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Sample records for beta-thalassemia major patients

  1. A comparison of heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Zeighami, Samaneh; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare heart function and arrhythmia in clinically asymptomatic patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and beta thalassemia major. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with beta thalassemia major and 60 patients with beta thalassemia intermedia who had clinically no symptoms of arrhythmia and clinically normal heart function were evaluated using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and echocardiography. For data analysis SPSS ver.20 software was used. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of the beta thalassemia intermedia patients was 24.18 ± 7.9 years and the mean age in beta thalassemia major was 24.38 ± 7.7 years (P>0.05). Premature atrial contractions (PACs) were observed in 14 (23.3%) patients with beta thalassemia intermedia and in 22 (36.6%) beta thalassemia major patients. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were detected in 8 (13.3%) patients in the beta thalassemia intermediate group and 16 (26.6) patients in the beta thalassemia major group, respectively. The left ventricular diastolic dimension, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume were significantly higher in beta thalassemia intermedia group (P<0.05). Pulmonary acceleration time as an indicator of pulmonary pressure was lower in beta thalassemia intermedia group. Both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were more common in the beta thalassemia major group. Higher end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were detected in the beta thalassemia intermedia group. Pulmonary acceleration time was lower in the beta thalassemia intermedia group, which can be an indicator of higher pulmonary pressure.

  2. Tricuspid regurgitation in patients with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Wu, K H; Chang, J S; Su, B H; Peng, C T

    2004-12-01

    Although cardiac complications remain the main causes of death in thalassemic patients, right heart dysfunction has been little studied and the mechanism is still unclear. Echocardiography was performed in 39 patients with beta-thalassemia major and 35 aged-matched controls. The gender, age, heart rate, blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), acceleration time (AcT) of right ventricular outflow and right ventricular ejection time (RVET), AcT/RVET, and the presence of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) were compared between the two groups. We also compared the gender, age, age at first blood transfusion, serum ferritin level, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), the presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus, liver fibrosis, splenectomy, platelet counts, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia, cardiomegaly, LVEF, AcT, RVET, AcT/RVET, and signal intensity ratio (SIR) of myocardial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between thalassemic patients with and without TR. The incidence of TR in thalassemic patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (30.8 vs 11.4%, p=0.03). The incidences of splenectomy (p=0.03), platelet counts (p=0.01), and SIR of myocardial MRI (p=0.03) in thalassemic patients with TR were significantly higher than in those without TR. The AcT was shorter and the AcT/RVET ratio was smaller, suggesting higher pulmonary pressure in the thalassemic patients with TR. Occurrence of TR in patients with beta-thalassemia major may be a consequence of cardiac iron deposit, thrombocytosis, splenectomy, or pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Polyneuropathy and myopathy in beta-thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Nemtsas, P; Arnaoutoglou, M; Perifanis, V; Koutsouraki, E; Spanos, G; Arnaoutoglou, N; Chalkia, P; Pantelidou, D; Orologas, A

    2018-05-01

    The thalassemias are the most common single gene disorder in the world. Nowadays, the average life expectancy of patients in developed countries has increased significantly, while, there was an increase of complications. We aimed to investigate peripheral neuropathy and myopathy in this patient group using a neurophysiological study. We performed nerve conduction studies and electromyography of upper and lower extremities on 36 beta-thalassemia major (β-thal) patients. The electrophysiological findings were correlated with demographic data and laboratory parameters of the disease. Patients with β-thal present polyneuropathy or myopathy at (50%). Polyneuropathy was detected in (38.9%) and myopathy in (27.8%), while polyneuropathy and myopathy were present at (16.7%) with an overlap of the diseases in 1/3 of the patients. There was not a statistically significant correlation of polyneuropathy and myopathy with age, sex, splenectomy, nor with respect to laboratory parameters, hemoglobin, and ferritin. However, there was a statistically significant correlation of polyneuropathy and myopathy with iron overload, as recorded by the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart and the liver. Our findings suggest that iron overload plays a key role in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy and myopathy in β-thal patients, and performing heart and liver MRI for the prediction of such lesions in an annual basis is warranted.

  4. Human parvovirus B19 in patients with beta thalassemia major from Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Farideh; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Karimi, Gharib; Farahmand, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-03-01

    Due to the tropism of human parvovirus B19 to erythroid progenitor cells, infection in patients with an underlying hemolytic disorder such as beta-thalassemia major leads to suppression of erythrocyte formation, referred to as transient aplasia crisis (TAC), which may be life-threatening. We investigated the prevalence of parvovirus B19 among patients with beta thalassemia major attending the Zafar Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood samples and parvovirus B19 genotypes in plasma samples of patients with thalassemia major. The population consisted of 150 patients with beta-thalassemia major who attended the Zafar clinic in Tehran. Specimens were studied using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 in our study population was 4%. Of 150 patients with thalassemia, six (4%) were positive for B19 DNA. There was no significant correlation between blood transfusion frequency and B19 DNA positivity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19 revealed genotype I in these six patients. In this study, acute B19 infections were detected in patients with beta thalassemia major. Screening of such high-risk groups can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection; thus, screening is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease-prevention measures.

  5. Human parvovirus B19 in patients with beta thalassemia major from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Farideh; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Karimi, Gharib; Farahmand, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to the tropism of human parvovirus B19 to erythroid progenitor cells, infection in patients with an underlying hemolytic disorder such as beta-thalassemia major leads to suppression of erythrocyte formation, referred to as transient aplasia crisis (TAC), which may be life-threatening. We investigated the prevalence of parvovirus B19 among patients with beta thalassemia major attending the Zafar Adult Thalassemia Clinic in Tehran, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the presence of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood samples and parvovirus B19 genotypes in plasma samples of patients with thalassemia major. The population consisted of 150 patients with beta-thalassemia major who attended the Zafar clinic in Tehran. Specimens were studied using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The prevalence of parvovirus B19 in our study population was 4%. Of 150 patients with thalassemia, six (4%) were positive for B19 DNA. There was no significant correlation between blood transfusion frequency and B19 DNA positivity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of human parvovirus B19 revealed genotype I in these six patients. Conclusion In this study, acute B19 infections were detected in patients with beta thalassemia major. Screening of such high-risk groups can considerably reduce the incidence and prevalence of B19 infection; thus, screening is required for epidemiologic surveillance and disease-prevention measures. PMID:28401102

  6. High incidence of silent cerebral infarcts in adult patients with beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Pazgal, Idit; Inbar, Edna; Cohen, Maya; Shpilberg, Ofer; Stark, Pinhas

    2016-08-01

    Survival of beta thalassemia major (TM) patients has improved significantly over the past few decades. Consequently, less commonly reported complications are now being recognized. An incidence as high as 60% of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) has been demonstrated by brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies in beta thalassemia intermedia (TI). The aim of this study was to determine whether regularly transfused TM adult patients experience less SCI, as compared to the incidence described in TI. In this observational study, 28 transfusion dependent TM patients, >18years of age underwent brain MRI studies. Focal bright foci in the cerebral white matter were demonstrated in 17 (60.7%) patients; most of them had multiple lesions. Elevated serum ferritin (SF), primarily 5years Area Under the Curve, was found to have a significant association with the presence of SCI (p<0.031). Similar results were found when 4 patients with intact spleen and 2 patients with splenules were excluded (p=0.027). There was no significant association between number of SCI and clinical or other laboratory parameter evaluated. The present study demonstrates a high rate of SCI in regularly transfused TM adult patients. Effective continuous iron chelation, preventive low dose aspirin and routine periodical brain MRI are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined therapy with desferrioxamine and deferiprone in beta thalassemia major patients with transfusional iron overload.

    PubMed

    Daar, S; Pathare, A V

    2006-05-01

    Iron overload is the main cause of morbidity and mortality especially from heart failure in patients with beta thalassemia major (TM). Successful iron chelation is therefore essential for the optimal management of TM. Although desferrioxamine (DFX) has been the major iron-chelating treatment of transfusional iron overload, compliance is a major hindrance in achieving optimal therapeutic results. The availability of oral iron chelation with deferiprone (L(1)) since 1987 is useful but showed poor efficacy when used alone as compared to DFX. We therefore decided to compare DFX alone with a prospective combined therapy with DFX and L(1) in beta thalassemia major patients with iron overload. We studied 91 patients with beta thalassemia major (mean age+/-SD, 15.02+/-5.8; range 2-30 years) attending the day care unit for regular transfusional support. They received packed red cells every 3-4 weeks to maintain pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration above 9 g/dl. They had been receiving DFX at a daily dose of 40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) by subcutaneous infusion for 8-10 h on 4-5 nights each week for the past several years. However, due to various reasons, they had developed considerable transfusional iron overload. These patients were allocated to prospectively receive additional therapy with oral iron chelator L(1) at 75 mg kg(-1) day(-1) body weight in three divided doses with food after informed consent and continued to receive treatment with DFX as per the above dosage. Of the 91 patients, six developed severe gastrointestinal (GI) upset, two agranulocytosis, two arthropathy, one persistently raised liver enzymes, two died owing to sepsis, and two received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Amongst the remaining 76 patients, 21 were found noncompliant (not taking DFX regularly, but taking L(1) regularly). Thus, in the 55 evaluable patients {6-48 months on combination therapy; mean [(+/-SD)22+/-12 months]}, the mean serum ferritin (+/-SD) fell dramatically from 3

  8. [Long-term effects of combined therapy in patients with beta-thalassemia major].

    PubMed

    Bagnulo, S; Giannini, A M; Moscatelli, F; Stragapede, L; Acquafredda, A; Dammacco, A

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated therapy complications in 19 beta-thalassemia major patients (mean age from 3 years/5 months and 1 years/6 months) who were followed at II Pediatric Department-University of Bari. 3 out of 19 patients underwent allogenic BMT from matched related donor; 2 out of 19 underwent splenectomy. All of them were receiving hypertransfusion therapy and continuous chelation with DFO. In all patients we performed physical examination, laboratory assays, cardiac and endocrinologic function tests, serum HBV-HCV-HIV antibodies, otoscopy and audiometric test, fundus oculi, skeletal x-ray. 1 out of 19 patients, who was under 15, had a slight dilatation of left ventricle and arythmia. All patients were HBsAb positive. 4/19 patients were HCV Ab positive (ELISA test) with an increase in ALT-AST serum levels since at least 6 months. In 3 of them we assessed RIBA test, always positive. 3 of them underwent liver biopsy (1 iron overload 2 chronic active hepatitis). All patients were HIV Ab negative. 4/15 patients revealed low GH levels after Arginina test. 13 pre-pubescent patients had normal results with GNRH test but lower results after FSH test. 1 pubescent patient had gonadotropic hypophyseal deficit. 4 patients had subclinic hypothiroidism. We couldn't find any sequelas in bone-eyes-ears. Hypertransfusion therapy, chelation, profilaxis of infections improved length and quality of life in thalassemic patients. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism remains a serious sequela and we think it needs to be treated.

  9. The psychological burden of patients with beta thalassemia major in Syria.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Huda; Amarneh, Basil H; Zamzam, Suzan Z

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial burden of thalassemia on children with beta-thalassemia major in Damascus, Syria. The sample consisted of thalassemic patients aged 6-18 years old, admitted to the thalassemia center in Damascus, accompanied by their parents. The parents answered a structured questionnaire (developed by Ratip & Modell) on behalf of their children. The psychosocial burden affected many aspects of life such as education, time off school, sporting capabilities, difference from friends/siblings, social interactions, family adjustment, anxiety, isolation, and stigmatization. Results indicated a significant association between socio-demographic characteristics such as age, gender, school grade, current schooling, work, family income, and the occurrence of complications with the psychosocial burden variables including education, time off school, sporting capabilities, difference from friends, social interactions and stigmatization. The findings suggest the need for psychological support as well as medical help for thalassemic families. Health professionals need to assess the psychological status of children with thalassemia and that of their families in order to minimize these burdens; thus, nurses must provide psychosocial support for children with thalassemia and encourage other family members to assist in providing support for the affected children. The current study triggered the need for new policies and new roles for the community health nurse and social workers as well as the need for counseling and educational programs for children with thalassemia.

  10. Orthodontic Consideration in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Einy, Shmuel; Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Ben-Barak, Ayelet; Aizenbud, Dror

    Beta Thalassemia (βT) patients present a unique facial appearance and specific craniofacial, jaw and dental patterns. Although this anomaly often requires orthodontic management, βT patients have received scant attention in the orthodontic and dental literature over the past 50 years. The aim of this article is to review the characteristic craniofacial and dental manifestation pattern of βT patients and to emphasize their preferred orthodontic management protocol by presenting a βT orthodontic treated patient. A 10 year old patient presented with a complaint of severe esthetic and functional disorders due to her diagnosis of βT. We initiated orthodontic treatment including a combined orthopedic and functional treatment modality to improve facial appearance. Maxillary restraint and increased mandibular size during treatment along with an increase in the vertical dimension were achieved. The patient presented with Angle class I molar relationship, with reduction of the excessive overjet and deep overbite. Orthodontic treatment comprised of maxillary orthopedic treatment directed especially toward premaxilla with light forces, and mandibular modification by functional appliance along with fixed orthodontic treatment is recommended in βT patients.

  11. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  12. EFFECTS OF HOME-CARE TRAINING ON THE SELF-EFFICACY OF PATIENTS WITH BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mahdieh Poodineh; Nourisancho, Hajar; Shahdadi, Hossein; Shahraki, Sohila; Azarkish, Batoul; Balouchi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The self-efficacy of thalassemia patients is an important factor in creating behavioral changes in such patients. Home-care training reduces hospitalization duration as well as relevant costs and improves disease outcomes. This study was designed to assess the effect of home-care training on the self-efficacy of patients with beta thalassemia major. Methodology: This was a quasi-experimental, case-control, before and after intervention study conducted on 136 thalassemia cases from January 2014 to October 2015. Data was collected through Shere general self-efficacy questionnaire (SGSES). Home-care trainings were provided in the form of training courses with respect to the training needs of thalassemia major cases. Two (2) months after the end of training courses, SGSES questionnaire was filled again and the obtained data was analyzed by SPSS 21 as well as descriptive-inferential statistics (significance level=P≤0.05). Results: The results of this study revealed that the mean self-efficacy score of control group was 48.69±6.82 before intervention which increased to 46.69±6.81 after intervention. The mean self-efficacy score of case group was 44.58±5.23 before intervention which increased to 49.5±6.66 after intervention. The rise of self-efficacy score, after intervention, was significantly higher in the case group compared with the control group (P≤.001). Conclusion: According to results, home-care training can develop self-efficacy in thalassemia patients. In home-care training procedure patients play an active role. By providing home-care trainings, therefore, an effective step should be taken to promote the self-efficacy of the patients and to decrease associated problems. PMID:27999484

  13. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and arrhythmic risk markers in adult patients with beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Kolios, Marios; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Vlahos, Antonios P; Kapsali, Eleni; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Goudevenos, John A

    2016-10-15

    There seems to be a significant arrhythmia burden in β-thalassemia major (TM) patients without overt cardiomyopathy. Apart from conventional electrocardiographic (ECG) and arrhythmic risk markers we studied novel markers of ventricular repolarization and autonomic imbalance both at rest and after exercise testing. We studied 47 adult TM patients without systolic heart failure and 47 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The median age of the studied population was 36 [32-43] years, 57% men. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded while 12-lead electrocardiograms, 24-hour ECG Holter recordings, and treadmill exercise stress tests were analyzed. TM patients exhibited increased QTc intervals in both 12-lead ECG recordings and in 24-hour Holter recordings. In addition, they had increased indexes of ventricular repolarization heterogeneity such as QT dispersion, and T peak-to-end/QT ratios. Furthermore, TM patients had decreased indexes of heart rate variability while the heart rate recovery after exercise was significantly attenuated compared to controls. Also, they had increased P wave and QRS duration while the QRS fragmentation was very prevalent. Finally, premature atrial extrasystoles and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation episodes were more frequent in TM patients. TM patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function have several ECG abnormalities including alterations in ventricular depolarization and repolarization. Also, cardiac autonomic dysfunction is evident in 24-hour ECG monitoring as well as in the recovery phase after exercise testing. The prognostic value of specific arrhythmic risk indexes in this setting remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of the atrial electromechanical delay in predicting atrial fibrillation in beta-thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Rago, Anna; Russo, Vincenzo; Papa, Andrea Antonio; Ciardiello, Carmine; Pannone, Bruno; Mayer, Maria Carolina; Cimmino, Giovanni; Nigro, Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    Paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias frequently occur in beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD) in a large β-TM population with normal cardiac function and its relationship to atrial fibrillation (AF) onset. Eighty β-TM patients (44 men, 36 women), with a mean age of 36.2 ± 11.1 years, and 80 healthy subjects used as controls, matched for age and gender, were studied for the occurrence of AF during a 5-year follow-up, through 30-day external loop recorder (ELR) monitoring performed every 6 months. Intra-AEMD and inter-AEMD of both atria were measured through tissue Doppler echocardiography. P-wave dispersion (PD) was carefully measured using 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Compared to the healthy control group, the β-TM patients showed a statistically significant increase in inter-AEMD, intra-left AEMD, maximum P-wave duration, and PD. Dividing the β-TM group into two subgroups (patients with or without AF), the inter-AEMD, intra-left AEMD, maximum P-wave duration, and PD were significantly higher in the subgroup with AF compared to the subgroup without AF. There were significant good correlations of intra-left AEMD and inter-AEMD with PD. A cut-off value of 40.1 ms for intra-left AEMD had a sensitivity of 76.2% and a specificity of 97.5% in identifying β-TM patients with AF risk. A cut-off value of 44.8 ms for inter-AEMD had a sensitivity of 81.2% and a specificity of 98.7% in identifying this category of patients. Our results showed that the echocardiographic atrial electromechanical delay indices (intra-left and inter-AEMD) and the PD were significantly increased in β-TM subjects with normal cardiac function. PD and AEMD represent non-invasive, inexpensive, useful, and simple parameters to assess the AF risk in β-TM patients.

  15. Evaluation of serum levels of C3 and C4 complement factors in patients with beta thalassemia major in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghafourian, Mehri; Esmaeili, Mehrnosh; Dashti-Gerdabi, Nader; Sadeghi, Alireza; Malekei Naseri, Ali; Kazemi, Akhtar

    2017-01-01

    Thalassemia syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in the world and infection is the second cause of death in these patients. Measurement of serum C3 and C4 complement factors in serum was done in 60 patients with beta thalassemia major in comparison with 30 healthy subjects as control group. The serum level of C3 and C4 complement factors in 60 patients with beta thalassemia major who were randomly selected from among the patients referred to Shafa Hospital of Ahvaz was evaluated and compared with 30 samples from healthy individuals with no history of recent infectious or autoimmune diseases. It should be noted that single-radial-immunodiffusion assay was used in this study. This study has shown a significant reduction in serum levels of C3 and C4 in patients compared to controls (P value < 0.05). Decreased synthesis or increased consumption of complement factors in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions might lead to continuous contact between the immune system and various antigens, causing nonstop use of complement factors, recurrent infections, changes in parameters of the immune system due to iron overload as well as exposure to infectious factors such as HBV, HCV, HIV, and HTLV through blood transfusion.

  16. [Beta thalassemia major and pregnancy during adolescence: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Trigo, Lucas Augusto Monteiro Castro; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pereira, Belmiro Gonçalves; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-06-01

    Beta thalassemia major is a rare hereditary blood disease in which impaired synthesis of beta globin chains causes severe anemia. Medical treatment consists of chronic blood transfusions and iron chelation. We describe two cases of adolescents with beta thalassemia major with unplanned pregnancies and late onset of prenatal care. One had worsening of anemia with increased transfusional requirement, fetal growth restriction, and placental senescence. The other was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism and low maternal weight, and was admitted twice during pregnancy due to dengue shock syndrome and influenza H1N1-associated respiratory infection. She also developed fetal growth restriction and underwent vaginal delivery at term complicated by uterine hypotonia. Both patients required blood transfusions after birth and chose medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive method afterwards. This report highlights the importance of medical advice on contraceptive methods for these women and the role of a specialized prenatal follow-up in association with a hematologist.

  17. Quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in patients with beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia receiving deferasirox chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Senol, Sefika Pinar; Tiftik, Eyup Naci; Unal, Selma; Akdeniz, Aydan; Tasdelen, Bahar; Tunctan, Bahar

    2016-03-01

    There is a need to remove excess iron with iron chelation therapy (ICT) to avoid the serious clinical sequelae associated with iron overload in patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) and sickle cell anemia (SCA). Due to the effects of the diseases and their treatments, ICT is still a major reason for unsatisfactory compliance. The aim of this single-center observational study was to evaluate the quality of life, clinical effectiveness, and satisfaction in pediatric and adult patients with BTM and SCA receiving deferasirox (DFX) chelation therapy. In this study, 37 pediatric and 35 adult patients with BTM or SCA receiving DFX for at least 6 months participated. Upon receipt of Informed Consent Form, Case Report Form, Demographic Data Collection Form, Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form, Life Quality Survey Short Form-36, and ICT Satisfaction Survey were used to obtain data for the effectiveness of ICT and parameters that may affect compliance to treatment and life quality of the participants. As a main index for the effectiveness of DFX chelation therapy, serum ferritin levels were higher than the normal values in the patients receiving DFX. The increased ferritin levels were also associated with hematological and biochemical abnormalities. Our findings regarding quality of life and satisfaction with DFX chelation therapy indicated that the patients with BTM or SCA had lower scores. Overall, problems with treatment regimen and side effects appeared to be common causes of poor compliance to DFX chelation therapy. Our findings suggest that health care providers should be aware of the importance of monitoring iron load with timely initiation of DFX chelation therapy and ongoing adjustments to chelation regimens and/or transfusion methods to decrease hospitalizations and improve compliance to ICT of the patients with BTM and SCA.

  18. Iron chelation monotherapy in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major patients: a comparative study of deferasirox and deferoxamine

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Abdel Malik; Tolba, Omar Atef

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Iron overload is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in thalassemia major (TM) despite advances in chelation therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of deferasirox (DFX) and deferoxamine (DFO) as iron-chelating agents in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major. Methods This prospective randomized study included 60 patients with transfusion-dependent β-TM during the period from September 2014 to September 2015. Their ages were ≥ 6 years, and they had serum ferritin above 1500 μg/L and were on irregular DFO therapy. Patients had regular packed red cell transfusion in a dose of 10 mL/kg/session. They were randomized to receive DFX (single oral daily dose of 20–40 mg/kg/day) or DFO (20–50 mg/kg/day via subcutaneous infusion over 8–10 hours, 5 days a week). Iron overload was determined by serum ferritin level. The primary endpoint was decrease of serum ferritin level below 1500 μg/L. The secondary endpoint was drug safety. Results Both drugs significantly reduced serum ferritin (p < 0.001). At the end of follow-up, there were no significant differences between the two groups in serum ferritin levels (p = 0.673) and in percent reduction of ferritin (p = 0.315). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total amount of blood transfusion (p = 0.166) and average iron intake (p = 0.227). There were no mortalities or any serious adverse effects, neutropenia, arthropathy, or pulmonary toxicity. Gastrointestinal upset and skin rash occurred more frequently with DFX than with DFO (p = 0.254 and 0.095, respectively). Conclusion With appropriate dosing and compliance with drugs, both DFX and DFO are generally well tolerated, safe, and effective in reducing serum ferritin levels in iron-overloaded, regularly-transfused thalassemia major patients. Therefore, oral DFX is recommended for more convenience and adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:27382454

  19. Iron chelation monotherapy in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major patients: a comparative study of deferasirox and deferoxamine.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Abdel Malik; Tolba, Omar Atef

    2016-05-01

    Iron overload is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in thalassemia major (TM) despite advances in chelation therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of deferasirox (DFX) and deferoxamine (DFO) as iron-chelating agents in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major. This prospective randomized study included 60 patients with transfusion-dependent β-TM during the period from September 2014 to September 2015. Their ages were ≥ 6 years, and they had serum ferritin above 1500 μg/L and were on irregular DFO therapy. Patients had regular packed red cell transfusion in a dose of 10 mL/kg/session. They were randomized to receive DFX (single oral daily dose of 20-40 mg/kg/day) or DFO (20-50 mg/kg/day via subcutaneous infusion over 8-10 hours, 5 days a week). Iron overload was determined by serum ferritin level. The primary endpoint was decrease of serum ferritin level below 1500 μg/L. The secondary endpoint was drug safety. Both drugs significantly reduced serum ferritin (p < 0.001). At the end of follow-up, there were no significant differences between the two groups in serum ferritin levels (p = 0.673) and in percent reduction of ferritin (p = 0.315). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total amount of blood transfusion (p = 0.166) and average iron intake (p = 0.227). There were no mortalities or any serious adverse effects, neutropenia, arthropathy, or pulmonary toxicity. Gastrointestinal upset and skin rash occurred more frequently with DFX than with DFO (p = 0.254 and 0.095, respectively). With appropriate dosing and compliance with drugs, both DFX and DFO are generally well tolerated, safe, and effective in reducing serum ferritin levels in iron-overloaded, regularly-transfused thalassemia major patients. Therefore, oral DFX is recommended for more convenience and adherence to the treatment regimen.

  20. [Pretreatment doses of antithymocyte globubin-fresenius for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for beta-thalassemia major].

    PubMed

    Li, Chunfu; Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Xuedong; Pei, Fuyu; He, Yuelin; Feng, Xiaoqin; Liu, Huaying

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of antithymocyte globubin-fresenius (ATG-F) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients with beta-thalassemia Major. Sixty-four children with beta-thalassemia major undergoing allo-HSCT were divided into two equal groups to receive ATG-F pretreatments at high (30 mg/kg) or low (15 mg/kg) doses as part of the conditioning regimen including mainly cyclophosphamide, busulfan, fludarabine, and thiotepa. The outcomes of the patients were compared between the two groups. No obvious difference were noted in the time to leukocyte and platelet engraftment between the two groups. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) appeared to be higher in the low-dose group than in the high-dose group (12.5% vs 9.4%). The incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD was also higher in the low dose group (12.5% vs 6.3%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Application of high-dose ATG-F was associated with a higher rate of probable and possible fungal infection (P<0.05). The two doses of ATG-F is feasible as a part of the conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT in children with beta-thalassemia major.

  1. Regional consensus opinion for the management of Beta thalassemia major in the Arabian Gulf area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia syndrome has diverse clinical presentations and a global spread that has far exceeded the classical Mediterranean basin where the mutations arose. The mutations that give rise to either alpha or beta thalassemia are numerous, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from carrier state to life-threatening, inherited hemolytic anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. Beta thalassemia major constitutes a remarkable challenge to health care providers. The complications arising due to the anemia, transfusional iron overload, as well as other therapy-related complications add to the complexity of this condition. To produce this consensus opinion manuscript, a PubMed search was performed to gather evidence-based original articles, review articles, as well as published work reflecting the experience of physicians and scientists in the Arabian Gulf region in an effort to standardize the management protocol. PMID:24044606

  2. Quality of life among children with beta-thalassemia major treated in Western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mohammed D; Radi, Suhaib A; Azab, Abdulrahman M; Abulaban, Abdulrahman A; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman H; Bedair, Seifeleslam W; Aljaouni, Soad K; Kari, Jameela A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the quality of life among children and adolescents with thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study used the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Children and adolescents with beta-thalassemia major who attended the Day Care Unit at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from October 2012 to February 2013 were surveyed. The questions highlighted 4 health status scales, namely physical functioning (PF), emotional functioning (EF), school performance (SC), and social functioning (SF). Scores were calculated for each patient and data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. We recruited 46 children (60.9% males). The median age of the sample was 12 years (range, 2-18 years). Most patients (84.8%) had 3 weekly blood transfusions. The mean+/-SD physical functioning (PF) score was 57.2+/-25.9; the EF score was 74.1+/-20.3, SF score was 78.5+/-24, and SC score was 54.3+/-24.2. The PF score was significantly lower in patients with a family history of thalassemia (p=0.003), and in those whose families had low incomes (p=0.049). Conversely, the SF score was significantly higher in school-educated patients (p=0.01). The quality of life of thalassemic children is affected by multiple factors, such as family income and a family history of thalassemia. Education appeared to increase patient functionality. Supportive measures could improve the quality of life in thalassemic patients.

  3. Diminished ovarian reserve in women with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major: Is iron gonadotoxic?

    PubMed

    Uysal, Aysel; Alkan, Gül; Kurtoğlu, Ayşegül; Erol, Onur; Kurtoğlu, Erdal

    2017-09-01

    Iron accumulation in the endocrine glands has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of decreased reproductive capacity in patients with beta-thalassemia major (β-TM). The aim of the current study was to investigate the serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, in women with transfusion-dependent β-TM. In this case-control study, we recruited 43 women with transfusion-dependent TM and 44 age-matched healthy controls. Hormonal and haematological parameters, serum level of AMH, antral follicle count, and ovarian volume were assessed. Twenty-two of the 43 women were hypogonadotropic, 8 with primary amenorrhea and 14 with secondary amenorrhea. FSH, LH, estradiol, prolactin, and AMH levels; antral follicle count; and ovarian volume were significantly lower in women with TM compared with the control group (p<0.05 for all). AMH level and other ovarian reserve markers are significantly diminished in women with transfusion-dependent TM compared to age-matched controls. Our findings support a deleterious effect of iron overload on ovarian tissue. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Premature atherosclerosis in children with beta-thalassemia major: New diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Sherief, Laila M; Dawood, Osama; Ali, Adel; Sherbiny, Hanan S; Kamal, Naglaa M; Elshanshory, Mohamed; Alazez, Osama Abd; Alhady, Mohamed Abd; Nour, Mohamed; Mokhtar, Wesam A

    2017-03-09

    Early vascular alteration, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease have emerged as important cardiovascular complications among beta-thalassemia major (B-TM) patients. The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of premature atherosclerosis among our B-TM patients, and to investigate the diagnostic value of serum Osteoprotegerin assay as an early biomarker for atherosclerosis. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Hematology unit - Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Children Hospital- Egypt in the period from March 2014 to March 2015. A total of 115 children were enrolled in the current study; as sixty-five (65) children with beta thalassemia major aged 5-18 years, on regular blood transfusion regimen represented the patient group. While fifty (50) healthy children, with comparable age and gender, were assigned as control group. All participants were subjected to history taking, thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including; complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, C- reactive protein, lipid profile, serum ferritin and serum Osteoprotegerin (OPG) assay. Also, carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) was performed by duplex ultrasound for patients and controls. Our B-TM patients were transfusion-dependent for as long as 8.5 ± 3.8 years with significantly higher serum ferritin levels (2490 ± 1579 ng/dl vs 83 ± 32 ng/dl, p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (5.7 ± 5.7 vs 0.9 ± 0.9), liver enzymes and bilirubin when compared to controls. Significantly higher serum triglyceride (128 ± 20 vs 101 ± 7 mg/dL, p = 0.009) and atherogenic index of plasma (0.45 ± 0.12 vs 0.22 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) were recorded in patients than comparisons. On the contrary, total serum cholesterol (116 ± 16 vs 143 ± 5, p < 0.001), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (44 ± 9 vs 73 ± 6, p < 0.001) and high density lipoprotein

  5. Clinical and hematological response to hydroxyurea in a patient with Hb Lepore/beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Rigano, P; Manfré, L; La Galla, R; Renda, D; Renda, M C; Calabrese, A; Calzolari, R; Maggio, A

    1997-05-01

    The possibility of increasing Hb F in vivo using drugs like 5-azacytidine, hydroxyurea, and butyrate has been established. However, in many cases this does not entail an increase in total hemoglobin. We report on a patient with Hb Lepore/beta-thalassemia being treated with hydroxyurea (30 mg/Kg/day) because of the presence of erythroid extramedullary masses with severe neurological abnormalities. During therapy the patient showed a remarkable improvement in neurological signs due to the reduction in extra-medullary masses, a significant increase in both total hemoglobin (from 5.8 to 9.7 g/dl) and Hb F (from 4.9 g/dl to 9.1 g/dl). The marked improvement in hemoglobin level in our patient with Hb Lepore/beta-thalassemia suggests gamma-globin gene activation due to the DNA structure determined by the crossover event.

  6. Long-term survival of beta thalassemia major patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared with survival with conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Caocci, Giovanni; Orofino, Maria Grazia; Vacca, Adriana; Piroddi, Antonio; Piras, Eugenia; Addari, Maria Carmen; Caria, Rossella; Pilia, Maria Paola; Origa, Raffaella; Moi, Paolo; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-12-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in thalassemia remains a challenge. We reported a single-centre case-control study of a large cohort of 516 children and adult patients treated with HSCT or blood transfusion support and iron chelation therapy; 258 patients (median age 12, range 1-45) underwent sibling (67%) or unrelated (33%) HSCT; 97 patients were adults (age ≥ 16 years). The median follow-up after HSCT was 11 years (range 1-30). The conditioning regimen was busulfan (80.6%) or treosulfan-based (19.4%). A cohort of 258 age-sex matched conventionally treated (CT) patients was randomly selected. In transplanted patients the 30-year overall survival (OS) and thalassemia-free survival (TFS) were 82.6 ± 2.7% and 77.8 ± 2.9%, compared to the OS of 85.3 ± 2.7% in CT patients (P = NS); The incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) was 23.6% and 12.9% respectively. The probability of rejection was 6.9%. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) (13.8%) was similar to the probability of dying of cardiovascular events in CT patients (12.2%). High-risk Pesaro score (class 3) was associated with lower OS (OR = 1.99, 95% C.I.=1.31-3.03) and TFS (OR = 1.54, 95% C.I.=1.12-2.12). In adult patients, the 23-years OS and TFS after HSCT were 70 ± 5% and 67.3 ± 5%, compared to 71.2 ± 5% of OS in CT (P = NS). Finally, treosulfan was associated with lower risk of acute GvHD (P = .004; OR = 0.28, 95% C.I.=0.12-0.67). In conclusion, the 30-year survival rate of ex-thalassemia patients after HSCT was similar to that expected in CT thalassemia patients, with the vast majority of HSCT survivors cured from thalassemia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Frequency of Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Mutations in Egyptian Beta Thalassemia Patients and its Relation to Iron Overload.

    PubMed

    Enein, Azza Aboul; El Dessouky, Nermine A; Mohamed, Khalda S; Botros, Shahira K A; Abd El Gawad, Mona F; Hamdy, Mona; Dyaa, Nehal

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to detect the most common HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D, and S56C) in Egyptian beta thalassemia major patients and its relation to their iron status. The study included 50 beta thalassemia major patients and 30 age and sex matched healthy persons as a control group. Serum ferritin, serum iron and TIBC level were measured. Detection of the three HFE gene mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) was done by PCR-RFLP analysis. Confirmation of positive cases for the mutations was done by sequencing. Neither homozygote nor carrier status for the C282Y or S65C alleles was found. The H63D heterozygous state was detected in 5/50 (10%) thalassemic patients and in 1/30 (3.3%) controls with no statistically significant difference between patients and control groups (p = 0.22). Significantly higher levels of the serum ferritin and serum iron in patients with this mutation (p = 001). Our results suggest that there is an association between H63D mutation and the severity of iron overload in thalassemic patients.

  8. Role of Three-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in the Quantification of Myocardial Iron Overload in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Juan; Hwang, Yu-Yan; Ha, Shau-Yin; Chan, Godfrey C F; Mok, Amanda S P; Wong, Sophia J; Cheung, Yiu-Fai

    2016-09-01

    The new three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) may enable comprehensive quantification of global left ventricular (LV) myocardial mechanics. Twenty-four patients aged 29.3 ± 5.2 years and 22 controls were studied. 3DSTE was performed to assess LV 3D global strain, twist and torsion, ejection fraction, and systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI). The LV SDI was calculated as % of SD of times-to-peak strain of 16 segments/RR interval. The global performance index (GPI) was calculated as (global 3D strain·torsion)/SDI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to determine the capability of 3DSTE parameters to discriminate between patients with (cardiac magnetic resonance T2* <20 ms) and those without myocardial iron overload. Compared with controls, patients had significantly lower LV global 3D strain (P < 0.001), twist (P = 0.01), torsion (P = 0.04), and ejection fraction (P < 0.001) and greater SDI (P < 0.001). The GPI was lower in patients than controls (P < 0.001). T2* value correlated positively with global 3D strain (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) and GPI (r = 0.63, P = 0.001), and negatively with SDI (r = -0.44, P = 0.03). The AUCs of GPI, global 3D strain, ejection fraction, torsion, and 1/SDI were 0.94, 0.90, 0.87, 0.82, and 0.70, respectively. The GPI cutoff of 2.7°/cm had a sensitivity of 94.9% and a specificity of 88.9% of differentiating patients with from those without myocardial iron overload. The LV composite index of strain, torsion, and dyssynchrony derived from 3DSTE enables sensitive detection of myocardial iron overload in patients with thalassemia. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genotype–phenotype correlation among beta-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia/HbE disease in Thai children: predictable clinical spectrum using genotypic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Traivaree, Chanchai; Monsereenusorn, Chalinee; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Prasertsin, Warakorn; Boonyawat, Boonchai

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Beta-thalassemia is a group of inherited hemolytic anemias and one of the most common genetic disorders in Thailand. The clinical spectrum of beta-thalassemia disease ranges from mild to severe clinical symptoms including mild beta-thalassemia intermedia (TI) and severe beta-thalassemia major (TM). Objective This study aimed to determine the correlation between beta-globin gene (HBB) mutations and their phenotypic manifestations by evaluating patients’ clinical characteristics, transfusion requirements, growth and hematologic parameters, and hemoglobin typing among pediatric patients treated at Phramongkutklao Hospital. Materials and methods Seventy beta-thalassemia patients, including 63 with beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE) and 7 with either homozygous or compound heterozygous beta-thalassemia, were enrolled in this study. Their clinical presentation, growth parameters and laboratory findings were reviewed and analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 10.52±5.62 years. Mutation analysis in each individual was performed using multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS), direct DNA sequencing of beta-globin gene and gap PCR for 3.4 kb deletion detection. Results All 7 homozygous and compound heterozygous beta-thalassemia patients were classified in TM. Among 63 patients with beta-thalassemia/HbE, 58 were classified in TM and 4 were classified in TI. Mean age at diagnosis was 0.8±0.49 years for homozygous or compound heterozygous beta-thalassemia and 3.43±3.5 years for beta-thalassemia/HbE. The most common HBB mutation was HBB:c.126_129delCTTT [codon 41/42 (-TCTT)] found in 34 alleles (48.6%). The height for age was also lower in homozygous beta-thalassemia patients (<3rd percentile) compared to compound heterozygous beta-thalassemia patients (25–50th percentile). Conclusion This study revealed a genotype–phenotype correlation of the most prevalent beta-thalassemia in Thai children using diagnostic capacity in genotypic analysis

  10. Beta-thalassemia major and female fertility: the role of iron and iron-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Roussou, Paraskevi; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Livadas, Sarantis; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine complications due to haemosiderosis are present in a significant number of patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) worldwide and often become barriers in their desire for parenthood. Thus, although spontaneous fertility can occur, the majority of females with BTM is infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and need assisted reproductive techniques. Infertility in these women seems to be attributed to iron deposition and iron-induced oxidative stress (OS) in various endocrine organs, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and female reproductive system, but also through the iron effect on other organs, such as liver and pancreas, contributing to the impaired metabolism of hormones and serum antioxidants. Nevertheless, the gonadal function of these patients is usually intact and fertility is usually retrievable. Meanwhile, a significant prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance with subsequent increased (OS) exists in patients with BTM, which is mainly caused by tissue injury due to overproduction of free radicals by secondary iron overload, but also due to alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Not only using the appropriate antioxidants, essential trace elements, and minerals, but also regulating the advanced glycation end products, could probably reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications and retrieve BTM women's infertility.

  11. Comparison of deferiprone and deferrioxamine for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in children with beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Nadia; Ali, Shafqut; Butt, Muhammad Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia major is the most common genetic disorder in Pakistan. The study was done to compare the efficacy and safety of the deferiprone with deferrioxamine for the treatment of iron overload in children with thalassemia major. This randomized controlled trail was conducted at thalassemia blood transfusion unit of Allied Hospital, Faisalabad (AHF)/District Headquarter Hospital (DHQ), Faisalabad. Thalassemia-Unit Hilal-e-Ahmar, Alizeb Foundation and Blood Bank Services Faisalabad from November 2010 to December 2011.Children with beta thalassemia major of age more than 2 years and less than 16 years with transfusion iron over load were randomly allocated to one of the two groups each comprising of 67 patients. One group received deferiprone given at a daily dose of 75mg/kg in three divided doses orally while the other group received deferrioxamine at dose 50 mg/kg/24hrs for 5 days/week as parental infusion. Changes in the serum ferritin level were assessed. Cardiac function and toxicity were also examined. Serum ferritin was significantly reduced after 1 year in both treatment arms (p=0.01). Neutropenia observed in 13 (19.40%) non-splenectomized patients taking deferiprone. Transient elevations in ALT were observed in 3 (4.47%) children taking deferiprone. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remained in normal range in both treatment arm but has decreased significantly in Deferrioxamine group compliance. Compliance was better in deferiprone as compared to deferrioxamine. Discontinuing percentage 2 (3%) vs 9 (13.43%). Deferiprone is a highly efficacious and safe chelation therapy for patients with thalassemia major who are non-compliant to Deferrioxamine. Deferiprone have an efficacy profile comparable to standard Deferrioxamine.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Beta thalassemia Beta thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  13. Effect of transfusional iron intake on response to chelation therapy in beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan R; Glimm, Ekkehard; Porter, John B

    2008-01-15

    The success of chelation therapy in controlling iron overload in patients with thalassemia major is highly variable and may partly depend on the rate of transfusional iron loading. Using data from the 1-year phase III study of deferasirox, including volumes of transfused red blood cells and changes in liver iron concentration (LIC) in 541 patients, the effect of iron loading on achieving neutral or negative iron balance was assessed in patients receiving different doses of deferasirox and the comparator deferoxamine. After dose adjustment, reductions in LIC after 1 year of deferasirox or deferoxamine therapy correlated with transfusional iron intake. At a deferasirox dose of 20 mg/kg per day, neutral or negative iron balance was achieved in 46% and 75% of patients with the highest and lowest transfusional iron intake, respectively; 30 mg/kg per day produced successful control of iron stores in 96% of patients with a low rate of transfusional iron intake. Splenectomized patients had lower transfusional iron intake and greater reductions in iron stores than patients with intact spleens. Transfusional iron intake should be monitored on an ongoing basis in thalassemia major patients, and the rate of transfusional iron loading should be considered when choosing the appropriate dose of an iron-chelating agent. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00061750.

  14. Molecular analysis of beta-globin gene mutations among Thai beta-thalassemia children: results from a single center study

    PubMed Central

    Boonyawat, Boonchai; Monsereenusorn, Chalinee; Traivaree, Chanchai

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders in Thailand. Clinical phenotype ranges from silent carrier to clinically manifested conditions including severe beta-thalassemia major and mild beta-thalassemia intermedia. Objective This study aimed to characterize the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in pediatric patients who were followed-up in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Patients and methods Eighty unrelated beta-thalassemia patients were enrolled in this study including 57 with beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E, eight with homozygous beta-thalassemia, and 15 with heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Mutation analysis was performed by multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (M-ARMS), direct DNA sequencing of beta-globin gene, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection, respectively. Results A total of 13 different beta-thalassemia mutations were identified among 88 alleles. The most common mutation was codon 41/42 (-TCTT) (37.5%), followed by codon 17 (A>T) (26.1%), IVS-I-5 (G>C) (8%), IVS-II-654 (C>T) (6.8%), IVS-I-1 (G>T) (4.5%), and codon 71/72 (+A) (2.3%), and all these six common mutations (85.2%) were detected by M-ARMS. Six uncommon mutations (10.2%) were identified by DNA sequencing including 4.5% for codon 35 (C>A) and 1.1% initiation codon mutation (ATG>AGG), codon 15 (G>A), codon 19 (A>G), codon 27/28 (+C), and codon 123/124/125 (-ACCCCACC), respectively. The 3.4 kb deletion was detected at 4.5%. The most common genotype of beta-thalassemia major patients was codon 41/42 (-TCTT)/codon 26 (G>A) or betaE accounting for 40%. Conclusion All of the beta-thalassemia alleles have been characterized by a combination of techniques including M-ARMS, DNA sequencing, and gap polymerase chain reaction for 3.4 kb deletion detection. Thirteen mutations account for 100% of the beta-thalassemia genes among the pediatric patients in our study. PMID:25525381

  15. Associations between a health-promoting lifestyle and quality of life among adults with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Maheri, Aghbabak; Sadeghi, Roya; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    A health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) is a factor that affects the quality of life (QoL) in patients with beta-thalassemia (β-thalassemia). Due to the lack of studies of this issue, this study aimed to determine the association between HPL and QoL among adults with β-thalassemia. This cross-sectional (descriptive-analytic) study was conducted among 389 adult patients with β-thalassemia in Tehran, Iran. The research instrument included a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic items, the Short-Form Health Survey and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. The results were considered significant at the conventional p<0.05 level. The mean age of the participants was 30.2±8.3 years. The mean score of the HPL dimensions was 127.28±21.53, and the mean score of the QoL domains was 61.44±23.38. The highest and the lowest mean scores of the HPL dimensions were found for spiritual growth (23.96±5.74) and physical activity (11.32±3.95), respectively. The QoL scores in all three domains (total, physical component summary score, and mental component summary score) were moderate. Health responsibility, physical activity, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relations were significant predictive factors of QoL in adults with β-thalassemia; these four dimensions explained 37.9% of the variance in QoL. QoL and HPL were not at acceptable levels among patients with thalassemia. Therefore, educational interventions emphasizing spiritual growth, physical activity, and interpersonal relations are necessary for patients with thalassemia.

  16. Assessment of cognitive function in children with beta-thalassemia major: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Raafat, Nelly; El Safy, Usama; Khater, Nahed; Hassan, Tamer; Hassan, Basheir; Siam, Ahmed; Youssef, Amira; El Shabrawy, Amany

    2015-03-01

    Multiple risk factors contribute to cognitive impairment in children with β-thalassemia major. For a more refined understanding of this issue, we attempted to evaluate cognitive function in β-thalassemia major patients and identify the relationship between possible cognitive dysfunction and the following: demography, transfusion and chelation characteristics, iron overload, and disease complications. We studied 100 β-thalassemia major children and 100 healthy controls who matched well in terms of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. All participants underwent psychometric assessment using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Arabic version. The mean Full-Scale IQ and Performance IQ of patients were significantly lower than those of controls, whereas no significant difference was found for Verbal IQ. No significant relationship existed between IQ and any of the assessed parameters. We concluded that Performance IQ, not Verbal IQ, was significantly affected in β-thalassemia major patients, but there was no clear association between IQ and any of the parameters. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Prospective evaluation of patient-reported outcomes during treatment with deferasirox or deferoxamine for iron overload in patients with beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Agaoglu, Leyla; Porter, John; Coates, Thomas; Jeng, Michael; Lai, Maria Eliana; Mangiagli, Antonio; Strauss, Gabriele; Girot, Robert; Watman, Nora; Ferster, Alina; Loggetto, Sandra; Abish, Sharon; Cario, Holger; Zoumbos, Nicolaos; Vichinsky, Elliott; Opitz, Herbert; Ressayre-Djaffer, Catherine; Abetz, Linda; Rofail, Diana; Baladi, Jean-Francois

    2007-05-01

    Iron chelation therapy (ICT) with deferoxamine (DFO), the current standard for the treatment of iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent disorders such as beta-thalassemia, requires regular subcutaneous or intravenous infusions. This can lead to reduced quality of life and poor adherence, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality in iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia. Deferasirox is an orally administered iron chelator that has been approved for use in the United States, Switzerland, and other countries. This analysis was conducted to compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) during receipt of DFO infusions or once-daily oral therapy with deferasirox (ICL670). PROs were prospectively evaluated as part of a randomized, Phase III study comparing the efficacy and safety profile of DFO 20 to 60 mg/kg per day with those of deferasirox 5 to 30 mg/kg per day in patients (age > or =2 years) with beta-thalassemia who were receiving regular transfusions and had a liver iron concentration of > or =2 mg/g dry weight. PRO questionnaires were completed by patients or a parent or legal guardian at baseline, week 4, week 24, and end of study (EOS). Patients assessed their level of satisfaction with study treatment (very satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied) and rated its convenience (very convenient, convenient, neutral, inconvenient, or very inconvenient). Time lost from normal activities due to ICT in the previous 4 weeks was recorded using a single global assessment. At week 4, patients who had previous experience with DFO were asked to indicate their preference for treatment (ICT received before the study, ICT received during the study, no preference, or no response) and the reason for that preference. At EOS, all patients were asked if they would be willing to continue using the ICT they had received during the study. All study analyses were performed in all patients who received at least 1 dose of study medication

  18. Diagnostic difficulty of beta-thalassemia syndrome in a multi-transfused patient: contribution of myelogram and studying parents.

    PubMed

    Trawinski, Élisabeth; Fenneteau, Odile; Le Mouel, Lou; Ithier, Ghislaine; Couque, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    We report the case of a 5 year old, initially followed for congenital sideroblastic anemia, whose explorations reveal a complex family hemoglobinopathy. Myelogram performed in children, reveals dystrophic mature erythroblasts with hemoglobinization defect and basophil punctuations. These abnormalities point towards an abnormal synthesis of heme or globin chains. Iterative transfusions in child do not allow interpreting a search for abnormal hemoglobin. However, the analysis carried out in his parents, with increased HBA2 rate and microcytosis concluded in beta-thalassemia trait for father and mother. Knowing that beta-thalassemia syndrome is a genetic condition, usually recessive, the presence of beta-thalassemia trait in parents is in favor of a beta-thalassemia syndrome in child. This diagnostic hypothesis is confirmed by molecular study of globin genes that will reveal a complex hemoglobinopathie for all family's members. The parents are carriers for heterozygous mutation of β + thalassemia that the sick child presents in homozygous state supporting the diagnosis of beta-thalassemia syndrome. Moreover, a triple α globin gene is present respectively at heterozygous state for mother and at homozygous state for father and child. The triple α globin gene is a known factor of aggravation of beta-thalassemia and this clinical case with continuum observed, perfectly illustrates the intricacies between α and β globin genes.

  19. Evaluation of Glutathione-S-Transferase P1 Polymorphism and its Relation to Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children and Adolescents with Beta-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M.; Badr, Eman A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major complication of beta thalassemia major (TM). Increased oxidative stress and its controlling genes were linked to osteoporosis. Ile105 Val variant is a functional polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), with reduced anti-oxidative property. No data are available about this variant or its association with osteoporosis among thalassemia patients yet. Objectives To investigate Ile105Val polymorphism and its possible association with bone mineral density (BMD) values in a group of TM children. Methods Thirty five TM children and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. Liver and renal functions, serum ferritin, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assayed. BMD was determined by DXA with calculation of Z-scores at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). Height for age Z- score (HAZ) adjusted BMD Z-scores were calculated. GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The relative frequency of 105 Val allele was significantly higher in TM patients than the controls (p<0.0001). Significant association between genotype subgroups and BMD parameters was detected. Compared to wild homozygotes, polymorphic homozygotes had lower LS-BMD (p =0.029), LS-BMD Z –score (p=0.008 ), LS- BMD haz - Z-score (p=0.011), FN- BMD (p= 0.001), FN- BMD Z –score (p=0.02) and FN-BMD haz - Z-score (p=0.001). They exhibited higher osteocalcin levels compared to heterozygotes and wild homozygotes (p=0.012, p=0.013, respectively). Conclusion Ile105Val polymorphism was frequent among TM patients and could increase their susceptibility to reduced BMD. Large sample studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26740865

  20. Molecular basis of beta-thalassemia in the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Furuumi, H; Firdous, N; Inoue, T; Ohta, H; Winichagoon, P; Fucharoen, S; Fukumaki, Y

    1998-03-01

    We have systematically analyzed beta-thalassemia genes using polymerase chain reaction-related techniques, dot-blot hybridization with oligonucleotide probes, allele specific-polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of amplified DNA fragments from 41 unrelated patients, including 37 beta-thalassemia homozygotes, three with beta-thalassemia/Hb E, and one with beta-thalassemia/Hb S. Four different beta-thalassemia mutations were detected in 78 alleles. These are the IVS-I-5 (G-->C), codon 30 (AGG-->ACG) [also indicated as IVS-I (-1)], IVS-I-1 (G-->A), and codons 41/42 (-TTCT) mutations. The distribution of the beta-thalassemia mutations in the Maldives is 58 alleles (74.3%) with the IVS-I-5 (G-->C) mutation, 12 (15.4%) with the codon 30 (AGG-->ACG) mutation, seven (9%) with the IVS-I-1 (G-->A) mutation, and one with the codons 41/42 (-TTCT) mutation. The first three mutations account for 98.7% of the total number of beta-thalassemia chromosomes studied. These mutations are clustered in the region spanning 6 bp around the junction of exon 1 and the first intervening sequence of the beta-globin gene. These observations have significant implications for setting up a thalassemia prevention and control program in the Maldives. Analysis of haplotypes and frameworks of chromosomes bearing each beta-thalassemia mutation suggested that the origin and spread of these mutations were reflected by the historical record.

  1. Ophthalmic Evaluation in Beta-Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rashid H; Punde, Hrishikesh; Thacker, Neepa; Bhatt, Deepak

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association of ocular manifestations in beta-thalassemia with the patient's age, blood transfusion requirements, average serum ferritin and dose and duration of iron chelation therapy. Sixty multi-transfused beta thalassemia patients of 12 to 18 y of age on chelation therapy were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Structural and functional evaluation of the retina was done using Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Electroretinography (ERG), including flash ERG and Pattern ERG (PERG). Routine ophthalmic examination and B scan of the eye was also done. Flash ERG a-waves and b-waves were recorded, however only a-wave amplitude was evaluated. Pattern ERG n35, n95 and p50 waves were recorded and p50 wave amplitude was evaluated. The a-wave on flash and p50 on pattern waves represent retinal photoreceptor epithelium (RPE) photoreceptor response, which is mainly affected in beta-thalassemia. Ocular changes were detected in 38.3% and a significant correlation was noted with increase in age (p = 0.045) but not with serum ferritin, transfusion requirements or chelation therapy. Refractive errors were found in 14 cases (23%), such as myopia with astigmatism in 13 (21.7%) and only myopia in 6 subjects (10%). OCT abnormality was noted in 1 patient (1.7%) who had thinning of central retina; right eye 132 μm and left eye 146 μm (n > 200 μm). Abnormalities were noted in a-wave amplitude on flash ERG in 20% of cases, while reduced p50 amplitude on PERG was noted in 15%. A significant correlation was noted between ocular findings and increase in age, but not with serum ferritin, transfusion requirements or chelation therapy. ERG appears to be a promising tool for screening patients with beta-thalassemia and can serve as a follow-up test for evaluating retinal function.

  2. Circulating microparticles and the risk of thromboembolic events in Egyptian beta thalassemia patients.

    PubMed

    Youssry, Ilham; Soliman, Nohair; Ghamrawy, Mona; Samy, Rania Mohamed; Nasr, Amal; Abdel Mohsen, Mohamed; ElShahaat, Mohamed; Bou Fakhredin, Rayan; Taher, Ali

    2017-04-01

    The presence of elevated numbers of circulating microparticles (MPs) has been hypothesized to be responsible for the occurrence of thromboembolic events (TEEs) in thalassemic patients. Our aim is to evaluate the presence and the thrombotic risk of circulating MPs in thalassemia patients and to determine the difference in MPs between β-thalassemia major (β-TM) and thalassemia intermedia (TI). The percentage of the annexin-labeled MPs, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs), erythrocyte-derived MPs (RMPs), and endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs) was measured by flow cytometry, in 87 thalassemia patients (39 β-TM and 48 TI). By multiple regression analysis, we then assessed the various independent risk factors for the occurrence of TEE. The thalassemic patients who experienced TEE had a significantly higher platelet count, higher percentage of annexin-labeled MPs, and higher percentage of PMPs (p value = 0.014, 0.003, and 0.014, respectively). There was no significant difference between β-TM and TI patients at the level of any of the studied MPs. The predictive risk factors for TEE in thalassemic patients were splenectomy, total and direct bilirubin, the RMPs, and the EMPs (OR = 10.07 (CI = 3.7-27.1), 4.3 (CI = 2.1-8.7), 1.4 (CI = 1.5-6.2), 1.6 (CI = 1.1-2.2), 3.0 (CI = 1.9-4.9), respectively). In conclusion, the elevated numbers of circulating MPs is a risk factor for the TEE in thalassemia patients.

  3. Improved treatment satisfaction and convenience with deferasirox in iron-overloaded patients with beta-Thalassemia: Results from the ESCALATOR Trial.

    PubMed

    Taher, Ali; Al Jefri, Abdullah; Elalfy, Mohsen Saleh; Al Zir, Kusai; Daar, Shahina; Rofail, Diana; Baladi, Jean François; Habr, Dany; Kriemler-Krahn, Ulrike; El-Beshlawy, Amal

    2010-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes of once-daily oral deferasirox (Exjade) in iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia not achieving successful chelation with prior deferoxamine and/or deferiprone were investigated in a prospective, open-label, 1-year, multicenter study in the Middle East (ESCALATOR). The initial dose of deferasirox was 20 mg/kg/day, with subsequent dose adjustments. At baseline and the end of study (EOS), patients (n = 237) completed a 5-point rating scale for treatment satisfaction and convenience, and recorded time lost to treatment. At EOS, 90.7% of patients were 'satisfied'/'very satisfied' with their iron chelation therapy (ICT) versus 23.2% at baseline. 92.8% (EOS) versus 21.5% (baseline) of patients considered their therapy to be 'convenient'/'very convenient'. Time lost to therapy for daily activities was substantially reduced (3.2 +/- 8.6 [mean +/- SD; EOS] vs. 30.1 +/- 44.2 [baseline] h/month). Patients reported greater satisfaction and convenience, and lower impact on daily activities, with deferasirox than with previous ICT. This may help improve adherence to lifelong ICT in iron-overloaded beta-thalassemia patients. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  5. Beta-thalassemia intermedia associated with moyamoya syndrome.

    PubMed

    Göksel, Basak Karakurum; Ozdogu, Hakan; Yildirim, Tulin; Oğuzkurt, Levent; Asma, Suheyl

    2010-07-01

    Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is a progressive disorder. We report a 19-year-old boy with beta-thalassemia who presented with a left hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed old middle cerebral artery and left frontal subcortical white matter infarcts. Brain magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries with a rich network of basal collateral vessels. To our knowledge this is the third report of beta-thalassemia intermedia and MMS, and the first report of a patient in Turkey. It emphasizes the potential for cerebral infarct due to anemia, protein S and thrombocytosis.

  6. Is beta-thalassemia trait a protective factor against ischemic cerebrovascular accidents?

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehran; Borhani Haghighi, Afshin; Yazdani, Maryam; Raisi, Hamideh; Giti, Rahil; Namazee, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we sought to determine the association between beta-thalassemia trait and ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA). In acase-control study, 148 patients with thromboembolic cerebrovascular events were evaluated for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and beta-thalassemia trait. A total of 156 age- and sex-matched patients with no cardiac or cerebrovascular diseases, serving as the control group, were also investigated for the above-mentioned risk factors. We found that 6.1% of patients with ischemic CVA and 12.2% of the control group had beta-thalassemia trait (P = .066). In male patients, the negative association between ischemic CVA and presence of beta-thalassemia trait was significant (P = .008). In patients, the prevalence of hypertension was also significantly different between those with and without beta-thalassemia trait (P = .01); those with beta-thalassemia trait had a lower mean blood pressure than those without the trait. beta-Thalassemia trait may have a protective effect against ischemic CVA that might be caused by the lower arterial blood pressure observed in those with this trait.

  7. Immune Status 'in Children with Beta Thalassemia' in Correlation 'with Iron Overload': Single Center Egyptian Study.

    PubMed

    Hagag, Adel A; Elgamsy, Mohamed A; El-Asy, Hassan M; Gamal, Rasha M; Elshahaby, Walid N; Abd Elbar, Enaam S

    2016-01-01

    'Beta thalassemia is inherited hemoglobin disorder resulting in chronic hemolytic anemia that requires lifelong transfusion therapy'. 'Repeated blood transfusions and RBCs hemolysis are the main causes of iron overload', which in addition to immune abnormalities, are common predisposing factors to infections in patients with thalassemia. The Aim of this Work: The aim of this work was to study immune status including T lymphocyte subsets and serum immunoglobulin levels 'in children with beta- thalassemia in correlation with iron overload'. The present 'study was conducted on 40 children with beta thalassemia major under follow up at Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University' 'including 24 males and 16 females with mean' age value of 9. 22 ± 3.9 years and 20 'healthy children of matched age and sex as a control group'. All children included in the study were subjected to; 'complete blood count, Hb electrophoresis, serum iron status', T cell subsets including CD3, CD4 and CD8 and serum immunoglobulin levels including IgM, IgA and IgG. 'Pallor and jaundice were the most common presenting' clinical manifestations. Infective episodes 'were significantly higher in patients' compared with controls. There were significantly lower Hb, MCV and MCH levels and significantly higher WBCs and platelets counts, reticulocytes and lymphocytes percentage in patients than controls and no significant differences in MCHC between patients and controls. Serum ferritin and iron were 'significantly higher but TIBC was significantly lower in' patients than controls. CD3, CD4 and IgM were significantly lower but CD8, IgG, and IgA 'were significantly higher in patients than controls' with negative correlation between CD3, CD4, IgM and ferritin and positive correlation between CD8, IgG, IgA and ferritin. Iron overload can affect humeral and cell mediated immunity in patients with beta thalassemia with reduction of IgM, CD3 and CD4 and elevation of CD8, IgG, and IgA. Regular follow

  8. Imaging findings in a child with calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome after bone marrow transplant for beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ayyala, Rama S; Arnold, Staci D; Bhatia, Monica; Dastgir, Jahannaz

    2016-10-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome is an entity recognized in patients on immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Diagnosis is characterized by onset of pain beginning in the setting of an elevated calcineurin-inhibitor trough level. Reducing the medication dose relieves symptoms. Imaging findings can be nonspecific, including bone marrow edema and periosteal reaction. We present the unique case of calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome in a child and review the imaging findings.

  9. Fatal overdose due to prescription fentanyl patches in a patient with sickle cell/beta-thalassemia and acute chest syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Biedrzycki, Olaf J; Bevan, David; Lucas, Sebastian

    2009-06-01

    Introduced into clinical practice in the 1960s, the analgesic fentanyl is 100 times more potent than morphine. Various methods of administration exist including the transdermal Duragesic patch system, widely used in chronic pain and palliative care settings. Numerous, often imaginative methods of abuse of fentanyl patches have been reported; the majority of fatal fentanyl overdose cases resulting from deliberate abuse or suicide. We describe the accidental overdose of a young black male with sickle cell/beta-thalassemia who had been using the Duragesic system for almost 2 years.At autopsy the macroscopic findings were of nonspecific opiate overdose with congested heavy lungs. Histopathological examination revealed severe sickling of red blood cells in the lungs (acute chest syndrome). Toxicological examination revealed blood and urine fentanyl levels of 40 microg/L and 400 microg/L (10 fold and 100 fold higher than therapeutic levels). The mast cell tryptase was also significantly elevated at 76 microg/L, (Normal 2-14 microg/L). We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the cause of death, and stress the need to consider fentanyl when confronted with nonspecific signs of opiate overdose as it is not detected in routine toxicological drug screens.

  10. The molecular basis of beta-thalassemia in Argentina. Influence of the pattern of immigration from the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Liliana C; Targovnik, Héctor M; Varela, Viviana

    2004-06-01

    In order to determine the molecular heterogeneity of the beta-thalassemia gene and to analyze the influence of immigration from the Mediterranean Basin, a total of 254 families (475 subjects) from Argentinean beta-thalassemia patients were investigated using molecular biology techniques. This allowed us to provide a simplified diagnosis and genetic counselling of this disorder in Argentina.

  11. Genotype-phenotype diversity of beta-thalassemia in Malaysia: treatment options and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    George, Elizabeth; Ann, T J A Mary

    2010-12-01

    The haemoglobinopathies and thalassemias represent the most common inherited monogenic disorders in the world. Beta-thalassaemia major is an ongoing public health problem in Malaysia. Prior to 2004, the country had no national policy for screening and registry for thalassemia. In the absence of a national audit, the true figure of the extent of thalassemia in the Malaysian population was largely presumptive from micro-mapping studies from various research workers in the country. The estimated carrier rate for beta-thalassemia in Malaysia is 3.5-4%. There were 4768 transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients as of May 2010 (Data from National Thalassemia Registry).

  12. Genetic heterogeneity of Beta thalassemia in Lebanon reflects historic and recent population migration.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, N J; Wells, R S; Kaspar, H; Shbaklo, H; Taher, A; Chakar, N; Zalloua, P A

    2005-01-01

    Beta thalassemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by reduced (beta(+)) or absent (beta(0)) beta-globin chain synthesis. In Lebanon it is the most predominant genetic defect. In this study we investigated the religious and geographic distribution of the beta-thalassemia mutations identified in Lebanon, and traced their precise origins. A total of 520 beta-globin chromosomes from patients of different religious and regional backgrounds was studied. Beta thalassemia mutations were identified using Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) PCR or direct gene sequencing. Six (IVS-I-110, IVS-I-1, IVS-I-6, IVS-II-1, cd 5 and the C > T substitution at cd 29) out of 20 beta-globin defects identified accounted for more than 86% of the total beta-thalassemia chromosomes. Sunni Muslims had the highest beta-thalassemia carrier rate and presented the greatest heterogeneity, with 16 different mutations. Shiite Muslims followed closely with 13 mutations, whereas Maronites represented 11.9% of all beta-thalassemic subjects and carried 7 different mutations. RFLP haplotype analysis showed that the observed genetic diversity originated from both new mutational events and gene flow from population migration. This study provides information about the types and distribution of beta-thalassemia mutations within each religious group and geographic region, which is essential for the implementation of screening and prevention programs.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of HTLV-1 in Iranian blood donors, HIV-1 positive patients and patients with beta thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Pirayeshfard, Leila; Sharifi, Zohreh; Amini-Kafiabad, Sedigheh; Haghnazari Sadaghiani, Nasrin

    2018-04-16

    Human T-cell lymphoma virus (HTLV) has been associated with various disease types. Since the discovery of the virus in 1980, seven subtypes of the virus have been identified. HTLV is widespread and endemic in some regions, such as Japan, Africa, South America, and northeast Iran. This study aimed to identify HTLV-1 genotype and also to analyze the nucleotide sequence of the LTR region in three groups, including blood donors, HIV-1+ patients, and β-thalassemia patients. In this cross-sectional study, 2200 samples were collected from blood donors in Tehran (2000 samples), HIV-1+ patients (100 samples) and β-thalassemia patients (100 samples). All samples were screened for anti-HTLV-I&II antibodies by ELISA. Then, genomic DNA was extracted from repeatedly positive samples, and nested PCR was performed for both the TAX and LTR regions. Purified PCR products were sequenced and analyzed, and finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using Mega7 software. The prevalence of the anti-HTLV-I&II antibody among blood donors and HIV-1+ patients was 1.7% (34/2000) and 12% (12/100), respectively. The PCR results confirmed that 0.05% (1/2000) of blood donors, 5% (5/100) of HIV-1+ patients, and 8% (8/100) of β-thalassemia patients were HTLV-I positive. All sequences were matched to HTLV-1 subtype a, subgroup A. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that all sequenced samples belong to the endemic clusters of Iran. HTLV-1 genotypes in all samples were similar in three groups and were derived from the strains, which had been previously reported from Iran (AF00300/Mashhad and KT190712.1/Sabzevar). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Management of beta-thalassemia-associated osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Andrea; Pinto, Valeria; Forni, Gian Luca; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Beta-Thalassemia-associated osteoporosis is a multifactorial and complex condition. Different acquired and genetic factors are involved in its pathogenesis. These factors produce an imbalance in bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoblast activity and increasing osteoclast function, leading to bone loss and increased fracture risk. The management of patients presenting with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis should consist of the implementation of general measures and the prescription of a specific pharmacological agent, with the aim of reducing fracture risk and preventing disability and deterioration of quality of life. General measures include control of anemia, adequate chelation therapy, healthy nutrition and lifestyle, regular exercise, adequate management of comorbid conditions, hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypogonadism, and vitamin D supplementation/therapy. Among the pharmacological agents currently available for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density, to reduce bone turnover, and to decrease bone/back pain in patients with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis, with a good profile of safety and tolerability. On the other hand, there are limited experiences with other pharmacological agents (e.g., denosumab or teriparatide). The complexity of this condition presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and underscores the importance of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Failure in Beta-Thalassemia: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimou, Niki L; Pantavou, Katerina G; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2017-09-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is potentially a genetic risk factor for the development of left ventricular failure (LVF), the main cause of death in beta-thalassemia homozygotes. In the present study, we synthesize the results of independent studies examining the effect of ApoE on LVF development in thalassemic patients through a meta-analytic approach. However, all studies report more than one outcome, as patients are classified into three groups according to the severity of the symptoms and the genetic polymorphism. Thus, a multivariate meta-analytic method that addresses simultaneously multiple exposures and multiple comparison groups was developed. Four individual studies were included in the meta-analysis involving 613 beta-thalassemic patients and 664 controls. The proposed method that takes into account the correlation of log odds ratios (log(ORs)), revealed a statistically significant overall association (P-value  =  0.009), mainly attributed to the contrast of E4 versus E3 allele for patients with evidence (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.53) or patients with clinical and echocardiographic findings (OR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.78, 6.26) of LVF. This study suggests that E4 is a genetic risk factor for LVF in beta-thalassemia major. The presented multivariate approach can be applied in several fields of research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  16. Molecular analysis of the beta-thalassemia phenotype associated with inheritance of hemoglobin E (alpha 2 beta2(26)Glu leads to Lys).

    PubMed Central

    Benz, E J; Berman, B W; Tonkonow, B L; Coupal, E; Coates, T; Boxer, L A; Altman, A; Adams, J G

    1981-01-01

    Inheritance of the gene for betaE-globin is associated with hypochromia and microcytosis, reminiscent of typical heterozygous beta-thalassemia. Patients with hemoglobin (Hb)E-beta-thalassemia exhibit clinical phenotypes of severe beta-thalassemia, a circumstance not encountered in other compound heterozygous states for structural beta-chain mutations and beta-thalassemia. We have analyzed the kinetics of globin synthesis and the levels of globin messenger (m) RNA accumulation in patients with Hb E-beta-thalassemia and Hb E trait. The initial rate of beta-globin synthesis (betaE/alpha=0.20-0.34) was less than expected on the basis of gene dosage, or comparable studies of other compound heterozygous states for beta-thalassemia and structurally abnormal beta-chains. betaE-globin synthesis was not only reduced during short-term incubations (1-5 min), but also remained relatively unchanged during long-term pulse or chase incubations up to 5h. Analysis of globin mRNA by cell-free translation and molecular hybridization confirmed that the unexpectedly low levels of betaE-globin synthesis were associated with comparable reduction in the levels of beta-globin mRNA. In Hb E-beta-thalassemia the betaA + betaE (alpha globin nRNA ratio observed were substantially lower than those obtained from reticulocytes of patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia, or Hb S-betaO-thalassemia, while in Hb E trait, the betaA + betaE/alpha mRNA ratio was in the ranged observed for beta-thalassemia trait. The betaE-globin gene specifies reduced accumulation of betaE-globin mRNA, a property characteristic of other forms of beta-thalassemia. The beta-thalassemia phenotype associated with inheritance of Hb E is thus determined at the level of beta-globin mRNA metabolism. PMID:6166632

  17. Electrocardiographic Presentation, Cardiac Arrhythmias, and Their Management in β-Thalassemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Papa, Andrea Antonio; Nigro, Gerardo

    2016-07-01

    Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) is a genetic hemoglobin disorder characterized by an absent synthesis of globin chains that are essential for hemoglobin formation, causing chronic hemolytic anemia. Clinical management of thalassemia major consists in regular long-life red blood cell transfusions and iron chelation therapy to remove iron introduced in excess with transfusions. Iron deposition in combination with inflammatory and immunogenic factors is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in these patients. Heart failure and arrhythmias, caused by myocardial siderosis, are the most important life-limiting complications of iron overload in beta-thalassemia patients. Cardiac complications are responsible for 71% of global death in the beta-thalassemia major patients. The aim of this review was to describe the most frequent electrocardiographic abnormalities and arrhythmias observed in β-TM patients, analyzing their prognostic impact and current treatment strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Clinical analysis of three cases with beta-thalassemia].

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Liu, M J; Xu, L H; Xu, H G; Chen, H L; Fang, J P

    2018-04-02

    Objective: To study the diagnostic strategy of β-thalassemia through retrospective analysis of 3 cases of β-thalassemia. Methods: Three patients were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2014 to June 2015. The clinical manifestations, hemoglobin electrophoresis and gene detection of these patients and their parents were analyzed, diagnostic ideas and key points were discussed when beta thalassemia gene detection did not explain clinical manifestations or hemoglobin electrophoresis. Results: Case 1, boy, 5 years old, was diagnosed as compound heterozygotes of β41-42 and IVS-Ⅱ-654 with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin(HPFH) according to the clinical manifestations of mild anemia, normal size of liver and spleen, 92.8% fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and gene analysis. Case 2, girl, 3 years old, was confirmed the diagnosis of thalassemia intermedia with β41-42 heterozygote compound and ααα anti3.7 heterozygote in accordance with the manifestations of severe anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, 8.6% HbF, 4.1% hemoglobin A 2 (HbA 2 ) and gene analysis. Case 3, girl, 3 years old, with severe anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, 51.2% HbF and 3.7% HbA 2 , was diagnosed as thalassemia major with compound heterozygotes of PolyA (T→C) and β17 by DNA sequencing. Conclusion: The diagnosis of β-thalassemia should be confirmed by clinical manifestations of hemolytic anemia, hemoglobin electrophoresis, gene diagnosis and family survey.

  19. Cardiac complications in beta-thalassemia: From mice to men.

    PubMed

    Kumfu, Sirinart; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-06-01

    Beta-thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder caused by reduced or absent synthesis of the beta globin chains of hemoglobin. This results in variable outcomes ranging from clinically asymptomatic to severe anemia, which then typically requires regular blood transfusion. These regular blood transfusions can result in an iron overload condition. The iron overload condition can lead to iron accumulation in various organs, especially in the heart, leading to iron overload cardiomyopathy, which is the major cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia. In the past decades, there is no doubt that the use of β-thalassemic mice as a study model to investigate the pathophysiology of iron overload cardiomyopathy and the role of various pharmacological interventions, has shed some light in understanding this serious complication and in improving the associated cardiac dysfunction. In this review, the effects that iron overload has on the hearts of β-thalassemic mice under conditions of iron overload as well as the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to combat these adverse effects on the heart are reviewed and discussed. The in-depth understanding of biomolecular alterations in the heart of these iron overload thalassemic mice will help give guidance for more effective therapeutic approaches in the near future. Impact statement Iron overload cardiomyopathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with thalassemia. Since investigation of iron overload cardiomyopathy in thalassemia patients has many limitations, a search for an animal model for this condition has been ongoing for decades. In the past decades, there is no doubt that the use of β-thalassemic mice as a study model to investigate the pathophysiology of iron overload cardiomyopathy and the role of various pharmacological interventions, has shed some light in understanding this serious complication and in improving the associated cardiac dysfunction. In this review, the effects of

  20. Cardiac complications in beta-thalassemia: From mice to men

    PubMed Central

    Kumfu, Sirinart; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.

    2017-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder caused by reduced or absent synthesis of the beta globin chains of hemoglobin. This results in variable outcomes ranging from clinically asymptomatic to severe anemia, which then typically requires regular blood transfusion. These regular blood transfusions can result in an iron overload condition. The iron overload condition can lead to iron accumulation in various organs, especially in the heart, leading to iron overload cardiomyopathy, which is the major cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia. In the past decades, there is no doubt that the use of β-thalassemic mice as a study model to investigate the pathophysiology of iron overload cardiomyopathy and the role of various pharmacological interventions, has shed some light in understanding this serious complication and in improving the associated cardiac dysfunction. In this review, the effects that iron overload has on the hearts of β-thalassemic mice under conditions of iron overload as well as the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to combat these adverse effects on the heart are reviewed and discussed. The in-depth understanding of biomolecular alterations in the heart of these iron overload thalassemic mice will help give guidance for more effective therapeutic approaches in the near future. Impact statement Iron overload cardiomyopathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with thalassemia. Since investigation of iron overload cardiomyopathy in thalassemia patients has many limitations, a search for an animal model for this condition has been ongoing for decades. In the past decades, there is no doubt that the use of β-thalassemic mice as a study model to investigate the pathophysiology of iron overload cardiomyopathy and the role of various pharmacological interventions, has shed some light in understanding this serious complication and in improving the associated cardiac dysfunction. In this review, the effects of

  1. Percutaneous excretion of iron and ferritin (through Al-hijamah) as a novel treatment for iron overload in beta-thalassemia major, hemochromatosis and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Baghdadi, Hussam; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy

    2014-08-01

    Iron overload is a big challenge when treating thalassemia (TM), hemochromatosis and sideroblastic anemia. It persists even after cure of TM with bone marrow transplantation. Iron overload results from increased iron absorption and repeated blood transfusions causing increased iron in plasma and interstitial fluids. Iron deposition in tissues e.g. heart, liver, endocrine glands and others leads to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Iron chelation therapy and phlebotomy for iron overload have treatment difficulties, side effects and contraindications. As mean iron level in skin of TM patients increases by more than 200%, percutaneous iron excretion may be beneficial. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) is a simple, safe and economic treatment. WCT is a familiar treatment modality in some European countries and in Chinese hospitals in treating different diseases. WCT was reported to clear both blood plasma and interstitial spaces from causative pathological substances (CPS). Standard WCT method is Al-hijamah (cupping, puncturing and cupping, CPC) method of WCT that was reported to clear blood and interstitial fluids better than the traditional WCT (puncturing and cupping method, PC method of WCT). In other word, traditional WCT may be described as scarification and suction method (double S technique), while Al-hijamah may be described as suction, scarification and suction method (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive treatment modality that includes all steps and therapeutic benefits of traditional dry cupping therapy and WCT altogether according to the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). During the first cupping step of Al-hijamah, a fluid mixture is collected inside skin uplifting due to the effect of negative pressure inside sucking cups. This fluid mixture contains collected interstitial fluids with CPS (iron, ferritin and hemolyzed RBCs in thalassemia), filtered fluids (from blood capillaries) with iron and hemolyzed blood cells (hemolyzed

  2. Comparison of right and left side heart functions in patients with thalassemia major, patients with thalassemia intermedia, and control group.

    PubMed

    Noori, Noormohammad; Mohamadi, Mehdi; Keshavarz, Kambiz; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Mahjoubifard, Maziar; Mirmesdagh, Yalda

    2013-01-01

    Heart disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with beta thalassemia, rendering its early diagnosis vital. We studied and compared echocardiographic findings in patients with beta thalassemia major, patients with beta thalassemia intermedia, and a control group. Eighty asymptomatic patients with thalassemia major and 22 asymptomatic cases with thalassemia intermedia (8-25 years old) were selected from those referred to Ali Asghar Hospital (Zahedan-Iran) between June 2008 and June 2009. Additionally, 80 healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. All the individuals underwent echocardiography, the data of which were analyzed with the Student t-test. The mean value of the pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio of the left ventricle during systole, the diameter of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during diastole, the left and right isovolumic relaxation times, and the right myocardial performance index in the patients with beta thalassemia major and intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls, but the other parameters were similar between the two patient groups. The mean values of the left and right pre-ejection periods, left ventricular end systolic dimension, and left isovolumic contraction time in the patients with thalassemia intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls. In the left side, myocardial performance index, left ventricular mass index, isovolumic contraction time, and deceleration time exhibited significant changes between the patients with thalassemia major and those with thalassemia intermedia, whereas all the echocardiographic parameters of the right side were similar between these two groups. The results showed that the systolic and diastolic functions of the right and left sides of the heart would be impaired in patients with thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia. Consequently, serial echocardiography is suggested in

  3. Thalassemia major and consanguinity in Shiraz city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali Akbar; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh

    2004-09-05

    Beta-thalassemia is among the most common genetic disorders in the world and in Iran, with widespread occurrence. A cross-sectional study on 648 beta-thalassemia patients in Shiraz, Iran was carried out to determine the demography of beta-thalassemia major in Shiraz city, Fars province, Iran and also the rate of consanguinity and the significance of pre-marriage counseling in decreasing familial marriages and consequently preventing this autosomal recessive genetic disease. All interviewed patients had thalassemia major and their age, sex, and the consanguinity between parents were recorded. 40.6% of beta-thalassemia patients were outcomes of first-cousin marriages. Comparison of the percentages of familial marriages (consanguinity) between parents of beta-thalassemia patients and a sample of normal population, revealed a statistically significant difference (p< 0.00001). A nonstatistically significant difference was observed between male (53.5%) and female (46.5%) thalassemia patients. Comparison of data with the situation in 22 years ago revealed a 16.4% decrease in familial marriages among thalassemic families, however, more education and awareness of young women and men about the increased risk of beta-thalassemia after familial marriage through pre-marriage counseling is still necessary.

  4. Multiorgan failure during a sickle cell crisis in sickle/beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Tedla, Fasika M; Friedman, Eli A

    2003-08-01

    In contrast to the chronic nephropathy associated with sickle cell syndromes, acute renal failure and multiorgan dysfunction caused by acute sickling crisis are encountered infrequently. The authors present the first case of extensive multiorgan failure during a sickling episode in a patient with sickle/beta+thalassemia. The authors also review the interaction of the thalassemias with sickle cell disease and outline the distinctive course of their patient in comparison with previous reports.

  5. Molecular analysis of complex cases of alpha- and beta-thalassemia in Mexican mestizo patients with microcytosis and hypochromia reveals two novel alpha(0) -thalassemia deletions - -(Mex1) and - -(Mex2).

    PubMed

    de-la-Cruz-Salcedo, E I; Ibarra, B; Rizo-de-la-Torre, L C; Sánchez-López, J Y; González-Mercado, A; Harteveld, C L; Perea-Díaz, F J

    2016-10-01

    Alpha-thalassemia (α-thal) is a common monogenic disorder worldwide. In mixed ethnic populations, α-thal and beta-thalassemia (β-thal) can be expected, sometimes giving complex phenotypes, which without molecular analysis are not easily explained. We performed the molecular identification of α- and β-thal alleles in 51 Mexican patients with microcytosis, hypochromia, and normal or low levels of HbA2 . Common deletional alleles (-α(3.7) , -α(4.2) , - -(SEA) , - -(MED) , - -(FIL) , - -(THAI) , -α(20.5) ) and α-triplication were studied by gap-PCR and nondeletional alleles (α(IVSI) ((-5nt)) , α2 (NcoI) , α1 (NcoI) ) by ARMS. β-thal alleles Cd39 (C>T), IVS1:1 (G>A), IVS1:110 (G>A), and Spanish δβ-thal were also investigated. DNA sequencing was performed on HBA2, HBA1, and HBB genes. Negative samples were subjected to MLPA. In 35 subjects, we identified the mutations, -α(3.7) , - -(SEA) , - -(FIL) , α(IVSI) ((-5nt)) , and ααα(anti3.7) and two novel deletion alleles - -(Mex1) (6.8-8.9 kb) and - -(Mex2) (77.6-135.7 kb). Four individuals also had a β-thal allele (Cd39/IVS1:110). No α-thal alleles were observed in 16 subjects, but three had a β-thal mutation Cd39, IVS1:110, and Spanish δβ-thal. α-thal is relatively common in Mexican patients, the combination with β-thal is sometimes unexpected, and this underlines the importance of performing molecular analysis for both α- and β-genes defects in patients showing microcytic hypochromic anemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Blood transfusion versus hydroxyurea in beta-thalassemia in Iran: a cost-effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Ravangard, Ramin; Mirzaei, Zahra; Keshavarz, Khosro; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Karimi, Mehran

    2017-11-21

    Thalassemia intermedia is a type of anemia which has several treatments modalities. We aimed to study the cost effectiveness of two treatments, including blood transfusion and hydroxyurea, in patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia in south of Iran referred to a referral center affiliated to Iran, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2015. This was a cost-effectiveness study which was conducted on 122 patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia. The indicator of effectiveness in this study was the reduction of growth disorder (normal BMI). Data analysis was done using SPSS 21, Excel 2010 and Treeage 2011. Finally, the one-way sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the robustness of the results. The average annual costs of blood transfusion and the use of hydroxyurea in 2015 were 20733.27 purchasing power parity (PPP)$ and 7040.29 PPP$, respectively. The effectiveness of blood transfusion was57.4% while in hydroxyurea group was 60.7%. The results showed that the cost effectiveness of using hydroxyurea was more than that of blood transfusion. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of hydroxyurea in the treatment of patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia would become the first priority, and more basic and supplementary insurance coverage for treating such patients using hydroxyurea should be considered.

  7. Adipocytokine concentrations in children with different types of beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Enli, Yaşar; Balci, Yasemin I; Gönen, Cafer; Uzun, Ebru; Polat, Aziz

    2014-06-01

    Beta-thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. It results from the impaired production of β-globin chains, leading to a relative excess of alpha-globin chains. Clinical severity separates this disease into three main subtypes: β- thalassemia major, β-thalassemia intermedia and β-thalassemia minor, the former two being clinically more significant. Inflammatory processes may play an important role in some of the complications of thalassemia. Adipose tissue is one of the most important endocrine and secretory organs that release adipocytokines like adiponectin, resistin and visfatin. The aim of our study was to analyze adipocytokine concentrations (adiponectin, resistin and visfatin) in different types of β-thalassemia patients and determine any possible correlations with disease severity. We recruited 29 patients who were transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia-major patients, 17 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia, 30 β-thalassemia minor patients. The control group consisted of 30 healthy children. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count, biochemical parameters, serum concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, visfatin were performed for all subjects. Resistin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher in β-thalassemia minor patients than in controls. Adiponetin, resistin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher in both β-thalassemia intermedia and major patients than in controls. The concentrations of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin were significantly higher in both β-thalassemia intermedia and major patients than in β-thalassemia minor patients. There was no significant difference between β-thalassemia intermedia and β-thalassemia major patients for adipocytokines concentrations. We speculate that these adipocytokines may play a role in the development of complications in β-thalassaemia.

  8. Could Heterozygous Beta Thalassemia Provide Protection Against Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Halac, Gulistan; Gultepe, Ilhami; Celik, Kenan; Sekin, Yahya; Eser, Elif Ece; Burhan, Sebnem; Cetin, Guven; Uysal, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterozygous beta thalassemia (HBT) has been proposed to increase the risk of developing autoimmune disease. Our aim in this study was to examine the prevalence of HBT among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Material/Methods HBT frequency was investigated in our MS group (243 patients with MS). Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE) was carried out if MS patients had a mean corpuscular volume of (MCV) <80 fL and a mean corpuscular hemoglobin level of (MCH) <27 pg/L according to a complete blood count (CBC). If MCV was lower than 80 fL, MCH was lower than 27 pg/L, and Hemoglobin A2 equal to or higher than 3.5%, a diagnosis of HBT was established. The frequency of patients with HBT in our MS patient group was statistically compared with the prevalence of HBT in the city of Istanbul, where our MS patients lived. Results The HBT prevalence was 0.823% (2 patients) in the MS patient group. The prevalence of HBT in Istanbul has been reported to be 4.5%. According to the z-test, the HBT prevalence in our MS patient group was significantly lower than that in Istanbul (Z=6.3611, two-sided p value <0.0001, 95% confidence interval of prevalence of HBT in our MS patient group: 0.000998–0.029413). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis at the outset of study, the reduced HBT prevalence in the MS group compared to HBT frequency in the city of Istanbul might indicate that HBT is protective against MS. PMID:27941710

  9. Pregnancy outcomes among women with beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Charoenboon, Chitrakan; Jatavan, Phudit; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Tongsong, Theera

    2016-04-01

    To compare the obstetric outcomes between pregnant women affected by beta-thalassemia trait and normal controls. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnant women complicated by beta-thalassemia trait and normal controls, randomly selected with the controls-to-case ratio of 2:1. All were low-risk pregnancies without underlying medical diseases and fetal anomalies. The pregnancies undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis were excluded. A total of 597 pregnant women with beta-thalassemia trait and 1194 controls were recruited. Baseline characteristics and maternal outcomes in the two groups were similar, except that hemoglobin levels were slightly lower in the study group. The prevalence of small for gestational age and preterm birth tended to be higher in the study group but not reached the significant levels but the rate of low birth weight was significantly higher in the study group (relative risk 1.25; 95 % CI 1.00-1.57). Additionally, abortion rate was also significantly higher in the study group (relative risk 3.25; 95 % CI 1.35-7.80). Beta-thalassemia trait could minimally, but significantly, increase risk of low birth weight but did not increase rates of maternal adverse outcomes.

  10. One-step genetic correction of hemoglobin E/beta-thalassemia patient-derived iPSCs by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Wattanapanitch, Methichit; Damkham, Nattaya; Potirat, Ponthip; Trakarnsanga, Kongtana; Janan, Montira; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; Klincumhom, Nuttha; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2018-02-26

    Thalassemia is the most common genetic disease worldwide; those with severe disease require lifelong blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy. The definitive cure for thalassemia is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is limited due to lack of HLA-matched donors and the risk of post-transplant complications. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers prospects for autologous cell-based therapy which could avoid the immunological problems. We now report genetic correction of the beta hemoglobin (HBB) gene in iPSCs derived from a patient with a double heterozygote for hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia (HbE/β-thalassemia), the most common thalassemia syndrome in Thailand and Southeast Asia. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the hemoglobin E mutation from one allele of the HBB gene by homology-directed repair with a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide template. DNA sequences of the corrected iPSCs were validated by Sanger sequencing. The corrected clones were differentiated into hematopoietic progenitor and erythroid cells to confirm their multilineage differentiation potential and hemoglobin expression. The hemoglobin E mutation of HbE/β-thalassemia iPSCs was seamlessly corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The corrected clones were differentiated into hematopoietic progenitor cells under feeder-free and OP9 coculture systems. These progenitor cells were further expanded in erythroid liquid culture system and developed into erythroid cells that expressed mature HBB gene and HBB protein. Our study provides a strategy to correct hemoglobin E mutation in one step and these corrected iPSCs can be differentiated into hematopoietic stem cells to be used for autologous transplantation in patients with HbE/β-thalassemia in the future.

  11. Interaction of Hb South Florida (codon 1; GTG-->ATG) and HbE, with beta-thalassemia (IVS1-1; G-->A): expression of different clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne; Tan, Kim-Lian; Omar, Khairul Zaman; Chan, Lee-Lee; Wee, Yong-Chui; George, Elizabeth

    2009-09-01

    Interactions of different hemoglobin variants with thalassemia alleles can result in various clinical phenotypes. HbE-beta-thalassemia generally manifests with severe anemia where individuals exhibit beta-thalassemia major with regular blood transfusions or beta-thalassemia intermedia with periodic blood transfusions. This study presents a unique Malay family with three beta-globin gene defects-HbE, Hb South Florida, and IVS1-1 (G-->A). HbE activates a cryptic splice site that produces non-functional mRNAs. Hb South Florida is a rare beta-hemoglobin variant, and its interactions with other beta-thalassemia alleles have not been reported. IVS1-1 is a Mediterranean mutation that affects mRNA processing giving rise to beta(o)-thalassemia. Fifteen mutations along the beta-globin gene complex were analyzed using the amplification refractory mutation system. Hb South Florida was identified by direct sequencing using genomic DNA. The affected child with HbE/IVS1-1 produced a beta-thalassemia major phenotype. Compound heterozygosity for Hb South Florida/IVS1-1 produced a beta-thalassemia carrier phenotype in the mother.

  12. Chorionic villus sampling for beta-thalassemia: the first report of experience in Iran.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2006-12-01

    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Iran. The prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia is part of a control program in our country and it began 13 years ago. During the past 8 years the number of procedures has increased significantly as also the legal abortions. This is the first report made on the CVS program in Iran. One thousand six hundred and sixty-one cases of transabdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) have been retrospectively evaluated. Among them 1381 cases had inclusion criteria. CVS results, complications and fetal loss rate were evaluated. The distributions of the population at risk were divided between eight regions that have been proposed for beta-thalassemia mapping previously. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 +/- 5.2 years with mean gestational age of 11.4 +/- 1.4 weeks. CVS was successful in all the patients (100%) although 1% required a second procedure. Post CVS fetal loss was 1.45%. Other minor complications were bleeding or spotting (1.81%), amniotic fluid leak (0.5%), small sub-chorionic hematoma (0.58%), severe abdominal pain (0.6%) and severe vasovagal reaction (0.14%). Late complications were seen in 0.21% (oligohydraminos). Approximately 2/3 of the patients were referred from three regions of the country, North (26.8%), South West (22.4%), Central (19.5%) and the remainder (31.3%) were from the other five regions. CVS is a safe and effective method for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in countries with a high prevalence as in Iran. The overall complication rate is quite low and acceptable. Fortunately the recent acceptance of legal abortion with respect to Muslim rules has increased the effectiveness of the procedure and made great advances in its application in Iran. Correspondingly, social knowledge has also improved but still there is a gap between the population at risk and the required prenatal diagnosis laboratories and sampling centers. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Genetic therapy for beta-thalassemia: from the bench to the bedside.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Paritha; Malik, Punam

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder with mutations in the β-globin gene that reduce or abolish β-globin protein production. Patients with β-thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia) become severely anemic by 6 to 18 months of age, and are transfusion dependent for life, while those with thalassemia intermedia, a less-severe form of thalassemia, are intermittently or rarely transfused. An allogeneically matched bone marrow transplant is curative, although it is restricted to those with matched donors. Gene therapy holds the promise of "fixing" one's own bone marrow cells by transferring the normal β-globin or γ-globin gene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to permanently produce normal red blood cells. Requirements for effective gene transfer for the treatment of β-thalassemia are regulated, erythroid-specific, consistent, and high-level β-globin or γ-globin expression. Gamma retroviral vectors have had great success with immune-deficiency disorders, but due to vector-associated limitations, they have limited utility in hemoglobinopathies. Lentivirus vectors, on the other hand, have now been shown in several studies to correct mouse and animal models of thalassemia. The immediate challenges of the field as it moves toward clinical trials are to optimize gene transfer and engraftment of a high proportion of genetically modified HSCs and to minimize the adverse consequences that can result from random integration of vectors into the genome by improving current vector design or developing novel vectors. This article discusses the current state of the art in gene therapy for β-thalassemia and some of the challenges it faces in human trials.

  14. Genetic counseling for beta-thalassemia trait following health screening in a health maintenance organization: comparison of programmed and conventional counseling.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, L; Rowley, P T; Lipkin, M

    1981-01-01

    Providing adequate counseling of patients identified in genetic screening programs is a major responsibility and expense. Adults in a health maintenance organization, unselected for interest, were screened for beta-thalassemia trait as part of preventive health care. Counseling was provided by either a trained physician (conventional counseling) or by a videotape containing the same information followed by an opportunity to question a trained physician (programmed counseling). Immediately before and after counseling, knowledge of thalassemia, knowledge of genetics, and mood change were assessed by questionnaire. Comparable mood changes and similar learning about thalassemia and genetics occurred with both counseling methods. Thus, as judged by immediate effects on knowledge and mood, videotaped instruction can greatly reduce professional time required for genetic counseling and facilitate the incorporation of genetic screening into primary health care. PMID:7325162

  15. Beta thalassemia in 31,734 cases with HBB gene mutations: Pathogenic and structural analysis of the common mutations; Iran as the crossroads of the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mahdieh, Nejat; Rabbani, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common single gene disorders worldwide. Nearly 80 to 90 million with minor beta thalassemia and 60-70 thousand affected infants are born annually worldwide. A comprehensive search on several databases including PubMed, InterScience, British Library Direct, and Science Direct was performed extracting papers about mutation detection and frequency of beta thalassemia. All papers reporting on the mutation frequency of beta thalassemia patients were selected to analyze the frequency of mutations in different regions and various ethnicities. Mutations of 31,734 individuals were identified. Twenty common mutations were selected for further analysis. Genotype-phenotype correlation, interactome, and in silico analyses of the mutations were performed using available bioinformatics tools. Secondary structure prediction was achieved for two common mutations with online tools. The mutations were also common among the countries neighboring Iran, which are responsible for 71% to 98% of mutations. Computational analyses could be used in addition to segregation and expression analysis to assess the extent of pathogenicity of the variant. The genetics of beta thalassemia in Iran is more extensively heterogeneous than in neighboring countries. Some common mutations have arisen historically from Iran and moved to other populations due to population migrations. Also, due to genetic drift, the frequencies of some mutations have increased in small populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Diagnostic Value of Pulsed Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging in Asymptomatic Beta- Thalassemia Major Children and Young Adults; Relation to Chemical Biomarkers of Left Ventricular Function and Iron Overload.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Seham M; Fathy, Waleed M; El-Aziz, Walaa FAbd; Helal, Rasha T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among β-halassaemia major (TM) patients. Once heart failure becomes overt, it is difficult to reverse. To investigate non-overt cardiac dysfunctions in TM patients using pulsed wave Tissue Doppler Imaging (TD I) and its relation to iron overload and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Thorough clinical, conventional echo and pulsed wave TDI parameters were compared between asymptomatic 25 β-TM patients and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels were assayed by ELISA. TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E) wave and non significant other conventional echo parameters. In the patient group, pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic dysfunctions, in the form of significant higher isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), and lower ejection time (E T), with diastolic dysfunction in the form of higher isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), and lower mitral annulus early diastolic velocity E' (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65, P= 0.003) compared to the controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls. Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had a significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions. Patients with E/E' ≥ 8 had significant higher serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels compared to those with ratio < 8 without a difference in Hb levels. Pulsed wave TDI is an important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron-loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP.

  17. The Diagnostic Value of Pulsed Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging in Asymptomatic Beta- Thalassemia Major Children and Young Adults; Relation to Chemical Biomarkers of Left Ventricular Function and Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M; Fathy, Waleed M; El-Aziz, Walaa FAbd; Helal, Rasha T

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among β-halassaemia major (TM) patients. Once heart failure becomes overt, it is difficult to reverse. Objectives To investigate non-overt cardiac dysfunctions in TM patients using pulsed wave Tissue Doppler Imaging (TD I) and its relation to iron overload and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Methods Thorough clinical, conventional echo and pulsed wave TDI parameters were compared between asymptomatic 25 β-TM patients and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels were assayed by ELISA. Results TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E) wave and non significant other conventional echo parameters. In the patient group, pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic dysfunctions, in the form of significant higher isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), and lower ejection time (E T), with diastolic dysfunction in the form of higher isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), and lower mitral annulus early diastolic velocity E′ (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65, P= 0.003) compared to the controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls. Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had a significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions. Patients with E/E′ ≥ 8 had significant higher serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels compared to those with ratio < 8 without a difference in Hb levels. Conclusion Pulsed wave TDI is an important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron-loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP. PMID:26401240

  18. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  19. Coexistence of Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and beta-thalassemia: a molecular and hematological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Singsanan, Sanita; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan

    2007-05-01

    We describe hematological and molecular characterization of a Thai female who had Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) associated with beta+-thalassemia trait. The proband had mild microcytosis with Hb 12.9 g/dl, Hct 35.8%, MCV 74.4 fl, MCH 26.8 pg, MCHC 36.0 g/dl, and elevated Hb A2 (5.6%), characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait. Peripheral blood film examination revealed prominent ovalocytosis. However, a one-tube osmotic fragility (OF) test commonly used for thalassemia screening was negative and a normal OF curve was observed. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses identified the beta(-28A-G) mutation in the beta-globin gene and a 27 bp deletion in erythrocyte band 3 protein gene, indicating a genetically compound heterozygote. Hematological data of the proband was comparatively presented with those of eight female and 15 male carriers of pure beta-thalassemia with the same mutation. The finding demonstrates that although the association of the SAO and beta-thalassemia does not produce a more severe clinical picture, this could lead to a mis-screening of beta-thalassemia using an OF test as a primary screening test. Additional blood film examination followed by PCR could help in the detection of this unusual genetic interaction in the region. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Genotyping of beta thalassemia trait by high-resolution DNA melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Rattika; Ongchai, Siriwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2013-11-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common hereditary hemalogogical disease in Thailand, with a prevalence of 5-8%. In this study, we evaluated the high resolution DNA melting (HRM) assay to identify beta thalassemia mutation in samples from 143 carriers of the beta thalassemia traits in at risk couples. The DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and tested for mutation under a series of 5 PCR-HRM (A, B, C, D and E primers) protocols. The A primers were for detection of beta thalassemia mutations in the HBB promoter region, the B primers for mutations in exon I, the C primers for exon II, the D primers for exon III and the E primers for the 3.4 kb deletion mutation. The mutations were diagnosed by comparing the complete melting curve profiles of a wild type control with those for each mutant sample. With the PCR-HRM technique, fourteen types of beta thalassemia mutations were detected. Each mutation had a unique and specific melting profile. The mutations included 36.4% (52 cases) codon 41/42-CTTT, 26.6% (38 cases) codon 17 A-T, 11.2% (16 cases) IVS1-1 G-T, 8.4% (12 cases) codon 71/72 +A, 8.4% (12 cases) of the 3.4 kb deletion and 3.5% (5 cases) -28 A-G. The remainder included one instance each of -87 C-A, -31 A-C, codon 27/28 +C, codon 30 G-A, IVS1-5 G-C, codon 35 C-A, codon 41-C and IVSII -654 C-T. Of the total cases, 85.8% of the mutations could be detected by primers B and C. The PCR-HRM method provides a rapid, simple and highly feasible strategy for mutation screening of beta thalassemia traits.

  1. [Unusual aspect of pernicious anemia during association of beta-thalassemia: a new case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Diop, Madoky Magatte; Toure, P S; Leye, M Y; Leye, A; El Fadjri, S; Diop, M; Ka, M M; Diop, Oulimata D; Fall, S; Ndiaye, F S

    2012-01-01

    Pernicious anemia appears classically by macrocytosis. We report a case of a late discovered Biermer disease, on a 42-year-old young black woman. The reason was an unusual aspect of this disease in a context of betathalassemia. The patient presented chronic anemia which evolved during about ten year. Biology showed a normocytosis and signs of hemolysis according to beta-thalassemia. This was confirmed by an electrophoresis showing 9.1 % of fraction F some haemoglobin. Since this date, the patient was treated by folic acid alone with periodic transfusions of red blood cell. She presented eight years after the beginning of her disease, neurological deterioration. Diagnosis of pernicious anemia was finally established up on histological gastritis, low level of the blood rate of vitamin B12, macrocytosis, and presence of intrinsic anti-factor and parietal anti-cells antibodies.

  2. Evaluation of the children with beta-thalassemia in terms of their self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes.

    PubMed

    Yalçn, Siddika Songül; Durmuşoğlu-Sendoğdu, Mine; Gümrük, Fatma; Unal, Selma; Karg, Eda; Tuğrul, Belma

    2007-08-01

    This study was planned to explore the self-concept, behavioral, and parental attitudes of the children with beta-thalassemia major, and the factors that affect them. The study was undertaken between January and June 2004 at the Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital, Pediatric Hematology Unit, Ankara and 43 voluntary children with beta-thalassemia major on regular blood transfusion and iron chelation treatment between the ages of 5.0 and 18.0 years were included into the study. Age, sex, birth order, school performance, hemoglobin value, serum ferritin levels, associated illness, splenectomy status, presence of thalassemic sibling or relatives, death of thalassemic relatives, place of residence, maternal and paternal education were recorded. Parental Attitude Research Instrument, Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist were applied. Higher educated mothers have lower overprotection (P=0.009), parental discordance (P=0.044), and discipline scores (P=0.002) than lower educated mothers. In cases with death of thalassemic relatives, democratic/equality attitude scores were decreased (P=0.034). With stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, splenectomy, good school achievement, absence of death of thalassemic relatives, and serum ferritin levels were found to increase Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale; however, total behavior problem score was found to decrease with increasing age, splenectomy and decreasing overprotection subscale of Parental Attitude Research Instrument scores. The self-esteem and behavior problems of children with thalassemia depended not only on the variables related exclusively to the child (age, school achievement) and the illness-associated conditions (splenectomy, serum ferritin levels) but also on the parental attitude (overprotection).

  3. A molecular study of a family with Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Giglioni, B; Casini, C; Mantovani, R; Merli, S; Comi, P; Ottolenghi, S; Saglio, G; Camaschella, C; Mazza, U

    1984-01-01

    A family was studied in which two inherited defects of the non-alpha-globin cluster segregate: Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and beta-thalassemia. Fragments of the non-alpha-globin cluster from two patients were cloned in cosmid and phage lambda vectors, and assigned to either the HPFH or beta-thalassemic chromosome on the basis of the demonstration of a polymorphic BglII site in the HPFH gamma-globin cluster. The thalassemic beta-globin gene carries a mutation at nucleotide 1 of the intervening sequence I, known to cause beta zero-thalassemia; the beta-globin gene from the HPFH chromosome is entirely normal, both in the intron-exon sequence and in 5' flanking regions required for transcription. As the compound HPFH/beta-thalassemia heterozygote synthesizes HbA, these data prove that the HPFH beta-globin gene is functional, although at a decreased rate; its lower activity is likely to be due to a distant mutation. The HPFH A gamma-globin gene shows only two mutations: a T----C substitution in the large intervening sequence (responsible for the BglII polymorphic site) and a C----T substitution 196 nucleotides 5' to the cap site; the 5' flanking sequence is normal up to -1350 nucleotides upstream from the gene. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the mutation at -196 may be responsible for the abnormally high expression of the A gamma-globin gene. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6210198

  4. Bias-corrected diagnostic performance of the naked-eye single-tube red-cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT): an effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Jawahirani, Anil; Das, Kishor; Rughwani, Vinky; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2006-08-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a majority of the countries in the thalassemia-belt need a cost-effective screening program as the first step towards control of thalassemia. Although the naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) has been considered to be a very effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia trait, assessment of its diagnostic performance has been affected with the reference test- and verification-bias. Here, we set out to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT corrected for these potential biases. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation study using data from 1563 subjects from Central India with a high prevalence of beta-thalassemia. We used latent class modelling after ensuring its validity to account for the reference test bias and global sensitivity analysis to control the verification bias. We also compared the results of latent class modelling with those of five discriminant indexes. We observed that across a range of cut-offs for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) concentration the average sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT obtained from latent class modelling was 99.8 and 83.7%, respectively. These estimates were comparable to those characterizing the diagnostic performance of HbA2, which is considered by many as the reference test to detect beta-thalassemia. After correction for the verification bias these estimates were 93.4 and 97.2%, respectively. Combined with the inexpensive and quick disposition of NESTROFT, these results strongly support its candidature as a screening tool-especially in the resource-poor and high-prevalence settings.

  5. Q Sepharose micro-column chromatography: A simple screening method for identifying beta thalassemia traits and hemoglobin E carriers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Peerapon; Sritippayawan, Suchila; Suwannakhon, Narutchala; Tapprom, Akamon; Deoisares, Rawisut; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2016-11-01

    For beta thalassemia control program in pregnancy, mass screening of the carrier state by determination of the hemoglobin (Hb) A 2 and Hb E proportions and mutation analysis is a preferred method for making prenatal diagnoses. Q Sepharose micro-column chromatography, developed for the determination of Hb A 2 and Hb E for screening purposes, was compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to ascertain its relative accuracy and reliability. Results using Q Sepharose micro-column chromatography in 350 blood specimens, including 50 samples genetically proven to be beta thalassemia heterozygotes, were compared to HPLC for validation. An additional study was conducted to test a clinical application on a large-scale survey for beta thalassemia in 1581 pregnant women and their spouses. The mean (±SD) Hb A 2 proportions in the normal and genetically proven beta thalassemia heterozygotes were 2.70±0.40% and 6.30±1.23%, respectively, as determined by Q-Sepharose micro-column chromatography, and 2.65±0.31% and 5.37±0.96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The mean Hb E proportions in the Hb E heterozygotes were 23.25±4.13% and 24.72±3.5% as determined by Q Sepharose micro-column chromatography and HPLC, respectively. In the large-scale survey for beta thalassemia, 23 at risk couples were detected. Seven affected fetuses were identified by prenatal diagnosis. Q Sepharose micro-column chromatography was found to be reliable, reproducible and well-suited for large-scale surveys. Additionally, by being reusable and convenient, this simple and economical chromatography method may be an alternative means to screen for beta thalassemia and Hb E carriers in the mass population. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of Hb S-beta(+)-thalassemia].

    PubMed

    Harano, K; Harano, T; Kushida, Y; Ueda, S

    1991-08-01

    Isoelectric focusing of the hemolysate prepared from a two-year-old American black boy with microcytic hypochromia showed the presence of a high percentage (63.3%) of such Hb variant as Hb S, while the levels of Hb A, Hb F and Hb A2 were 20.0%, 12.7%, and 4.0%, respectively. The ratio of the non-alpha-chain to the alpha-chain of the biosynthesized globin chains was 0.49. The variant was identified as Hb S by amino acid analysis of the abnormal peptide (beta T-1) and digestion of DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction with enzyme Eco 81 I. This was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing of a beta-gene without the beta s-mutation revealed a nucleotide change of T to C in the polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA 3' to the beta-gene, resulting in beta(+)-thalassemia. These results are consistent with the existence of a beta s-gene and a beta(+)-thalassemia gene in trans.

  7. Lived experiences of Iranian parents of beta-thalassemia children

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki-vahed, Aziz; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Ghalgaie, Jamile

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Thalassemia is a chronic blood disease, which imposes adverse effects on patients and their families. Parents of such patients, given that they had the thalassemia trait, hold themselves responsible for their children’s disease in addition to other difficulties, bear the burden of guilt and hopelessness and worry about the health and future of their children. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of parents of children with thalassemia. Methods The present research was conducted using a descriptive phenomenological approach. A purposive sampling was carried out until data saturation. Participants included 15 parents of children with thalassemia who were referred to the Thalassemia Center of Zabol to perform therapeutic procedures for their child in 2016. Results Extracted interviews were analyzed employing Colaizzi’s method, and four main themes were obtained, including “Gray marriage consanguinity”, “Burdened with increased number of thalassemia children”, “Socio-familial worries” and “Inexpressible wishes for having an ideal society”. Conclusion The results revealed that parents of children with thalassemia experience a wide range of problems in different aspects, such as physical, emotional, mental, social, economic and familial dimensions. Their experiences are valuable and can help in achieving a better understanding of their problems, which in turn can enable the members of the treatment team to play a more active role and the society to have a better understanding of this disease. PMID:28721064

  8. Beta-thalassemia problems in the Turkish population in the F.R.G.

    PubMed

    Holzgreve, W; Sevinchan, E; Kohne, E; Sevinchan, S; Miny, P; Horst, J

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 165 normal Turkish probands (79 males, 86 females) living in the F.R.G. was screened for the presence of heterozygous beta-thalassemia as well as their knowledge and perception of thalassemias in general. Hematologic studies revealed two persons to be heterozygous for beta-thalassemia who had not known this before. This incidence of 1.2% in our sample of Turkish probands living in the F.R.G. is in accordance with the average range of 0.2-6% given by the World Health Organization for Turkey. The probands' places of origin in Turkey correlate well with the pattern of migration within the country, with most people coming from central Anatolia which is an area with a relatively low incidence of beta-thalassemia. Interviews conducted by a Turkish doctor revealed that the knowledge about thalassemias and the function of blood in general was extremely limited in our study population. On the other hand, 50% of the respondents would refrain from marriage or choose a different partner if both partners knew that they were heterozygous for thalassemia. 19% would still marry in this situation but refrain from having children. When asked about their most likely decision in the case of an early diagnosis of homozygous thalassemia, 78% said they would have a termination and only 15% would definitely go on with the pregnancy. About 65% felt that consanguineous marriage is a predisposing factor for diseases in the offspring. From our study it can be concluded that a large-scale screening program in the high-risk population which exists in most Mediterranean countries would be difficult regarding the more than one million people from Turkey living in the F.R.G. and would have to take into account the cultural and educational conditions of the Turkish minority. In general, if no Turkish-speaking specialist is available to explain the diagnostic possibilities, probably pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy testing would be the most appropriate way of reaching the couples at risk

  9. Better Renal Resistive Index Profile in Subjects with Beta Thalassemia Minor


    .

    PubMed

    Basut, Fahrettin; Keşkek, Şakir Özgür; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2018-05-03

    Beta thalassaemia minor is a common genetic disorder without any characteristic symptoms except mild anemia. It is found to be associated with some cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The renal resistive index (RRI) is a measure of renal arterial resistance to blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal resistive index in subjects with beta thalassaemia minor (BTM). A total of 253 subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 148 subjects with BTM and the control group consisted of 105 healthy subjects. Beta thalassaemia minor was diagnosed by complete blood count and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Blood pressure measurement and biochemical tests were performed. Renal resistive index of all subjects was measured using renal Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects with beta thalassemia minor had lower renal resistive indices compared to healthy subjects (0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.60 ± 0.06, p = 0.0016). Additionally, the RRI levels of subjects with BTM were correlated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.017, r = 0.194). In this study, lower renal resistive index was found in subjects with BTM. This may be associated with decreased vascular resistance and blood viscosity in these subjects. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. In vivo reduction of erythrocyte oxidant stress in a murine model of beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    de Franceschi, Lucia; Turrini, Franco; Honczarenko, Marek; Ayi, Kojio; Rivera, Alicia; Fleming, Mark D; Law, Terry; Mannu, Franca; Kuypers, Frans A; Bast, Aalt; van der Vijgh, Wim J F; Brugnara, Carlo

    2004-11-01

    Oxidant damage is an important contributor to the premature destruction of erythrocytes and anemia in thalassemias. To assess the extent of oxidant damage of circulating erythrocytes and the effects of antioxidant therapy on erythrocyte characteristics and anemia, we used a mouse model of human beta-thalassemia intermedia (b1/b2 deletion). Several parameters indicative of oxidant damage were measured at baseline and following administration of the semi-synthetic flavonoid antioxidant, 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), to beta-thalassemic mice at a dose of either 500 mg/kg i.p. once a day (n=6) or 250 mg/kg i.p. twice a day (n=6) for 21 days. Significant erythrocyte oxidant damage at baseline was indicated by: (i) dehydration, reduced cell K content, and up-regulated K-Cl co-transport; (ii) marked membrane externalization of phosphatidylserine; (iii) reduced plasma and membrane content of vitamin E; and (iv) increased membrane bound IgG. MonoHER treatment increased erythrocyte K content, and markedly improved all cellular indicators of oxidant stress and of lipid membrane peroxidation. While anemia did not improve, monoHER therapy reduced reticulocyte counts, improved survival of a fraction of red cells, and reduced ineffective erythropoiesis with decreased total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and plasma iron. Antioxidant therapy reverses several indicators of oxidant damage in vivo. These promising antioxidant effects of monoHER should be investigated further.

  11. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families.

    PubMed

    Fermo, Elisa; Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy.

  12. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    PubMed Central

    Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy. PMID:28367341

  13. beta-Thalassemia present in cis to a new beta-chain structural variant, Hb Vicksburg [beta 75 (E19)Leu leads to 0].

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J G; Steinberg, M H; Newman, M V; Morrison, W T; Benz, E J; Iyer, R

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobin Vicksburg was discovered in a 6-year-old Black boy who had been anemic since infancy. Examination of his hemolysate revealed 87.5% Hb F, 2.4% Hb A2, and 7.6% Hb Vicksburg, which had the electrophoretic and chromatographic properties of Hb A. Structural analysis of Hb Vicksburg demonstrated a deletion of leucine at beta 75(E19), a new variant. Hb Vicksburg was neither unstable nor subject to posttranslational degradation. The alpha/non-alpha biosynthetic ratio was 2.6. Because the proband appeared to be a mixed heterozygote for Hb Vicksburg and beta 0-thalassemia, Hb Vicksburg should have comprised the major portion of the hemolysate. Thus, Hb Vicksburg was synthesized at a rate considerably lower than would be expected on the basis of gene dosage. There was no reason to suspect abnormal translation of beta Vicksburg mRNA; in individuals with Hb St. Antoine (beta 74 and beta 75 deleted), the abnormal hemoglobin comprised 25% of the hemolysate in the simple heterozygote yet was unstable. Deletion of beta 75, therefore, would not in itself appear to lead to diminished synthesis. There was a profound deficit of beta Vicksburg mRNA when measured by liquid hybridization analysis with beta cDNA. The most plausible explanation for the low output of Hb Vicksburg is that a mutation for beta +-thalassemia is present in cis to the structural mutation. PMID:6165992

  14. beta-Thalassemia present in cis to a new beta-chain structural variant, Hb Vicksburg [beta 75 (E19)Leu leads to 0].

    PubMed

    Adams, J G; Steinberg, M H; Newman, M V; Morrison, W T; Benz, E J; Iyer, R

    1981-01-01

    Hemoglobin Vicksburg was discovered in a 6-year-old Black boy who had been anemic since infancy. Examination of his hemolysate revealed 87.5% Hb F, 2.4% Hb A2, and 7.6% Hb Vicksburg, which had the electrophoretic and chromatographic properties of Hb A. Structural analysis of Hb Vicksburg demonstrated a deletion of leucine at beta 75(E19), a new variant. Hb Vicksburg was neither unstable nor subject to posttranslational degradation. The alpha/non-alpha biosynthetic ratio was 2.6. Because the proband appeared to be a mixed heterozygote for Hb Vicksburg and beta 0-thalassemia, Hb Vicksburg should have comprised the major portion of the hemolysate. Thus, Hb Vicksburg was synthesized at a rate considerably lower than would be expected on the basis of gene dosage. There was no reason to suspect abnormal translation of beta Vicksburg mRNA; in individuals with Hb St. Antoine (beta 74 and beta 75 deleted), the abnormal hemoglobin comprised 25% of the hemolysate in the simple heterozygote yet was unstable. Deletion of beta 75, therefore, would not in itself appear to lead to diminished synthesis. There was a profound deficit of beta Vicksburg mRNA when measured by liquid hybridization analysis with beta cDNA. The most plausible explanation for the low output of Hb Vicksburg is that a mutation for beta +-thalassemia is present in cis to the structural mutation.

  15. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV < 85 fl) and elevated levels of Hb A(2) (>/=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta

  16. Oxidative status and serum PON1 activity in beta-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Selek, Sahbettin; Aslan, Mehmet; Horoz, Mehmet; Gur, Mustafa; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-03-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) deficiency is related to increased susceptibility to low density lipoprotein oxidation and development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate paraoxonase and arylesterase activities along with oxidative status parameters, and to find out if there is any increased susceptibility to atherogenesis, which might be reflected with increased oxidative stress and decreased serum PON1 activity in beta-thalassemia minor (BTM) subjects. Thirty-two subjects with BTM and 28 healthy subjects as control were enrolled in the study. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum TAC, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were significantly lower in BTM subjects than controls (for all p<0.001), while TOS, LOOH levels and OSI were significantly higher (p<0.001, p<0.05 and p<0.001; respectively). In BTM subjects, OSI, TOS, LOOH levels and TAC were significantly correlated with serum paraoxonase (r=-0.245, p<0.05; r=-0.231, p<0.05; r=-0.264, p<0.05 and, r=0.342, p<0.05, respectively) and arylesterase activities (r=-0.332, p<0.05, r=-0.308, p<0.05; r=-0.320, p<0.05 and r=0.443, p<0.05). Additionally, hemoglobin level was also correlated with serum paraoxonase (r=0.501, p<0.001) and arylesterase activities (r=0.501, p<0.001), TAC (r=0.402, p<0.05), TOS (r=-0.274, p<0.05) and OSI (r=-0.352, p<0.05). Oxidative stress is increased, while serum PON1 activity is decreased in BTM subjects. Decrease in PON1 activity seems to be associated with both the degree of oxidative stress and anemia. BTM subjects may be more prone to development of atherogenesis due to low serum PON1 activity.

  17. Improved hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected beta-thalassemia induced pluripotent stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Song, Bing; Fan, Yong; He, Wenyin; Zhu, Detu; Niu, Xiaohua; Wang, Ding; Ou, Zhanhui; Luo, Min; Sun, Xiaofang

    2015-05-01

    The generation of beta-thalassemia (β-Thal) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), subsequent homologous recombination-based gene correction of disease-causing mutations/deletions in the β-globin gene (HBB), and their derived hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation offers an ideal therapeutic solution for treating this disease. However, the hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs has not been well evaluated in the previous studies. In this study, we used the latest gene-editing tool, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), to correct β-Thal iPSCs; gene-corrected cells exhibit normal karyotypes and full pluripotency as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) showed no off-targeting effects. Then, we evaluated the differentiation efficiency of the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs. We found that during hematopoietic differentiation, gene-corrected β-Thal iPSCs showed an increased embryoid body ratio and various hematopoietic progenitor cell percentages. More importantly, the gene-corrected β-Thal iPSC lines restored HBB expression and reduced reactive oxygen species production compared with the uncorrected group. Our study suggested that hematopoietic differentiation efficiency of β-Thal iPSCs was greatly improved once corrected by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the information gained from our study would greatly promote the clinical application of β-Thal iPSC-derived HSCs in transplantation.

  18. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of beta globin gene variations and the co-inheritance of related gene variants in Saudi Arabians with beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Alaithan, Mousa A.; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J. Francis

    2018-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that is caused by variations in the beta-hemoglobin (HBB) gene. Saudi Arabia is among the countries most affected by beta-thalassemia, and this is particularly problematic in the Eastern regions. This review article is an attempt to compile all the reported mutations to facilitate further national-level studies to prepare a Saudi repository of HBB gene variations. In Saudi Arabians, IVSI-5 (G>C) and Cd 39 (C>T) are the most prevalent HBB gene variations out of 42 variations. The coinheritance of HBB gene variations with ATRX, HBA1, HBA2, HBA12, AHSP, and KLF1 gene variations were observed to be common in the Saudi population. National surveys on the molecular nature of hemoglobinopathies should be set up through collaborations between research centers from various regions to create a well-documented molecular data bank. This data bank can be used to develop a premarital screening program and lead to the best treatment and prevention strategies for beta-thalassemia. PMID:29619482

  19. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  20. Radiological and clinical difficulties in the management of chronic maxillary sinusitis in β Thalassemic paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, R; Greco, L; Melis, M; Manenti, G; Floris, R; Giacomini, P G; Di Girolamo, M; Di Girolamo, S

    2016-05-01

    Beta thalassemia is a blood dyscrasia that caused a marked expansion of active marrow spaces and extramedullary haematopoiesis results. In these patients various alterations and abnormalities affects different body areas, including increased risk of sinusitis. The marrow expansion in the facial bones results in delay in pneumatisation of the sinuses, overgrowth of the maxillae, and forward displacement of the upper incisors with skeletal deformities. In current literature, maxillary sinuses are not deeply evaluated by CT scan studies in these kind of patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of maxillary sinuses abnormalities by the use of CT in patients with beta-thalassemia major and to compare these findings with a control group free from this disease. A retrospective analysis of 22 paediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major and 22 control subjects without sinonasal diseases was performed. CT was done using a 64-multidetector-row CT scanner without contrast injection, obtained in axial plane using thin-slice technique. Evaluated parameters were: bone thickness of the lateral and anterior wall, density and volume of the maxillary sinuses. Significant difference was found between the study group and control group in the evaluation of all the parameters examined. The maxillary sinus of β thalassemic patients was smaller respect of controls, the bone was more dense and thick in the side and anterior wall. Beta-thalassemic patients have a relative risk of 2.87 to develop a maxillary sinusitis. In these patients there is an increased incidence of sinonasal infections due to the abnormal development of cranio facial skeleton. These bone alterations might confuse the physicians and lead to an increased rate of sinusitis diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pilot Study of Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Alpha- and Beta-Thalassemia with Target Capture Sequencing of Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Haiqing; Wang, Yaoshen; Zeng, Dan; Yang, Yihua; Yi, Xin; Xia, Yang; Zhu, Chunjiang

    2017-07-01

    Thalassemia is a dangerous hematolytic genetic disease. In south China, ∼24% Chinese carry alpha-thalassemia or beta-thalassemia gene mutations. Given the fact that the invasive sampling procedures can only be performed by professionals in experienced centers, it may increase the risk of miscarriage or infection. Thus, most people are worried about the invasive operation. As such, a noninvasive and accurate prenatal diagnosis is needed for appropriate genetic counseling for families with high risks. Here we sought to develop capture probes and their companion analysis methods for the noninvasive prenatal detection of deletional and nondeletional thalassemia. Two families diagnosed as carriers of either beta-thalassemia gene or Southeast Asian deletional alpha-thalassemia gene mutation were recruited. The maternal plasma and amniotic fluid were collected for prenatal diagnosis. Probes targeting exons of the genes of interest and the highly heterozygous SNPs within the 1Mb flanking region were designed. The target capture sequencing was performed with plasma DNA from the pregnant woman and genomic DNA from the couples and their children. Then the parental haplotype was constructed by the trios-based strategy. The fetal haplotype was deduced from the parental haplotype with a hidden Markov model-based algorithm. The fetal genotypes were successfully deduced in both families noninvasively. The noninvasively constructed haplotypes of both fetuses were identical to the invasive prenatal diagnosis results with an accuracy rate of 100% in the target region. Our study demonstrates that the effective noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia can be achieved with the targeted capture sequencing and the haplotype-assisted analysis method.

  2. Study of Serum Haptoglobin Level and its Relation to Erythropoietic Activity in Beta Thalassemia Children

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M.; Safan, Manal A.; Badr, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum haptoglobin (Hp) is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state. Objective We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods Twenty two β-thalassemia major (TM),20 β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered. Serum ferritin, Hp and transferrin receptor levels (sTfR) (by ELISA ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (by colorimetric method) were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) were done by PCR. Results The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl), 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl) and 122 ± 18.5(mg/dl) for TM, TI and the controls respectively. Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001) with significant lower level in TM compared to TI children ( P= 0.034). Significant inverse correlations were found between serum Hp and sTfR levels ( reflecting the erythropoietic activity) in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI) as well as among HCV infected children. STfR was the only significant independent predictor for serum Hp level (t= −5.585, P<0.0001). Among HCV infected patients, no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases. Conclusion Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of sTfR without significant relation to HCV infection. Extensive multicenter studies are recommended. PMID:25745546

  3. A confidential inquiry estimating the number of patients affected with sickle cell disease and thalassemia major confirms the need for a prevention strategy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Piero C; Bouva, Marelle J; Harteveld, Cornelis L

    2004-01-01

    We have conducted a broad confidential inquiry among 401 hospital departments trying to estimate the number of patients affected with severe forms of hemoglobinopathies living in The Netherlands. With less than 30% response we have registered 559 patients in all age categories of whom 77.0% are affected with sickle cell disease and 17.5% with beta-thalassemia (thal) major. We estimate that the real figure could be around 800 patients, a figure more than six times higher than the number published in 1995 on which the reluctance to offer prevention was based. The actual figures and the incidence estimation of approximately 60 patients a year underline the urgent need for the official implementation of a prevention strategy in The Netherlands. During the last 5 years we have been working towards the implementation of a multi-intervention strategy for primary prevention using the existing structures of public health. The obstacles we have encountered to endorse such a strategy are discussed as a possible guide for other immigration countries.

  4. Hydroxycarbamide-Induced Changes in E/beta Thalassemia Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, Singer T.; Elliott, Vichinsky; Sandra, Larkin; Nancy, Olivieri; Nancy, Sweeters; Frans, Kuypers A.

    2010-01-01

    In thalassemia, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) augmentation with hydroxycarbamide (also known as hydroxyurea) is not always successful. The expected parallel effects on RBC membrane deformability, cell hydration and membrane phospholipid organization, all important for extending RBC life span and increasing Hb, have been infrequently examined. We analyzed these characteristics in 15 non-transfused E/β 0 thalassemia patients treated with HU (mean 10.2 months). Membrane deformability and cell hydration mildly improved in association with increased HbF levels approaching statistical significance (r = 0.51, p=0.06). All measures improved considerably splenectomized patients. These findings underscore the disappointing results of hydroxyurea treatment in clinical trials; and the importance of examining the effect on red cell characteristics for the development and understanding of HbF-enhancing agents. PMID:18821710

  5. Health related quality of life in Middle Eastern children with beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Caocci, Giovanni; Efficace, Fabio; Ciotti, Francesca; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Vacca, Adriana; Piras, Eugenia; Littera, Roberto; Markous, Raji Suleiman Dawood; Collins, Gary Stephen; Ciceri, Fabio; Mandelli, Franco; Marktel, Sarah; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2012-06-22

    Thalassemia is a common disorder worldwide with a predominant incidence in Mediterranean countries, North Africa, the Middle East, India, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. Whilst substantial progress has been made towards the improvement of Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in western countries, scarce evidence-based data exists on HRQol of thalassemia children and adolescents living in developing countries. We studied 60 thalassemia children from Middle Eastern countries with a median age of 10 years (range 5 to 17 years). HRQoL was assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0. The Questionnaire was completed at baseline by all patients and their parents. The agreement between child-self and parent-proxy HRQoL reports and the relationship between HRQoL profiles and socio-demographic and clinical factors were investigated. The scores of parents were generally lower than those of their children for Emotional Functioning (mean 75 vs 85; p = 0.002), Psychosocial Health Summary (mean 70.3 vs 79.1; p = 0.015) and the Total Summary Score (mean 74.3 vs 77.7 p = 0.047). HRQoL was not associated with ferritin levels, hepatomegaly or frequency of transfusions or iron chelation therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that a delayed start of iron chelation had a negative impact on total PedsQL scores of both children (p = 0.046) and their parents (p = 0.007). The PedsQL 4.0 is a useful tool for the measurement of HRQoL in pediatric thalassemia patients. This study shows that delayed start of iron chelation has a negative impact on children's HRQoL.

  6. Impact of beta thalassemia on maxillary sinuses and sino-nasal passages: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Ahmed; Ragab, Seham Mohammed; Shawki, Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal changes among beta (β) thalassemia children are well documented, but without available data regarding sino-nasal passages alterations. The authors investigated the maxillary sinuses and sino-nasal passages changes in β-thalassemia children and correlated such changes with the amount of transfused red cells and the erythroid marrow activity. Clinical analyses including otorhinolaryngical examination (ORL) were obtained in twenty β-thalassemia children and 20 matched healthy controls. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD ls) were assayed. The two groups were analyzed for the CT image parameters: bone thickness, anterior and posterior choanae diameters, extramedullary hematopoiesis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) RESULTS: Nasal congestion/obstruction was identified in 14 (70%) children. Eight patients (40%) had criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis. In comparison with the normal controls, the increase in the roof, floor, medial, anterior, lateral and posterior maxillary bony walls thickness was significantly higher (1.26, 2.46, 2.6, 2.9, 3.23 and 5.34-folds, respectively). The mean posterior choanae horizontal, vertical diameters and their surface area were significantly reduced in the patients compared to the controls. The mean anterior maxillary wall bone thickness directly correlated with sTfR (P=0.047) while that of the posterior wall correlated inversely with Hb level (P=0.013). The mean vertical posterior choanae diameter had positive correlation with the amount of transfused red cells (P=0.001) and negative correlation with sTfR (P=0.001). The Hounsfield unit of maxillary sinus wall had direct relation with BMDls (P=0.003) CONCLUSIONS: Thalassemia children are at risk of different folds increase of maxillary sinuses walls thicknesses utmost at posterior and lateral walls. Other sino-nasal morbidities include diminished posterior choanal diameter, nasal obstruction

  7. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... July 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Blood Transfusions Iron Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Sickle Cell Disease Alpha Thalassemia Anemia Word! Anemia About Anemia Stem Cell Transplants Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease ...

  8. Iron homeostasis during transfusional iron overload in beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease: changes in iron regulatory protein, hepcidin, and ferritin expression.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Zandra A; Hagar, Ward; Bowlus, Christopher L; Johansson, Hans E; Harmatz, Paul; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2007-06-01

    Hypertransfusional (>8 transfusions/year) iron in liver biopsies collected immediately after transfusions in beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease correlated with increased expression (RNA) for iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (3-, 9- to 11-fold) and hepcidin RNA: (5- to 8-fold) (each p <.01), while ferritin H and L RNA remained constant. A different H:L ferritin ratio in RNA (0.03) and protein (0.2-0.6) indicated disease-specific trends and suggests novel post-transcriptional effects. Increased iron regulatory proteins could stabilize the transferrin receptor mRNA and, thereby, iron uptake. Increased hepcidin, after correction of anemia by transfusion, likely reflects excess liver iron. Finally, the absence of a detectable change in ferritin mRNA indicates insufficient oxidative stress to significantly activate MARE/ARE promoters.

  9. Development of a PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis assay with potential for the detection of a beta-thalassemia fetal mutation in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ping; Chen, Zhuqin; Yu, Lili; Zheng, Yingru; Liu, Guodong; Xie, Haichang; Zhou, Yuanguo; Zheng, Xiuhui; Han, Jian; Li, Li

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has recently been introduced for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have now investigated the feasibility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ligase detection reaction (LDR)/capillary electrophoresis for the detection of fetal point mutations, such as the beta-thalassemia mutation, IVS2 654(C --> T), in maternal plasma DNA. The sensitivity of LDR/capillary electrophoresis was examined by quantifying the mutant PCR products in the presence of a vast excess of non-mutant competitor template, a situation that mimics the detection of rare fetal mutations in the presence of excess maternal DNA. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis was applied to detect the mutation, IVS2 654(C --> T), in an experimental model at different sensitivity levels and from 10 maternal plasma samples. Our results demonstrated that this approach to detect a low abundance IVS2 654(C --> T) mutation achieved a sensitivity of approximately 1:10,000. The approach was applied to maternal plasma DNA to detect the paternally inherited fetal IVS2 654(C --> T) mutation, and the results were equivalent to those obtained by PCR/reverse dot blot of amniotic fluid cell DNA. PCR/LDR/capillary electrophoresis has a very high sensitivity that can distinguish low abundance single nucleotide differences and can detect paternally inherited fetal point mutations in maternal plasma.

  10. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  11. Amelioration of murine beta-thalassemia through drug selection of hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding both gamma-globin and the MGMT drug-resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huifen; Pestina, Tamara I; Nasimuzzaman, Md; Mehta, Perdeep; Hargrove, Phillip W; Persons, Derek A

    2009-06-04

    Correction of murine models of beta-thalassemia has been achieved through high-level globin lentiviral vector gene transfer into mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, transduction of human HSCs is less robust and may be inadequate to achieve therapeutic levels of genetically modified erythroid cells. We therefore developed a double gene lentiviral vector encoding both human gamma-globin under the transcriptional control of erythroid regulatory elements and methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), driven by a constitutive cellular promoter. MGMT expression provides cellular resistance to alkylator drugs, which can be administered to kill residual untransduced, diseased HSCs, whereas transduced cells are protected. Mice transplanted with beta-thalassemic HSCs transduced with a gamma-globin/MGMT vector initially had subtherapeutic levels of red cells expressing gamma-globin. To enrich gamma-globin-expressing cells, transplanted mice were treated with the alkylator agent 1,3-bis-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea. This resulted in significant increases in the number of gamma-globin-expressing red cells and the amount of fetal hemoglobin, leading to resolution of anemia. Selection of transduced HSCs was also obtained when cells were drug-treated before transplantation. Mice that received these cells demonstrated reconstitution with therapeutic levels of gamma-globin-expressing cells. These data suggest that MGMT-based drug selection holds promise as a modality to improve gene therapy for beta-thalassemia.

  12. A novel tandem mass spectrometry method for first-line screening of mainly beta-thalassemia from dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaowen; Huang, Shuodan; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Zhaojian; Wang, Xingbin; He, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jie; Zou, Lin

    2017-02-10

    Traditional methods for thalassemia screening are time-consuming and easily affected by cell hemolysis or hemoglobin degradation in stored blood samples. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) proved to be an effective technology for sickle cell disorders (SCD) screening. Here, we developed a novel MS/MS method for β-thalassemia screening from dried blood spots (DBS). Stable isotopic-labeled peptides were used as internal standards for quantification and calculation of the α:β-globin ratios. We used the α:β-globin ratio cutoffs to differentiate between normal individuals and patients with thalassemia. About 781 patients and 300 normal individuals were analyzed. The α:β-globin ratios showed significant difference between normal and β-thalassemia patients (P<0.01), particularly when the disease was homozygous or double heterozygous with another α- or β-thalassemia mutation. In the parallel study, all cases screened for suspected thalassemia from six hundred DBS samples by using this MS/MS method were successfully confirmed by genotyping. The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs of the ratios ranged from 2.4% to 3.9% and 4.7% to 7.1%, and there was no significant sample carryover or matrix effect for this MS/MS method. Combined with SCD screening, this MS/MS method could be used as a first-line screening assay for both structural and expression abnormalities of human hemoglobin. Traditional methods for thalassemia screening were depending on the structural integrity of tetramers and could be affected by hemolysis and degradation of whole blood samples, especially when stored. We used proteospecific peptides produced by the tryptic digestion of each globin to evaluate the production ratio between α- and β-globin chains, which turned out to be quite stable even when stored for more than two months. Though most of the peptides were specific to α-globin or β-globin, we only chose four most informative peptides and its stable isotopic-labeled peptides as internal

  13. Iron-related disturbances of cell-mediated immunity in multitransfused children with thalassemia major.

    PubMed Central

    Pardalos, G; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidis, F; Malaka-Zafiriu, M; Tsantali, H; Athanasiou-Metaxa, M; Kallinikos, G; Papaevangelou, G

    1987-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities have been observed in many haemophiliacs receiving clotting factor concentrates. To determine whether similar changes also occur after repeated blood transfusions we estimated T cell subsets and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity (CDH) in 50 multitransfused children with beta-thalassemia major (beta-TM). All patients were also tested for anti-HTLV-III/LAV antibodies. A diminished percentage of T lymphocytes (E-rosettes, T3+), and T4+ cells and a low T4/T8 ratio was found in patients as compared to age and sex matched controls (P less than 0.001). Negative CDH tests to specific antigens (Multi-test) were also found in a significantly larger proportion of beta-TM children (P less than 0.01). Antibodies against HTLV-III/LAV were negative in all patients. Decreased T4/T8 ratio in beta-TM children was primarily due to a reduction of T4+ cells and was inversely correlated to the patients' age, number of units of transfused blood (P less than 0.05) and especially to ferritin serum levels and annual iron balance (P less than 0.001). These findings indicate that immunological abnormalities in beta-TM patients appear to be acquired, transfusion-associated and related to iron load which depends on the appropriate chelation therapy. PMID:3498564

  14. Blood transfusion transmitted infections in multiple blood transfused patients of Beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Vidja, Prakash J; Vachhani, J H; Sheikh, S S; Santwani, P M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI) continue to be a problem in many parts of world and multi-transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major are at a particularly increased risk of TTI. This study is aimed to estimate the prevalence of blood TTI in multiple blood transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major. Cross-sectional study of 200 multi-transfused patients of beta thalassaemia major, who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and history was taken regarding sero-status of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), HBV (Hepatitis B Virus), HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infection from their case papers. This study was conducted at the department of Pathology, M.P. Shah medical college, Jamnagar and Thalassemia ward, G.G. Hospital, Jamnagar (Gujarat, India) from March to May 2010. Out of 200 multiple blood transfused patients 7% patients were infected with TTI. Total 9 male patients and 5 female patients were infected with TTI. The seroreactivity for HIV was 3% (06/200); 1% (02/200) were males and 2% (04/200) were females. The seroreactivity for HBV was 2% (04/200) all were males. The seroreactivity for HCV was 2% (04/200); 1.5% (03/200) were males and 0.5% (01/200) was female. HIV, HBV, HCV infections are most prevalent TTI among multiple blood transfused patients of beta thalassemia major, and remains a major health problem for these patients.

  15. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Craniofacial Characteristics of Thalassemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Sacide; Tellioglu, Ayfer Metin; Bilgin, Mehmet; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Caliskan, Sercin; Coskun, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thalassemias major are the most common autosomal recessive disorders; they are characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin and are often associated with varying degrees of craniofacial anomalies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial dimensions of β-thalassemia patients and to identify differences by comparing them to those of a control group. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 43 thalassemia major patients and 26 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects. Anthropometric measurements were performed in six different craniofacial regions (head, face, nose, mouth, eyes, and ears); a total of 23 craniofacial variables were measured. Results: Craniofacial measurements in the regions of the face, nose, lips and mouth, and ears in the thalassemia major patient group yielded statistically significant differences compared to those in the control group (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the measurements of the head and eye regions. Conclusion: The study increased our understanding of the craniofacial anatomy of thalassemia major patients and enabled us to obtain quantitative results. PMID:28149147

  17. The Prevalence of the Beta Thalassemia Trait among the Pregnant Women who attended the ANC Clinic in a PHC, by using the NESTROF Test in Bangalore, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Masthi, N R Ramesh; Niveditha, Sr; Suvarna, R

    2013-07-01

    Contaxt: Every year in India 6000 to 8000 children are born with thalassaemia major. The birth of such a child produces considerable physical and economic strain on the affected child, its family and the community at large. Thus, the emphasis must shift from the treatment to the prevention of such births in the future. To find out the prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics in a Primary Health Centre, by using the NESTROF test; to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the study subjects, to find out the pregnancies which were 'at risk' of delivering babies with Thalassaemia major and to find out the 'awareness' of the pregnant women regarding Thalassaemia. This exploratory study was conducted in a PHC which was attached to the Department of Community Medicine of a medical college which was situated in Bangalore, India, for a period of 3 months. All the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and the husbands of the NESTROF positive women were included in the study. The details regarding the sociodemographic characteristics of the women were collected on a structured proforma and the NESTROF test was performed. Out of the 210 pregnant women who were tested, 18 (8.5%) were thalassaemia carriers. 12 (66.6%) of them were between 20 - 25 years of age. 5 (27.7%) were born out of 2(nd) degree consanguineous marriages. 7 (38.8%) had a history of abortions, among which 6 (33.3%) were in the 1(st) trimesters of their pregnancies. Out of the 18 positive women, 9 (50%) had turned up with their husbands. All of the husbands were negative for the Thalassaemia carrier status. Thus, there was no pregnancy which was at a risk of delivering babies with thalassaemia major. None (100%) of the pregnant women were aware of the disease, thalassaemia. The prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women was 8.5%.

  18. Comparison of deferasirox and deferoxamine effects on iron overload and immunological changes in patients with blood transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beta-thalassemias are a cluster of inherited (autosomal recessive) hematological disorders prevalent in the Mediterranean area due to defects in synthesis of β chains of hemoglobin. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of deferasirox and deferoxamine on iron overload and immunological changes in patients with blood transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major and intermedia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study involved 64 patients with known cases of β-thalassemia major or intermedia that has been treated with blood transfusion and iron chelators. Serum ferritin, serum iron, serum total iron binding, unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC), and immunological parameters were assessed in deferoxamine and deferasirox-treated patients. RESULTS: In deferoxamine-treated patients, serum ferritin levels were high (8160.33 ± 233.75 ng/dL) compared to deferasirox-treated patients (3000.62 ± 188.23 ng/dL; P < 0.0001), also there were significant differences in serum iron, total iron-binding capacity and UIBC (P < 0.0001) in deferasirox-treated patients compared to deferoxamine-treated patients. Immunological changes between two treated groups showed insignificant differences in levels of complements (C3 and C4) and immunoglobulin levels (IgM, IgG, and IgA) P > 0.05. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that deferasirox is more effective than deferoxamine regarding the iron overload but not in the immunological profile in patients with blood transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia. PMID:28316434

  19. Comparison of deferasirox and deferoxamine effects on iron overload and immunological changes in patients with blood transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I

    2017-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a cluster of inherited (autosomal recessive) hematological disorders prevalent in the Mediterranean area due to defects in synthesis of β chains of hemoglobin. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of deferasirox and deferoxamine on iron overload and immunological changes in patients with blood transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major and intermedia. This study involved 64 patients with known cases of β-thalassemia major or intermedia that has been treated with blood transfusion and iron chelators. Serum ferritin, serum iron, serum total iron binding, unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC), and immunological parameters were assessed in deferoxamine and deferasirox-treated patients. In deferoxamine-treated patients, serum ferritin levels were high (8160.33 ± 233.75 ng/dL) compared to deferasirox-treated patients (3000.62 ± 188.23 ng/dL; P < 0.0001), also there were significant differences in serum iron, total iron-binding capacity and UIBC ( P < 0.0001) in deferasirox-treated patients compared to deferoxamine-treated patients. Immunological changes between two treated groups showed insignificant differences in levels of complements (C3 and C4) and immunoglobulin levels (IgM, IgG, and IgA) P > 0.05. This study indicated that deferasirox is more effective than deferoxamine regarding the iron overload but not in the immunological profile in patients with blood transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia.

  20. High-resolution melting analysis for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of IVS-II-I (G-A) fetal DNA in minor beta-thalassemia mothers.

    PubMed

    Zafari, Mandana; Gill, Pooria; Kowsaryan, Mehrnoush; Alipour, Abbass; Banihashemi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The high-resolution melting (HRM) technique is fast, effective and successful method for mutation detection. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the HRM method for detection of a paternally inherited mutation in a fetus as a noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Genomic DNAs were prepared from 50 β-thalassemia minor couples whose pregnancy was at risk for homozygous β-thalassemia. Ten milliliters of the maternal blood from each pregnant woman were collected and after separating plasma stored at -80 °C until analysis. The extracted DNAs were analyzed by HRM real-time PCR for detection of IVS-II-I (G-A) as a paternally inherited mutation. The gold standard was the result of a chorionic villus sampling by a standard reverse dot blotting test. The sensitivity and specificity of HRM real-time PCR were 92.6% and 82.6%, respectively. Also, the positive and negative predictive values were 86.2% and 90.47%, respectively. HRM real-time PCR was a sensitive and specific method for determining the paternally inherited mutation in the fetus at risk with thalassemia major.

  1. Inducing indel mutation in the SOX6 gene by zinc finger nuclease for gamma reactivation: An approach towards gene therapy of beta thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Modares Sadeghi, Mehran; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Shahbazi, Mansoureh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    β-thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency in the synthesis of β-chains. Evidences show that increased HbF levels improve the symptoms in patients with β-thalassemia or sickle cell anemia. In this study, ZFN technology was applied to induce a mutation in the binding domain region of SOX6 to reactivate γ-globin expression. The sequences coding for ZFP arrays were designed and sub cloned in TDH plus as a transfer vector. The ZFN expression was confirmed using Western blot analysis. In the next step, using the site-directed mutagenesis strategy through the overlap PCR, a missense mutation (D64V) was induced in the catalytic domain of the integrase gene in the packaging plasmid and verified using DNA sequencing. Then, the integrase minus lentivirus containing ZFN cassette was packaged. Transduction of K562 cells with this virus was performed. Mutation detection assay was performed. The indel percentage of the cells transducted with lenti virus containing ZFN was 31%. After 5 days of erythroid differentiation with 15 μg/mL cisplatin, the levels of γ-globin mRNA were sixfold in the cells treated with ZFN compared to untreated cells. In the meantime, the measurement of HbF expression levels was carried out using hemoglobin electrophoresis and showed the same results. Integrase minus lentivirus can provide a useful tool for efficient transient gene expression and helps avoid disadvantages of gene targeting using the native virus. The ZFN strategy applied here to induce indel on SOX6 gene in adult erythroid progenitors may provide a method to activate fetal hemoglobin expression in individuals with β-thalassemia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neurocognitive dysfunction in children with β thalassemia major: psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Elalfy, M S; Aly, R H; Azzam, H; Aboelftouh, K; Shatla, R H; Tarif, M; Abdatty, M; Elsayed, R M

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of iron chelating drugs and serum ferritin on the neurocognitive functions of patients with β thalassemia major (β-TM), using psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic tests. Eighty children with β-TM were enrolled into the study and were compared to 40 healthy controls. All participants were evaluated by measuring serum ferritin, neurocognitive assessment by Benton Visual Retention Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wisconsin Card Sort Test, P300 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). WISC in our study showed that 40% of cases were borderline mental function as regards total IQ. Neurophysiologic tests were significantly impaired in patients compared to control group, with significant impairment in those receiving desferrioxamine (DFO). P300 amplitude was significantly lower in cases compared to controls (2.24 and 4.66 uv, respectively), recording the shortest amplitude in patients receiving DFO. Altered metabolic markers in the brain were detected by MRS in the form of reduced N-acetylaspartate to creatine ratio in 78.3% of our cases. There were significant correlations between psychometric tests and both neurophysiologic (P300) and radiologic (MRS) tests. β-TM is associated with neurocognitive impairment that can be assessed by psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic tests. The role of hemosiderosis and iron chelation therapy on cognitive functioning still need more research. β-TM: beta thalassemia major; DFO: Dysferal; DFP: Deferiprone; DFX: Deferasirox; WISC: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; VIQ: verbal IQ; PIQ: performance IQ; TIQ: total IQ; BVRT: Benton Visual Retention Test; WCST: Wisconsin Card Sort Test; MRS: Magnetic resonant spectroscopy; NAA/Cr ratio: N-acetylaspartate to creatine ratio.

  3. Assessment of injury severity in patients with major trauma.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Penelope; Booth, Nicola; Suckley, Janet; Twelvetree, Timothy; Thomas, Debbie

    2016-08-03

    Major trauma centres provide specialised care for patients who have experienced serious traumatic injury. This article provides information about major trauma centres and outlines the assessment tools used in this setting. Since patients in major trauma centres will be transferred to other settings, including inpatient wards and primary care, this article is relevant for both nurses working in major trauma centres and in these areas. Traumatic injuries require rapid assessment to ensure the patient receives prompt, adequate and appropriate treatment. A range of assessment tools are available to assist nurses in major trauma centres and emergency care to assess the severity of a patient's injury. The most commonly used tools are triage, Catastrophic Haemorrhage Airway to Exposure assessment, pain assessment and the Glasgow Coma Scale. This article summarises the use of these assessment tools in these settings, and discusses the use of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) to determine the severity of patient injuries.

  4. The impact of major trauma network triage systems on patients with major burns.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Metin; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Bache, Sarah; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Sen, Sankhya; Sherren, Peter; Barnes, David; Dziewulski, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Patients presenting with severe trauma and burns benefit from specifically trained multidisciplinary teams. Regional trauma systems have shown improved outcomes for trauma patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether the development of major trauma systems have improved the management of patients with major burns. A retrospective study was performed over a four-year period reviewing all major burns in adults and children received at a regional burns centre in the UK before and after the implementation of the regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC). Comparisons were drawn between three areas: (1) Patients presenting before the introduction of MTC and after the introduction of MTC. (2) Patients referred from MTC and non-MTC within the region, following the introduction of MTC. (3) Patients referred using the urban trauma protocol and the rural trauma protocol. Following the introduction of regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC), isolated burn patients seen at our regional burns centre did not show any significant improvement in transfer times, admission resuscitation parameters, organ dysfunction or survival when referred from a MTC compared to a non-MTC emergency department. There was also no significant difference in survival when comparing referrals from all hospitals pre and post establishment of the major trauma network. No significant outcome benefit was demonstrated for burns patients referred via MTCs compared to non-MTCs. We suggest further research is needed to ascertain whether burns patients benefit from prolonged transfer times to a MTC compared to those seen at their local hospitals prior to transfer to a regional burns unit for further specialist care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishing a legal service for major trauma patients at a major trauma centre in the UK.

    PubMed

    Seligman, William H; Thompson, Julian; Thould, Hannah E; Tan, Charlotte; Dinsmore, Andrew; Lockey, David J

    2017-09-01

    Major trauma causes unanticipated critical illness and patients have often made few arrangements for what are sudden and life-changing circumstances. This can lead to financial, housing, insurance, legal and employment issues for patients and their families.A UK law firm worked with the major trauma services to develop a free and comprehensive legal service for major trauma patients and their families at a major trauma centre (MTC) in the UK. In 2013, a legal service was established at North Bristol NHS Trust. Referrals are made by trauma nurse practitioners and it operates within a strict ethical framework. A retrospective analysis of the activity of this legal service between September 2013 and October 2015 was undertaken. 66 major trauma patients were seen by the legal teams at the MTC. 535 hours of free legal advice were provided on non-compensation issues-an average of 8 hours per patient. This initiative confirms a demand for the early availability of legal advice for major trauma patients to address a range of non-compensation issues as well as for identification of potential compensation claims. The availability of advice at the MTC is convenient for relatives who may be spending the majority of their time with injured relatives in hospital. More data are needed to establish the rehabilitation and health effects of receiving non-compensation advice after major injury; however, the utilisation of this service suggests that it should be considered at the UK MTCs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Mineral Levels in Thalassaemia Major Patients Using Different Iron Chelators.

    PubMed

    Genc, Gizem Esra; Ozturk, Zeynep; Gumuslu, Saadet; Kupesiz, Alphan

    2016-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the levels of minerals in chronically transfused thalassaemic patients living in Antalya, Turkey and to determine mineral levels in groups using different iron chelators. Three iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox have been used to remove iron from patients' tissues. There were contradictory results in the literature about minerals including selenium, zinc, copper, and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients. Blood samples from the 60 thalassaemia major patients (the deferoxamine group, n = 19; the deferiprone group, n = 20 and the deferasirox group, n = 21) and the controls (n = 20) were collected. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, magnesium, and iron were measured, and all of them except iron showed no significant difference between the controls and the patients regardless of chelator type. Serum copper levels in the deferasirox group were lower than those in the control and deferoxamine groups, and serum magnesium levels in the deferasirox group were higher than those in the control, deferoxamine and deferiprone groups. Iron levels in the patient groups were higher than those in the control group, and iron levels showed a significant correlation with selenium and magnesium levels. Different values of minerals in thalassaemia major patients may be the result of different dietary intake, chelator type, or regional differences in where patients live. That is why minerals may be measured in thalassaemia major patients at intervals, and deficient minerals should be replaced. Being careful about levels of copper and magnesium in thalassaemia major patients using deferasirox seems to be beneficial.

  7. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in patients with beta-hemoglobinopathies: the first report in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marina Neves; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina; Fonseca Estevão, Isabeth; de Castro Lobo, Clarice Lopes; Souza Carrocini, Gisele Cristina; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perpétuo; Ricci, Octávio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia

    2017-06-14

    In Brazil, there have been no previous studies of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sickle cell anemia patients and carriers of severe forms of beta-thalassemia. This study evaluated T. gondii infection in patients with beta-hemoglobinopathies. A total of 158 samples, 77 (48.7%) men and 81 (51.3%) women, were evaluated. Three groups were formed: G1 (85 patients with sickle cell disease); G2 (11 patients with homozygous beta-thalassemia; G3 (62 patients with heterozygous beta-thalassemia). ELISA was employed to identify anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies, and molecular analysis was performed to determine beta-hemoglobin mutations. Fisher's exact test was used to compare frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies in respect to gender and age. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 43.5% of individuals in G1, 18.1% in G2 and 50% in G3. All samples from G1 and G2 were seronegative for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, but 3.2% from G3 were seropositive. Considering anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, no statistical significant differences were found between these groups nor in seroprevalence between genders within each group. Despite this, comparisons of the mean ages between G1, G2 and G3 were statistically significant (G2 vs. G1: p value = 0.0001; G3 vs. G1: p-value <0.0001; G3 vs. G2: p-value = 0.0001). A comparison by age of patients with sickle cell anemia showed a trend of lower risk of infection among younger individuals. Therefore, this study demonstrates that T. gondii infection occurs in patients with beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia in Brazil as seen by the presence of anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies.

  8. Assessment of Online Patient Education Materials from Major Dermatologic Associations

    PubMed Central

    John, Ann M.; John, Elizabeth S.; Hansberry, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients increasingly use the internet to find medical information regarding their conditions and treatments. Physicians often supplement visits with written education materials. Online patient education materials from major dermatologic associations should be written at appropriate reading levels to optimize utility for patients. The purpose of this study is to assess online patient education materials from major dermatologic associations and determine if they are written at the fourth to sixth grade level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. Design: This is a descriptive and correlational design. Setting: Academic institution. Participants/measurements: Patient education materials from eight major dermatology websites were downloaded and assessed using 10 readability scales. A one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s Honestly Statistically Different post hoc analysis were performed to determine the difference in readability levels between websites. Results: Two hundred and sixty patient education materials were assessed. Collectively, patient education materials were written at a mean grade level of 11.13, with 65.8 percent of articles written above a tenth grade level and no articles written at the American Medical Association/National Institutes of Health recommended grade levels. Analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference between websites for each reading scale (p<0.001), which was confirmed with Tukey’s Honestly Statistically Different post hoc analysis. Conclusion: Online patient education materials from major dermatologic association websites are written well above recommended reading levels. Associations should consider revising patient education materials to allow more effective patient comprehension. (J ClinAesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):23–28.) PMID:27878059

  9. Assessment of Online Patient Education Materials from Major Dermatologic Associations.

    PubMed

    John, Ann M; John, Elizabeth S; Hansberry, David R; Lambert, William Clark

    2016-09-01

    Objective: Patients increasingly use the internet to find medical information regarding their conditions and treatments. Physicians often supplement visits with written education materials. Online patient education materials from major dermatologic associations should be written at appropriate reading levels to optimize utility for patients. The purpose of this study is to assess online patient education materials from major dermatologic associations and determine if they are written at the fourth to sixth grade level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. Design: This is a descriptive and correlational design. Setting: Academic institution. Participants/measurements: Patient education materials from eight major dermatology websites were downloaded and assessed using 10 readability scales. A one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Statistically Different post hoc analysis were performed to determine the difference in readability levels between websites. Results: Two hundred and sixty patient education materials were assessed. Collectively, patient education materials were written at a mean grade level of 11.13, with 65.8 percent of articles written above a tenth grade level and no articles written at the American Medical Association/National Institutes of Health recommended grade levels. Analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference between websites for each reading scale (p<0.001), which was confirmed with Tukey's Honestly Statistically Different post hoc analysis. Conclusion: Online patient education materials from major dermatologic association websites are written well above recommended reading levels. Associations should consider revising patient education materials to allow more effective patient comprehension. (J ClinAesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):23-28.).

  10. Impact of patients nutritional status on major surgery outcome.

    PubMed

    Mignini, E V; Scarpellini, E; Rinninella, E; Lattanzi, E; Valeri, M V; Clementi, N; Abenavoli, L; Gasbarrini, A; Rasetti, C; Santori, P

    2018-06-01

    Surgery is a major stress factor that activates several inflammatory and catabolic pathways in man. An appropriate nutritional status allows the body to react properly to this stressor and recover in a faster and more efficient manner. On the other hand, malnutrition is related to a worse surgery outcome and to a higher prevalence of comorbidities and mortality. The aims of this study were to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing major surgery and investigate the potential correlation between malnutrition and surgical outcomes. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and global clinical examination (including biochemical parameters and comorbidities existence) were undertaken in 50 consecutive patients undergoing major surgery. Patients' clinical conditions were re-evaluated at 3 and 6 days after surgery, recording biochemical parameters and systemic and/or wound-related complications. A compromised nutritional status was present in more than half (54%) of patients (malnutrition in 10% and risk of malnutrition in 44% of patients, respectively). Females were slightly more at risk of malnutrition (48% vs. 41%, p=NS, females vs. males) and clearly malnourished (14% vs. 7%, p<0.05, females vs. males). Age was an independent risk factor for malnutrition and within the elders' group (> 80 years old) 16.70% of patients was diagnosed with malnutrition and 58.3% was at risk of malnutrition. Systemic complications were registered in all patients both at 3 and 6 days after surgery. However, well-nourished and at-risk of malnutrition patients had earlier complications that only partially resolved within six days after the operation. Malnourished patients showed fewer complications at the 3rd post-surgery follow-up day but had a worse outcome six days after surgery. Older age and but not female sex are independent risk factors for malnutrition development in patients undergoing major surgery. More interestingly, more than half of patients with an impaired nutritional

  11. Pharmacological prevention of suicide in patients with major mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltan; Gonda, Xenia

    2013-12-01

    The risk of self-destructive behavior in mood disorders is an inherent phenomenon and suicidal behavior in patients with unipolar or bipolar major mood disorders strongly relates to the presence and severity of depressive episodes. Consequently, early recognition, and successful acute and long-term treatment of depressive disorders is essential for suicide prevention in such patients. Large-scale, retrospective and prospective naturalistic long-term clinical studies, including severely ill, frequently suicidal depressives show that appropriate pharmacotherapy markedly reduces suicide morbidity and mortality even in this high-risk population. Supplementary psycho-social interventions further improve the effect. The slightly elevated (but in absolute sense quite low) risk of suicidal behavior among patients taking antidepressants compared to those taking placebo in randomized controlled antidepressant trials on unipolar major depression might be the consequence of the depression-worsening potential of antidepressant monotherapy in subthreshold and mixed bipolar depressed patients included in these trials and falsely diagnosed as suffering from unipolar major depression. Concurrent depression-focused psychotherapies increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and this way contribute to suicide prevention for patients with mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Depression and major depressive disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Tanaka, Teruaki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-01-15

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies greatly. In this study, we investigated major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms without MDD in patients with PD. The psychopathological characteristics of depressive symptoms were assessed by a psychiatric interview. A total of 105 Japanese patients with PD without dementia were included. The Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with a cutoff score of 13/14 was used to screen for depression. Using a structured interview, a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation of patients with BDI-II scores >13 (high BDI patients) was completed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR. Forty patients (38%) had a BDI-II >13, but 29 did not show any depressed mood. Five cases met the criteria for MDD (three current, two past) and one patient was diagnosed with minor depressive disorder. A slight depressed mood that was associated with worrying about PD was seen in 6 of 34 patients without any depressive disorder and fluctuated with aggravation of PD symptoms in two of these patients. For the diagnosis of MDD, the number of positive items from the DSM-IV-TR definition of MDD is most important and useful for differentiating MDD and non-MDD. The low-prevalence rate of MDD in our patient population suggests that PD may be a psychological stressor for MDD, but does not necessarily induce MDD.

  13. Benefits of Laparoscopy in Elderly Patients Requiring Major Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Cauchy, François; Fuks, David; Nomi, Takeo; Dokmak, Safi; Scatton, Olivier; Schwarz, Lilian; Barbier, Louise; Belghiti, Jacques; Soubrane, Olivier; Gayet, Brice

    2016-02-01

    Although recent reports have suggested the potential advantages of laparoscopy in patients undergoing major hepatectomy, the benefits of this approach in elderly patients remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic major hepatectomy (LMH) and open major hepatectomy (OMH) in elderly patients. All patients aged 55 years and older undergoing laparoscopic LMH between 2000 and 2013 at 2 centers were retrospectively analyzed and divided into 3 groups (group 1: 55 to 64 years old; group 2: 65 to 74 years old; and group 3: 75 years and older). Risk factors for postoperative complications were determined on multivariable analysis in the overall LMH population and in each LMH group. Outcomes of LMH patients were compared with those of patients of similar age undergoing OMH at another center after propensity score matching. Laparoscopic major hepatectomy was performed in 174 patients, including 72 (41.4%) in group 1, 67 (38.5%) in group 2, and 35 (20.1%) in group 3. On multivariable analysis, diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.349; 95% CI, 1.251-2.674; p = 0.047), American Society of Anesthesiologists status (OR = 2.881; 95% CI, 2.193-3.71; p = 0.017), cirrhosis (OR = 1.426; 95% CI, 1.092-2.025; p = 0.043), right-sided resection (OR = 2.001; 95% CI, 1.492-2.563; p = 0.037), conversion (OR = 1.950; 95% CI, 1.331-2.545; p = 0.024), and intraoperative transfusion (OR = 2.338, 95% CI, 1.738-2.701, p = 0.032) were associated with increased risk of postoperative complications in the whole LMH population. After propensity score matching, laparoscopy was associated with significantly decreased rates of pulmonary complications and shorter hospital stays in all groups, decreased rates of overall complications in group 2 and group 3, and decreased rates of postoperative confusion in group 3. The current study supports the benefits of laparoscopy in decreasing postoperative complications in elderly patients requiring major hepatectomy

  14. Fluid resuscitation for major burn patients with the TMMU protocol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gaoxing; Peng, Yizhi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Wenguang; Wu, Jun; Tang, Jin; Huang, Yuesheng; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Fluid resuscitation is one of the critical treatments for the major burn patient in the early phases after injury. We evaluated the practice of fluid resuscitation for severely burned patients with the Third Military Medical University (TMMU) protocol, which is most widely used in many regions of China. Patients with major burns (>30% total body surface area (TBSA)) presenting to Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, between January 2005 and October 2007, were included in this study. Fluid resuscitation was initiated by the TMMU protocol. A total of 71 patients were (46 adults and 25 children) included in this study. All patients survived the first 48 h after injury smoothly and none developed abdominal compartment syndrome or other recognised complications associated with fluid resuscitation. The average quantity of fluid infused was 3.3-61.33% more than that calculated based on the TMMU protocol in both adult and paediatric groups. The average urine output during the first 24h after injury was about 1.2 ml per kg body weight per hour in the two groups, but reached 1.2 ml and 1.7 ml during the second 24h in adult and pediatric groups, respectively. This study indicates that the TMMU protocol for fluid resuscitation is a feasible option for burn patients. Individualised resuscitation - guided by the physiological response to fluid administration - is still important as in other protocols.

  15. Red Cell Alloimmunization In Multitransfused Thalassaemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Moeen, Shazia; Farooq, Nazish; Irshad, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Farooq, Umer; Idris, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Lifelong transfusions are life savers for thalassaemia patients but are associated with many complications. Alloimmunization is a major problem for blood banks. Antigens of foreign red blood cells induce the formation of antibodies in patients suffering from thalassaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of red cell alloantibodies and to express the type of these antibodies in thalassaemia patients. Patients that have received multiple transfusions were included in this study. Those with the positive Coombs test (DAT) results were excluded from the study and remaining patients were screened for antibodies. A panel of known blood group antigens was used for the patients who had a positive antibody screening test because they had alloantibodies in their serum. First, three cell panel was applied. If the screen was positive then eleven cell panels was used to identify the specific antibody. Both the cell panels were applied at room-temperature, liss (low ionic strength saline) and coombs phase. Three hundred & two patients were selected out of which 65.6% (n=198) were males and 34.4% (n=104) females. Patient's age ranged from 1.5 years to 26 years ±5.40 years. All of the patients were given regular red cell transfusion at 2-4 weeks interval. They were given non leukodepleted transfusions. It is not the practice in any thalassaemia Centre in Pakistan to give phenotypically matched blood for Kell, Kidd, Duffy or any other minor group antigens to patients on regular blood transfusion. Alloimmunization was positive in 12 (4.0%) of the 302 patients studied. Male were 66.67% (n=8) and female were 33.33% (n=4). Samples of these positive patients were further tested to determine specificity of alloantibodies. Anti Cw was most common, detected in 4 out of 12 (1.3%) patients. Anti K, k, S and Lua were detected in 2 out of 12 (0.7%) each. Thalassemia major patients on regular blood transfusions can develop red cell alloantibodies. Detailed pretransfusion

  16. Predicting Major Bleeding in Ischemic Stroke Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hilkens, Nina A; Algra, Ale; Greving, Jacoba P

    2017-11-01

    Performance of risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and a previous transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is not well established. We aimed to validate risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants after cerebral ischemia and explore the net benefit of oral anticoagulants among bleeding risk categories. We analyzed 3623 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke included in the RE-LY trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy). We assessed performance of HEMORR 2 HAGES (hepatic or renal disease, ethanol abuse, malignancy, older age, reduced platelet count or function, hypertension [uncontrolled], anemia, genetic factors, excessive fall risk, and stroke), Shireman, HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly), ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation), and ORBIT scores (older age, reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) with C statistics and calibration plots. Net benefit of oral anticoagulants was explored by comparing risk reduction in ischemic stroke with risk increase in major bleedings on warfarin. During 6922 person-years of follow-up, 266 patients experienced a major bleed (3.8 per 100 person-years). C statistics ranged from 0.62 (Shireman) to 0.67 (ATRIA). Calibration was poor for ATRIA and moderate for other models. The reduction in recurrent ischemic strokes on warfarin was larger than the increase in major bleeding risk, irrespective of bleeding risk category. Performance of prediction models for major bleeding in patients with cerebral ischemia and atrial fibrillation is modest but comparable with performance in patients with only atrial fibrillation. Bleeding risk scores cannot

  17. Impaired social decision making in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Shu; Wang, Peng; Wu, Guo-Wei; Liu, Zhe-Ning

    2014-01-23

    Abnormal decision-making processes have been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unresolved whether MDD patients show abnormalities in decision making in a social interaction context, in which decisions have actual influences on both the self-interests of the decision makers per se and those of their partners. Using a well-studied ultimatum game (UG), which is frequently used to investigate social interaction behavior, we examined whether MDD can be associated with abnormalities in social decision-making behavior by comparing the acceptance rates of MDD patients (N = 14) with those of normal controls (N = 19). The acceptance rates of the patients were lower than those of the normal controls. Additionally, unfair proposals were accepted at similar rates from computer partners and human partners in the MDD patients, unlike the acceptance rates in the normal controls, who were able to discriminatively treat unfair proposals from computer partners and human partners. Depressed patients show abnormal decision-making behavior in a social interaction context. Several possible explanations, such as increased sensitivity to fairness, negative emotional state and disturbed affective cognition, have been proposed to account for the abnormal social decision-making behavior in patients with MDD. This aberrant social decision-making behavior may provide a new perspective in the search to find biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of MDD.

  18. Pain symptoms in Malay patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salleh Mohd; Khalib, Ahmad Qabil

    2012-12-01

    There is a strong association between depression and pain, which is influenced by various biological and psychological mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and severity of pain symptoms among patients with major depression; and to determine the correlation between pain with clinical variables, neurotic pathology and severity of depression. Fifty-one Malay patients with major depressive disorder without psychotic feature enrolled for the study. They were assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Crown Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI). The majority (80.4%) of the subjects had experienced pain, but overall severity of the pain was mild (33.3%). There were no statistically significant differences in socio-demographic variables with the status of pain. The prevalence of pain was significantly higher in patients who were still depressed (p<0.05), had anxious depression (p<0.05) and those with prominent somatic symptoms of anxiety (SOM) (p<0.05). The severity of pain was significantly correlated with neuroticism, the severity of depression (HAM-D total score) and high scores on SOM, DEP and FFA subscales of the CCEI. Among the three, the DEP subscale had the highest correlation with severity of pain. The somatising patients were heterogeneous group. The pain symptoms were common in severe mixed anxiety-depression, predisposed by the underlying neurotic pathology. Neuroticism and high scores on SOM, DEP and FFA subscales of the CCEI contributed significantly to the pathogenesis of depressed Malay patients with pain symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Refractive errors and ocular biometry components in thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Heydarian, Samira; Jafari, Reza; Karami, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare biometric and refractive characteristics of thalassemia major patients and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 54 thalassemia major patients were selected randomly as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as control group. Refractive errors, corneal curvature and ocular components were measured by autokeratorefractometery and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Mean spherical equivalent was -0.0093 ± 0.86 D in thalassemia patients and -0.22 ± 1.33 D in the normal group. The prevalence of myopia, Hyperopia, and emmetropia among thalassemia patients was 16.7, 19.4, and 63.9 %, respectively. While in the control group, 26.9 % were myopic, 25 % were hyperopic, and 48.1 % were emmetropic. The prevalence of astigmatism in case group was 22.2 %, which was not significantly different from that in control group, (27.8 %, p = 0.346). Mean axial length in thalassemia patients was 22.89 ± 0.70 which was significantly lower than that in normal group (23.37 ± 0.91, p = 0.000). The flattest meridian of the cornea (R1) was significantly steeper in thalassemia patients (7.77 ± 0.24) in comparison to normal individuals (7.85 ± 0.28). Although thalassemic patients had significantly smaller axial length and vitreous chamber depth in comparison to normal group, which could be due to their abnormal physical growth, there was no significant difference between the mean of spherical equivalent among two groups. This can be due to their steeper corneal curvature that overcomes the refractive disadvantage of their shorter axial length.

  20. Growth and Endocrine Function in Tunisian Thalassemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, Naouel Guirat; Ben Khaled, Monia; Ouederni, Monia; Besbes, Habib; Kouki, Ridha; Mellouli, Fethi; Bejaoui, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is among the most common hereditary disorders imposing high expenses on health-care system worldwide. The patient's survival is dependent on lifetime blood transfusion which leads to iron overload and its toxicity in various organs including endocrine glands. This article provides an overview of endocrine disorders in beta-TM patients. This single center investigation enrolled 28 β-TM patients (16 males, 12 females) regularly transfused with packed red cell since early years of life. For each patient were determined: age, sex, number of transfusions received, history of splenectomy and anthropometric parameters. All patients underwent an evaluation of hormonal status including growth, gonadal, thyroid, adrenal cortex, and parathyroid glands. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to diagnose low bone mass. Assessment of iron overload status was performed by measuring the serum ferritin concentration and the results of magnetic resonance imaging T 2 *. Growth retardation was found in 16 of the 28 studied patients (57 %). Thirteen among them had delayed puberty. Spontaneous puberty was achieved in 16 cases. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was found in 10 cases (35 %). Seventeen among the studied patients (60 %) developed disorders of glucose homeostasis. Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in six patients (21 %). Intensive chelation therapy had allowed the reversibility of this complication in five cases. Adrenal Insufficiency was observed in 9 cases (32%). Hypoparathyroidism has occurred in one case. Ten of the 28 studied patients had low bone mass (35%). Twenty-three of the 28 studied patients (82%) had at least one endocrine complication.

  1. Correlates of Disability in Asian Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eurviriyanukul, Kanokkwan; Srisurapanont, Manit; Udomratn, Pichet; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2016-10-01

    To examine correlates of disability in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were outpatients with DSM-IV MDD. Global disability and three disability domains (i.e., work/school, social life/leisure, and family/home life) were key outcomes. Several socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were determined for their associations with disability. The sample was 493 MDD patients. Apart from the number of hospitalizations, the global disability was significantly associated with depression severity, fatigue, physical health, and mental health. Several clinical but only few socio-demographic characteristics associated with the other three disability domains were similar. Disability among Asian patients with MDD correlates with the severity of psychiatric symptoms and the hospitalizations due to depression. Socio-demographic characteristics have little impact on the overall disability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ocular refractive and biometric characteristics in patients with thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Kalantari, Zahra; Namvar, Khadije; Meshkibaf, Mohammad Hassan

    2011-07-01

    Thalassaemia major is associated with characteristic findings in craniofacial bony structures and thereby may render abnormal bony orbit and subsequently distinctive ocular biometry. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ocular refractive and biometric characteristics in patients with thalassaemia major. This case-controlled study comprised 94 eyes of 47 patients with thalassaemia major and 88 eyes of 44 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. All participants had a complete ocular examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, ocular biometry, keratometry, refraction and analysis using Fourier transformation. There were no significant differences in spherical equivalent (p = 0.66) and total astigmatism (p = 0.83) between groups. Mean uncorrected vision and visual acuities (logMar) were similar (p = 0.32 and p = 0.71, respectively). Compared with controls, thalassaemic patients had a shorter axial length (23.01 ± 0.12 [SEM] mm versus 23.46 ± 0.12 mm, p = 0.035), thicker crystalline lens (4.01 ± 0.11 mm versus 3.87 ± 0.1 mm, p = 0.046) and steeper average keratometry (44.02 ± 0.24 D versus 43.44 ± 0.24, p = 0.03). Fifty-seven per cent of thalassaemic patients had against-the-rule astigmatism (total), while 64.6 per cent of controls showed a with-the-rule pattern (p < 0.05). These patterns were also found for corneal astigmatism. The magnitudes of total, corneal and lenticular astigmatism were similar among groups. Regression analysis showed significant correlation between corneal (J0 and J45) and total (J0 and J45) astigmatism. The correlations were less prominent between lenticular and total J0 and J45. The mean intraocular pressure was 14.68 ± 0.27 mmHg and 13.3 ± 0.26 mmHg in the thalassaemia and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Six eyes (12.8 per cent) of four patients in the thalassaemia group had posterior subcapsular cataract, while the condition had not been observed in controls (p = 0.049). Shorter axial

  3. Emotional working memory in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Feng, Lei; Liu, Xingwang; Zhang, Ming; Fu, Bingbing; Wang, Gang; Lu, Shengfu; Zhong, Ning; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    Objective This study was performed to examine the working memory (WM) encoding and retrieval abilities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and determine whether a mood-congruent memory effect is present. Methods The modified Sternberg WM paradigm with positive, negative, and neutral emotional pictures was used to investigate the WM abilities of 26 patients with MDD and 26 healthy controls (HCs). Results No significant difference in picture WM was found between the MDD and HC groups; however, the accuracy of picture position WM was significantly lower and the response time was significantly longer in the MDD than HC group, regardless of the picture or position WM. Additionally, in the MDD group, the accuracy of negative picture/position WM was significantly higher than that of positive picture/position WM. Conclusions These results suggest that in patients with MDD, spatial WM impairment was more severe than object WM. In addition, these patients' WM retrieval was impaired, resulting in a decrease in WM retrieval ability, which may be an important cause of the slow thought in patients with MDD. Moreover, patients with depression have a mood-congruent memory effect, which may be an important factor in the occurrence and maintenance of depression.

  4. Impaired intuition in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Carina; Topolinski, Sascha; Dietrich, Detlef E; Michalak, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    In daily life, many decisions of minor and major importance have to be made. Thereby, intuitive judgments serve as useful guides and help us to adapt to our environment. People with major depressive disorder (MDD) often have difficulties to come to decisions. Is their intuition impaired? Since this question has not been addressed until now, the present study explored intuition in MDD. Depressed patients (n = 29) and healthy control participants (n = 27) completed the Judgment of Semantic Coherence Task, a well-established paradigm used in basic cognitive research to measure intuition. Furthermore, participants' severity of depressive symptoms (BDI-II), negative affect (PANAS), and rumination (RSQ) were assessed. All participants were interviewed with the SCID. Depressed patients showed impaired intuition compared to healthy control participants. In the depressed sample, negative affect accounts for the association between rumination and impaired intuition. Results further reveal that negative affect overall mediates the depression-intuition relationship. Patients with diminished ability to concentrate or indecisiveness had lower intuition indices compared to patients who did not fulfil this diagnostic criterion of MDD. The study introduces the phenomenon of intuition into depression research. Additionally, these results extent findings from basic research showing that induced negative mood as well difficulties to down-regulate negative affect impair intuitive coherence judgments. Current results indicate that the negative affectivity of patients is the crucial mediator in the association between depression and impaired intuition. Limitations of the study as well as the potential etiological role of intuition in MDD are discussed. The finding that intuition is impaired in depressed patients extends our knowledge as to the cognitive profile of patients with MDD. Patients who suffer from indecisiveness have lower intuition indices compared to patients who do not

  5. Recollection deficiencies in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Drakeford, Justine L; Edelstyn, Nicola M J; Oyebode, Femi; Srivastava, Shrikant; Calthorpe, William R; Mukherjee, Tirthankar

    2010-02-28

    Neuropsychological research suggests that recognition memory (RM) and recall memory are impaired in patients with a major depressive disorder or a dysphoric mood state. This study examines the proposal that abnormalities in recollection (a form of recall) result from a breakdown in frontal strategic memory processes involved in encoding and retrieval, and executive functions linked to reality monitoring, planning, problem-solving, reasoning and decision-making. We investigated two predictions arising from this theory. Firstly, patients diagnosed with a major depressive disorder (MDD) will display a dissociation between (deficient) recollection and (preserved) familiarity. Secondly, if recollection impairments are indicative of a breakdown in prefrontal strategic memory processes which are dependent, at least in part, on executive processes, then an explicit correlational approach predicts that recollection will be positively associated with the severity of executive dysfunction in MDD patients. The remember/know paradigm was used to investigate RM for words and neutral faces in 16 MDD patients and 16 healthy volunteers, matched for age, gender and estimates of premorbid IQ. Measures of executive function included working memory, reasoning and decision-making. Applying the Dual Process Signal Detection interpretation of the remember/know data, the MDD group displayed significant impairments in RM and recollection rates for both verbal and neutral facial memoranda. In contrast, familiarity-aware rates were preserved. There was no evidence of executive dysfunction in the patient group, and little evidence that recollection rates correlated with executive function. Furthermore, a single process signal detection approach suggested that the MDD patients displayed a reduction in sensitivity for RM and remember rates but not know responses. The criteria for detecting studied from unstudied items, and remembering from knowing, were the same in both patient and healthy

  6. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Ittasakul, Pichai; Waleeprakhon, Punjaporn; Wisajun, Pattarabhorn; Jullagate, Sudawan

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%), employed (54.8%), and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%). There were 67 patients (35.3%) with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%), any anxiety disorders (21.1%) (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%]), alcohol dependence (0.5%), psychotic disorder (1.6%), antisocial personality (1.1%), and eating disorders (0%). Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (P<0.001), psychotic disorder (P=0.048), past panic disorder (P=0.017), and suicidal risk (P<0.001). Suicidal risk was found in 32.1% of patients. Patients with suicidal risk had more comorbid anxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019) and psychotic disorder (P=0.032). Several comorbidities were associated with MDD. Patients with active MDD had higher comorbid OCD, psychotic disorder, past panic disorder, and suicidal risk. Patients with suicide risk had higher comorbid anxiety and

  7. Major neonatal surgery: psychosocial consequence of the patient and mothers.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akio; Yamakawa, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Etsuyo; Kosugi, Megumi; Hirano, Shinya; Shiraishi, Jun; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Akihiro; Taduke, Yuko; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Takifuji, Katsunari; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2016-03-01

    Our previous studies of long-term QOL after major neonatal surgery revealed an unexpectedly high incidence of mental retardation as well as emotional and psychosocial problems, and the patients' QOL correlated with maternal QOL and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The main purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors affecting long-standing maternal PTSD. Sixty-eight patients, aged between 6 and 17years, and their mothers were enrolled in this study. The underlying diseases included congenital diaphragmatic hernia in 21, anorectal anomalies in 25 and esophageal atresia in 22. Psychoanalysts carried out intelligence tests, the Child Behavior Checklist and QOL evaluation in the patients. QOL was evaluated with WHOQOL26 and PTSD with IES-R questionnaires in their mothers. The mothers were divided into two groups; low- and high-risk groups according to PTSD score. Patient QOL scores correlated positively with maternal QOL (p<0.05) and negatively with maternal PTSD scores (p<0.05). There were significant differences in total number of hospital admissions (p<0.05), feeling of economic burden (p<0.05), and satisfaction with husband's help (p<0.01) between the two groups. Risk factors for maternal PTSD include repeated hospitalization, a feeling of economic burden, and lack of satisfaction with husband's help. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Major bleeding caused by warfarin in a genetically susceptible patient.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Aharon; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad; Muszkat, Mordechai; Caraco, Yoseph

    2002-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman was hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding. Although she had been receiving only warfarin 5 mg/day, her international normalized ratio (INR) was 66. Warfarin was discontinued, and her INR fell to 3.7 after transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma. However, it rose again spontaneously to 7.5. Eleven days after the last dose of warfarin had been administered, it was still detectable in the patient's plasma, indicating that impaired warfarin clearance may have caused an enhanced anticoagulation effect. Genetic analysis of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2C9, which mediates the major deactivating pathway of S-warfarin, revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote carrying two variant alleles: CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. The patient's enhanced sensitivity to warfarin 5 mg/day can be ascribed to decreased clearance of S-warfarin secondary to genetic alteration of the gene encoding CYP2C9, resulting in a life-threatening complication.

  9. Assessment of online patient education materials from major ophthalmologic associations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Agarwal, Nitin; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-04-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to supplement finding medical information, which can be complex and requires a high level of reading comprehension. Online ophthalmologic materials from major ophthalmologic associations should be written at an appropriate reading level. To assess ophthalmologic online patient education materials (PEMs) on ophthalmologic association websites and to determine whether they are above the reading level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. Descriptive and correlational design. Patient education materials from major ophthalmology websites were downloaded from June 1, 2014, through June 30, 2014, and assessed for level of readability using 10 scales. The Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning Fog Index, New Fog Count, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST scale, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph, and Fry Readability Graph were used. Text from each article was pasted into Microsoft Word and analyzed using the software Readability Studio professional edition version 2012.1 for Windows. Flesch Reading Ease score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade, Coleman-Liau Index score, Gunning Fog Index score, New Fog Count, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula score, FORCAST score, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph score, and Fry Readability Graph score. Three hundred thirty-nine online PEMs were assessed. The mean Flesch Reading Ease score was 40.7 (range, 17.0-51.0), which correlates with a difficult level of reading. The mean readability grade levels ranged as follows: 10.4 to 12.6 for the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level; 12.9 to 17.7 for the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test; 11.4 to 15.8 for the Coleman-Liau Index; 12.4 to 18.7 for the Gunning Fog Index; 8.2 to 16.0 for the New Fog Count; 11.2 to 16.0 for the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula; 10.9 to 12.5 for the FORCAST scale; 11

  10. Major Odorants Released as Urinary Volatiles by Urinary Incontinent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Si On; Sa, In Young; Oh, Soo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, volatile urinary components were collected using three different types of samples from patients suffering from urinary incontinence (UI): (1) urine (A); (2) urine + non-used pad (B); and (3) urine + used pad (C). In addition, urine + non-used pad (D) samples from non-patients were also collected as a reference. The collection of urinary volatiles was conducted with the aid of a glass impinger-based mini-chamber method. Each of the four sample types (A through D) was placed in a glass impinger and incubated for 4 hours at 37 °C. Ultra pure air was then passed through the chamber, and volatile urine gas components were collected into Tedlar bags at the other end. These bag samples were then analyzed for a wide range of VOCs and major offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, trimethylamine (TMA), ammonia, etc.). Among the various odorants, sulfur compounds (methanethiol and hydrogen sulfide) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, butylaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) were detected above odor threshold and predicted to contribute most effectively to odor intensity of urine incontinence. PMID:23823973

  11. Pathways linking major depression and immunity in ambulatory female patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, G E; Cohen, S; Herbert, T B

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate whether depression is associated with cellular immunity in ambulatory patients and to identify neuroendocrine and behavioral pathways that might account for this relationship. We studied 32 women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth edition, criteria for major depressive disorder and 32 healthy female control subjects. The groups were matched for age and ethnicity. None were taking medication, and all were free of disease involving the immune system. Depressed subjects had reduced proliferative responses to the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin compared with control subjects. Natural killer cell activity was reduced among older depressed subjects but enhanced among younger depressed subjects. Although depression was associated with elevated circulating levels of norepinephrine and estradiol, these hormones could not account for the immunologic differences between depressed and control subjects. Depression was also associated with greater tobacco and caffeine consumption, less physical activity, and poorer sleep quality. Mediational analyses were consistent with physical activity acting as a pathway through which depression was associated with reduced lymphocyte proliferation. Ambulatory patients with mild to moderately severe depression exhibit reduced mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferative responses and altered natural killer cell cytotoxicity. The relationship between depression and proliferative responses may be mediated by physical activity.

  12. Combination of a triple alpha-globin gene with beta-thalassemia in a gypsy family: importance of the genetic testing in the diagnosis and search for a donor for bone marrow transplantation for one of their children.

    PubMed

    Yus Cebrian, Flor; Recasens Flores, María del Valle; Izquierdo Álvarez, Silvia; Parra Salinas, Ingrid; Rodriguez-Vigil Iturrate, Carmen

    2016-04-14

    The simultaneous presence of a heterozygous β-thalassemia with α-gene triplication may cause anything from a thalassemia trait to thalassemia intermedia of mild to moderate severity. An 8-month-old ethnic Gypsy male infant with failure to thrive from birth, mild jaundice and splenomegaly. Clinical signs were compatible with severe microcytic anemia requiring bi-monthly blood transfusions. The β-thalassemia gene analysis found homozygous mutation IVS-I-110 (G>A) (c.93-21G>A) in intron 1 of the hemoglobin beta globin gene and a non-pathogenic sequence variant (single nucleotide polimorfism (SNP) Rs1609812). In addition, the patient had α gene triplication (ααα(anti 3.7)/αα) caused by double heterozygosity for a 3.7 kb fragment that contained only the hemoglobin alpha globin gene-2 gene. This finding led to screening and follow up in first-degree relatives, twin brothers and a sister and parents to provide them with appropriate genetic counseling. Nowadays, new horizons could open a new therapeutic management until definitive cure of these diseases through gene therapy or mutation-specific genome editing. Genetic testing can provide an early diagnosis and facilitates the search for a suitable donor for transplantation.

  13. Correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Heidari, Zahra; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the correlation of major components of ocular astigmatism in myopic patients in an academic hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 376 eyes of 188 patients who were referred to Farabi Eye Hospital for refractive surgery. Preoperative examinations including refraction and corneal topography were performed for all candidates to measure refractive and corneal astigmatism. Ocular residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. Pearson's correlation and ANOVA analysis were used to evaluate the strength of the association between different types of astigmatism. Both eyes were defined as cluster and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis were performed. Mean age of 119 women (63.3%) and 69 men (36.7%) was 27.8 ± 5.7 years. Mean refractive error based on spherical equivalent was -3.59 ± 1.95D (range, -0.54 to -10.22D). Mean refractive and corneal astigmatism was 1.97 ± 1.3D and 1.85 ± 1.01D, respectively. Mean amount of ORA was 0.65 ± 0.36D.There was a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism(r=0.23, p<0.001), corneal and refractive astigmatism (r=0.91, p<0.001) and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism (r=0.13, p=0.014). There was a significant correlation between J0 and J45 values of ORA and corneal astigmatism (p<0.001). There is a significant correlation between ORA and refractive astigmatism, refractive and corneal astigmatism and a weak correlation between ORA and corneal astigmatism in refractive surgery candidates. Identifying the type of astigmatism and preoperative measurement of ocular residual astigmatism is highly recommended prior to any refractive surgery, especially in cases with significant astigmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired social decision making in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C

    2012-07-01

    Research on how depression influences social decision making has been scarce. This study investigated how people with depression make decisions in an interpersonal trust-reciprocity game. Fifty female patients diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDDs) and 49 healthy women participated in this study. The experiment was conducted on a one-to-one basis. Participants were asked to play the role of a trustee responsible for investing money given to them by an anonymous female investor playing on another computer station. In each trial, the investor would send to a participant (the trustee) a request for a certain percentage of the appreciated investment (repayment proportion). Since only the participant knew the exact amount of the appreciated investment, she could decide to pay more (altruistic act), the same, or less (deceptive act) than the requested amount. The participant's money acquired in the trial would be confiscated if her deceptive act was caught. The frequency of deceptive or altruistic decisions and relative monetary gain in each decision choice were examined. People with depression made fewer deceptive and fewer altruistic responses than healthy controls in all conditions. Moreover, the specific behavioral pattern presented by people with depression was modulated by the task factors, including the risk of deception detection and others' intentions (benevolence vs. malevolence). Findings of this study contribute to furthering our understanding of the specific pattern of social behavioral changes associated with depression.

  15. [Molecular characterization of heterozygous beta-thalassemia in Lanzarote, Spain].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Villas, José Manuel; de la Iglesia Iñigo, Silvia; Ropero Gradilla, Paloma; Zapata Ramos, María Francisca; Cuesta Tovar, Jorge; Sicilia Guillén, Francisco

    2008-04-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the molecular defects of heterozygous beta thalassaemia and to ascertain their distribution in Lanzarote. Molecular characterization was achieved by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR LightCycler, Roche), PCR-ARMS (PCR-amplification reaction mutations system) and DNA sequencing on an automated DNA sequencer. Two hundred forty-three heterozygous beta thalassaemia carriers were included between July 1991 and February 2007. RT-PCR detected the molecular defect in 81% of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes analyzed [113 codon CD 39 (C --> T); 41 IVS-1-nt-110 (G --> A), 25 IVS 1-nt-1 (G --> A) and 19 IVS 1-nt-6 (T --> C)]. The remaining 12 molecular defects included the deletion 619 bp (7.8%) and the mutations -28 (A --> G), IVS1-nt-2 (T --> G), CD 41/42 (-TTCT), CD 8/9 (+G), CD 51 (-C), CD 22 (G --> T) and CD 24 (T --> A), CD 67 (-TG) and the novel mutation CD 20/21-TGGA. The distribution of the mutations is similar to that found in the Mediterranean area. The increasing migratory flow received in the Canary Islands may explain the emergence of new mutations not reported before in our area.

  16. Alloimmunization and autoimmunization in transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients: Study on 319 patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Hari Krishan; Kumawat, Vijay; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Sachdev, Suchet; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Arora, Satyam

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of anti-red blood cell antibodies (both allo-and autoantibodies) remains a major problem in thalassemia major patients. We studied the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization and autoimmunization among thalassemia patients who received regular transfusions at our center and analyzed the factors, which may be responsible for development of these antibodies. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 319 multiply transfused patients with β-thalassemia major registered with thalassemia clinic at our institute. Clinical and transfusion records of all the patients were examined for age of patients, age at initiation of transfusion therapy, total number of blood units transfused, transfusion interval, status of splenectomy or other interventions. Alloantibody screening and identification was done using three cell and 11 cell panel (Diapanel, Bio-rad, Switzerland) respectively. To detect autoantibodies, autocontrol was carried out using polyspecific coombs (IgG + C3d) gel cards. Results: Eighteen patients out of total 319 patients (5.64%) developed alloantibodies and 90 (28.2%) developed autoantibodies. Nine out of 18 patients with alloantibodies also had autoantibodies. Age at first transfusion was significantly higher in alloimmunized than non-immunized patients (P = 0.042). Out of 23 alloantibodies, 52.17% belonged to Rh blood group system (Anti-E = 17%, Anti D = 13%, Anti-C = 13%, Anti-Cw = 9%), 35% belonged to Kell blood group system, 9% of Kidd and 4% of Xg blood group system. Conclusion: Alloimmunization was detected in 5.64% of multitransfused thalassemia patients. Rh and Kell blood group system antibodies accounted for more than 80% of alloantibodies. This study re-emphasizes the need for RBC antigen typing before first transfusion and issue of antigen matched blood (at least for Rh and Kell antigen). Early institution of transfusion therapy after diagnosis is another means of decreasing alloimmunization. PMID

  17. Alloimmunization and autoimmunization in transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients: Study on 319 patients.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Hari Krishan; Kumawat, Vijay; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Sachdev, Suchet; Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Arora, Satyam

    2014-07-01

    The development of anti-red blood cell antibodies (both allo-and autoantibodies) remains a major problem in thalassemia major patients. We studied the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization and autoimmunization among thalassemia patients who received regular transfusions at our center and analyzed the factors, which may be responsible for development of these antibodies. The study was carried out on 319 multiply transfused patients with β-thalassemia major registered with thalassemia clinic at our institute. Clinical and transfusion records of all the patients were examined for age of patients, age at initiation of transfusion therapy, total number of blood units transfused, transfusion interval, status of splenectomy or other interventions. Alloantibody screening and identification was done using three cell and 11 cell panel (Diapanel, Bio-rad, Switzerland) respectively. To detect autoantibodies, autocontrol was carried out using polyspecific coombs (IgG + C3d) gel cards. Eighteen patients out of total 319 patients (5.64%) developed alloantibodies and 90 (28.2%) developed autoantibodies. Nine out of 18 patients with alloantibodies also had autoantibodies. Age at first transfusion was significantly higher in alloimmunized than non-immunized patients (P = 0.042). Out of 23 alloantibodies, 52.17% belonged to Rh blood group system (Anti-E = 17%, Anti D = 13%, Anti-C = 13%, Anti-C(w) = 9%), 35% belonged to Kell blood group system, 9% of Kidd and 4% of Xg blood group system. Alloimmunization was detected in 5.64% of multitransfused thalassemia patients. Rh and Kell blood group system antibodies accounted for more than 80% of alloantibodies. This study re-emphasizes the need for RBC antigen typing before first transfusion and issue of antigen matched blood (at least for Rh and Kell antigen). Early institution of transfusion therapy after diagnosis is another means of decreasing alloimmunization.

  18. [Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa in a patient with major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Simón Llanes, J; Coll Vilar, I; Tamarit Francés, C; Niubó de Castro, I

    2012-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa is a rare condition characterised by papules, verrucous lesions, fibrosis and deformity of the affected area. It is caused by chronic lymphedema that could be congenital or produced by a non-associated infection (such as tuberculosis, mycotic infection, syphilis), surgery, radiotherapy, trauma, neoplastic obstruction, obesity, portal hypertension, or congestive heart failure. There is no standard treatment for this rare skin disorder. Depending on the cause and the severity, the treatment can be medical or surgical. We report the case of a man seen in our hospital with a major depression and elephantiasis nostras verrucosa skin lesions on both legs, who was successfully treated with surgical debridement and conservative measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.

  19. Anhedonia among patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A comparison between patients on escitalopram and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ng, C G; Wong, S K; Loh, H S; Yee, A

    Escitalopram has widely been recognized as one of the most frequently used antidepressants, with superior tolerability and great efficacy in preventing major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse and recurrence. However, anhedonia, which is a core symptom of MDD, remains difficult to treat. This study investigates the hedonic levels of MDD patients treated with Escitalopram. A total of 108 participants, 26 of whom with MDD on Escitalopram, were recruited in this cross sectional study. They were evaluated using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and level of depression. Our study shows that most items in the SHAPS scores are significantly different between MDD patients on Escitalopram and the controls. The hedonic capacity remains different between the two groups despite patients with MDD are put on Escitalopram treatment. Escitalopram fails to alleviate the hedonic state of MDD patients. Antidepressants that improve both depressive symptoms and hedonic states should be considered when treating MDD patients in clinical settings.

  20. Short-term Assessment of HSCT Effects on the Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Pediatric Thalassemic Patients.

    PubMed

    Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Mohseni, Fariba; Behfar, Maryam; Hamidi, Zohreh; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Pajouhi, Mohamad; Larijani, Bagher; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad-Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2018-02-01

    Beta thalassemia major (BTM) and its treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have deleterious effects on the endocrine systems. We assessed endocrine complications of HSCT in pediatric patients for 3 months. In 20 (6 female) pediatric major thalassemic patients (mean age of 10.8 ± 3.9 years old), prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T4, T3, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), IGF-1, testosterone (in males) or estradiol (in females) were measured as a batch at the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) laboratories before HSCT and 1 and 3 months afterwards. The cosyntropin test for all and the clonidine test for short stature patients was conducted before HSCT. Before HSCT, delayed puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was found in 10% and 20% of patients, respectively. GH deficiency, low IGF1 and short stature was found in 25%, 55% and 40% of patients, respectively. Hypocortisolism, hypothyroidism and panhypopituitarism was found in 15%, 10% and 15% of patients, respectively. Prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, low IGF1, hypothyroidism and panhypopituitarism was found in 20%, 40%, 10% and 10% of patients after 3 months, respectively (delayed puberty and short stature prevalence do not change after 3 months). HSCT caused lower T3 and estradiol and higher TSH. Corticosteroid users (15) had higher GH and lower T3 and testosterone or estradiol. Ferritin had a significant (negative) correlation with (before) prolactin and a significant correlation with T3 and T4 after HSCT. Age and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) had no significant effect. Considering the small sample size and short duration of the study, it is difficult to reach any conclusion however it seems HSCT does not appear to have an overall positive or negative effect on prevalence of pituitary- hypothalamus axis disorders in pediatric thalassemic patients in 3 months.

  1. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  2. Higher incidence of major complications after splenic embolization for blunt splenic injuries in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shih-Chi; Fu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chen, Yung-Fang; Wang, Yu-Chun; Chung, Ping-Kuei; Yu, Shu-Fen; Tung, Cheng-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Hua

    2011-02-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injuries has been widely accepted, and the application of splenic artery embolization (SAE) has become an effective adjunct to NOM. However, complications do occur after SAE. In this study, we assess the factors leading to the major complications associated with SAE. Focusing on the major complications after SAE, we retrospectively studied patients who received SAE and were admitted to 2 major referral trauma centers under the same established algorithm for management of blunt splenic injuries. The demographics, angiographic findings, and factors for major complications after SAE were examined. Major complications were considered to be direct adverse effects arising from SAE that were potentially fatal or were capable of causing disability. There were a total of 261 patients with blunt splenic injuries in this study. Of the 261 patients, 53 underwent SAE, 11 (21%) of whom were noted to have 12 major complications: 8 cases of postprocedural bleeding, 2 cases of total infarction, 1 case of splenic abscess, and 1 case of splenic atrophy. Patients older than 65 years were more susceptible to major complications after SAE. Splenic artery embolization is considered an effective adjunct to NOM in patients with blunt splenic injuries. However, risks of major complications do exist, and being elderly is, in part, associated with a higher major complication incidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does patient-provider gender concordance affect mental health care received by primary care patients with major depression?

    PubMed

    Chan, Kitty S; Bird, Chloe E; Weiss, Robert; Duan, Naihua; Meredith, Lisa S; Sherbourne, Cathy D

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine whether patient-provider gender concordance influences the detection and care of depression and comorbid anxiety and substance use in patients with major depression Cross-sectional analyses of baseline patient survey data linked with provider data were performed. Data based on routine primary care visits in clinics from a variety of health systems serving diverse patient populations across the United States. Participants all had major depression. Depression care was examined in the Quality Improvement for Depression (QID) Collaboration sample (n patients = 1,428, n providers = 389). In a subanalysis of data solely from 714 patients and 157 providers from Partners-In-Care, one of the projects participating in QID, we also examined detection of anxiety disorder and alcohol or drug problems. Rates of detection and care of mental health problems in primary care were low even among patients with major depression. Except for anxiety counseling in female patients, patient-provider gender concordance did not improve care as hypothesized. However, female providers were more likely to counsel on anxiety and less likely to counsel on alcohol or drug use than male providers. Female patients were less likely to be counseled on alcohol or drug use compared with male patients. Detection and care of mental health and substance use problems for patients with major depression is not influenced by patient-provider gender concordance. However, depressed female patients may have greater unmet needs for alcohol and drug use counseling than their male counterparts.

  4. Identification of major cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes using primary care data.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Koen Bernardus; Voorham, Jaco; Hak, Eelko; Denig, Petra

    2016-04-02

    Routine primary care data are increasingly being used for evaluation and research purposes but there are concerns about the completeness and accuracy of diagnoses and events captured in such databases. We evaluated how well patients with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be identified using primary care morbidity data and drug prescriptions. The study was conducted using data from 17,230 diabetes patients of the GIANTT database and Dutch Hospital Data register. To estimate the accuracy of the different measures, we analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) relative to hospitalizations and/or records with a diagnosis indicating major CVD, including ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular events. Using primary care morbidity data, 43% of major CVD hospitalizations could be identified. Adding drug prescriptions to the search increased the sensitivity up to 94%. A proxy of at least one prescription of either a platelet aggregation inhibitor, vitamin k antagonist or nitrate could identify 85% of patients with a history of major CVD recorded in primary care, with an NPV of 97%. Using the same proxy, 57% of incident major CVD recorded in primary or hospital care could be identified, with an NPV of 99%. A substantial proportion of major CVD hospitalizations was not recorded in primary care morbidity data. Drug prescriptions can be used in addition to diagnosis codes to identify more patients with major CVD, and also to identify patients without a history of major CVD.

  5. EEG sleep in Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome: comparison with patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shipley, J E; Schteingart, D E; Tandon, R; Pande, A C; Grunhaus, L; Haskett, R F; Starkman, M N

    1992-07-15

    Because patients with Cushing' syndrome (CS) and Major depressive disorder (MDD) share features of hypercortisolism and the depressive syndrome, we compared electro-encephalographic (EEG) sleep in patients with pituitary-ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (Cushing's disease, CD), patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (AICS), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and normal subjects. There were substantial similarities in the abnormal polysomnography profiles of patients with CD, AICS, and MDD. All three patient groups demonstrated poorer sleep continuity, shortened rapid eye movement (REM) latency, and increased first REM period density compared with normal subjects. In addition, AICS patients and MDD patients had elevated REM activity and density. These findings are discussed in terms of models of pathophysiology that relate abnormalities in sleep, mood, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

  6. Patient advocacy by rural emergency physicians after major service cuts: the case of Nelson, BC.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Richard; Plant, Jeff; Ness, Rhonda; Moola, Shiraz

    2013-01-01

    Efforts at cost containment through regionalization have led to reduced services in several rural emergency departments (EDs) in Canada. As a result, questions have been raised about patient safety and equitable access to care, compelling physicians to advocate for their patients. Few published reports on physicians' advocacy experiences pertaining to rural EDs exist. We describe our experience of patient advocacy after major service cuts at Kootenay Lake Hospital in Nelson, BC. Despite mixed results, we suggest increased physician involvement in patient advocacy.

  7. Use of Iron Chelating Agents in Transfusion Dependent Thalassaemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Santra, S; Bhattacharya, A; Mukhopadhyay, T; Agrawal, D; Kumar, S; Das, P; Chakrabarty, P

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to find and investigate the utilization pattern of iron chelating agents among 73 transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major patients with continuous enrolment for at least 1 year in a day care treatment centre run by The Thalassaemia Society of India, Kolkata from November 2014 to January 2015. Transfusion dependent thalassaemia major patients above the age of 2 years managed by various haematologists and Thalassaemia specialists were studied. The administration of iron chelators namely Desferrioxamine (DFO), Deferiprone (DFP) and Deferasirox (DFX) were evaluated. Forty seven (64%) of the thalassaemics had serum ferritin level below 2500 ng/dl, of whom 20(27%) patients have ferritin level below 1000ng/dl. A number of 55(75%) of 73 patients who were treated with a single chelating agent consisted 50 patients only on DFX. Exact 8(67%) patients were on DFO+DFP and 4(33%) are treated with DFX+DFP. The mean age was 19 and mean serum ferritin level was 2280 ng/dl among the thalassaemia major patients. DFX was used 68% of patients as monotherapy and 5% patients in combination therapy with DFP. DFX in the dose of 30-40 mg/kg/day was prescribed in 52% of patients. Mean dose of 15 mg/kg/day of DFX was been administered in combination with DFP (75 mg/kg/day) in 5% patients. DFO+DFP were preferred by 8 patients, out of which 6 were aged above 25. Cost of monotherapy is twice that of combination therapy. These data demonstrates the ferritin status and present scenario of utilization of chelating agents among thalassaemia major patients on repeated transfusions. The dosing of new drug, Deferasirox and the cost analysis of various chelating regimen has also been dealt. Individualization rather than rationalization of chelation therapy should be focussed upon in managing iron overload in thalassaemia.

  8. Assessing and Interpreting Personality Change and Continuity in Patients Treated for Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bagby, R. Michael; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rouillon, Frederic

    2006-01-01

    Structural, mean- and individual-level, differential, and positive personality continuity were examined in 599 patients treated for major depression assigned to 1 of 6 forms of a 6-month pharmacy-psychotherapy program. Covariation among traits from the Five Factor model remained invariant across treatment, and patients described themselves as…

  9. Association between the epidermal growth factor gene and intelligence in major depression patients.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-min; Zhang, Ke-ran; Zhang, Juan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2010-06-01

    To study the association between the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene and intelligence in patients with major depression. Intelligence measurement using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was performed on 120 unrelated patients with major depression and 46 control subjects. Blood was collected from all subjects for extraction of genomic DNA. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EGF gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF-MS). Mean scores of both score lang and score task, two subtests in WAIS, differed significantly between major depression patients and controls (P<0.0001). Quantitative trait analysis showed that the genotype of rs2250724 was closely associated with score lang and score task in major depression patients. The associations were still significant after 10 000 permutations. Although preliminary, our results provide evidence for association between the EGF gene and intelligence in patients with major depression. Genetic variation in the EGF gene may increase the susceptibility of major depression.

  10. Correlates of late-life major depression: a comparison of urban and rural primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce; Conwell, Yeates; Delavan, Rachel L

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether factors associated with depression differ between elderly residents of rural and urban areas. The research design was cross-sectional and observational. The study subjects consisted of 926 Medicare primary care patients (650 urban and 276 rural) who were age 65+ and cognitively intact and had enrolled in a randomized, controlled Medicare demonstration. Major depression was identified by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A logistic regression model was estimated that included a rural-urban indicator variable, additional independent variables, and interaction terms between the rural-urban indicator and independent variables that were significant at p <0.10. A total of 8.3% of the rural and 14.8% of the urban patients were identified as having major depression. Reporting 0-1 close friends (odds ratio [OR]: 6.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18-21.58), 2+ emergency room visits during the past 6 months (OR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.19-13.43), and more financial strain (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.01-2.23) were associated with significantly higher likelihood of major depression among rural as compared with urban patients. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary score had a curvilinear relationship with major depression and was higher for urban patients. The predicted probability for major depression is lower for the rural patients when financial strain is low, about the same for rural and urban patients when strain is intermediate, and higher for rural patients when strain is high. Clinicians in rural areas should be vigilant for major depression among patients with very few close friends, several recent emergency department visits, and financial strain.

  11. Effect of emotional cues on prospective memory performance in patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Cui, Xi-Long; Wang, Ya; Huang, Jing; Lui, Simon S Y; Zhang, Rui-Ting; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2018-05-24

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out future intentions when prompted by a cue, and previous studies have suggested that emotional PM cues may enhance PM performance. This study examined the influence of emotional cues on PM performance in patients with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. All participants were required to respond to emotional or neutral PM cues while completing a working memory task. Healthy participants showed improved PM performance with positive and negative cues. Patients with major depressive disorder were not impaired in PM performance and showed significant improvement in PM performance when cued by negative but not positive cues. Patients with schizophrenia had impaired PM performance irrespective of cue emotionality. In addition, the majority of patients with schizophrenia failed to show an emotional enhancement effect, and only those who had normal arousal ratings for negative PM cues showed emotional enhancement effect. These findings show for the first time that patients with schizophrenia exhibit PM impairments even with emotional cues, and suggest that arousal may be a critical factor for schizophrenia patients to utilize emotional cues to facilitate execution of future actions. In patients with major depressive disorder, our findings suggest that the negative bias in attention and retrospective memory may also extend to memory for future actions. These novel findings have both theoretical and clinical implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perioperative management of patients on clopidogrel (Plavix) undergoing major lung resection.

    PubMed

    Ceppa, Duykhanh P; Welsby, Ian J; Wang, Tracy Y; Onaitis, Mark W; Tong, Betty C; Harpole, David H; D'Amico, Thomas A; Berry, Mark F

    2011-12-01

    Management of patients requiring antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel (Plavix) and major lung resection must balance the risks of bleeding and cardiovascular events. We reviewed our experience with patients treated with clopidogrel perioperatively to examine outcomes, including results of a new strategy for high-risk patients. Patients who underwent major lung resection and received perioperative clopidogrel between January 2005 and September 2010 were reviewed. Initially, clopidogrel management consisted of discontinuation approximately 5 days before surgery and resumption immediately after surgery. After July 2010, high-risk patients (drug-eluting coronary stent placement within prior year or previous coronary event after clopidogrel discontinuation) were admitted 2 to 3 days preoperatively and bridged with the intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor eptifibatide (Integrilin) according to a multidisciplinary cardiology/anesthesiology/thoracic surgery protocol. Outcomes were compared with control patients (matched for preoperative risk factors and extent of pulmonary resection) who did not receive perioperative clopidogrel. Fifty-four patients who had major lung resection between January 2005 and September 2010 and received clopidogrel perioperatively were matched with 108 control subjects. Both groups had similar mortality, postoperative length of stay, and no differences in the rates of perioperative transfusions, reoperations for bleeding, myocardial infarctions, and strokes. Seven of the 54 clopidogrel patients were admitted preoperatively for an eptifibatide bridge. Two of these patients received perioperative transfusions, but there were no deaths, reoperations, myocardial infarctions, or stroke. Patients taking clopidogrel can safely undergo major lung resection. Treatment with an eptifibatide bridge may minimize the risk of cardiovascular events in higher risk patients. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  14. Perioperative Management of Patients on Clopidogrel (Plavix) Undergoing Major Lung Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ceppa, DuyKhanh P.; Welsby, Ian J.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Onaitis, Mark W.; Tong, Betty C.; Harpole, David H.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Berry, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Management of patients requiring antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel (Plavix) and major lung resection must balance the risks of bleeding and cardiovascular events. We reviewed our experience with patients treated with clopidogrel perioperatively to examine outcomes, including results of a new strategy for high-risk patients. METHODS Patients who underwent major lung resection and received perioperative clopidogrel between January 2005 and September 2010 were reviewed. Initially, clopidogrel management consisted of discontinuation approximately 5 days before surgery and resumption immediately after surgery. Following July 2010, high-risk patients (drug-eluting coronary stent placement within prior year or previous coronary event after clopidogrel discontinuation) were admitted 2–3 days preoperatively and bridged with the intravenous GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor eptifibatide (Integrilin) according to a multidisciplinary cardiology/anesthesiology/thoracic surgery protocol. Outcomes were compared to control patients (matched for preoperative risk factors and extent of pulmonary resection) who did not receive perioperative clopidogrel. RESULTS Fifty-four patients who had major lung resection between January 2005 and September 2010 and received clopidogrel perioperatively were matched with 108 controls. Both groups had similar mortality, postoperative length of stay, and no differences in the rates of perioperative transfusions, reoperations for bleeding, myocardial infarctions, and strokes. Seven of the 54 clopidogrel patients were admitted preoperatively for an eptifibatide bridge. Two of these patients received perioperative transfusions, but there were no mortalities, reoperations, myocardial infarctions, or stroke. CONCLUSIONS Patients taking clopidogrel can safely undergo major lung resection. Treatment with an eptifibatide bridge may minimize the risk of cardiovascular events in higher risk patients. PMID:21978871

  15. The portfolio method as management support for patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Nunstedt, Håkan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Skärsäter, Ingela

    2014-06-01

    To describe how patients with major depression in psychiatric outpatient care use the portfolio method and whether the method helps the patients to understand their depression. Major depressive disorder is an increasing problem in society. Learning about one's depression has been demonstrated to be important for recovery. If the goal is better understanding and management of depression, learning must proceed on the patient's own terms, based on the patient's previous understanding of their depression. Learning must be aligned with patient needs if it is to result in meaningful and useful understanding. Each patient's portfolio consisted of a binder. Inside the binder, there was a register with predetermined flaps and questions. The patients were asked to work with the questions in the sections that built the content in the portfolio. Individual interviews with patients (n = 5) suffering from major depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association 1994) were repeatedly conducted between April 2008 and August 2009 in two psychiatric outpatient clinics in western Sweden. Data were analysed using latent content analysis. The results showed that the portfolio was used by patients as a management strategy for processing and analysis of their situation and that a portfolio's structure affects its usability. The patients use the portfolio for reflection on and confirmation of their progress, to create structure in their situation, as a management strategy for remembering situations and providing reminders of upcoming activities. Using a clearly structured care portfolio can enable participation and patient learning and help patients understand their depression. The portfolio method could provide a tool in psychiatric nursing that may facilitate patient understanding and increase self-efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The epidemiology of upper airway injury in patients undergoing major surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Hua, May; Brady, Joanne; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Airway injury is a potentially serious and costly adverse event of anesthesia care. The epidemiologic characteristics of airway injury have not been well documented. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) is a multicenter, prospective, outcome-oriented database for patients undergoing major surgical procedures. Using the NSQIP data for the years 2005 to 2008, we examined the incidence of, and risk factors for, airway injury. Of the 563,190 patients studied, 1202 (0.2%) sustained airway injury. The most common airway injury was lip laceration/hematoma (61.4%), followed by tooth injury (26.1%), tongue laceration (5.7%), pharyngeal laceration (4.7%), and laryngeal laceration (2.1%). Multivariable logistic modeling revealed an increased risk of airway injury in patients with Mallampati class III (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-2.11, relative to patients with Mallampati classes I and II) or class IV (adjusted OR, 2.6; 99% CI, 1.52-4.02), and in patients aged 80 years or older (adjusted OR, 1.50; 99% CI, 1.02-2.19, relative to patients aged 40 to 49 years). The risk of airway injury for patients undergoing major surgical procedures is approximately 1 in 500. Patients with difficult airways as indicated by Mallampati classes III and IV are at significantly increased risk of sustaining airway injury during anesthesia for major surgical procedures.

  17. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient.

    PubMed

    Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  18. Antibodies reacting with Simian Virus 40 mimotopes in serum samples from patients with thalassaemia major

    PubMed Central

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Mazzoni, Elisa; Felletti, Marcella; Turlà, Giuliana; Malaventura, Cristina; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cianciulli, Paolo; Forni, Gian Luca; Corallini, Alfredo; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a small DNA tumour virus. Footprints of the virus have been detected in different humam lymphoproliferative disorders and in blood specimens of blood from healthy blood donors. This study was carried out to verify whether SV40 antibodies can be detected in serum samples from multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia major. Materials and methods An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed, using SV40 specific synthetic peptides mimicking the antigens of the viral capsid proteins 1-2-3, to test for the presence of antibodies to SV40 in serum samples taken from patients affected by transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (n=190) and healthy blood donors (n=251). Results The prevalence of antibodies against SV40 was higher in patients than in controls (24% vs 17%). The prevalence increased and was significantly higher in the older age group of patients affected by thalassemia major than in controls (38% vs 20%, p<0.04). Discussion The higher prevalence of serum antibodies against simian virus 40 in older, multiply transfused patients with thalassamia major than in controls suggests that this virus, or a closely related yet unknown human polyomavirus, could have been transmitted in the past by transfusion with whole blood. At the same time, our data indicate no significant differences in prevalence of SV40 antibodies in patients and controls of younger age thus suggesting that current transfusion methods with leucodepletion and filtered red cells are safe. PMID:24887224

  19. Antibodies reacting with Simian virus 40 mimotopes in serum samples from patients with thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Mazzoni, Elisa; Felletti, Marcella; Turlà, Giuliana; Malaventura, Cristina; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Cianciulli, Paolo; Forni, Gian Luca; Corallini, Alfredo; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2014-10-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a small DNA tumour virus. Footprints of the virus have been detected in different humam lymphoproliferative disorders and in blood specimens of blood from healthy blood donors. This study was carried out to verify whether SV40 antibodies can be detected in serum samples from multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia major. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed, using SV40 specific synthetic peptides mimicking the antigens of the viral capsid proteins 1-2-3, to test for the presence of antibodies to SV40 in serum samples taken from patients affected by transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (n=190) and healthy blood donors (n=251). The prevalence of antibodies against SV40 was higher in patients than in controls (24% vs 17%). The prevalence increased and was significantly higher in the older age group of patients affected by thalassemia major than in controls (38% vs 20%, p<0.04). The higher prevalence of serum antibodies against simian virus 40 in older, multiply transfused patients with thalassamia major than in controls suggests that this virus, or a closely related yet unknown human polyomavirus, could have been transmitted in the past by transfusion with whole blood. At the same time, our data indicate no significant differences in prevalence of SV40 antibodies in patients and controls of younger age thus suggesting that current transfusion methods with leucodepletion and filtered red cells are safe.

  20. Patient-identified information and communication needs in the context of major trauma.

    PubMed

    Braaf, Sandra; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Nunn, Andrew; Christie, Nicola; Teague, Warwick; Judson, Rodney; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2018-03-07

    Navigating complex health care systems during the multiple phases of recovery following major trauma entails many challenges for injured patients. Patients' experiences communicating with health professionals are of particular importance in this context. The aim of this study was to explore seriously injured patients' perceptions of communication with and information provided by health professionals in their first 3-years following injury. A qualitative study designed was used, nested within a population-based longitudinal cohort study. Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with 65 major trauma patients, aged 17 years and older at the time of injury, identified through purposive sampling from the Victorian State Trauma Registry. A detailed thematic analysis was undertaken using a framework approach. Many seriously injured patients faced barriers to communication with health professionals in the hospital, rehabilitation and in the community settings. Key themes related to limited contact with health professionals, insufficient information provision, and challenges with information coordination. Communication difficulties were particularly apparent when many health professionals were involved in patient care, or when patients transitioned from hospital to rehabilitation or to the community. Difficulties in patient-health professional engagement compromised communication and exchange of information particularly at transitions of care, e.g., discharge from hospital. Conversely, positive attributes displayed by health professionals such as active discussion, clear language, listening and an empathetic manner, all facilitated effective communication. Most patients preferred communication consistent with patient-centred approaches, and the use of multiple modes to communicate information. The communication and information needs of seriously injured patients were inconsistently met over the course of their recovery continuum. To assist patients along their

  1. Neural mechanisms of reinforcement learning in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rothkirch, Marcus; Tonn, Jonas; Köhler, Stephan; Sterzer, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants. To this end, a group of unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (n = 28) and a group of age- and sex-matched healthy control participants (n = 30) completed an instrumental learning task involving monetary gains and losses during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The two groups did not differ in their learning performance. Patients and control participants showed the same level of prediction error-related activity in the ventral striatum and the anterior insula. In contrast, neural coding of reward prediction errors in the medial orbitofrontal cortex was reduced in patients. Moreover, neural reward prediction error signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum showed negative correlations with anhedonia severity. Using a standard instrumental learning paradigm we found no evidence for an overall impairment of reinforcement learning in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder. Importantly, however, the attenuated neural coding of reward in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the relation between anhedonia and reduced reward prediction error-signalling in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum likely reflect an impairment in experiencing pleasure from rewarding events as a key mechanism of anhedonia in major depressive disorder. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  2. Insular and hippocampal gray matter volume reductions in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Mirjam; Konrad, Carsten; Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy.

  3. Insular and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. Methods For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Results Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. Conclusions The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25051163

  4. Impaired thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation in patients with dilutional coagulopathy during major surgery.

    PubMed

    Schols, S E M; Lancé, M D; Feijge, M A H; Damoiseaux, J; Marcus, M A; Hamulyák, K; Ten Cate, H; Heemskerk, J W M; van Pampus, E C M

    2010-02-01

    Patients subjected to haemodilution during surgery are at increased risk of bleeding. We hypothesised that, in the acquired dilutional coagulopathy, insufficient haemostasis is due to either insufficient thrombin generation or insufficient fibrin clot formation. In tissue factor-activated plasmas from patients with coagulation deficiency, we measured time curves of thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation (thromboelastography). Investigated were in study A: 10 patients treated with vitamin K antagonist and five healthy subjects; in study B: 30 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery and infused with on average 2,000 ml crystalloids and colloids (no major bleeding); in study C: 58 patients undergoing major general surgery, and transfused with >5,000 ml crystalloids, colloids and red cell concentrates, who experienced major bleeding and were post-transfused with fresh frozen plasma. The treatment with vitamin K antagonist led to a progressive reduction in thrombin generation but not fibrin clot formation. In CPB patients, plasma factor levels post-surgery were 53-60% of normal. This was accompanied by moderate reduction in both haemostatic processes. In plasmas from patients undergoing major surgery, factor levels were 38-41% of normal, and these levels increased after plasma transfusion. Taking preset thresholds for normal thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation, at least one of these processes was low in 88-93% of the patients with (persistent) bleeding, but only in 40-53% of the patients without bleeding. In conclusion, the ability of thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation is independently reduced in acquired dilutional coagulopathy, while minimal levels of both are required for adequate haemostasis.

  5. Refractory major depression successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with Addison disease.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Willemijn T C J; Pluijms, Esther M; Birkenhager, Tom K

    2013-06-01

    This report describes a 55-year-old woman who had 1 previous episode of major depression that responded favorably to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants. After the development of Addison disease, she experienced a new episode of major depression that failed to respond to adequate treatment with imipramine and was subsequently successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with steroid cover. The patient did not experience adrenal crisis or adverse effects. After 9 ECT sessions, she attained full remission. These findings support the suggestion that ECT treatment is safe in patients with Addison disease when using 100 mg intravenous hydrocortisone as prophylaxis.

  6. Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

    PubMed

    Wukich, Dane K; Raspovic, Katherine M; Suder, Natalie C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology. We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease. Patients with diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.

  7. Nursing research on a first aid model of double personnel for major burn patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Shi, Kai; Jin, Zhenghua; Liu, Shuang; Cai, Duo; Zhao, Jingchun; Chi, Cheng; Yu, Jiaao

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the effect of a first aid model employing two nurses on the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. A two-nurse model of first aid was designed for major burn patients. The model includes a division of labor between the first aid nurses and the re-organization of emergency carts. The clinical effectiveness of the process was examined in a retrospective chart review of 156 cases of major burn patients, experiencing shock and low blood volume, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of the department of burn surgery between November 2009 and June 2013. Of the 156 major burn cases, 87 patients who received first aid using the double personnel model were assigned to the test group and the 69 patients who received first aid using the standard first aid model were assigned to the control group. The efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for the patients were compared between the two groups. Student's t tests were used to the compare the mean difference between the groups. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on both measures (P's < 0.05), with the test group having lower times than the control group. The efficient rescue operation time was 14.90 ± 3.31 min in the test group and 30.42 ± 5.65 min in the control group. The efficient resuscitation time was 7.4 ± 3.2 h in the test group and 9.5 ± 2.7 h in the control group. A two-nurse first aid model based on scientifically validated procedures and a reasonable division of labor can shorten the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. Given these findings, the model appears to be worthy of clinical application.

  8. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF RECOMBINANT ERYTHROPOIETIN IN BETA-THALASSAEMIA INTERMEDIA.

    PubMed

    Asadov, Ch; Alimirzoyeva, Z; Hasanova, M; Mammadova, T; Shirinova, A

    2016-06-01

    Research objective is to study the efficacy of recombinant erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) as alternative method of treatment beta-thalassemia intermedia. Study involved 58 patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia (23 women and 35 men). In all observed patients was defined levels of hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), erythrocyte indexes (MCV, MCH, MCHC), hemoglobin fractions (HbA, HbA2, HbF), serum ferritin, serum erythropoietin before and after administrated rEPO. All patients received rEPO during 6 month at the dose - 10000 IU subcutaneously. The majority of patients - 39 (67%) had a good response to rEPO (increase in hemoglobin level more than 20 g/l); 16 patients (28%) had a mean response (increase in Hb 10 - 20 g/l); in 3 (5%) patients occurred poor response to rEPO therapy (increase in Hb <10 g/l). After rEPO treatment of beta-thalassemia intermedia patients there was a statistically significant change in the number of RBC, levels of HbF and sEPO. The evaluation of interdependence between the indices of the baseline sEPO and increased Hb values in patients after rEPO treatment revealed the presence of the reverse direct relationship (r=-0.67). Based on the results, it can be concluded that the use of rEPO in complex therapy of beta-thalassemia intermedia leads to increased levels of Hb and consequently reducing the need for blood transfusions, and accordingly expected to prevent severe complications of blood transfusion (alloimmunization, hypersplenism, iron overload, contamination transmissible infections) facilitating normal growth and development, and a better quality of life.

  9. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Maasa; Chiba, Yuhei; Katsuse, Omi; Suda, Akira; Kamada, Ayuko; Ikura, Takahiro; Abe, Kie; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Minegishi, Kaoru; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Kirino, Yohei; Ihata, Atsushi; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-08-15

    Depression is frequently observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) patients often exhibit cerebral hypometabolism, but the association between cerebral metabolism and depression remains unclear. To elucidate the features of cerebral metabolism in SLE patients with depression, we performed brain 18F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on SLE patients with and without major depressive disorder. We performed brain FDG-PET on 20 SLE subjects (5 male, 15 female). The subjects were divided into two groups: subjects with major depressive disorder (DSLE) and subjects without major depressive disorder (non-DSLE). Cerebral glucose metabolism was analyzed using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) program. Regional metabolism was evaluated by stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE), in which the whole brain was divided into segments. Every SLE subject exhibited cerebral hypometabolism, in contrast to the normal healthy subjects. Regional analysis revealed a significantly lower ER in the left medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0055) and the right medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0022) in the DSLE group than in the non-DSLE group. Hypometabolism in the medial frontal gyrus may be related to major depressive disorder in SLE. Larger studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient-Centered Culturally Sensitive Health Care: Trend or Major Thrust in Health Care Delivery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Cheryl M.

    2007-01-01

    In this reaction article to the Major Contribution, the merits and challenges of implementing patient-centered culturally sensitive health care, or cultural competence plus, are explicated. Three themes are addressed: separate but equal?, factoring in mental health, and sharing the load. The need to refine the conceptualization of the two…

  12. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  13. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications among bedridden patients: A prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhou, Xinmei; Cao, Jing; Li, Zheng; Wan, Xia; Li, Jiaqian; Jiao, Jing; Liu, Ge; Liu, Ying; Li, Fangfang; Song, Baoyun; Jin, Jingfen; Liu, Yilan; Wen, Xianxiu; Cheng, Shouzhen; Wu, Xinjuan

    2018-05-01

    To gain insight into nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications (pressure ulcers, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis and urinary tract infections) and explore the correlation of nurses' knowledge and attitudes with the incidence of these complications. Immobility complications have adverse consequences, and effective management requires appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence about nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding immobility complications is lacking. Cross-sectional study. A total of 3,903 nurses and 21,333 bedridden patients from 25 hospitals in China were surveyed. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications were assessed using researcher-developed questionnaires. The content validity, reliability and internal consistency of the questionnaires were validated through expert review and a pilot study. The incidence of major immobility complications among bedridden patients from selected wards was surveyed by trained investigators. Correlations between knowledge, attitudes and the incidence of major immobility complications were evaluated with multilevel regression models. Mean knowledge scores were 64.07% for pressure ulcers, 72.92% for deep vein thrombosis, 76.54% for pneumonia and 83.30% for urinary tract infections. Mean attitude scores for these complications were 86.25%, 84.31%, 85.00% and 84.53%, respectively. Knowledge and attitude scores were significantly higher among nurses with older age, longer employment duration, higher education level, previous training experience and those working in tertiary hospitals or critical care units. Nurses' knowledge about pressure ulcers was negatively related to the incidence of pressure ulcers, and attitude towards pneumonia was negatively correlated with the incidence of pneumonia. Clinical nurses have relatively positive attitudes but inadequate knowledge regarding major immobility complications. Improved knowledge and attitudes regarding

  14. A pilot study on predictors of brainstem raphe abnormality in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Milutin; Munjiza, Ana; Pesic, Danilo; Peljto, Amir; Novakovic, Ivana; Dobricic, Valerija; Tosevski, Dusica Lecic; Mijajlovic, Milija

    2017-02-01

    Hypo/anechogenicity of the brainstem raphe (BR) structures has been suggested as a possible transcranial parenchymal sonography (TCS) marker associated with depression. The aim of this study was to analyze possible association of the abnormal BR echogenicity in patients with major depression when compared to healthy controls, and to evaluate its clinical and genetic correlates. TCS was performed in 53 patients diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms and in 54 healthy matched controls. The TCS detected BR abnormalities were significantly more frequent in MDD patients (35 out of 53; 66%) in comparison to matched controls (5 out of 56; 9%). The prevalence of short allele (s) homozygocity in the length polymorphism of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) was significantly higher in MDD patients relative to those with normal BR echogenicity. A stepwise statistical discriminant analysis revealed statistically significant separation between MDD patients with and without BR abnormalities groups based on the four predictors combined: the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale item 5 ("difficulty in concentration, poor memory"), presence of social phobia, s allele homozygocity of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, and presence of generalized anxiety disorder. Cross-sectional design and heterogenous treatment of depressed patients. Reduced BR echogenicity in at least a subgroup of MDD patients may reflect a particular phenotype, characterized by more prevalent comorbid anxiety disorders, associated with particular genetic polymorphisms and neurotransmitter(s) deficits, most probably altered serotonergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of rectus sheath catheters for pain relief in patients undergoing major pelvic urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Thomas J; McGrath, John S; Daugherty, Mark O

    2014-02-01

    To report on the safety and efficacy of rectus sheath blocks, 'topped-up' using bilateral rectus sheath catheters (RSCs), in patients undergoing major open urological surgery. The RSCs were inserted under ultrasound guidance into 200 patients between April 2008 and August 2011, of whom 106 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and 94 underwent open radical cystectomy (ORC). A retrospective case-note review was undertaken. Outcomes included technical success and complication rates of the insertion and use of RSC, visual analogue pain scores, additional analgesia requirements and length of hospital stay (LOS). All RSCs were successfully placed without complication and used for a mean of 3.6 days for ORC and 2.1 days for RRP. Early removal occurred in 6.49% of patients. Low overall pain scores were reported in both groups. Patients were more likely to require a patient-controlled analgesia system in the ORC group but the overall need for additional analgesia was low in both groups, reducing significantly after the initial 24 h. In combination with an enhanced recovery programme, LOS reduced from 17.0 to 10.8 days in the ORC group and from 6.2 to 2.8 days in the RRP group. The use of RSCs appears to offer an effective and safe method of peri-operative analgesia in patients undergoing major open urological pelvic surgery. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  16. Recombinant factor VIIa treatment for asymptomatic factor VII deficient patients going through major surgery.

    PubMed

    Livnat, Tami; Shenkman, Boris; Spectre, Galia; Tamarin, Ilia; Dardik, Rima; Israeli, Amnon; Rivkind, Avraham; Shabtai, Moshe; Marinowitz, Uri; Salomon, Ophira

    2012-07-01

    Factor VII deficiency is the most common among the rare autosomal recessive coagulation disorders worldwide. In factor VII deficient patients, the severity and clinical manifestations cannot be reliably determined by factor VII levels. Severe bleeding tends to occur in individuals with factor VII activity levels of 2% or less of normal. Patients with 2-10% factor VII vary between asymptomatic to severe life threatening haemorrhages behaviour. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is the most common replacement therapy for congenital factor VII deficiency. However, unlike haemophilia patients for whom treatment protocols are straight forward, in asymptomatic factor VII deficiency patients it is still debatable. In this study, we demonstrate that a single and very low dose of recombinant factor VIIa enabled asymptomatic patients with factor VII deficiency to go through major surgery safely. This suggestion was also supported by thrombin generation, as well as by thromboelastometry.

  17. Differences in serotonin transporter binding affinity in patients with major depressive disorder and night eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, J D; Amsterdam, J; Newberg, A; Allison, K C; Wintering, N; Stunkard, A J

    2009-03-01

    We examined serotonin transporter (SERT) binding affinity using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and night eating syndrome (NES). There are similarities between MDD and NES in affective symptoms, appetite disturbance, nighttime awakenings, and, particularly, response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Six non-depressed patients with NES and seven patients with MDD underwent SPECT brain imaging with 123I-ADAM, a radiopharmaceutical agent selective for SERT sites. Uptake ratios of 123I-ADAM SERT binding were obtained for the midbrain, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe regions compared to the cerebellum reference region. Patients with NES had significantly greater SERT uptake ratios (effect size range 0.64-0.84) in the midbrain, right temporal lobe, and left temporal lobe regions than those with MDD whom we had previously studied. Pathophysiological differences in SERT uptake between patients with NES and MDD suggest these are distinct clinical syndromes.

  18. Prevalence of major depressive disorder in patients receiving beta-blocker therapy versus other medications.

    PubMed

    Carney, R M; Rich, M W; teVelde, A; Saini, J; Clark, K; Freedland, K E

    1987-08-01

    Depression is believed to be a common side effect in patients receiving beta-blocker therapy. However, diagnoses of depression defined by current diagnostic criteria may not be more common in patients receiving beta-blockers than in patients with the same medical disorder receiving other medications. Seventy-seven patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization for evaluation of chest pain received a semi-structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. Twenty-one percent of the patients receiving beta-blockers and 33 percent of the patients receiving medications other than beta-blockers met the current American Psychiatric Association criteria for major depressive disorder (DSM-III) (p = NS). The mean heart rate and state anxiety scores for patients taking beta-blockers were significantly lower than those measured in patients taking medications other than beta-blockers. No other medical or demographic differences were observed between the two groups. Despite the methodologic limitations of the study, there does not appear to be a difference in the point prevalence of depression between patients receiving beta-blockers and those receiving other medications.

  19. Laparoscopic versus open major hepatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Meidai; Cipriani, Federica; Gayet, Brice; Aldrighetti, Luca; Ratti, Francesca; Sarmiento, Juan M; Scatton, Olivier; Kim, Ki-Hun; Dagher, Ibrahim; Topal, Baki; Primrose, John; Nomi, Takeo; Fuks, David; Abu Hilal, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    The role of laparoscopy for major hepatectomies remains a matter of development to be further assessed. The purpose of this study is to compare the short- and long-term outcomes between laparoscopic and open major hepatectomies meta-analyzing individual patient data from published comparative studies. All retrospective studies comparing between laparoscopic and open major hepatectomies published until March 2017 were identified independently by 2 reviewers by searching in PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Individual patient data were sought from all selected studies. Postoperative outcomes, including intraoperative blood loss, operative time, hospital stay, postoperative complications, mortality rates, and long-term survival were analyzed. A total of 917 patients were divided into the laparoscopic (427) and open (490) groups from 8 selected studies. The hospital stay was significantly shorter, and the total morbidity was lower in the laparoscopic group. When classified by severity, the incidence of postoperative minor complications was lower; however, that of major complications was not significantly different. The operative time was longer in the laparoscopic group; however, intraoperative blood loss, perioperative mortality, and blood transfusions were comparable between the 2 groups. The overall survival in the patients with colorectal liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Laparoscopic major hepatectomies offer some perioperative advantages, including fewer complications and shorter hospital stay, without increasing the blood loss volume and mortality. Whether these results can anticipate the outcomes in future randomized controlled trials has not been determined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Value of MRI in three patients with major vascular injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ragozzino, Alfonso; Lassandro, Francesco; De Ritis, Rosaria; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe three cases of major vascular injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy depicted on magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Three female patients (mean age, 32 years; range, 22-39 years) were studied with clinical suspicion of bilio-vascular injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All MR examinations were performed within 24 h after the laparoscopic procedure. MR imaging was evaluated for major vascular injuries involving the arterial and portal venous system, for bile duct discontinuity, presence or absence of biliary dilation, stricture, excision injury, free fluid and collections. In the first patient, a type-IV Bismuth injury with associated intrahepatic bile ducts dilation was observed. Contrast-enhanced MR revealed lack of enhancement in the right hepatic lobe due to occlusion of the right hepatic artery and the right portal branch. This patient underwent right hepatectomy with hepatico-jejunostomy. In the other two cases, no visualization of the right hepatic artery and the right portal branch was observed on MR angiography. In the first case, the patient underwent right hepatectomy; in the second case, because of stable liver condition, the patient was managed conservatively. MR imaging combined with MR angiography and MR cholangiography can be performed emergently in patients with suspicion of bilio-vascular injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy allowing the simultaneous evaluation of the biliary tree and the hepatic vascular supply that is essential for adequate treatment planning.

  1. Slow sleep spindle and procedural memory consolidation in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Masaki; Nakashima, Yusaku; Nishikawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence has accumulated, which indicates that, in healthy individuals, sleep enhances procedural memory consolidation, and that sleep spindle activity modulates this process. However, whether sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation occurs in patients medicated for major depressive disorder remains unclear, as are the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms that underlie this process. Methods Healthy control participants (n=17) and patients medicated for major depressive disorder (n=11) were recruited and subjected to a finger-tapping motor sequence test (MST; nondominant hand) paradigm to compare the averaged scores of different learning phases (presleep, postsleep, and overnight improvement). Participants’ brain activity was recorded during sleep with 16 electroencephalography channels (between MSTs). Sleep scoring and frequency analyses were performed on the electroencephalography data. Additionally, we evaluated sleep spindle activity, which divided the spindles into fast-frequency spindle activity (12.5–16 Hz) and slow-frequency spindle activity (10.5–12.5 Hz). Result Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with depression was impaired in comparison with that in control participants. In patients with depression, age correlated negatively with overnight improvement. The duration of slow-wave sleep correlated with the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Slow-frequency spindle activity was associated with reduction in the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in both groups. Conclusion Because the changes in slow-frequency spindle activity affected the thalamocortical network dysfunction in patients medicated for depression, dysregulated spindle generation may impair sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Our findings may help to elucidate the cognitive deficits that occur in patients with major depression both in the waking state and during sleep. PMID

  2. Slow sleep spindle and procedural memory consolidation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Masaki; Nakashima, Yusaku; Nishikawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated, which indicates that, in healthy individuals, sleep enhances procedural memory consolidation, and that sleep spindle activity modulates this process. However, whether sleep-dependent procedural memory consolidation occurs in patients medicated for major depressive disorder remains unclear, as are the pharmacological and physiological mechanisms that underlie this process. Healthy control participants (n=17) and patients medicated for major depressive disorder (n=11) were recruited and subjected to a finger-tapping motor sequence test (MST; nondominant hand) paradigm to compare the averaged scores of different learning phases (presleep, postsleep, and overnight improvement). Participants' brain activity was recorded during sleep with 16 electroencephalography channels (between MSTs). Sleep scoring and frequency analyses were performed on the electroencephalography data. Additionally, we evaluated sleep spindle activity, which divided the spindles into fast-frequency spindle activity (12.5-16 Hz) and slow-frequency spindle activity (10.5-12.5 Hz). Sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with depression was impaired in comparison with that in control participants. In patients with depression, age correlated negatively with overnight improvement. The duration of slow-wave sleep correlated with the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in patients with depression, but not in healthy controls. Slow-frequency spindle activity was associated with reduction in the magnitude of motor memory consolidation in both groups. Because the changes in slow-frequency spindle activity affected the thalamocortical network dysfunction in patients medicated for depression, dysregulated spindle generation may impair sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Our findings may help to elucidate the cognitive deficits that occur in patients with major depression both in the waking state and during sleep.

  3. Scald burn, a preventable injury: Analysis of 4306 patients from a major tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Shamendra Anand; Agrawal, Karoon; Patel, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Scalds have distinct epidemiological and predisposing risk factors amongst all types of burns. Though scald affects all age groups, the brunt falls on the minor age groups. It may result in major physical disabilities and significant loss of school years. Apart from the economic burden on family, major scald burn may compromise overall development of the affected children. Most of the scald injuries occur in domestic settings and are preventable. Despite improvement in living conditions, the incidence of scald burn has failed to decline. Our aim was to study the detailed epidemiology and severity of scald burn amongst all age groups. A retrospective study was carried out from the records of all burn patients who attended a tertiary burn care center from January 2013 and December 2014. Data of the patients with scald injury was segregated and analyzed using Microsoft excel spreadsheet. 10,175 burn patients attended the burn casualty during the study period, of which 42.3% had sustained scald. 56.85% of patients were under 15 years of age with preschool children (36.4%) being the prime victims of scald. The % TBSA involved is also relatively larger in children. Scald follows definite seasonal variation peaking in winters. 36.8% patients arrived to the hospital without any first aid. 74.2% of patients reported to casualty with in 24hours after sustaining scald injury. The median time interval between injury and reporting to casualty was 3hours 30minutes. This study concludes that the scald is injury of all age groups, though majority of them are children. The first aid is not given to large number of patients and late reporting is quite common. These are the factors which may affect the course of scald burn. Spreading public awareness regarding safe household practises and educating them for proper first aid management after scald may have significant impact on the burden of care and outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Major trauma from suspected child abuse: a profile of the patient pathway.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ffion C; Lecky, Fiona E; Fisher, Ross; Fragoso-Iiguez, Marisol; Coats, Tim J

    2017-09-01

    Networked organised systems of care for patients with major trauma now exist in many countries, designed around the needs of the majority of patients (90% adults). Non-accidental injury is a significant cause of paediatric major trauma and has a different injury and age profile from accidental injury (AI). This paper compares the prehospital and inhospital phases of the patient pathway for children with suspected abuse, with those accidentally injured. The paediatric database of the national trauma registry of England and Wales, Trauma Audit and Research Network, was interrogated from April 2012 (the launch of the major trauma networks) to June 2015, comparing the patient pathway for cases of suspected child abuse (SCA) with AI. In the study population of 7825 children, 7344 (94%) were classified as AI and 481 (6%) as SCA. SCA cases were younger (median 0.4 years vs 7 years for AI), had a higher Injury Severity Score (median 16vs9 for AI), and had nearly three times higher mortality (5.7%vs2.2% for AI). Other differences included presentation to hospital evenly throughout the day and year, arrival by non-ambulance means to hospital (74%) and delayed presentation to hospital from the time of injury (median 8 hours vs 1.8 hours for AI). Despite more severe injuries, these infants were less likely to receive key interventions in a timely manner. Only 20% arrived to a designated paediatric-capable major trauma centre. Secondary transfer to specialist care, if needed, took a median of 21.6 hours from injury(vs 13.8 hours for AI). These data show that children with major trauma that is inflicted rather than accidental follow a different pathway through the trauma system. The current model of major trauma care is not a good fit for the way in which child victims of suspected abuse present to healthcare. To achieve better care, awareness of this patient profile needs to increase, and trauma networks should adjust their conventional responses. © Article author

  5. The association of major depressive episode and personality traits in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    de Melo Santos, Danyella; Lage, Laís Verderame; Jabur, Eleonora Kehl; Kaziyama, Helena Hideko Seguchi; Iosifescu, Dan V; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; Fráguas, Renério

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Personality traits have been associated with primary depression. However, it is not known whether this association takes place in the case of depression comorbid with fibromyalgia. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the association between a current major depressive episode and temperament traits (e.g., harm avoidance). METHOD: A sample of 69 adult female patients with fibromyalgia was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview severity of depressive symptomatology with the Beck Depression Inventory, and anxiety symptomatology with the IDATE-state and pain intensity with a visual analog scale. RESULTS: A current major depressive episode was diagnosed in 28 (40.5%) of the patients. They presented higher levels of harm avoidance and lower levels of cooperativeness and self-directedness compared with non-depressed patients, which is consistent with the Temperament and Character Inventory profile of subjects with primary depression. However, in contrast to previous results in primary depression, no association between a major depressive episode and self-transcendence was found. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight specific features of depression in fibromyalgia subjects and may prove important for enhancing the diagnosis and prognosis of depression in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21808861

  6. Platelet and not erythrocyte microparticles are procoagulant in transfused thalassaemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Agouti, Imane; Cointe, Sylvie; Robert, Stéphane; Judicone, Coralie; Loundou, Anderson; Driss, Fathi; Brisson, Alain; Steschenko, Dominique; Rose, Christian; Pondarré, Corinne; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Badens, Catherine; Dignat-George, Françoise; Lacroix, Romaric; Thuret, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The level of circulating platelet-, erythrocyte-, leucocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles detected by high-sensitivity flow cytometry was investigated in 37 β-thalassaemia major patients receiving a regular transfusion regimen. The phospholipid procoagulant potential of the circulating microparticles and the microparticle-dependent tissue factor activity were evaluated. A high level of circulating erythrocyte- and platelet-microparticles was found. In contrast, the number of endothelial microparticles was within the normal range. Platelet microparticles were significantly higher in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients, independent of platelet count (P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis indicated that phospholipid-dependent procoagulant activity was influenced by both splenectomy (P = 0·001) and platelet microparticle level (P < 0·001). Erythrocyte microparticles were not related to splenectomy, appear to be devoid of proper procoagulant activity and no relationship between their production and haemolysis, dyserythropoiesis or oxidative stress markers could be established. Intra-microparticle labelling with anti-HbF antibodies showed that they originate only partially (median of 28%) from thalassaemic erythropoiesis. In conclusion, when β-thalassaemia major patients are intensively transfused, the procoagulant activity associated with thalassaemic erythrocyte microparticles is probably diluted by transfusions. In contrast, platelet microparticles, being both more elevated and more procoagulant, especially after splenectomy, may contribute to the residual thrombotic risk reported in splenectomized multi-transfused β-thalassaemia major patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A multicenter study of major depressive disorder among emergency department patients in Latin-American countries.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Puentes, Ruby C; Secin, Ricardo; Grau, Arturo; Galeno, Roxanna; Feijo de Mello, Marcelo; Pena, Nuri; Sanchez-Russi, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    This multicenter study estimated the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among emergency department patients in Latin America. To identify patients with MDD, we used a combination of DSM IV- criteria interview and a questionnaire screen including the center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. We analyzed data from consecutive adult patients from hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico and described the demographic and health status differences between MDD and non-MDD patients. Prevalence of MDD ranges from 23.0 to 35.0%. The estimates are based on a total of 1,835 patients aged 18 years and over, with response rates of 83.0%. Compared to non-MDD patients, MDD patients were more likely to be middle-aged, female, smokers, of lower socioeconomic status, and to report a diagnosis of asthma or arthritis/rheumatism. Multivariate analysis identified a lower level of education, smoking, and self-reported anxiety, chronic fatigue, and back problems to be independently associated with MDD. Our data suggest that the prevalence of MDD is elevated among emergency department patients in Latin American countries. The integration of depression screening into routine emergency care merits serious consideration, especially if such screening can be linked to psychiatric treatment.

  8. Sex differences in gut microbiota in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Yi-Yun; Zhong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Hai-Yang; Guo, Yu-Jie; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Our previous studies found that disturbances in gut microbiota might have a causative role in the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether there were sex differences in gut microbiota in patients with MDD. First-episode drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls were included. 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the fecal samples of the included subjects were analyzed. Principal-coordinate analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were used to assess whether there were sex-specific gut microbiota. A random forest algorithm was used to identify the differential operational taxonomic units. Linear discriminant-analysis effect size was further used to identify the dominant sex-specific phylotypes responsible for the differences between MDD patients and healthy controls. In total, 57 and 74 differential operational taxonomic units responsible for separating female and male MDD patients from their healthy counterparts were identified. Compared with their healthy counterparts, increased Actinobacteria and decreased Bacteroidetes levels were found in female and male MDD patients, respectively. The most differentially abundant bacterial taxa in female and male MDD patients belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidia, respectively. Meanwhile, female and male MDD patients had different dominant phylotypes. These results demonstrated that there were sex differences in gut microbiota in patients with MDD. The suitability of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidia as the sex-specific biomarkers for diagnosing MDD should be further explored.

  9. A 30-month study of patient complaints at a major Australian hospital.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K; Allan, D; Finucane, P

    2001-12-01

    Health practitioners often regard complaints about the quality of patient care in a negative light. However, complaints can indicate strategies to improve care. Therefore, an audit was undertaken of all formal complaints about patient care at a major Australian hospital over a 30-month period. The profile of complainants, the reasons for complaints, and the outcome were analysed. A total of 1308 complaints, concerning the care of 1267 patients, were received. The complaint rate was 1.12 per 1000 occasions of service. In all, 57% of complaints were lodged by advocates and 71% of complaints related to poor communication or to the treatment provided. In 97% of occasions, an explanation and/or an apology resulted. To date, no complaint has proceeded to litigation. Complaints are potentially useful quality assurance tools and can identify remediable system flaws. Health professionals and employers should understand why patients complain and be able to respond appropriately.

  10. Optic coherence tomography shows inflammation and degeneration in major depressive disorder patients correlated with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Kalenderoglu, Aysun; Çelik, Mustafa; Sevgi-Karadag, Ayse; Egilmez, Oguzhan Bekir

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has consistently detected inflammation in the etiology of depression and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated gray matter abnormalities implying a neurodegenerative process in depression. The aim of this study was to compare ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volumes and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between first episode and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and controls using optic coherence tomography (OCT) in order to detect findings supporting a degenerative process. Also choroid thicknesses of the same groups were compared to examine effects of inflammation on MDD. This study included 50 recurrent MDD patients, 50 first episode MDD patients and 50 controls. OCT measurements were performed by a spectral OCT device. GCL and IPL volumes and RNFL and choroid thicknesses were measured automatically by the device. GCL and IPL volumes were significantly smaller in recurrent depression patients than first episode patients and in all MDD patients than controls. Also there were significant negative correlations between their volumes and disease severity parameters such as Ham-D and CGI scores, and disease duration. RNFL thicknesses were also lower in recurrent MDD patients than first episode patients and all MDD patients than controls but statistical significance was achieved only for global RNFL and temporal superior RNFL. Mean choroid thickness was higher in MDD patients than controls and in first episode MDD patients than recurrent MDD patients. Cross-sectional design of our study limits conclusions about progressive degeneration during the course of MDD. Lack of a control neuroimaging method like magnetic resonance imaging makes it hard to draw firm conclusions from our results. OCT finding of decreased GCL and IPL volumes supports previous research suggesting degeneration in MDD. OCT may be an important tool to track neurodegeneration in patients with major depression. Considering RNFL to be

  11. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  12. Valence and agency influence striatal response to feedback in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Späti, Jakub; Chumbley, Justin; Doerig, Nadja; Brakowski, Janis; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced sensitivity to positive feedback is common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, findings regarding negative feedback are ambiguous, with both exaggerated and blunted responses being reported. The ventral striatum (VS) plays a major role in processing valenced feedback, and previous imaging studies have shown that the locus of controls (self agency v. external agency) over the outcome influences VS response to feedback. We investigated whether attributing the outcome to one’s own action or to an external agent influences feedback processing in patients with MDD. We hypothesized that depressed participants would be less sensitive to the feedback attribution reflected by an altered VS response to self-attributed gains and losses. Methods Using functional MRI and a motion prediction task, we investigated the neural responses to self-attributed (SA) and externally attributed (EA) monetary gains and losses in unmedicated patients with MDD and healthy controls. Results We included 21 patients and 25 controls in our study. Consistent with our prediction, healthy controls showed a VS response influenced by feedback valence and attribution, whereas in depressed patients striatal activity was modulated by valence but was insensitive to attribution. This attribution insensitivity led to an altered ventral putamen response for SA – EA losses in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. Limitations Depressed patients with comorbid anxiety disorder were included. Conclusion These results suggest an altered assignment of motivational salience to SA losses in patients with MDD. Altered striatal response to SA negative events may reinforce the belief of not being in control of negative outcomes contributing to a cycle of learned helplessness. PMID:26107160

  13. Sleep disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder: incongruence between sleep log and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kung, Pei-Ying; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Hsu, Hsin-Wei; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-02-01

    Depression has become a severe global health problem, and sleeping difficulties are typically associated with depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among subjective sleep quality, objective sleep quality, and the sleep hygiene practices of hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder. Daily sleep logs and actigraphy were used to obtain subjective and objective sleep data. Thirty patients were recruited from a regional teaching hospital in Taipei and completed the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale. Significant differences were found between subjective and objective sleep data in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). For patients with more severe depression, subjective measurements obtained using sleep logs, such as total sleep time and sleep efficiency, were significantly lower than those obtained using actigraphy by controlling for demographics. The results regarding the differences between subjective and objective sleep data can be a reference for care providers when comforting depression patients who complain of sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The quality of life of hematological malignancy patients with major depressive disorder or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Omid; Sharifian, Ramezan-Ali; Soleimani, Mehdi; Jahanian, Amirabbas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the quality of life of hematological malignancy patients with major depressive disorder or subsyndromal depression. Sample consisted of 93 hematological malignancy patients recruited from oncology ward of Valieasr hospital for Imam Khomeini complex hospital at Tehran through purposeful sampling. Participants were divided into three groups through diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-II): Major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 41; 44.1%); subsyndromal depression (SSD) (n = 23; 24.7%), and without depression (WD) (n = 29; 31.2%). Participants completed the short-form health survey (SF-36) as a measure of the quality of life. We carried out an analysis of covariance to examine the collected data. Findings showed that there was not a significant difference between patients with MDD and SSD based on measure of quality of life. But patients with MDD and SSD showed significantly worse quality of life than patients with WD. This finding highlights the clinical importance of subsyndromal depressive symptoms and casts doubt on the clinical utility of separation between MDD and subsyndromal depression in terms of important clinical outcomes.

  15. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Miranda Caroline; Wrobel, Jeremy P

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidities are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and significantly impact on patients’ quality of life, exacerbation frequency, and survival. There is increasing evidence that certain diseases occur in greater frequency amongst patients with COPD than in the general population, and that these comorbidities significantly impact on patient outcomes. Although the mechanisms are yet to be defined, many comorbidities likely result from the chronic inflammatory state that is present in COPD. Common problems in the clinical management of COPD include recognizing new comorbidities, determining the impact of comorbidities on patient symptoms, the concurrent treatment of COPD and comorbidities, and accurate prognostication. The majority of comorbidities in COPD should be treated according to usual practice, and specific COPD management is infrequently altered by the presence of comorbidities. Unfortunately, comorbidities are often under-recognized and under-treated. This review focuses on the epidemiology of ten major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Further, we emphasize the clinical impact upon prognosis and management considerations. This review will highlight the importance of comorbidity identification and management in the practice of caring for patients with COPD. PMID:25210449

  16. Major surgery in an osteosarcoma patient refusing blood transfusion: case report.

    PubMed

    Dhanoa, Amreeta; Singh, Vivek A; Shanmugam, Rukmanikanthan; Rajendram, Raja

    2010-11-08

    We describe an unusual case of osteosarcoma in a Jehovah's Witness patient who underwent chemotherapy and major surgery without the need for blood transfusion. This 16-year-old girl presented with osteosarcoma of the right proximal tibia requiring proximal tibia resection, followed by endoprosthesis replacement. She was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with the support of haematinics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant erythropoietin and intraoperative normovolaemic haemodilution. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining effective, open communication and exploring acceptable therapeutic alternative in the management of these patients, whilst still respecting their beliefs.

  17. Multi-centre diagnostic classification of individual structural neuroimaging scans from patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Benson; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative abnormalities of brain structure in patients with major depressive disorder have been reported at a group level for decades. However, these structural differences appear subtle in comparison with conventional radiologically defined abnormalities, with considerable inter-subject variability. Consequently, it has not been possible to readily identify scans from patients with major depressive disorder at an individual level. Recently, machine learning techniques such as relevance vector machines and support vector machines have been applied to predictive classification of individual scans with variable success. Here we describe a novel hybrid method, which combines machine learning with feature selection and characterization, with the latter aimed at maximizing the accuracy of machine learning prediction. The method was tested using a multi-centre dataset of T(1)-weighted 'structural' scans. A total of 62 patients with major depressive disorder and matched controls were recruited from referred secondary care clinical populations in Aberdeen and Edinburgh, UK. The generalization ability and predictive accuracy of the classifiers was tested using data left out of the training process. High prediction accuracy was achieved (~90%). While feature selection was important for maximizing high predictive accuracy with machine learning, feature characterization contributed only a modest improvement to relevance vector machine-based prediction (~5%). Notably, while the only information provided for training the classifiers was T(1)-weighted scans plus a categorical label (major depressive disorder versus controls), both relevance vector machine and support vector machine 'weighting factors' (used for making predictions) correlated strongly with subjective ratings of illness severity. These results indicate that machine learning techniques have the potential to inform clinical practice and research, as they can make accurate predictions about brain scan data from

  18. Nitric Oxide-Related Biological Pathways in Patients with Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Andreas; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd; Theokas, Simon; Robier, Christoph; Baranyi, Maria; Koppitz, Michael; Reicht, Gerhard; Hlade, Peter; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depression is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality following myocardial infarction. However, biomarkers of depression and increased cardiovascular risk are still missing. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate, whether nitric-oxide (NO) related factors for endothelial dysfunction, such as global arginine bioavailability, arginase activity, L-arginine/ADMA ratio and the arginine metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) might be biomarkers for depression-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods In 71 in-patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls the Global Arginine Bioavailability Ratio (GABR), arginase activity (arginine/ornithine ratio), the L-arginine/ADMA ratio, ADMA, and SDMA were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Psychiatric and laboratory assessments were obtained at baseline at the time of in-patient admittance and at the time of hospital discharge. Results The ADMA concentrations in patients with major depression were significantly elevated and the SDMA concentrations were significantly decreased in comparison with the healthy controls. Even after a first improvement of depression, ADMA and SDMA levels remained nearly unchanged. In addition, after a first improvement of depression at the time of hospital discharge, a significant decrease in arginase activity, an increased L-arginine/ADMA ratio and a trend for increased global arginine bioavailability were observed. Conclusions Our study results are evidence that in patients with major depression ADMA and SDMA might be biomarkers to indicate an increased cardiovascular threat due to depression-triggered NO reduction. GABR, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio and arginase activity might be indicators of therapy success and increased NO production after remission. PMID:26581044

  19. The impact of complications on costs of major surgical procedures: a cost analysis of 1200 patients.

    PubMed

    Vonlanthen, René; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Breitenstein, Stefan; Puhan, Milo A; Muller, Markus K; Hahnloser, Dieter; Hauri, Dimitri; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2011-12-01

    To assess the impact of postoperative complications on full in-hospital costs per case. Rising expenses for complex medical procedures combined with constrained resources represent a major challenge. The severity of postoperative complications reflects surgical outcomes. The magnitude of the cost created by negative outcomes is unclear. Morbidity of 1200 consecutive patients undergoing major surgery from 2005 to 2008 in a tertiary, high-volume center was assessed by a validated, complication score system. Full in-hospital costs were collected for each patient. Statistical analysis was performed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders. This study population included 393 complex liver/bile duct surgeries, 110 major pancreas operations, 389 colon resections, and 308 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 1.8%, whereas morbidity was 53.8%. Patients with an uneventful course had mean costs per case of US$ 27,946 (SD US$ 15,106). Costs increased dramatically with the severity of postoperative complications and reached the mean costs of US$ 159,345 (SD US$ 151,191) for grade IV complications. This increase in costs, up to 5 times the cost of a similar operation without complications, was observed for all types of investigated procedures, although the magnitude of the increase varied, with the highest costs in patients undergoing pancreas surgery. This study demonstrates the dramatic impact of postoperative complications on full in-hospital costs per case and that complications are the strongest indicator of costs. Furthermore, the study highlights a relevant savings capacity for major surgical procedures, and supports all efforts to lower negative events in the postoperative course.

  20. Major depressive disorder: a qualitative study on the experiences of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Amini, Kourosh; Negarandeh, Reza; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Eftekhar, Mehrdad

    2013-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one the most common mental disorders; it affects about 5-10% of the world population. This study explores the experiences of people with major depressive disorder in Zanjan, Iran. In order to identify recurring themes and patterns in individuals' experiences of major depressive disorder, semi-structured interviews with 18 patients were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were then analyzed based on conventional qualitative content analysis. Five main categories emerged. The first category was called emotional paralysis and included the subcategories feeling severely depressed; feeling anxious; feeling impatient and irritable; and having dyshedonia. The second category was disturbance of thinking and was comprised of the subcategories of preoccupation, instable spiritual beliefs, and guilt. Cognitive decline was the third identified category and was further divided into subcategories of frustration, unawareness of the disorder, negative evaluation, indecisiveness, and loss of focus and loss of memory. Another major category was physical illnesses with the subcategories of physical discomfort, sleep problems, appetite disturbance, facial changes, sexual dysfunction, and medical conditions. The final category was failure in life, which had failure in personal affairs, jeopardized interpersonal relations, and unstable work life as subcategories. These findings provide a base for further research in this area. They also have clinical relevance for health care providers working with patients with MDD. Related cultural issues also are discussed.

  1. The symptom cluster-based approach to individualize patient-centered treatment for major depression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Steven Y; Stevens, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Unipolar major depressive disorder is a common, disabling, and costly disease that is the leading cause of ill health, early death, and suicide in the United States. Primary care doctors, in particular family physicians, are the first responders in this silent epidemic. Although more than a dozen different antidepressants in 7 distinct classes are widely used to treat depression in primary care, there is no evidence that one drug is superior to another. Comparative effectiveness studies have produced mixed results, and no specialty organization has published recommendations on how to choose antidepressants in a rational, evidence-based manner. In this article we present the theory and evidence for an individualized, patient-centered treatment model for major depression designed around a targeted symptom cluster-based approach to antidepressant selection. When using this model for healthy adults with major depressive disorder, the choice of antidepressants should be guided by the presence of 1 of 4 common symptom clusters: anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, and pain. This model was built to foster future research, provide a logical framework for teaching residents how to select antidepressants, and equip primary care doctors with a structured treatment strategy to deliver optimal patient-centered care in the management of a debilitating disease: major depressive disorder.

  2. Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong

    2017-03-21

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.

  3. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus in patients with schizophrenia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Jamilian, Hamidreza; Bagherzadeh, Kamran; Nazeri, Zeinab; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of depression and schizophrenia. The aim was to compare serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone in schizophrenics, depressed patients and healthy subjects in an Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 with major depression were enrolled. A questionnaire was filled by using medical records of patients. After that a serum sample was taken and levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone were assessed and then compared between the three groups. Post-hoc analysis of Tukey showed that vitamin D level in healthy participants was significantly higher than depressed patients and schizophrenics while there was no significant difference between vitamin D level in depressed and schizophrenic patients. The findings suggest that vitamin D affects the brain independent of hormonal pathways which regulate serum level of calcium. Non-significant difference in the serum level of vitamin D between the schizophrenics and the depressed patients suggests that the independent effect of vitamin D in brain is a general effect and is not specialized to a specific region or pathway in the brain; however, differences between psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients might be resulted from differences in psychosocial backgrounds.

  4. Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavographymore » prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.« less

  5. [Impairment of executive function in elderly patients with major unipolar depression: influence of psychomotor retardation].

    PubMed

    Baudic, Sophie; Benisty, Sarah; Dalla Barba, Gianfrano; Traykov, Latchezar

    2007-03-01

    The results from several studies assessing the executive function in depressed patients compared to control subjects varied from significant impairment to normal performance. To assess the executive impairment in elderly patients with major unipolar depression and to evaluate the influence of psychomotor retardation and severity of depression in the executive deficits, the performance of 15 elderly patients with unipolar depression was compared to that of 15 elderly control subjects on executive tasks. The severity of depression was evaluated by the Montgomery and Asberg depressive scale and that of psychomotor retardation by the Widlöcher's scale. In depressed patients, deficits were found on tasks assessing cognitive flexibility (Modified card sorting test (MCST) and Trail making test B), planification and elaboration of strategies (cognitive estimates), motor initiation (graphic sequences), categorisation and hypothesis making (MCST) and interference resistance (Stroop test). However, depressed patients performed normally on the Hayling test assessing the inhibition processes. Intensity of psychomotor retardation was not correlated to the performance of executive tasks. Conversely, severity of depression was related to the scores of MCST (number of errors and perseverations), Stroop and Hayling tests (time taken to complete the end of the sentence). Unipolar depressed patients showed deficits in most tasks assessing executive function. However, inhibition processes appeared to be intact in depressed patients although their implementation was difficult. The severity of depression but not that of psychomotor retardation was associated with executive deficits.

  6. Outcomes after major surgery in patients with myasthenia gravis: A nationwide matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wen; Chou, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Hung, Chih-Jen; Lin, Chao-Shun; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    To validate the comprehensive features of adverse outcomes after surgery for patients with myasthenia gravis. Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we analyzed 2290 patients who received major surgery between 2004 and 2010 and were diagnosed with myasthenia gravis preoperatively. Surgical patients without myasthenia gravis (n = 22,900) were randomly selected by matching procedure with propensity score for comparison. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of postoperative adverse events associated with preoperative myasthenia gravis were calculated under the multiple logistic regressions. Compared with surgical patients without myasthenia gravis, surgical patients with myasthenia gravis had higher risks of postoperative pneumonia (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.65-2.65), septicemia (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05-1.64), postoperative bleeding (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.07-2.72), and overall complications (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.44-2.00). The ORs of postoperative adverse events for patients with myasthenia gravis who had symptomatic therapy, chronic immunotherapy, and short-term immunotherapy were 1.76 (95% CI 1.50-2.08), 1.70 (95% CI 1.36-2.11), and 4.36 (95% CI 2.11-9.04), respectively. Patients with myasthenia gravis had increased risks of postoperative adverse events, particularly those experiencing emergency care, hospitalization, and thymectomy for care of myasthenia gravis. Our findings suggest the urgency of revising protocols for perioperative care for these populations.

  7. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade on empathy in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan; Otte, Christian; Hinkelmann, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is highly expressed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and is involved in social cognition. We recently found that pharmacological stimulation of the MR enhances emotional empathy but does not affect cognitive empathy. In the current study, we examined whether blockade of the MR impairs empathy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled study, we randomized 28 patients with MDD without psychotropic medication and 43 healthy individuals to either placebo or 300 mg spironolactone, a MR antagonist. Subsequently, all participants underwent two tests of social cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC), measuring cognitive and emotional facets of empathy. In the MET, we found no significant main effect of treatment or main effect of group for cognitive empathy but a highly significant treatment by group interaction (p < 0.01). Patients had higher cognitive empathy scores compared to controls in the placebo condition but not after spironolactone. Furthermore, in the spironolactone condition reduced cognitive empathy was seen in MDD patients but not in controls. Emotional empathy was not affected by MR blockade. In the MASC, no effect of spironolactone could be revealed. Depressed patients appear to exhibit greater cognitive empathy compared to healthy individuals. Blockade of MR reduced cognitive empathy in MDD patients to the level of healthy individuals. Future studies should further clarify the impact of MR functioning on different domains of social cognition in psychiatric patients.

  8. A Comparison of Functional Outcome in Patients Sustaining Major Trauma: A Multicentre, Prospective, International Study

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, Timothy H.; Yeung, Hiu Hung; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Yuen, Kai Y.; Ho, Hiu F.; Kam, Chak W.; Chang, Annice; Poon, Wai S.; Cameron, Peter A.; Graham, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. Summary Background Data Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR). Methods Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12) health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. Results 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17), and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12). Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: −1.2, 3.6) and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: −0.4, 95% CI: −3.2, 2.4) compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: −2.1, 2.8) or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: −0.8, 4.5). Conclusion The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions. PMID:25157522

  9. Body temperature and major neurological improvement in tPA-treated stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kvistad, C E; Thomassen, L; Waje-Andreassen, U; Logallo, N; Naess, H

    2014-05-01

    Major neurological improvement (MNI) at 24 hours represents a marker of early recanalization in ischaemic stroke. Although low body temperature is considered neuroprotective in cerebral ischaemia, some studies have suggested that higher body temperature may promote clot lysis in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that higher body temperature was associated with MNI in severe stroke patients treated with tPA, suggesting a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization. Patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) treated with tPA between February 2006 and August 2012 were prospectively included and retrospectively analysed. Body temperature was measured upon admission. MNI was defined by a ≥8 point improvement in NIHSS score at 24 hours as compared to NIHSS score on admission. No significant improvement (no-MNI) was defined by either an increase in NIHSS score or a decrease of ≤2 points at 24 hours in patients with an admission NIHSS score of ≥8. Of the 2351 patients admitted with ischaemic stroke or TIA, 347 patients (14.8%) were treated with tPA. A total of 32 patients (9.2%) had MNI and 56 patients (16.1%) had no-MNI. Patients with MNI had higher body temperatures compared with patients with no-MNI (36.7°C vs 36.3°C, P = 0.004). Higher body temperature was independently associated with MNI when adjusted for confounders (OR 5.16, P = 0.003). Higher body temperature was independently associated with MNI in severe ischaemic stroke patients treated with tPA. This may suggest a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Ishida, Ikki; Hiraishi, Moeko; Yoshida, Sumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Sato, Noriko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), which prompted us to examine the possible association of obesity with cognitive function and brain structure in patients with MDD. Three hundred and seven patients with MDD and 294 healthy participants, matched for age, sex, ethnicity (Japanese), and handedness (right) were recruited for the study. Cognitive function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Gray and white matter structures were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in a subsample of patients (n = 114) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI system. Verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, attention, executive function, and BACS composite scores were lower for the MDD patients than for the healthy participants (p < 0.05). Among the patient group, working memory, motor speed, executive function, and BACS composite scores were lower in obese patients (body mass index ≥ 30, n = 17) than in non-obese patients (n = 290, p < 0.05, corrected). MRI determined frontal, temporal, thalamic, and hippocampal volumes, and white matter fractional anisotropy values in the internal capsule and left optic radiation were reduced in obese patients (n = 7) compared with non-obese patients (n = 107, p < 0.05, corrected). Sample size for obese population was not very large. Obesity is associated with decreased cognitive function, reduced gray matter volume, and impaired white matter integrity in cognition-related brain areas in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Level of functioning, perceived work ability, and work status among psychiatric patients with major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Karpov, B; Joffe, G; Aaltonen, K; Suvisaari, J; Baryshnikov, I; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Melartin, T; Oksanen, J; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Isometsä, E

    2017-07-01

    Major mental disorders are highly disabling conditions that result in substantial socioeconomic burden. Subjective and objective measures of functioning or ability to work, their concordance, or risk factors for them may differ between disorders. Self-reported level of functioning, perceived work ability, and current work status were evaluated among psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n=113), bipolar disorder (BD, n=99), or depressive disorder (DD, n=188) within the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Correlates of functional impairment, subjective work disability, and occupational status were investigated using regression analysis. DD patients reported the highest and SSA patients the lowest perceived functional impairment. Depressive symptoms in all diagnostic groups and anxiety in SSA and BD groups were significantly associated with disability. Only 5.3% of SSA patients versus 29.3% or 33.0% of BD or DD patients, respectively, were currently working. About half of all patients reported subjective work disability. Objective work status and perceived disability correlated strongly among BD and DD patients, but not among SSA patients. Work status was associated with number of hospitalizations, and perceived work disability with current depressive symptoms. Psychiatric care patients commonly end up outside the labour force. However, while among patients with mood disorders objective and subjective indicators of ability to work are largely concordant, among those with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder they are commonly contradictory. Among all groups, perceived functional impairment and work disability are coloured by current depressive symptoms, but objective work status reflects illness course, particularly preceding psychiatric hospitalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Time perception in patients with major depressive disorder during vagus nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Biermann, T; Kreil, S; Groemer, T W; Maihöfner, C; Richter-Schmiedinger, T; Kornhuber, J; Sperling, W

    2011-07-01

    Affective disorders may affect patients' time perception. Several studies have described time as a function of the frontal lobe. The activating eff ects of vagus nerve stimulation on the frontal lobe might also modulate time perception in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Time perception was investigated in 30 patients with MDD and in 7 patients with therapy-resistant MDD. In these 7 patients, a VNS system was implanted and time perception was assessed before and during stimulation. A time estimation task in which patients were asked "How many seconds have passed?" tested time perception at 4 defined time points (34 s, 77 s, 192 s and 230 s). The differences between the estimated and actual durations were calculated and used for subsequent analysis. Patients with MDD and healthy controls estimated the set time points relatively accurately. A general linear model revealed a significant main eff ect of group but not of age or sex. The passing of time was perceived as significantly slower in patients undergoing VNS compared to patients with MDD at all time points (T34: t = − 4.2; df = 35; p < 0.001; T77: t = − 4.8; df = 35; p < 0.001; T192: t = − 2.0; df = 35; p = 0.059; T230 t = −2.2; df = 35; p = 0.039) as well as compared to healthy controls (at only T77: t = 4.1; df = 35; p < 0.001). There were no differences in time perception with regard to age, sex or polarity of depression (uni- or bipolar). VNS is capable of changing the perception of time. This discovery furthers the basic research on circadian rhythms in patients with psychiatric disorders.

  13. Outcome of patients with major depressive disorder after serious suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Kirsi; Haukka, Jari; Valtonen, Hanna M; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the outcome of subjects with major depressive disorder after serious suicide attempt and to examine the effect of psychotic symptoms on their outcome. The study population included all individuals aged 16 years or older in Finland who were hospitalized with ICD-10 diagnoses of major depressive disorder and attempted suicide from 1996 to 2003 (N = 1,820). The main outcome measures were completed suicides, overall mortality, and repeated suicide attempts during drug treatment versus no treatment. During the 4-year follow-up period, 13% of patients died, 6% completed suicide, and 31% made a repeat suicide attempt. Subjects with major depression with psychotic features completed suicide more often than subjects without psychotic features during the follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 3.32; 95% CI, 1.95 - 5.67). Antidepressant treatment reduced all-cause mortality by 24% (HR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56 - 0.97) but did not reduce suicide mortality (HR 1.06; 95% CI, 0.71 - 1.58). Psychotic symptoms during major depressive episode increase the risk of completed suicide after serious suicide attempt. The quality of treatment for major depression with psychotic features after attempted suicide should be improved to prevent suicide. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo

  15. Sex- and age-based variation in transfusion practices among patients undergoing major surgery.

    PubMed

    Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Spolverato, Gaya; Kim, Yuhree; Wagner, Doris; Ejaz, Aslam; Frank, Steven M; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-11-01

    Data on hemoglobin (Hb) threshold levels for "appropriate" packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions have not taken into account patient-specific variables such as sex and age. We sought to define differences in perioperative transfusion practices based on patient sex and age among patients undergoing complex gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiothoracic-vascular (CT-V) surgical procedures. All patients undergoing any major GI or CT-V procedures between January 2010 and April 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital were identified. Data on sex, age, as well as other clinicopathologic and procedures were collected and analyzed relative to transfusion practices (restrictive: transfusion at blood Hb < 7 vs liberal transfusion at Hb ≥ 7 g/dL). Among the 10,772 patients included in the study cohort, 4,689 (44.0%) were transfused with ≥ 1 PRBC. Median preoperative Hb was lower among women (12.3 vs 13.4 g/dL in men) and the aged (<65 years, 13.1 vs ≥ 65 years, 12.7 g/dL) patients (both P < .05). On adjusted analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26; P = .03) and age ≥ 65 (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.35-2.33; P < .001) were associated independently with an increased odds of receipt of ≥ 1 PRBC. Although sex did not seem to impact transfusion strategy, patient age did impact the relative trigger used by providers for a transfusion. Specifically, patients 65-74 years (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.93-4.26) and those ≥ 74 years (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 2.28-5.14) were at a much greater odds of being transfused liberally compared with patients <65 years old (both P < .05). The proportion of patients who had a potentially avoidable transfusion (ie, both trigger ≥ 7 and target ≥ 9 g/dL) was greater among aged patients (50%) compared with nonaged patients (41%; P < .001). Of note, a restrictive transfusion strategy did not increase the risk of overall morbidity among women (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99; P = .04) or aged (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.87-1.47; P = .37) patients. Sex and age

  16. Postoperative outcomes in vedolizumab-treated Crohn's disease patients undergoing major abdominal operations.

    PubMed

    Lightner, A L; McKenna, N P; Tse, C S; Raffals, L E; Loftus, E V; Mathis, K L

    2018-03-01

    Up to 80% of patients with Crohn's disease require an abdominal operation in their lifetime. As the use of vedolizumab is increasing for the treatment of Crohn's disease, it is important to understand its potential association with post-operative complications. We sought to compare 30-day postoperative infectious complication rate among vedolizumab-treated Crohn's disease patients vs those who had received TNFα inhibitors or no biologic therapy. A retrospective review of all Crohn's disease patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of a major abdominal or pelvic operation was performed. Two control cohorts consisted of Crohn's disease patients treated with TNFα inhibitors or no biologic therapy. One hundred Crohn's disease patients received vedolizumab within 12 weeks of an abdominal operation. Vedolizumab-treated patients underwent an equivalent rate of laparoscopic surgery (P = .25), had fewer anastomoses performed (P = .0002), and had equally frequent diversion in the setting of anastomoses (P = .47). Thirty-two vedolizumab-treated patients experienced postoperative infectious complications (32%), 26 of which were surgical site infections (26%). The vedolizumab-treated group experienced no difference in nonsurgical site infections (6% vs 5% anti-TNFα and 2% nonbiologic; P = .34), but significantly higher rates of surgical site infections (26% vs 8% and 11%; P < .001). On univariate and multivariate analysis, exposure to vedolizumab remained a significant predictor of postoperative surgical site infection (P < .001 and P = .002). Twenty-six per cent of Crohn's disease patients who received vedolizumab within 12 weeks prior to a major abdominal operation experienced a 30-day postoperative surgical site infection, significantly higher than that of patients receiving TNFα inhibitors or no biologic therapy. Vedolizumab within 12 weeks of surgery remained a predictor of 30-day postoperative surgical site infection on multivariable

  17. Serum interleukin-6 is related to lower cognitive functioning in elderly patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nehad Samir; Hashem, Abdel Hamid Hashem; Hassan, Akmal Mostafa; Saleh, Alia Adel; El-Baz, Heba Nabil

    2018-05-01

    There is an increased evidence of an association between inflammatory mediators, particularly serum IL-6, depression and cognitive impairment in the elderly. This study aims at exploring the relation of peripheral IL-6 to cognitive functions in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). (1) Assessment of serum IL-6 levels and cognitive functions in elderly patients suffering from major depression and comparing them to healthy age-matched control subjects; (2) correlation between serum IL-6 levels and clinical characteristics of depression and cognitive functions in these patients. The study is an observational, case-control study. It consisted of 80 subjects, 40 with the diagnosis of MDD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-TR) with early onset (first episode before the age of 60) and 40 community-dwelling subjects. They were subjected to the Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and serum IL-6 assay using ELISA. In the depression group, subjects had lower scores in cognitive testing, than the control group (p = 0.001). Serum IL-6 was found to have a negative correlation with cognitive testing in these patients even after controlling for the severity of depressive status and Body Mass Index (BMI) (p = 0.025). MDD in elderly subjects is associated with decline in cognitive functions that may be related to peripheral IL-6 levels.

  18. Evaluation of Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor for Major Complications in Patients Undergoing Aesthetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Ravinder; Gupta, Varun; Shack, R Bruce; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been linked with a variety of perioperative adverse events across surgical disciplines. There is a paucity of studies systematically examining risk factors, including diabetes, and complications of aesthetic surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to compare incidence and type of complications between diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing various aesthetic surgical procedures, to identify specific procedures where diabetes significantly increases risk of complications, and to study diabetes as an independent risk factor for major complications following aesthetic surgery. A prospective cohort of 129,007 patients who enrolled into the CosmetAssure insurance program and underwent cosmetic surgical procedures between May 2008 and May 2013 were reviewed. Diabetes was evaluated as risk factor for major complications, requiring hospital admission, emergency room visit, or a reoperation within 30 days after surgery. Multivariate regression analysis was performed controlling for the effects of age, smoking, obesity, gender, type of procedures, and surgical facility. Overall, 2506 patients (1.9%) had a major complication. Diabetics had significantly more complications compared to non-diabetics (3.1% vs 1.9%, P < 0.01). In univariate analysis, infectious (1.1% vs 0.5%, P < 0.01) and pulmonary (0.3% vs 0.1%, P < 0.01) complications were significantly higher among diabetics. Notably, diabetics had higher risks of complication in body cases (4.3% vs 2.6%, P < 0.01) and specifically abdominoplasty (6.1% vs 3.0%, P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, diabetes was found to be an independent risk factor of any complication (relative risk 1.31, P = 0.03) and infection (relative risk 1.70, P < 0.01). Diabetes is an independent risk factor of major complications, particularly infection, after aesthetic surgical procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Plastic surgical operative workload in major trauma patients following establishment of the major trauma network in England: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, S A; Khan, M A; Verjee, L S; Rahman, K M A; Simmons, J; Hettiaratchy, S P

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of major trauma centres (MTCs) in England has led to 63% reduction in trauma mortality.(1) The role of plastic surgeons supporting these centres has not been quantified previously. This study aimed to quantify plastic surgical workload at an urban MTC to determine the contribution of plastic surgeons to major trauma care. All Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN)-recorded major trauma patients who presented to an urban MTC in 2013 and underwent an operation were identified retrospectively. Patients who underwent plastic surgery were identified and the type and date of procedure(s) were recorded. The trauma operative workload data of another tertiary surgical specialty and local historical plastics workload data from pre-MTC go-live were collected for comparison. Of the 416 major trauma patients who required surgical intervention, 29% (n = 122) underwent plastic surgery. Of these patients, 43% had open lower limb fractures, necessitating plastic surgical involvement according to British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma (BOAST) 4 guidance. The overall plastic surgery operative workload increased sevenfold post-MTC go-live. A similar proportion of the same cohort required neurosurgery (n = 115; p = 0.589). This study quantifies plastic surgery involvement in major trauma and demonstrates that plastic surgical operative workload is at least on par with other tertiary surgical specialties. It also reports one centre's experience of a significant change in plastic surgery activity following designation of MTC status. The quantity of plastic surgical operative workload in major trauma must be considered when planning major trauma service design and workforce provision, and for plastic surgical postgraduate training. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased myo-inositol level in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in migraine patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Liang, Jen-Feng; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-07-01

    Although the comorbidity between migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been recognized, the pathophysiology remains unclear. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a well-known neural substrate for MDD. We investigated the relationship between brain metabolites in DLPFC and comorbid MDD in migraine patients. We recruited migraine patients from a tertiary headache clinic. A board-certified psychiatrist conducted a structured interview for MDD diagnosis. The severity of depression was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Thirty migraine patients (five men, 25 women; mean age: 40.4 ± 12.4 years) completed the study, and 16 of them were diagnosed with MDD. All patients underwent a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination focusing on bilateral DLPFC. The ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) to total creatine (tCr) were compared between migraine patients with and without MDD, and were correlated with BDI scores. Relative to patients without MDD, migraine patients with MDD had higher mI/tCr ratios in the bilateral DLPFC (p = 0.02, left; p = 0.02, right, Mann-Whitney U test). The mI/tCr ratios in the right DLPFC were positively correlated with BDI scores (r = 0.52, p = 0.003). The NAA/tCr and Cho/tCr ratios did not differ between migraine patients with and without MDD. Increased mI/tCr within the DLPFC might be associated with the presence of MDD in migraine patients. © International Headache Society 2014.

  1. Education and related support from medical specialists for Japanese patients with major skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Haga, Nobuhiko; Kosaki, Keisuke; Takikawa, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okada, Keita; Nakahara, Yasuo; Ogata, Naoshi

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasias manifest various clinical symptoms. Age at onset, severity, and progression of symptoms differ even among individuals with the same diagnosis. Though necessary support in education is presumed to differ among patients with different disorders, few articles report on education in patients with skeletal dysplasias. To clarify what types of schools children with major skeletal dysplasias attend, what kind of support they needed at schools, and how the advice on such support was conveyed from medical specialists to schools. Questionnaire study on patients with achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia (A/HCH), and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In A/HCH childhood locomotion ability was high and most patients had received general education, irrespective of their generation. Children with OI showed a lower level of locomotion ability; only about half of them had received general education. In selecting schools, the patients received advice from pediatricians, physiatrists, and orthopedic surgeons. The degree of necessity and content of support at the schools differed between A/HCH and OI. Remodeling of the lavatory, washbasin, and chair and support during swimming lessons were common in A/HCH patients. Support in school for OI patients was more frequent and included propelling wheelchairs, assisting in the use of the bathroom, and remodeling the lavatory. Most children were restricted from participating in physical education classes. Locomotion ability and the necessary support at school differed between A/HCH and OI. Support and advice from medical specialists who recognize disability of patients with skeletal dysplasias may improve patients' participation and education in schools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical characteristics of patients with major depressive disorder with and without hypothyroidism: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mowla, Arash; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Khazraee, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Differentiating major depressive disorder (MDD) without hypothyroidism from MDD associated with hypothyroidism can be challenging. Therefore some authors have suggested that thyroid function should be tested in all depressed patients. This study compared the clinical characteristics of patients with MDD associated with hypothyroidism with those of patients with MDD without hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests were administered to 75 patients (60 female and 15 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The 15 patients with hypothyroidism (8 with subclinical hypothyroidism and 7 with overt hypothyroidism) were compared with the other 60 patients with regard to depressive characteristics. The primary measure of depressive signs and symptoms used to assess depression severity and symptoms was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, first 17 items (Ham-D-17). Baseline demographic data, including age and sex, were also compared. The two groups did not differ significantly in severity of overall depression at baseline, as measured by total score on the Ham-D-17 (P=0.471, Z=0.970). Patients with MDD without hypothyroidism had worse scores on item 1 (depressed mood), item 2 (feelings of guilt), item 3 (suicidality), item 6 (late insomnia), and item 16 (loss of weight). In contrast, depressed patients with hypothyroidism had more severe anxiety symptoms and greater agitation (items 9, 10, and 11). Our results may help clinicians differentiate MDD associated with hypothyroidism from MDD without hypothyroidism. Depressed patients with hypothyroidism had more anxiety symptoms and greater agitation, but they had fewer severe core depressive symptoms and biological signs of MDD. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2011;17:67-71).

  3. Clinical Relevance of Vilazodone Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Categorical Improvement in Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Larry; Mathews, Maju; Ghori, Razi; Edwards, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinically relevant symptom improvement in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) receiving vilazodone by using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a clinician-rated scale used to measure MDD symptom severity and improvement. Method: Pooled data from 2 positive, phase 3, 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with MDD were analyzed. Patients received vilazodone 40 mg/d or placebo; post hoc analyses were conducted on study completers. Depression symptom improvement was evaluated by analyzing the proportions of patients who shifted from the baseline MADRS single-item symptom severity category of ≥ 2 (mild to severe symptoms) to an end-of-study category < 2 (minimal to no symptoms) or from ≥ 4 (moderate to severe symptoms) to ≤ 2 (mild to no symptoms). The proportion of patients who shifted from anxious depression to no anxious depression was also analyzed. Results: The percentage of patients who completed these studies with severity category shift from baseline ≥ 2 to end of study < 2 was significantly higher for vilazodone versus placebo on all MADRS items (odds ratio [OR] range, 1.4–1.7, P < .05) except reduced appetite (OR = 1.3, P = .232). A significantly greater proportion of vilazodone-treated versus placebo-treated patients shifted from baseline ≥ 4 to end of study ≤ 2 on MADRS items of apparent sadness, reported sadness, inner tension, reduced sleep, and lassitude (OR range, 1.5–2.0, P < .05). Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of vilazodone-treated versus placebo-treated patients shifted from anxious depression at baseline to no anxious depression at end of study (OR = 1.5, P = .031). Conclusions: These results suggest that vilazodone treatment is associated with clinically relevant changes in depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00285376 and NCT00683592 PMID:24940525

  4. Clinical validity of a population database definition of remission in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa; Gutiérrez-Nicuesa, Laura; Salvatella-Pasant, Jordi; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2010-02-11

    Major depression (MD) is one of the most frequent diagnoses in Primary Care. It is a disabling illness that increases the use of health resources. To describe the concordance between remission according to clinical assessment and remission obtained from the computerized prescription databases of patients with MD in a Spanish population. multicenter cross-sectional. The population under study was comprised of people from six primary care facilities, who had a MD episode between January 2003 and March 2007. A specialist in psychiatry assessed a random sample of patient histories and determined whether a certain patient was in remission according to clinical criteria (ICPC-2). Regarding the databases, patients were considered in remission when they did not need further prescriptions of AD for at least 6 months after completing treatment for a new episode. Validity indicators (sensitivity [S], specificity [Sp]) and clinical utility (positive and negative probability ratio [PPR] and [NPR]) were calculated. The concordance index was established using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Significance level was p < 0.05. 133 patient histories were reviewed. The kappa coefficient was 82.8% (confidence intervals [CI] were 95%: 73.1 - 92.6), PPR 9.8% and NPR 0.1%. Allocation discrepancies between both criteria were found in 11 patients. S was 92.5% (CI was 95%: 88.0 - 96.9%) and Sp was 90.6% (CI was 95%: 85.6 - 95.6%), p < 0.001. Reliability analysis: Cronbach's alpha: 90.6% (CI was 95%: 85.6 - 95.6%). Results show an acceptable level of concordance between remission obtained from the computerized databases and clinical criteria. The major discrepancies were found in diagnostic accuracy.

  5. Sarcopenia: A Major Challenge in Elderly Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Domański, Maciej; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a condition of multifaceted etiology arising in many elderly people. In patients with chronic kidney, the loss of muscle mass is much more intensive and the first signs of sarcopenia are observed in younger patients than it is expected. It is associated with the whole-body protein-energy deficiency called protein-energy wasting (PEW). It seems to be one of the major factors limiting patient's autonomy as well as decreasing the quality of life. If it cannot be treated with the simple methods requiring some knowledge and devotion, we will fail to save patients who die due to cardiovascular disease and infection, despite proper conduction of renal replacement therapy. Many factors influencing the risk of sarcopenia development have been evaluated in number of studies. Many studies also were conducted to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic strategies (diet, physical activity, hormones). Nevertheless, there is still no consensus on treatment the patients with PEW. Therefore, in the paper we present the reasons and pathophysiology of sarcopenia as an important element of protein energy wasting (PEW) in elderly patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. We also analyze possible options for treatment according to up-to-date knowledge. PMID:22536505

  6. Stressful life events preceding the onset of depression in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Hatim, Ahmad; Si, Tian-Mei; Jeon, Hong Jin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Bautista, Dianne; Liu, Shen-ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have identified the significant role of stressful life events in the onset of depressive episodes. However, there is a paucity of cross-national studies on stressful life events that precede depression. We aimed to compare types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in five Asian countries. A total of 507 outpatients with MDD were recruited in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Thailand (n = 103) and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the List of Threatening Experiences. The prevalence of each type of stressful life events was calculated and compared between each country. The type of stressful life event that preceded the onset of a depressive episode differed between patients in China and Taiwan and those in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Patients in China and Taiwan were less likely to report interpersonal relationship problems and occupational/financial problems than patients in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Understanding the nature and basis of culturally determined susceptibilities to specific stressful life events is critical for establishing a policy of depression prevention and providing effective counseling services for depressed patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Increased fear-potentiated startle in major depressive disorder patients with lifetime history of suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Ionescu, Dawn F; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Slonena, Elizabeth E; Franco-Chaves, Jose A; Zarate, Carlos A; Grillon, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Suicide is a common reason for psychiatric emergency and morbidity, with few effective treatments. Anxiety symptoms have emerged as potential modifiable risk factors in the time before a suicide attempt, but few studies have been conducted using laboratory measures of fear and anxiety. We operationally defined fear and anxiety as increased startle reactivity during anticipation of predictable (fear-potentiated startle) and unpredictable (anxiety-potentiated startle) shock. We hypothesized that a lifetime history of suicide attempt (as compared to history of no suicide attempt) would be associated with increased fear-potentiated startle. A post-hoc analysis of fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle was conducted in 28 medication-free patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) divided according to suicide attempt history. The magnitude of fear-potentiated startle was increased in depressed patients with lifetime suicide attempts compared to those without a lifetime history of suicide attempt (F(1,26)=5.629, p=.025). There was no difference in anxiety-potentiated startle by suicide attempt history. This is a post-hoc analysis of previously analyzed patient data from a study of depressed inpatients. Further replication of the finding with a larger patient sample is indicated. Increased fear-potentiated startle in suicide attempters suggests the role of amygdala in depressed patients with a suicide attempt history. Findings highlight the importance of anxiety symptoms in the treatment of patients at increased suicide risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of Uric Acid on the Alterations of White Matter Connectivity in Patients with Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hoyoung; Kwon, Min-Soo; Lee, Sun-Woo; Oh, Jongsoo; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Borah

    2018-06-07

    Uric acid is a non-enzymatic antioxidant associated with depression. Despite its known protective role in other brain disorders, little is known about its influence on the structural characteristics of brains of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study explored the association between uric acid and characteristics of white matter (WM) in patients with MDD. A total of 32 patients with MDD and 23 healthy controls (HCs) were examined. All participants were scored based on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory at baseline. All patients were also rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We collected blood samples from all participants immediately after their enrollment and before the initiation of antidepressants in case of patients. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for all imaging analyses. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) values were found in the MDD group than in the HC group. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the serum uric acid levels positively correlated with the FA and negatively with the RD in WM regions that previously showed significant group differences in the MDD group. The correlated areas were located in the left anterior corona radiata, left frontal lobe WM, and left anterior cingulate cortex WM. The present study suggests a significant association between altered WM connectivity and serum uric acid levels in patients with MDD, possibly through demyelination.

  9. Odour recognition memory and odour identification in patients with mild and severe major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Zucco, Gesualdo M; Bollini, Fabiola

    2011-12-30

    Olfactory deficits, in detection, recognition and identification of odorants have been documented in ageing and in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. However, olfactory abilities in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been less investigated, and available studies have provided inconsistent results. The present study assessed odour recognition memory and odour identification in two groups of 12 mild MDD patients (M age 41.3, range 25-57) and 12 severe MDD patients (M age, 41.9, range 23-58) diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and matched for age and gender to 12 healthy normal controls. The suitability of olfactory identification and recognition memory tasks as predictors of the progression of MDD was also addressed. Data analyses revealed that Severe MDD patients performed significantly worse than Mild MDD patients and Normal controls on both tasks, with these last groups not differing significantly from one another. The present outcomes are consistent with previous studies in other domains which have shown reliable, although not conclusive, impairments in cognitive function, including memory, in patients with MDD, and highlight the role of olfactory identification and recognition tasks as an important additional tool to discriminate between patients characterised by different levels of severity of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Major Risk Factors for Computer-Based Distinction of Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke and Without Stroke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    THE USE of MAJOR RISK FACTORS for COMPUTER-BASED DISTINCTION of DIABETIC PATIENTS with ISCHEMIC STROKE and WITHOUT STROKE Sibel Oge Merey1...highlighting the major risk factors of diabetic patients with non-embolic stroke and without stroke by performing dependency analysis and decision making...of Major Risk Factors for Computer-Based Distinction of Diabetic Patients with Ischemic Stroke and Without Stroke Contract Number Grant Number

  11. Sertraline Versus Placebo in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Randomized, Controlled Feasibility Trial.

    PubMed

    Friedli, Karin; Guirguis, Ayman; Almond, Michael; Day, Clara; Chilcot, Joseph; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Davenport, Andrew; Fineberg, Naomi A; Spencer, Benjamin; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken

    2017-02-07

    Depression is common in patients on hemodialysis, but data on the benefits and risks of antidepressants in this setting are limited. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline over 6 months in patients on hemodialysis with depression to determine study feasibility, safety, and effectiveness. Patients on hemodialysis at five United Kingdom renal centers completed the Beck Depression Inventory II. Those scoring ≥16 and not already on treatment for depression were invited to undergo diagnostic interview to confirm major depressive disorder. Eligible patients with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive the study medication-either sertraline or placebo. Outcomes included recruitment and dropout rates, change in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory II, and qualitative information to guide design of a large-scale trial. In total, 709 patients were screened and enrolled between April of 2013 and October of 2014; 231 (32.6%) had Beck Depression Inventory II scores ≥16, and 68 (29%) of these were already receiving treatment for depression. Sixty-three underwent diagnostic interview, 37 were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and 30 were randomized; 21 completed the trial: eight of 15 on sertraline and 13 of 15 on placebo (P=0.05). Dropouts due to adverse and serious adverse events were greater in the sertraline group. All occurred in the first 3 months. Over 6 months, depression scores improved in both groups. Beck Depression Inventory II score fell from 29.1±8.4 to 17.3±12.4 (P<0.001), and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score fell from 24.5±4.1 to 10.3±5.8 (P<0.001). There were no differences between sertraline and placebo groups. Although small, this is the largest randomized trial to date of antidepressant medication in patients on hemodialysis. Our results highlight recruitment issues. No benefit was observed, but trial size and the substantial

  12. The chaos of hospitalisation for patients with Critical Limb Ischaemia approaching major amputation.

    PubMed

    Monaro, Susan; West, Sandra; Pinkova, Jana; Gullick, Janice

    2018-05-18

    To illuminate the hospital experience for patients and families when major amputation has been advised for critical limb ischaemia (CLI). CLI creates significant burden to the health system and the family, particularly as the person with CLI approaches amputation. Major amputation is often offered as a late intervention for CLI in response to the marked deterioration of an ischaemic limb, and functional decline from reduced mobility, intractable pain, infection and/or toxaemia. While a wealth of clinical outcome data on CLI and amputation exists internationally, little is known about the patient/ family-centred experience of hospitalisation to inform preservation of personhood and patient-centred care-planning. Longitudinal qualitative study using Heideggerian Phenomenology. 14 patients and 13 family carers provided a semi-structured interview after advice for major amputation. Where amputation followed, a second interview (6-months post-procedure) was provided by eight patients and seven family carers. Forty-two semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Hermeneutic phenomenological analysis followed. Hospitalisation for CLI, with or without amputation, created a sense of chaos, characterised by being fragile and needing more time for care (fragile body and fragile mind, nurse busyness, and carer hyper-vigilance), being adrift within uncontrollable spaces (noise, unreliable space, precarious accommodation and unpredictable scheduling), and being confused by missed and mixed messages (multiple stakeholders, information overload, and cultural/linguistic diversity). Patients and families need a range of strategies to assist mindful decision-making in preparation for amputation in what for them is a chaotic process occurring within a chaotic environment. Cognitive deficits increase the care complexity and burden of family advocacy. A co-ordinated, interprofessional response should improve systems for communication, family engagement

  13. The neuropsychological differentiation of patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease and/or major depression.

    PubMed

    desRosiers, G; Hodges, J R; Berrios, G

    1995-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of standardized neuropsychological tests in the psychometric differentiation of patients with very mild or mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and/or major depression presenting in a tertiary clinic with memory/attention complaints. Controlled prospective clinicoexperimental design. Multidisciplinary Memory Clinic at Addenbroke's Hospital, Cambridge, England. Twenty-four patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (12 with major depression and 12 without), 12 patients with major depressive illness but without AD, and 12 healthy control subjects, all matched for age, sex, education levels, and estimates of premorbid intellectual potential. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Wechsler's Logical Memory (WLM) and Visual Reproduction (WVR), immediate and delayed reproduction, Wechsler's paired Associate Learning (WPAL), including the Easy and Hard subsets. Warrington's Recognition Memory for Faces (WRMF), Kendrick's Object Learning (KOLT) and Digit Copying (KDCT) Tests. Minimum 2-year follow-up diagnosis. Statistically, patients with very mild AD were distinguished clearly from those without AD on most tests of memory functions. Psychometrically, only KOLT and an index of retention on WLM and WVR were specific enough to avoid false positives, a requirement for second-stage tools. They also proved sensitive enough to suggest their role as first-stage instruments when screening for primary dementia in high-functioning patients scoring above the cut-point on MMSE. As efforts intensify to develop more powerful means to identify patients with Alzheimer's disease in its earliest stages, inclusion of specialist tests posing greater cognitive challenge than standard mental status scales has been one strategy. Our study explored how some of these neuropsychological tools behave psychometrically when analyzed on a single-case basis, and the results suggest a few are sensitive enough to boost detection above base rates alone while also being

  14. Air versus ground transport of the major trauma patient: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McVey, Jennifer; Petrie, David A; Tallon, John M

    2010-01-01

    1) To compare the outcomes of adult trauma patients transported to a level I trauma center by helicopter vs. ground ambulance. 2) To determine whether using a unique "natural experiment" design to obtain the ground comparison group will reduce potential confounders. Outcomes in adult trauma patients transported to a tertiary care trauma center by air were compared with outcomes in a group of patients who were accepted by the online medical control physician for air transport, but whose air missions were aborted for aviation reasons (weather, maintenance, out on a mission); these patients were subsequently transported by ground ambulance instead. Outcomes were also analyzed for a third ground control group composed of all other adult trauma patients transported by ground during this time period. Data were collected by retrospective database review of trauma patients transferred between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 2003. Outcomes were measured by Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) analysis. Z and W scores were calculated. Three hundred ninety-seven missions were flown by LifeFlight during the study period vs. 57 in the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group. The mean ages, gender distributions, mechanisms of injury, and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were similar in the two groups. Per 100 patients transported, 5.61 more lives were saved in the air group vs. the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group (Z = 3.37). As per TRISS analysis, this is relative to the expected mortality seen with a similar group in the Major Trauma Outcomes Study (MTOS). The Z score for the clinical accept-aviation abort ground transport group was 0.4. The 1,195 patients in the third all-other ground control group had a higher mean age, lower mean ISS, and worse outcomes according to TRISS analysis (W = -2.02). This unique natural experiment led to better matched air vs. ground cohorts for comparison. As per TRISS analysis, air transport of the adult major trauma

  15. Which somatic symptoms are associated with an unfavorable course in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William S; Aguado, Jaume; Peng, Xiaomei; Brugnoli, Roberto; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-12-01

    This was an analysis of the impact of somatic symptoms on the severity and course of depression in Chinese patients treated for an acute episode of major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were extracted from a 3-month prospective observational study which enrolled 909 patients with MDD in psychiatric care settings; this analysis focused on the Chinese patients (n=300). Depression severity was assessed using the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17); somatic symptoms were assessed using the patient-rated 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI). Cluster analysis using baseline SSI scores grouped patients into three clusters with no/mild, moderate, or severe somatic symptoms. Four SSI factors (pain, autonomic symptoms, energy, and central nervous system) were defined, and regression analyses identified which factors were associated with remission at 3 months. More than 70% of the patients had moderate or severe somatic symptoms. Baseline depression severity (HAMD-17 and CGI-S scores) was associated with more severe somatic symptoms. Remission rates differed between clusters of patients: 84.1%, 72.0%, and 55.3% for no/mild, moderate, and severe somatic symptoms, respectively (P=0.0034). Pain symptoms were the somatic symptoms more strongly associated with lower remission rates at 3 months. Somatic symptoms are associated with greater clinical severity and lower remission rates. Among somatic symptoms, pain symptoms have the greatest prognostic value and should be taken into account when treating patients with depression. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Intracellular iron overload leading to DNA damage of lymphocytes and immune dysfunction in thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jyoti; Chakraborty, Ayan; Nag, Arijit; Chattopadyay, Arnab; Dasgupta, Anjan K; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the cause and effects of intracellular iron overload in lymphocytes of thalassemia major patients. Sixty-six thalassemia major patients having iron overload and 10 age-matched controls were chosen for the study. Blood sample was collected, and serum ferritin, oxidative stress; lymphocyte DNA damage were examined, and infective episodes were also counted. Case-control analysis revealed significant oxidative stress, iron overload, DNA damage, and rate of infections in thalassemia cases as compared to controls. For cases, oxidative stress (ROS) and iron overload (serum ferritin) showed good correlation with R 2  = 0.934 and correlation between DNA damage and ROS gave R 2  = 0.961. We also demonstrated that intracellular iron overload in thalassemia caused oxidative damage of lymphocyte DNA as exhibited by DNA damage assay. The inference is further confirmed by partial inhibition of such damage by chelation of iron and the concurrent lowering of the ROS level in the presence of chelator deferasirox. Therefore, intracellular iron overload caused DNA fragmentation, which may ultimately hamper lymphocyte function, and this may contribute to immune dysfunction and increased susceptibility to infections in thalassemia patients as indicated by the good correlation (R 2  = 0.91) between lymphocyte DNA damage and rate of infection found in this study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-10-14

    It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.

  18. Positive mood on negative self-statements: paradoxical intervention in geriatric patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Claudia; Müller, Christine; Riepe, Matthias W

    2018-06-01

    Mood regulation is said to be age-specific. Negative self-statements (NST) are used to induce negative mood. However, little is known about NST in older persons and geriatric patients with major depressive disorder. We investigated healthy young (YC) and older (OC) control subjects and older patients with major depressive disorder (OP). Subjects were exposed to NST subsequent to baseline assessment comprising psychological and psychometric tests. Preferences for emotionally salient stimuli were measured with an eye-tracking task. Mood in YC shifted towards depressive mood or remained stable on NST. In OC and more so in OP some subjects responded paradoxically subsequent to NST with mood being more positive than at baseline. Extent and direction of mood change correlated with prevailing mood at baseline and total score in the Hamilton Depression Anxiety Scale. At baseline, YC had a preference for 'happy' stimuli. Subsequent to NST view preference shifted towards 'sad.' In contrast, OC had no preference at baseline but shifted towards 'happy' on NST. Mood change on NST is age-specific. In geriatric patients with depressive disorder, however, NST may induce a shift towards more positive mood and thus may be used in future as a therapeutic intervention.

  19. Efficacy of vilazodone on anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dalei; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder. A post-hoc analysis of two phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone on depression-related anxiety. Using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) Anxiety/Somatization subscale, patients were classified as anxious or nonanxious. Improvements in depressive symptoms were based on least squares mean changes in HAMD17 and Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale total scores. Anxiety symptoms in the anxious subgroup were evaluated using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total and subscale (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale and item (Psychic Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety) scores, and the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale Inner Tension item score. Most of the pooled study population [82.0% (708/863)] was classified with anxious depression. After 8 weeks of treatment, least squares mean differences between vilazodone and placebo for changes in HAMA total and HAMD17 Anxiety/Somatization subscale scores were −1.82 (95% confidence interval −2.81 to −0.83; P<0.001) and −0.75 (95% confidence interval −1.17 to −0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Statistically significant improvements with vilazodone were also found on all other anxiety-related measures, except the HAMA Somatic Anxiety subscale. Vilazodone may be effective in treating patients with major depressive disorder who exhibit somatic and/or psychic symptoms of anxiety. PMID:24978955

  20. Physical co-morbidity among treatment resistant vs. treatment responsive patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Amital, D; Fostick, L; Silberman, A; Calati, R; Spindelegger, C; Serretti, A; Juven-Wetzler, A; Souery, D; Mendlewicz, J; Montgomery, S; Kasper, S; Zohar, J

    2013-08-01

    Co-morbid physical illness has been suggested to play an important role among the factors contributing to treatment resistance in patients with major depressive disorder. In the current study we compared the rate of physical co-morbidity, defined by ICD-10, among a large multicenter sample of 702 patients with major depressive disorder. A total of 356 of the participants were defined as treatment resistant depression (TRD) patients-having failed two or more adequate antidepressant trials. No significant difference was found between TRD and non-TRD participants in the prevalence of any ICD-10 category. This finding suggests that although physical conditions such as diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and peptic diseases are often accompanied by co-morbid MDD, they do not necessarily have an impact on the course of MDD or the likelihood to respond to treatment. Marginally higher rates of co-morbid breast cancer, migraine and glaucoma were found among TRD participants. Possible explanations for these findings and their possible relation to TRD are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: the 2-year PERFORM study

    PubMed Central

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Haro, Josep Maria; Jönsson, Bengt; Tanguy Melac, Audrey; Di Nicola, Sylvie; Chollet, Julien; Milea, Dominique; Rive, Benoît; Saragoussi, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    Background The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study describes the course of depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment over 2 years in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and investigates the patient-related factors associated with functional impairment. Methods This was a 2-year observational study in 1,159 outpatients with MDD aged 18–65 years who were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. Functional impairment was assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Patients assessed depression severity using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and severity of perceived cognitive symptoms using the five-item Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. To investigate which patient-related factors were associated with functional impairment, univariate analyses of variance were performed to identify relevant factors that were then included in multivariate analyses of covariance at baseline, month 2, months 6 and 12 combined, and months 18 and 24 combined. Results The greatest improvement in depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment was seen immediately (within 2 months) following initiation or switch of antidepressant therapy, followed by more gradual improvement and long-term stabilization. Improvement in perceived cognitive symptoms was less marked than improvement in depressive symptoms during the acute treatment phase. Functional impairment in patients with MDD was not only associated with severity of depressive symptoms but also independently associated with severity of perceived cognitive symptoms when adjusted for depression severity throughout the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion These findings highlight the burden of functional impairment in MDD and the importance of recognizing and managing

  2. Functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: the 2-year PERFORM study.

    PubMed

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Haro, Josep Maria; Jönsson, Bengt; Tanguy Melac, Audrey; Di Nicola, Sylvie; Chollet, Julien; Milea, Dominique; Rive, Benoît; Saragoussi, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study describes the course of depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment over 2 years in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and investigates the patient-related factors associated with functional impairment. This was a 2-year observational study in 1,159 outpatients with MDD aged 18-65 years who were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. Functional impairment was assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Patients assessed depression severity using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and severity of perceived cognitive symptoms using the five-item Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. To investigate which patient-related factors were associated with functional impairment, univariate analyses of variance were performed to identify relevant factors that were then included in multivariate analyses of covariance at baseline, month 2, months 6 and 12 combined, and months 18 and 24 combined. The greatest improvement in depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment was seen immediately (within 2 months) following initiation or switch of antidepressant therapy, followed by more gradual improvement and long-term stabilization. Improvement in perceived cognitive symptoms was less marked than improvement in depressive symptoms during the acute treatment phase. Functional impairment in patients with MDD was not only associated with severity of depressive symptoms but also independently associated with severity of perceived cognitive symptoms when adjusted for depression severity throughout the 2 years of follow-up. These findings highlight the burden of functional impairment in MDD and the importance of recognizing and managing cognitive symptoms in daily practice.

  3. Mitochondria DNA change and oxidative damage in clinically stable patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chen; Jou, Shaw-Hwa; Lin, Ta-Tsung; Lai, Te-Jen; Liu, Chin-San

    2015-01-01

    To compare alterations of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) copy number, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and oxidative damage of mtDNA in clinically stable patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for MDD were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic at Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan. They were clinically stable and their medications had not changed for at least the preceding two months. Exclusion criteria were substance-induced psychotic disorder, eating disorder, anxiety disorder or illicit substance abuse. Comparison subjects did not have any major psychiatric disorder and they were medically healthy. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed to compare copy number, SNPs and oxidative damage of mtDNA between the two groups. 40 MDD patients and 70 comparison subjects were collected. The median age of the subjects was 42 years and 38 years in MDD and comparison groups, respectively. Leukocyte mtDNA copy number of MDD patients was significantly lower than that of the comparison group (p = 0.037). MDD patients had significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage than the comparison group (6.44 vs. 3.90, p<0.001). After generalized linear model adjusted for age, sex, smoking, family history, and psychotropic use, mtDNA copy number was still significantly lower in the MDD group (p<0.001). MtDNA oxidative damage was positively correlated with age (p<0.001) and MDD (p<0.001). Antipsychotic use was negatively associated with mtDNA copy number (p = 0.036). The study is cross-sectional with no longitudinal follow up. The cohort is clinically stable and generalizability of our result to other cohort should be considered. Our study suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondria may play a role in the pathophysiology of MDD. More large-scale studies are warranted to assess the interplay between oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction and MDD.

  4. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment for major depression in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Priscila Silveira; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina; Blay, Sergio Luís; Sesso, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Depression is an important target of psychological assessment in patients with end-stage renal disease because it predicts their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. We assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients diagnosed with major depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). In a randomized trial conducted in Brazil, an intervention group of 41 patients was given 12 weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy led by a trained psychologist over 3 months while a control group of 44 patients received the usual treatment offered in the dialysis unit. In both groups, the Beck Depression Inventory, the MINI, and the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Short Form questionnaires were administered at baseline, after 3 months of intervention or usual treatment, and after 9 months of follow-up. The intervention group had significant improvements, compared to the control group, in the average scores of the Beck Depression Inventory overall scale, MINI scores, and in quality-of-life dimensions that included the burden of renal disease, sleep, quality of social interaction, overall health, and the mental component summary. We conclude that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment of depression in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  5. Therapeutic alliance mediates the association between personality and treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Shauna C; Quilty, Lena C; Uliaszek, Amanda A; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael

    2016-09-01

    Patient personality traits have been shown to influence treatment outcome in those with major depressive disorder (MDD). The trait agreeableness, which reflects an interpersonal orientation, may affect treatment outcome via its role in the formation of therapeutic alliance. No published studies have tested this hypothesis in patients with MDD. Participants were 209 outpatients with MDD who were treated in a randomized control trial. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine the role of therapeutic alliance in the association between pretreatment personality and the reduction of depression symptom severity during treatment. Separate models were estimated for patient- versus therapist-rated therapeutic alliance. We found a significant indirect effect of agreeableness on the reduction of depression severity via patient-rated therapeutic alliance. Results were replicated across two well-validated measures of depression symptom severity. Results also partially supported indirect effects for extraversion and openness. Therapist ratings of alliance did not mediate the association between personality and treatment outcomes. Patients were recruited as part of a randomized control trial, which may limit the generalizability of results to practice-based clinical settings. Due to constraints on statistical power, intervention-specific mediation results were not examined. These results highlight the importance of personality and the role it plays in treatment process as well as outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD): results of a 6-month, multinational, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Vorstenbosch, Ellen; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Dueñas, Héctor; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Not all individuals treated for major depressive disorder (MDD) achieve recovery. This observational study examined the recovery rates in MDD patients and the patient characteristics associated with achieving recovery in a naturalistic clinical setting. Recovery was defined as having both clinical and functional remission. Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 24-week prospective, observational study that involved 1,549 MDD patients. Clinical remission was assessed using the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and functional remission through the Sheehan Disability Scale and no days of reduced productivity in the previous week. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine the baseline factors associated with recovery during follow-up. Clinical and functional remission was achieved in 70.6% and 56.1% of the MDD patients, respectively. MDD patients who achieved recovery (52.1%) were significantly less likely to have impaired levels of functioning, concurrent medical or psychiatric conditions, low levels of education, or nonadherence to therapy at follow-up. The level of functioning during the index episode seems to be a better predictor of recovery than symptom severity. Therefore, the level of functioning should be considered while determining recovery from depression. PMID:29184393

  7. Recovery in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD): results of a 6-month, multinational, observational study.

    PubMed

    Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Vorstenbosch, Ellen; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Dueñas, Héctor; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Not all individuals treated for major depressive disorder (MDD) achieve recovery. This observational study examined the recovery rates in MDD patients and the patient characteristics associated with achieving recovery in a naturalistic clinical setting. Recovery was defined as having both clinical and functional remission. Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 24-week prospective, observational study that involved 1,549 MDD patients. Clinical remission was assessed using the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and functional remission through the Sheehan Disability Scale and no days of reduced productivity in the previous week. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine the baseline factors associated with recovery during follow-up. Clinical and functional remission was achieved in 70.6% and 56.1% of the MDD patients, respectively. MDD patients who achieved recovery (52.1%) were significantly less likely to have impaired levels of functioning, concurrent medical or psychiatric conditions, low levels of education, or nonadherence to therapy at follow-up. The level of functioning during the index episode seems to be a better predictor of recovery than symptom severity. Therefore, the level of functioning should be considered while determining recovery from depression.

  8. Responder and nonresponder patients exhibit different peripheral transcriptional signatures during major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    Belzeaux, R; Bergon, A; Jeanjean, V; Loriod, B; Formisano-Tréziny, C; Verrier, L; Loundou, A; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Boyer, L; Gall, V; Gabert, J; Nguyen, C; Azorin, J-M; Naudin, J; Ibrahim, E C

    2012-01-01

    To date, it remains impossible to guarantee that short-term treatment given to a patient suffering from a major depressive episode (MDE) will improve long-term efficacy. Objective biological measurements and biomarkers that could help in predicting the clinical evolution of MDE are still warranted. To better understand the reason nearly half of MDE patients respond poorly to current antidepressive treatments, we examined the gene expression profile of peripheral blood samples collected from 16 severe MDE patients and 13 matched controls. Using a naturalistic and longitudinal design, we ascertained mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks later. On a genome-wide scale, we detected transcripts with roles in various biological processes as significantly dysregulated between MDE patients and controls, notably those involved in nucleotide binding and chromatin assembly. We also established putative interactions between dysregulated mRNAs and miRNAs that may contribute to MDE physiopathology. We selected a set of mRNA candidates for quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) to validate that the transcriptional signatures observed in responders is different from nonresponders. Furthermore, we identified a combination of four mRNAs (PPT1, TNF, IL1B and HIST1H1E) that could be predictive of treatment response. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of studies investigating the tight relationship between peripheral transcriptional changes and the dynamic clinical progression of MDE patients to provide biomarkers of MDE evolution and prognosis. PMID:23149449

  9. Comparison of automatical thoughts among generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and generalized social phobia patients.

    PubMed

    Gül, A I; Simsek, G; Karaaslan, Ö; Inanir, S

    2015-08-01

    Automatic thoughts are measurable cognitive markers of the psychopathology and coping styles of individuals. This study measured and compared the automatic thoughts of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized social phobia (GSP). Fifty-two patients with GAD, 53 with MDD, and 50 with GSP and 52 healthy controls completed the validated Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) and a structured psychiatric interview. Patients with GAD, MDD, and GSP also completed the validated Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) to determine the severity of their illnesses. All scales were completed before treatment and after diagnosis. The ATQ scores of all pairs of groups were compared. The ATQ scores of the GAD, MDD, and GSP groups were significantly higher than were those of the control group. We also found significant correlations among scores on the GAD-7, BDI, and LSAS. The mean age of patients with GSP was lower than was that of the other groups (30.90 ± 8.35). The significantly higher ATQ scores of the MDD, GAD, and GSP groups, compared with the control group, underscore the common cognitive psychopathology characterizing these three disorders. This finding confirms that similar cognitive therapy approaches should be effective for these patients. This study is the first to compare GAD, MDD, and GSP from a cognitive perspective.

  10. Double-blind study of mirtazapine and placebo in hospitalized patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, H; Leinonen, E

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the present 6-week multicenter dose finding study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine (preferentially presynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor blocker) to placebo in hospitalized patients with major depression. The clinical efficacy was evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Self-Rating Depression Scale, Global Assessment Scale (GAS), and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The side effects were recorded on a checklist of emergent symptoms (ROSE) and physical examinations, ECG, clinical chemistry, and hematology tests were carried out. The dosages of mirtazapine were gradually raised from 15 mg to 50 mg. One hundred and fourteen patients were included. Twenty-two patients (37%) in mirtazapine group and 24 (44%) in the placebo group were prematurely withdrawn from the study mainly due to inadequate efficacy. The decrease in HAM-D and MADRS was generally more pronounced in the mirtazapine group than in the placebo group. Minor side effects were reported in less than 15% of the patients in both groups. Only fatigue and faintness were slightly more pronounced in the mirtazapine group than in the placebo group. No significant changes were found in laboratory parameters. Because of methodological flaws like combining a dose finding study with a placebo controlled study, further conclusions should not be made on the efficacy of mirtazapine when treating depressive patients.

  11. Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Expectation Questionnaire for Thalassaemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koutelekos, Ioannis G.; Kyritsi, Helen; Makis, Alexandros; Vassalos, Constantine M; Ktenas, Eftychios; Polikandrioti, Maria; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa; Chaliasos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, thalassaemia major (TM) patients are surviving into mature young adulthood; however, no published instrument exists to measure the expectations’ dimensionality among older TM patients in their thirties. This study seeks to validate a novel multidimensional expectation questionnaire suitable for TM patients (MEQ-TMP) reaching their fourth decade of life. In order to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument, data analysis was carried out. The principal component analysis revealed four components (‘Supportive social network’; ‘Raising one’s own family’; ‘Career advancement’; ‘Ability of daily activities’). Their cumulative contribution rate was 66.32%. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.87. Each subscale had an alpha value above 0.70; three subscales were in the 0.80 range. MEQ-TMP reliability was proved to be good. The known-group method served as a strategy in examining the operationalisation of the questionnaire’s constructs. The present MEQ-TMP, developed for the aged group of TM patients, would be a useful tool for clinical personnel providing care to TM patients in understanding their outlook on life as they are growing up, to have better psychosocial adjustment to illness chronicity, live life as normally as possible, and fulfill their ambitions; thus enhancing their life satisfaction and quality of life. PMID:26383219

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder increases sensitivity to long term losses among patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan B; Maciuba, Britta; Vaughan, Christopher; Paulus, Martin P; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2013-01-01

    Decisions under risk and with outcomes that are delayed in time are ubiquitous in real life and can have a significant impact on the health and wealth of the decision-maker. Despite its potential relevance for real-world choices, the degree of aberrant risky and intertemporal decision-making in patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little attention to date. We used a case-control design to compare decision-making in healthy control subjects (N=16) versus untreated depressed subjects in a current major depressive episode (N=20). In order to examine how major depressive disorder (MDD) may impact decision-making, subjects made decisions over (1) risky outcomes and (2) delayed outcomes in the domain of gains and losses using choice paradigms from neuroeconomics. In a pre-planned analysis, depressed subjects were subdivided into those with primary PTSD along with comorbid MDD (MDD+PTSD) versus those with primary MDD without PTSD (MDD-only). Choice behavior was modeled via a standard econometric model of intertemporal choice, a quasi-hyperbolic temporal discounting function, which was estimated for each subject group separately. Under conditions of potential gain, depressed subjects demonstrated greater discounting for gains across all time frames compared to controls. In the realm of losses, both subgroups of depressed subjects discounted more steeply than controls for short time frames. However, for delayed losses ranging from >1-10 years, MDD+PTSD subjects showed shallower discounting rates relative to MDD-only subjects, who continued to discount future losses steeply. Risk attitudes did not contribute to differences in intertemporal choice. Depressed patients make choices that minimize current pain and maximize current reward, despite severe later consequences or lost opportunities. Anxiety associated with PTSD may serve as a partially protective factor in decision-making about long

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Increases Sensitivity to Long Term Losses among Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Christopher; Paulus, Martin P.; Dunlop, Boadie W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions under risk and with outcomes that are delayed in time are ubiquitous in real life and can have a significant impact on the health and wealth of the decision-maker. Despite its potential relevance for real-world choices, the degree of aberrant risky and intertemporal decision-making in patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little attention to date. Method We used a case-control design to compare decision-making in healthy control subjects (N=16) versus untreated depressed subjects in a current major depressive episode (N=20). In order to examine how major depressive disorder (MDD) may impact decision-making, subjects made decisions over (1) risky outcomes and (2) delayed outcomes in the domain of gains and losses using choice paradigms from neuroeconomics. In a pre-planned analysis, depressed subjects were subdivided into those with primary PTSD along with comorbid MDD (MDD+PTSD) versus those with primary MDD without PTSD (MDD-only). Choice behavior was modeled via a standard econometric model of intertemporal choice, a quasi-hyperbolic temporal discounting function, which was estimated for each subject group separately. Results Under conditions of potential gain, depressed subjects demonstrated greater discounting for gains across all time frames compared to controls. In the realm of losses, both subgroups of depressed subjects discounted more steeply than controls for short time frames. However, for delayed losses ranging from >1-10 years, MDD+PTSD subjects showed shallower discounting rates relative to MDD-only subjects, who continued to discount future losses steeply. Risk attitudes did not contribute to differences in intertemporal choice. Conclusions Depressed patients make choices that minimize current pain and maximize current reward, despite severe later consequences or lost opportunities. Anxiety associated with PTSD may serve as a partially protective factor in

  14. Adverse life events in elderly patients with major depression or dysthymic disorder and in healthy-control subjects.

    PubMed

    Devanand, D P; Kim, Min Kyung; Paykina, Natalya; Sackeim, Harold A

    2002-01-01

    The authors compared elderly outpatients (> or =60 years) with major depression or dysthymic disorder and healthy-control subjects on the type and subjective impact of adverse life events. The Geriatric Adverse Life Events Scale (GALES) was developed for this purpose. Fifty patients with major depression, 79 patients with dysthymic disorder, and 40 healthy controls completed the GALES. Adverse life events during two time periods were assessed: the year before the evaluation, and the year before onset of the index episode (patients only). During the year before evaluation, patients with major depression reported more life events with greater negative impact, particularly for interpersonal conflicts, and dysthymic patients scored intermediate between patients and controls. Sum scores for perceived stress and negative impact on mood differed significantly among the groups: highest for major depression, intermediate for dysthymic disorder, and lowest for controls. During the year before onset, patients with major depression reported significantly higher sum scores for negative impact on mood than patients with dysthymic disorder. On several measures, patients with major depression perceived greater negative impact of life events than patients with dysthymic disorder and healthy controls, particularly for interpersonal conflicts. The subjective impact of adverse life events may play an important role in the expression of depressive illness in elderly patients, particularly in major depression, and it needs to be considered in clinical management.

  15. Levomilnacipran Extended-Release Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Improvements in Functional Impairment Categories

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl P.; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this post hoc analysis, improvement in functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with levomilnacipran extended release (ER) was evaluated by assessing shifts from more severe to less severe functional impairment categories on individual Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) subscales. Method: SDS data were pooled from 5 phase II/III studies conducted between December 2006 and March 2012 of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in adult patients with MDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria). Proportions of patients shifting from moderate-extreme baseline impairment (score ≥ 4) to mild-no impairment (score ≤ 3) at end of treatment were assessed for each SDS subscale. Proportions of patients shifting from marked-extreme (score ≥ 7) baseline impairment to moderate-no (score ≤ 6) or mild-no impairment (score ≤ 3) at end of treatment, and shifts in which patients worsened from moderate-no to marked-extreme impairment, were also evaluated. Results: A significantly higher proportion of patients treated with levomilnacipran ER than placebo-treated patients improved from more severe categories of functional impairment at baseline to less severe impairment categories across all SDS subscales: work/school, social life, and family life/home responsibilities (P < .01). Depending on the SDS subscale, 48%–55% of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients with moderate-extreme impairment at baseline improved to mild or no impairment, compared with no more than 40% of placebo patients on any subscale. Almost half (42%–47%) of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients versus only about one-third (29%–34%) of placebo patients improved from marked-extreme to mild or no impairment across functional domains. Conclusions: These results suggest that functional improvement was observed across the SDS functional domains. To our knowledge, this is the first such categorical analysis of functional improvement, as measured by the SDS, for an antidepressant. Trial

  16. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hortal, Javier; Muñoz, Patricia; Cuerpo, Gregorio; Litvan, Hector; Rosseel, Peter M; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Patients undergoing major heart surgery (MHS) represent a special subpopulation at risk for nosocomial infections. Postoperative infection is the main non-cardiac complication after MHS and has been clearly related to increased morbidity, use of hospital resources and mortality. Our aim was to determine the incidence, aetiology, risk factors and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients who have undergone MHS in Europe. Our study was a prospective study of patients undergoing MHS in Europe who developed suspicion of VAP. During a one-month period, participating units submitted a protocol of all patients admitted to their units who had undergone MHS. Overall, 25 hospitals in eight different European countries participated in the study. The number of patients intervened for MHS was 986. Fifteen patients were excluded because of protocol violations. One or more nosocomial infections were detected in 43 (4.4%) patients. VAP was the most frequent nosocomial infection (2.1%; 13.9 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation). The microorganisms responsible for VAP in this study were: Enterobacteriaceae (45%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and a range of other microorganisms. We identified the following significant independent risk factors for VAP: ascending aorta surgery (odds ratio (OR) = 6.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69 to 22.89), number of blood units transfused (OR = 1.08 per unit transfused; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.13) and need for re-intervention (OR = 6.65; 95% CI = 2.10 to 21.01). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP than in patients without VAP (23 days versus 2 days). Death was significantly more frequent (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP (35% versus 2.3%). Patients undergoing aortic surgery and those with complicated post-intervention courses, requiring multiple transfusions or re-intervention, constitute a high

  17. Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder from six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ah-Young; Lee, Ah-Rong; Hatim, Ahmad; Tian-Mei, Si; Liu, Chia-Yih; Jeon, Hong Jin; Udomratn, Pichet; Bautista, Dianne; Chan, Edwin; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-13

    East Asian countries have high suicide rates. However, little is known about clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with suicidality in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from six Asian countries. The study cohort consisted of 547 outpatients with MDD. Patients presented to study sites in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Singapore (n = 40), Thailand (n = 103), and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Global Severity Index(SCL-90R), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the 36-item short-form health survey, the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Patients were classified as showing high suicidality if they scored ≥ 6 on the MINI suicidality module. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors related to high suicidality. One hundred and twenty-five patients were classed as high suicidality. Unemployed status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.43, p < 0.01), MADRS score (adjusted OR 1.08), p < 0.001, and GSI (SCL-90R) score (adjusted OR 1.06, p < 0.01) were positively related to high suicidality. Hindu (adjusted OR 0.09, p < 0.05) or Muslim (adjusted OR 0.21, p < 0.001) religion and MSPSS score (adjusted OR 0.82, p < 0.05) were protective against high suicidality. A variety of sociodemographic and clinical factors were associated with high suicidality in Asian patients with MDD. These factors may facilitate the identification of MDD patients at risk of suicide.

  18. Major depressive disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Tu, Hung-Pin; Jiang, He-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Ching-Hua

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We enrolled patients with at least one service claim for ambulatory or inpatient care with a principal diagnosis of MDD and at least two service claims for ambulatory care or one service claim for inpatient care with a principal diagnosis of T2DM, as listed in Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. We enrolled 715,756 people from the general population (GP), 61,589 patients with T2DM but without MDD, and 778 patients with both T2DM and MDD. The prevalence of MDD increased from 0.70% to 1.25% in the patients with T2DM, whereas it increased from 0.25% to 0.67% in the GP from 2000 to 2010. The higher prevalence of MDD was associated with the female sex, residing in the southern regions of Taiwan, and having comorbidities of cerebrovascular disease and anxiety disorder as well as higher comorbidity severity (Charlson comorbidity index, 1-2 and > 2). One limitation is the use of secondary data on diagnoses of MDD and T2DM. Another limitation is that we could not access some crucial related variables. The prevalence of MDD was higher in the patients with T2DM than in the GP. In this study, the prevalence of MDD in the patients with T2DM was lower than that reported in Western countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  20. Deficits of unconscious emotional processing in patients with major depression: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; He, Zhenhong; Chen, Yuming; Wei, Zhaoguo

    2016-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with behavioral and neurobiological evidences of negative bias in unconscious emotional processing. However, little is known about the time course of this deficit. The current study aimed to explore the unconscious processing of emotional facial expressions in MDD patients by means of event-related potentials (ERPs). The ERP responses to subliminally presented happy/neutral/sad faces were recorded in 26 medication-free patients and 26 healthy controls in a backward masking task. Three ERP components were compared between patients and controls. Detection accuracy was at chance level for both groups, suggesting that the process was performed in the absence of conscious awareness of the emotional stimuli. Robust emotion×group interactions were observed in P1, N170 and P3. Compared with the neutral faces, 1) the patients showed larger P1 for sad and smaller P1 for happy faces; however, the controls showed a completely inverse P1 pattern; 2) the controls exhibited larger N170 in the happy but not in the sad trials, whereas patients had comparable larger N170 amplitudes in sad and happy trials; 3) although both groups exhibited larger P3 for emotional faces, the patients showed a priority for sad trials while the controls showed a priority for happy trials. Our data suggested that negative processing bias exists on the unconscious level in individuals with MDD. The ERP measures indicated that the unconscious emotional processing in MDD patients has a time course of three-stage deflection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Outcomes after major surgery in patients with myasthenia gravis: A nationwide matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Hung, Chih-Jen; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To validate the comprehensive features of adverse outcomes after surgery for patients with myasthenia gravis. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we analyzed 2290 patients who received major surgery between 2004 and 2010 and were diagnosed with myasthenia gravis preoperatively. Surgical patients without myasthenia gravis (n = 22,900) were randomly selected by matching procedure with propensity score for comparison. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of postoperative adverse events associated with preoperative myasthenia gravis were calculated under the multiple logistic regressions. Results Compared with surgical patients without myasthenia gravis, surgical patients with myasthenia gravis had higher risks of postoperative pneumonia (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.65–2.65), septicemia (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05–1.64), postoperative bleeding (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.07–2.72), and overall complications (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.44–2.00). The ORs of postoperative adverse events for patients with myasthenia gravis who had symptomatic therapy, chronic immunotherapy, and short-term immunotherapy were 1.76 (95% CI 1.50–2.08), 1.70 (95% CI 1.36–2.11), and 4.36 (95% CI 2.11–9.04), respectively. Conclusions Patients with myasthenia gravis had increased risks of postoperative adverse events, particularly those experiencing emergency care, hospitalization, and thymectomy for care of myasthenia gravis. Our findings suggest the urgency of revising protocols for perioperative care for these populations. PMID:28666024

  2. Measurement of liver function using hepatobiliary scintigraphy improves risk assessment in patients undergoing major liver resection.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Kasia P; Bennink, Roelof J; de Graaf, Wilmar; van Lienden, Krijn P; Besselink, Marc G; Busch, Olivier R C; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2016-09-01

    (99m)Tc-mebrofenin-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy (HBS) enables measurement of future remnant liver (FRL)-function and was implemented in our preoperative routine after calculation of the cut-off value for prediction of postoperative liver failure (LF). This study evaluates our results since the implementation of HBS. Additionally, CT-volumetric methods of FRL-assessment, standardized liver volumetry and FRL/body-weight ratio (FRL-BWR), were evaluated. 163 patients who underwent major liver resection were included. Insufficient FRL-volume and/or FRL-function <2.7%/min/m(2) were indications for portal vein embolization (PVE). Non-PVE patients were compared with a historical cohort (n = 55). Primary endpoints were postoperative LF and LF related mortality. Secondary endpoint was preoperative identification of patients at risk for LF using the CT-volumetric methods. 29/163 patients underwent PVE; 8/29 patients because of insufficient FRL-function despite sufficient FRL-volume. According to FRL-BWR and standardized liver volumetry, 16/29 and 11/29 patients, respectively, would not have undergone PVE. LF and LF related mortality were significantly reduced compared to the historical cohort. HBS appeared superior in the identification of patients with increased surgical risk compared to the CT-volumetric methods. Implementation of HBS in the preoperative work-up led to a function oriented use of PVE and was associated with a significant decrease in postoperative LF and LF related mortality. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mismatch negativity of sad syllables is absent in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaomei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Tang, Di; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs). This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.

  4. Clinical and sociodemographic correlates of suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder from six Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background East Asian countries have high suicide rates. However, little is known about clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with suicidality in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with suicidality in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from six Asian countries. Methods The study cohort consisted of 547 outpatients with MDD. Patients presented to study sites in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Singapore (n = 40), Thailand (n = 103), and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Global Severity Index(SCL-90R), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the 36-item short-form health survey, the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Patients were classified as showing high suicidality if they scored ≥6 on the MINI suicidality module. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors related to high suicidality. Results One hundred and twenty-five patients were classed as high suicidality. Unemployed status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.43, p < 0.01), MADRS score (adjusted OR 1.08), p < 0.001, and GSI (SCL-90R) score (adjusted OR 1.06, p < 0.01) were positively related to high suicidality. Hindu (adjusted OR 0.09, p < 0.05) or Muslim (adjusted OR 0.21, p < 0.001) religion and MSPSS score (adjusted OR 0.82, p < 0.05) were protective against high suicidality. Conclusions A variety of sociodemographic and clinical factors were associated with high suicidality in Asian patients with MDD. These factors may facilitate the identification of MDD patients at risk of suicide. PMID:24524225

  5. Predictors of major complications after elective abdominal surgery in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Simões, Claudia M; Carmona, Maria J C; Hajjar, Ludhmila A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Landoni, Giovanni; Belletti, Alessandro; Vieira, Joaquim E; de Almeida, Juliano P; de Almeida, Elisangela P; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Kauling, Ana L; Tutyia, Celso; Tamaoki, Lie; Fukushima, Julia T; Auler, José O C

    2018-05-09

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery for solid tumours frequently develop major postoperative complications, which negatively affect quality of life, costs of care and survival. Few studies have identified the determinants of perioperative complications in this group. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (age > 18) undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer at a single institution between June 2011 and August 2013. Patients undergoing emergency surgery, palliative procedures, or participating in other studies were excluded. Primary outcome was a composite of 30-day all-cause mortality and infectious, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, renal and surgical complications. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for major perioperative adverse events. Of a total 308 included patients, 106 (34.4%) developed a major complication during the 30-day follow-up period. Independent predictors of postoperative major complications were: age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06], p = 0.012 per year), ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status greater than or equal to 3 (OR 2.61 [95% CI 1.33-5.17], p = 0.003), a preoperative haemoglobin level lower than 12 g/dL (OR 2.13 [95% CI 1.21-4.07], p = 0.014), intraoperative use of colloids (OR 1.89, [95% CI 1.03-4.07], p = 0.047), total amount of intravenous fluids (OR 1.22 [95% CI 0.98-1.59], p = 0.106 per litre), intraoperative blood losses greater than 500 mL (2.07 [95% CI 1.00-4.31], p = 0.043), and hypotension needing vasopressor support (OR 4.68 [95% CI 1.55-27.72], p = 0.004). The model had good discrimination with the area under the ROC curve being 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.84, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that a perioperative strategy aimed at reducing perioperative complications in cancer surgery should include treatment of preoperative anaemia and an optimal fluid strategy

  6. Mood disorders. Effective management of major depressive disorder in the geriatric patient.

    PubMed

    Evers, Martin M; Marin, Deborah B

    2002-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly called depression, is characterized by a collection of psychologic, somatic, physical, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms that interfere with or prevent the execution of normal daily responsibilities and activities (e.g., work, exercise, hobbies, intellectual pursuits). Older persons with MDD are likely to present with weight loss and suicidal ideation or a preoccupation with death. Also common is irritability, anxiety, a change in functional ability, or some combination of these. Pharmacotherapy is an effective intervention for management of MDD symptoms. It can be used in combination with psychotherapy, or as monotherapy in patients who do not respond to psychotherapy and other nondrug interventions.

  7. Association of aspirin use with major bleeding in patients with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Giorgia; Lucisano, Giuseppe; D'Ettorre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Fabio; Lepore, Vito; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2012-06-06

    The benefit of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events is relatively small for individuals with and without diabetes. This benefit could easily be offset by the risk of hemorrhage. To determine the incidence of major gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding episodes in individuals with and without diabetes taking aspirin. A population-based cohort study, using administrative data from 4.1 million citizens in 12 local health authorities in Puglia, Italy. Individuals with new prescriptions for low-dose aspirin (≤300 mg) were identified during the index period from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2008, and were propensity-matched on a 1-to-1 basis with individuals who did not take aspirin during this period. Hospitalizations for major gastrointestinal bleeding or cerebral hemorrhage occurring after the initiation of antiplatelet therapy. There were 186,425 individuals being treated with low-dose aspirin and 186,425 matched controls without aspirin use. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, the overall incidence rate of hemorrhagic events was 5.58 (95% CI, 5.39-5.77) per 1000 person-years for aspirin users and 3.60 (95% CI, 3.48-3.72) per 1000 person-years for those without aspirin use (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.48-1.63). The use of aspirin was associated with a greater risk of major bleeding in most of the subgroups investigated but not in individuals with diabetes (IRR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.97-1.22). Irrespective of aspirin use, diabetes was independently associated with an increased risk of major bleeding episodes (IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.28-1.44). In a population-based cohort, aspirin use was significantly associated with an increased risk of major gastrointestinal or cerebral bleeding episodes. Patients with diabetes had a high rate of bleeding that was not independently associated with aspirin use.

  8. The correlates of stigma toward mental illness among Jordanian patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmad; Mahroum, Maryam Husnee; Khasawneh, Aws

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to assess the correlates of stigma toward mental illness among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). One hundred and sixty one Jordanian outpatients suffering from MDD completed the study. Participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies for the intensity of depression, and the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale to assess stigma. Participants reported a moderate level of perceived stigma toward mental illness. Age, perceived pain, the number of relapses, and severity of depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with stigma toward mental illness among the study sample. The severity of depressive symptoms was the strongest correlate of stigma toward mental illness. Factors associated with stigma toward mental illness should be carefully considered when implementing anti-stigma programs for patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Changes in heart rate variability during TOVA testing in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tsu-Wang; Liu, Fang-Chih; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify major depressive disorder (MDD) based on heart rate variability (HRV) during tests of variables of attention (TOVA). Forty-five MDD patients without cardiovascular disease and 45 controls matched by age and gender participated in this study. Compared to the controls, the MDD group had lower resting HRV parameters, more omissions and variability and longer response times on TOVA, and failure of attention employment to decrease HRV. The resting HRV parameters may provide easily measured, clinically useful ways to identify patients with MDD and to monitor their progress in treatment. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Incidence and Risk Factors for Major Hematomas in Aesthetic Surgery: Analysis of 129,007 Patients.

    PubMed

    Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Winocour, Julian; Gupta, Varun; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Sarosiek, Konrad; Wormer, Blair; Tokin, Christopher; Grotting, James C; Higdon, K Kye

    2017-10-16

    Postoperative hematomas are one of the most frequent complications following aesthetic surgery. Identifying risk factors for hematoma has been limited by underpowered studies from single institution experiences. To examine the incidence and identify independent risk factors for postoperative hematomas following cosmetic surgery utilizing a prospective, multicenter database. A prospectively enrolled cohort of patients who underwent aesthetic surgery between 2008 and 2013 was identified from the CosmetAssure database. Primary outcome was occurrence of major hematomas requiring emergency room visit, hospital admission, or reoperation within 30 days of the index operation. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify potential risk factors for hematomas including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, type of surgical facility, procedure by body region, and combined procedures. Of 129,007 patients, 1180 (0.91%) had a major hematoma. Mean age (42.0 ± 13.0 years vs 40.9 ± 13.9 years, P < 0.01) and BMI (24.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2 vs 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2, P < 0.01) were higher in patients with hematomas. Males suffered more hematomas than females (1.4% vs 0.9%, P < 0.01). Hematoma rates were higher in patients undergoing combined procedures compared to single procedures (1.1% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), and breast procedures compared to body/extremity or face procedures (1.0% vs 0.8% vs 0.7%, P < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of hematoma included age (Relative Risk [RR] 1.01), male gender (RR 1.98), the procedure being performed in a hospital setting rather than an office-based setting (RR 1.68), combined procedures (RR 1.35), and breast procedures rather than the body/extremity and face procedures (RR 1.81). Major hematoma is the most common complication following aesthetic surgery. Male patients and those undergoing breast or combined procedures have a significantly higher risk of developing hematomas. 2. © 2017 The American Society

  11. Long-term outcome of major depressive disorder in psychiatric patients is variable.

    PubMed

    Holma, K Mikael; Holma, Irina A K; Melartin, Tarja K; Rytsälä, Heikki J; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2008-02-01

    The prevailing view of outcome of major depressive disorder (MDD), based on mostly inpatient cohorts sampled from tertiary centers, emphasizes chronicity and frequent recurrences. We investigated the long-term outcome of a regionally representative psychiatric MDD cohort comprising mainly outpatients. The Vantaa Depression Study included 163 patients with DSM-IV MDD (71.5% of those eligible) diagnosed using structured and semistructured interviews and followed up at 6 months, 18 months, and 5 years with a life chart between February 1, 1997, and April 30, 2004. The effects of comorbid disorders and other predictors on outcome were comprehensively investigated. Over the 5-year follow-up, 98.8% of patients achieved a symptom state below major depressive episode (MDE) criteria, and 88.4% reached full remission, with the median time to full remission being 11.0 months. Nearly one third (29.3%) had no recurrences, whereas 30.0% experienced 1, 12.9% experienced 2, and 27.9% experienced 3 or more recurrences. Preceding dysthymic disorder (p = .028), cluster C personality disorder (p = .041), and longer MDE duration prior to entry (p = .011) were the most significant predictors of longer time in achieving full remission. Severity of MDD and comorbidity, especially social phobia, predicted probability of, shorter time to, and number of recurrences. Previous literature on mostly inpatient MDD may have, by generalizing from patients with the most severe psychopathology, overemphasized chronicity of MDD. The long-term outcome of MDD in psychiatric care is variable, with about one tenth of patients having poor, one third having intermediate, and one half having favorable outcomes. In addition to known predictors, cluster C personality disorders and social phobia warrant further attention as predictors of MDD outcome among outpatients.

  12. Depression and smoking: a 5-year prospective study of patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Holma, Irina A K; Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Ketokivi, Mikko; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and smoking are major public health problems and epidemiologically strongly associated. However, the relationship between smoking and depression and whether this is influenced by common confounding factors remain unclear, in part due to limited longitudinal data on covariation. In the Vantaa Depression Study, psychiatric out- and inpatients with DSM-IV MDD and aged 20-59 years at were followed from baseline to 6 months, 18 months, and 5 years. We investigated course of depression, smoking, and comorbid alcohol-use disorders among the 214 patients (79.6% of 269) participating at least three time points; differences between smoking versus nonsmoking patients, and covariation of MDD, smoking, and alcohol-use disorders. Overall, 31.3% of the patients smoked regularly, 41.1% intermittently, and 27.6% never. Smokers were younger, had more alcohol-use disorders and Cluster B and C personality disorder symptoms, a higher frequency of lifetime suicide attempts, higher neuroticism, smaller social networks, and lower perceived social support than never smokers. Smoking and depression had limited longitudinal covariation. Depression, smoking, and alcohol-use disorders all exhibited strong autoregressive tendencies. Among adult psychiatric MDD patients, smoking is strongly associated with substance-use and personality disorders, which may confound research on the impact of smoking. Rather than depression or smoking covarying or predicting each other, depression, smoking, and alcohol-use disorders each have strong autoregressive tendencies. These findings are more consistent with common factors causing their association than either of the conditions strongly predisposing to the other. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Health-related quality of life and symptom severity in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Wen; Shen, Jingjin; Malison, Robert T; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-12-01

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to have substantial long-lasting limitations in multiple domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The thoughtful assessment of HRQoL and the impact of treatment response on HRQoL are emerging as important issues in the care of patients with major depressive disorder. One hundred and three patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for MDD took fluoxetine (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks and were assessed by the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating (HAMD-17) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales. Relationships between SF-36 scores and depressive symptom severity and early change of these symptoms were tested. SF-36 component scores at week 6 were higher than those at baseline (all P ≤ 0.0058). Scores for general health were significantly higher in responders than non-responders (P = 0.0009). The overall HAMD-17 and CGI scores at 2- and 6-week follow-up were significantly lower than those at baseline (P ≤ 0.0001). Higher scores for anxiety/somatization were significantly associated with poorer SF-36 scores at baseline (P = 0.0001); role-physical scores at week 6 were positively correlated with reduction rate of anxiety/somatization in 2-week follow-up (P = 0.0002). Depressive symptom severity was associated with HRQoL in patients with MDD. HRQoL may vary with severity of depression and/or anxiety-somatization at baseline. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of EEGs of patients with major depression during different emotional states.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Akar, Saime; Kara, Sadık; Agambayev, Sümeyra; Bilgiç, Vedat

    2015-12-01

    Although patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have dysfunctions in cognitive behaviors and the regulation of emotions, the underlying brain dynamics of the pathophysiology are unclear. Therefore, nonlinear techniques can be used to understand the dynamic behavior of the EEG signals of MDD patients. To investigate and clarify the dynamics of MDD patients׳ brains during different emotional states, EEG recordings were analyzed using nonlinear techniques. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether there are different EEG complexities that discriminate between MDD patients and healthy controls during emotional processing. Therefore, nonlinear parameters, such as Katz fractal dimension (KFD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Shannon entropy (ShEn), Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) and Kolmogorov complexity (KC), were computed from the EEG signals of two groups under different experimental states: noise (negative emotional content) and music (positive emotional content) periods. First, higher complexity values were generated by MDD patients relative to controls. Significant differences were obtained in the frontal and parietal scalp locations using KFD (p<0.001), HFD (p<0.05), and LZC (p=0.05). Second, lower complexities were observed only in the controls when they were subjected to music compared to the resting baseline state in the frontal (p<0.05) and parietal (p=0.005) regions. In contrast, the LZC and KFD values of patients increased in the music period compared to the resting state in the frontal region (p<0.05). Third, the patients׳ brains had higher complexities when they were exposed to noise stimulus than did the controls׳ brains. Moreover, MDD patients׳ negative emotional bias was demonstrated by their higher brain complexities during the noise period than the music stimulus. Additionally, we found that the KFD, HFD and LZC values were more sensitive in discriminating between patients and controls than the ShEn and KC measures, according to

  15. Abnormal baseline brain activity in suicidal and non-suicidal patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Dong, Jie

    2013-02-08

    Previous studies have shown that suicide attempts are strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), and MDD patients who attempt suicide have a high risk of death by suicide throughout their lifetimes. We aimed to explore the differences in resting-state brain activity in MDD patients with and without histories of suicide attempt. We accomplished this using an approach named amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). ALFF reflects the local properties of specific brain regions and provides direct information about impaired regions. This approach differs from functional connectivity. In this study, we compared three groups: MDD patients with and without histories of suicide attempt, and normal controls (NC). The main result is that suicide attempters had increased ALFF in the right superior temporal gyrus (r-STG) relative to both non-suicidal patients (NSU) and NC. In addition, NSU had increased ALFF in the right ventral medial frontal gyrus (r-vMFG) relative to both suicide attempters (SU) and NC. Finally, both NSU and SU had increased ALFF in the left anterior cingulated cortex (l-ACC) and right parahippocampal gyrus (r-PG) and decreased ALFF in the left middle occipital gyrus (l-MOG) and left angular gyrus (l-AG) relative to NC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance monitoring and empathy during active and observational learning in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Previous literature established a link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and altered reward processing as well as between empathy and (observational) reward learning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of MDD on the electrophysiological correlates - the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 - of active and observational reward processing and to relate them to trait cognitive and affective empathy. Eighteen patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-learning task while event- related potentials were recorded. Also, participants were assessed with regard to self-reported cognitive and affective trait empathy. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed overall impaired learning and attenuated FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback valence and learning type (active vs. observational), but comparable P300 amplitudes. In the patient group, but not in controls, higher trait perspective taking scores were significantly correlated with reduced FRN amplitudes. The pattern of results suggests impaired prediction error processing and a negative effect of higher trait empathy on feedback-based learning in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nice or effective? Social problem solving strategies in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Schmidt, Tobias; Juckel, Georg; Norra, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2015-08-30

    Our study addressed distinct aspects of social problem solving in 28 hospitalized patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 28 matched healthy controls. Three scenario-based tests assessed the ability to infer the mental states of story characters in difficult interpersonal situations, the capacity to freely generate good strategies for dealing with such situations and the ability to identify the best solutions among less optimal alternatives. Also, standard tests assessing attention, memory, executive function and trait empathy were administered. Compared to controls, MDD patients showed impaired interpretation of other peoples' sarcastic remarks but not of the mental states underlying other peoples' actions. Furthermore, MDD patients generated fewer strategies that were socially sensitive and practically effective at the same time or at least only socially sensitive. Overall, while the free generation of adequate strategies for difficult social situations was impaired, recognition of optimal solutions among alternatives was spared in MDD patients. Higher generation scores were associated with higher trait empathy and cognitive flexibility scores. We suggest that this specific pattern of impairments ought to be considered in the development of therapies addressing impaired social skills in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035

  19. Electrical stimulation of acupoint combinations against deep venous thrombosis in elderly bedridden patients after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lili; Chen, Cuiping; Xu, Lei; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effects of electrical stimulation of different acupoint combinations among postoperative bedridden elderly patients on hemorheology and deep venous blood flow velocity and investigate the.role of electrical stimulation against deep vein thrombosis (DVT). From November 2010 to October 2011, a total of 160 elderly bedridden patients after major surgery were divided into the conventional care group, invigorating and promoting Qi group, blood-activating and damp-eliminating group, and acupoint-combination stimulation group. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, D-dimer levels, lower limb skin temperature, lower limb circumference, and flow velocities of the external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein, and deep calf veins in all patients were documented and compared among the four groups. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, D-dimer levels, and lower limb circumference were significantly reduced in the blood-activating and damp-eliminating group compared with the conventional care group (P < 0.05) and were almost equal to those in the acupoint-combination stimulation group (P > 0.05). Lower limb venous flow velocities were accelerated in the invigorating and promoting Qi group compared with the other groups, excluding the acupoint-combination stimulation group (P < 0.05). Hemorheological indices in postoperative bedridden elderly patients were improved after combined electrical stimulation at Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). Combined electrical stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) and Taichong (LR 3), on the other hand, accelerated lower limb venous flow.

  20. Auditory evoked potentials in patients with major depressive disorder measured by Emotiv system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongcui; Mo, Fongming; Zhang, Yangde; Yang, Chao; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zhencheng; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study (unpublished), Emotiv headset was validated for capturing event-related potentials (ERPs) from normal subjects. In the present follow-up study, the signal quality of Emotiv headset was tested by the accuracy rate of discriminating Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients from the normal subjects. ERPs of 22 MDD patients and 15 normal subjects were induced by an auditory oddball task and the amplitude of N1, N2 and P3 of ERP components were specifically analyzed. The features of ERPs were statistically investigated. It is found that Emotiv headset is capable of discriminating the abnormal N1, N2 and P3 components in MDD patients. Relief-F algorithm was applied to all features for feature selection. The selected features were then input to a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with leave-one-out cross-validation to characterize the ERP features of MDD. 127 possible combinations out of the selected 7 ERP features were classified using LDA. The best classification accuracy was achieved to be 89.66%. These results suggest that MDD patients are identifiable from normal subjects by ERPs measured by Emotiv headset.

  1. Evaluating the complexity of online patient education materials about brain aneurysms published by major academic institutions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Adeeb, Nimer; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Moore, Justin M; Patel, Apar S; Kim, Christopher; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Health care education resources are increasingly available on the Internet. A majority of people reference these resources at one point or another. A threshold literacy level is needed to comprehend the information presented within these materials. A key component of health literacy is the readability of educational resources. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association have recommended that patient education materials be written between a 4th- and a 6th-grade education level. The authors assessed the readability of online patient education materials about brain aneurysms that have been published by several academic institutions across the US. METHODS Online patient education materials about brain aneurysms were downloaded from the websites of 20 academic institutions. The materials were assessed via 8 readability scales using Readability Studio software (Oleander Software Solutions), and then were statistically analyzed. RESULTS None of the patient education materials were written at or below the NIH's recommended 6th-grade reading level. The average educational level required to comprehend the texts across all institutions, as assessed by 7 of the readability scales, was 12.4 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD). The Flesch Reading Ease Scale classified the materials as "difficult" to understand, correlating with a college-level education or higher. An ANOVA test found that there were no significant differences in readability among the materials from the institutions (p = 0.215). CONCLUSIONS Brain aneurysms affect 3.2% of adults 50 years or older across the world and can cause significant patient anxiety and uncertainty. Current patient education materials are not written at or below the NIH's recommended 4th- to 6th-grade education level.

  2. Indicators of patients with major depressive disorder in need of highly specialized care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kaddouri, Meriam; Goorden, Maartje; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Peeters, Frenk P. M. L.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that cannot be managed by secondary mental health services and who require highly specialized mental healthcare could enhance need-based patient stratification. This, in turn, may reduce the number of treatment steps needed to achieve and sustain an adequate treatment response. The development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly specialized care is hampered by the lack of a comprehensive understanding of indicators that distinguish patients with and without a need for highly specialized MDD care. The aim of this study, therefore, was to systematically review studies on indicators of patients with MDD likely in need of highly specialized care. Methods A structured literature search was performed on the PubMed and PsycINFO databases following PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and determined the quality of the identified studies. Three reviewers independently executed data extraction by using a pre-piloted, standardized extraction form. The resulting indicators were grouped by topical similarity, creating a concise summary of the findings. Results The systematic search of all databases yielded a total of 7,360 references, of which sixteen were eligible for inclusion. The sixteen papers yielded a total of 48 unique indicators. Overall, a more pronounced depression severity, a younger age of onset, a history of prior poor treatment response, psychiatric comorbidity, somatic comorbidity, childhood trauma, psychosocial impairment, older age, and a socioeconomically disadvantaged status were found to be associated with proxies of need for highly specialized MDD care. Conclusions Several indicators are associated with the need for highly specialized MDD care. These indicators provide easily measurable factors that may serve as a starting point for the development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly

  3. MRI guided iron assessment and oral chelator use improve iron status in thalassemia major patients

    PubMed Central

    Nichols-Vinueza, Diana X.; White, Matthew T.; Powell, Andrew J.; Banka, Puja; Neufeld, Ellis J.

    2017-01-01

    Oral iron chelators and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of heart and liver iron burden have become widely available since the mid 2000s, allowing for improved patient compliance with chelation and noninvasive monitoring of iron levels for titration of therapy. We evaluated the impact of these changes in our center for patients with thalassemia major and transfusional iron overload. This single center, retrospective observational study covered the period from 2005 through 2012. Liver iron content (LIC) was estimated both by a T2* method and by R2 (Ferriscan®) technique. Cardiac iron was assessed as cT2*. Forty-two patients (55% male) with transfused thalassemia and at least two MRIs were included (median age at first MRI, 17.5 y). Over a mean follow-up period of 5.2 ± 1.9 y, 190 MRIs were performed (median 4.5 per patient). Comparing baseline to last MRI, 63% of patients remained within target ranges for cT2* and LIC, and 13% improved from high values to the target range. Both the median LIC and cT2* (cR2* = 1000/cT2*) status improved over time: LIC 7.3 to 4.5 mg/g dry weight, P = 0.0004; cR2* 33.4 to 28.3 Hz, P = 0.01. Individual responses varied widely. Two patients died of heart failure during the study period. Annual MRI iron assessments and availability of oral chelators both facilitate changes in chelation dose and strategies to optimize care. PMID:24652616

  4. Alterations of the serum N-glycan profile in female patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Christina; Pfister, Sophia; Bürkle, Alexander; Vanhooren, Valerie; Libert, Claude; Salinas-Manrique, Juan; Dietrich, Detlef E; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Karabatsiakis, Alexander

    2018-07-01

    Glycans are short chains of saccharides linked to glycoproteins that are known to be involved in a wide range of inflammatory processes. As depression has been consistently associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, we asked whether patients with Major Depressive Disorder show alterations in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins that might be linked to associated changes in inflammatory processes. In a study cohort of 21 female patients with an acute depressive episode and 21 non-depressed female control subjects aged between 50 and 69 years, we analyzed the serum N-glycan profile by DNA Sequencer Adapted-Fluorophore Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) and assessed the serum levels of interleukin (IL)- 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) by chemiluminescence immunoassays and nephelometry. Compared to controls, MDD patients showed significant differences in the serum levels of several N-glycan structures. Alterations in the serum N-glycan profile were associated with depressive symptom severity and exploratory analyses revealed that they were most pronounced in MDD patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Furthermore, MDD patients showed higher levels of IL-6 and a trend for higher CRP levels, which were also associated with similar alterations in the serum N-glycan profile as those characteristic for MDD patients. The relatively small sample size and the presence of potential confounders (e.g., BMI, smoking, medication). The results offer the first evidence that specific differences in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins constitute a so far unrecognized level of biological alterations that might be involved in the immune changes associated with MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of life and functioning of Hispanic patients with Major Depressive Disorder before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Manier, Karra; Shapiro, Bryan B; Vanle, Brigitte; Parisi, Thomas; Dang, Jonathan; Chang, Tiffany; Ganjian, Shaina; Mirocha, James; Danovitch, Itai; IsHak, Waguih William

    2018-01-01

    Similar rates of remission from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been documented between ethnic groups in response to antidepressant treatment. However, ethnic differences in functional outcomes, including patient-reported quality of life (QOL) and functioning, have not been well-characterized. We compared symptomatic and functional outcomes of antidepressant treatment in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with MDD. We analyzed 2280 nonpsychotic treatment-seeking adults with MDD who received citalopram monotherapy in Level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study. All subjects (239 Hispanic, 2041 non-Hispanic) completed QOL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity measures at entry and exit. Hispanic participants had significantly worse QOL scores at entry and exit (p < 0.01). However, after controlling for baseline QOL, there was no difference between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients' QOL at exit (p = 0.21). There were no significant between-group differences at entry or at exit for depressive symptom severity or functioning. Both groups had significant improvements in depressive symptom severity, QOL, and functioning from entry to exit (all p values < 0.01). Patients with private insurance had lower depressive symptom severity, greater QOL, and better functioning at exit compared to patients without private insurance. This study was a retrospective data analysis, and the Hispanic group was relatively small compared to the non-Hispanic group. Hispanic and non-Hispanic participants with MDD had similar responses to antidepressant treatment as measured by depressive symptom severity scores, quality of life, and functioning. Nevertheless, Hispanic patients reported significantly worse quality of life at entry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Proteinuria in β-Thalassemia Major Patients With and Without Diabetes Mellitus Taking Deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehran; Avazpour, Abbas; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Toosi, Foroogh; Badie, Arash

    2017-01-01

    β-thalassemia is the most common heredity disease in Iran. Regular blood transfusion is critical to sustain life and normal growth. Deferasirox is an oral chelator. One of the side effects of the deferasirox is proteinuria. This study aimed to investigate the safety of deferasirox on kidney function in diabetic and nondiabetic β-thalassemia major patients. In this cross-sectional study, 34 diabetic and 36 nondiabetic patients who take deferasirox (Exjade) 20 to 40 mg/kg/d were studied. Exclusion criteria included patient with renal failure, proteinuria, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and the patients who refused to continue the study to the end. Subjects were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio, urinary analysis, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatinine, fasting blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, and serum ferritin were checked every 3 months. Patients were followed for a period of 1 year. In the ninth month after therapy there was a significant relationship in mean change of spot urine protein/creatinine ratio between diabetic and nondiabetic (P=0.011). Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio in diabetic and nondiabetic group was 0.19±0.18 and 0.1±0.05, respectively, which showed no significant relationship between the 2 groups at the end of study (P=0.162). The results of our study showed that consumption of deferasirox is safe, as there was no significant relationship between spot urine protein/creatinine ratio in diabetic and nondiabetic group. Deferasirox consumption is not associated with increased proteinuria in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic group having only a transient proteinuria.

  7. Possible association of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut microbiota of patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Emiko; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Asahara, Takashi; Takahashi, Takuya; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yoshida, Sumiko; Ota, Miho; Koga, Norie; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-09-15

    Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut have been suggested to have a beneficial effect on stress response and depressive disorder. We examined whether these bacterial counts are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) than in healthy controls. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus counts in fecal samples were estimated in 43 patients and 57 controls using bacterial rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction The patients had significantly lower Bifidobacterium counts (P=0.012) and tended to have lower Lactobacillus counts (P=0.067) than the controls. Individuals whose bacterial counts below the optimal cut-off point (9.53 and 6.49log10 cells/g for Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, respectively) were significantly more common in the patients than in the controls for both bacteria (Bifidobacterium: odds ratio 3.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-7.54, P=0.010; Lactobacillus: 2.57, 95% CI 1.14-5.78, P=0.027). Using the same cut-off points, we observed an association between the bacterial counts and Irritable bowel syndrome. Frequency of fermented milk consumption was associated with higher Bifidobacterium counts in the patients. The findings should be interpreted with caution since effects of gender and diet were not fully taken into account in the analysis. Our results provide direct evidence, for the first time, that individuals with lower Bifidobacterium and/or Lactobacillus counts are more common in patients with MDD compared to controls. Our findings provide new insight into the pathophysiology of MDD and will enhance future research on the use of pro- and prebiotics in the treatment of MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Indicators of patients with major depressive disorder in need of highly specialized care: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Krugten, Frédérique C W; Kaddouri, Meriam; Goorden, Maartje; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bockting, Claudi L H; Peeters, Frenk P M L; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that cannot be managed by secondary mental health services and who require highly specialized mental healthcare could enhance need-based patient stratification. This, in turn, may reduce the number of treatment steps needed to achieve and sustain an adequate treatment response. The development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly specialized care is hampered by the lack of a comprehensive understanding of indicators that distinguish patients with and without a need for highly specialized MDD care. The aim of this study, therefore, was to systematically review studies on indicators of patients with MDD likely in need of highly specialized care. A structured literature search was performed on the PubMed and PsycINFO databases following PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and determined the quality of the identified studies. Three reviewers independently executed data extraction by using a pre-piloted, standardized extraction form. The resulting indicators were grouped by topical similarity, creating a concise summary of the findings. The systematic search of all databases yielded a total of 7,360 references, of which sixteen were eligible for inclusion. The sixteen papers yielded a total of 48 unique indicators. Overall, a more pronounced depression severity, a younger age of onset, a history of prior poor treatment response, psychiatric comorbidity, somatic comorbidity, childhood trauma, psychosocial impairment, older age, and a socioeconomically disadvantaged status were found to be associated with proxies of need for highly specialized MDD care. Several indicators are associated with the need for highly specialized MDD care. These indicators provide easily measurable factors that may serve as a starting point for the development of a valid tool to identify patients with MDD in need of highly specialized care.

  9. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  10. Dynamic functional connectivity reveals altered variability in functional connectivity among patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Demirtaş, Murat; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Pujol, Jesús; Menchón, José M; Ritter, Petra; Cardoner, Narcis; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has become a useful tool to investigate the connectivity structure of mental health disorders. In the case of major depressive disorder (MDD), recent studies regarding the RS-fMRI have found abnormal connectivity in several regions of the brain, particularly in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, the relevance of the DMN to self-referential thoughts and ruminations has made the use of the resting-state approach particularly important for MDD. The majority of such research has relied on the grand averaged functional connectivity measures based on the temporal correlations between the BOLD time series of various brain regions. We, in our study, investigated the variations in the functional connectivity over time at global and local level using RS-fMRI BOLD time series of 27 MDD patients and 27 healthy control subjects. We found that global synchronization and temporal stability were significantly increased in the MDD patients. Furthermore, the participants with MDD showed significantly increased overall average (static) functional connectivity (sFC) but decreased variability of functional connectivity (vFC) within specific networks. Static FC increased to predominance among the regions pertaining to the default mode network (DMN), while the decreased variability of FC was observed in the connections between the DMN and the frontoparietal network. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2918-2930, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Right ventricular volumes and function in thalassemia major patients in the absence of myocardial iron overload

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aim We aimed to define reference ranges for right ventricular (RV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF) in thalassemia major patients (TM) without myocardial iron overload. Methods and results RV volumes, EF and mass were measured in 80 TM patients who had no myocardial iron overload (myocardial T2* > 20 ms by cardiovascular magnetic resonance). All patients were receiving deferoxamine chelation and none had evidence of pulmonary hypertension or other cardiovascular comorbidity. Forty age and sex matched healthy non-anemic volunteers acted as controls. The mean RV EF was higher in TM patients than controls (males 66.2 ± 4.1% vs 61.6 ± 6%, p = 0.0009; females 66.3 ± 5.1% vs 62.6 ± 6.4%, p = 0.017), which yielded a raised lower threshold of normality for RV EF in TM patients (males 58.0% vs 50.0% and females 56.4% vs 50.1%). RV end-diastolic volume index was higher in male TM patients (mean 98.1 ± 17.3 mL vs 88.4 ± 11.2 mL/m2, p = 0.027), with a higher upper limit (132 vs 110 mL/m2) but this difference was of borderline significance for females (mean 86.5 ± 13.6 mL vs 80.3 ± 12.8 mL/m2, p = 0.09, with upper limit of 113 vs 105 mL/m2). The cardiac index was raised in TM patients (males 4.8 ± 1.0 L/min vs 3.4 ± 0.7 L/min, p < 0.0001; females 4.5 ± 0.8 L/min vs 3.2 ± 0.8 L/min, p < 0.0001). No differences in RV mass index were identified. Conclusion The normal ranges for functional RV parameters in TM patients with no evidence of myocardial iron overload differ from healthy non-anemic controls. The new reference RV ranges are important for determining the functional effects of myocardial iron overload in TM patients. PMID:20416084

  12. Effect of immune-enhancing diets on the outcomes of patients after major burns

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, W.H..; Mostafa, W.; Abdel-Khalek, A.H.; Shalaby, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The use of immune-enhancing diets (IEDs) has been shown to be beneficial in some categories of critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early enteral feeding supplemented with glutamine and omega-3 fatty acids, as immune-enhancing diets, on the outcomes of patients after major burns. Forty thermally injured adult patients with 30-50% total body surface area (TBSA) burns, including deep areas ranging from 5-20%, were randomized into a prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. They were placed into two equal groups: group A (IED group), in which patients received early enteral feeding supplemented with glutamine and omega-3 fatty acids as immune-enhancing diets; and group B (control group), in which patients received early enteral feeding not supplemented with immune-enhancing diets. Laboratory assessment of serum albumin, serum C-reactive protein, total lymphocytic count and serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) was performed at admission, and on days 4, 7 and 14. Finally, outcomes were assessed by monitoring the survival rate, the length of hospital stay and the incidence of infection. There were no significant differences between the IED and control group regarding age (28.7±5.32 versus 29.85±5.94), sex, weight, %TBSA (37.75±4.4 versus 38.3±4.84) and %burn depth (11.7±2.36 versus 10.7±2.036). The incidence of infection (2 versus 8) and the length of hospital stay (16.3±0.92 days versus 17.95±2.96 days) were decreased significantly in the IED group versus the control group. There was no significant difference between the survival rates in both groups as there was only one death in the control group. Thanks to IEDs, patient outcome was improved and infectious morbidity and length of hospital stay were reduced, but there was no effect on the survival rates following major burns. PMID:26336366

  13. Latest developments in peri-operative monitoring of the high-risk major surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Green, David; Paklet, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Peri-operative monitoring technology has made great strides in the last 20 years with the introduction of minimally invasive devices to measure inter alia stroke volume, cardiac output, depth of anaesthesia and cerebral and tissue oxygen monitoring. Despite these technological advances, peri-operative management of the high risk major surgery patient has remained virtually unchanged. The vast majority of patients undergo a pre-operative assessment which is neither designed to quantify functional capacity nor predict outcome. Anaesthetists then usually monitor these patients using the same technology (e.g. pulse oximetry (SpO2), invasive systemic BP and CVP, end tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) and anaesthetic agent monitoring) that was available in the early 1980s. Conventional intra-operative management can result in occult low levels of blood flow and oxygen delivery that lead to complications that only occur days or weeks following surgery and give false re-assurance to the anaesthetist that he or she is doing a "good job". Post-operative management then often takes place in an environment with reduced levels of both monitoring equipment and staff expertise. It is perhaps not surprising that outcome still remains poor in high-risk patients.(1) In this review, we will briefly describe the role of peri-operative optimization, some of the available monitors and indicate how their combined use might be beneficial in managing the high-risk surgical patient. We believe that although there is now evidence to suggest that the use of individual new monitors (such as assessment of fluid status, depth of anaesthesia, tissue oxygenation and blood flow) can influence outcome, it will only be their combination that will radically improve the peri-operative management and outcome of high-risk surgical patients. It is a matter of some urgency that large scale, prospective and collaborative studies be designed, funded and executed to prove or disprove this hypothesis. Copyright 2009

  14. Bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Natália Anício; Cisneiros, Lígia DE Loiola; Machado, Carla Jorge; Cenedezi, Juliana Merlin; Procópio, Ricardo Jayme; Navarro, Túlio Pinho

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate whether bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot and infected ulcer. we conducted a case-control, observational study of 189 patients with infected ulcers in diabetic feet admitted to the Vascular Surgery Service of the Risoleta Tolentino Neves Hospital, from January 2007 to December 2012. The bacteriological evaluation was performed in deep tissue cultures from the lesions and amputation was considered major when performed above the foot'smiddle tarsus. the patients'mean age was 61.9±12.7 years; 122 (64.6%) were men. The cultures were positive in 86.8%, being monomicrobial in 72% of the cases. In patients with major amputation, Acinetobacter spp. (24.4%), Morganella spp. (24.4%), Proteus spp. (23.1%) and Enterococcus spp. (19.2%) were the most frequent types of bacteria. The most commonly isolated species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. As predictors of major amputation, we identified the isolation of the generaAcinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp., serum creatinine ≥1.3mg/dl and hemoglobin <11g/dl. the bacterial genera Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. identified in infected ulcers of patients with diabetic foot were associated with a higher incidence of major amputation. avaliar se gênero bacteriano é fator de risco para amputação maior em pacientes com pé diabético e úlcera infectada. estudo observacional do tipo caso-controle de 189 pacientes com úlcera infectada em pé diabético admitidos pelo Serviço de Cirurgia Vascular do Hospital Risoleta Tolentino Neves, no período de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2012. A avaliação bacteriológica foi realizada em cultura de tecido profundo das lesões e a amputação foi considerada como maior quando realizada acima do médio tarso do pé. a média de idade dos pacientes foi 61,9±12,7 anos e 122 (64,6%) eram homens. As culturas foram positivas em 86,8%, sendo monomicrobianas em

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Major Depressive Disorder for Fertility Treatment Patients and their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Sarah R.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven; Katz, Patricia K.; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective To examine the prevalence and predictors of major depressive disorder (MDD) for women and their partners during the course of fertility treatment. Design Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months follow-up. Setting Five community and academic fertility practices. Patients 174 women and 144 of their male partners who did not have a successful child-related outcome during the timeframe of the study. Interventions No interventions administered. Main Outcome Measures MDD was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Major Depression module, a structured diagnostic interview. Additional variables were assessed with self-report questionnaire measures. Results 39.1% of the women and 15.3% of the men met the criteria for MDD during the 18-month course of the study. A binary logistic covariate-adjusted model including showed that, for both women and men, past MDD was a significant predictor of MDD during treatment. Past MDD further predicted significant risk for MDD during treatment after controlling for other well-established risk factors (i.e., baseline levels of depression, anxiety, and partner support). Conclusions MDD was highly prevalent for fertility treatment patients and their partners. Past MDD predicted risk for MDD during treatment, and it contributed to MDD risk over and above other commonly-assessed risk factors. This suggests patients and their partners would benefit from being routinely assessed for a history of MDD prior to the start of treatment in order to best direct psychosocial support and interventions to those most in need. PMID:25796319

  16. The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Choi, Joong-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neurofeedback on depressive symptoms and electrophysiological disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. We recruited participants suffering from depression to evaluate efficacy of left prefrontal beta with alpha/theta training. An 8-week, prospective, open-label study was undertaken. Twenty participants were recruited. The treatment protocol was twice or three times a week training of beta at F3 with alpha/theta at Pz for 8 weeks. When every visit, patients were received beta training for 30 min, and then alpha/theta training for 30 min. Baseline, 4 and 8 week scores of; the Hamilton rating scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton rating scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S), and pre- and post-treatment resting state EEGs were compared. Interhemispheric alpha power asymmetry (A score) was computed for homologous sites F3-F4. Pre- and post-training clinical assessments revealed significant improvements in HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, and CGI-S scores. Cumulative response rates by HAM-D were 35.0 and 75.0 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, corresponding cumulative remission rates by HAM-D were 15.0 and 55.0 %, respectively. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-treatment A score. Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder.

  17. How do elderly patients decide where to go for major surgery? Telephone interview survey

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Birkmeyer, John D

    2005-01-01

    Objective To learn how patients in Medicare, the US medical insurance programme that covers elderly patients, made decisions about where to undergo major surgery and how they would make future decisions. Design National telephone interview study. Setting United States. Participants 510 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries who had undergone an elective, high risk procedure about 3 years earlier—abdominal aneurysm repair (n = 103), heart valve replacement surgery (n = 96), or resection of the bladder (n = 119), lung (n = 128), or stomach (n = 64) for cancer. Response rates were 48% among eligible survivors and 68% among those able to participate. Results Although all participants could choose where to have surgery, only 55% said there was an alternative hospital in their area where they could have gone. Overall, only 10% of respondents seriously considered going elsewhere for surgery. Few respondents (11%) looked for information to compare hospitals. Almost all respondents thought their hospital and surgeon had good reputations (94% and 88%, respectively), beliefs mostly determined by what their referring doctors said. When asked how much various factors would influence their advice to a friend about choosing where to go for major surgery, surgeon reputation was the most influential (78% said it would influence their advice “a lot”), followed by the hospital having “nationally recognised” surgeons (63%), and then various performance data (surgeon volume (58%), nurse:patient ratios (49%), number of operations carried out by the hospital (48%), and hospital operative mortality (45%)). Forty per cent said they would act on mortality data, indicating that they would switch from their initial choice of hospital to a different one if its mortality was a percentage point lower (that is, 3% v 4%). Conclusion Some respondents claimed they would switch hospital for elective surgery on the basis of mortality data. Since most respondents relied on their referring

  18. Biased recognition of facial affect in patients with major depressive disorder reflects clinical state.

    PubMed

    Münkler, Paula; Rothkirch, Marcus; Dalati, Yasmin; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that perception is negatively biased in depressive disorder. Previous studies have provided empirical evidence for this notion, but left open the question whether the negative perceptual bias reflects a stable trait or the current depressive state. Here we investigated the stability of negatively biased perception over time. Emotion perception was examined in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy control participants in two experiments. In the first experiment subjective biases in the recognition of facial emotional expressions were assessed. Participants were presented with faces that were morphed between sad and neutral and happy expressions and had to decide whether the face was sad or happy. The second experiment assessed automatic emotion processing by measuring the potency of emotional faces to gain access to awareness using interocular suppression. A follow-up investigation using the same tests was performed three months later. In the emotion recognition task, patients with major depression showed a shift in the criterion for the differentiation between sad and happy faces: In comparison to healthy controls, patients with MDD required a greater intensity of the happy expression to recognize a face as happy. After three months, this negative perceptual bias was reduced in comparison to the control group. The reduction in negative perceptual bias correlated with the reduction of depressive symptoms. In contrast to previous work, we found no evidence for preferential access to awareness of sad vs. happy faces. Taken together, our results indicate that MDD-related perceptual biases in emotion recognition reflect the current clinical state rather than a stable depressive trait.

  19. Prefrontal activation in response to emotional words in patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Toshio; Matsuo, Koji; Nakashima, Mami; Nakano, Masayuki; Harada, Kenichiro; Watanuki, Toshio; Egashira, Kazuteru; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-15

    Abnormal emotional processing is involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the neural mechanism underlying this deficit is a trait characteristic of BD and MDD is unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the similarities and differences in processing of emotional stimuli between patients with BD and MDD in remission, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thirty-two patients (16 with BD and 16 with MDD) and 20 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, handedness, and years of education were included. An emotional Stroop task, including happy, sad, and threat words, was used. The relative oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb] and [deoxy-Hb]) changes in the frontal region were measured using 52-channels of NIRS. During the threat task, compared to healthy control subjects, patients with BD showed significantly increased [oxy-Hb] in the left inferior frontal region whereas patients with MDD showed significantly increased [oxy-Hb] in the left middle frontal region. During the happy task, compared to healthy control subjects, patients with BD showed significantly decreased [oxy-Hb] in the middle frontal region in both hemispheres. Moreover, patients with BD exhibited decreased [oxy-Hb] and increased [deoxy-Hb] in the superior frontal and middle frontal regions compared to MDD in response to the happy stimulus. No significant differences in [oxy-Hb] or [deoxy-Hb] were seen between the groups during the sad task. These results suggest that abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in patients with mood disorders in remission may be a trait characteristic, that negative emotional stimuli are associated with similar prefrontal responses, and that positive emotional stimuli are associated with different prefrontal responses in patients with BD and MDD. These findings indicate that different neural circuits play a role in emotional processing in BD and

  20. Melancholic features and hostility are associated with suicidality risk in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Peng, Daihui; Chua, Hong Choon; Srisurapanont, Manit; Fava, Maurizio; Bae, Jae-Nam; Man Chang, Sung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-06-01

    Suicide rates are higher in East-Asians than other populations, and especially high in Koreans. However, little is known about suicidality risk and melancholic features in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Drug-free MDD outpatients were included from 13 centers across five ethnicities consisting of Chinese (n=290), Korean (n=101), Thai (n=102), Indian (n=27), and Malay (n=27). All were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Of 547 subjects, 177 MDD patients showed melancholic features (32.4%). These melancholic MDD patients revealed significantly higher suicidality risk (p<0.0001), hostility (p=0.037), and severity of depression (p<0.0001) than those MDD patients without melancholic features. Suicidality risk was significantly higher in MDD with melancholic features than those without in subjects with lower hostility, whereas it showed no difference in higher hostility. Adjusted odds ratios of melancholic features and hostility for moderate to high suicidality risk were 1.79 (95% CI=1.15-2.79) and 2.45 (95% CI=1.37-4.38), after adjusting for age, sex, education years, and depression severity. Post-hoc analyses showed that suicidality risk was higher in Korean and Chinese than that of Thai, Indian and Malay in MDD subjects with melancholic features, although depression severity showed no significant differences among the ethnicities. Suicidality risk is associated with both melancholic features and hostility and it shows cross-ethnic differences in Asian MDD patients, independent of depression severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Component resolution reveals additional major allergens in patients with honeybee venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Julian; Blank, Simon; Müller, Sabine; Bantleon, Frank; Frick, Marcel; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Lidholm, Jonas; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Detection of IgE to recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens has been suggested to improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy. However, the frequency of sensitization to the only available recombinant honeybee venom (HBV) allergen, rApi m 1, in patients with HBV allergy is limited, suggesting that additional HBV allergens might be of relevance. We performed an analysis of sensitization profiles of patients with HBV allergy to a panel of HBV allergens. Diagnosis of HBV allergy (n = 144) was based on history, skin test results, and allergen-specific IgE levels to HBV. IgE reactivity to 6 HBV allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) was analyzed by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to rApi m 1, rApi m 2, rApi m 3, nApi m 4, rApi m 5, and rApi m 10 was detected in 72.2%, 47.9%, 50.0%, 22.9%, 58.3%, and 61.8% of the patients with HBV allergy, respectively. Positive results to at least 1 HBV allergen were detected in 94.4%. IgE reactivity to Api m 3, Api m 10, or both was detected in 68.0% and represented the only HBV allergen-specific IgE in 5% of the patients. Limited inhibition of IgE binding by therapeutic HBV and limited induction of Api m 3- and Api m 10-specific IgG4 in patients obtaining immunotherapy supports recent reports on the underrepresentation of these allergens in therapeutic HBV preparations. Analysis of a panel of CCD-free HBV allergens improved diagnostic sensitivity compared with use of rApi m 1 alone, identified additional major allergens, and revealed sensitizations to allergens that have been reported to be absent or underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactive heart rate variability in male patients with first-episode major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Sung; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chen, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yue-Cune

    2015-01-02

    The association between cardiovascular reactivity and major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine this association via reactive heart rate variability (HRV) in a well-diagnosed first-episode MDD group and a control group. A total of 160 physically healthy, drug-naive patients presenting with their first-episode MDD and 50 healthy controls were recruited. All participants underwent a 5-min electrocardiography at rest and during a mental arithmetic task. Depression severity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI). HRV measures that showed between-group differences at rest did not reached significance during mental stress. In contrast, HRV measures that revealed between-group differences during stress did not reach significance at rest. In response to mental stress, HRV measures did not significantly change in both group. However, LF and HF in response to stress were different between groups. Patients with MDD revealed an increasing trend in HF and a decreasing trend in LF; conversely, healthy controls had a decreasing trend in HF and an increasing trend in LF. BDI scores correlated with changes in heart rate in the control group. The fundamental change to reactive HRV in patients with first-episode MDD appears qualitative, not quantitative. A distinctly reverse trend in reactive HRV measures were evident between these two groups. Moreover, patients with MDD showed entirely distinct changes in reactive HRV from those in resting HRV. We suggest that in patients with MDD, autonomic system shifts to sympathetic dominance at rest but toward parasympathetic dominance in response to stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Informed decision-making in elective major vascular surgery: analysis of 145 surgeon-patient consultations.

    PubMed

    Etchells, Edward; Ferrari, Michel; Kiss, Alex; Martyn, Nikki; Zinman, Deborah; Levinson, Wendy

    2011-06-01

    Prior studies show significant gaps in the informed decision-making process, a central goal of surgical care. These studies have been limited by their focus on low-risk decisions, single visits rather than entire consultations, or both. Our objectives were, first, to rate informed decision-making for major elective vascular surgery based on audiotapes of actual physician-patient conversations and, second, to compare ratings of informed decision-making for first visits to ratings for multiple visits by the same patient over time. We prospectively enrolled patients for whom vascular surgical treatment was a potential option at a tertiary care outpatient vascular surgery clinic. We audio-taped all surgeon-patient conversations, including multiple visits when necessary, until a decision was made. Using an existing method, we evaluated the transcripts for elements of decision-making, including basic elements (e.g., an explanation of the clinical condition), intermediate elements (e.g., risks and benefits) and complex elements (e.g., uncertainty around the decision). We analyzed 145 surgeon-patient consultations. Overall, 45% of consultations contained complex elements, whereas 23% did not contain the basic elements of decision-making. For the 67 consultations that involved multiple visits, ratings were significantly higher when evaluating all visits (50% complex elements) compared with evaluating only the first visit (33% complex elements, p < 0.001.) We found that 45% of consultations contained complex elements, which is higher than prior studies with similar methods. Analyzing decision-making over multiple visits yielded different results than analyzing decision-making for single visits.

  4. Temperament in the clinical differentiation of depressed bipolar and unipolar major depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Akiskal, Hagop S; Kelsoe, John R; Rapaport, Mark H; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Gillin, J Christian

    2005-02-01

    To examine differences in temperament profiles between patients with recurrent unipolar and bipolar depression. Depressed individuals with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 94) and those with bipolar (n = 59) disorders (about equally divided between types I and II) were recruited by newspaper advertisement, radio and television announcements, flyers and newsletters, and word of mouth. All patients were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) and had the severity of their depressive episode assessed by means of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. All patients filled out the TEMPS-A, a validated instrument. Temperament differences between bipolar and MDD patients were examined using MANCOVA. Overall significant effect of the fixed factor (bipolar vs. unipolar) was noted for the temperament scores [Hotelling's F((5,142)) = 2.47, p < 0.05]. Overall effects were found for age [F((5,142)) = 2.40, p < 0.05], but not for gender and severity of depression [F((5,142)) = 1.65, p = 0.15 and F((5,142)) = 0.66, p = 0.66, respectively]. Dependent variables included the five subscales of the TEMPS-A, but only the cyclothymic temperament scores showed significant between-group differences. Small bipolar subsample cell sizes did not permit to test the specificity of the findings for bipolar II vs. bipolar I patients. The finding that the clyclothymic subscale is significantly elevated in the bipolar vs. the unipolar depressive group supports the theoretical assumptions upon which the scale is based, and suggests that it might become a useful tool for clinical and research purposes.

  5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity and antidepressant resistance among patients with major depression: A nationwide longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Pan, Tai-Long; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2016-11-01

    The comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression is common. However, the influence of ADHD comorbidity in the response or resistance to antidepressants remains unknown among patients with major depression. 1891 patients with major depression and ADHD and 1891 age-/sex-matched patients with major depression only were enrolled and followed for 1 year in our study. Use of antidepressants and ADHD medications during 1-year follow-up period were assessed. Antidepressant resistance was defined as treatment failure in two or more than two different antidepressants for adequate treatment dose and duration. Patients with major depression and ADHD had an increased risk of treatment resistance to antidepressants (odds ratio [OR]: 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-3.32) compared with patients with major depression only after adjusting for demographic characteristics and other psychiatric comorbidities. Regular treatment for ADHD would reduce this risk (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 0.72-4.27). Anxiety (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 2.24-4.44) and substance use (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.16-5.17) disorders were also associated with an elevated likelihood of resistance to antidepressants during the follow-up. Patients who had dual diagnoses of major depression and ADHD were more likely to have treatment resistance to antidepressants compared with patients with major depression only. Prompt and regular treatment for ADHD would reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient-reported outcomes before and after treatment of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    IsHak, Waguih William; Mirocha, James; Pi, Sarah; Tobia, Gabriel; Becker, Bret; Peselow, Eric D.; Cohen, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Patient reported outcomes (PROs) of quality of life (QoL), functioning, and depressive symptom severity are important in assessing the burden of illness of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to evaluate the impact of treatment. We sought to provide a detailed analysis of PROs before and after treatment of MDD from the large Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. This analysis examines PROs before and after treatment in the second level of STAR*D. The complete data on QoL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity, were analyzed for each STAR*D level 2 treatment. PROs of QoL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity showed substantial impairments after failing a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor trial using citalopram (level 1). The seven therapeutic options in level 2 had positive statistically (P values) and clinically (Cohen's standardized differences [Cohen's d]) significant impact on QoL, functioning, depressive symptom severity, and reduction in calculated burden of illness. There were no statistically significant differences between the interventions. However, a substantial proportion of patients still suffered from patient-reported QoL and functioning impairment after treatment, an effect that was more pronounced in nonremitters. PROs are crucial in understanding the impact of MDD and in examining the effects of treatment interventions, both in research and clinical settings. PMID:25152656

  7. Cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in β thalassemia major patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harahap, S.; Pramudita, A.; Lusiani

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency condition. Rapid diagnosis and determination of the etiology with epidemiologic consideration may lead to earlier treatment and improved survival. Occasionally, the etiology may be clearly related to a recognized underlying disease, but the possibility of unrelated etiologies should be considered. Pericarditis tuberculosis, a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a non-HIV patient, has to be deliberate as one of the etiology, especially in the endemic area. Here, we report a case of 28 years old male with β thalassemia major presented with excessive exertion breathlessness progressing to orthopnea. Sign of cardiac tamponade was identified from echocardiography which showed large pericardial effusion with swinging heart and right atrial systolic collapse. Pericardiocentesis was performed immediately, drained 870 ml of hemorrhagic fluid from inserted pigtail. The patient was treated with the anti-tuberculosis regimen and oral corticosteroid after real-time polymerase chain reaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis positivity in pericardial fluid. MRI T2 confirmed no haemosiderosis in patient’s heart. After treatment, the patient responded well and showed clinical improvement.

  8. Surgical management of sentinel lymph node biopsy outside major nodal basin in patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Caracò, Corrado; Marone, Ugo; Di Monta, Gianluca; Aloj, Luigi; Caracò, Corradina; Anniciello, Annamaria; Lastoria, Secondo; Botti, Gerardo; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    To assess the incidence of nonmajor lymphatic basin sentinel nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma in order to propose a correct nomenclature and inform appropriate surgical management. This was a retrospective review of 1,045 consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy to identify sentinel node site. Nonmajor drainage sites were classified as uncommon (located in a minor lymphatic basin along the lymphatic drainage to a major classical nodal basin) or interval (located anywhere along the lymphatics between the primary tumor site and the nearest lymphatic basin) sentinel nodes. Nonclassical sentinel nodes were identified in 32 patients (3.0 %). Uncommon sentinel nodes were identified in 3.2 % (n = 17) of trunk melanoma primary disease and in 1.5 % (n = 7) of upper and lower extremity sites. Interval sentinel nodes were identified in 1.3 % (n = 7) of trunk primary lesions, with none from upper and lower extremities melanomas. The incidence of tumor-positive sentinel nodes was 24.1 % (245 of 1,013) in classical sites and 12.5 % (4 of 32) in uncommon/interval sites. The definition of uncommon and interval sentinel nodes allows the identification of different lymphatic pathways and inform appropriate surgical treatment. Wider experience with uncommon/interval sentinel nodes will better clarify the clinical implications and surgical management to be adopted in the management of uncommon and interval sentinel node sites.

  9. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and personality traits in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Satomura, Emi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Naoko; Namekawa, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2015-03-04

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. Previous studies have demonstrated lower serum BDNF levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and reported an association between BDNF levels and depression-related personality traits in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore for a possible association between peripheral BDNF levels and personality traits in patients with MDD. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 123 inpatients with MDD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition) at the Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital were recruited. Serum levels of BDNF were measured. Personality traits were assessed using the 125-item short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dose of antidepressant, and depression severity showed that TCI Self-Directedness (SD) scores were negatively associated with serum BDNF levels (β = -0.23, p = 0.026). MDD patients who have low SD did not show the reduction in serum BDNF levels that is normally associated with depressive state. Our findings suggest that depression-related biological changes may not occur in these individuals.

  10. Epidemiology and predictors of cervical spine injury in adult major trauma patients: a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Rebecca M; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Bouamra, Omar; Benneker, Lorin M; Clancy, Mike; Sieber, Robert; Zimmermann, Heinz; Lecky, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Patients with cervical spine injuries are a high-risk group, with the highest reported early mortality rate in spinal trauma. This cohort study investigated predictors for cervical spine injury in adult (≥ 16 years) major trauma patients using prospectively collected data of the Trauma Audit and Research Network from 1988 to 2009. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors for cervical fractures/dislocations or cord injury. A total of 250,584 patients were analyzed. Median age was 47.2 years (interquartile range, 29.8-66.0) and Injury Severity Score 9 (interquartile range, 4-11); 60.2% were male. Six thousand eight hundred two patients (2.3%) sustained cervical fractures/dislocations alone. Two thousand sixty-nine (0.8%) sustained cervical cord injury with/without fractures/dislocations; 39.9% of fracture/dislocation and 25.8% of cord injury patients suffered injuries to other body regions. Age ≥ 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.45-1.92), males (females OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.96), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <15 (OR, 1.26-1.30), LeFort facial fractures (OR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.59), sports injuries (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.87-4.31), road traffic collisions (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 3.01-3.49), and falls >2 m (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.53-2.97) were predictive for fractures/dislocations. Age <35 years (OR, 1.25-1.72), males (females OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.53-0.65), GCS score <15 (OR, 1.35-1.85), systolic blood pressure <110 mm Hg (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.31), sports injuries (OR, 4.42; 95% CI, 3.28-5.95), road traffic collisions (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.26-2.94), and falls >2 m (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.94-2.58) were predictors for cord injury. 3.5% of patients suffered cervical spine injury. Patients with a lowered GCS or systolic blood pressure, severe facial fractures, dangerous injury mechanism, male gender, and/or age ≥ 35 years are at increased risk. Contrary to common belief, head injury was not predictive for

  11. Prediction of treatment outcomes to exercise in patients with nonremitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, Chad D; South, Charles C; Rush, A John; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2017-12-01

    Only one-third of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) achieve remission with initial treatment. Consequently, current clinical practice relies on a "trial-and-error" approach to identify an effective treatment for each patient. The purpose of this report was to determine whether we could identify a set of clinical and biological parameters with potential clinical utility for prescription of exercise for treatment of MDD in a secondary analysis of the Treatment with Exercise Augmentation in Depression (TREAD) trial. Participants with nonremitted MDD were randomized to one of two exercise doses for 12 weeks. Participants were categorized as "remitters" (≤12 on the IDS-C), nonresponders (<30% drop in IDS-C), or neither. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and random forests were used to evaluate 30 variables as predictors of both remission and nonresponse. Predictors were used to model treatment outcomes using logistic regression. Of the 122 participants, 36 were categorized as remitters (29.5%), 56 as nonresponders (45.9%), and 30 as neither (24.6%). Predictors of remission were higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and IL-1B, greater depressive symptom severity, and higher postexercise positive affect. Predictors of treatment nonresponse were low cardiorespiratory fitness, lower levels of IL-6 and BDNF, and lower postexercise positive affect. Models including these predictors resulted in predictive values greater than 70% (true predicted remitters/all predicted remitters) with specificities greater than 25% (true predicted remitters/all remitters). Results indicate feasibility in identifying patients who will either remit or not respond to exercise as a treatment for MDD utilizing a clinical decision model that incorporates multiple patient characteristics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of Swallowing Function of Tracheotomised Patients in Major Head and Neck Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bartella, Alexander K; Kamal, Mohammad; Berman, Sean; Steiner, Timm; Frölich, Dirk; Hölzle, Frank; Lethaus, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    Tracheotomy is a frequent procedure in extended head and neck cancer surgery and known to be a risk factor for prolonged hospitalization. The authors hypothesized that the clinical course and delayed decannulation of patients are not only influenced by airway narrowing, but also by a compromised postoperative swallowing function. The investigators implemented a retrospective cohort study. The sample was composed of a tertiary care center patients who underwent major head and neck cancer surgery, each receiving a tracheostomy. Data collected include general clinical data as well as endoscopical evaluation of swallowing function and aspiration rate. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed and the P value was set at.05. The sample was composed of 96 patients with an average age of 64.2 and sex ratio of 1.4:1 (m:f). There was a strong statistically significant relation between swallowing function and timing of decannulation (P < 0.001) and duration of hospitalization (P < 0.001). Age (P = 0.55), sex (P = 0.54), tumor size (P = 0.12), general diseases (P = 0.24), distant metastases (P = 0.15), or extent of neck dissection (P = 0.15) were not significantly associated to swallowing function. Permanent cannulation was significantly correlated to a primary cancer of the soft palate or base of the tonge (P < 0.001). The results of this study confirm the importance of the evaluation of swallowing function before the removal of the tracheotomy cannula in head and neck cancer patients.

  13. T Cell Phenotype and T Cell Receptor Repertoire in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patas, Kostas; Willing, Anne; Demiralay, Cüneyt; Engler, Jan Broder; Lupu, Andreea; Ramien, Caren; Schäfer, Tobias; Gach, Christian; Stumm, Laura; Chan, Kenneth; Vignali, Marissa; Arck, Petra C.; Friese, Manuel A.; Pless, Ole; Wiedemann, Klaus; Agorastos, Agorastos; Gold, Stefan M.

    2018-01-01

    While a link between inflammation and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) is supported by a growing body of evidence, little is known about the contribution of aberrant adaptive immunity in this context. Here, we conducted in-depth characterization of T cell phenotype and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in MDD. For this cross-sectional case–control study, we recruited antidepressant-free patients with MDD without any somatic or psychiatric comorbidities (n = 20), who were individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and smoking status to a non-depressed control subject (n = 20). T cell phenotype and repertoire were interrogated using a combination of flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and next generation sequencing. T cells from MDD patients showed significantly lower surface expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6, which are known to be central to T cell differentiation and trafficking. In addition, we observed a shift within the CD4+ T cell compartment characterized by a higher frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low/− cells and higher FOXP3 mRNA expression in purified CD4+ T cells obtained from patients with MDD. Finally, flow cytometry-based TCR Vβ repertoire analysis indicated a less diverse CD4+ T cell repertoire in MDD, which was corroborated by next generation sequencing of the TCR β chain CDR3 region. Overall, these results suggest that T cell phenotype and TCR utilization are skewed on several levels in patients with MDD. Our study identifies putative cellular and molecular signatures of dysregulated adaptive immunity and reinforces the notion that T cells are a pathophysiologically relevant cell population in this disorder. PMID:29515587

  14. Using patient self-reports to study heterogeneity of treatment effects in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R C; van Loo, H M; Wardenaar, K J; Bossarte, R M; Brenner, L A; Ebert, D D; de Jonge, P; Nierenberg, A A; Rosellini, A J; Sampson, N A; Schoevers, R A; Wilcox, M A; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-02-01

    Clinicians need guidance to address the heterogeneity of treatment responses of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). While prediction schemes based on symptom clustering and biomarkers have so far not yielded results of sufficient strength to inform clinical decision-making, prediction schemes based on big data predictive analytic models might be more practically useful. We review evidence suggesting that prediction equations based on symptoms and other easily-assessed clinical features found in previous research to predict MDD treatment outcomes might provide a foundation for developing predictive analytic clinical decision support models that could help clinicians select optimal (personalised) MDD treatments. These methods could also be useful in targeting patient subsamples for more expensive biomarker assessments. Approximately two dozen baseline variables obtained from medical records or patient reports have been found repeatedly in MDD treatment trials to predict overall treatment outcomes (i.e., intervention v. control) or differential treatment outcomes (i.e., intervention A v. intervention B). Similar evidence has been found in observational studies of MDD persistence-severity. However, no treatment studies have yet attempted to develop treatment outcome equations using the full set of these predictors. Promising preliminary empirical results coupled with recent developments in statistical methodology suggest that models could be developed to provide useful clinical decision support in personalised treatment selection. These tools could also provide a strong foundation to increase statistical power in focused studies of biomarkers and MDD heterogeneity of treatment response in subsequent controlled trials. Coordinated efforts are needed to develop a protocol for systematically collecting information about established predictors of heterogeneity of MDD treatment response in large observational treatment studies, applying and refining these models

  15. Comorbidity and Suicidality in Patients Diagnosed with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia and Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Batinic, Borjanka; Opacic, Goran; Ignjatov, Tijana; Baldwin, David S

    2017-06-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression (both current and lifetime) is associated with greater chronicity and an increased risk of suicidality. We wished to ascertain which symptom clusters had the strongest association with suicidality. Our aims were (1) to examine the presence of current comorbidity and suicidality in patients diagnosed with panic disorder/agoraphobia (PD/A) and major depression (MD), and their relationship with duration of psychiatric treatment and frequency of hospital admission; and (2) to examine which coexisting symptoms were most strongly predictive of suicidality in sub-groups and the overall group. The study sample comprised 100 patients with PD/A and MD. The following assessment instruments were applied: the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis. High rates of current comorbidity were seen in both groups. Patients with MD had significantly higher suicidality scores, but were also older, with a longer duration of psychiatric treatment and more frequent hospitalizations. In the overall group, psychiatric comorbidity was correlated with duration of psychiatric treatment and frequency of hospitalizations (with the exception of hypochondriasis which was not correlated with frequency of hospitalization). In both sub-groups and the overall group, suicidality was correlated with scores for all examined comorbidity (with the exception of hypochondriasis in the PD/A group): however, after multiple regression only obsessive-compulsive symptomatology predicted suicidality in all sub-groups and the overall group, as well as depression in the overall group. Depression supposed as dependent variable and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology as a mediator explained around 37% of the variance in suicidal ideation. Patients with PD/A or MD show high

  16. Using patient self-reports to study heterogeneity of treatment effects in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R.C.; van Loo, H.M.; Wardenaar, K.J.; Bossarte, R.M.; Brenner, L.A.; Ebert, D.D; de Jonge, P.; Nierenberg, A.A.; Rosellini, A.J.; Sampson, N.A.; Schoevers, R.A.; Wilcox, M.A.; Zaslavsky, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Clinicians need guidance to address the heterogeneity of treatment responses of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). While prediction schemes based on symptom clustering and biomarkers have so far not yielded results of sufficient strength to inform clinical decision-making, prediction schemes based on big data predictive analytic models might be more practically useful. Methods We review evidence suggesting that prediction equations based on symptoms and other easily-assessed clinical features found in previous research to predict MDD treatment outcomes might provide a foundation for developing predictive analytic clinical decision support models that could help clinicians select optimal (personalized) MDD treatments. These methods could also be useful in targeting patient subsamples for more expensive biomarker assessments. Results Approximately two dozen baseline variables obtained from medical records or patient reports have been found repeatedly in MDD treatment trials to predict overall treatment outcomes (i.e., intervention versus control) or differential treatment outcomes (i.e., intervention A versus intervention B). Similar evidence has been found in observational studies of MDD persistence-severity. However, no treatment studies have yet attempted to develop treatment outcome equations using the full set of these predictors. Promising preliminary empirical results coupled with recent developments in statistical methodology suggest that models could be developed to provide useful clinical decision support in personalized treatment selection. These tools could also provide a strong foundation to increase statistical power in focused studies of biomarkers and MDD heterogeneity of treatment response in subsequent controlled trials. Conclusions Coordinated efforts are needed to develop a protocol for systematically collecting information about established predictors of heterogeneity of MDD treatment response in large observational treatment

  17. Comparing effects of citalopram with fluoxetine on sleep quality in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Shahsavand-Ananloo, E; Berenji, F; Sadeghniiat, K; Alimadadi, A; Zahiroddin, A R; Tabatabaee, M; Abbasi-Asl, M; Ghaeli, P

    2013-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common complaint in major depressive disorder (MDD) including impairment of both subjective and objective parameters. All antidepressants affect sleep architecture and quality. This trial was designed to compare the effects of short-term use of citalopram with fluoxetine on sleep quality (SQ) of patients with MDD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders - Text Revision 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. Patients who met the study criteria entered this open-label study. Sleep quality and depression severity were evaluated by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), respectively. Patients could not have received any antidepressant for at least one month prior entering the study. Subjects were assigned to receive either fluoxetine or citalopram for 8 weeks. The relationships between SQ and severity of depression were also studied at weeks 4 and 8. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 11.5 version. Nineteen patients received fluoxetine 20-40 mg/day and 21 received citalopram 20-40 mg/day. After 4 and 8 weeks treatment with both fluoxetine and citalopram, significant improvements in SQ were noted in both groups. However, no significant difference between the two groups was observed. Additionally, a significant and positive correlation between improvements in SQ and depression was noted after 8 weeks treatment with citalopram but not with fluoxetine. This study noted that both citalopram and fluoxetine improved SQ in outpatients with MDD after 8 weeks without any significant difference between the 2 groups.

  18. The expression of depression among Javanese patients with major depressive disorder: a concept mapping study.

    PubMed

    Brintnell, E Sharon; Sommer, Ryan W; Kuncoro, Bambang; Setiawan, G Pandu; Bailey, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we explored the presentation of clinical depression in Java, Indonesia. Interviews were conducted with 20 Javanese patients (male and female) with major depressive disorder from both lower and higher socioeconomic levels. The recruited participants came from provincial and private mental health hospitals in the cities of Solo, Yogykarta (Jogja), Jakarta, and Malang on the island of Java, Indonesia. Concept mapping methodology using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify underlying themes in the expression of depressive phenomena in this Indonesian population. The results identified themes that grouped into six clusters: interpersonal relationships, hopelessness, physical/somatic, poverty of thought, discourage, and defeat. Findings give support to the view that culture influences the expression of Indonesian depressive phenomenology, which nevertheless has some common roots with Western clinical pictures of the disorder. Cultural influences may mask symptoms of the disorder to clinicians. Diagnostic and assessment tools must be carefully selected to ensure they address culturally specific expressions of depression.

  19. Effectiveness of long-term vortioxetine treatment of patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Loft, Henrik; Florea, Ioana

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine in patients treated at therapeutic doses (5-20mg/day) for both acute and maintenance treatment, patient-level data were pooled from 5 long-term (52-week), open-label extension studies of major depressive disorder. The mean (±standard deviation) MADRS total score improved from 17.1±10.2 at the start of maintenance therapy to 7.6±8.2 (observed cases [OC]) or 10.3±9.9 (last observation carried forward [LOCF]) at week 52. The mean HAM-A total scores improved from 11.3±6.9 to 6.0±6.0 (OC) or 7.5±6.7 (LOCF) and the mean CGI-S score improved from 3.11±1.20 to 1.94±1.08 (OC) or 2.27±1.26 (LOCF) at week 52. Response and remission rates increased over time. At week 52, the total response rate was 75.4% (n=916/1215, LOCF) and the total remission rate was 60.7% (n=738/1215, LOCF). There were no differences in effectiveness as assessed by MADRS total scores at week 52 in subgroups based on gender, age (<55 vs ≥55 years), baseline HAM-A total score (<20 vs ≥20), baseline MADRS total score (<30 vs ≥30), previous major depressive episodes (MDEs) (<3 vs ≥3) or current MDE duration (<6 vs ≥6 months) at the start of the lead-in studies, or response status (≥50% decrease in MADRS total score during the lead-in study). The most commonly reported adverse event during the maintenance period was nausea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and predictors of major depressive disorder for fertility treatment patients and their partners.

    PubMed

    Holley, Sarah R; Pasch, Lauri A; Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven; Katz, Patricia K; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and predictors of major depressive disorder (MDD) for women and their partners during the course of fertility treatment. Prospective cohort study during an 18-month period. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months of follow-up. Five community and academic fertility practices. A total of 174 women and 144 of their male partners who did not have a successful child-related outcome during the time frame of the study. No interventions administered. The MDD was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Major Depression module, a structured diagnostic interview. Additional variables were assessed with self-report questionnaire measures. Of the women 39.1% and of the men 15.3% met the criteria for MDD during the 18-month course of the study. A binary logistic covariate-adjusted model showed that, for both women and men, past MDD was a significant predictor of MDD during treatment. Past MDD further predicted significant risk for MDD during treatment after controlling for other well-established risk factors (i.e., baseline levels of depression, anxiety, and partner support). The MDD was highly prevalent for fertility treatment patients and their partners. Past MDD predicted risk for MDD during treatment, and it contributed to MDD risk more than other commonly assessed risk factors. This suggests that patients and their partners would benefit from being routinely assessed for a history of MDD before the start of treatment to best direct psychosocial support and interventions to those most in need. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system activity during lithium augmentation therapy in patients with unipolar major depression

    PubMed Central

    Bschor, Tom; Baethge, Christopher; Adli, Mazda; Lewitzka, Ute; Eichmann, Uta; Bauer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Objective Lithium augmentation is an established strategy in the treatment of refractory depression, but little is known about predictors of response and its mode of action. There is increasing evidence that low thyroid function indices within the normal range are associated with a poorer treatment response to antidepressants, but previous studies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) system during lithium augmentation provide inconclusive results and have methodological limitations. This study aimed at exploring the role of thyroid function in lithium augmentation and used a prospective design that included a homogeneous sample of inpatients with unipolar major depressive disorder. Methods In 24 euthyroid patients with a major depressive episode who had not responded to antidepressant monotherapy of at least 4 weeks, we measured serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3) and total thyroxine (T4) before (baseline) and during lithium augmentation therapy (follow-up). The time point of the endocrinological follow-up depended on the status of response, which was assessed weekly with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HDRS17). Responders were reassessed immediately after response was determined, and non-responders after 4 weeks of lithium augmentation. Results There was a statistically significant change in thyroid system activity during lithium augmentation, with an increase of TSH levels and a decrease of peripheral T3 and T4 levels. However, there were no differences in any of the HPT hormones between responders and non-responders at baseline or at follow-up. Conclusions The decrease of thyroid system activity during lithium treatment reflects the well-established “antithyroid” properties of lithium. However, it appears that thyroid status does not predict response to lithium augmentation in euthyroid patients before treatment. PMID:12790161

  2. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Schulman, S; Angerås, U; Bergqvist, D; Eriksson, B; Lassen, M R; Fisher, W

    2010-01-01

    The definition of major bleeding varies between studies on surgical patients, particularly regarding the criteria for surgical wound-related bleeding. This diversity contributes to the difficulties in comparing data between trials. The Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC), through its subcommittee on Control of Anticoagulation, of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis has previously published a recommendation for a harmonized definition of major bleeding in non-surgical studies. That definition has been adopted by the European Medicines Agency and is currently used in several non-surgical trials. A preliminary proposal for a parallel definition for surgical studies was presented at the 54(th) Annual Meeting of the SSC in Vienna, July 2008. Based on those discussions and further consultations with European and North American surgeons with experience from clinical trials a definition has been developed that should be applicable to all agents that interfere with hemostasis. The definition and the text that follows have been reviewed and approved by relevant co-chairs of the subcommittee and by the Executive Committee of the SSC. The intention is to seek approval of this definition from the regulatory authorities to enhance its incorporation into future clinical trial protocols.

  3. Mixed features in patients with a major depressive episode: the BRIDGE-II-MIX study.

    PubMed

    Perugi, Giulio; Angst, Jules; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Reis, Joao; Vieta, Eduard; Young, Allan H

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients diagnosed with major depressive episode (MDE) according to conceptually different definitions and to compare their clinical validity. This multicenter, multinational cross-sectional Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE)-II-MIX study enrolled 2,811 adult patients experiencing an MDE. Data were collected per protocol on sociodemographic variables, current and past psychiatric symptoms, and clinical variables that are risk factors for bipolar disorder. The frequency of mixed features was determined by applying both DSM-5 criteria and a priori described Research-Based Diagnostic Criteria (RBDC). Clinical variables associated with mixed features were assessed using logistic regression. Overall, 212 patients (7.5%) fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for MDE with mixed features (DSM-5-MXS), and 818 patients (29.1%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a predefined RBDC depressive mixed state (RBDC-MXS). The most frequent manic/hypomanic symptoms were irritable mood (32.6%), emotional/mood lability (29.8%), distractibility (24.4%), psychomotor agitation (16.1%), impulsivity (14.5%), aggression (14.2%), racing thoughts (11.8%), and pressure to keep talking (11.4%). Euphoria (4.6%), grandiosity (3.7%), and hypersexuality (2.6%) were less represented. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, RBDC-MXS was associated with the largest number of variables including diagnosis of bipolar disorder, family history of mania, lifetime suicide attempts, duration of the current episode > 1 month, atypical features, early onset, history of antidepressant-induced mania/hypomania, and lifetime comorbidity with anxiety, alcohol and substance use disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Depressive mixed state, defined as the presence of 3 or more manic/hypomanic features, was present in around one-third of patients experiencing an MDE. The valid symptom, illness

  4. Association Between Hyperuricemia and Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ranjith, Naresh; Myeni, Nomcebo N; Sartorius, Ben; Mayise, Chamsanqua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the association between hyperuricemia and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Consecutive patients admitted with AMI to the Coronary Care Unit at R. K. Khan Hospital (Durban, South Africa) between the years 2006 and 2014 were included. Demographic data, including clinical and biochemical information stored in an electronic database, were obtained from all patients. A total of 2683 patients were studied, of whom 65% were males. The mean age of the participants was 57.1 ± 11.5 years, with 79% presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Sixty-one percent were smokers, 59% had diabetes mellitus, 52% had hypertension, and 58% presented with a family history of premature coronary artery disease. Twenty-six percent (n = 690) had hyperuricemia, were older (59 ± 12.1 vs. 56.5 ± 11.2 years) and more likely to present with hypertension (P < 0.001), lower ejection fraction (P < 0.001), and higher median creatinine levels (P < 0.001). A significantly greater proportion of patients with hyperuricemia experienced MACE (45% vs. 30%, P < 0.001). In both sexes, considerable heterogeneity for risk factors and clinical events was noted in individuals with hyperuricemia. Multivariable analyses for risk factors associated with mortality suggest that hyperuricemia conferred a significantly increased risk of mortality after adjustment [odds ratio (OR) 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.0-2.8); P = 0.042]. A significant increasing risk trend for MACE was observed for increasing tertiles of serum uric acid concentrations above normal (P < 0.001), particularly for cardiac failure (P < 0.001) and death (P = 0.006). Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with hypertension, renal dysfunction, MACE, and independently confers a higher risk of mortality in patients with AMI. Significant heterogeneity was found by gender for risk factors and clinical events in individuals

  5. What is the real significance and management of major thyroid disorders in bipolar patients?

    PubMed

    Sierra, Pilar; Cámara, Rosa; Tobella, Helena; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid disfunction affects negatively emotional stability and worsens the clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. The main stabilizer used in this illness, lithium carbonate has numerous effects on the physiology of the thyroid, with the most significant being the inhibition of thyroid hormone release that may occur at therapeutic levels. These dysfunctions have also been reported most frequently in bipolar patients not undergoing treatment with lithium, and was not completely explained by the effects of this drug. Apart from the numerous medical complications and mood disturbances, the cognitive or perceptual system may also be affected. In fact, the presence of thyroid disease increases the rates of obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder. In severe cases of hypothyroidism, the clinical symptoms and signs can be similar to a melancholic depression or dementia. It is therefore important to know well all these possible complications in daily clinical practice. This review will cover the main thyroid dysfunctions present in bipolar patients, whether ot not produced by treatment with lithium carbonate, and will provide a series of recommendations for clinical management. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum cortisol and BDNF in patients with major depression-effect of yoga.

    PubMed

    Naveen, G H; Varambally, Shivarama; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rao, Mukund; Christopher, Rita; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Depression is associated with low serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of serum cortisol. Yoga practices have been associated with antidepressant effects, increase in serum BDNF, and reduction in serum cortisol. This study examined the association between serum BDNF and cortisol levels in drug-naïve patients with depression treated with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both. Fifty-four drug-naïve consenting adult outpatients with Major Depression (32 males) received antidepressants only (n = 16), yoga therapy only (n = 19), or yoga with antidepressants (n = 19). Serum BDNF andcortisol levels were obtained before and after 3 months using a sandwich ELISA method. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis. The groups were comparable at baseline on most parameters. Significant improvement in depression scores and serum BDNF levels, and reduction in serum cortisol in the yoga groups, have been described in previous reports. A significant negative correlation was observed between change in BDNF (pre-post) and cortisol (pre-post) levels in the yoga-only group (r = -0.59, p = 0.008). In conclusion, yoga may facilitate neuroplasticity through stress reduction in depressed patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and delineate the pathways for these effects.

  7. Bupropion in the treatment of problematic online game play in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-05-01

    As one of the problematic behaviors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), excessive online game play (EOP) has been reported in a number of recent studies. Bupropion has been evaluated as a potential treatment for MDD and substance dependence. We hypothesized that bupropion treatment would reduce the severity of EOP as well as depressive symptoms. Fifty male subjects with comorbid EOP and MDD were randomly assigned to bupropion + education for internet use (EDU) or placebo + EDU groups. The current study consisted in a 12-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, including an eight-week active treatment phase and a four-week post treatment follow-up period. During the active treatment period, Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and the mean time of online game playing in the bupropion group were greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores in the bupropion group were also greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. During the four-week post-treatment follow-up period, bupropion-associated reductions in online game play persisted, while depressive symptoms recurred. Conclusively, bupropion may improve depressive mood as well as reduce the severity of EOP in patients with comorbid MDD and online game addiction.

  8. Bupropion in the treatment of problematic online game play in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-01-01

    As one of the problematic behaviors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), excessive online game play (EOP) has been reported in a number of recent studies. Bupropion has been evaluated as a potential treatment for MDD and substance dependence. We hypothesized that bupropion treatment would reduce the severity of EOP as well as depressive symptoms. Fifty male subjects with comorbid EOP and MDD were randomly assigned to bupropion + education for internet use (EDU) or placebo + EDU groups. The current study consisted in a 12-week, prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, including an eight-week active treatment phase and a four-week post treatment follow-up period. During the active treatment period, Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and the mean time of online game playing in the bupropion group were greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores in the bupropion group were also greatly reduced compared with those of the placebo group. During the four-week post-treatment follow-up period, bupropion-associated reductions in online game play persisted, while depressive symptoms recurred. Conclusively, bupropion may improve depressive mood as well as reduce the severity of EOP in patients with comorbid MDD and online game addiction. PMID:21447539

  9. Electrophysiological assessment for early detection of retinal dysfunction in β-thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Dettoraki, Maria; Kattamis, Antonis; Ladas, Ioannis; Maragkos, Konstantinos; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Chatzistefanou, Klio; Laios, Konstantinos; Brouzas, Dimitrios; Moschos, Marilita M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of various diagnostic tests in early detection of retinal changes in β-thalassemia major patients. Thirty-eight visually asymptomatic β-thalassemia major patients receiving regular blood transfusions and iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine (group A, n = 13), deferasirox (group B, n = 11) or deferoxamine with deferiprone (group C, n = 14) and fourteen age- and sex- matched healthy individuals were included in the study. All participants underwent ophthalmoscopy, full-field electroretinography (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Retinal pigment epithelium changes were present in two cases. Scotopic ERG demonstrated decreased a-wave amplitude in groups A, B and C (p = 0.03, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively) and decreased b-wave amplitude in groups B and C (p = 0.002 and p = 0.01, respectively) compared to controls. Photopic ERG showed delayed b-wave latency in groups A and C (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively) ERG maximal combined response and VEP response did not differ between groups. MfERG showed reduced retinal response density in ring 1 in groups A, B, C (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively) and ring 2 in group B (p = 0.02) and delayed latency in ring 5 in groups A and B (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). Abnormal FAF images appeared in three cases and OCT abnormalities in one case, whereas no changes were observed in controls (p = 0.55 and p = 1.00, respectively). Full-field ERG and mfERG are more sensitive tools for detecting early retinal changes in β-thalassemia patients compared with ophthalmoscopy, VEP, FAF imaging and OCT scans.

  10. Learning from negative feedback in patients with major depressive disorder is attenuated by SSRI antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Natsheh, Joman Y.; Abdellatif, Salam M.; Taha, Mohamad B.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Sehwail, Mahmud A.; Amleh, Ivona; Petrides, Georgios; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine, and healthy control (HC) subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward) vs. learning from negative feedback (punishment). Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject’s relative sensitivity to positive vs. negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and HC groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979) Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback) to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback). However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not “normal” when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the cognitive consequences of

  11. Learning from negative feedback in patients with major depressive disorder is attenuated by SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Natsheh, Joman Y; Abdellatif, Salam M; Taha, Mohamad B; Tayem, Yasin I; Sehwail, Mahmud A; Amleh, Ivona; Petrides, Georgios; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    One barrier to interpreting past studies of cognition and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been the failure in many studies to adequately dissociate the effects of MDD from the potential cognitive side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use. To better understand how remediation of depressive symptoms affects cognitive function in MDD, we evaluated three groups of subjects: medication-naïve patients with MDD, medicated patients with MDD receiving the SSRI paroxetine, and healthy control (HC) subjects. All were administered a category-learning task that allows for dissociation between learning from positive feedback (reward) vs. learning from negative feedback (punishment). Healthy subjects learned significantly better from positive feedback than medication-naïve and medicated MDD groups, whose learning accuracy did not differ significantly. In contrast, medicated patients with MDD learned significantly less from negative feedback than medication-naïve patients with MDD and healthy subjects, whose learning accuracy was comparable. A comparison of subject's relative sensitivity to positive vs. negative feedback showed that both the medicated MDD and HC groups conform to Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect Theory, which expects losses (negative feedback) to loom psychologically slightly larger than gains (positive feedback). However, medicated MDD and HC profiles are not similar, which indicates that the state of medicated MDD is not "normal" when compared to HC, but rather balanced with less learning from both positive and negative feedback. On the other hand, medication-naïve patients with MDD violate Prospect Theory by having significantly exaggerated learning from negative feedback. This suggests that SSRI antidepressants impair learning from negative feedback, while having negligible effect on learning from positive feedback. Overall, these findings shed light on the importance of dissociating the cognitive consequences of MDD

  12. Readability assessment of patient education materials on major otolaryngology association websites.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Li, Shawn; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Various otolaryngology associations provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEM) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH). The purpose of this study was to assess the readability of otolaryngology-related IPEMs on various otolaryngology association websites and to determine whether they are above the recommended reading level for patient education materials. Analysis of patient education materials from 9 major otolaryngology association websites. The readability of 262 otolaryngology-related IPEMs was assessed with 8 numerical and 2 graphical readability tools. Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) analysis. Mean readability scores for each otolaryngology association website were compared. Mean website readability scores using Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Coleman-Liau Index, SMOG grading, Gunning Fog Index, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST Formula, New Fog Count Test, Raygor Readability Estimate, and the Fry Readability Graph ranged from 20.0 to 57.8, 9.7 to 17.1, 10.7 to 15.9, 11.6 to 18.2, 10.9 to 15.0, 8.6 to 16.0, 10.4 to 12.1, 8.5 to 11.8, 10.5 to 17.0, and 10.0 to 17.0, respectively. ANOVA results indicate a significant difference (P < .05) between the websites for each individual assessment. The IPEMs found on all otolaryngology association websites exceed the recommended fourth- to sixth-grade reading level.

  13. Depression and pain impair daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Depression and pain frequently occur together. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression and pain on the impairment of daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) of depressed patients. We enrolled 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder. Depression, pain, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed using three primary domains of the SF-36: social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson׳s correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In all, 129 patients completed all the measures. Model 5, both depression and pain impaired daily functioning and QOL, was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2)=9.2, df=8, p=0.33, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, TLI=0.99, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.03). The correlation between pain and depression was weak (r=-0.27, z=-2.95, p=0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a small sample size. Depression and pain exert a direct influence on the impairment of daily functioning and QOL of depressed patients; this impairment could be expected regardless of increased pain, depression, or both pain and depression. Pain had a somewhat separate entity from depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Personality modulates the efficacy of treatment in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, Klaas J; Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Effects of depression treatment are obscured by heterogeneity among patients. Personality types could be one source of heterogeneity that explains variability in treatment response. Clinically meaningful variations in personality patterns could be captured with data-driven subgroups. The aim of this study was to identify such personality types and to explore their predictive value for treatment efficacy. Participants (N = 146) in the current exploratory study came from a randomized controlled trial in primary care depressed patients, conducted between January 1998 and June 2003, comparing different treatments. All participants were diagnosed with a major depressive disorder (MDD) according to the DSM-IV. Primary (care as usual [CAU] or CAU plus a psychoeducational prevention program [PEP]) and specialized (CAU + PEP + psychiatric consultation or cognitive-behavioral therapy) treatment were compared. Personality was assessed with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Personality classes were identified with latent profile analysis (LPA). During 1 year, weekly depression ratings were obtained by trimonthly assessment with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Mixed models were used to analyze the effects of personality on treatment efficacy. A 2-class LPA solution fit best to the NEO-FFI data: Class 1 (vulnerable, n = 94) was characterized by high neuroticism, low extraversion, and low conscientiousness, and Class 2 (resilient, n = 52) by medium neuroticism and extraversion and higher agreeableness and conscientiousness. Recovery was quicker in the resilient class (class × time: P < .001). Importantly, specialized treatment had added value only in the vulnerable class, in which it was associated with quicker recovery than primary treatment (class × time × treatment: P < .001). Personality profile may predict whether specialized clinical efforts have added value, showing potential implications for planning of treatments

  15. Predicting tDCS treatment outcomes of patients with major depressive disorder using automated EEG classification.

    PubMed

    Al-Kaysi, Alaa M; Al-Ani, Ahmed; Loo, Colleen K; Powell, Tamara Y; Martin, Donel M; Breakspear, Michael; Boonstra, Tjeerd W

    2017-01-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Standard tDCS treatment involves numerous sessions running over a few weeks. However, not all participants respond to this type of treatment. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of identifying MDD patients that respond to tDCS treatment based on resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recorded prior to treatment commencing. We used machine learning to predict improvement in mood and cognition during tDCS treatment from baseline EEG power spectra. Ten participants with a current diagnosis of MDD were included. Power spectral density was assessed in five frequency bands: delta (0.5-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), beta (13-30Hz) and gamma (30-100Hz). Improvements in mood and cognition were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Symbol Digit Modalities Test, respectively. We trained the classifiers using three algorithms (support vector machine, extreme learning machine and linear discriminant analysis) and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. Mood labels were accurately predicted in 8 out of 10 participants using EEG channels FC4-AF8 (accuracy=76%, p=0.034). Cognition labels were accurately predicted in 10 out of 10 participants using channels pair CPz-CP2 (accuracy=92%, p=0.004). Due to the limited number of participants (n=10), the presented results mainly aim to serve as a proof of concept. These finding demonstrate the feasibility of using machine learning to identify patients that will respond to tDCS treatment. These promising results warrant a larger study to determine the clinical utility of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bereavement dream? Successful antidepressant treatment for bereavement-related distressing dreams in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mayumi; Onishi, Hideki; Wada, Mei; Wada, Tomomi; Wada, Makoto; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Nomura, Shinobu

    2010-03-01

    The death of a person is a stressful event. Such stress affects the physical and psychological well-being of the bereaved. As an associated mental disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common. Some dream of the deceased, and these dreams are called bereavement dreams. Some MDD patients also experience dreams. These two types of dreams are sometimes difficult to differentiate. The dream of the bereaved might be only a bereavement-related dream, yet it might be a symptom of MDD. Herein, we report one patient who had distressing dreams after the death of her mother. A 63-year-old woman was referred for psychiatric consultation because of generalized fatigue and insomnia. Questioning her about recent events, she said that her mother had died of colonic carcinoma 5 months previously. Two months after the death, she suddenly started dreaming of her mother, getting angry with her almost every night. Generalized fatigue, insomnia, and distressing dreams appeared simultaneously. The dream caused much distress, making her afraid to fall asleep. Her psychiatric features fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD, single episode. The death of her mother was considered to be one of the causes of MDD. She was administered 25 mg/day of sertraline hydrochloride. After that, her symptoms gradually disappeared, and the frequency of distressing dreams was reduced. Five months later, physical and psychiatric symptoms of MDD were completely resolved. Subsequently, she has not suffered from any distressing dreams of her mother. This case indicates that dreams experienced after the death of a loved one should not be regarded simply as bereavement dreams. Some of the dreams may be symptoms of MDD. If the dreams are the symptoms of MDD, antidepressant treatment as well as psychotherapy may be useful. Therefore, we should avoid regarding symptoms of MDD as reactions to bereavement.

  17. Correlations between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of integrated collaborative care for comorbid major depression in patients with cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, A.; Walker, J.; Walker, S.; Richardson, G.; Holm Hansen, C.; Martin, P.; Murray, G.; Sculpher, M.; Sharpe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Comorbid major depression is associated with reduced quality of life and greater use of healthcare resources. A recent randomised trial (SMaRT, Symptom Management Research Trials, Oncology-2) found that a collaborative care treatment programme (Depression Care for People with Cancer, DCPC) was highly effective in treating depression in patients with cancer. This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of DCPC compared with usual care from a health service perspective. Methods Costs were estimated using UK national unit cost estimates and health outcomes measured using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness of DCPC compared with usual care was calculated and scenario analyses performed to test alternative assumptions on costs and missing data. Uncertainty was characterised using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. The probability of DCPC being cost-effective was determined using the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's (NICE) cost-effectiveness threshold range of £20,000 to £30,000 per QALY gained. Results DCPC cost on average £631 more than usual care per patient, and resulted in a mean gain of 0.066 QALYs, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £9549 per QALY. The probability of DCPC being cost-effective was 0.9 or greater at cost-effectiveness thresholds above £20,000 per QALY for the base case and scenario analyses. Conclusions Compared with usual care, DCPC is likely to be cost-effective at the current thresholds used by NICE. This study adds to the weight of evidence that collaborative care treatment models are cost-effective for depression, and provides new evidence regarding their use in specialist medical settings. PMID:26652589

  19. Heterogeneity of sleep quality in relation to circadian preferences and depressive symptomatology among major depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Boysan, Murat; Kandeger, Ali; Uygur, Omer F; Sayin, Ayca A; Akbaba, Nursel; Koc, Basak

    2018-08-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the latent dimensional structure of sleep quality as indexed by the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), as well as latent covariance structure between sleep quality, circadian preferences and depressive symptoms. Two hundred twenty-five patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with an average age of 29.92 ± 10.49 years (aged between 17 and 63), participated in the study. The PSQI, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to participants. Four sets of latent class analyses were subsequently run to obtain optimal number of latent classes best fit to the data. Mixture models revealed that sleep quality is multifaceted in MDD. The data best fit to four-latent-class model: Poor Habitual Sleep Quality (PHSQ), Poor Subjective Sleep Quality (PSSQ), Intermediate Sleep Quality (ISQ), and Good Sleep Quality (GSQ). MDD patients classified into GSQ latent class (23.6%) reported the lowest depressive symptoms and were more prone to morningness diurnal preferences compared to other three homogenous sub-groups. Finally, the significant association between eveningness diurnal preferences and depressive symptomatology was significantly mediated by poor sleep quality. The cross-sectional nature of the study and the lack of an objective measurement of sleep such as polysomnography recordings was the most striking limitation of the study. We concluded sleep quality in relation to circadian preferences and depressive symptoms has a heterogeneous nature in MDD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Access of emotional information to visual awareness in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sterzer, P; Hilgenfeldt, T; Freudenberg, P; Bermpohl, F; Adli, M

    2011-08-01

    According to cognitive theories of depression, negative biases affect most cognitive processes including perception. Such depressive perception may result not only from biased cognitive appraisal but also from automatic processing biases that influence the access of sensory information to awareness. Twenty patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 healthy control participants underwent behavioural testing with a variant of binocular rivalry, continuous flash suppression (CFS), to investigate the potency of emotional visual stimuli to gain access to awareness. While a neutral, fearful, happy or sad emotional face was presented to one eye, high-contrast dynamic patterns were presented to the other eye, resulting in initial suppression of the face from awareness. Participants indicated the location of the face with a key press as soon as it became visible. The modulation of suppression time by emotional expression was taken as an index of unconscious emotion processing. We found a significant difference in the emotional modulation of suppression time between MDD patients and controls. This difference was due to relatively shorter suppression of sad faces and, to a lesser degree, to longer suppression of happy faces in MDD. Suppression time modulation by sad expression correlated with change in self-reported severity of depression after 4 weeks. Our finding of preferential access to awareness for mood-congruent stimuli supports the notion that depressive perception may be related to altered sensory information processing even at automatic processing stages. Such perceptual biases towards mood-congruent information may reinforce depressed mood and contribute to negative cognitive biases. © Cambridge University Press 2011

  1. Correlates of residual fatigue in patients with major depressive disorder: The role of psychotropic medication.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Yu, Yee-Man; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2015-11-01

    Fatigue is not only a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), but also a common residual symptom. We determined the sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacologic factors that were associated with fatigue in patients with remission or partial remission of MDD. Data was derived from a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture in 137 MDD patients with residual symptoms. Fatigue was measured by Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Self-report and clinician-rated scales were used to assess psychopathology. 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17) score≤7 denoted MDD remission. Participants' average HDRS17 score was 10.5; 29.2% were in remission. The average MFI-20 score was 71.8; 83.2% had severe fatigue, defined as MFI-20 score≥60. Fifty-two of 137 participants (38%) were using sedating psychotropic medications. Antidepressant dosage ranged from 1-90mg fluoxetine equivalent and sedatives/hypnotics from 1-60mg diazepam equivalent. There were significant correlations between MFI-20 score and HDRS17 depression and anxiety subscores, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) depression and anxiety subscores, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale score, but insomnia and daytime sleepiness, sociodemographics, current medical conditions, and psychotropic medication use were not significant correlates. Upon multiple regression, HADS and HDRS17 depression scores independently predicted MFI-20 score. In remission and partial remission subgroups, HADS depression score was an independent predictor. Participants were recruited from specialty psychiatric units; hence the findings may not be applicable in non-specialized settings. Fatigue was predicted by depression severity in remitted or partially remitted MDD. Psychotropic medication and higher dosage were not associated with greater fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-06-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients. The study population consisted of 555 subjects with MDD who were ≥ 18 years old, evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) with the suicidality module. At the evaluation visit, we measured serum lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and blood measures such as fasting glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thyroid hormones, red and white blood cells, platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Recent attempters who had attempted suicide within the past month showed significantly lower TG and higher HDL levels than lifetime and never attempters, using Tukey's post-hoc analysis. Recent attempters exhibited lower TG and higher HDL than those with recent suicide ideation and wish to self-harm and those without previous attempt. Linear regression analysis revealed that TG was negatively associated with current suicidality scores (β = -0.187, p = 0.039), whereas VLDL was positively associated with the recent suicide status (β = 0.198, p = 0.032) after controlling for age and sex. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum lipid profiles and blood measures. Low serum TG, high HDL and VLDL levels are associated with recent suicide attempt or recent suicide status in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of family history of major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide on clinical features in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Souery, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The extent to which a family history of mood disorders and suicide could impact on clinical features of patients suffering from major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has received relatively little attention so far. The aim of the present work is, therefore, to assess the clinical implications of the presence of at least one first- and/or second-degree relative with a history of MD, BD and suicide in a large sample of patients with MD or BD. One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects with MD and 686 subjects with BD were recruited within the context of two large projects. The impact of a family history of MD, BD, and suicide-considered both separately and together-on clinical and socio-demographic variables was investigated. A family history of MD, BD, and suicide was more common in BD patients than in MD patients. A positive family history of mood disorders and/or suicide as well as a positive family history of MD and BD separately considered, but not a positive history of suicide alone, were significantly associated with a comorbidity with several anxiety disorders and inversely associated with age of onset. The clinical implications as well as the limitations of our findings are discussed.

  4. Plasma glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressive disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-02-01

    Some clinical studies have reported reduced peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) level in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We verified whether a reduction in plasma GDNF level was associated with MDD. Plasma GDNF level was measured in 23 healthy control subjects and 23 MDD patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma GDNF level in MDD patients at baseline did not differ from that in healthy controls. Plasma GDNF in MDD patients did not differ significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. GDNF level was significantly lower in recurrent-episode MDD patients than in first-episode patients before and after treatment. Our findings revealed significantly lower plasma GDNF level in recurrent-episode MDD patients, although plasma GDNF levels in MDD patients and healthy controls did not differ significantly. The discrepancy between our study and previous studies might arise from differences in the recurrence of depression or the ages of the MDD patients.

  5. Hypophosphataemia after major hepatectomy and the risk of post-operative hepatic insufficiency and mortality: an analysis of 719 patients.

    PubMed

    Squires, Malcolm H; Dann, Gregory C; Lad, Neha L; Fisher, Sarah B; Martin, Benjamin M; Kooby, David A; Sarmiento, Juan M; Russell, Maria C; Cardona, Kenneth; Staley, Charles A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2014-10-01

    Hypophosphataemia after a hepatectomy suggests hepatic regeneration. It was hypothesized that the absence of hypophosphataemia is associated with post-operative hepatic insufficiency (PHI) and complications. Patients who underwent a major hepatectomy from 2000-2012 at a single institution were identified. Post-operative serum phosphorus levels were assessed. Primary outcomes were PHI (peak bilirubin >7 mg/dl), major complications, and 30- and 90-day mortality. Seven hundred and nineteen out of 749 patients had post-operative phosphorus levels available. PHI and major complications occurred in 63 (8.8%) and 169 (23.5%) patients, respectively. Thirty- and 90-day mortality were 4.0% and 5.4%, respectively. The median phosphorus level on post-operative-day (POD) 2 was 2.2 mg/dl; 231 patients (32.1%) had phosphorus >2.4 on POD2. Patients with POD2 phosphorus >2.4 had a significantly higher incidence of PHI, major complications and mortality. On multivariate analysis, POD2 phosphorus >2.4 remained a significant risk factor for PHI [(hazard ratio HR):1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-3.17; P = 0.048], major complications (HR:1.57; 95%CI:1.02-2.47; P = 0.049), 30-day mortality (HR:2.70; 95%CI:1.08-6.76; P = 0.034) and 90-day mortality (HR:2.51; 95%CI:1.03-6.15; P = 0.044). Similarly, patients whose phosphorus level reached nadir after POD3 had higher PHI, major complications and mortality. Elevated POD2 phosphorus levels >2.4 mg/dl and a delayed nadir in phosphorus beyond POD3 are associated with increased post-operative hepatic insufficiency, major complications and early mortality. Failure to develop hypophosphataemia within 72 h after a major hepatectomy may reflect insufficient liver remnant regeneration. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of 6-week Chlorella vulgaris supplementation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Badeli, Roghayeh; Karami, Gholam-Reza; Badeli, Zeinab; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2015-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a widespread psychiatric disorder with incapacitating symptoms. Oxidative stress has been identified to play a role in the pathophysiology of MDD. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a chemically defined and antioxidant-rich Chlorella vulgaris extract (CVE) as adjunct to standard treatment in patients suffering from MDD. Subjects with MDD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria who were receiving standard antidepressant therapy were assigned to add-on therapy with CVE (1800 mg/day; n=42), or continued standard antidepressant therapy alone (n=50) for a period of 6 weeks. Changes in the frequency of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scale. There were significant reductions in total and subscale BDI-II and HADS scores in both CVE and control groups by the end of trial. The magnitude of reductions in total BDI-II score [-4.14 (-5.30 to -2.97)] as well as physical [-2.34 (-2.84 to -1.84)] and cognitive [-1.12 (-1.62 to -0.61)] subscales were significantly greater in the CVE versus control group, however, reduction of the affective symptoms was greater in the control compared with the CVE group [0.95 (0.18-0.72)]. Total HADS [-3.71 (-4.44 to -2.98)] as well as individual subscales of depression [-1.46 (-2.02 to -0.90)] and anxiety [-2.25 (-2.74 to -1.76)] were reduced to a greater degree in the CVE group. CVE was well tolerated and no serious adverse event was reported. This pilot exploratory trial provides the first clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of adjunctive therapy with CVE in improving physical and cognitive symptoms of depression as well as anxiety symptoms in patients who are receiving standard antidepressant therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of decreasing energy intakes in major burn patients: A 15-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pantet, Olivier; Stoecklin, Patricia; Vernay, Arnaud; Berger, Mette M

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional therapy is particularly important after major burn injury and specific nutritional guidelines have been developed. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of the changes in our nutritional practice, general compliance with the guidelines and potential consequences. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in burn patients requiring intensive care (ICU) between 1999 and 2014. admission on day 1, full treatment and length of ICU stay >7 days. Four periods (P) were defined by protocol changes (P1: 1999-2001, P2: 2002-2005, P3: 2006-2010, P4: 2011-2014). Collected data: demographic and nutritional data, infectious complications, weights, CRP and prealbumin concentrations during the first 21 days. 240 patients were included (median age 43 years, burned area 25%). Measured energy expenditure (MEE) was stable through all periods but the prescribed caloric target decreased significantly, and below MEE (P1: 33 kcal/kg, IQR 7, P4: 28 kcal/kg, IQR 8, p < 0.001). Energy delivery ended decreasing below 30 kcal/kg/day (P1: 30 kcal/kg, IQR 23, P4: 25 kcal/kg, IQR 12, p < 0.001). Protein intakes increased due the use of high protein solutions and glutamine (P1: 1.04 g/kg, IQR 0.90, P4: 1.26, IQR 0.99, p < 0.001). Weight loss by day 21 increased significantly according to area under the curve (P1: 701, IQR 38, P2: 722, IQR 51, P4: 689 IQR 63, p = 0.02). Prealbumin levels decreased with energy decrease (P1: 150 mg/L, IQR 110, P4: 80 mg/L, IQR 70, p = 0.003). The observed reduction of the energy delivery <30 kcal/kg was associated with a supplemental weight loss and lower prealbumin concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerling, A; Kück, M; Tegtbur, U; Grams, L; Weber-Spickschen, S; Hanke, A; Stubbs, B; Kahl, K G

    2017-06-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Existing data on exercise treatment in people with MDD are inconsistent concerning the effect of exercise on BDNF pointing either to increased or unaltered BDNF concentrations. However, studies in non-depressed persons demonstrated a significant effect on resting peripheral BDNF concentrations in aerobic training interventions. Given the lack of clarity mentioned above, the current study aimed at examining the effect of adjunctive exercise on serum BDNF levels in guideline based treated patients with MDD. 42 depressed inpatients were included, and randomized either to a 6 week structured and supervised exercise intervention plus treatment as usual (EXERCISE, n=22), or to treatment as usual (TAU, n=20). BDNF serum concentrations were assessed before and after the intervention in both study groups with established immunoassays. Serum BDNF slightly decreased in the TAU group, whilst there was an increase in BDNF levels in the exercise group. There was a significant time x group effect concerning sBDNF (p=0.030) with repeated ANOVA measures with age and BMI as covariates, suggesting an increase in BDNF concentrations in the EXERCISE group compared to TAU. Though there was no statistic difference in the antidepressant medication between EXERCISE and TAU potential interactions between exercise and medication on the effects of exercise in BDNF cannot be excluded. Gender was not considered as a covariate in ANOVA due to the small number of objects. Exercise training given as adjunct to standard guideline based treatment appears to have additional effects on BDNF serum concentrations in people with MDD. Our results add further evidence to the beneficial effects of exercise in the treatment of MDD. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential gene expression in patients with subsyndromal symptomatic depression and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengqing; Hu, Guoqin; Li, Zezhi; Wang, Qingzhong; Wang, Xuemei; Yuan, Chengmei; Wang, Zuowei; Hong, Wu; Lu, Weihong; Cao, Lan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yong; Yu, Shunying; Zhou, Yimin; Yi, Zhenghui; Fang, Yiru

    2017-01-01

    Subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is a subtype of subthreshold depressive and can lead to significant psychosocial functional impairment. Although the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and SSD still remains poorly understood, a set of studies have found that many same genetic factors play important roles in the etiology of these two disorders. Nowadays, the differential gene expression between MDD and SSD is still unknown. In our previous study, we compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD and matched healthy controls (8 subjects in each group), and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures. Based on these findings, we further clarify whether these genes mRNA was different expressed in peripheral blood in patients with SSD, MDD and healthy controls (60 subjects respectively). With the help of the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we gained gene relative expression levels among the three groups. We found that there are three of the forty eight co-regulated genes had differential expression in peripheral blood among the three groups, which are CD84, STRN, CTNS gene (F = 3.528, p = 0.034; F = 3.382, p = 0.039; F = 3.801, p = 0.026, respectively) while there were no significant differences for other genes. CD84, STRN, CTNS gene may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and classifying SSD, MDD and healthy controls.

  10. Clinical and genetic predictors of major cardiac events in patients with Anderson-Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimal; O'Mahony, Constantinos; Hughes, Derralynn; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Coats, Caroline; Murphy, Elaine; Lachmann, Robin; Mehta, Atul; Elliott, Perry M

    2015-06-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is an X linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the α-galactosidase A gene. Some mutations are associated with prominent and, in many cases, exclusive cardiac involvement. The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of major cardiac events in AFD and to identify clinical and genetic predictors of adverse outcomes. We studied 207 patients with AFD (47% male, mean age 44 years, mean follow-up 7.1 years). Fifty-eight (28%) individuals carried mutations that have been previously associated with a cardiac predominant phenotype. Twenty-one (10%) developed severe heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≥3), 13 (6%) developed atrial fibrillation (AF), 13 (6%) received devices for the treatment of bradycardia; there were a total of 7 (3%) cardiac deaths. The incidence of the primary endpoint (a composite of new onset AF, NYHA ≥ 3 symptoms, device insertion for bradycardia and cardiac death) was 2.64 per 100 person-years (CI 1.78 to 3.77). Age (HR 1.04, CI 1.01 to 1.08, p=0.004), Mainz Severity Score Index score (HR 1.05, CI 1.01 to 1.09, p=0.012) and QRS duration (HR 1.03, CI 1.00 to 1.05, p=0.020) were significant independent predictors of the primary endpoint. The presence of a cardiac genetic variant did not predict the primary end point. AFD is associated with a high burden of cardiac morbidity and mortality. Adverse cardiac outcomes are associated with age, global disease severity and advanced cardiac disease but not the presence of cardiac genetic variants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antidepressant response in patients with major depression exposed to NSAIDs: a pharmacovigilance study.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patience J; Castro, Victor; Fava, Maurizio; Weilburg, Jeffrey B; Murphy, Shawn N; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Kohane, Isaac S; Iosifescu, Dan V; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that there is a mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may interfere with antidepressant response, and poorer outcomes among NSAID-treated patients were reported in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. To attempt to confirm this association in an independent population-based treatment cohort and explore potential confounding variables, the authors examined use of NSAIDs and related medications among 1,528 outpatients in a New England health care system. METHOD Treatment outcomes were classified using a validated machine learning tool applied to electronic medical records. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between medication exposure and treatment outcomes, adjusted for potential confounding variables. To further elucidate confounding and treatment specificity of the observed effects, data from the STAR*D study were reanalyzed. RESULTS NSAID exposure was associated with a greater likelihood of depression classified as treatment resistant compared with depression classified as responsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (odds ratio=1.55, 95% CI=1.21-2.00). This association was apparent in the NSAIDs-only group but not in those using other agents with NSAID-like mechanisms (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and salicylates). Inclusion of age, sex, ethnicity, and measures of comorbidity and health care utilization in regression models indicated confounding; association with outcome was no longer significant in fully adjusted models. Reanalysis of STAR*D results likewise identified an association in NSAIDs but not NSAID-like drugs, with more modest effects persisting after adjustment for potential confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS These results support an association between NSAID use and poorer antidepressant outcomes in major depressive disorder but indicate that some of the observed effect may be a result of confounding.

  13. PTT analysis of polyps from FAP patients reveals a great majority of APC truncating mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Luijt, R.B. van der; Khan, P.M.; Tops, C.M.J.

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Germline APC mutations are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominantly inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the large intestine. In order to investigate whether somatic inactivation of the remaining APC allele is necessary for adenoma formation, we collected multiple adenomatous polyps from individual FAP patients and investigated the presence of somatic mutations in the APC gene. The analysis of somatic APC mutations in these tumor samples was performed using a rapid and sensitive assay, called themore » protein truncation test (PTT). Chain-terminating somatic APC mutations were detected in the great majority of the tumor samples investigated. As expected, these mutations were mainly located in the mutation cluster region (MCR) in exon 15. Our results confirm that somatic mutation of the second APC allele is required for adenoma formation in FAP. Interestingly, in the polyps investigated in our study, the second APC allele is somatically inactivated through point mutation leading to a stop codon rather than by loss of heterozygosity. The observation that somatic second hits in APC are required for tumor development in FAP is in apparent accordance with the Knudson hypothesis for classical tumor suppressor genes. However, it is yet unknown whether chain-terminating APC mutations lead to a truncated protein exerting a dominant-negative effect or whether these mutations result in a null allele. Further investigation of this important issue will hopefully provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the mutated APC alleles in colorectal carcinogenesis.« less

  14. No association between serum cholesterol and death by suicide in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Yi, Ki Kyoung; Na, Riji; Lim, Ahyoung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-12-05

    Previous research on serum total cholesterol and suicidality has yielded conflicting results. Several studies have reported a link between low serum total cholesterol and suicidality, whereas others have failed to replicate these findings, particularly in patients with major affective disorders. These discordant findings may reflect the fact that studies often do not distinguish between patients with bipolar and unipolar depression; moreover, definitions and classification schemes for suicide attempts in the literature vary widely. Subjects were patients with one of the three major psychiatric disorders commonly associated with suicide: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We compared serum lipid levels in patients who died by suicide (82 schizophrenia, 23 bipolar affective disorder, and 67 MDD) and non-suicide controls (200 schizophrenia, 49 bipolar affective disorder, and 175 MDD). Serum lipid profiles did not differ between patients who died by suicide and control patients in any diagnostic group. Our results do not support the use of biological indicators such as serum total cholesterol to predict suicide risk among patients with a major psychiatric disorder.

  15. No association between serum cholesterol and death by suicide in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on serum total cholesterol and suicidality has yielded conflicting results. Several studies have reported a link between low serum total cholesterol and suicidality, whereas others have failed to replicate these findings, particularly in patients with major affective disorders. These discordant findings may reflect the fact that studies often do not distinguish between patients with bipolar and unipolar depression; moreover, definitions and classification schemes for suicide attempts in the literature vary widely. Methods Subjects were patients with one of the three major psychiatric disorders commonly associated with suicide: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We compared serum lipid levels in patients who died by suicide (82 schizophrenia, 23 bipolar affective disorder, and 67 MDD) and non-suicide controls (200 schizophrenia, 49 bipolar affective disorder, and 175 MDD). Results Serum lipid profiles did not differ between patients who died by suicide and control patients in any diagnostic group. Conclusions Our results do not support the use of biological indicators such as serum total cholesterol to predict suicide risk among patients with a major psychiatric disorder. PMID:24308827

  16. Low body mass index can identify majority of osteoporotic inflammatory bowel disease patients missed by current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Atreja, Ashish; Aggarwal, Ashish; Licata, Angelo A; Lashner, Bret A

    2012-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at high risk of developing osteoporosis. Our objective was to determine the usefulness of IBD guidelines in identifying patients at risk for developing osteoporosis. We utilized institutional repository to identify patients seen in IBD center and extracted data on demographics, disease history, conventional, and nonconventional risk factors for osteoporosis and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) findings. 59% of patients (1004/1703) in our IBD cohort had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis screening. DXA was documented in 263 patients with indication of screening (provider adherence, 26.2%), and of these, 196 patients had DXA completed ("at-risk" group). Ninety-five patients not meeting guidelines-based risk factors also had DXA completed ("not at-risk" group). 139 (70.9%) patients in "at-risk" group had low BMD, while 51 (53.7%) of "not-at-risk" patients had low BMD. Majority of the patients with osteoporosis (83.3%) missed by the current guidelines had low BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low BMI was the strongest risk factor for osteoporosis (OR 3.07; 95% CI, 1.47-6.42; P = 0.003). Provider adherence to current guidelines is suboptimal. Low BMI can identify majority of the patients with osteoporosis that are missed by current guidelines.

  17. Associations between chronotype, sleep quality, suicidality, and depressive symptoms in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2010-10-01

    Research interest concerning associations between sleep characteristics and suicidality in psychopathology has been growing. However, possible linkages of suicidality to sleep characteristics in terms of sleep quality and chronotypes among depressive patients have not been well documented. In the current study, the authors investigated the possible effects of sleep quality and chronotype on the severity of depressive symptoms and suicide risk in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls. The study was conducted on 80 patients clinically diagnosed with major depression and 80 healthy subjects who were demographically matched with the patient group. All participants completed a questionnaire package containing self-report measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), and subjects were interviewed with the suicidality section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results are as follows: (a) logistic regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and depression symptom severity significantly predicted onset of major depression; (b) morningness-type circadian rhythm may play as a significant relief factor after onset of major depression; (c) sleep variables of chronotype and sleep quality did not significantly predict suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms in the major depression group; and (d) suicide ideation and poor sleep quality were antecedents of depression symptom severity in patients with major depression, and in healthy controls. Findings are discussed under the theoretical assumptions concerning possible relations between chronotype, sleep quality, depression, and suicidality.

  18. Electronic patient-reported outcomes from home in patients recovering from major gynecologic cancer surgery: A prospective study measuring symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Renee A; Suidan, Rudy S; Andikyan, Vaagn; Rezk, Youssef A; Einstein, M Heather; Chang, Kaity; Carter, Jeanne; Zivanovic, Oliver; Jewell, Elizabeth J; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Basch, Ethan; Chi, Dennis S

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported on the feasibility of a Web-based system to capture patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the immediate postoperative period. The purpose of this study was to update the experience of these patients and assess patient and provider satisfaction and feedback regarding the system. This is a prospective cohort study of patients scheduled to undergo laparotomy for presumed gynecologic malignancy. Patients completed a Web-based Symptom Tracking and Reporting (STAR) questionnaire preoperatively and weekly during a 6-week postoperative period. Email alerts were sent to study nurses when concerning patient responses were entered. The patient and the nurse assessments of STAR's usefulness were measured via an exit survey. The study enrolled 96 eligible patients. Of these, 71 patients (74%) completed at least four of seven total sessions. Of the patients who completed the exit satisfaction survey, 98% found STAR easy to use; 84% found it useful; and 82% would recommend it to other patients. Despite positive feedback from patients, clinical personnel found that the STAR system increased their current workload without enhancing patient care. Application of an electronic program for PROs in those recovering from major gynecologic cancer surgery is feasible, and acceptable to most patients. While most clinicians did not find STAR clinically helpful, the majority of patients reported a positive experience with the system and would recommend its use. The program helped many patients feel more empowered in their postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors of recipient site infection in head and neck cancer patients undergoing pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Hsien; Wong, Yong-Kie; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Jiang, Rong-San; Lai, Chih-Sheng; Liu, Shih-An

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with infection at the recipient site of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) of head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed head and neck cancer patients who underwent PMMF reconstruction and identified those with recipient site infection. Variables of patients with and without infection were compared and associated factors were investigated by logistic regression model. A total of 478 patients were included in the final analysis and 183 patients (38.3%) developed recipient site infection. Lower margin of skin island, concurrent tracheotomy, diabetes mellitus, mandibular plate reconstruction, prior radiation, and peri-operative blood transfusion were independent factors associated with recipient site infection of PMMF. Skin island of PMMF beyond the eighth intercostal space markedly increased the risk of recipient site infection after major head and neck cancer surgery. Recognition of relevant factors associated with infection may help surgeons to identify those at risk.

  20. Acute major gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hookworm infection in a patient on warfarin therapy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu; Lu, FangGen; Shi, Lin; Cheng, MeiChu; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    The use of anticoagulants is a contributor to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Most bleeding patients on anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin commonly have basic lesions existing in their GI mucosa. We report a case of major GI bleeding following the use of anticoagulants in a patient with hookworm infection. The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with pulmonary embolism. He was treated with anticoagulants and suffered from acute major GI bleeding during the treatment. Capsule endoscopy revealed many hookworms in the lumen of jejunum where fresh blood was seen coming from the mucosa. The patient was successfully rescued and cured with albendazole. Latent hookworm infection can be a cause of massive small-bowel hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulant therapy and anthelmintic treatment is the key to stop bleeding.

  1. Dynamic Patterns in Mood Among Newly Diagnosed Patients With Major Depressive Episode or Panic Disorder and Normal Controls

    PubMed Central

    Katerndahl, David; Ferrer, Robert; Best, Rick; Wang, Chen-Pin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the dynamic patterns of hourly mood variation among newly diagnosed primary care patients with major depressive disorder or panic disorder with patterns in patients with neither disorder. Method: Five adult patients with major depressive episode, 5 with panic disorder, and 5 with neither disorder were asked to complete hourly self-assessments of anxiety and depression (using 100-mm visual analog scales) for each hour they were awake during a 30-day period. Time series were analyzed using ARIMA (autoregression, integration, moving average) modeling (to assess periodicity), Lyapunov exponents (to assess sensitivity to initial conditions indicative of chaotic patterns), and correlation dimension saturation (to assess whether an attractor is limiting change). The study was conducted from March to June 2003. Results: Controls displayed circadian rhythms with underlying chaotic variability. Depressed patients did not display circadian rhythm, but did show chaotic dynamics. Panic disorder patients showed circadian rhythms, but 2 of the 4 patients completing the self-assessments displayed nonchaotic underlying patterns. Conclusions: Patients with major depressive disorder or panic disorder may differ from controls and from each other in their patterns of mood variability. There is a need for more research on the dynamics of mood among patients with mental disorders. PMID:17632650

  2. Early Whole Blood for Patients Requiring Massive Transfusion after Major Trauma. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    process of determining which of the 45 patients had an abdominal CT. Measure serum (adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin ). We obtained serial...samples thru 24 hours on 60 patients and samples thru five days on 23 patients. We measured serum adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin , and resistin, and...adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin were all lower in injured patients than in healthy volunteers at all timepoints. Adiponectin slowly decreased over time

  3. Ultradeep Sequencing for Detection of Quasispecies Variants in the Major Hydrophilic Region of Hepatitis B Virus in Indonesian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Laura Navika; Utsumi, Takako; Juniastuti; Wandono, Hadi; Widjanarko, Doddy; Triantanoe, Ari; Wasityastuti, Widya; Liang, Yujiao; Okada, Rina; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murakami, Yoshiki; Azuma, Takeshi; Soetjipto; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-01-01

    Quasispecies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with variations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) can evolve during infection, allowing HBV to evade neutralizing antibodies. These escape variants may contribute to chronic infections. In this study, we looked for MHR variants in HBV quasispecies using ultradeep sequencing and evaluated the relationship between these variants and clinical manifestations in infected patients. We enrolled 30 Indonesian patients with hepatitis B infection (11 with chronic hepatitis and 19 with advanced liver disease). The most common subgenotype/subtype of HBV was B3/adw (97%). The HBsAg titer was lower in patients with advanced liver disease than that in patients with chronic hepatitis. The MHR variants were grouped based on the percentage of the viral population affected: major, ≥20% of the total population; intermediate, 5% to <20%; and minor, 1% to <5%. The rates of MHR variation that were present in the major and intermediate viral population were significantly greater in patients with advanced liver disease than those in chronic patients. The most frequent MHR variants related to immune evasion in the major and intermediate populations were P120Q/T, T123A, P127T, Q129H/R, M133L/T, and G145R. The major population of MHR variants causing impaired of HBsAg secretion (e.g., G119R, Q129R, T140I, and G145R) was detected only in advanced liver disease patients. This is the first study to use ultradeep sequencing for the detection of MHR variants of HBV quasispecies in Indonesian patients. We found that a greater number of MHR variations was related to disease severity and reduced likelihood of HBsAg titer. PMID:26202119

  4. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from non-sibling matched family donors for patients with thalassemia major in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ayad Ahmed; Al-Zaben, Abdulhadi; Khattab, Eman; Haroun, Anas; Frangoul, Haydar

    2016-02-01

    There are limited data on the outcome of patients with thalassemia receiving HSCT from non-sibling matched family donors. Of the 341 patients with thalassemia major that underwent donor search at our center from January 2003 to December 2011, 236 (69.2%) had fully matched family donor of which 28 patients (8.2%) had non-sibling matched family donors identified. We report on seven patients with a median age of eight yr (4-21) who underwent myeloablative (n = 4) or RIC (n = 3) HSCT. The median age of the donors was 33 yr (4-47), three were parents, two first cousins, one paternal uncle, and one paternal aunt. All patients achieved primary neutrophil and platelet engraftment at a median of 18 (13-20) and 16 days (11-20), respectively. One patient developed grade II acute GVHD, and two patients developed limited chronic GVHD. One patient experienced secondary GF requiring a second transplant. At a median follow-up of 69 months (7-110), all patients are alive and thalassemia free. Our data emphasize the need for extended family HLA typing for patients with thalassemia major in regions where there is high rate of consanguinity. Transplant from non-sibling matched family donor can result in excellent outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association between influenza vaccination and reduced risks of major adverse cardiovascular events in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Hsien; Wu, Hau-Hsin; Shih, Chia-Jen; Chen, Yung-Tai; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chen, Te-Li

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the protective effect of influenza vaccine against primary major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in elderly patients, especially those with influenza-like illness (ILI). This retrospective, population-based case-control study of an elderly population (age≥65 years) was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2000-2013). One control was selected for each MACE case (n=80,363 each), matched according to age, year of study entry, and predisposing factors for MACEs. ILI and MACEs (myocardial infarction [MI] and ischemic stroke) were defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the association between MACEs and vaccination. Influenza vaccination received in the previous year was associated with reduced risks of primary MACEs overall (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.82, P<.001), MI (aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.84, P<.001), and ischemic stroke (aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.82, P<.001). ILI diagnosed in the previous year was associated with increased risks of MACEs (aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.18-1.29, P<.001), MI (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.34-1.59, P<.001), and ischemic stroke (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.10-1.22, P<.001). Vaccination attenuated the heightened risks associated with ILI (MACEs: aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92-1.07, P=.834; MI: aOR 1.05, 95% CI 0.92-1.21, P=.440; ischemic stroke: aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89-1.05, P=.398). Results of this study suggest that influenza vaccination is associated with reduced primary MACE risks in the elderly population, including those with ILI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The measurement of cognitive reactivity to sad mood in patients remitted from major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Caroline A; Mocking, Roel J T; Mahmoud, Gelera A; Koeter, Maarten W; Bockting, Claudi L; van der Does, Willem; Ruhe, Henricus G; Schene, Aart H

    2018-02-27

    Cognitive reactivity (CR) to sad mood is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). CR is usually measured by assessing change on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS-change) after sad mood-induction. It has, however, been suggested that the versions of the DAS (A/B) are not interchangeable, impacting the reliability and validity of the change score. The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised (LEIDS-R) is an alternative self-report measure of CR. Studies examining the relationship between LEIDS-R and DAS-change have shown mixed results. We examined whether scores of these CR measures differed between remitted MDD and controls, the relationship between these CR measures, and the effect of order of DAS administration on DAS-change. Cross-sectional design with two groups (remitted MDD and controls). Sixty-eight MDD patients remitted from ≥2 previous episodes, not taking antidepressants, and 43 never-depressed controls participated in a mood-induction and filled in the DAS-A/B in randomized order before and after mood-induction, and LEIDS-R separately. LEIDS-R scores and pre-mood-induction DAS scores were significantly higher in remitted MDD than controls (p < .001, Cohen's d = 1.48; p = .001, Cohen's d = 0.66, respectively). DAS-change did not differ between these groups (p = .67, Cohen's d = 0.08). LEIDS-R correlated with DAS-change (r = .30, p = .042), but only in the group that filled in DAS-B before DAS-A. In remitted MDD, DAS-change was dependent on the order of DAS versions before and after mood-induction (10.6 ± 19.0 vs. -1.2 ± 10.5, for order B-A and A-B, respectively), with a significant group × order interaction (p = .012). Existing DAS versions are not interchangeable, which compromises the usefulness of mood-inductions in clinical practice. The LEIDS-R seems a valid measure of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Clinical implications: Cognitive reactivity (CR) is a risk factor of depressive recurrence. The

  7. Risk of subsequent dementia among patients with bipolar disorder or major depression: a nationwide longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Li, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-06-01

    Both major depression and bipolar disorder are associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, the differential risk of dementia between major depression and bipolar disorder is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 2291 patients aged ≥ 55 years (major depression: 1946 and bipolar disorder: 345) and 2291 age-and sex-matched controls were enrolled between 1998 and 2008, and followed to the end of 2011. Participants who developed dementia during the follow-up were identified. Both patients with bipolar disorder [hazard ratio (HR) 5.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.26-7.32] and those with major depression (HR 3.02, 95% CI 2.46-3.70) had an increased risk of developing dementia in later life, after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. The sensitivity tests after excluding the 1-year (bipolar disorder: HR 4.73, 95% CI 3.50-6.35; major depression: HR 2.62, 95% CI 2.11-3.25) and 3-year (HR 3.92, 95% CI 2.78-5.54; HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.73-2.83, respectively) follow-up duration also revealed consistent findings. Furthermore, patients with bipolar disorder were associated with an 87% increased risk (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.48-2.37) of subsequent dementia compared with patients with major depression. Midlife individuals with bipolar disorder or major depression were associated with an elevated risk of developing dementia in later life. Further studies may be required to clarify the underlying mechanisms among major depression, bipolar disorder, and dementia, and to investigate whether prompt intervention may decrease this risk. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Reported and Interviewer-Rated Oral Health in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Rong; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Hui; Ma, Xin; Chiu, Helen F K; Correll, Christoph U; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Lai, Kelly Y C; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Li, Yan; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Lok, Ka In; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-reported (SR) and interviewer-rated (IR) oral health between schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. 356 patients with SZ, BP, or MDD underwent assessments of psychopathology, side effects, SR, and IR oral health status. 118 patients (33.1%) reported poor oral health; the corresponding proportion was 36.4% in BP, 34.8% in SZ, and 25.5% in MD (p = .21). SR and IR oral health correlated only modestly (r = 0.17-0.36) in each group. Psychiatric patients need to be assessed for both SR and IR oral health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mithramycin encapsulated in polymeric micelles by microfluidic technology as novel therapeutic protocol for beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Capretto, Lorenzo; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Brognara, Eleonora; Lampronti, Ilaria; Carugo, Dario; Hill, Martyn; Zhang, Xunli; Gambari, Roberto; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This report shows that the DNA-binding drug, mithramycin, can be efficiently encapsulated in polymeric micelles (PM-MTH), based on Pluronic® block copolymers, by a new microfluidic approach. The effect of different production parameters has been investigated for their effect on PM-MTH characteristics. The compared analysis of PM-MTH produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures revealed that microfluidics provides a useful platform for the production of PM-MTH with improved controllability, reproducibility, smaller size, and polydispersity. Finally, an investigation of the effects of PM-MTH, produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures, on the erythroid differentiation of both human erythroleukemia and human erythroid precursor cells is reported. It is demonstrated that PM-MTH exhibited a slightly lower toxicity and more pronounced differentiative activity when compared to the free drug. In addition, PM-MTH were able to upregulate preferentially γ-globin messenger ribonucleic acid production and to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF) accumulation, the percentage of HbF-containing cells, and their HbF content without stimulating α-globin gene expression, which is responsible for the clinical symptoms of β-thalassemia. These results represent an important first step toward a potential clinical application, since an increase in HbF could alleviate the symptoms underlying β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. In conclusion, this report suggests that PM-MTH produced by microfluidic approach warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic protocol for β-thalassemia. PMID:22287841

  10. Costs of major intracranial, gastrointestinal and other bleeding events in patients with atrial fibrillation - a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marie; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Klausen Fredslund, Eskild; Poulsen, Peter Bo; Dybro, Lars; Paaske Johnsen, Søren

    2017-06-12

    Use of oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) involves a trade-off between a reduced risk of ischemic stroke and an increased risk of bleeding events. Different anticoagulation therapies have different safety profiles and data on the societal costs of both ischemic stroke and bleeding events are necessary for assessing the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of different treatment options. To our knowledge, no previous studies have estimated the societal costs of bleeding events in patients with AF. The objective of this study was to estimate the 3-years societal costs of first-incident intracranial, gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events in Danish patients with AF. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness study carried out from a societal perspective and based on data from national Danish registries covering the period 2002-2012. Costs were estimated using a propensity score matching and multivariable regression analysis (first difference OLS) in a cohort design. Average 3-years societal costs attributable to intracranial, gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events were 27,627, 17,868, and 12,384 EUR per patient, respectively (2015 prices). Existing evidence shows that the corresponding costs of ischemic stroke were 24,084 EUR per patient (2012 prices). The average costs of bleeding events did not differ between patients with AF who were on oral anticoagulation therapy prior to the event and patients who were not. The societal costs attributable to major bleeding events in patients with AF are significant. Intracranial haemorrhages are most costly to society with average costs of similar magnitude as the costs of ischemic stroke. The average costs of gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events are lower than the costs of intracranial haemorrhages, but still substantial. Knowledge about the relative size of the costs of bleeding events compared to ischemic stroke in patients with AF constitutes

  11. Adverse Outcomes after Major Surgery in Patients with Pressure Ulcer: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Lun; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative adverse outcomes in patients with pressure ulcer are not completely understood. This study evaluated the association between preoperative pressure ulcer and adverse events after major surgeries. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 17391 patients with preoperative pressure ulcer receiving major surgery in 2008-2010. With a propensity score matching procedure, 17391 surgical patients without pressure ulcer were selected for comparison. Eight major surgical postoperative complications and 30-day postoperative mortality were evaluated among patients with pressure ulcer of varying severity. Results Patients with preoperative pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than controls for postoperative adverse outcomes, including septicemia, pneumonia, stroke, urinary tract infection, and acute renal failure. Surgical patients with pressure ulcer had approximately 1.83-fold risk (95% confidence interval 1.54-2.18) of 30-day postoperative mortality compared with control group. The most significant postoperative mortality was found in those with serious pressure ulcer, such as pressure ulcer with local infection, cellulitis, wound or treatment by change dressing, hospitalized care, debridement or antibiotics. Prolonged hospital or intensive care unit stay and increased medical expenditures were also associated with preoperative pressure ulcer. Conclusion This nationwide propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study showed increased postoperative complications and mortality in patients with preoperative pressure ulcer. Our findings suggest the urgency of preventing and managing preoperative pressure ulcer by a multidisciplinary medical team for this specific population. PMID:26000606

  12. Prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review and external validation study.

    PubMed

    Hilkens, N A; Algra, A; Greving, J P

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Prediction models may help to identify patients at high risk of bleeding on antiplatelet therapy. We identified existing prediction models for bleeding and validated them in patients with cerebral ischemia. Five prediction models were identified, all of which had some methodological shortcomings. Performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. Background Antiplatelet therapy is widely used in secondary prevention after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke. Bleeding is the main adverse effect of antiplatelet therapy and is potentially life threatening. Identification of patients at increased risk of bleeding may help target antiplatelet therapy. This study sought to identify existing prediction models for intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy and evaluate their performance in patients with cerebral ischemia. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for existing prediction models up to December 2014. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the CHARMS checklist. Prediction models were externally validated in the European Stroke Prevention Study 2, comprising 6602 patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke. We assessed discrimination and calibration of included prediction models. Five prediction models were identified, of which two were developed in patients with previous cerebral ischemia. Three studies assessed major bleeding, one studied intracerebral hemorrhage and one gastrointestinal bleeding. None of the studies met all criteria of good quality. External validation showed poor discriminative performance, with c-statistics ranging from 0.53 to 0.64 and poor calibration. A limited number of prediction models is available that predict intracranial hemorrhage or major bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy. The methodological quality of the models varied, but was generally low. Predictive performance in patients with cerebral ischemia was poor. In order to

  13. Major outcomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis on directly observed thrice a week regime

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Thomas; Pillai, Ayyappan Kunjukrishna; Cherian, Ajith; Nujum, Zinia T.; Pushpa, Chithra; Dae, Dalus; Krishnapillai, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India provides intermittent thrice-a-week directly observed treatment short course (RNTCP regimen). Objective: Assessments of all-cause mortality and nine-month morbidity outcomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) on RNTCP regimen. Materials and Methods: We prospectively followed up patients registered with RNTCP center, with a diagnosis of TBM from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2011. Morbidity was assessed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: We had 43 patients with median duration for follow-up of 396 days and that of survivors of 425 days. Two patients defaulted. Fourteen patients (32.5%) had mRS score of 4 to 6 and 29 had mRS of 0 to 3 after 9-month treatment. Severe disability was not related to any factor on logistic regression. Severe disability was seen in one patient (6.66%) among the 15 patients with stage 1, nine (37.5%) out of 24 patients with stage 2 and three (75%) out of 4 patients with stage 3 disease. Eight patients died (18.6%) of whom 4 died during the intensive phase and 4 during the continuation phase of RNTCP regimen. Mortality was independently related to treatment failure with adjusted Hazard ratio of 8.29 (CI: 1.38-49.78) (P = 0.02). One patient (6.66%) died out of the 15 patients with stage 1 disease, 5 (20.8%) out of 24 patients with stage 2 disease and 2 (50%) out of the 4 with stage 3 disease. Discussion and Conclusion: RNTCP regimen was associated with good compliance, comparable mortality and morbidity. PMID:25221396

  14. Management of Major Bleeding Events in Patients Treated With Dabigatran for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Retrospective, Multicenter Review.

    PubMed

    Milling, Truman J; Fromm, Christian; Ganetsky, Michael; Pallin, Daniel J; Cong, Julie; Singer, Adam J

    2017-05-01

    There are limited data on the clinical presentations and management of dabigatran-associated major bleeding outside the clinical trial setting. The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in patients with dabigatran-associated major bleeding who present to the emergency department (ED). We performed a retrospective observational chart review study of dabigatran-treated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who presented with acute major bleeding to the ED. We searched electronic medical record databases cross-referencing medication lists and hemorrhage International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and ICD-10 codes. We studied the resulting charts to yield confirmed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in patients with an index event of major bleeding and at least 1 dose of dabigatran in the 5 preceding days. The electronic search yielded 284 cases, and we assessed 93 as ineligible, leaving 191 in the final cohort. Of these, 118 patients (62%) had gastrointestinal hemorrhage; 36 (19%) had intracranial hemorrhage, 8 (4%) of which were nontraumatic cases and 28 (15%) traumatic. Thirty-six (19%) of the index events were in "other" locations and 1 (0.5%) "unknown." There were 12 deaths (6%): 8 from patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding events, 2 from intracranial hemorrhage (both nontraumatic), and 2 from other. Although RBC and plasma transfusions were common, only 11 patients (6%) received purified coagulation factors. Despite rare use of reversal strategies, mortality was low and outcomes were favorable, similar to reported outcomes from clinical trials, in this sample of patients with major bleeding while receiving dabigatran. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of painful physical symptoms in the treatment of Japanese patients with melancholic major depressive disorder: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Atsushi; Hozumi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study was to clarify how painful physical symptoms affect treatment outcomes in patients with melancholic major depressive disorder. The subjects comprised 100 consecutive Japanese outpatients with melancholic major depressive disorder who visited our clinic from October 2011 to October 2014. All subjects were interviewed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Axis 2, 3, and 4 and family history of major depressive disorder, and then grouped according to the presence of painful physical symptoms. We evaluated painful physical symptoms at baseline and after 12, 24, and 36 weeks of treatment and scores on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, compared major depressive disorder remission between groups, and assessed responsiveness to antidepressants. The group with painful physical symptoms had a significantly more positive family history of major depressive disorder. The major depressive disorder remission rate was high in both groups, and no significant differences were observed. However, a significant relationship between major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms remission was observed in the group with painful physical symptoms. A significantly higher number of remitted patients with painful physical symptoms (N=61) were administered serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, with significantly more receiving duloxetine than milnacipran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence of pain in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Mukai, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Shinji; Yasue, Ichiro; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Okochi, Tomo; Hirano, Shigeki; Kajio, Yusuke; Funahashi, Toshihiko; Akamatsu, Kaku; Ino, Kei; Okuda, Momoko; Tabuse, Hideaki; Iwata, Nakao

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of physical pain in Japanese major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ) patients as well as in healthy controls (HCs). We also examined the association between their psychopathology and characteristics of pain according to a face-to-face survey by an experienced psychiatrist and psychologist. We analyzed 233 HCs, 94 MDD patients, and 75 SZ patients using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and SF-8 (all participants), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items (MDD patients), and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (SZ patients). Although MDD patients experienced more pain than HCs, there was no difference in the prevalence of pain between SZ patients and HCs. Moreover, HCs with pain did not have higher SF-8 total scores than those without pain, whereas both MDD and SZ patients with pain had higher SF-8 total scores than those without pain. The severity of psychopathology in MDD and SZ patients was also positively associated with both the prevalence of pain and MPQ scores. MPQ scores were also associated with positive symptoms in SZ patients. Considering these results, physicians need to query MDD patients about physical pain during examination if they are to ensure a favorable and quick response to treatment. The severity of positive symptoms (i.e., clinical status) in SZ patients might also be associated with pain sensitivity, and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) may play a major role in risk stratification based on cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared spectroscopy in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Masakazu; Matsushita, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Makiko; Nakamura, Atsushi; Amano, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A previous study reported that low baseline cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2) (≤50%) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy was predictive of poor clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery. However, such findings have not been reconfirmed by others. We conducted the current study to evaluate whether the previous findings would be reproducible, and to explore mechanisms underlying the ScO2-based outcome prediction. Methods We retrospectively investigated 573 consecutive patients, aged 20 to 91 (mean ± standard deviation, 67.1 ± 12.8) years, who underwent major cardiovascular surgery. Preanesthetic baseline ScO2, lowest intraoperative ScO2, various clinical variables, and hospital mortality were examined. Results Bivariate regression analyses revealed that baseline ScO2 correlated significantly with plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration (BNP), hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p < 0.0001 for each). Baseline ScO2 correlated with BNP in an exponential manner, and BNP was the most significant factor influencing ScO2. Logistic regression analyses revealed that baseline and lowest intraoperative ScO2 values, but not relative ScO2 decrements, were significantly associated with hospital mortality (p < 0.05), independent of the EuroSCORE (p < 0.01). Receiver operating curve analysis of ScO2 values and hospital mortality revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.715 (p < 0.01) and a cutoff value of ≤50.5% for the baseline and ScO2, and an AUC of 0.718 (p < 0.05) and a cutoff value of ≤35% for the lowest intraoperative ScO2. Low baseline ScO2 (≤50%) was associated with increases in intubation time, intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and hospital mortality. Conclusion Baseline ScO2 was reflective of severity of systemic comorbidities and was predictive of clinical outcomes after major cardiovascular surgery. ScO2 correlated most significantly with BNP in

  18. Major Barriers Responsible for Malnutrition in Hemodialysis Patients: Challenges to Optimal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Mazloom, Zohreh; Jafari, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutritional barriers may contribute to malnutrition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Higher rates of morbidity and mortality rates have been reported in malnourished HD patients. These patients are faced with different challenges affecting their nutritional status. Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify most important barriers responsible for malnutrition in HD patients. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected 255 of 800 stable HD patients from three HD centers with an age range of 18-85 years, who had been on hemodialysis for at least three months without any acute illness. Each patient was interviewed to evaluate malnutrition [subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS)], and potential medical, behavioral and socioeconomic barriers. Body composition of patients was checked through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Routine clinical markers of malnutrition such as serum albumin and total protein were measured using standard automated techniques. Binary logistic regression model was used to find the association between nutritional markers and potential barriers. Results: Patients with higher SGA had lower knowledge about general nutrition [odds ratio (OR), 1.3], potassium (OR, 1.89), difficulty chewing (OR, 1.16), and shopping (OR, 1.16). Those with greater MIS scores had poor appetite (OR, 1.3), depression (OR, 1.21), and difficulty with cooking (OR, 1.15). Lower BCM (body cell mass) was associated with poor appetite (OR, 0.92) and needed help for cooking (OR, 0.88). Patients with higher BFMI (body fat mass index) had insufficient general nutrition (OR, 1.15), and protein (OR, 1.27) knowledge, and needed help for shopping (OR, 1.14). Moreover, patients with higher SGA scores were those with older age and longer duration of HD. Conclusions: Three medical barriers (poor appetite, depression and difficulty chewing), one behavioral barrier (poor total nutrition, protein, and potassium knowledge

  19. Polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in major depressive disorder patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Muhamad Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid

    2012-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) is a potential susceptibility locus in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. However, data from Malaysia is lacking. The present study aimed to determine the association between the homozygous short variant of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with major depressive disorder. This is a candidate gene case-control association study. The sample consists of 55 major depressive disorder probands and 66 controls. They were Malaysian descents and were unrelated. The Axis I diagnosis was determined using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). The control group comprised healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorders. Participants' blood was sent to the Institute Medical Research for genotyping. The present study failed to detect an association between 5-HTTLPR ss genotype with major depressive disorder (χ(2)  = 3.67, d.f. = 1, P = 0.055, odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-1.94). Sub-analysis revealed that the frequency of l allele in healthy controls was higher (78.0%) than that of Caucasian and East Asian population. However, in view of the small sample size this study may be prone to type II error (and type I error). This preliminary study suggests that the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR did not appear to be a risk factor for increasing susceptibility to major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Management of major bleeding events in patients treated with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin: results from the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Garg, Jyotsna; Patel, Manesh R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Goodman, Shaun G; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Breithardt, Günter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Singer, Daniel E; Califf, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A

    2014-07-21

    There are no data regarding management and outcomes of major bleeding events in patients treated with oral factor Xa inhibitors. Using data from ROCKET AF, we analysed the management and outcomes of major bleeding overall and according to the randomized treatment. During a median follow-up of 1.9 years, 779 (5.5%) patients experienced major bleeding at a rate of 3.52 events/100 patient-years with a similar event rate in each arm (n = 395 rivaroxaban vs. n = 384 warfarin). The median number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) per episode was similar in both arms [2 (25th, 75th: 2, 4) units]. Overall, few transfusions of whole blood (n = 14), platelets (n = 10), or cryoprecipitate (n = 2) were used. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was significantly less in the rivaroxaban arm (n = 45 vs. n = 81 units) after adjustment for covariates [odds ratio (OR) 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.66); P < 0.0001]. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) were administered less in the rivaroxaban arm (n = 4 vs. n = 9). Outcomes after major bleeding, including stroke or non-central nervous system embolism (4.7% rivaroxaban vs. 5.4% warfarin; HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.42-1.88) and all-cause death (20.4% rivaroxaban vs. 26.1% warfarin; HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.46-1.04) were similar in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin (interaction P = 0.51 and 0.11). Among high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation who experienced major bleeding in ROCKET AF, the use of FFP and PCC was less among those allocated rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. However, use of PRBCs and outcomes after bleeding were similar among patients randomized to rivaroxaban or to warfarin. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.