genetic environment. The presence of the ampR gene was detected upstream of bla(SFO-1), and two complete sequences of IS26 surrounding ampR and ampA were detected. These IS26 sequences are bordered by complete left and right inverted repeats (IRL and IRR, respectively), which suggested that they were functional. The whole segment flanked by two IS26 copies may be considered a putative large composite transposon. A gene coding for aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (gentamicin resistance gene [aac3]) was found downstream of the 3' IS26. Despite the implementation of strict infection control measures, strain EbSF spread through different areas of the hospital. A case-control study was performed to assess risk factors for EbSF acquisition. A multivariate analysis revealed that the prior administration of β-lactam antibiotics, chronic renal failure, tracheostomy, and prior hospitalization were statistically associated with SFO-1-producing E. cloacae acquisition. This study describes for the first time an outbreak in which an SFO-1-producing E. cloacae strain was involved. Note that so far, this β-lactamase has previously been isolated in only a single case of E. cloacae infection in Japan.

  18. Identification of genotypes of plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamases from clinical isolates and characterization of mutations in their promoter and attenuator regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Ling; Duo, Li-Bo; Luan, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Ying; Wang, Wei-Ping; Zhang, He-Guang; Sun, Qi; Qi, Gui-Yun

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of AmpC beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and determined the genotype of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases at a medical center. The AmpC beta-lactamase promoter and attenuator were amplified from chromosomal DNA of high AmpC-producing E. coli isolates and sequenced. Antibiotic screening and 3D extract tests showed the presence of AmpC beta-lactamase in 3.56% of K. pneumoniae and 1.88% of E. coli isolates. Ten isolates (six K. pneumoniae and four E. coli) were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) as indicated by the double disc diffusion method. DHA-1 plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase was present in 10 K. pneumoniae isolates and four E.coli isolates. E. coli chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase carried polymorphisms in the -42, -32, and -18 bases of the promoter and in the +26 and +27 bases of the attenuator, which may play a role in antibiotic resistance. The observed mutations may have clinical implications for the management of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  19. Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and of Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases on a model pig farm.

    PubMed

    Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Kellner, Sophia Ricarda; Schulze-Geisthoevel, Sophia Veronika; Hack, Sylvia; Engelhart, Steffen; Bodenstein, Isabel; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Reif, Marion; Fimmers, Rolf; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Harlizius, Jürgen; Hoerauf, Achim; Exner, Martin; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Petersen, Brigitte; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Colonization of livestock with bacteria resistant to antibiotics is considered a risk for the entry of drug-resistant pathogens into the food chain. For this reason, there is a need for novel concepts to address the eradication of drug-resistant commensals on farms. In the present report, we evaluated the decontamination measures taken on a farm contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E). The decontamination process preceded the conversion from piglet breeding to gilt production. Microbiological surveillance showed that the decontamination measures eliminated the MRSA and ESBL-E strains that were detected on the farm before the complete removal of pigs, cleaning and disinfection of the stable, and construction of an additional stable meeting high-quality standards. After pig production was restarted, ESBL-E remained undetectable over 12 months, but MRSA was recovered from pigs and the environment within the first 2 days. However, spa (Staphylococcus aureus protein A gene) typing revealed acquisition of an MRSA strain (type t034) that had not been detected before decontamination. Interestingly, we observed that a farmworker who had been colonized with the prior MRSA strain (t2011) acquired the new strain (t034) after 2 months. In summary, this report demonstrates that decontamination protocols similar to those used here can lead to successful elimination of contaminating MRSA and ESBL-E in pigs and the stable environment. Nevertheless, decontamination protocols do not prevent the acquisition of new MRSA strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Quinolone resistance mechanisms among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Abgottspon, Helga; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Stephan, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Sixty extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland were screened for individual strains additionally exhibiting a reduced quinolone susceptibility phenotype. Totally, 42 such isolates were found and further characterized for their molecular (fluoro)quinolone resistance mechanisms. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE and to describe the occurrence of the following plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes: qepA, aac-6'-Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS. The contribution of efflux pumps to the resistance phenotype of selected strains was further determined by the broth microdilution method in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Almost all strains, except two isolates, showed at least one mutation in the QRDR of gyrA. Ten strains showed only one mutation in gyrA, whereas thirty isolates exhibited up to four mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, parC and/or parE. No mutations were detected in gyrB. Most frequently the amino-acid substitution Ser83→Leu was detected in GyrA followed by Asp87→Asn in GyrA, Ser80→Ile in ParC, Glu84→Val in ParC and Ser458→Ala in ParE. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms were found in twenty isolates bearing QnrS1 (4/20), AAC-6'-Ib-cr (15/20) and QepA (1/20) determinants, respectively. No qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrD were found. In the presence of PAβN, the MICs of nalidixic acid were decreased 4- to 32-fold. (Fluoro) quinolone resistance is due to various mechanisms frequently associated with ESBL-production in E. coli from surface waters in Switzerland.

  1. Quinolone Resistance Mechanisms among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Rivers and Lakes in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Abgottspon, Helga; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Stephan, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Sixty extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from rivers and lakes in Switzerland were screened for individual strains additionally exhibiting a reduced quinolone susceptibility phenotype. Totally, 42 such isolates were found and further characterized for their molecular (fluoro)quinolone resistance mechanisms. PCR and sequence analysis were performed to identify chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE and to describe the occurrence of the following plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes: qepA, aac-6′-Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS. The contribution of efflux pumps to the resistance phenotype of selected strains was further determined by the broth microdilution method in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Almost all strains, except two isolates, showed at least one mutation in the QRDR of gyrA. Ten strains showed only one mutation in gyrA, whereas thirty isolates exhibited up to four mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, parC and/or parE. No mutations were detected in gyrB. Most frequently the amino-acid substitution Ser83→Leu was detected in GyrA followed by Asp87→Asn in GyrA, Ser80→Ile in ParC, Glu84→Val in ParC and Ser458→Ala in ParE. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms were found in twenty isolates bearing QnrS1 (4/20), AAC-6′-Ib-cr (15/20) and QepA (1/20) determinants, respectively. No qnrA, qnrB, qnrC and qnrD were found. In the presence of PAβN, the MICs of nalidixic acid were decreased 4- to 32-fold. (Fluoro) quinolone resistance is due to various mechanisms frequently associated with ESBL-production in E. coli from surface waters in Switzerland. PMID:24755830

  2. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  3. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  4. Rarity of transferable beta-lactamase production by Klebsiella species.

    PubMed

    Leung, M; Shannon, K; French, G

    1997-06-01

    We report a survey of beta-lactamases and their transferability in Klebsiella spp. isolated from blood during 1992-95. beta-Lactamases were characterized by determination of isoelectric point (pI), by hybridization of plasmid DNA preparations with probes for SHV and TEM sequences and by PCR with SHV- or TEM-specific primers. There were 80 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 22 isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca. Most isolates of K. pneumoniae had a chromosomally encoded SHV-1 beta-lactamase (or a closely related enzyme); K. oxytoca also produced chromosomal beta-lactamases, but these were distinct from SHV-1. Plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases were rare in Klebsiella spp., being found in six (7.5%) isolates of K. pneumoniae and in none of the K. oxytoca. beta-Lactamase activities were relatively low (< 100 nmoles nitrocefin hydrolysed per minute per mg of protein) and ampicillin MICs were < or = 128 mg/L for most isolates of both species. However, all isolates of K. pneumoniae with plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases, three other isolates of K. pneumoniae and three isolates of K. oxytoca had high beta-lactamase activities (> 100 nmoles/mg/min) and very high ampicillin MICs (> or = 1024 mg/L).

  5. A novel SHV-type beta-lactamase variant (SHV-89) in clinical isolates in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Bin; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Qian; Chen, Yan; Ye, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Two clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and one isolate of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were collected from two large general hospitals in China. Conjugation experiment, susceptibility testing, isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing techniques as well as clone, expression, purification and kinetics were carried out to describe the characterization of the novel SHV-tpye enzyme. The analysis of plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the novel enzyme were performed to investigate epidemiology. These isolates had CTX-M-14 and SHV-89 beta-lactamases. SHV-89 beta-lactamase of pI 7.6 is a novel variant with two substitutions compared with the sequence of SHV-1: Leu35Gln and Met129Val. Its gene also had two silent mutations at positions 369 and 774, respectively. The results of substrate profiles and MIC determinations showed the activity of the novel enzyme was insufficient for the enzyme to count as an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The substrates of the enzyme were also characterized. Furthermore, the three novel SHV enzyme-producing strains were epidemiologically unrelated. The emergence of a novel SHV-type beta-lactamase is rarely described in other areas. This study illustrates the importance of molecular survelliance in tracking SHV-producing strains in large teaching hospitals and emphasizes the need for epidemiological monitoring.

  6. A Tyrosine Residue Along with a Glutamic Acid of the Omega-Like Loop Governs the Beta-Lactamase Activity of MSMEG_4455 in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Kar, Debasish; Pandey, Satya Deo; Matcha, Ashok; Kumar, N Ganesh; Nathan, Soshina; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterial beta-lactamases are involved in exerting beta-lactam resistance, though many of these proteins remain uncharacterized. Here, we have characterized MSMEG_4455 of Mycobacterium smegmatis as a beta-lactamase using molecular, biochemical and mutational techniques. To elucidate its nature in vivo and in vitro, and to predict its structure-function relationship in silico analysis is done. The MSMEG_4455 is cloned and expressed ectopically in a beta-lactamase deficient Escherichia coli mutant to establish the in vivo beta-lactamase like nature via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Likewise the in vivo results, purified soluble form of MSMEG_4455 showed beta-lactam hydrolysis pattern similar to group 2a penicillinase. In silico analyses of MSMEG_4455 reveal glutamic acid (E)193 and tyrosine (Y)194 of omega-like loop might have importance in strengthening hydrogen bond network around the active-site, though involvement of tyrosine is rare for beta-lactamase activity. Accordingly, these residues are mutated to alanine (A) and phenylalanine (F), respectively. The mutated proteins have partially lost their ability to exert beta-lactamase activity both in vivo and in vitro. The Y194F mutation had more prominent effect on the enzymatic activity. Therefore, we infer that Y194 is the key for beta-lactamase activity of MSMEG_4455.

  7. High-level carbapenem resistance in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate is due to the combination of bla(ACT-1) beta-lactamase production, porin OmpK35/36 insertional inactivation, and down-regulation of the phosphate transport porin phoe.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Frank M; Dib-Hajj, Fadia; Shang, Wenchi; Gootz, Thomas D

    2006-10-01

    Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems and essentially all other antibiotics (multidrug resistant) are being isolated from some hospitals in New York City with increasing frequency. A highly related pair of K. pneumoniae strains isolated on the same day from one patient in a hospital in New York City were studied for antibiotic resistance. One (KP-2) was resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and sulopenem (MICs of 16 to 32 microg/ml) while the other (KP-1) was susceptible (MIC of 0.5 microg/ml); both contained the bla(ACT-1), bla(SHV-1), and bla(TEM-1) beta-lactamases. bla(ACT-1) in both strains was encoded on a large approximately 150-kb plasmid. Both isolates contained an identical class 1 integron encoding resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol. They each had identical insertions in ompK35 and ompK36, resulting in disruption of these key porin genes. The carbapenem-resistant and -susceptible isolates were extensively studied for differences in the structural and regulatory genes for the operons acrRAB, marORAB, romA-ramA, soxRS, micF, micC, phoE, phoBR, rpoS, and hfq. No changes were detected between the isolates except for a significant down-regulation of ompK37, phoB, and phoE in KP-2 as deduced from reverse transcription-PCR analysis of mRNA and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of outer membrane proteins. Backcross analysis was conducted using the wild-type phoE gene cloned into the vector pGEM under regulation of its native promoter as well as the lacZ promoter following transformation into the resistant KP-2 isolate. The wild-type gene reversed carbapenem resistance only when under control of the heterologous lacZ promoter. In the background of ompK35-ompK36 gene disruption, the up-regulation of phoE in KP-1 apparently compensated for porin loss and conferred carbapenem susceptibility. Down-regulation of phoE in KP-2 may represent the normal state of this gene, or it may have been selected from KP-1 in vivo

  8. Intestinal colonisation and blood stream infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) in patients with haematological and oncological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Liss, B J; Vehreschild, J J; Cornely, O A; Hallek, M; Fätkenheuer, G; Wisplinghoff, H; Seifert, H; Vehreschild, M J G T

    2012-12-01

    In patients with haematological or oncological malignancies, we aimed to assess the rate of intestinal colonisation and blood stream infections (BSI) with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), mortality and risk factors associated with ESBLE/VRE BSI, as well as the impact of faecal screening for ESBLE and VRE in combination with adapted empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia. Within 72 h of admission to our department, an ESBLE and VRE screening stool sample was collected. In the case of neutropenic fever, blood cultures were drawn. Data of all admitted patients were prospectively documented. Explorative forward-stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for progression from intestinal colonisation to BSI. During the study period, 1,805 stool samples were obtained from 513 patients during 1,012 inpatient stays, and 2,766 blood cultures were obtained from 578 patients during 1,091 inpatient stays. Ninety (17.5 %) of these patients were colonised with ESBLE and 51 (9.9 %) with VRE. Proportions of 40 % (36/90) of ESBLE and 61 % (31/51) of VRE colonisations were healthcare-associated. Six of 90 (6.6 %) ESBLE-colonised patients and 1/51 (2 %) VRE-colonised patients developed BSI with the respective organism. None of these patients died after receiving early appropriate empiric antibiotics based on colonisation status. Colonisation with ESBLE or VRE was associated with increased risk ratios (RR) towards developing ESBLE BSI [RR 4.5, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.89-7.04] and VRE BSI (RR 10.2, 95 % CI: 7.87-13.32), respectively. Acute myelogenous leukaemia and prior treatment with platinum analogues or quinolones were identified as independent risk factors for ESBLE BSI in colonised patients. Intestinal ESBLE/VRE colonisation predicts BSI. Faecal screening in haematology/oncology patients in combination with directed empiric treatment may reduce ESBLE BSI

  9. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases: Definition, Classification and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Soheili, Sara; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are defined as enzymes produced by certain bacteria that are able to hydrolyze extended spectrum cephalosporin. They are therefore effective against beta-lactam antibiotics such as ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and oxyimino-monobactam. The objective of the current review is to provide a better understanding of ESBL and the epidemiology of ESBL producing organisms which are among those responsible for antibiotic resistant strains. Globally, ESBLs are considered to be problematic, particularly in hospitalized patients. There is an increasing frequency of ESBL in different parts of the world. The high risk patients are those contaminated with ESBL producer strains as it renders treatment to be ineffective in these patients. Thus, there an immediate needs to identify EBSL and formulate strategic policy initiatives to reduce their prevalence.

  10. Structure of the imipenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase SME-1 from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Sougakoff, Wladimir; L'Hermite, Guillaume; Pernot, Lucile; Naas, Thierry; Guillet, Valérie; Nordmann, Patrice; Jarlier, Vincent; Delettré, Jean

    2002-02-01

    The structure of the beta-lactamase SME-1 from Serratia marcescens, a class A enzyme characterized by its significant activity against imipenem, has been determined to 2.13 A resolution. The overall structure of SME-1 is similar to that of other class A beta-lactamases. In the active-site cavity, most of the residues found in SME-1 are conserved among class A beta-lactamases, except at positions 104, 105 and 237, where a tyrosine, a histidine and a serine are found, respectively, and at position 238, which is occupied by a cysteine forming a disulfide bridge with the other cysteine residue located at position 69. The crucial role played by this disulfide bridge in SME-1 was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of Cys69 to Ala, which resulted in a mutant unable to confer resistance to imipenem and all other beta-lactam antibiotics tested. Another striking structural feature found in SME-1 was the short distance separating the side chains of the active serine residue at position 70 and the strictly conserved glutamate at position 166, which is up to 1.4 A shorter in SME-1 compared with other class A beta-lactamases. Consequently, the SME-1 structure cannot accommodate the essential catalytic water molecule found between Ser70 and Glu166 in the other class A beta-lactamases described so far, suggesting that a significant conformational change may be necessary in SME-1 to properly position the hydrolytic water molecule involved in the hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate.

  11. Regulator of the mucoid phenotype A gene increases the virulent ability of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing serotype non-K1/K2 Klebsiella pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-An; Huang, Ya-Li; Yeh, Kao-Ming; Siu, L K; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether the presence of a capsule regulator gene [i.e., regulator of mucoid phenotype A (rmpA) gene] contributes to virulence on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) with serotype non-K1/K2 strains. Twenty-eight ESBL-KP and non-ESBL-KP isolates were collected from the Tri-Service General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). The impact of the virulent rmpA gene in different capsular polysaccharide serotypes on ESBL-KP and non-ESBL-KP isolates was studied by a neutrophil phagocytosis reaction, a serum bactericidal assay, and an animal survival model. Resistance to broad spectrum antibiotics was more prevalent in ESBL-KP strains than in non-ESBL-KP strains (p < 0.01). The ESBL-KP strains had different molecular patterns from non-ESBL-KP strains, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The frequency of serum-resistant isolates was the highest among ESBL-KP strains with rmpA (i.e., rmpA(+)) [71.4% (5/7)] than among of non-ESBL-KP rmpA(+) strains [42.8% (6/14)], ESBL-KP strains without rmpA (rmpA(-)) [33.3% (7/21)], and non-ESBL-KP rmpA(-) strains [14.2% (2/14)]. The most significant increase in neutrophil resistance occurred in the ESBL-KP rmpA(+) strains in comparison to the non-ESBL-KP rmpA(+), ESBL-KP rmpA(-), and non-ESBL-KP rmpA(-) strains (p < 0.01). The results of the animal survival model were compatible with the neutrophil phagocytosis reaction and serum bactericidal assay. We conclude that the pathogenic potential is greater in rmpA(+) ESBL-KP strains than in rmpA(-) ESBL-KP and non-ESBL-KP strains. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in companion animals: nosocomial infections as one reason for the rising prevalence of these potential zoonotic pathogens in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa; Guenther, Sebastian; Walther, Birgit; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2011-12-01

    The ongoing change in the relationship between humans and companion animals is hallmarked by the increasing intensive care provided to companion animals in veterinary medicine, resulting in growing numbers of high-risk animal patients. The emergence of nosocomial infections in small animal clinics is one of the major drawbacks of this development, especially in terms of multidrug-resistance and potentially zoonotic pathogens. This mini-review therefore addresses recent findings regarding the increasing prevalence of multi-resistant bacterial pathogens like methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), including Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) as well as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in companion animals. Along with the steady increase of nosocomial infection rates in veterinary clinics, particular attention has recently been drawn to the genetic background of multi-resistant strains, resulting in the identification of certain genetic lineages which frequently appear in both, human and animal samples. These sequence types (ST), included ST254, ST8 and ST22 in terms of MRSA and ST131, ST405 and ST648 for ESBL-producing E. coli. The interspecies distribution of these STs resulted in the assumption that certain extended-host spectrum genotypes (EHSG) might exist both for MRS and ESBL-producing E. coli. These initial findings underline the necessity to investigate the major molecular or functional driving forces facilitating interspecies transferability of such EHSG strains. Due to the zoonotic potential of these multi-resistant bacteria, another aspect of the changing social role of companion animals needs to be addressed: the close contact of pets with their owners, resulting in presumptive new transmission and infection routes. We therefore envision retaliatory actions like initial surveillance and monitoring programs not only in livestock, but also particularly in companion animals

  13. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Proteus penneri: a rare missed pathogen?

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anita; Verma, Himani; Asthana, Ashish K; Madan, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as Proteus mirabilis, often missing out isolates of Proteus penneri. We report a case of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing and multidrug-resistant P. penneri isolated from pus from pressure sore of a patient of road traffic accident. Correct and rapid isolation and identification of such resistant pathogen are important as they are significant nosocomial threat.

  14. In vitro activity of temocillin (BRL 17421), a novel beta-lactamase-stable penicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Verbist, L

    1982-01-01

    The new in vitro activity of temocillin (BRL 17421), a new beta-lactamase-stable penicillin, was compared with those of other beta-lactam antibiotics for over 500 clinical bacterial isolates. Temocillin inhibited 94% of the Enterobacteriaceae organisms at concentrations of 0.5 to 8 microgram/ml, regardless of organisms resistance to ampicillin, ticarcillin, cefazolin, or combinations thereof. Most pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and all staphylococci and streptococci tested were resistant to temocillin. PMID:6982023

  15. The Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Variation According to Farming Practices in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Brower, Charles H; Mandal, Siddhartha; Hayer, Shivdeep; Sran, Mandeep; Zehra, Asima; Patel, Sunny J; Kaur, Ravneet; Chatterjee, Leena; Mishra, Savita; Das, B R; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Randhir; Gill, J P S; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2017-07-20

    Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscriminately. This is the largest study to date in India that surveys poultry production to test for antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of extended-spectrum (ESBLs) modulated by farming and managerial practices. Our goal was to survey poultry production for resistance to eleven clinically relevant antimicrobials and phenotypic occurrence of ESBLs as modulated by farming and managerial practices. Eighteen poultry farms from Punjab were surveyed, and 1,556 Escherichia coli isolates from 530 birds were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method and validated using VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, Marcy-L'Étoile, France). Samples from 510 of these birds were phenotypically tested for ESBL production using the combination disk method and confirmed using VITEK 2. Generalized linear mixed models were used to infer differences in resistance profiles associated with different farming practices and facility types. Resistance profiles were significantly different between broiler and layer farms. Broiler farms were 2.2 [ampicillin (AMP), ] to 23 [nalidixic acid (NX), ] times more likely to harbor resistant E. coli strains than layer farms. Adjusting for farm type (broiler vs. layer), the odds of resistance (although not statistically significant) to all antimicrobials except nitrofurantoin (NIT) were higher in independent facilities (IUs) as compared to contracted facilities (CFs). Increased prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR; 94% compared to 60% in layers), including prevalence of ESBL-producing strains (87% compared to 42% in layers), was observed in broiler farms. Our findings suggest that unregulated use of clinically relevant

  16. [Enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases].

    PubMed

    Lucet, J C; Régnier, B

    1998-04-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were first observed in 1983. Since then, the number and variety of ESBLs have increased rapidly, particularly in France, and their distribution is now worldwide. The number of ESBLs has now reached more than 30, some of them spreading largely in several countries, such as SHV-4 in France. Intensive care units were first involved. Patients from nursing homes may recirculate ESBLs into acute care units. ESBL clinical epidemiology does not differ from other enterobacteriaceae. Digestive tract is the main reservoir, hands are the route of transmission. Infection develops in about 50% of colonized patients, more than one-half being urinary tract infections. Risk factors for colonization or infection are length of exposure to an epidemic strain and frequency of health-care-worker contact. Strategies for containing spreading of ESBL-producing strains include use of barrier precautions for carriers. Judicious use of antimicrobial agents is also important, by decreasing antibiotic selective pressure.

  17. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Seck, Abdoulaye; Dia, Mouhamadou Lamine; Timbiné, Lassina Gadi; Niang, Aïssatou Ameth; Ndiaye, El Hadji Momar; Sonko, Mouhamadou Abdoulaye; Wane, Abdoul Aziz; Bercion, Raymond; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Cissé, Moussa Fafa; Gassama-Sow, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants’ stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL). blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella. PMID:27355480

  18. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  19. Successive emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter aerogenes isolates in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Thomas, D; Rousseau, F; Hamdad, F; Adjide, C; Laurans, G; Eb, F

    2008-03-01

    Sixty-two clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins were collected between July 2003 and May 2005. Among these isolates, 23 (37.1%) were imipenem (IPM) susceptible, and 39 (62.9%) were IPM insusceptible, of which 89.7% (35/39) were resistant and 10.3% (4/39) were intermediate. Isolate genotypes were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 62 isolates, 48 belonged to epidemic pulsotype A (77.4%). This pulsotype included 37.5% and 58.4% of beta-lactam phenotypes b and a, respectively. Nine isolates (14.5%) belonged to pulsotype E, which included 22.3% and 77.7% of phenotypes b and a, respectively. The beta-lactamases with pIs of 5.4, 6.5, 8.2, and 8.2 corresponded to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-20, TEM-24, SHV-5, and SHV-12, respectively. Of 39 IPM-insusceptible E. aerogenes isolates, 26 (66.6%) were determined to be metallo-beta-lactamase producers, by using a phenotypic method. Of these isolates, 24 harbored a bla(IMP-1) gene encoding a protein with a pI of >9.5, and two carried the bla(VIM-2) gene encoding a protein with a pI of 5.3, corresponding to beta-lactamases IMP-1 and VIM-2, respectively. The remaining 13 (33.4%) isolates were negative for the bla(IMP-1) and bla(VIM-2) genes but showed an alteration of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ten of these isolates produced the two possible OMPs (32 and 42 kDa), with IPM MICs between 8 and 32 microg/ml, and three others produced only a 32-kDa OMP with IPM MICs >32 microg/ml. This work demonstrates that, in addition to resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, IPM resistance can occur in ESBL-producing E. aerogenes isolates by carbapenemase production or by the loss of porin in the outer membrane.

  20. Identification of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Emphasis on New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in Bandar Abbas, South of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Saeed; Ansari, Maryam; Faridi, Forogh; Azad, Mohsen; Davoodian, Parivash; Javadpour, Sedigheh; Farahani, Abbas; Douzandeh Mobarrez, Banafsheh; Karmostaji, Afsaneh

    2017-10-03

    The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae especially blaNDM-1-carrying isolates is a great concern worldwide. In this study we describe the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in three teaching hospitals at Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. A total of 170 nonduplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method. PCR was carried out for detection of carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaOXA-48, and blaOXA-181) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaGES, and blaPER). Clonal relatedness of blaNDM-1-positive isolates was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Tigecycline was the most effective antimicrobial agent with 96.5% susceptibility. In addition, 6.5% of the isolates were carbapenem resistant. BlaNDM-1 was identified in four isolates (isolate A-D) and all of them were multidrug-resistant. MLST revealed that blaNDM-1-positive isolates were clonally related and belonged to two distinct clonal complexes, including sequence type (ST) 13 and ST 392. In addition to blaNDM-1, isolate A coharbored blaSHV-11, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM-1, isolate B harbored blaSHV-11 and blaCTX-M-15, and isolates C and D contained both blaSHV-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Our results indicate that NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST 13 and ST 392 are disseminated in our region. Moreover, one of our major concerns is that these isolates may be more prevalent in the near future. Tracking and urgent intervention is necessary for control and prevention of these resistant isolates.

  1. Detection of SHV-5 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Marchese, A; Arlet, G; Schito, G C; Lagrange, P H; Philippon, A

    1996-03-01

    Thirty-five Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated during 1993-1994 in intensive care units of a large Italian hospital were examined for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Five strains showed a high level of simultaneous resistance to beta-lactam agents, including ceftazidime and aztreonam, conferred by a large (130 kb) self-transferable plasmid (in 4 of 5 strains). Isoelectrofocusing and hybridisation studies suggest that these enzymes can be identified as SHV-5 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Pulsed-field get electrophoresis analysis showed three different genomic fingerprinting profiles, while plasmid restriction enzyme digestion revealed three different patterns, demonstrating that the diffusion of SHV-5 beta-lactamase is not the result of a single strain or plasmid dissemination.

  2. Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone with CP-45,899 against large inocula of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P K; Washington, J A

    1981-01-01

    Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone, alone and in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitor CP-45,899, was tested against inocula of 10(7) colony-forming units of beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b per ml. Of 19 strains tested, 10 required greater than or equal to 64 microgram of cefoperazone per ml for killing, whereas no strains were killed by less than 64 microgram of CP-45,899 per ml. Synergy occurred with the combination of 4 microgram of each agent per ml against 9 of the 10 cefoperazone-resistant strains. PMID:6269484

  3. Beta-lactamase inactivation by mechanism-based reagents.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Belasco, J G; Charnas, R L; Khosla, S; Knowles, J R

    1980-05-16

    The mechanistic pathway followed by the E. coli RTEM beta-lactamase has been studied with a view to clarifying the mode of action of a number of recently discovered inactivators of the enzyme. There is clear evidence that the beta-lactamase-catalysed hydrolysis of the 7-alpha-methoxycephem, cefoxitin, proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. An analysis of the inactivation reactions of all the known beta-lactam derivatives that result in irreversible loss of enzyme activity permits the identification of three structural features required for a beta-lactamase inactivator. The application of these principles suggests a new group of mechanism-based inactivators of the enzyme: the sulphones of N-acyl derivatives of 6-beta-aminopenicillanic acid that are themselves poor substrates for the enzyme. These sulphones are powerful inactivators of the beta-lactamase.

  4. Induction of beta-lactamases: in vitro phenomena and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, B; Peter, K

    1990-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to stimulate the plasma concentration-time curves for cefotaxime and cefoxitin as they would appear during treatment of patients with infections due to Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The data showed that the induction of the chromosomally mediated beta-lactamase took place in both bacteria but that it had little or no effect on the bacterial kill. It is concluded that treatment failures in these settings were due to the selection of resistant mutants.

  5. Prevalence and Clonal Dissemination of Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kermanshah

    PubMed Central

    Akya, Alisha; Salimi, Afsaneh; Nomanpour, Bizhan; Ahmadi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The emergence and dissemination of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) has contributed to the high rate of resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and the clonal dissemination of MBL- producing P. aeruginosa isolates collected from major hospitals in Kermanshah. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The MBLs were investigated using the Double-Disk Synergy Test (DDST) and Polymerase Chain Reaction. Molecular typing was performed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Of the 60 P. aeruginosa isolates included in this study, 30 (50%) were resistant to Gentamicin, 38 (63.3%) to Piperacillin, 42 (70%) to Ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to Cefepime. Twenty-nine (48.3%) isolates were MBL producers in the DDST test. Five (8.3%) isolates were positive for the VIM gene. PFGE analysis among the MBL producers revealed 12 distinct clonal patterns. Conclusions: The inter- and intra-hospital dissemination of resistant clones is a matter of concern and is an indicator of the level of the improvement and surveillance of standard hygiene, particularly disinfection and hand washing before and after contact with patients. Given the emergence of MBL-producing strains, surveillance has become an important procedure to control the transmission of resistant strains. PMID:26421137

  6. RESULTS OF MONITORING METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN A MULTI-PROFILE HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Shamaeva, S K; Portnyagina, U S; Edelstein, M V; Kuzmina, A A; Maloguloval, S; Varfolomeeva, N A

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the results of long-term monitoring of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Republican Hospital No 2 of Yakutsk, Russian Federation. Hospitals across Russia, as well as the rest of the world, face a rapid appearance and a virtually unchecked spread of multiresistant and panresistant nosocomial pathogens. Especially prevalent are multidrug-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa, most often found among the patients of intensive care and intensive therapy units, as well as surgery departments. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains of P. aeruginosa in a multi-profile hospital. 2,135 isolates of P. aeruginosa were studied, collected during a time span of seven years (2008-2014) from clinical specimens of hospitalised patients in acute surgery, purulent surgery, neurosurgery, otolaryngology, coloproctology departments, intensive care and intensive therapy, burn units, as well as intensive care unit for patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents and coronary care unit. Strains were identified and re-identified using established methods, NEFERMtest 24 (MICROLATEST) biochemical microtest and API (bioMerieux) test systems were used. For all carbapenem-resistant strains a phenotype screening for MBL was performed using the double-disks method with EDTA. In order to identify VIM-type and IMP-type MBL genes a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used. Among the investigated strains the largest number of P. aeruginosa - 35.6% (761 isolates) was found in patients at intensive care and intensive therapy units. Clonal expansion of extensively drug-resistant strain P. aeruginosa ST235 (VIM-2) was determined, the resistance mechanism of which is connected to MBL. Sensitivity determination of MBL-producing isolates of P. aeruginosa has shown that isolated strains have a high level of resistance (100%) to all tested antibacterial agents: piperacillin

  7. Comparative possession of Shiga toxin, intimin, enterohaemolysin and major extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from backyard and farmed poultry

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, I.; Joardar, S. N.; Das, P. K.; Sar, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to compare the occurrence of Escherichia coli possessing virulence and ESBL genes in backyard and farmed poultry. Three hundred and sixty samples from the poultry kept in backyard system and 120 samples from the farmed birds were collected from West Bengal, India. Among the E. coli isolates of backyard poultry (O2, O10, O25, O55, O60, O106, UT), none of them possessed any of the Shiga toxin genes and eight E. coli isolates (8/272; 2.9%) harboured eaeA gene alone. Whereas among the E. coli isolated from the farmed poultry (O17, O20, O22, O102, O114, O119, rough, UT), four isolates (4/78, 5.1%) harboured stx1/stx2 gene and 11 isolates (11/78, 14.1%) possessed eaeA gene. None of the E. coli isolates from the backyard poultry harboured any studied ESBL gene. Whereas 29.4% of E. coli isolates from the farmed poultry were found to possess the ESBL genes. PMID:27175158

  8. Properties of a class C beta-lactamase from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Joris, B; De Meester, F; Galleni, M; Masson, S; Dusart, J; Frère, J M; Van Beeumen, J; Bush, K; Sykes, R

    1986-11-01

    A beta-lactamase produced by a penicillin-resistant strain of Serratia marcescens was isolated and purified. The kcat. value for benzylpenicillin was about 5% of that observed for the best cephalosporin substrates. However, the low Km of the penam resulted in a high catalytic efficiency (kcat./Km) and the classification of the enzyme as a cephalosporinase might not be completely justified. It also exhibited a low but measurable activity against cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefoxitin and moxalactam. Substrate-induced inactivation was observed both with a very good (cephalothin) or a very bad (moxalactam) substrate. The active site was labelled by beta-iodopenicillanate. Trypsin digestion produced a 19-residue active-site peptide whose sequence clearly allowed the classification of the enzyme as a class C beta-lactamase.

  9. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in spring waters.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhu, Z C; Wang, L; Zhou, Y F; Tang, Y J; Miao, Z M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae from spring waters in Mountain Tai of China. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in four out of 50 sampled spring waters (4/50, 8·0%) and a total of 16 non-duplicate ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were obtained, including 13 Escherichia coli (E. coli) and three Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kl. pneumoniae). All 16 nonduplicate ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboured genes encoding CTX-M ESBLs, among which six expressed CTX-M-15, five produced CTX-M-14, three produced CTX-M-55 and two expressed CTX-M-27. Four multilocus sequence types (ST) were found and ST131 was the dominant type (8/16, 50·0%). Taken together, the contamination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were present in spring waters of Mountain Tai. The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of antibiotic resistant bacteria in spring waters. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Is multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) a new threat for kidney transplant recipients?

    PubMed

    Karczewski, M; Tomczak, H; Piechocka-Idasiak, I; Cichanska, L; Adamska, Z; Stronka, M

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most frequent infections among kidney transplant (KT) patients. This case documents the emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) Klebsiella pneumonia--a factor of recurrent post-KT UTI, leading to graft loss. Spreading globally, and multidrug resistant, NDM-1 may become a great threat to transplant patients all over the world.

  11. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014).

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey, were screened for perianal ESBL-E carriage. Perianal swabs were taken and cultured using an enrichment broth and a selective agar plate. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect the production of ESBL, presence of ESBL-genes and clonal relatedness. Out of 2,695 patients, 135 (5.0%) were tested ESBL-E positive. The overall ESBL-E prevalence was stable over the years. Overall 5.2% of all ESBL-E were acquired by nosocomial transmission. A relative decrease of CTX-M-1-1-like ESBL genes (from 44 to 25%, p = 0.026) was observed, possibly related to the strong (>60%) decrease in antibiotic use in livestock in our country during the same period.

  12. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey, were screened for perianal ESBL-E carriage. Perianal swabs were taken and cultured using an enrichment broth and a selective agar plate. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect the production of ESBL, presence of ESBL-genes and clonal relatedness. Out of 2,695 patients, 135 (5.0%) were tested ESBL-E positive. The overall ESBL-E prevalence was stable over the years. Overall 5.2% of all ESBL-E were acquired by nosocomial transmission. A relative decrease of CTX-M-1-1-like ESBL genes (from 44 to 25%, p = 0.026) was observed, possibly related to the strong (>60%) decrease in antibiotic use in livestock in our country during the same period. PMID:26528549

  13. A putative low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding protein (PBP) of Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibits prominent physiological characteristics of DD-carboxypeptidase and beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Kar, Debasish; Murugan, Rajagopal A; Mallick, Sathi; Dutta, Mouparna; Pandey, Satya Deo; Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-05-01

    DD-carboxypeptidases (DD-CPases) are low-molecular-mass (LMM) penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that are mainly involved in peptidoglycan remodelling, but little is known about the dd-CPases of mycobacteria. In this study, a putative DD-CPase of Mycobacterium smegmatis, MSMEG_2433 is characterized. The gene for the membrane-bound form of MSMEG_2433 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in its active form, as revealed by its ability to bind to the Bocillin-FL (fluorescent penicillin). Interestingly, in vivo expression of MSMEG_2433 could restore the cell shape oddities of the septuple PBP mutant of E. coli, which was a prominent physiological characteristic of DD-CPases. Moreover, expression of MSMEG_2433 in trans elevated beta-lactam resistance in PBP deletion mutants (ΔdacAdacC) of E. coli, strengthening its physiology as a dd-CPase. To confirm the biochemical reason behind such physiological behaviours, a soluble form of MSMEG_2433 (sMSMEG_2433) was created, expressed and purified. In agreement with the observed physiological phenomena, sMSMEG_2433 exhibited DD-CPase activity against artificial and peptidoglycan-mimetic DD-CPase substrates. To our surprise, enzymic analyses of MSMEG_2433 revealed efficient deacylation for beta-lactam substrates at physiological pH, which is a unique characteristic of beta-lactamases. In addition to the MSMEG_2433 active site that favours dd-CPase activity, in silico analyses also predicted the presence of an omega-loop-like region in MSMEG_2433, which is an important determinant of its beta-lactamase activity. Based on the in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies, we conclude that MSMEG_2433 is a dual enzyme, possessing both DD-CPase and beta-lactamase activities.

  14. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Latifpour, Mohammad; Gholipour, Abolfazl; Damavandi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a family member of Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates of K. pneumoniae produce enzymes that cause decomposition of third generation cephalosporins. These enzymes are known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Resistance of K. pneumoniae to beta-lactamase antibiotics is commonly mediated by beta-lactamase genes. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the ESBL produced by K. pneumoniae isolates that cause community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections within a one-year period (2013 to 2014) in Kashani and Hajar university hospitals of Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods From 2013 to 2014, 150 strains of K. pneumoniae isolate from two different populations with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were collected. The strains were then investigated by double disk synergism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The study population of 150 patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were divided to two groups of 75 each. We found that 48 of the K. pneumoniae isolates in the patients with nosocomial infection and 39 isolates in those with community-acquired infections produced ESBL. The prevalence of TEM1, SHV1 and VEB1 in ESBL-producing isolates in nosocomial patients was 24%, 29.3% and 10.6%, and in community-acquired patients, 17.3%, 22.7% and 8%, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolate is of great concern; therefore, continuous investigation seems essential to monitor ESBL-producing bacteria in patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections. PMID:27226874

  15. Critical hydrogen bonding by serine 235 for cephalosporinase activity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, U; Manavathu, E K; Lerner, S A; Mobashery, S

    1993-01-01

    The role of Ser-235 in the catalytic mechanism of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase has been explored by the study of a mutant enzyme in which Ser-235 has been substituted by alanine (Ala-235 mutant enzyme). A comparative kinetic analysis of both the wild-type and the Ala-235 TEM-1 enzymes revealed little effect of this substitution of residue 235 on the turnover of penicillins but a greater effect on the turnover of cephalosporins. Susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli strains harboring the wild-type TEM-1 beta-lactamase and the Ala-235 mutant enzyme revealed an effect of the mutation similar to that observed in the enzymological studies. The MICs of two representative cephalosporins for the strain containing the mutant enzyme were much lower than those for the isogenic strain bearing the wild-type TEM-1 beta-lactamase. On the other hand, the strain with the mutant enzyme was still highly resistant to penicillins. PMID:8285630

  16. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a public hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dropa, Milena; Balsalobre, Livia C; Lincopan, Nilton; Mamizuka, Elsa M; Murakami, Thays; Cassettari, Valéria C; Franco, Fábio; Guida, Stella M; Balabakis, Angelica J; Passadore, Lilian F; Santos, Silvia R; Matté, Glavur R; Matté, Maria H

    2009-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in enterobacteria are recognized worldwide as a great hospital problem. In this study, 127 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in one year from inpatients and outpatients at a public teaching hospital at São Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to analysis by PCR with specific primers for bla SHV, bla TEM and bla CTX-M genes. From the 127 isolates, 96 (75.6%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 12 (9.3%) Escherichia coli, 8 (6.2%) Morganella morganii, 3 (2.3%) Proteus mirabilis, 2 (1.6%) Klebsiella oxytoca, 2 (1.6%) Providencia rettgeri, 2 (1.6%) Providencia stuartti, 1 (0.8%) Enterobacter aerogenes and 1 (0.8%) Enterobacter cloacae were identified as ESBL producers. Bla SHV, bla TEM and bla CTX-M were detected in 63%, 17.3% and 33.9% strains, respectively. Pulsed field gel eletrophoresis genotyping of K. pneumoniae revealed four main molecular patterns and 29 unrelated profiles. PCR results showed a high variety of ESBL groups among strains, in nine different species. The results suggest the spread of resistance genes among genetically different strains of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in some hospital wards, and also that some strongly related strains were identified in different hospital wards, suggesting clonal spread in the institutional environment.

  17. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Mahmood, Belal; Akter, Mahmuda; Banik, Atanu; Alim, Rumana; Navarro, Armando; Perez, Gabriel; Cravioto, Alejandro; Talukder, Kaisar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Little is known about ESBL-producing bacteria in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 339 E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract and wound infections attending three different medical hospitals in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh between 2003–2007 were screened for ESBL-production by the double disk diffusion test. Isolates with ESBL-phenotype were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, PCR and sequencing of different β-lactamase and virulence genes, serotyping, and XbaI-macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results We identified 40 E. coli with ESBL phenotype. These isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefepime, and nalidixic acid but remained susceptible to imipenem. All but one isolate were additionally resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 3 isolates were resistant to cefoxitin. ESBL genes of blaCTX-M-1-group were detected in all isolates; blaTEM-type and blaOXA-1-type genes were detected in 33 (82.5%) and 19 (47.5%) isolates, respectively. Virulence genes that are present in diarrhoeagenic E. coli were not found. Class-1 integron was present in 20 (50%) isolates. All the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harbored plasmids ranging between 1.1 and 120 MDa. PFGE-typing revealed 26 different pulsotypes, but identical pulsotype showed 6 isolates of serotype O25:H4. Conclusion The prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli isolates appears to be high and the majority of the isolates were positive for blaCTX-M. Although there was genetic heterogeneity among isolates, presence of a cluster of isolates belonging to serotype O25:H4 indicates dissemination of the pandemic

  18. A detailed kinetic study of Mox-1, a plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Alba, Jimena; Bauvois, Cedric; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Galleni, Moreno; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Ito, Masahiko; Frere, Jean-Marie; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2003-08-29

    Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an overproduction system for Mox-1, a plasmid class C beta-lactamase, by cloning the gene encoding this enzyme, and placing it under the control of a T7 promoter, using vector pET 28a. The enzyme, purified by ion exchange chromatography, was used to obtain the molecular mass (38246), the N-terminal sequence (GEASPVDPLRPVV), and pI (8.9), and to perform a detailed kinetic study. Cephalotin was used as reporter substrate in the case of poor substrates. The kinetic study showed that benzylpenicillin, cephalotin, cefcapene and moxalactam were good substrates for Mox-1 (k(cat)/K(m) values >2.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). On the other hand, ceftazidime and cefepime were poor substrates for this enzyme (K(m) values >200 microM). Clavulanic acid had no inhibitory effect on Mox-1 (K(m)=30.2 mM), however aztreonam behaved as an inhibitor of Mox-1 (K(i)=2.85 microM).

  19. Functional diversity among metallo-beta-lactamases: characterization of the CAR-1 enzyme of Erwinia carotovora.

    PubMed

    Stoczko, Magdalena; Frère, Jean-Marie; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Docquier, Jean-Denis

    2008-07-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are zinc-dependent bacterial enzymes characterized by an efficient hydrolysis of carbapenems and a lack of sensitivity to commercially available beta-lactamase inactivators. Apart from the acquired subclass B1 enzymes, which exhibit increasing clinical importance and whose evolutionary origin remains unclear, most MBLs are encoded by resident genes found in the genomes of organisms belonging to at least three distinct phyla. Using genome database mining, we identified an open reading frame (ORF) (ECA2849) encoding an MBL-like protein in the sequenced genome of Erwinia carotovora, an important plant pathogen. Although no detectable beta-lactamase activity could be found in E. carotovora, a recombinant Escherichia coli strain in which the ECA2849 ORF was cloned showed decreased susceptibility to several beta-lactams, while carbapenem MICs were surprisingly poorly affected. The enzyme, named CAR-1, was purified by means of ion-exchange chromatography steps, and its characterization revealed unique structural and functional features. This new MBL was able to efficiently hydrolyze cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime and, to a lesser extent, penicillins and the other cephalosporins but only poorly hydrolyzed meropenem, while imipenem was not recognized. CAR-1 is the first example of a functional naturally occurring MBL in the family Enterobacteriaceae (order Enterobacteriales) and highlights the extraordinary structural and functional diversity exhibited by MBLs.

  20. Amino acid residues that contribute to substrate specificity of class A beta-lactamase SME-1.

    PubMed

    Majiduddin, Fahd K; Palzkill, Timothy

    2005-08-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are used as antibiotics of last resort because they possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and are not easily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases. Recently, class A enzymes, such as the SME-1, NMC-A, and IMI-1 beta-lactamases, have been identified with the capacity to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. Traditional class A beta-lactamases, such as TEM-1 and SHV-1, are unable to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics and exhibit some differences in sequence from those that are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics. The positions that differ may contribute to the unique substrate specificity of the class A carbapenemase SME-1. Codons in the SME-1 gene representing residues 104, 105, 132, 167, 237, and 241 were randomized by site-directed mutagenesis, and functional mutants were selected for the ability to hydrolyze imipenem, ampicillin, or cefotaxime. Although several positions are important for hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics, no single position was found to uniquely contribute to carbapenem hydrolysis. The results of this study support a model whereby the carbapenemase activity of SME-1 is due to a highly distributed set of interactions that subtly alter the structure of the active-site pocket.

  1. Longitudinal Monitoring of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase/AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli at German Broiler Chicken Fattening Farms

    PubMed Central

    Friese, A.; von Salviati, C.; Guerra, B.; Käsbohrer, A.; Kreienbrock, L.; Roesler, U.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli to modern beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and/or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) represents an emerging and increasing resistance problem that dramatically limits therapeutic options in both human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL/AmpC genes in commensal E. coli from food-producing animals like broilers may pose a human health hazard. However, there are no data available concerning the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler flocks using selective methods. In this longitudinal study, samples were taken from seven conventional broiler fattening farms at three different times within one fattening period. Various samples originating from the animals as well as from their direct environment in the barn were investigated for the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Average detection levels of 51, 75, and 76% in animal samples collected during the three samplings in the course of the fattening period demonstrate a colonization of even 1-day-old chicks, as well as a continuous significant (P < 0.001) increase in prevalence thereafter. The detection frequencies in housing environmental samples were relatively high, with an increase over time, and ranged between 54.2 and 100%. A total of 359 E. coli isolates were characterized by PCR and partly via the disc diffusion method. This study shows that prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli increases during the fattening period of the broiler flocks examined. Both colonized day-old chicks and contaminated farm environments could represent significant sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler fattening farms. PMID:23747697

  2. Longitudinal monitoring of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli at German broiler chicken fattening farms.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Käsbohrer, A; Kreienbrock, L; Roesler, U

    2013-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli to modern beta-lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and/or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases (AmpC) represents an emerging and increasing resistance problem that dramatically limits therapeutic options in both human and veterinary medicine. The presence of ESBL/AmpC genes in commensal E. coli from food-producing animals like broilers may pose a human health hazard. However, there are no data available concerning the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler flocks using selective methods. In this longitudinal study, samples were taken from seven conventional broiler fattening farms at three different times within one fattening period. Various samples originating from the animals as well as from their direct environment in the barn were investigated for the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Average detection levels of 51, 75, and 76% in animal samples collected during the three samplings in the course of the fattening period demonstrate a colonization of even 1-day-old chicks, as well as a continuous significant (P < 0.001) increase in prevalence thereafter. The detection frequencies in housing environmental samples were relatively high, with an increase over time, and ranged between 54.2 and 100%. A total of 359 E. coli isolates were characterized by PCR and partly via the disc diffusion method. This study shows that prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli increases during the fattening period of the broiler flocks examined. Both colonized day-old chicks and contaminated farm environments could represent significant sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in German broiler fattening farms.

  3. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the environment.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Ewa; Harnisz, Monika

    2013-10-15

    The spread of Gram-negative bacteria with plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a worldwide problem. Their prevalence is increasing, both in hospitals and in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the ambient air and the river receiving effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the group of 455 isolated strains, up to 19.8% (90 isolates) were phenotypic ESBL-producers. They were detected in the 63 (100%) of sewage samples analyzed, 7 (33.3%) of river water and in 10 (23.8%) of air samples collected at the WWTP area. The plasmid-mediated genes encoding beta-lactams resistance were detected in almost 10% out of bacteria of the WWTP's final effluents and in above 32% out of bacteria of air at the WWTP area. It confirms that those genes are released into the environment, which might facilitate further dissemination among environmental bacteria. Moreover, genes encoding antibiotic resistance were shown to be transferrable to an Escherichia coli recipient strain, which indicates a high possibility of horizontal gene transfer among strains of different genera within the sewage and environmental samples. This study demonstrated that despite the treatment, the municipal sewage may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes. This may pose a public health risk, which requires future evaluation and control.

  4. The K1 beta-lactamase of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Joris, B; De Meester, F; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Van Beeumen, J

    1987-01-01

    beta-Lactamase K1 was purified from Klebsiella pneumoniae SC10436. It is very similar to the enzyme produced by Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E and described by Emanuel, Gagnon & Waley [Biochem. J. (1986) 234, 343-347]. An active-site peptide was isolated after labelling of the enzyme with tritiated beta-iodopenicillanate. A cysteine residue was found just before the active-site serine residue. This result could explain the properties of the enzyme after modification by thiol-blocking reagents. The sequence of the active-site peptide clearly established the enzyme as a class A beta-lactamase. PMID:3307765

  5. Survey and molecular genetics of SHV beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Switzerland: two novel enzymes, SHV-11 and SHV-12.

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch-Inderbinen, M T; Kayser, F H; Hächler, H

    1997-01-01

    Sixty isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics were collected over a period of 2 years in Switzerland and screened by hybridization for the carriage of SHV genes. Thirty-four positive strains were found, and their SHV genes were amplified and sequenced. SHV extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were found: 13 strains contained SHV-2a, 12 harbored SHV-2, and SHV-5 was found twice. Four strains were shown to contain SHV-1. In addition, we report two new SHV variants, termed SHV-11 (non-ESBL) and SHV-12 (ESBL). In spite of the carriage of SHV ESBLs, many strains showed only low resistance to one or more third-generation cephalosporins. In addition, 26 did not transfer the blaSHV gene in mating experiments. PMID:9145849

  6. Types and prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in poultry.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Eva-Maria; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    For several billion years, bacteria have developed mechanisms to resist antibacterial substances. In modern time, antibiotics are frequently used in veterinary and human medicine for prevention and treatment of diseases, globally still also for their growth promoting effects as feed additives. This complex situation has evolved in accelerating development and prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in livestock and people. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to a wide range of ß-lactam antibiotics. They are currently considered as one of the main threats for the treatment of infections in humans and animals. In livestock and animal products, poultry and poultry products show the highest prevalence of ESBL-producers with CTX-M-1, TEM-52 and SHV-12 being the most common ESBL-types in poultry. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are the bacteria in poultry, which carry ESBL-genes most frequently. ESBL-producing bacteria are present at every level of the poultry production pyramid and can be detected even in the meconium of newly hatched chicks. The environment close to poultry barns shows high prevalence rates of these bacteria and contributes to an ongoing infection pressure with further ESBL-types. Probiotics have been shown to successfully reduce ESBL-producers in chicken, as well as ESBL-gene transfer. Other feed additives, such as zinc and copper, increase the prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria when fed to animals. To our best knowledge, this is the first publication presenting a comparative overview of the prevalence of ESBL-types using data from different countries. To reduce the hazard for public health from poultry carrying high numbers of ESBL-producers, preventive measurements must include the surrounding environment and avoidance of antibiotic usage at all levels of the production pyramid. The first results, of the research on the impact of feed additives on the spread of ESBL-genes, indicate the diet as a

  7. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in community- and hospital-associated intra-abdominal infections in Europe: results of the 2008 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Hawser, Stephen P; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Badal, Robert E; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    From 2002 to 2008, there was a significant increase in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli isolates in European intra-abdominal infections, from 4.3% in 2002 to 11.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001), but not for ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (16.4% to 17.9% [P > 0.05]). Hospital-associated isolates were more common than community-associated isolates, at 14.0% versus 6.5%, respectively, for E. coli (P < 0.001) and 20.9% versus 5.3%, respectively, for K. pneumoniae (P < 0.01). Carbapenems were consistently the most active drugs tested.

  8. First Report of Group CTX-M-9 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Merida-Vieyra, Jocelin; De Colsa, Agustin; Calderon Castañeda, Yair; Arzate Barbosa, Patricia; Aquino Andrade, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected. ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed using a diffusion method with cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs alone and in combination with clavulanic acid. blaESBL gene identification was performed through PCR amplification and sequencing. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed to establish the clonal relationships of the E. coli isolates. CTX-M-9-type ESBLs were detected in 2.5% of the isolates. The subtypes corresponded to blaCTX-M-14 (n = 4) and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 6). Additionally, coexistence with other beta-lactamases was observed. A clonal relationship was established in three isolates; the rest were classified as non-related. We found seven different sequence type (ST) in CTX-M-9- producing E. coli isolates. ST38 was the most frequent. This study is the first report in Mexico to document the presence of group CTX-M-9 ESBLs in E. coli isolates from pediatric patients. PMID:27992527

  9. Ligand-Dependent Disorder of Loop Observed in Extended-Spectrum SHV-Type beta-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    J Sampson; W Ke; C Bethel; S Pagadala; M Nottingham; R Bonomo; J Buynak; F van den Akker

    2011-12-31

    Among Gram-negative bacteria, resistance to {beta}-lactams is mediated primarily by {beta}-lactamases (EC 3.2.6.5), periplasmic enzymes that inactivate {beta}-lactam antibiotics. Substitutions at critical amino acid positions in the class A {beta}-lactamase families result in enzymes that can hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins, thus demonstrating an 'extended-spectrum' {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. Using SHV ESBLs with substitutions in the {Omega} loop (R164H and R164S) as target enzymes to understand this enhanced biochemical capability and to serve as a basis for novel {beta}-lactamase inhibitor development, we determined the spectra of activity and crystal structures of these variants. We also studied the inactivation of the R164H and R164S mutants with tazobactam and SA2-13, a unique {beta}-lactamase inhibitor that undergoes a distinctive reaction chemistry in the active site. We noted that the reduced K{sub i} values for the R164H and R164S mutants with SA2-13 are comparable to those with tazobactam (submicromolar). The apo enzyme crystal structures of the R164H and R164S SHV variants revealed an ordered {Omega} loop architecture that became disordered when SA2-13 was bound. Important structural alterations that result from the binding of SA2-13 explain the enhanced susceptibility of these ESBL enzymes to this inhibitor and highlight ligand-dependent {Omega} loop flexibility as a mechanism for accommodating and hydrolyzing {beta}-lactam substrates.

  10. Effect of pH on activities of novel beta-lactamases and beta-lactamase inhibitors against these beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Ohsuka, S; Arakawa, Y; Horii, T; Ito, H; Ohta, M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of acidic conditions on activities of seven beta-lactamases--TEM-1 (class A), KOXY (class A), IMP-1 (class B), AmpC (class C), MOX-1 (class C), OXA-5 (class D), and PSE-2 (class D)--and their inhibitors were measured. The enzymatic activities of KOXY, IMP-1, and MOX-1 at pH 5.8 were slightly lower than those at pH 7.5. However, the activities of PSE-2 and OXA-5 were greatly reduced at pH 5.8. All of the beta-lactamase inhibitors tested had poorer inhibitory activities at pH 5.8 than at pH 7.5 except clavulanic acid for TEM-1. PMID:7486932

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Ahmed M; Ishida, Yojiro; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to address the prevalence and the molecular characteristics of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria isolated from one of the most popular types of Egyptian cheese. A total of 215 ampicillin-resistant enterobacterial isolates were obtained from 80 samples of Domiati cheese, and they were screened by PCR for a large pool of antibiotic resistance markers, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), class 1 and class 2 integrons, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. It was determined that the most frequent mechanism of ampicillin resistance was from a TEM-1-type beta-lactamase. As well, SHV beta-lactamases, including SHV-1, SHV-25, and SHV-26, showed a high prevalence, and two novel SHV beta-lactamases, SHV-110 and SHV-111, were identified. Type CTX-M-14, OXY-1, OXA-1, and CMY-4 beta-lactamases were also detected in a few isolates. In addition, a novel AmpC beta-lactamase was detected that was designated CMY-41. Sequencing results of class 1 integrons revealed that the uncommon aminoglycoside resistance gene cassette aadA22 was found for the first time in an Escherichia coli strain. The other class 1 integrons harbored various common gene cassettes, including aadA1, aadA1a, aadA2, aadA12, dfr5, dfr7, dfr12, and dfr15. The only isolate that carried a class 2 integron contained dfrA1, sat2, and aadA1. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnrS and qnrB showed a low prevalence. This study provides meaningful data on high antimicrobial resistance contained in Domiati cheese samples and reports for the first time the presence of beta-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, and integrons in isolates from food of Egyptian animal origin.

  12. Population Genomic Analysis of 1,777 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates, Houston, Texas: Unexpected Abundance of Clonal Group 307.

    PubMed

    Long, S Wesley; Olsen, Randall J; Eagar, Todd N; Beres, Stephen B; Zhao, Picheng; Davis, James J; Brettin, Thomas; Xia, Fangfang; Musser, James M

    2017-05-16

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae strains cultured from patients in the 2,000-bed Houston Methodist Hospital system between September 2011 and May 2015, representing a comprehensive, population-based strain sample. Strains of largely uncharacterized clonal group 307 (CG307) caused more infections than those of well-studied epidemic CG258. Strains varied markedly in gene content and had an extensive array of small and very large plasmids, often containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Some patients with multiple strains cultured over time were infected with genetically distinct clones. We identified 15 strains expressing the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) enzyme that confers broad resistance to nearly all beta-lactam antibiotics. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of 10 phylogenetically diverse strains showed that the global transcriptome of each strain was unique and highly variable. Experimental mouse infection provided new information about immunological parameters of host-pathogen interaction. We exploited the large data set to develop whole-genome sequence-based classifiers that accurately predict clinical antimicrobial resistance for 12 of the 16 antibiotics tested. We conclude that analysis of large, comprehensive, population-based strain samples can assist understanding of the molecular diversity of these organisms and contribute to enhanced translational research.IMPORTANCEKlebsiella pneumoniae causes human infections that are increasingly difficult to treat

  13. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy food-producing animals in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Sallem, Rym; Ben Slama, Karim; Sáenz, Yolanda; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Estepa, Vanesa; Jouini, Ahlem; Gharsa, Haythem; Klibi, Naouel; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmidic AmpC-beta-lactamase (pAmpC-BL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates has been studied in food-producing animals at the farm level in Tunisia, and recovered isolates were characterized for the presence of other resistance genes and integrons. Eighty fecal samples of food-producing animals (23 sheep, 22 chickens, 22 cattle, six horses, five rabbits, and two dromedaries) were obtained from 35 different farms in Tunisia in 2011. Samples were inoculated onto MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L) for cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli recovery. CTX(R) E. coli isolates were detected in 11 out of 80 samples (13.8%), and one isolate per sample was further characterized (10 from chickens and one from a dromedary). The 11 CTX(R) isolates were distributed into phylogroups: B1 (five isolates), A (two isolates), D (three isolates), and B2 (one isolate). The following beta-lactamase genes were detected: bla(CTX-M-1) (seven isolates), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-135) (one isolate), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-1b) (one isolate), and bla(CMY-2) (two isolates). All ESBL- and pAmpC-BL-producing E. coli strains showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Seven isolates contained class 1 integrons with four gene cassette arrangements: dfrA17-aadA5 (three isolates), dfrA1-aadA1 (two isolates), dfrA15-aadA1 (one isolate), and aadA1 (one isolate). All isolates showed tetracycline resistance and contained the tet(A) +/- tet(B) genes. Virulence genes detected were as follows (number of isolates in parentheses): fimA (10); aer (eight); papC (two); and papGIII, hly, cnf, and bfp (none). Chicken farms constitute a reservoir of ESBL- and pAmpC-BL-producing E. coli isolates of the CTX-M-1 and CMY-2 types that potentially could be transmitted to humans via the food chain or by direct contact.

  14. Biochemical properties of beta-lactamase produced by Legionella gormanii.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, T; Sato, K; Miyata, K; Inoue, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1986-01-01

    beta-Lactamase was purified from a strain of Legionella gormanii. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 25,000, and its isoelectric point was 10.5. The enzyme hydrolyzed oxyiminocephalosporins, cephamycins, penicillins, and imipenem. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, Hg2+, and Cu2+, but not by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, or imipenem. PMID:3488020

  15. Identification of São Paulo metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Central-West region of Brazil: a case study.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Wirlaine Glauce; Silva, Kesia Esther da; Bampi, José Victor Bortolotto; Bet, Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos; Ramos, Ana Carolina; Gales, Ana Cristina; Simionatto, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase production is an important mechanism for carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which represents an emerging public health challenge. We report the case of a patient admitted to an intensive care unit, with sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant São Paulo Metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing P. aeruginosa . This is the first case of infection by this pathogenic strain in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Thus, infection control measures are required for preventing future spread and outbreaks.

  16. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in camel in Egypt: potential human hazard.

    PubMed

    Elhariri, Mahmoud; Hamza, Dalia; Elhelw, Rehab; Dorgham, Sohad M

    2017-03-31

    The rapid increase of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are a potential health hazard. Development of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens has serious implications for human health, especially when such strains could be transmitted to human. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance due to ESBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the camel meat was investigated. In this study meat samples from 200 healthy camels at two major abattoirs in Egypt (Cairo and Giza) were collected. Following culture on cetrimide agar, suspected P. aeruginosa colonies were confirmed with a Vitek 2 system (bioMe´rieux). P. aeruginosa isolates were phenotypically identified as ESBL by double disk synergy test. Additionally antimicrobial susceptibility testing of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa isolates were done against 11 antimicrobial drugs and carried out by disk diffusion method. The ESBL genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction according to the presence of the bla PER-1, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 45 camel meat sample (22.5%). The total percentage of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa was 45% (21/45) from camel meat isolates. Antibiogram results revealed the highest resistance was for c, ceftriaxone and rifampicin followed by cefepime and aztreonam. The prevalence rates of β-lactamase genes were recorded (bla PER-1 28.5%, bla CTX-M 38%, bla SHV 33.3% and bla TEM 23.8%). This study illustrates the presence of high rates of ESBL-P. aeruginosa in camels that represents an increasing alarming for the risk of transmission to human and opens the door for current and future antibiotics therapy failure. Livestock associated ESBL-P. aeruginosa is a growing disaster, therefore, attention has to be fully given to livestock associated ESBL-bacteria which try to find its way to human beings.

  17. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in faecal samples of Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, A; Igrejas, G; Radhouani, H; Estepa, V; Alcaide, E; Zorrilla, I; Serra, R; Torres, C; Poeta, P

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered within the faecal microbiota of Iberian lynx. The identification of other associated resistance genes and the analysis of clonal relationship were also focused in this study. From 2008 to 2010, 128 faecal samples of Iberian lynx (wild and captive animals) were collected. Eleven tested samples contained cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates (all belonging to captive animals) and 10 ESBL-producing isolates were showed. CTX-M-14 and SHV-12 ESBL-types were detected and seven different patterns were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The occurrence of unrelated multiresistant E. coli in faecal flora of captive specimens of Iberian lynx, including the presence of ESBLs, resistant genes in integrons and virulence determinants was showed in this study. The results obtained in this study highlight the environmental problem as future reintroductions of Iberian lynx could lead to a spread of resistant bacteria. Additionally, ESBL-producing bacteria can represent a health problem for this endangered species. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Impact of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase on beta-lactam antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Zmarlicka, Monika T; Nailor, Michael D; Nicolau, David P

    2015-01-01

    Since the first New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) report in 2009, NDM has spread globally causing various types of infections. NDM-positive organisms produce in vitro resistance phenotypes to carbapenems and many other antimicrobials. It is thus surprising that the literature examining clinical experiences with NDM does not report corresponding poor clinical outcomes. There are many instances where good clinical outcomes are described, despite a mismatch between administered antimicrobials and resistant in vitro susceptibilities. Available in vitro data for either monotherapy or combination therapy does not provide an explanation for these observations. However, animal studies do begin to shed more light on this phenomenon. They imply that the in vivo expression of NDM may not confer clinical resistance to all cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics as predicted by in vitro testing but other resistance mechanisms need to be present to generate a resistant phenotype. As such, previously abandoned therapies, particularly carbapenems and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, may retain utility against infections caused by NDM producers. PMID:26345624

  19. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing gram-negative bacteria in companion animals: action is clearly warranted!

    PubMed

    Ewers, Christa; Grobbel, Mirjam; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious threat to Public Health in human medicine as well as increasingly in the veterinary context worldwide. Several studies reported the transmission of zoonotic multidrug resistant bacteria between food-producing animals and humans, whilst the contribution of companion animals to this scenario is rather unknown. Within the last decades a change in the social role of companion animals has taken place, resulting in a very close contact between owners and their pets. As a consequence, humans may obtain antimicrobial resistant bacteria or the corresponding resistance genes not only from food-producing animals but also via close contact to their pets.This may give rise to bacterial infections with limited therapeutic options and an increased risk of treatment failure. As beta-lactams constitute one of the most important groups of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine, retaliatory actions in small animal and equine practices are urgently needed. This review addresses the increasing burden of extended-spectrum beta-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from companion animals. It should emphasize the urgent need for the implementation of antibiotic stewardship as well as surveillance and monitoring programs of multi resistant bacteria in particular in view of new putative infection cycles between humans and their pets.

  20. CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in the intensive care unit of Tlemcen Hospital, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Z Baba; Ayad, A; Mesli, E; Messai, Y; Bakour, R; Drissi, M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Tlemcen hospital in north-western Algeria. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing, characterization of ESBL-encoding genes and the genetic environment, conjugation experiments and plasmid analysis were carried out. In all, 28 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were isolated from specimens recovered from patients in the ICU and 2 from surfaces of the unit. Of these, 11 isolates (4 Escherichia coli, 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 2 Enterobacter cloacae) produced ESBL of the CT-X-M-15 type. Molecular typing of the isolates showed the clonal nature of 4 K. pneumoniae isolates. The bla(CTXM-15) gene was genetically linked to insertion sequence lSEcp1B and was transferable by conjugation from 3 isolates. Regular monitoring of resistance mechanisms, the establishment of a prevention strategy, and more rational and appropriate use of antibiotics are needed.

  1. Reduced Susceptibility to Cefepime in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae Producing OXA-1 Beta-Lactamase.

    PubMed

    Torres, Eva; López-Cerero, Lorena; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Manuel; Pascual, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    An increase of Enterobacteriaceae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefepime (FEP) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC) has been observed in our area. The aim of this study was to characterize this antibiotic resistance phenotype and its molecular epidemiology. A total of 33 Enterobacteriaceae strains were studied. blaOXA-1 genes and their genetic environment were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Plasmids were transferred by conjugation and/or transformation and classified using PCR-based inc/rep typing and IncF subtyping. Escherichia coli isolates were typed by phylogroup, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Outer membrane proteins were studied by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and expression of blaOXA-1 genes by reverse transcription-PCR. FEP minimum inhibitory concentration yielded values of 1-16 mg/L. Twenty-nine (87.9%) isolates produced OXA-1, of which 24 (82.7%) were located in class 1 integron, and 9 (27.3%) produced TEM-1. Among the 24 E. coli OXA-1-producers, PFGE revealed two main clusters: one belonged to C-ST88 and the other to B23-ST131. Thirteen plasmids containing blaOXA-1 were transferred, nine belonged to IncF replicon (4 F2:A1:B-, 2 F1:A1:B1, 1 F1:A2:B-, 1 F18:A2:B1, 1 F5:A-:B1) and four were nontypeable. In conclusion, reduced susceptibility to FEP was mostly due to OXA-1 beta-lactamase. In E. coli, this increase is mainly due to the dissemination of two clones, which have captured different IncF plasmids. Among non-E. coli strains, five isolates produced OXA-1 and one isolate produced only TEM-1.

  2. [Evaluation of Vitek 2 performance for identifying extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae "other than Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp"].

    PubMed

    Diamante, Paola; Camporese, Alessandro

    2006-12-01

    Production of beta-lactamases is the main resistance mechanism of gram-negative bacteria against beta-lactam antibiotics. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the ability to hydrolyze a broader spectrum of beta-lactam drugs. Hence rapid, accurate detection of this resistance mechanism is extremely important to guide proper patient antimicrobial therapy. These enzymes are most commonly produced by Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, but may also occur widely in other gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens and others that also produce other chromosomal and plasmid-mediated enzymes, like AmpC beta-lactamases. The main problem is that no CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) recommendations exist for ESBL detection for Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp and for detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases. We carried out an evaluation of Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System (AES) performance for identifying ESBL in Enterobacteriaceae, also other than E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp, comparing results obtained with Etest and double disk data. Seventy isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were tested for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by using Vitek 2, Etest and the double disk method. The use of Etest was performed as a gold standard method by comparing interpretation results of Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System (AES). In comparison with the Etest method, AES produced 19 ESBL warnings, of which only 5 were classified as major misunderstandings, especially for Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp which produced plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases. The Etest, together with the cefoxitin sensibility test, was found to be the best method to confirm ESBLs and distinguish AmpC from ESBLs.

  3. High diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in an urban river sediment habitat.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Li; Geng, Sui-Na; Li, Tian-Yu; Ye, Zhuo-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Zou, Fei; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2010-09-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been surveyed widely in water bodies, but few studies have determined the diversity of ARB in sediment, which is the most taxon-abundant habitat in aquatic environments. We isolated 56 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria from a single sediment sample taken from an urban river in China. All strains were confirmed for ESBL-producing capability by both the clavulanic acid combination disc method and MIC determination. Of the isolated strains, 39 were classified as Enterobacteriaceae (consisting of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Aeromonas) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical analysis. The present study identifies, for the first time, ESBL-producing strains from the families Brucellaceae and Moraxellaceae. The bla(CTX-M) gene was the most dominant of the ESBL genes (45 strains), while the bla(TEM) gene was the second-most dominant (22 strains). A total of five types of bla(CTX-M) fragments were identified, with both known and novel sequences. A library of bla(CTX-M) cloned from the sediment DNA showed an even higher diversity of bla(CTX-M) sequences. The discovery of highly diverse ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, particularly bla(CTX), in urban river sediment raises alarms for potential dissemination of ARB in communities through river environments.

  4. High prevalence of extended-spectrum and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from poultry in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Maamar, Elaa; Hammami, Samia; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Dakhli, Nouha; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ferjani, Sana; Hamzaoui, Zaineb; Saidani, Mabrouka; Torres, Carmen; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem

    2016-08-16

    This study was conducted to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase (pAmpC-BL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates in industrial poultry samples were collected from healthy chickens of the three farms. Samples were inoculated onto desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2mg/L). E. coli was identified by biochemical and molecular methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method. Genes encoding ESBLs and pAmpC-BL were detected by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic groups were determined by triplex PCR. The molecular typing of strains was done by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) in those isolates showing different PFGE patterns. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were recovered in 48 of 137 fecal samples (35%), and one isolate/sample was further studied. The following beta-lactamase genes were detected: blaCTX-M-1 (29 isolates, isolated in all three farms), blaCTX-M-15 (5 isolates, confined in farm II), blaCTX-M-14 and blaCMY-2 (one isolate and 13 isolates, respectively, in farm III). The 48 cefotaxime-resistant isolates were distributed into phylogroups: B1 (n=21), A (n=15) and D (n=12). PFGE analysis revealed 19 unrelated patterns: 15 different profiles among ESBL-positive strains and 4 among the CMY-2-positive isolates. The following sequence types-associated phylogroups were detected: a) CTX-M-1-positive strains: lineages ST542-B1, ST212-B1, ST58-B1, ST155-B1 and ST349-D; b) CTX-M-15-positive strain: lineage ST405-D; c) CTX-M-14-positive strain: lineage ST1056-B1; d) CMY-2-positive strains: lineages ST117-D, ST2197-A, and ST155-B1. Healthy chickens constitute an important reservoir of ESBL- and pAmpC-BL-producing E. coli isolates that potentially could be transmitted to humans via the food chain or by direct contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosynthesis of ketomycin. (II) biomimetic model for beta-lactamase catalysis: host-guest interactions in cyclodextrin-penicillin inclusion complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The antibiotic ketomycin is formed from shikimic acid via chorismic acid and prephenic acid. Phenylalanine and 2',5'-dihydrophenylalanine derived from shikimic acid are not intermediates in the biosynthesis. Degradation of ketomycin derived from (1,6-/sup 14/C)shikimic acid showed that prephenic acid is converted into ketomycin with stereospecific discrimination between the two enantiotopic edges of the ring, the pro-S-R edge giving rise to the C-2', C-3' side of the cyclohexane ring of ketomycin. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to the action of ..beta..-lactam antibiotics is mainly ascribed to their ability to produce ..beta..-lactamase to cleave the ..beta..-lactam ring. It is essential to understand the molecular nature of ..beta..-lactamase-penicillin recognition for designing and formulating more effective ..beta..-lactam antibiotics. A biomimetic study of ..beta..-lactamase is therefore initiated. To meet the requirements of hydrophobic and serine protease characteristics of ..beta..-lactamase, ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin is chosen as a biomimetic model for ..beta..-lactamase. The structural specificity and the chemical dynamics of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-phenoxymethyl penicillin inclusion complex in solid state and in solution have been determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The spectral results strongly indicate that the phenyl portion of the phenoxymethyl penicillin forms a stable inclusion complex with the hydrophobic cavity of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin in solution as well as in the solid state. Kinetic studies followed by /sup 1/HNMR and HPLC analyses under alkaline condition have shown that the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin mimics the catalytic function of serine of ..beta..-lactamase in the stereospecific hydrolysis of the ..beta..-lactam ring of phenoxymethyl penicillin.

  6. Specific chemical modification of the readily nitrated tyrosine of the RTEM beta-lactamase and of bacillus cereus beta-lactamase I. The role of the tyrosine in beta-lactamase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wolozin, B L; Myerowitz, R; Pratt, R F

    1982-02-18

    The function of the hydroxyl group of the tyrosine residue readily nitrated by tetranitromethane (tyrosine-105) in the RTEM plasmid-derived beta-lactamase (penicillinase; penicillin amido beta-lactam-hydrolase, EC 3.5.1.6) from E. coli and in Bacillus cereus beta-lactamase I has been investigated by chemical modification methods. In the case of B. cereus beta-lactamase I the nitrated tyrosine can be acetylated by acetic anhydride without effect on beta-lactamase activity The nitrated tyrosine of the E. coli enzyme can also be acetylated but in this case beta-lactamase activity is lost in a manner which directly correlates with extent of acetylation. However, deacetylation of the nitrotyrosine does not restore activity. The dilemma created by the latter result has been resolved by development of a new method of tyrosine hydroxyl modification at low pH. The nitrated enzyme is reduced by dithionite and then treated with either carbonyldiimidazole or N-(2.2.2-trifluoroethoxycarbonyl)imidazole, both of which convert 3-aminotyrosine into benzoxazolinonylalanine. That the final modification has been achieved is demonstrated both by classical chemical methods and by employment of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to detect the characteristic benzoxazolinone carbonyl absorption. Further, it is shown that no significant loss of beta-lactamase activity is associated with this modification. Hence in neither the B. cereus or the E. coli enzyme does the readily nitrated tyrosine residue have a direct chemical function at the beta-lactamase active site.

  7. Enzymatic assay of beta-lactamase using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry.

    PubMed

    Long, D M

    1997-05-01

    A method for measuring the rates of enzymatic hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics based on circular dichroism spectropolarimetry is described. Unhydrolyzed beta-lactam antibiotics have high molar ellipticities, but the hydrolyzed compounds are circular dichroism (CD) inactive in the case of penams or have significantly different CD spectra in the case of cephems. By measuring CD at constant wavelength as a function of time for reaction mixtures containing beta-lactamase and beta-lactam antibiotics, rates of hydrolysis and steady-state enzyme kinetic constants can be derived. The method was applied to measurement of a wide range of enzymatic reaction constants for wild-type and four mutant RTEM-1 beta-lactamases. Compared to the commonly employed assay based on ultraviolet spectroscopy, the new method offers several advantages. These include the ability to measure larger enzymatic Michaelis-Menten constants, less interference from high concentrations of beta-lactamase, higher sensitivity, and potentially less interference from other uv-absorbing components of complex reaction mixtures.

  8. The complexed structure and antimicrobial activity of a non-beta-lactam inhibitor of AmpC beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Powers, R A; Blázquez, J; Weston, G S; Morosini, M I; Baquero, F; Shoichet, B K

    1999-11-01

    Beta-lactamases are the major resistance mechanism to beta-lactam antibiotics and pose a growing threat to public health. Recently, bacteria have become resistant to beta-lactamase inhibitors, making this problem pressing. In an effort to overcome this resistance, non-beta-lactam inhibitors of beta-lactamases were investigated for complementarity to the structure of AmpC beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. This led to the discovery of an inhibitor, benzo(b)thiophene-2-boronic acid (BZBTH2B), which inhibited AmpC with a Ki of 27 nM. This inhibitor is chemically dissimilar to beta-lactams, raising the question of what specific interactions are responsible for its activity. To answer this question, the X-ray crystallographic structure of BZBTH2B in complex with AmpC was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several unexpected interactions. The inhibitor appears to complement the conserved, R1-amide binding region of AmpC, despite lacking an amide group. Interactions between one of the boronic acid oxygen atoms, Tyr150, and an ordered water molecule suggest a mechanism for acid/base catalysis and a direction for hydrolytic attack in the enzyme catalyzed reaction. To investigate how a non-beta-lactam inhibitor would perform against resistant bacteria, BZBTH2B was tested in antimicrobial assays. BZBTH2B significantly potentiated the activity of a third-generation cephalosporin against AmpC-producing resistant bacteria. This inhibitor was unaffected by two common resistance mechanisms that often arise against beta-lactams in conjunction with beta-lactamases. Porin channel mutations did not decrease the efficacy of BZBTH2B against cells expressing AmpC. Also, this inhibitor did not induce expression of AmpC, a problem with many beta-lactams. The structure of the BZBTH2B/AmpC complex provides a starting point for the structure-based elaboration of this class of non-beta-lactam inhibitors.

  9. An overlay gel method for identification and isolation of bacterial beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Fereshteh; Rafiee, Roya

    2006-01-01

    A modification of the iodometric technique using an overlay gel was employed for fast identification and isolation of beta-lactamase types TEM, SHV and AmpC from non-denaturing gels. Osmotic shock preparations of the three beta-lactamases were run on polyacrylamide gels without SDS and ampicillin containing overlay gels were flooded with the iodine solution before being placed on polyacrylamide gel strips. Distinct clear bands appeared in dark blue backgrounds indicating beta-lactamase activity.

  10. Engineered Mononuclear Variants in Bacillus cereus Metallo-beta-lactamase BcII Are Inactive

    SciTech Connect

    Abriata,L.; Gonzalez, L.; Llarrull, L.; Tomatis, P.; Myers, W.; Costello, A.; Tierney, D.; Vila, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metallo-{beta}-lactamases (M{beta}Ls) are zinc enzymes able to hydrolyze almost all {beta}-lactam antibiotics, rendering them inactive, at the same time endowing bacteria high levels of resistance. The design of inhibitors active against all classes of M{beta}Ls has been hampered by their structural diversity and by the heterogeneity in metal content in enzymes from different sources. BcII is the metallo-{beta}-lactamase from Bacillus cereus, which is found in both the mononuclear and dinuclear forms. Despite extensive studies, there is still controversy about the nature of the active BcII species. Here we have designed two mutant enzymes in which each one of the metal binding sites was selectively removed. Both mutants were almost inactive, despite preserving most of the structural features of each metal site. These results reveal that neither site isolated in the M{beta}L scaffold is sufficient to render a fully active enzyme. This suggests that only the dinuclear species is active or that the mononuclear variants can be active only if aided by other residues that would be metal ligands in the dinuclear species.

  11. Mimicking natural evolution in metallo-beta-lactamases through second-shell ligand mutations.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Pablo E; Rasia, Rodolfo M; Segovia, Lorenzo; Vila, Alejandro J

    2005-09-27

    Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) represent the latest generation of beta-lactamases. The structural diversity and broad substrate profile of MBLs allow them to confer resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics. To explore the evolutionary potential of these enzymes, we have subjected the Bacillus cereus MBL (BcII) to a directed evolution scheme, which resulted in an increased hydrolytic efficiency toward cephalexin. A systematic study of the hydrolytic profile, substrate binding, and active-site features of the evolved lactamase reveal that directed evolution has shaped the active site by means of remote mutations to better hydrolyze cephalosporins with small, uncharged C-3 substituents. One of these mutations is found in related enzymes from pathogenic bacteria and is responsible for the increase in that enzyme's hydrolytic profile. The mutations lowered the activation energy of the rate-limiting step rather than improved the affinity of the enzyme toward these substrates. The following conclusions can be made: (i) MBLs are able to expand their substrate spectrum without sacrificing their inherent hydrolytic capabilities; (ii) directed evolution is able to mimic mutations that occur in nature; (iii) the metal-ligand strength is tuned by second-shell mutations, thereby influencing the catalytic efficiency; and (iv) changes in the position of the second Zn(II) ion in MBLs affect the substrate positioning in the active site. Overall, these results show that the evolution of enzymatic catalysis can take place by remote mutations controlling reactivity.

  12. Inactivation of the RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. Interaction of penam sulfones with enzyme.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Charnas, R L; Bradley, S M; Knowles, J R

    1981-05-12

    The characteristics of the reaction of a number of mechanism-based inactivators of the RTEM beta-lactamase have suggested that a common mechanistic pathway may be followed by many of these compounds. These ideas have been tested by the synthesis and evaluation of some penam sulfones as beta-lactamase inactivators. The sulfones of poor beta-lactamase substrates are, as predicted, potent inactivators of the enzyme. A unique serin residue (Ser-70) is labeled by quinacillin sulfone, and it is likely that this serine acts nucleophilically in the normal hydrolytic reaction of the beta-lactamase to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate.

  13. An overview of the kinetic parameters of class B beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Felici, A; Amicosante, G; Oratore, A; Strom, R; Ledent, P; Joris, B; Fanuel, L; Frère, J M

    1993-01-01

    The catalytic properties of three class B beta-lactamases (from Pseudomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas hydrophila and Bacillus cereus) were studied and compared with those of the Bacteroides fragilis enzyme. The A. hydrophila beta-lactamase exhibited a unique specificity profile and could be considered as a rather specific 'carbapenemase'. No relationships were found between sequence similarities and catalytic properties. The problem of the repartition of class B beta-lactamases into sub-classes is discussed. Improved purification methods were devised for the P. maltophilia and A. hydrophila beta-lactamases including, for the latter enzyme, a very efficient affinity chromatography step on a Zn(2+)-chelate column. Images Figure 1 PMID:8471035

  14. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Baurin, Stéphane; Frère, Jean-Marie; Ngassam, Pierre; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Azebaze, Anatole; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Watchueng, Jean; Goffin, Colette; Galleni, Moreno

    2007-03-01

    In efforts to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated 16 Cameroonian plants belonging to 10 families which were evaluated for anti-beta-lactamase activity. The investigation showed that extracts 2, 6, 3 and 5 of the 16 plants investigated presented interesting in vitro beta-lactamase inhibition (over 90%), respectively, of the beta-lactamases TEM-1, OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99. These extracts were from Mammea africana (all beta-lactamases), Garcinia lucida, G. kola (OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99), Bridelia micrantha (OXA-10, P99), Ochna afzelii (OXA-10, P99), Prunus africana (IMP-1) and Adenia lobata (TEM-1). After elimination of tannins (according to the European Pharmacopoeia) the extracts from B. micrantha, G. lucida and M. africana were tested further for their anti-beta-lactamase activity. The extracts from B. micrantha and G. lucida exhibited potent inhibitory activity, respectively, of beta-lactamase OXA-10 (IC(50) = 0.02 mg/mL) and P99 (IC(50) = 0.01 mg/mL). The anti-beta-lactamase activity of M. africana extract was weak. The isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents of G. lucida and B. micrantha will provide useful leads in the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  15. The 1.4 Å Crystal Structure of the Class D [beta]-Lactamase OXA-1 Complexed with Doripenem

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kyle D.; Karpen, Mary E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Leonard, David A.; Powers, Rachel A.

    2010-01-12

    The clinical efficacy of carbapenem antibiotics depends on their resistance to the hydrolytic action of {beta}-lactamase enzymes. The structure of the class D {beta}-lactamase OXA-1 as an acyl complex with the carbapenem doripenem was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Unlike most class A and class C carbapenem complexes, the acyl carbonyl oxygen in the OXA-1-doripenem complex is bound in the oxyanion hole. Interestingly, no water molecules were observed in the vicinity of the acyl linkage, providing an explanation for why carbapenems inhibit OXA-1. The side chain amine of K70 remains fully carboxylated in the acyl structure, and the resulting carbamate group forms a hydrogen bond to the alcohol of the 6{alpha}-hydroxyethyl moiety of doripenem. The carboxylate attached to the {beta}-lactam ring of doripenem is stabilized by a salt bridge to K212 and a hydrogen bond with T213, in lieu of the interaction with an arginine side chain found in most other {beta}-lactamase-{beta}-lactam complexes (e.g., R244 in the class A member TEM-1). This novel set of interactions with the carboxylate results in a major shift of the carbapenem's pyrroline ring compared to the structure of the same ring in meropenem bound to OXA-13. Additionally, bond angles of the pyrroline ring suggest that after acylation, doripenem adopts the {Delta}{sup 1} tautomer. These findings provide important insights into the role that carbapenems may have in the inactivation process of class D {beta}-lactamases.

  16. Rapidly spreading CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Akiko; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Saika, Takeshi; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, increased isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis has been reported in Japan. We undertook an investigation to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolated in Japan and to characterise the genotype. Seventy-four P. mirabilis isolates recovered from specimens at 54 hospitals in Japan between March and October 2006 were included in the study. Of the 74 P. mirabilis isolates examined, 28 (37.8%) were ESBL-producers. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene was found in 27 isolates, whilst 1 isolate possessed bla(CTX-M-3). Amongst the 28 ESBL-producers, 25 (89.3%) were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whilst 11 (23.9%) of 46 ESBL-non-producing isolates were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the 28 ESBL-producing isolates from 19 hospitals revealed 17 clusters. The same PFGE type was observed in two or more hospitals especially in the greater Tokyo area, suggesting possible clonal spread and the need for monitoring to determine whether emergence of a dominant clone occurs. Our results show that in Japan there is a high prevalence of CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis. Moreover, these isolates are characterised by reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.

  17. In Vitro Activities of Ertapenem and Imipenem against Clinical Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Collected in Military Teaching Hospital Mohammed V of Rabat.

    PubMed

    Elouennass, M; Zohoun, A; El Ameri, A; Alem, N; Kasouati, J; Benlahlou, Y; El Yaagoubi, I; Frikh, M; Lemnouer, A; Benouda, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the sensitivity level of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae to Carbapenems (Imipenem, Ertapenem) marketed in Morocco and discusses the place of Ertapenem in the treatment of extended spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 110 extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates obtained from blood cultures, superficial and deep pus, and catheters were conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Imipenem and Ertapenem were done by the E-test. The modified Hodge test was conducted for resistant or intermediate strains. Results. 99.1% of isolates were susceptible to Imipenem. For Ertapenem, 4 were resistant and 4 intermediate. The modified Hodge test was positive for all 08 isolates. A minimum inhibitory concentration comparison of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and E. coli for Imipenem has noted a significant difference between E. cloacae on one hand and E. coli, K. pneumoniae on the other hand (P < 0.01). No significant difference was noted for minimum inhibitory concentration of Ertapenem. Conclusion. Our results confirm in vitro effectiveness of Ertapenem against extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as reported elsewhere. However, the emergence of resistance to Carbapenems revealed by production of carbapenemases in this study confirmed a necessary bacteriological documented infection before using Ertapenem.

  18. Evidence of adaptability in metal coordination geometry and active-site loop conformation among B1 metallo-beta-lactamases .

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Vila, Alejandro J

    2010-09-14

    Subclass B1 beta-lactamases are Zn(II)-dependent hydrolases that confer bacterial resistance to most clinically useful beta-lactam antibiotics. The enzyme BcII from Bacillus cereus is a prototypical enzyme that belongs to this group, the first Zn(II)-dependent beta-lactamase to be discovered. Crucial aspects of the BcII catalytic mechanism and metal binding mode have been assessed mostly on the Co(II)-substituted surrogate. Here we report a high-resolution structure of Co(II)-BcII, revealing a metal coordination geometry identical to that of the native zinc enzyme. In addition, a high-resolution structure of the apoenzyme, together with structures with different degrees of metal occupancy and oxidation levels of a conserved Cys ligand, discloses a considerable mobility of two loops containing four metal ligands (namely, regions His116-Arg121 and Gly219-Cys221). This flexibility is expected to assist in the structural rearrangement of the metal sites during catalytic turnover, which, along with the coordination geometry adaptability of Zn(II) ions, grants the interaction with a variety of substrates, a characteristic feature of B1 metallo-beta-lactamases.

  19. SHV-Type Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production Is Associated with Reduced Cefepime Susceptibility in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Dóra; Bonomo, Robert A.; Silveira, Fernanda; Pasculle, A. William; Baxter, Carla; Linden, Peter K.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Hujer, Kristine M.; Deeley, Kathleen; Paterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Cefepime is a potentially useful antibiotic for treatment of infections with Enterobacter cloacae. However, in our institution the MIC90 for E. cloacae bloodstream isolates is 16 μg/ml. PCR amplification of bla genes revealed that one-third (15/45) of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates produced SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in addition to hyperproduction of AmpC-type beta-lactamases. The majority (11/15) of ESBL producers also produced the TEM-1 beta-lactamase. The SHV types included SHV-2, -5, -7, -12, -14, and -30. All but two of the ESBL-producing E. cloacae isolates, but none of the non-ESBL-producing strains, had MICs of cefepime of ≥2 μg/ml. The MIC90 for cefepime for ESBL-producing strains was 64 μg/ml, while for non-ESBL producers it was 0.5 μg/ml. Using current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints for cefepime, two thirds (10/15) of ESBL-producing isolates would have been regarded as susceptible to cefepime. Phenotypic ESBL detection methods were generally unreliable with these E. cloacae isolates. Based on these results, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical reevaluation of cefepime breakpoints for E. cloacae may be prudent. PMID:16207962

  20. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection: report of a survivor.

    PubMed

    Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Schmitt, Graciane Jacinta; Araújo, Jane Martins de; Souza, Liliane Braga de; Nazário, Juliana Gomes; Januário, Raquel Landuchi; Mello, Rogério Sobroza de; Trevisol, Daisson José

    2016-02-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a bacterial enzyme that renders the bacteria resistant to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized several times for surgical treatment and complications caused by a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Although the patient acquired several multidrug-resistant infections, this study focuses on the NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection. As it was resistant to all antimicrobials tested, the medical team developed a 20-day regimen of 750mg/day metronidazole, 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B, and 100mg/day tigecycline. The treatment was effective, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.

  1. [Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vodovar, D; Marcadé, G; Raskine, L; Malissin, I; Mégarbane, B

    2013-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major worldwide health public concern. It results from the growing increase in antibiotic prescriptions, which are responsible for selection pressure on bacteria. In France like in other countries, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (EESBL) are the predominant multidrug-resistant bacteria. EESBL may be responsible for severe infections and require prescription of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The current EESBL outbreak is different from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak that occurred in the early 1980. Consistently, EESBL are isolated both in hospital and community. Moreover, standard hygiene measures appear ineffective since EESBL prevalence is still increasing. The current inability to contain EESBL outbreak is due to several factors, including the existence of a wide community- and hospital-acquired tank of EESBL, failure to follow strict rules for hygiene, and the current irrational prescription of antibiotics.

  2. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria isolated from hematologic patients in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristina Motta; Ferreira, William Antunes; Almeida, Nayanne Cristina Oliveira da Silva; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy in hematologic patients, often weak and susceptible to a wide range of infections, particularly nosocomial infections derived from long hospitalization periods, is a challenging issue. This paper presents ESBL-producing strains isolated from such hematologic patients treated at the Amazon Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation (HEMOAM) in the Brazilian Amazon Region to identify the ESBL genes carried by them as well as the susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents using the E-test method. A total of 146 clinical samples were obtained from July 2007 to August 2008, when 17 gram-negative strains were isolated in our institution. The most frequent isolates confirmed by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing were E. coli (8/17), Serratia spp. (3/17) and B.cepacia (2/17). All gram-negative strains were tested for extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBLs), where: (12/17) strains carried ESBL; among these, (8/12) isolates carried blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA , blaSHV genes, (1/12) blaTEM gene and (3/12) blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA genes. Antibiotic resistance was found in (15/17) of the isolates for tetracycline, (12/17) for ciprofloxacin, (1/17) resistance for cefoxitin and chloramphenicol, (1/17) for amikacin and (3/17) cefepime. This research showed the presence of gram-negative ESBL-producing bacteria infecting hematologic patients in HEMOAM. These strains carried the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaOXA genes and were resistant to different antibiotics used in the treatment. This finding was based on a period of 13 months, during which clinical samples from specific populations were obtained. Therefore, caution is required when generalizing the results that must be based on posological orientations and new breakpoints for disk diffusion and microdilution published by CLSI 2010. PMID:24031725

  3. The metallo-. beta. -lactamases of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6: Expression in Echierichia coli, purification, and characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R.W.; Clark, S.D.; Hilliard, N.P.; Harman, J.G. )

    1991-03-11

    The gene for the B. cereus 5/B/6 metallo-{beta}-lactamase was subcloned into the E. coli expression vector pRE-2. The resultant recombinants displayed a low level of enzyme activity. Generation of a site-directed mutant of the {beta}-lactamase gene containing both a Nde I site and an initiator codon allowed us to separate the {beta}-lactamase structural gene from its leader sequence. When only the structural gene was cloned into pRE-2, the B. cereus {beta}-lactamase activity was increased 9.8-fold. Purification of the recombinant enzyme from E. coli by ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, anion and cation exchange chromatography allowed the enzyme to be purified to homogeneity with an overall yield of 87%. The properties of the recombinant enzyme were identical to those of the B. cereus enzyme; e.g., the electrophoretic mobilities of the purified recombinant enzyme and the purified B. cereus enzyme were identical in both native and SDS gel electrophoresis As with the B. cereus enzyme, K{sub m} and V{sub max} for the recombinant enzyme are 0.39 mM and 1,333 units/mg protein, respectively. Likewise, the Co(II)-reconstituted recombinant enzyme has electronic spectra with maxima at 347, 551, 617 and 646 nm and extinction coefficients of 900, 250, 173 and 150 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. This heterologous construct and purification scheme will be used to produce and purify site-directed mutant proteins for use in exploring the reaction mechanisms of B. cereus metallo-{beta}-lactamases.

  4. Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases among Enterobacter Isolates Obtained in Tel Aviv, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Jacob; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Chmelnitsky, Inna; Hammer-Münz, Orly; Leavitt, Azita; Gold, Howard S.; Schwaber, Mitchell J.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype is frequent among Enterobacter isolates at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. We examined the clonal relatedness and characterized the ESBLs of a collection of these strains. Clonal relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and transconjugation experiments were performed. ESBL gene families were screened by colony hybridization and PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaIBC, blaPER, blaOXA, blaVEB, and blaSFO; and the PCR products were sequenced. The 17 Enterobacter isolates studied comprised 15 distinct genotypes. All isolates showed at least one IEF band (range, one to five bands) whose appearance was suppressed by addition of clavulanate; pIs ranged from 5.4 to ≥8.2. Colony hybridization identified at least one family of beta-lactamase genes in 11 isolates: 10 harbored blaTEM and 9 harbored blaSHV. PCR screening and sequence analysis of the PCR products for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M identified TEM-1 in 11 isolates, SHV-12 in 7 isolates, SHV-1 in 1 isolate, a CTX-M-2-like gene in 2 isolates, and CTX-M-26 in 1 isolate. In transconjugation experiments with four isolates harboring blaTEM-1 and blaSHV-12, both genes were simultaneously transferred to the recipient strain Escherichia coli HB101. Plasmid mapping, PCR, and Southern analysis with TEM- and SHV-specific probes demonstrated that a single transferred plasmid carried both the TEM-1 and the SHV-12 genes. The widespread presence of ESBLs among Enterobacter isolates in Tel Aviv is likely due not to clonal spread but, rather, to plasmid-mediated transfer, at times simultaneously, of genes encoding several types of enzymes. The dominant ESBL identified was SHV-12. PMID:15728917

  5. Structural and kinetic studies on beta-lactamase K1 from Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, E L; Gagnon, J; Waley, S G

    1986-01-01

    beta-Lactamase K1 from Klebsiella aerogenes 1082E hydrolyses both penicillins and cephalosporins comparably and is inhibited by mercurials but not by cloxacillin. These properties distinguish it from those other beta-lactamases that have been allotted to classes on the basis of their amino sequences. beta-Lactamase K1 has been isolated by affinity chromatography; its composition shows resemblances to class A beta-lactamases. Moreover, the N-terminal sequence is similar to those of class A beta-lactamases: there is about 30% identity over the first 32 residues. Furthermore, a putative active-site octapeptide has been isolated and its sequence is similar to the region around the active-site serine residue in class A beta-lactamases. There is one thiol group in beta-lactamase K1; it is not essential for activity. The pH-dependence of kcat. and kcat./Km for the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin by beta-lactamase K1 were closely similar, suggesting that the rate-determining step is cleavage of the beta-lactam ring. PMID:3521585

  6. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: implications for the clinical laboratory and therapy.

    PubMed

    Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2008-12-01

    Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is one of the most important resistance mechanisms that hamper the antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. ESBLs are classified into several groups according to their amino-acid sequence homology. While TEM and SHV enzymes were the most common ESBLs in the 1990s, CTX-M enzymes have spread rapidly among Enterobacteriaceae in the past decade. In addition, some epidemiological studies showed that organisms producing CTX-M enzymes had become increasingly prevalent in the community setting in certain areas in the world. Several novel enzymes with hydrolyzing activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins, albeit with additional enzymatic characteristics different from those of original TEM and SHV ESBLs (e.g., inhibitor-resistance), have been discovered and pose a problem on the definition of ESBLs. Although several methods to detect the production of ESBL are available in clinical laboratories, existence of other factors contributing resistance against beta-lactams, e.g., inducible production of Amp-C beta-lactamase by some species of Enterobacteriaceae, or inhibitor-resistance in some ESBLs may hinder the detection of ESBLs with these methods. Carbapenems are stable against hydrolyzing activity of ESBLs and are regarded as the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Although several other antimicrobial agents, such as fluoroquinolones and cephamycins, may have some role in the treatment of mild infections due to those organisms, clinical data that warrant the use of antimicrobial agents other than carbapenems in the treatment of serious infections due to those organisms are scarce for now.

  7. Characterization of the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase CKO from Citrobacter koseri.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Stephanie; Renard, Murielle; Ziental-Gelus, Nathalie; Clermont, Dominique; Jarlier, Vincent; Sougakoff, Wladimir

    2006-01-01

    The gene bla(CKO) encoding the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase of Citrobacter koseri was cloned and sequenced. CKO was found to display only 41% identity with SED-1 from Citrobacter sedlakii and 36% with CdiA from Citrobacter amalonaticus (formerly Citrobacter diversus). No transcriptional regulator was found upstream from bla(CKO). Silent and missense mutations were detected in four bla(CKO) genes amplified from different C. koseri clinical isolates, but the CKO variants displayed identical biochemical behaviours. A bla(CKO)-specific polymerase chain reaction confirmed that bla(CKO) is present only in C. koseri and therefore represents an interesting tool with which to differentiate C. koseri from the other Citrobacter spp.

  8. Secondary structure characterization of beta-lactamase inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Przybycien, T M; Dunn, J P; Valax, P; Georgiou, G

    1994-01-01

    The secondary structure of proteins in E. coli inclusion bodies was investigated via Raman spectroscopy. Inclusion bodies were purified from cells expressing different forms of RTEM beta-lactamase and grown at either 37 or 42 degrees C. All of the solid phase inclusion body samples examined gave amide I band spectra that were perturbed from that of the native, purified protein in both solution and powder forms; secondary structure estimates indicated significant decreases in alpha-helix and increases in beta-sheet contents in the inclusion body samples. The structure estimates for inclusion bodies isolated from 37 degrees C cultures were similar, regardless of aggregate localization in the E. coli cytoplasmic or periplasmic spaces or beta-lactamase precursor content. Inclusion bodies obtained from 42 degrees C cells exhibited a further reduction of alpha-helix and augmentation of beta-sheet contents relative to those from 37 degrees C cultures. These results are consistent with the paradigm for inclusion body formation via the self-association of intra-cellular folding intermediates having extensive secondary structure content. Further, the overall secondary structure content of inclusion bodies is not significantly affected by subcellular compartmentalization, but may be altered at increased temperatures.

  9. Membrane-bound beta-lactamase forms in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Plückthun, A; Pfitzinger, I

    1988-10-05

    Frameshift pseudo-revertants of Escherichia coli RTEM beta-lactamase were obtained by a selection procedure, starting from frameshift mutants at the signal-processing site. These pseudo-revertant proteins, which have a totally altered COOH-terminal part of the signal sequence, are attached to the outer face of the inner membrane. The mutant proteins are enzymatically active in vitro and in vivo, and the membrane localization has no deleterious effect on cell growth. We conclude that initiation of transport across the membrane does not require the COOH-terminal part of the signal, but this part of the sequence determines whether the protein is released to the periplasm either with or without cleavage of the signal, or whether the protein remains anchored to the membrane. Mutants with two signals in series were used to show that a truncated signal is not refractory to transport per se. If neither signal contains a functional cleavage site, the protein is at least partially found on the outer face of the inner membrane. If both signals contain functional cleavage sites, both are removed and the protein is released to the periplasm. If only the first signal contains a cleavage site, a longer fusion protein is transported and released. The results presented here show that a pre-beta-lactamase-like protein can fold properly even as a membrane-bound species.

  10. Penicillinase (beta-lactamase) formation by blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Kushner, D J; Breuil, C

    1977-03-01

    Beta-Lactamase (penicillinase) activity was found in a number of strains of blue-green algea. In some cases, this enzyme permitted algae to overcome the inhibitory effects of penicillin. Production and localization of beta-lactamase were studied in a unicellular species, Coccochloris elabens (strain 7003), and in a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena species (strain 7120). When cells were grown in a neutral medium with NaNO3 as N source, the pH rose during growth; at a pH of about 10, most of the enzyme was expressed equally well in intact or disrupted cells. If the pH was kept near neutrality during growth by gassing with CO2 in N2 or by growth under conditions of N2 fixation, the enzyme remained cell-bound and cryptic for most of the growth phase, being measurable only after cells were disrupted. The enzymes from strains 7003 and 7120 had greater activity on benzyl penicillin and other penicillins than on cephalosporins. Some differences were observed in the "substrate proliles" of penicillinases from the two strains against different penicillins.

  11. Evaluation of meat, fruit and vegetables from retail stores in five United Kingdom regions as sources of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Randall, L P; Lodge, M P; Elviss, N C; Lemma, F L; Hopkins, K L; Teale, C J; Woodford, N

    2017-01-16

    We determined the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in raw retail beef, chicken, pork, fruit and vegetables in five UK regions in 2013-14. Raw meat (n=397), and fruit and vegetable samples (n=400) were purchased from retail stores in London, East Anglia, North West England, Scotland and Wales. Samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli by plating enriched samples on CHROMagar CTX and CHROMagar ESBL, for AmpC-type E. coli by plating on "CHROMagar FOX" (CHROMagar ECC+16mg/L cefoxitin), and for carbapenem-resistant E. coli by plating on CHROMagar KPC. Additionally, pre-enrichment counts were performed on the above agars, and on CHROMagar ECC. Isolates of interest were characterised by MALDI-ToF to confirm identification, by PCR for blaCIT,blaCTX-M,blaOXA, blaSHV and blaTEM genes; ESBL or blaCIT genes were sequenced. Only 1.9% and 2.5% of beef and pork samples, respectively were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli after enrichment compared with 65.4% of chicken samples. 85.6% positive samples from chicken meat carried blaCTX-M-1; blaCTX-M-15 was not detected. None of the fruits or vegetables yielded ESBL-producing E. coli and none of the meat, fruit or vegetable samples yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Retail chicken was more frequently a source of ESBL-producing E. coli than were beef, pork, fruit or vegetables. None of the foodstuffs yielded E. coli with CTX-M-15 ESBL, which dominates in human clinical isolates in the UK, and none yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure of the covalent adduct formed between Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-lactamase and clavulanate.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Lee W; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Blanchard, John S

    2008-05-13

    The intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the beta-lactam class of antibiotics arises from a chromosomally encoded, extended spectrum, class A beta-lactamase, BlaC. Herein, we report the X-ray crystallographic structure of BlaC inhibited with clavulanate at a resolution of 1.7 A with an R-factor value of 0.180 and R-free value of 0.212 for the m/ z +154 clavulanate-derived fragment observed in the active site. Structural evidence reveals the presence of hydrogen bonds to the C1 carbonyl along with a coplanar arrangement of C1, C2, C3, and N4, which favors enolization to generate a trans-alpha,beta-eneamine, stabilizing the +154 adduct from hydrolysis. The irreversible inhibition of BlaC suggests that treatment of M. tuberculosis with a combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic and clavulanate may lead to rapid bactericidal activity.

  13. Structure of the Covalent Adduct Formed Between Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase and Clavulanate

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay,L.; Hugonnet, J.; Blanchard, J.

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the {beta}-lactam class of antibiotics arises from a chromosomally encoded, extended spectrum, class A {beta}-lactamase, BlaC. Herein, we report the X-ray crystallographic structure of BlaC inhibited with clavulanate at a resolution of 1.7 Angstroms with an R-factor value of 0.180 and R-free value of 0.212 for the m/z +154 clavulanate-derived fragment observed in the active site. Structural evidence reveals the presence of hydrogen bonds to the C1 carbonyl along with a coplanar arrangement of C1, C2, C3, and N4, which favors enolization to generate a trans-a, {beta}-eneamine, stabilizing the +154 adduct from hydrolysis. The irreversible inhibition of BlaC suggests that treatment of M. tuberculosis with a combination of a {beta}-lactam antibiotic and clavulanate may lead to rapid bactericidal activity.

  14. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and metallo beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Krishus; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Neupane, Bibhusan; Belbase, Ankit; Baidhya, Rikesh; Shrestha, Ram Krishna; Lekhak, Binod; Bhatta, Dwij Raj; Jha, Bharat

    2017-09-19

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) production in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the commonest modes of drug resistance among these commonly isolated bacteria from clinical specimens. So the main purpose of our study was to determine the burden of ESBL and MBL production in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples. Further, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were also determined. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Om Hospital and Research Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal by using the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples (urine, pus, body fluids, sputum, blood) from May 2015 to December 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase production was detected by combined disc method using ceftazidime and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid discs and cefotaxime and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid discs. Similarly, metallo beta-lactamase production was detected by combined disc assay using imipenem and imipenem/ethylenediaminetetracetate discs. Bacteria showing resistance to at least three different classes of antibiotics were considered multidrug resistant (MDR). Of total 1568 different clinical samples processed, 268 (17.1%) samples were culture positive. Among which, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were isolated from 138 (51.5%) and 39 (14.6%) samples respectively. Of the total isolates 61 (34.5%) were ESBL producers and 7 (4%) isolates were found to be MBL producers. High rates of ESBL production (35.9%) was noted among the clinical isolates from outpatients, however no MBL producing strains were isolated from outpatients. Among 138 E. coli and 39 K. pneumoniae, 73 (52.9%) E. coli and 23 (59%) K. pneumoniae were multidrug resistant. The lowest rates of resistance was seen toward imipenem followed by piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin and cefoperazone/sulbactam. High rate of

  15. Novel Insights Into The Mode of Inhibition of Class A SHV-1 Beta-Lactamases Revealed by Boronic Acid Transition State Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    W Ke; J Sampson; C Ori; F Prati; S Drawz; C Bethel; R Bonomo; F van den Akker

    2011-12-31

    Boronic acid transition state inhibitors (BATSIs) are potent class A and C {beta}-lactamase inactivators and are of particular interest due to their reversible nature mimicking the transition state. Here, we present structural and kinetic data describing the inhibition of the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase, a clinically important enzyme found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, by BATSI compounds possessing the R1 side chains of ceftazidime and cefoperazone and designed variants of the latter, compounds 1 and 2. The ceftazidime and cefoperazone BATSI compounds inhibit the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase with micromolar affinity that is considerably weaker than their inhibition of other {beta}-lactamases. The solved crystal structures of these two BATSIs in complex with SHV-1 reveal a possible reason for SHV-1's relative resistance to inhibition, as the BATSIs adopt a deacylation transition state conformation compared to the usual acylation transition state conformation when complexed to other {beta}-lactamases. Active-site comparison suggests that these conformational differences might be attributed to a subtle shift of residue A237 in SHV-1. The ceftazidime BATSI structure revealed that the carboxyl-dimethyl moiety is positioned in SHV-1's carboxyl binding pocket. In contrast, the cefoperazone BATSI has its R1 group pointing away from the active site such that its phenol moiety moves residue Y105 from the active site via end-on stacking interactions. To work toward improving the affinity of the cefoperazone BATSI, we synthesized two variants in which either one or two extra carbons were added to the phenol linker. Both variants yielded improved affinity against SHV-1, possibly as a consequence of releasing the strain of its interaction with the unusual Y105 conformation.

  16. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Teikyo University Hospital--the second report].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, S; Ono, Y; Yamamoto, M; Matumura, M; Okamoto, R; Inoue, M; Miyazawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    We studied the high-level resistant to cefotaxime (CTX, MIC > or = 512 micrograms/ml) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Teikyo University Hospital. The CTX-resistance could be transferred to E. coli K-12 chi 1037 or ML4903 strains from 30 of the 33 isolates by conjugation at a frequency of 10(-4). When the hydrolysis rate of benzylpenicillin was 100%, the beta-lactamases which were extracted from the transconjugants hydrolyzed CTX, CAZ and AZT at the rate of 38-95%, 0-8.6% and 0-56%, respectively. These results demonstrate that these enzymes should be categorized into ESBL. The nucleotide sequence of CTX-resistant gene was identified to that of the CTX-M2 gene which was first described in Argentina. It was found to have 99.9% homology to Toho-1 gene in Japan and 99.6% homology to CMY-2 gene. Using a PCR methods for the detection of one of ESBL gene such as CTX-M2, Toho-1 or CMY-2, the DNA was amplified from all strains (11 isolates of E. coli and 21 isolates of K. pneumoniae).

  17. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteria: understanding and guidelines for action.

    PubMed

    García-Tello, A; Gimbernat, H; Redondo, C; Arana, D M; Cacho, J; Angulo, J C

    2014-12-01

    Beta-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that protect microorganisms from the lethal effects of β-lactam antibiotics. The production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to these antibiotics, especially in Gram-negative bacteria. Review the magnitude of the problem of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in the urological setting and present the fundamental action guidelines on the issue, the main risk factors and the prevention strategies. A structured search strategy for patient, problem, intervention, comparison and result was conducted in the PubMed-Medline database to identify the most relevant studies related to the management of patients with urinary tract infection by ESBL-producing microorganisms. We also present a caseload analysis of our center on this issue. ESBL are found in Enterobacteria, mainly Klebsiella sp. and Escherichia coli and are characterized by their hydrolytic ability compared with beta-lactam antibiotics, which entails resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and aztreonam. They are also associated with resistance to other antibiotics. There is a high risk of infection and colonization by ESBL producers in patients with prolonged hospital stays or who required invasive devices. The prior use of antibiotics and stays in residential care are also risk factors. Prevention programs should focus on preventing nosocomial infection. It is essential that a restrictive policy on the use of antibiotics be implemented. The therapy of choice for severe infections is focused on carbapenems, although their indiscriminate use should be avoided. In uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are the best treatment alternatives. ESBL-producing strains constitute a true global health problem. Prevention strategies should focus on nosocomial infection. We should not forget, however, that the appearance of these pathogens in community-acquired infections is increasingly frequent. Therapeutic

  18. Co-occurrence of colistin-resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-3 among multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, Spain, September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Marta; Iglesias, M Rocío; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Gallardo, Alejandro; Quijada, Narciso M; Miguela-Villoldo, Pedro; Campos, Maria Jorge; Píriz, Segundo; López-Orozco, Gema; de Frutos, Cristina; Sáez, José Luis; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Colistin resistance genes mcr-3 and mcr-1 have been detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from cattle faeces in a Spanish slaughterhouse in 2015. The sequences of both genes hybridised to same plasmid band of ca 250 kb, although colistin resistance was non-mobilisable. The isolate was producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and belonged to serotype O9:H10 and sequence type ST533. Here we report an mcr-3 gene detected in Europe following earlier reports from Asia and the United States. PMID:28797328

  19. Co-occurrence of colistin-resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-3 among multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, Spain, September 2015.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Iglesias, M Rocío; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Gallardo, Alejandro; Quijada, Narciso; Miguela-Villoldo, Pedro; Campos, Maria Jorge; Píriz, Segundo; López-Orozco, Gema; de Frutos, Cristina; Sáez, José Luis; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto

    2017-08-03

    Colistin resistance genes mcr-3 and mcr-1 have been detected in an Escherichia coli isolate from cattle faeces in a Spanish slaughterhouse in 2015. The sequences of both genes hybridised to same plasmid band of ca 250 kb, although colistin resistance was non-mobilisable. The isolate was producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and belonged to serotype O9:H10 and sequence type ST533. Here we report an mcr-3 gene detected in Europe following earlier reports from Asia and the United States. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  20. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase with the Carbapenems Ertapenem and Doripenem

    SciTech Connect

    L Tremblay; F Fan; J Blanchard

    2011-12-31

    Despite the enormous success of {beta}-lactams as broad-spectrum antibacterials, they have never been widely used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) due to intrinsic resistance that is caused by the presence of a chromosomally encoded gene (blaC) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our previous studies of TB BlaC revealed that this enzyme is an extremely broad-spectrum {beta}-lactamase hydrolyzing all {beta}-lactam classes. Carbapenems are slow substrates that acylate the enzyme but are only slowly deacylated and can therefore act also as potent inhibitors of BlaC. We conducted the in vitro characterization of doripenem and ertapenem with BlaC. A steady-state kinetic burst was observed with both compounds with magnitudes proportional to the concentration of BlaC used. The results provide apparent K{sub m} and k{sub cat} values of 0.18 {micro}M and 0.016 min{sup -1} for doripenem and 0.18 {micro}M and 0.017 min{sup -1} for ertapenem, respectively. FTICR mass spectrometry demonstrated that the doripenem and ertapenem acyl-enzyme complexes remain stable over a time period of 90 min. The BlaC-doripenem covalent complex obtained after a 90 min soak was determined to 2.2 {angstrom}, while the BlaC-ertapenem complex obtained after a 90 min soak was determined to 2.0 {angstrom}. The 1.3 {angstrom} diffraction data from a 10 min ertapenem-soaked crystal revealed an isomerization occurring in the BlaC-ertapenem adduct in which the original {Delta}2-pyrroline ring was tautomerized to generate the {Delta}1-pyrroline ring. The isomerization leads to the flipping of the carbapenem hydroxyethyl group to hydrogen bond to carboxyl O2 of Glu166. The hydroxyethyl flip results in both the decreased basicity of Glu166 and a significant increase in the distance between carboxyl O2 of Glu166 and the catalytic water molecule, slowing hydrolysis.

  1. Stability of wild-type and mutant RTEM-1 beta-lactamases: effect of the disulfide bond.

    PubMed

    Schultz, S C; Dalbadie-McFarland, G; Neitzel, J J; Richards, J H

    1987-01-01

    Uniquely among class A beta-lactamases, the RTEM-1 and RTEM-2 enzymes contain a single disulfide bond between Cys 77 and Cys 123. To study the possible role of this naturally occurring disulfide in stabilizing RTEM-1 beta-lactamase and its mutants at residue 71, this bond was removed by introducing a Cys 77----Ser mutation. Both the wild-type enzyme and the single mutant Cys 77----Ser confer the same high levels of resistance to ampicillin in vivo to Escherichia coli; at 30 degrees C the specific activity of purified Cys 77----Ser mutant is also the same as that of the wild-type enzyme. Also, neither wild-type enzyme nor the Cys 77----Ser mutant is inactivated by brief exposure to p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. However, above 40 degrees C the mutant enzyme is less stable than wild-type enzyme. After introduction of the Cys 77----Ser mutation, none of the double mutants (containing the second mutations at residue 71) confer resistance to ampicillin in vivo at 37 degrees C; proteins with Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Pro, His, Cys, and Ser at residue 71 confer low levels of resistance to ampicillin in vivo at 30 degrees C. The use of electrophoretic blots stained with antibodies against beta-lactamase to analyze the relative quantities of mutant proteins in whole-cell extracts of E. coli suggests that all 19 of the doubly mutant enzymes are proteolyzed much more readily than their singly mutant analogues (at Thr 71) that contain a disulfide bond.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Reconstitution of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 metallo-[beta]-lactamase activity with copper

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, N.P.; Shaw, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria become resistant to [beta]-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins through the production of enzymes called [beta]-lactamases. The authors have successfully reconstituted the enzymatic activity of the metallo-[beta]-lactamase of Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 purified from an E. coli expression vector system by the addition of Cu(II) to the apoenzyme. This is the first report that copper supports catalytic activity in this enzyme. Maximal activity of the copper-reconstituted enzyme was achieved by a careful addition of a stoichiometric amount of CuSO[sub 4] to 200 [mu]M apoenzyme. Using either benzylpenicillin or cephalosporin C as the substrate, reconstitution of the activity by addition of copper to the apoenzyme resulted in the recovery of approximately 35% of the control activity of the native Zn(II) enzyme. In agreement with previous reports, in the presence of excess Cu(II), the preparation did not possess measurable catalytic activity. Electronic spectra of the copper-reconstituted enzyme displayed adsorption maxima at 394, 698 and 1,022 nm with extinction coefficients of 2,656, 55 and < 3 M[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]1] respectively. Circular dichorism spectra in the ultraviolent region (UVCD) of the copper-reconstituted enzyme were identical with those of the native Zn(II) enzyme. Addition of excess cephalosporin C to the copper-reconstituted enzyme caused a decrease of about 50% of the absorbance of the 394 nm band and the formation of a new feature at 350 nm.

  3. Incidence of class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Champagne-Ardenne (France): a 1 year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Brasme, L; Nordmann, P; Fidel, F; Lartigue, M F; Bajolet, O; Poirel, L; Forte, D; Vernet-Garnier, V; Madoux, J; Reveil, J C; Alba-Sauviat, C; Baudinat, I; Bineau, P; Bouquigny-Saison, C; Eloy, C; Lafaurie, C; Siméon, D; Verquin, J P; Noël, F; Strady, C; De Champs, C

    2007-11-01

    To assess the frequency and diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the Champagne-Ardenne region France, and to identify genetic elements associated with the bla(CTX-M) genes. During 2004, all the non-duplicate isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to ceftazidime and of Enterobacteriaceae intermediate or resistant to ceftazidime and/or cefotaxime, screening samples excluded, were collected in 10 public hospitals and 3 private clinics. bla genes were sequenced and bla(CTX-M) environment characterized by PCR mapping. In Enterobacteriaceae (138/21 861; 0.6%), ESBLs were predominantly TEM-24 (n = 52; 37.7%) and CTX-M-15 (n = 37; 26.8%). Three new enzymes were identified, CTX-M-61 (CTX-M-1 group), TEM- and SHV-type. A. baumannii (n = 5) produced VEB-1 and P. aeruginosa (n = 2) SHV-2a. ISEcp1 was detected in 22/27 strains, disrupted in 7 of them. The IS903-like element was downstream of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-16). ISCR1 was found upstream of bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-9), and ISCR1 and bla(CTX-M-2) were located on a sul1-type class 1 integron. In comparison with 2001-02, ESBL distribution among Enterobacteriaceae showed an increase in CTX-M-type (44.9% vs 3.7% P < 10(-7)) due to Escherichia coli CTX-M-15 and to the almost total disappearance of TEM-3 (0.9% vs 51.2%). E. coli was the most frequent species (50.0% vs 5.1% in 1998) despite a similar prevalence to that in 1998 (0.5% vs 0.2%). A careful detection of bla(CTX-M)-type spread to other species would help to anticipate clonal endemics such as those observed in Enterobacter aerogenes TEM-24.

  4. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, H; Lunguya, O; Muyembe, J-J; Glupczynski, Y; Jacobs, J

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla (ESBL) coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla (CTX-M) genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.

  5. Sequence of pNL194, a 79.3-kilobase IncN plasmid carrying the blaVIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Miriagou, V; Papagiannitsis, C C; Kotsakis, S D; Loli, A; Tzelepi, E; Legakis, N J; Tzouvelekis, L S

    2010-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of pNL194, a VIM-1-encoding plasmid, is described in this study. pNL194 (79,307 bp) comprised an IncN-characteristic segment (38,940 bp) and a mosaic structure (40,367 bp) including bla(VIM-1), aacA7, aadA1, aadA2, dfrA1, dfrA12, aphA1, strA, strB, and sul1. Tn1000 or Tn5501 insertion within fipA probably facilitated recruitment of additional mobile elements carrying resistance genes.

  6. Active-site mutants of beta-lactamase: use of an inactive double mutant to study requirements for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dalbadie-McFarland, G; Neitzel, J J; Richards, J H

    1986-01-28

    We have studied the catalytic activity and some other properties of mutants of Escherichia coli plasmid-encoded RTEM beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6) with all combinations of serine and threonine residues at the active-site positions 70 and 71. (All natural beta-lactamases have conserved serine-70 and threonine-71.) From the inactive double mutant Ser-70----Thr, Thr-71----Ser [Dalbadie-McFarland, G., Cohen, L. W., Riggs, A. D., Morin, C., Itakura, K., & Richards, J. H. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 6409-6413], an active revertant, Thr-71----Ser (i.e., residue 70 in the double mutant had changed from threonine to the serine conserved at position 70 in the wild-type enzyme), was isolated by an approach that allows identification of active revertants in the absence of a background of wild-type enzyme. This mutant (Thr-71----Ser) has about 15% of the catalytic activity of wild-type beta-lactamase. The other possible mutant involving serine and threonine residues at positions 70 and 71 (Ser-70----Thr) shows no catalytic activity. The primary nucleophiles of a serine or a cysteine residue [Sigal, I. S., Harwood, B. G., & Arentzen, R. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7157-7160] at position 70 thus seem essential for enzymatic activity. Compared to wild-type enzyme, all three mutants show significantly reduced resistance to proteolysis; for the active revertant (Thr-71----Ser), we have also observed reduced thermal stability and reduced resistance to denaturation by urea.

  7. B1-Metallo-beta-Lactamases: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Maria F.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Fast, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-beta-Lactamases (MBLs) are class B β-lactamases that hydrolyze almost all clinically-available β-lactam antibiotics. MBLs feature the distinctive αβ/βα sandwich fold of the metallo-hydrolase / oxidoreductase superfamily and possess a shallow active-site groove containing one or two divalent zinc ions, flanked by flexible loops. According to sequence identity and zinc ion dependence, MBLs are classified into three subclasses (B1, B2 and B3), of which the B1 subclass enzymes have emerged as the most clinically significant. Differences among the active site architectures, the nature of zinc ligands, and the catalytic mechanisms have limited the development of a common inhibitor. In this review, we will describe the molecular epidemiology and structural studies of the most prominent representatives of class B1 MBLs (NDM-1, IMP-1 and VIM-2) and describe the implications for inhibitor design to counter this growing clinical threat. PMID:26424398

  8. Veterinary Hospital Dissemination of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli ST410 in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Timofte, Dorina; Maciuca, Iuliana Elena; Williams, Nicola J; Wattret, Andrew; Schmidt, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    We characterized extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in 32 Escherichia coli extended spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant clinical isolates from UK companion animals from several clinics. In addition, to investigate the possible dissemination of ESBL clinical isolates within a veterinary hospital, two ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from a dog with septic peritonitis and a cluster of environmental ESC-resistant E. coli isolates obtained from the same clinic and during the same time period, as these two particular ESBL-positive clinical isolates, were also included in the study. Molecular characterization identified blaCTX-M to be the most prevalent gene in ESC-resistant isolates, where 66% and 27% of clinical isolates carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14, respectively. The only PMQR gene detected was aac(6')-Ib-cr, being found in 34% of the ESC E. coli isolates and was associated with the carriage of blaCTX-M-15. The clinical and environmental isolates investigated for hospital dissemination had a common ESBL/AmpC phenotype, carried blaCTX-M-15, and co-harbored blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1, blaCMY-2, and aac(6')-Ib-cr. Multilocus sequence typing identified them all as ST410, while pulse-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated 100% homology of clinical and environmental isolates, suggesting hospital environmental dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST410.

  9. Escherichia coli-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15 in a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    PubMed

    Klimes, Jiri; Machalkova, Marketa; Dolejska, Monika; Cizek, Alois; Janoszowska, Dagmar; Alexa, Pavel; Albrechtova, Katerina; Vojtech, Jiri; Literak, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Only a few reports exist on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in zoo animals. Therefore, an isolation of multiresistant Escherichia coli from the lungs of a captive South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) lead to its characterization and further investigation of samples from animals inhabiting the same paddock and from the shared environment. The tapir suffered from an intermandibular abscess and pneumonia and was euthanatized after unsuccessful therapy, including administration of antibiotics. The authors performed selective isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli strains and identification of resistance genes using polymerase chain reaction. Seven multiresistant, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were obtained, all belonging to the B2 phylogenetic group and showing identical profile on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These isolates carried several resistance genes, including the gene bla(CTX-M-15). This case demonstrates the transmission of related epidemiologically important E. coli isolates whose potential transmission to other animals and zoo staff can be assumed.

  10. 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate as a probe for the classification of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    De Meester, F; Frère, J M; Waley, S G; Cartwright, S J; Virden, R; Lindberg, F

    1986-01-01

    An inactivator of serine beta-lactamases, 6 beta-iodopenicillanate, can be utilized as a probe in the classification of beta-lactamases. It is a substrate for class-B Zn2+-containing beta-lactamase II. Although it inactivates enzymes from both classes A and C, it is much more efficient for the former group, with which it sometimes interacts following a branched pathway. On the basis of these observations, predictions are made concerning the class to which several enzymes belong. PMID:3030266

  11. Characterization of a beta-lactamase produced in Mycobacterium fortuitum D316.

    PubMed Central

    Amicosante, G; Franceschini, N; Segatore, B; Oratore, A; Fattorini, L; Orefici, G; Van Beeumen, J; Frere, J M

    1990-01-01

    A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 was purified and some physico-chemical properties and substrate profile determined. On the basis of its N-terminal sequence and of its sensitivity to beta-iodopenicillanate inactivation, the enzyme appeared to be a class A beta-lactamase, but its substrate profile was quite unexpected, since nine cephalosporins were among the eleven best substrates. The enzyme also hydrolysed ureidopenicillins and some so-called 'beta-lactamase-stable' cephalosporins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2123098

  12. Monitoring and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli strains from healthy and sick animals in Spain in 2003.

    PubMed

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Teshager, Tirushet; Sáenz, Yolanda; Porrero, María Concepción; Domínguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2005-03-01

    Genes encoding CTX-M-14, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-32, SHV-12, TEM-52, or CMY-2 beta-lactamases were detected in 21 Escherichia coli strains recovered during 2003 from sick animals (11 of 459 [2.4%] strains) and healthy animals (10 of 158 [6.3%] strains) in Spain. Twelve of these strains harbored bla(CTX-M) genes and showed unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.

  13. In vitro potentiation of carbapenems with ME1071, a novel metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitor, against metallo-beta-lactamase- producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshikazu; Eto, Maki; Mano, Yoko; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    ME1071, a maleic acid derivative, is a novel specific inhibitor for metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL). In this study, the potentiation of ME1071 in combination with several beta-lactams was evaluated using MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The rates of susceptibility of MBL producers to carbapenems (imipenem, biapenem, and doripenem) and ceftazidime were increased by 8 to 27% in the presence of 32 microg/ml of ME1071. The corresponding resistance rates were decreased by 13 to 46%, respectively. On the other hand, ME1071 showed weaker or no potentiation with non-MBL producers. The K(i) value of ME1071 for IMP-1 was 0.4 microM, significantly lower than the K(m) values of carbapenems for the IMP-1 enzyme. On the other hand, the K(i) value of ME1071 for VIM-2 was 120 microM, higher than the K(m) values of carbapenems for the VIM-2 enzyme. Results of this study indicate that ME1071 can potentiate the activity of ceftazidime and carbapenems against MBL-producing strains of P. aeruginosa.

  14. Insertional activation of cepA leads to high-level beta-lactamase expression in Bacteroides fragilis clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. B.; Bennett, T. K.; Payne, C. M.; Smith, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an important opportunistic pathogen of humans and is resistant to many drugs commonly used to treat anaerobic infections, including beta-lactams. A strain set comprised of B. fragilis isolates producing either low or high levels of the endogenous cephalosporinase activity, CepA, has been described previously (M. B. Rogers, A. C. Parker, and C. J. Smith, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:2391-2400, 1993). Clones containing cepA genes from each of seven representative strains were isolated, and the DNA sequences were determined. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that there were few differences between the cepA coding sequences of the low- and high-activity strains. The cepA coding sequences were cloned into an expression vector, pFD340, and analyzed in a B. fragilis 638 cepA mutant. The results of beta-lactamase assays and ampicillin MICs showed that there was no significant difference in the enzymatic activity of structural genes from the high- or low-activity strains. Comparison of sequences upstream of the cepA coding region revealed that 50 bp prior to the translation start codon, the sequence for high-activity strains change dramatically. This region of the high-activity strains shared extensive homology with IS21, suggesting that an insertion was responsible for the increased expression of cepA in these isolates. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of total RNA by using cepA-specific DNA probes supported the idea that differential cepA expression in low- and high-activity strains was controlled at the level of transcription. However, the insertion did not alter the cepA transcription start site, which occurred 27 bp upstream of the ATG translation start codon in both expression classes. Possible mechanisms of cepA activation are discussed. Images PMID:7517394

  15. Kinetic properties of four plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Bauvois, Cédric; Ibuka, Akiko Shimizu; Celso, Almeida; Alba, Jimena; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Frère, Jean-Marie; Galleni, Moreno

    2005-10-01

    The heterologous production in Escherichia coli, the purification, and the kinetic characterization of four plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamases (ACT-1, MIR-1, CMY-2, and CMY-1) were performed. Except for their instability, these enzymes are very similar to the known chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamases. Their kinetic parameters did not show major differences from those obtained for the corresponding chromosomal enzymes. However, the K(m) values of CMY-2 for cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and oxacillin were significantly decreased compared to those of the chromosomal AmpC enzymes. Finally, the susceptibility patterns of different E. coli hosts producing a plasmid- or a chromosome-encoded class C enzyme toward beta-lactam antibiotics are mainly due to the overproduction of the beta-lactamase in the periplasmic space of the bacteria rather than to a specific catalytic profile of the plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases.

  16. The production and molecular properties of the zinc beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas maltophilia IID 1275.

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, R; Emanuel, E L; Gagnon, J; Waley, S G

    1985-01-01

    The production and purification of a tetrameric zinc beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas maltophilia IID 1275 were greatly improved. Three charge variants were isolated by chromatofocusing. The subunits each contain two atomic proportions of zinc and (in two of the variants) one residue of cysteine. The thiol group is not required for activity, nor does it appear to bind to the metal. Replacement of zinc by cobalt, cadmium or nickel takes place at a measurable rate, and gives enzymes that are less active than the zinc enzyme. The properties of this enzyme differ from those of the other known zinc beta-lactamase, beta-lactamase II from Bacillus cereus. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal 32 residues was determined; there is no similarity to the N-terminal sequences of other beta-lactamases. PMID:3931629

  17. Family disintegration: one fusarium verticillioides beta-lactamase at a time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium verticillioides is a mycotoxigenic fungus found commonly on maize, where it primarily exhibits asymptomatic endophytic growth. The F. verticillioides genome possesses approximately 30 regions that potentially encode beta-lactamase enzymatic domains. These enzymes are classically involved ...

  18. The synthesis and SAR of rhodanines as novel class C beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Grant, E B; Guiadeen, D; Baum, E Z; Foleno, B D; Jin, H; Montenegro, D A; Nelson, E A; Bush, K; Hlasta, D J

    2000-10-02

    Beta-lactam antibiotics such as the cephalosporins and penicillins have diminished clinical effectiveness due to the hydrolytic activity of diverse beta-lactamases, especially those in molecular classes A and C. A structure activity relationship (SAR) study of a high-throughput screening lead resulted in the discovery of a potent and selective non-beta-lactam inhibitor of class C beta-lactamases.

  19. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  20. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    PubMed

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  1. Detection of a variant metallo-beta-lactamase, IMP-10, from two unrelated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an alcaligenes xylosoxidans strain.

    PubMed

    Iyobe, Shizuko; Kusadokoro, Haruko; Takahashi, Ayako; Yomoda, Sachie; Okubo, Toyoji; Nakamura, Akio; O'Hara, Koji

    2002-06-01

    The gene bla(IMP-10) of a variant metallo-beta-lactamase, IMP-10, had a single base replacement of G by T at nucleotide 145, which led to an amino acid alteration of Val49 to Phe compared to the IMP-1 enzyme, indicating that IMP-10 was a point mutation derivative of IMP-1. Highly purified enzymes revealed that IMP-10 was different from IMP-1 in its extremely low hydrolyzing activities for penicillins, such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and piperacillin.

  2. Structural Milestones in the Reaction Pathway of an Amide Hydrolase: Substrate, Acyl, and Product Complexes of Cephalothin with AmpC [beta]-Lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Trehan, Indi; Focia, Pamela J.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2010-03-05

    {beta}-lactamases hydrolyze {beta}-lactam antibiotics and are the leading cause of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Although {beta}-lactamases have been extensively studied, structures of the substrate-enzyme and product-enzyme complexes have proven elusive. Here, the structure of a mutant AmpC in complex with the {beta}-lactam cephalothin in its substrate and product forms was determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.53 {angstrom} resolution. The acyl-enzyme intermediate between AmpC and cephalothin was determined to 2.06 {angstrom} resolution. The ligand undergoes a dramatic conformational change as the reaction progresses, with the characteristic six-membered dihydrothiazine ring of cephalothin rotating by 109{sup o}. These structures correspond to all three intermediates along the reaction path and provide insight into substrate recognition, catalysis, and product expulsion.

  3. Prevalence and genotypes of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human stool and chicken meat in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Belmar Campos, Cristina; Fenner, Ines; Wiese, Nicole; Lensing, Carmen; Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Aepfelbacher, Martin; Fenner, Thomas; Hentschke, Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Chicken meat has been proposed to constitute a source for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae that colonize and infect humans. In this study the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool samples from ambulatory patients who presented in the emergency department of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf with gastrointestinal complains and in chicken meat samples from the Hamburg region were analysed and compared with respect to ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance profiles. Twenty-nine (4.1%) of 707 stool samples and 72 (60%) of 120 chicken meat samples were positive for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The distribution of ESBL genes in the stool vs. chicken meat isolates (given as % of total isolates from stool vs. chicken meat) was as follows: CTX-M-15 (38% vs. 0%), CTX-M-14 (17% vs. 6%), CTX-M-1 (17% vs. 69%), SHV-12 (3% vs. 18%) and TEM-52 (3% each). Comparison of ESBL- and multilocus sequence type revealed no correlation between isolates of human and chicken. Furthermore, ESBL-producing E. coli from stool samples were significantly more resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than chicken isolates. The differences in ESBL-genotypes, sequence types and antibiotic resistance patterns indicate that in our clinical setting chicken meat is not a major contributor to human colonization with ESBL-carrying Enterobacteriaceae.

  4. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Dayna M; Schmidt, John W

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact" environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar prevalences

  5. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Dayna M.; Schmidt, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two “low impact” environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar

  6. Structures of the Michaelis Complex (1.2A) and the Covalent Acyl Intermediate (2.0A ) of Cefamandole Bound in the Active Sites of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase K72A and E166A Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    L Tremblay; h Xu; J Blanchard

    2011-12-31

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) contains a gene that encodes a highly active {beta}-lactamase, BlaC, that imparts TB with resistance to {beta}-lactam chemotherapy. The structure of covalent BlaC-{beta}-lactam complexes suggests that active site residues K73 and E166 are essential for acylation and deacylation, respectively. We have prepared the K73A and E166A mutant forms of BlaC and have determined the structures of the Michaelis complex of cefamandole and the covalently bound acyl intermediate of cefamandole at resolutions of 1.2 and 2.0 {angstrom}, respectively. These structures provide insight into the details of the catalytic mechanism.

  7. The amino acid sequence of the zinc-requiring beta-lactamase II from the bacterium Bacillus cereus 569.

    PubMed

    Ambler, R P; Daniel, M; Fleming, J; Hermoso, J M; Pang, C; Waley, S G

    1985-09-23

    The amino acid sequence of the zinc-requiring beta-lactamase II from Bacillus cereus strain 569 has been determined. It consists of a single polypeptide chain of 227 residues. It is the only example so far fully characterized of a class B beta-lactamase, and is structurally and mechanistically distinct from both the widely distributed class A beta-lactamases (such as the Escherichia coli RTEM enzyme) and from the chromosomally encoded class C enzymes from Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases of Citrobacter diversus. Interaction with beta-iodopenicillanate and labelling of the active site.

    PubMed Central

    Amicosante, G; Oratore, A; Joris, B; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Van Beeumen, J

    1988-01-01

    Both forms of the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Citrobacter diversus react with beta-iodopenicillanate at a rate characteristic of class A beta-lactamases. The active site of form I was labelled with the same reagent. The sequence of the peptide obtained after trypsin hydrolysis is identical with that of a peptide obtained in a similar manner from the chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase of Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:2848500

  9. Evolutionary perspectives on multiresistance beta-lactamase transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, M; Couture, F; Vézina, G; Levesque, R C

    1989-01-01

    A series of intragenic DNA probes, encoding the major part of the transposase resolvase and inverted repeats of transposons Tn3, Tn21, and Tn2501, were used in hybridization assays for homologous DNA sequences in 18 transposons studied. The tnpA and tnpR probes detected extensive homology with Tn3-like and Tn21-like elements for 11 transposons. This high degree of homology was confirmed with the 38- and 48-base-pair inverted-repeat oligonucleotide probes of Tn3, Tn21, and Tn2501. The Southern-type gel hybridization experiments localized the tnpA-homologous sequences on the physical DNA maps constructed. The genetic and physical maps of the transposons were compared, as were their nucleic acid sequence homologies. These comparisons suggested a subfamily of mobile elements distinct from but related to the Tn21 group. Based on these results, an evolutionary model is proposed and a pedigree is presented for the genesis of multiresistance beta-lactamase transposons. Images PMID:2556363

  10. Concomitant detection of biofilm and metallo-beta-lactamases production in gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Singhai, Monil; Rawat, Vinita; Goyal, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenems are mainstay of treating serious multidrug resistant gram-negative biofilm-based infections. However, recent emergence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MbL) producing gram-negative bacilli in different parts of world may be related to gain of virulence factors associated with biofilm production. To explore the association of MbL and biofilm production in various gram-negative bacilli. In this study, 110 non-repetitive ceftazidime resistant gram-negative bacilli were evaluated for biofilm and MβL production. Biofilm forming ability of isolates obtained from various specimens was tested by the tube method. Disks of ceftazidime (30 μg) and ceftazidime with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (30 μg + 750 μg, prepared in house) for MβL detection were used. Chi-square test was used to study the association between biofilm and MβL production. P value <0.05 was considered significant. 88 (80%) bacilli had shown biofilm producing ability. The association of biofilm and MβL was significant in cases of non-fermenters as compared to enterobacteriaceae members. The particular combination of virulence factors (biofilm and MβL) in bacteria may be a species specific effect which needs to be investigated at molecular level in detail. This may help in designing newer therapies based on interference with biofilm formation and thus countering clinical episodes of antibiotic resistance.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Colonization Rates with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Four Swiss Refugee Centres.

    PubMed

    Piso, Rein Jan; Käch, Roman; Pop, Roxana; Zillig, Daniela; Schibli, Urs; Bassetti, Stefano; Meinel, Dominik; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The recent crisis of refugees seeking asylum in European countries challenges public health on many levels. Most refugees currently arrive from Syria, Afghanistan, or Eritrea. Data about multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) prevalence are not present for these countries. However, when entering the European heath care systems, data about colonisation rates regarding highly resistant bacterial pathogens are important. We performed a cross-sectional screening in four Swiss refugee centres to determine the colonization rates for MRSA and ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We used pharyngeal, nasal, and inguinal swabs for MRSA and rectal swabs and urine for ESBL and carbapenemase screening using standard microbiological procedures. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to determine the relatedness of MRSA isolates with high resolution due to a suspected outbreak. 41/261(15.7%) refugees were colonized with MRSA. No differences regarding the country of origin were observed. However, in a single centre significantly more were colonized, which was confirmed to be a recent local outbreak. 57/241 (23.7%) refugees were colonized with ESBL with significantly higher colonisation in persons originating from the Middle East (35.1%, p<0.001). No carbapenemase producers were detected. The colonisation rate of the refugees was about 10 times higher for MRSA and 2-5 times higher for ESBL compared to the Swiss population. Contact precaution is warranted for these persons if they enter medical care. In cases of infections, MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should be considered regarding antibiotic treatment choices.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Colonization Rates with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Four Swiss Refugee Centres

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Roxana; Zillig, Daniela; Schibli, Urs; Bassetti, Stefano; Meinel, Dominik; Egli, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Background The recent crisis of refugees seeking asylum in European countries challenges public health on many levels. Most refugees currently arrive from Syria, Afghanistan, or Eritrea. Data about multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) prevalence are not present for these countries. However, when entering the European heath care systems, data about colonisation rates regarding highly resistant bacterial pathogens are important. Methods We performed a cross-sectional screening in four Swiss refugee centres to determine the colonization rates for MRSA and ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We used pharyngeal, nasal, and inguinal swabs for MRSA and rectal swabs and urine for ESBL and carbapenemase screening using standard microbiological procedures. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to determine the relatedness of MRSA isolates with high resolution due to a suspected outbreak. Results 41/261(15.7%) refugees were colonized with MRSA. No differences regarding the country of origin were observed. However, in a single centre significantly more were colonized, which was confirmed to be a recent local outbreak. 57/241 (23.7%) refugees were colonized with ESBL with significantly higher colonisation in persons originating from the Middle East (35.1%, p<0.001). No carbapenemase producers were detected. Conclusion The colonisation rate of the refugees was about 10 times higher for MRSA and 2–5 times higher for ESBL compared to the Swiss population. Contact precaution is warranted for these persons if they enter medical care. In cases of infections, MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should be considered regarding antibiotic treatment choices. PMID:28085966

  13. A class-A beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas stutzeri that is highly active against monobactams and cefotaxime.

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, N; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Oratore, A; Amicosante, G

    1993-01-01

    A beta-lactamase produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri was purified to protein homogeneity, and its physicochemical and catalytic properties were determined. Its profile was unusual since, in addition to penicillins, the enzyme hydrolysed second- and third-generation 'beta-lactamase-stable' cephalosporins and monobactams with similar efficiencies. On the basis of the characteristics of the interaction with beta-iodopenicillanic acid, the enzyme could be classified as a class-A beta-lactamase. However, when compared with most class-A beta-lactamases, it exhibited significantly lower kcat./Km values for the compounds usually considered to be the best substrates of these enzymes. PMID:8318000

  14. Extended-Spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter aerogenes phenotypically misidentified as Klebsiella pneumoniae or K. terrigena.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Geert; De Baere, Thierry; Wauters, Georges; Vandecandelaere, Patricia; Verschraegen, Gerda; Muylaert, An; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2004-12-24

    Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae are common isolates in clinical microbiology and important as producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). The discrimination between both species, which is routinely based on biochemical characteristics, is generally accepted to be straightforward. Here we report that genotypically unrelated strains of E. aerogenes can be misidentified as K. pneumoniae by routine laboratories using standard biochemical identification and using identification automates. Ten clinical isolates, identified as K. pneumoniae or K. terrigena with the routinely used biochemical tests and with API-20E, were identified as E. aerogenes by tDNA-PCR - an identification that was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing for five of these isolates. Misidentification also occurred when using the automated identification systems Vitek 2 and Phoenix, and was due to delayed positivity for ornithine decarboxylase and motility. Subculture and prolonged incubation resulted in positive results for ornithine decarboxylase and for motility. It could be shown by RAPD-analysis that the E. aerogenes strains belonged to different genotypes. Clinical E. aerogenes isolates can be easily misidentified as Klebsiella due to delayed positivity for ornithine decarboxylase and motility. The phenomenon may be widespread, since it was shown to occur among genotypically unrelated strains from different hospitals and different isolation dates. A useful clue for correct identification is the presence of an inducible beta-lactamase, which is highly unusual for K. pneumoniae. In several instances, the use of genotypic techniques like tDNA-PCR may circumvent problems of phenotypic identification.

  15. TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a scaffold for protein recognition and assay.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Daniel; Vucic, Bénédicte; Hougardy, Vincent; Girboux, Anne-Lise; Henrioul, Christophe; Van Haute, Julien; Soumillion, Patrice; Fastrez, Jacques

    2002-06-01

    A large number of different proteins or protein domains have been investigated as possible scaffolds to engineer antibody-like molecules. We have previously shown that the TEM-1 beta-lactamase can accommodate insertions of random sequences in two loops surrounding its active site without compromising its activity. From the libraries that were generated, active enzymes binding with high affinities to monoclonal antibodies raised against prostate-specific antigen, a protein unrelated to beta-lactamase, could be isolated. Antibody binding was shown to affect markedly the enzyme activity. As a consequence, these enzymes have the potential to be used as signaling molecules in direct or competitive homogeneous immunoassay. Preliminary results showed that beta-lactamase clones binding to streptavidin could also be isolated, indicating that some enzymes in the libraries have the ability to recognize proteins other than antibodies. In this paper, we show that, in addition to beta-lactamases binding to streptavidin, beta-lactamase clones binding to horse spleen ferritin and beta-galactosidase could be isolated. Affinity maturation of a clone binding to ferritin allowed obtaining beta-lactamases with affinities comprised between 10 and 20 nM (Kd) for the protein. Contrary to what was observed for beta-lactamases issued from selections on antibodies, enzyme complexation induced only a modest effect on enzyme activity, in the three cases studied. This kind of enzyme could prove useful in replacement of enzyme-conjugated antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) or in other applications that use antibodies conjugated to an enzyme.

  16. Characteristics of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Ran; Park, Yoon Soo; Pai, Hyunjoo

    2010-01-01

    Quinolone resistance is frequently associated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. The characteristics of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnr genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA] in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin were studied. 5 and 4 of 95 E. coli isolates but 46 (86/187) and 6% (12/187) of K. pneumoniae had qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr, respectively, and 8 K. pneumoniae contained both genes.qepA was not identified. qnrB, especially qnrB4, was the predominant qnr subtype in K. pneumoniae [94 (88 qnrB of 94 qnr) and 88% (77 qnrB4 of 88 qnrB), respectively], and presence of qnrB4 was closely related with DHA-1 beta-lactamase (99%). However, K. pneumoniae isolates with qnrB4 and bla(DHA-1) were clonally diverse. beta-Lactamases produced by PMQR-containing isolates were variable: CMY-1, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-15, DHA-1, OXA type, SHV-2a, and SHV-12. PMQR genes are widely distributed among clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, and qnrB4 associated with bla(DHA-1) was the most common PMQR gene in Korea. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Detection and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among bloodstream isolates of Enterobacter spp. in Hong Kong, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Shek, Ricky H L; Chow, K H; Duan, R S; Mak, Gannon C; Lai, Eileen L; Yam, W C; Tsang, Kenneth W; Lai, W M

    2005-03-01

    A total of 139 consecutive and non-duplicate bloodstream isolates of Enterobacter spp. collected from inpatients in Hong Kong during 2000-2002 were studied for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). All isolates were evaluated by the modified double-disc synergy test (m-DDST), the combined disc method (CDM) and the three-dimensional (3D) test. The m-DDST and CDM were modified by the use of cefepime discs. beta-Lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing and PCR sequencing using specific primers. ESBLs were identified in nine isolates (overall 6.5%), including seven of 39 (17.9%) Enterobacter hormaechei, one of 27 (3.7%) Enterobacter aerogenes and the only Enterobacter intermedius strain. The E. intermedius strain was positive only in the 3D test but not in the other two tests. The other eight strains were positive in all three tests. No ESBL was detected in the other species, including non-hormaechei members of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=61), Enterobacter agglomerans (n=7), Enterobacter gergoviae (n=4) and Enterobacter sakazakii (n=1). The ESBL content included five different CTX-M enzymes (CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-24 and a novel CTX-M-2-like beta-lactamase), SHV-12 (n=2) and unidentifiable ESBLs with a pI of 7.7 or 7.9 in two strains. The seven ESBL-producing E. hormaechei were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and were found to be unrelated to each other. In three of the CTX-M-producing strains, ISEcp1-like elements, including promoters for the beta-lactamase gene, were found. Our data underscore the diversity of CTX-M enzymes among Enterobacter spp. in Hong Kong.

  18. Draft genome sequence analysis of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated in 2013 from humans and chickens in Nigeria.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of nine multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from humans (n=6) and chicken carcass (n=3) from Lagos, Nigeria in 2013. Multiple extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes were identified in these isolates. ...

  19. Coevolutionary Landscape Inference and the Context-Dependence of Mutations in Beta-Lactamase TEM-1

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, Matteo; Jacquier, Hervé; Schug, Alexander; Tenaillon, Oliver; Weigt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of mutational landscapes is a task of outstanding importance in evolutionary and medical biology: It is, for example, of central importance for our understanding of the phenotypic effect of mutations related to disease and antibiotic drug resistance. Here we develop a novel inference scheme for mutational landscapes, which is based on the statistical analysis of large alignments of homologs of the protein of interest. Our method is able to capture epistatic couplings between residues, and therefore to assess the dependence of mutational effects on the sequence context where they appear. Compared with recent large-scale mutagenesis data of the beta-lactamase TEM-1, a protein providing resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics, our method leads to an increase of about 40% in explicative power as compared with approaches neglecting epistasis. We find that the informative sequence context extends to residues at native distances of about 20 Å from the mutated site, reaching thus far beyond residues in direct physical contact. PMID:26446903

  20. [THE APPLICATION OF SELECTIVE CHROMOGENIC AGAR FOR DETECTING ENTEROBACTERIA WITH PRODUCTION OF BETA-LACTAMASES].

    PubMed

    Korobova, A G; Frolova, L N; Kliasova, G A

    2015-11-01

    The detection of enterobacteria with production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum in selective chromogenic agar was analyzed The results ofdetection of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum was compared with "double disc" technique. The smears from mucous membrane of guttur and rectum from patients were analyzed in parallel on solid growth agar (Endo or Mac Conkey) and on selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL (CHROMagar France). The production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum was confirmed using "double discs" technique. To exclude hyper-production of ampC beta-lactamases E-test was applied containing cefotetan and cefotetan with cloxacillin. The sampling consisted of 1552 samples from patients. The study permitted to isolate 1243 strains of enterobacteria on agar Endo or Mac Conkey and 409 strains of enterobacteria on selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL (Escherichia coli n = 226, Klebsiella pneumoniae n = 105, enterobacter spp. n = 35, Citrobacter spp. n = 21, others n = 22). The application of "double discs" technique confirmed production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum in 386 (94%) out of 409 strains isolated on agar CHROMagartm ESBL. In 23 (6%) of strains no confirmation was established and hyper-production of ampC of beta-lactamases was established 15 out of total. Additionally, 8 were sensitive to cephalosporin of third generation. All enterobacteria isolated on agar Endo or Mac Conkey also were tested by "double discs" technique. Overall, 394 strains of enterobacteria with production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum were obtained. On all agars (agar Endo or Mac Conkey and CHROMagartm ESBL)--263 (67%) strains; only on CHROMagartm ESBL--123 (31%) and only on agar Endo or Mac Conkey--8 (2%) (p < 0.0001). The sensitivity of selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL made up to 98% and specificity--97%. The resolution about detection of enterobacteria producing beta-lactamases of extended spectrum were submitted to clinic in 18-24 hours after arrival

  1. The use of analytical isoelectric focusing for detection and identification of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Mathew, A; Harris, A M; Marshall, M J; Ross, G W

    1975-05-01

    BETA-Lactamases (EC. 3.5.2.6) from strains of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied using analytical isoelectric focusing. This permits a visual comparison of the patterns of beta-lactamase bands produced by enzymes from different organisms. Purification of crude intracellular preparations is unnecessary and the technique is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate beta-lactamase in mutants previously reported to lack the enzyme. R that have not been distinguished from one another biochemically or immunologically can be differentiated by isoelectric focusing. Conversely, the enzymes specified by the R factors RTEM, R1 and RGN14, with identical isoelectric focusing patterns have the same biochemical properties. Chromosomal and R-factor-mediated beta-lactamases from single strains have been separated and their identities confirmed by immunoisoelectric focusing. R factor-mediated enzymes gave identical isoelectric focusing patterns irrespective of the host strain. Isoelectric focusing can therefore be used to observe the transfer of beta-lactamases carried by R factors.

  2. Development of a method for the detection of beta-lactamases in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shenghui; Li, Jingyun; Hu, Changqin; Jin, Shaohong; Ma, Yue

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the dairy industry and the establishment of strict antimicrobial residue limits in the People's Republic of China's (PRC) milk supply, a beta-lactamase product known as "antimicrobial destroyer" was introduced into dairy production without regulatory review. We developed a method for detecting this product in milk samples based on a modified cylinder plate method. The presence of beta-lactamase is defined as a difference between the inhibitory zones of the test samples (supplemented with 25 microg/mL sulbactam plus 0.5 microg/mL penicillin G) and control samples (supplemented only with 0.5 microg/mL penicillin G) > or = 3 mm. Using this method, 77 individually packaged milk samples were randomly collected from 5 retail stores in 3 cities over a 4-month period (May to August 2006). Of the 77 samples, 49 were found to be beta-lactamase-positive. In 2 undiluted milk samples showing extremely high beta-lactamase activity, 25 microg/mL sulbactam could not inhibit penicillin G activity. Because there is a lack of safety data on beta-lactamases in milk products, these data indicated a potentially serious safety concern for the dairy industry in the PRC.

  3. Expression and some properties of beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, L; Oliva, B; Orefici, G

    1986-01-01

    Several species of mycobacteria have been reported to produce beta-lactamases, but only those of M. smegmatis have been purified and partially characterized. This study is a preliminary report of the presence of beta-lactamase activity in M. fortuitum, strain Cow 18. A partial purification of the beta-lactamase has also been achieved. M. fortuitum was grown in either Sauton or glucose-yeast extract medium (GYM) and sonicated cells or culture filtrates were assessed for the presence of beta-lactamase activity using a chromogenic compound (PADAC) as substrate. Cells growing in GYM medium released a detectable amount of enzyme, whereas microorganisms showed only intracellular beta-lactamase activity. The enzyme present in the culture filtrate of M. fortuitum Cow 18 was concentrated by Amicon ultrafiltration and partially purified through Sephadex G-75 and QAE-Sephadex A-50 ion exchanger columns. The spectrum of activity of this enzyme included some cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin) and some penicillins, the hydrolysis of the former being generally more pronounced. Furthermore, cefoxitin, ceftazidime and cefotaxime were not hydrolysed.

  4. Evaluation of Zataria MultiFlora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, F.; Taherpour, A.; Borhan, R.S.; Hashemi, A.; Habibi, M.; Sajadi Nia, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Carbapenem resistance due to acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is considered to be more serious than other resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum plants on IMP-producing P.aeruginosa strains. This experimental study was carried out on hospitalized burn patients during 2011 and 2012. Antibiotics and extracts susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. MBL detection was performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Using Combination Disk Diffusion test method, it was found that among 83 imipenem resistant P.aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) were MBL producers. PCR and sequencing methods proved that these isolates were positive for blaIMP-1 genes, whereas none were positive for bla(VIM) genes. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients with MBL-producing Pseudomonas infection was 4/48 (8.3%). It was shown that Zataria multiflora and Carum copticum extracts had a high antibacterial effect on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains in 6.25 mg/ml concentration. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients is very high. In our study, all MBL-producing isolates carry the blaIMP-1 gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa, and in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of Z. multiflora and C. copticum have high antibacterial effects on ß-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains. PMID:24799849

  5. Evaluation of Zataria MultiFlora Boiss and Carum copticum antibacterial activity on IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Fallah, F; Taherpour, A; Borhan, R S; Hashemi, A; Habibi, M; Sajadi Nia, R

    2013-12-31

    Carbapenem resistance due to acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) is considered to be more serious than other resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Carum copticum plants on IMP-producing P.aeruginosa strains. This experimental study was carried out on hospitalized burn patients during 2011 and 2012. Antibiotics and extracts susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. MBL detection was performed by Combination Disk Diffusion Test (CDDT). The bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) genes were detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Using Combination Disk Diffusion test method, it was found that among 83 imipenem resistant P.aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) were MBL producers. PCR and sequencing methods proved that these isolates were positive for blaIMP-1 genes, whereas none were positive for bla(VIM) genes. The mortality rate of hospitalized patients with MBL-producing Pseudomonas infection was 4/48 (8.3%). It was shown that Zataria multiflora and Carum copticum extracts had a high antibacterial effect on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains in 6.25 mg/ml concentration. The incidence of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients is very high. In our study, all MBL-producing isolates carry the blaIMP-1 gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa, and in prevention and control of infections. In this study, it was shown that extracts of Z. multiflora and C. copticum have high antibacterial effects on ß-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa strains.

  6. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Kabiru O; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Alafe, Olajide O; Mudashiru, Sulaiman A; Fakorede, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients. Methods Patients (158 total) made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment. Results Thirty-five (25.9%) Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7%) were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7%) S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05). A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8%) Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8%) of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2%) isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co-transferred with cefotaxime and augmentin resistance to Escherichia coli j53-2 transconjugants. Conclusion This study revealed the emergence of blaCTX-M-I S. typhi as an agent of persistent pyrexia with potential to spread to other Enterobacteriaceae in Lagos, Nigeria. Cautionary

  7. Biochemical characterization of a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 802.

    PubMed

    Rejiba, Samia; Limam, Ferid; Belhadj, Cherifa; Belhadj, Omrane; Ben-Mahrez, Kamel

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa 802 was isolated at Rabta hospital in Tunis and was resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. It produced a pI 7.6 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The ESBL, named LBT 802, was purified to homogeneity by filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by CM-Sepharose chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a TSK-gel SP-5PW column. The LBT 802 enzyme had a molecular mass of 30 kDa. It showed a broad-substrate profile by hydrolyzing benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, cephaloridine, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefpirome but not ceftazidime, cefoxitin, imipenem, or aztreonam. The highest hydrolytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) was obtained for ampicillin, cephalothin, cephaloridine, and benzylpenicillin. Among extended-spectrum cephalosporins the best substrate was ceftriaxone followed by cefotaxime and cefpirome. LBT 802 activity was inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, imipenem, cefoxitin, and aztreonam. It showed its lowest Ki values for clavulanic acid, imipenem and sulbactam.

  8. Covalent docking of selected boron-based serine beta-lactamase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Novati, Beatrice; Colombo, Giorgio; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    AmpC β-lactamase is a hydrolytic enzyme conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, identification of non-β-lactam compounds able to inhibit the enzyme is crucial for the development of novel antibacterial therapies. In general, AmpC inhibitors have to engage the highly solvent-exposed catalytic site of the enzyme. Therefore, understanding the implications of ligand-protein induced-fit and water-mediated interactions behind the inhibitor-enzyme recognition process is fundamental for undertaking structure-based drug design process. Here, we focus on boronic acids, a promising class of beta-lactamase covalent inhibitors. First, we optimized a docking protocol able to reproduce the experimentally determined binding mode of AmpC inhibitors bearing a boronic group. This goal was pursued (1) performing rigid and flexible docking calculations aiming to establish the role of the side chain conformations; and (2) investigating the role of specific water molecules in shaping the enzyme active site and mediating ligand protein interactions. Our calculations showed that some water molecules, conserved in the majority of the considered X-ray structures, are needed to correctly predict the binding pose of known covalent AmpC inhibitors. On this basis, we formalized our findings in a docking and scoring protocol that could be useful for the structure-based design of new boronic acid AmpC inhibitors.

  9. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rashmi; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known. PMID:26904307

  10. Detection of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing NDM-1 in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El-Herte, Rima I; Araj, George F; Matar, Ghassan M; Baroud, Maysa; Kanafani, Zeina A; Kanj, Souha S

    2012-05-14

    Carbapenem resistance has been encountered globally with poor outcome of infected patients. NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase) gene containing organisms have emerged and are now spreading in all continents. This is the first report of Iraqi patients referred to Lebanon from whom carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae were recovered. The genes involved in carbapenem resistance were bla-OXA-48 and the novel NDM-1. This report highlights the alarming introduction of such resistance among Enterobacteriaecae to this country.

  11. Mechanism of suppression of piperacillin resistance in enterobacteria by tazobactam.

    PubMed

    Kadima, T A; Weiner, J H

    1997-10-01

    Resistance to piperacillin in several isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae was investigated and confirmed to occur at a frequency of 10(-7) to 10(-6). Development of resistance to piperacillin was significantly suppressed by tazobactam but not by clavulanic acid. To elucidate the mechanism by which resistance suppression occurs, the effect of piperacillin plus tazobactam on the induction of AmpC beta-lactamase was analyzed by monitoring the beta-galactosidase activity of an inducible ampC-lacZ gene fusion in Escherichia coli. The combination exerted no inhibitory effect on AmpC beta-lactamase induction. Tazobactam also had no effect on the accumulation of a key intermediate in the AmpC beta-lactamase induction pathway, 1,6-anhydromurotripeptide, in an ampD mutant strain of E. coli. However, the addition of tazobactam to liquid cultures of E. cloacae 40001 in the presence of piperacillin at four times the MIC caused a delay in the recovery of the culture to piperacillin-induced stress. At 16 times the MIC, a complete suppression of regrowth occurred. Analysis of culture viability on piperacillin plates showed that the culture recovery was due to growth by moderately resistant mutants preexisting in the cell population, which at 16 times the MIC became susceptible to the combination. Evidence from the kinetics of inhibition of the E. cloacae 40001 AmpC beta-lactamase by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam and from the effects of these drugs on the frequency of resistance to piperacillin suggests that the suppressive effect of tazobactam on the appearance of resistance is primarily mediated by the beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

  12. Evaluation of Oxoid combination discs for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    De Gheldre, Yves; Avesani, Véronique; Berhin, Catherine; Delmée, Michel; Glupczynski, Youri

    2003-10-01

    We evaluated the reliability of cefpirome/clavulanate (CD04) compared with ceftazidime/clavulanate (CD02) and cefotaxime/clavulanate (CD03) Oxoid combination discs for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in several Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including Enterobacter spp. Overall, a total of 105 ESBL-positive [positive double-disc synergy test (DDST)] and 94 ESBL-negative (negative DDST) Gram-negative isolates were evaluated. Ninety-eight isolates were confirmed as ESBL-positive on the basis of the sequence alignments of the blaTEM and/or blaSHV gene amplification products, which matched with previously identified ESBLs. The phenotypic detection of ESBLs was performed by the three combination discs according to the NCCLS and BSAC methods. The CD04 disc was evaluated with the manufacturer's recommended zone size difference breakpoint of > or =4 mm. In Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., the sensitivities (%)/specificities (%) of CD02, CD03 and CD04 discs, and the combination of CD02 or CD04 discs, were, respectively, 88/92, 90/92, 95/84 and 100/82, while the corresponding figures were 94/100, 4/100, 94/100 and 100/100 in Enterobacter aerogenes. NCCLS and BSAC methods yielded concordant results in 99% of the isolates. CD04 and CD02 discs were the best combination for detection of ESBLs in our collection of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including E. aerogenes.

  13. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sangare, S A; Maiga, A I; Guindo, I; Maiga, A; Camara, N; Savadogo, S; Diallo, S; Bougoudogo, F; Armand-Lefevre, L; Andremont, A; Maiga, I I

    2015-09-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from many regions of the world. Epidemiological studies are being conducted in Europe, North America, and Asia. No study has however been conducted in Africa to determine the prevalence and distribution of ESBLs on the continent. This literature review aimed at describing the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures, as well as the ESBL genes involved at the international level. Our focus was mainly on Africa. We conducted a literature review on PubMed. Articles related to our study field and published between 1996 and 2014 were reviewed and entirely read for most of them, while we only focused on the abstracts of some other articles. Relevant articles to our study were then carefully reviewed and included in the review. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae differs from one country to another. The results of our literature review however indicate that class A ESBLs prevail over the other types. We took into consideration articles focusing on various types of samples to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but information on isolates from blood cultures is limited. The worldwide prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased over time. Evidence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae can be found in all regions of the world. Studies conducted in Africa mainly focused on the Northern and Eastern parts of the continent, while only rare studies were carried out in the rest of the continent.

  14. Characteristics of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality.

  15. Inactivation of RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli by clavulanic acid and 9-deoxyclavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Charnas, R L; Knowles, J R

    1981-05-26

    The interaction of the TEM-2 beta-lactamase with 9-deoxyclavulanic acid (3) and with both extensively labeled (2) and specifically labeled (1) clavulanic acid has been studied. The close similarity between 9-doexyclavulanate and clavulanate in kinetics, spectroscopic, and protein chemical terms show that the allyl alcohol group of clavulanate is irrelevant to its action as a beta-lactamase inactivator. Use of the radiolabeled samples of clavulanate shows that, of three irreversibly inactivated forms of the enzymes, two contain the whole clavulanate skeleton and the third only retains the carbon atoms of the original beta-lactam ring. These findings allow the complex interaction between clavulanic acid and the beta-lactamase to be defined more narrowly in chemical terms.

  16. A self-assembled quantum dot probe for detecting {beta}-lactamase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Chenjie; Xing Bengang; Rao Jianghong . E-mail: jrao@stanford.edu

    2006-06-09

    This communication describes a quantum dot probe that can be activated by a reporter enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. Our design is based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A biotinylated {beta}-lactamase substrate was labeled with a carbocyanine dye, Cy5, and immobilized on the surface of quantum dots through the binding of biotin to streptavidin pre-coated on the quantum dots. In assembling this nanoprobe, we have found that both the distance between substrates and the quantum dot surface, and the density of substrates are important for its function. The fluorescence emission from quantum dots can be efficiently quenched (up to 95%) by Cy5 due to FRET. Our final quantum dot probe, assembled with QD605 and 1:1 mixture of biotin and a Cy5-labeled lactam, can be activated by 32 {mu}g/mL of {beta}-lactamase with 4-fold increase in the fluorescence emission.

  17. Kinetic interactions of tazobactam with beta-lactamases from all major structural classes.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, K; Macalintal, C; Rasmussen, B A; Lee, V J; Yang, Y

    1993-01-01

    Tazobactam was shown to be a potent inhibitor of group 1, 2a, 2b, and 2b' beta-lactamases. Extended kinetic studies with class A and C serine beta-lactamases showed that the PC1, TEM-2, and P99 enzymes all were reversibly inhibited prior to inactivation of the enzymes. The CcrA metallo-beta-lactamase was less well inhibited, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at least 3 orders of magnitude less favorable than those for most serine beta-lactamases. The numbers of hydrolytic turnovers of tazobactam before inactivation were 2 for PC1, 125 for TEM-2, 50 for P99, and 4,000 for the CcrA enzyme. In spectral studies, transient intermediates were formed after reaction of tazobactam with the PC1, TEM-2, and CcrA beta-lactamases, corresponding to enzyme-associated intermediates responsible for hydrolysis of tazobactam. Chromophores absorbing at 270 nm (CcrA) and 288 nm (TEM-2 and PC1) were observed for these reaction intermediates. The P99 cephalosporinase formed a stable complex with a UV maximum at 295 nm. Incubation of tazobactam with all of the enzymes resulted in accumulation of a tazobactam reaction product with a short-wavelength absorbance. This product has characteristics similar to those of the major eucaryotic metabolite of tazobactam. Possible reaction mechanisms are presented to explain the findings. In conclusion, both serine-based and metallo-beta-lactamases were irreversibly inactivated by tazobactam following an initial transient inhibition phase. Images PMID:8388201

  18. Kinetic analysis of extension of substrate specificity with Xanthomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Bacillus cereus metallo-beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Felici, A; Amicosante, G

    1995-01-01

    Twenty beta-lactam molecules, including penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, carbapenems, and monobactams, were investigated as potential substrates for Xanthomonas maltophilia ULA-511, Aeromonas hydrophila AE036, and Bacillus cereus 5/B/6 metallo-beta-lactamases. A detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters examined confirmed these enzymes to be broad-spectrum beta-lactamases with different ranges of catalytic efficiency. Cefoxitin and moxalactam, substrates for the beta-lactamases from X. maltophilia ULA-511 and B. cereus 5/B/6, behaved as inactivators of the A. hydrophila AE036 metallo-beta-lactamase, which appeared to be unique among the enzymes tested in this study. In addition, we report a new, faster, and reliable purification procedure for the B. cereus 5/B/6 metallo-beta-lactamase, cloned in Escherichia coli HB101. PMID:7695305

  19. [A study on carbapenem resistance in klebsiella pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Guan, Hong; Cao, Xia; Chen, Rui; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Xing-Long; Xu, Xin; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of reduced carbapenem susceptibility in Klebsiella pneumonia. One reduced carbapenem susceptible Klebsiella pneumonia clinical isolate was investigated. Kirby-Bauer disc test was applied to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolate. Modified Hodge Test and EDTA-disk synergy test were used to confirm whether this Klebsiella pneumonia strain could produce metallo-beta-lactamase. The genotype of the beta-lactamase was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Plasmid DNA preparations and conjugation experiment were used to determine the location of the resistant gene. Antibacterial circle of imipenem, meropenem for Klebsiella pneumonia isolate were 16 cm and 17 cm implied that the isolated strain producing carbapenemas. Modified Hodge Test and EDTA-disk synergy test confirmed that this Klebsiella pneumonia isolate produced metallo-beta-lactamase. IMP-4 gene was amplified by PCR and confirmed with sequence analysis. A reduced carbapenem susceptibility in obtained conjugants was observed when evaluated with Kirby-Bauer disc test and conjugation experiment also revealed that blalMP-4 were carried on one plasmid with a size of approximately 73 000 bp. Production of plasmid-mediated metallo-beta lactamase IMP-4 might lead to the reduced susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumonia spp. to carbapenems.

  20. Contributions of aspartate 49 and phenylalanine 142 residues of a tight binding inhibitory protein of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, J; Rudgers, G; Gilbert, H; Palzkill, T

    1999-01-22

    beta-Lactamases are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze beta-lactam antibiotics to render them inactive. The beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP) of Streptomyces clavuligerus, is a potent inhibitor of several beta-lactamases, including the TEM-1 enzyme (Ki = 0.6 nM). Evidence from the TEM-1/BLIP co-crystal suggests that two BLIP residues, Asp-49 and Phe-142, mimic interactions made by penicillin G when bound in the active site of TEM-1. To determine the importance of these two residues, a heterologous expression system for BLIP was established in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to change Asp-49 and Phe-142 to alanine, and inhibition constants (Ki) for both mutants were determined. Each mutation increases the Ki for BLIP inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase approximately 100-fold. To address how these two positions effect the specificity of beta-lactamase binding, Ki values were determined for the interaction of wild-type BLIP, as well as the D49A and F142A mutants, with two extended spectrum beta-lactamases (the G238S and the E104K TEM variants). Positions 104 and 238 are located in the BLIP/beta-lactamase interface. Interestingly, the three BLIP proteins inhibited the G238S beta-lactamase mutant to the same degree that they inhibited TEM-1. However, wild-type BLIP has a higher Ki for the E104K beta-lactamase mutant, suggesting that interactions between BLIP and beta-lactamase residue Glu-104 are important for wild-type levels of BLIP inhibition.

  1. Genetic Environment of Plasmid Mediated CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from Clinical and Food Borne Bacteria in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Supriya; Hussain, Abbas; Mishra, Shweta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The study investigated the presence of CTX-M-15 type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), compared their genetic arrangements and plasmid types in gram negative isolates of hospital and food origin in north-east India. From September 2013 to April 2014, a total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates and 88 gram negative food isolates were selected. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL genes was performed. Presence of integrons and gene cassettes were analyzed by integrase and 59 base-element PCR respectively. The molecular environments surrounding blaCTX-M and plasmid types were investigated by PCR and PCR-based replicon typing respectively. Transformation was carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaCTX-M-15 genes. DNA fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Results Prevalence of ESBL was found to be 40.8% (103/252) in clinical and 31.8% (28/88) in food-borne isolates. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of 56.3% (58/103) and 53.5% (15/28) blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates respectively. Strains of clinical and food origin were non-clonal. Replicon typing revealed that IncI1 and IncFII plasmid were carrying blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates and were horizontally transferable. The ISEcp1 element was associated with blaCTX-M-15 in both clinical and food isolates. Conclusions The simultaneous presence of resistance determinants in non-clonal isolates of two different groups thus suggests that the microbiota of common food products consumed may serve as a reservoir for some of the drug resistance genes prevalent in human pathogens. PMID:26361395

  2. An overview of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in veterinary medicine and their public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2014-08-13

    Serious human and animal infections caused by bacteria are usually treated with beta-lactams. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute the most clinically and economically important enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine. The spread of ESBLs represents a serious threat to healthcare systems, drastically undermining therapeutic options. The relationship between drug usage and the emergence of resistance has been extensively reported. Nevertheless, the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and the emergence of ESBLs in animals remains a matter of debate. Moreover, there is still controversy about whether antibiotic usage in farm animals poses a potential public health risk. This review will (i) deal with aspects related to the presence of ESBLs in veterinary medicine, (ii) its link with human medicine, and (iii) discuss strategies to be implemented to preserve antimicrobial effectiveness. New insights relative to old questions concerning antimicrobial use in domestic animals are also presented.

  3. Activity of imipenem against VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the murine thigh infection model.

    PubMed

    Daikos, G L; Panagiotakopoulou, A; Tzelepi, E; Loli, A; Tzouvelekis, L S; Miriagou, V

    2007-02-01

    The in-vivo activity of imipenem against VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (VPKP) was assessed in a thigh infection model in neutropenic mice. Animals were infected with three VPKP isolates (imipenem MICs 2, 4 and 32 mg/L, respectively) and a susceptible clinical isolate (MIC 0.125 mg/L) that did not produce any beta-lactamase with broad-spectrum activity. Bacterial density at the site of infection was determined after imipenem treatment (30 and 60 mg/kg every 2 h for 24 h). The log(10) reduction in CFU/thigh was greatest for the wild-type isolate, intermediate for the two imipenem-susceptible VPKP isolates, and lowest for the imipenem-resistant VPKP isolate. Whilst in-vivo imipenem activity appeared reduced against in-vitro susceptible VIM-1 producers compared with a VIM-1-negative control, an increased drug dosage could moderate this reduction.

  4. Occurrence of efflux mechanism and cephalosporinase variant in a population of Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases.

    PubMed

    Tran, Que-Tien; Dupont, Myrielle; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Sotto, Albert; Davin-Regli, Anne

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the occurrence of multidrug resistance in 44 Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Efflux was involved in resistance in E. aerogenes isolates more frequently than in K. pneumoniae isolates (100 versus 38% of isolates) and was associated with the expression of phenylalanine arginine beta-naphthylamide-susceptible active efflux. AcrA-TolC overproduction in E. aerogenes isolates was noted. An analysis of four E. aerogenes isolates for which cefepime MICs were high revealed no modification in porin expression but a new specific mutation in the AmpC beta-lactamase.

  5. Cefotetan, a new cephamycin: comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activity with other cephems, beta-lactamase stability, and preliminary recommendations for disk diffusion testing.

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, L W; Jones, R N; Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C; Fuchs, P C; Gavan, T L; Gerlach, E H; Sommers, H M

    1982-01-01

    Cefotetan is a new, potent, 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporin (cephamycin). The in vitro activity of cefotetan tested in a multiphasic, collaborative study against 12,260 consecutive clinical isolates and 448 selected isolates showed 93% of Enterobacteriaceae, 90% of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (broth dilution), 83% of Bacteroides fragilis, and 72% of non-enterococcal streptococci to be inhibited by less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. Beta-Lactamase-producing and -nonproducing Haemophilus influenzae strains were inhibited by less than or equal to 1.0 micrograms/ml. Cefotetan's inhibitory spectrum paralleled those of the newest generation of cephems and exceeded those of cefoxitin and cefamandole. No useful activity was present against Streptococcus faecalis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefotetan was bactericidal without significant inoculum effect and was highly resistant to hydrolysis by Richmond-Sykes types I, III, and IV beta-lactamases. Hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin PADAC (pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline cephalosporin) by type I beta-lactamases was markedly inhibited by concentrations of cefotetan similar to those of the potent inhibitor dicloxacillin. Analysis of agar disk diffusion for several disk potencies and broth dilution susceptibility tests by regression and error rate-bounding methods produced preliminary tentative zone standards (30-micrograms disk, using minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml susceptible and greater than 32 micrograms/ml resistant, or 75-micrograms disk, using minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml susceptible and greater than or equal to 64 micrograms/ml resistant) of greater than or equal to 18 mm susceptible, less than or equal to 14 mm resistant, and 15 to 17 mm indeterminate. Staphylococcus aureus testing with the 30-micrograms disk is not recommended. PMID:6983862

  6. Characterization of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains involved in maternal-fetal colonization: prevalence of E. coli ST131.

    PubMed

    Birgy, André; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bidet, Philippe; Doit, Catherine; Genel, Nathalie; Courroux, Céline; Arlet, Guillaume; Bingen, Edouard

    2013-06-01

    Maternal-fetal Escherichia coli infections, such as neonatal bacteremia and meningitis, are important causes of morbidity and mortality. From 2006 to 2010, we studied newborns and their mothers who were colonized with E. coli in a French hospital in order to document (i) the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains, (ii) the prevalence of associated virulence genes, (iii) the prevalence of clone sequence type 131 (ST131), and (iv) the genetic relationship among ESBL-producing strains. Among the 2,755 E. coli cultures recovered from vaginal or neonatal samples, 68 were ESBL producers (2.46%). We found a wide diversity of ESBL genes, with the majority being bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-1), and bla(CTX-M-15), distributed among the 4 main phylogenetic groups. Genes encoding virulence factors were found in 90.7% of the isolates, with ≥ 2 virulence genes present in 76% of cases. The prevalence of ST131 among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was 9.4% (6/64). Five of these 6 ST131 isolates possessed bla(CTX-M-15) enzymes (and also were resistant to quinolones), and one possessed bla(CTX-M-2) enzymes. Two possessed virulence genes, suggesting the presence of pathogenicity island IIJ96 (PAI IIJ96)-like domains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a high level of genomic diversity overall, except for 3 closely related isolates belonging to clonal group ST131. Repetitive PCR showed that the six ST131 isolates were closely related to ST131 control strains (>95% similarity). This study shows a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli strains and clonal group ST131 in the French maternal-fetal population. These results suggest a widespread distribution of ESBL enzymes in the community and highlight the early transmission between mothers and neonates. These findings are worrisome, especially for this particularly vulnerable population.

  7. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli infections in children: are community-acquired strains different from nosocomial strains?

    PubMed

    Morgand, Marjolaine; Vimont, Sophie; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Boyd, Anders; Thien, Hoang Vu; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Denamur, Erick; Arlet, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children. We compared 58 epidemiologically unrelated ESBL-producing E. coli strains that caused infections. They were isolated between 2008 and 2012 in two Parisian pediatric hospitals and grouped according to their origin into either community-acquired (CA) (n=37) or nosocomially acquired (NA) (n=21) strains. Molecular characteristics of the ESBLs, phylogenetic traits of the strains including their belonging to clone O25b-ST131, prevalence of associated virulence genes, growth capacities in different media, metabolic phenotype and biofilm formation abilities were studied. ESBL type, associated resistance and distribution of phylogenetic groups were similar in the CA and NA groups. More than 60% of the B2 phylogroup strains in both groups belonged to the ST131 clone. Interestingly, CA strains possessed more genes encoding virulence factors and the distribution of these genes differed significantly between the two groups: fyuA, hlyC, papC and papGII were more frequent in the CA group, whereas iroN was more frequent in the NA group. CA strains also showed enhanced growth capacities in Luria Bertani rich medium. They tended to produce more biofilm but the difference was not significant. This study confirms the wide spread of clone ST131 among infected children, regardless of whether their infections were community- or nosocomially acquired. It highlights genotypic and phenotypic differences according to the origin of the strains that could indicate adaptability of these multi-resistant bacteria to specific environmental and host factors.

  8. Frequent use of colistin-based drug treatment to eliminate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in backyard chicken farms in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Jinnai, Michio; Kawahara, Ryuji; Diep, Khong Thi; Thang, Nguyen Nam; Hoa, Tran Thi; Hanh, Le Kieu; Khai, Pham Ngoc; Sumimura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Reports of livestock infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) are increasing. Based on interviews conducted over a 6-month period, we found that veterinarians in the Vietnamese province of Thai Binh prefer to prescribe colistin-based drugs (CBD) in chicken farms. We aimed to clarify whether CBD use selects for strains of colistin-resistant ESBL-E. With the cooperation of seven local households, we detected ESBL-E in chickens' feces after treating chickens with CBD. Phylogenetic groupings and the presence of CTX-M/AmpC genes were determined, and the multi-antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was analyzed. Our results showed that ESBL-E presented in seven chickens' feces from two households. Seventy-two percent of ESBL-E isolates harbored CTX-M9 and the phylogenetic group A; the colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all isolated ESBL-E ranged from 0.064 to 1 μg mL(-1). Moreover, ESBL-E isolates were used to experimentally select for colistin resistance, and the effect of commercial CBD on ESBL-E was investigated. The results showed that an ESBL-E strain with a colistin MIC of 4 μg mL(-1) was able to grow in media with CBD. Although CBD treatment was effective, in vitro experiments demonstrated that ESBL-E can easily acquire colistin resistance. Therefore, restrictions on colistin use are necessary to prevent the emergence of colistin-resistant bacteria.

  9. beta-Lactamase hydrolysis of cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopapadakou, N H; McCaffrey, C

    1994-01-01

    The beta-lactam hydrolysis of five cephalosporin 3'-quinolones (dual-action cephalosporins) by three gram-negative beta-lactamases was examined. The dual-action cephalosporins tested were the ester Ro 23-9424; the carbamates Ro 25-2016, Ro 25-4095, and Ro 25-4835; and the tertiary amine Ro 25-0534. Also tested were cephalosporins with similar side chains (cefotaxime, desacetylcefotaxime, cephalothin, cephacetrile, and Ro 09-1227 [SR 0124]) and standard beta-lactams (penicillin G, cephaloridine). The beta-lactamases used were the plasmid-mediated TEM-1 and TEM-3 enzymes and the chromosomal AmpC. The cephacetrile-related compounds Ro 25-4095 and Ro 25-4835 were hydrolyzed by all three beta-lactamases with catalytic efficiencies (relative to penicillin G) ranging from approximately 5 (TEM-1, AmpC) to approximately 25 (TEM-3). The cephalothin-related Ro 25-2016 was also hydrolyzed by all three beta-lactamases, particularly the AmpC enzyme (relative catalytic efficiency, 110). The cefotaxime-related compounds Ro 25-0534 and Ro 23-9424 were hydrolyzed to any significant extent only by the TEM-3 enzyme (relative catalytic efficiencies, 1.2 and 4.7, respectively. PMID:8067776

  10. Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    there is no copyright to be transferred. Received February 6, 2010; Revised March 31, 2010; Accepted March 31, 2010. From Walter Reed Army Institute... Fung CP, et al. Variety of TEM-, SHV-, and CTX-M-type beta-lactamases present in recent clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae

  11. CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P

    2004-02-01

    We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 beta-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia.

  12. Chromogenic depsipeptide substrates for beta-lactamases and penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M; Damblon, C; Plaitin, B; Christiaens, L; Frère, J M

    1990-01-01

    Various ester and thioester derivatives of hippuric acid have been prepared which were substrates of both beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. The thioesters were more rapidly hydrolysed by nearly all the enzymes. Surprisingly, the enzymes acted rather efficiently on substrates which did not contain any chiral centre. PMID:2400398

  13. Improved purification and characterization of the OXA-2 beta-lactamase.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, S; Dale, J W

    1984-01-01

    An improved and scaled-up procedure has been developed for purifying the OXA-2 plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase. This has enabled us to improve the characterization of this enzyme, including a revised determination of its amino acid composition and the sequence of the N-terminal region of the protein. PMID:6335398

  14. Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolated From Urinary Tract Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, P; Bhandari, D; Thapa, K; Thapa, P; Shrestha, D; Chaudhary, H K; Shrestha, A; Parajuli, H; Gupta, B P

    2016-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the bacterial agents associated with urinary tract infection has been often implicated as a major extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producer in last few decades. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in urinary isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, from July to December 2014. One thousand nine hundred eighty six mid-stream urine specimens were collected aseptically from the clinically suspected patients of urinary tract infections attending Capital Hospital and Research Center, Kathmandu. The samples were processed following standard guidelines as recommended by American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the isolates including Klebsiella spp. were identified using the specific biochemical and sugar fermentation tests recommended by ASM. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates showing resistance upon initial screening with ceftriaxone (30 μg) disc were then confirmed for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) using ceftazidime (30 µg) and ceftazidime + clavulanic acid (30 µg + 10µg) and cefotaxime (30 µg) and cefotaxime + clavulanic acid (30 µg +10µg) disc as per CLSI guidelines. Out of a total 1986 specimens investigated, Escherichia coli was isolated in 309 (83.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae in 38 (10.3%) cases. Initial screening with ceftriaxone disc revealed 18 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to be resistant. Further testing by PCDDT method confirmed 7 (18.4%) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to be ESBL producers. Compared to some earlier studies done in Nepal, higher prevalence of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed warranting a national surveillance for routine monitoring of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

  15. Novel bacteriophage therapy for controlling metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage therapy is an effective antimicrobial approach with potentially important applications in medicine and biotechnology which can be seen as an additional string in the bow. Emerging drug resistant bacteria in aquaculture industry due to unrestricted use of antibiotics warrants more sustainable and environmental friendly strategies for controlling fish infections. The isolated bacteria from fish lesions was characterised based on isolation on selective and differential medium like Pseudomonas agar, gram staining, biochemical tests and 16SrRNA sequencing. The metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing bacterial isolate was evaluated using Imipenem - Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disk method. The specific bacteriophage was isolated and concentrated using coal bed developed in our lab at CSIR-NEERI. The isolated and enriched bacteriophage was characterised by nucleotide sequencing and electron microscopy. The phage therapy was applied for treating ulcerative lesion in fish. Results The pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing ulcerative lesions in catfish species (Clarias gariepinus) was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One out of twenty P. aeruginosa isolate showing multi drug resistance (MDR) was incidentally found to be MBL producing as determined by Imipenem-EDTA disk method. The phage therapy effectively cured the ulcerative lesions of the infected fish in 8–10 days of treatment, with a sevenfold reduction of the lesion with untreated infection control. Conclusion Bacteriophage therapy can have potential applications soon as an alternative or as a complement to antibiotic treatment in the aquaculture. We present bacteriophage therapy as a treatment method for controlling MDR P. aeruginosa infection in C. gariepinus. To the best of our knowledge this is a first report of application of phage therapy against MBL producing P. aeruginosa isolated from aquatic ecosystem. PMID:24369750

  16. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria urinary tract infections and complex pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Ruth; Harris, Anna; Patel, Mitul; Robb, Andrew; Chandran, Harish; McCarthy, Liam

    2017-02-01

    Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. This resistance is plasmid-borne and can spread between species. Management of ESBL is challenging in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complex urological abnormalities. We aim to quantify the risk in children and specifically in urological patients. Retrospective review of a microbiology database (April 2014 to November 2015). This identified urine isolates, pyuria, ESBL growth and patient demographics. Data analysis was by Chi square, Mann-Whitney U-test and ANOVA. A P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Analysis of 9418 urine samples showed 2619 with pure isolates, of which 1577 had pyuria (>10×10(6) WC/L). 136 urine cultures (n=79 patients) grew purely ESBL. Overall, 5.2% of urine isolates were ESBL and 9.5% isolates with pyuria (>100×10(6) WC/L) had ESBL, whereas only 22/1032 (2.1%) with no pyuria, (P<0.0001). Urology patients had 86/136 (63%) ESBL positive cultures. These represented 86/315 (27%) of all positive cultures for urology patients vs. 50/2267 (2.2%) for all other specialties (P<0.0001). Potential ESBL transmission between organisms occurred in 3 (all on prophylactic antibiotics). Over the study period, there was no significant rise of the monthly incidence between 2014 and 2015 (ANOVA P=0.1). This study is the first to document the incidence of ESBL in children (5%), and estimate the frequency of possible plasmid transmission between bacterial species in children. This quantifies the risk of ESBL, especially to urology patients, and mandates better antibiotic stewardship. Level IIc. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in international travelers returning to Germany.

    PubMed

    Lübbert, Christoph; Straube, Laurentia; Stein, Claudia; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Schubert, Stefan; Mössner, Joachim; Pletz, Mathias W; Rodloff, Arne C

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five healthy German volunteers traveling to 53 different countries (mostly in Asia, Africa and South America) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Stool samples and data on potential travel-associated risk factors (such as type of travel, nutritional habits, occurrence of gastroenteritis) were collected before and after traveling. Screening for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was performed using selective media (CHROMagar™ ESBL/CPE plates). Isolates with confirmed ESBL-phenotype were examined for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA-48 genes by PCR amplification and sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using conventional microbroth dilution. Pre-travel analysis of 205 fully evaluable participants revealed an ESBL-PE prevalence rate of 6.8% (14/205). Among 191 participants that were ESBL-negative before travel, 58 (30.4%) were colonized by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, and 5 (8.6%) additionally carried ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae upon return. However, no carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected. ESBL-genotyping revealed that 52/54 (96.6%) E. coli and 4/4 (100%) K. pneumoniae strains available for sequencing produced CTX-M enzymes, mostly CTX-M-15 (33/56, 58.9%), and 2/54 (3.7%) E. coli strains produced SHV-12 enzymes. Travel to India was associated with the highest ESBL-PE acquisition rate (11/15, 73.3%; p=0.015), followed by South East Asia (22/46, 47.8%; p=0.038). Evaluation of travel-associated risk factors demonstrated significance for the occurrence of gastroenteritis (p=0.011). Strictly practiced hand hygiene and exclusive consumption of packaged beverages showed no protective effect. The ESBL-PE persistence rate after 6 months was 8.6% (3/35). We conclude that global efforts are needed to address the further spread of ESBL-PE in the

  18. Neutron Diffraction Studies of a Class A beta-Lactamase Toho-1 E166A/R274N/R276N Triple Mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeley, Matthew P.; Chen, Yu; Afonine, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    beta-Lactam antibiotics have been used effectively over several decades against many types of bacterial infectious diseases. However, the most common cause of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase enzymes that inactivate beta-lactams by rapidly hydrolyzing the amide group of the beta-lactam ring. Specifically, the class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and inhibitor-resistant enzymes arose that were capable of hydrolyzing penicillins and the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams in resistant bacteria, which lead to treatment problems in many clinical settings. A more complete understanding of the mechanism of catalysis of these ESBL enzymes will impact current antibiotic drug discovery efforts. Here, we describe the neutron structure of the class A, CTX-M-type ESBL Toho-1 E166A/R274N/R276N triple mutant in its apo form, which is the first reported neutron structure of a beta-lactamase enzyme. This neutron structure clearly reveals the active-site protonation states and hydrogen-bonding network of the apo Toho-1 ESBL prior to substrate binding and subsequent acylation. The protonation states of the active-site residues Ser70, Lys73, Ser130, and Lys234 in this neutron structure are consistent with the prediction of a proton transfer pathway from Lys73 to Ser130 that is likely dependent on the conformation of Lys73, which has been hypothesized to be coupled to the protonation state of Glu166 during the acylation reaction. Thus, this neutron structure is in agreement with a proposed mechanism for acylation that identifies Glu166 as the general base for catalysis.

  19. [Detection of resistance phenotypes in gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ferran; Calvo, Jorge; Cantón, Rafael; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Mirelis, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Detecting resistance in gram-negative microorganisms has a strong clinical and epidemiological impact, but there is still a great deal of debate about the most sensitive phenotypic method and whether in vitro susceptibility results should be interpreted. The present work reviews the phenotypes and mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams, quinolones and aminoglycosides in gram-negative bacilli and also revises the different phenotypic methods used for their detection. A clinical interpretation of in vitro susceptibility results is also discussed. Extended-spectrum and inhibitor resistant beta-lactamases, AmpC type beta-lactamases and carbapenemases are thoroughly reviewed. As regards quinolones, the resistance mediated both by plasmids and by mutations in the DNA gyrase and the topoisomerase IV genes is also reviewed. This report includes resistance patterns to aminoglycosides caused by modifying enzymes. Phenotypic detection of beta-lactam resistance in Neisseria spp. and Haemophilus influenzae is also reviewed in a separate section.

  20. Nosocomial outbreak due to extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- producing Enterobacter cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Adriana; Tubau, Fe; Pujol, Miquel; Calatayud, Laura; Dominguez, Maria Angeles; Peña, Carmen; Sora, Mercedes; Gudiol, Francesc; Ariza, Javier

    2007-08-01

    Enterobacter cloacae has been associated with several outbreaks, usually involving strains that overproduce chromosomal beta-lactamase or, uncommonly, strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Only sporadic cases of ESBL-producing E. cloacae have been identified in our hospital in recent years. We describe the epidemiology and clinical and microbiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by ESBL-producing E. cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CT-ICU). Prospective surveillance of patients with infection or colonization by ESBL-producing E. cloacae among patients admitted to the CT-ICU was performed during the outbreak. Production of ESBL was determined by decreased susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and a positive double-disk test result. Clone relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From July to September 2005, seven patients in the CT-ICU with ESBL-producing E. cloacae were identified (four males; median age, 73 years; range, 45 to 76 years); six patients had cardiac surgery. Four patients developed infections; three had primary bacteremia, one had ventilator-associated pneumonia, and one had tracheobronchitis. ESBL-producing E. cloacae showed resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides. PFGE revealed two patterns. Five isolates belonged to clone A; two carried a single ESBL (pI 8.2 and a positive PCR result for the SHV type), and three carried two ESBLs (pIs 8.1 and 8.2 and positive PCR results for the SHV and CTX-M-9 types). Isolates belonging to clone B carried a single ESBL (pI 5.4 and a positive PCR result for the TEM type). Review of antibiotic consumption showed increased use of cefepime and quinolones during June and July 2005. The outbreak was stopped by the implementation of barrier measures and cephalosporin restriction. ESBL production could be increasingly common in nosocomial pathogens other than Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  1. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Tzelepi, E; Giakkoupi, P; Sofianou, D; Loukova, V; Kemeroglou, A; Tsakris, A

    2000-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in a consecutive collection of clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. The abilities of various screening methods to detect ESBLs in enterobacters were simultaneously tested. Among the 68 consecutive isolates (56 Enterobacter cloacae and 12 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates) that were analyzed for beta-lactamase content, 21 (25 and 58%, respectively) possessed transferable ESBLs with pIs of 8.2 and phenotypic characteristics of SHV-type enzymes, 8 (14.3%) of the E. cloacae isolates produced a previously nondescribed, clavulanate-susceptible ESBL that exhibited a pI of 6.9 and that conferred a ceftazidime resistance phenotype on Escherichia coli transconjugants, and 2 E. cloacae isolates produced both of these enzymes. Among the total of 31 isolates that were considered ESBL producers, the Vitek ESBL detection test was positive for 2 (6.5%) strains, and the conventional double-disk synergy test (DDST) with amoxicillin-clavulanate and with expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam was positive for 5 (16%) strains. Modifications of the DDST consisting of closer application of the disks (at 20 instead of 30 mm), the use of cefepime, and the use of both modifications increased the sensitivity of this test to 71, 61, and 90%, respectively. Of the 37 isolates for which isoelectric focusing failed to determine ESBLs, the Vitek test was false positive for 1 isolate and the various forms of DDSTs were false-positive for 3 isolates.

  2. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in North-East Italy.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, B; Mazzariol, A; Kocsis, E; Koncan, R; Fontana, R; Cornaglia, G

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in 756 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae originating from Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratories of North-East Italy. Five point zero two percent of isolates carried a qnr determinant while the aac(6')-Ib-cr determinant was detected in 9·25% of isolates. We also investigated the association between the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and the beta-lactamase genes, and characterized the plasmids carrying these determinants of resistance.

  3. Identification of beta-Lactamases and beta-Lactam-Related Proteins in Human Pathogenic Bacteria using a Computational Search Approach.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto; Barrios, Humberto; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory Omayra; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Salazar-Páramo, Mario

    2017-08-01

    A systematic analysis of beta-lactamases based on comparative proteomics has not been performed thus far. In this report, we searched for the presence of beta-lactam-related proteins in 591 bacterial proteomes belonging to 52 species that are pathogenic to humans. The amino acid sequences for 19 different types of beta-lactamases (ACT, CARB, CifA, CMY, CTX, FOX, GES, GOB, IMP, IND, KPC, LEN, OKP, OXA, OXY, SHV, TEM, NDM, and VIM) were obtained from the ARG-ANNOT database and were used to construct 19 HMM profiles, which were used to identify potential beta-lactamases in the completely sequenced bacterial proteomes. A total of 2877 matches that included the word "beta-lactamase" and/or "penicillin" in the functional annotation and/or in any of its regions were obtained. These enzymes were mainly described as "penicillin-binding proteins," "beta-lactamases," and "metallo-beta-lactamases" and were observed in 47 of the 52 species studied. In addition, proteins classified as "beta-lactamases" were observed in 39 of the species included. A positive correlation between the number of beta-lactam-related proteins per species and the proteome size was observed (R 0.78, P < 0.00001). This correlation partially explains the high presence of beta-lactam-related proteins in large proteomes, such as Nocardia brasiliensis, Bacillus an