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Sample records for betula pubescens ssp

  1. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  2. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  3. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA typing of birch: Development of a forensic STR system for Betula pendula and Betula pubescens.

    PubMed

    Wesselink, Monique; Dragutinović, Aleksandar; Noordhoek, Jeroen W; Bergwerff, Leonie; Kuiper, Irene

    2018-04-07

    Although botanical trace evidence is often encountered in case investigations, the utilization of such traces in forensic investigations is still limited. Development of a forensic STR system for the two species of Betula (birch) indigenous to and abundant in North West Europe is a step in enhancing the applicability of traces from these species. We describe six microsatellite markers developed for birch species in detail, including repeat structure, and we propose a nomenclature for the encountered alleles. To assess the population characteristics, the genetic composition of wild, planted and intermediate populations of Betula pendula (a diploid species) and Betula pubescens (a tetraploid species) were investigated. The genetic differences between these two species were larger than the differences between populations of one species, even when both species co-occurred at one location. Therefore allele frequencies were estimated for both species separately. General, conservative random match probabilities were estimated for wild trees based on these allele frequencies (5∙10 -6 for the diploid B. pendula and 1∙10 -13 for the tetraploid B. pubescens), illustrating the potential relevance if trace evidence secured from a suspect is found to match a birch tree growing on or near a crime scene. Apart from wild trees, planted Betula trees also occur that may not originate from seeds, but may have been propagated through cloning. Based on the studied Betula trees, the random match probability of a potentially planted profile might be as high as 1.4∙10 -2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological Variation among Betula nana (diploid), B. pubescens (tetraploid) and their Triploid Hybrids in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thórsson, Æ. Th.; Pálsson, S.; Sigurgeirsson, A.; Anamthawat-Jónsson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Introgressive hybridization between two co-existing Betula species in Iceland, diploid dwarf birch B. nana and tetraploid downy birch B. pubescens, has been well documented. The two species are highly variable morphologically, making taxonomic delineation difficult despite stable ploidy levels. Here an analysis is made of morphological variation within each ploidy group with an aim to establishing a reliable means to distinguish the species. Methods Plant materials were collected from 14 woodlands in Iceland. The plants were identified based on 2n chromosome numbers. Morphological variation in species-specific characters within each ploidy group was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The morphological index was based on eight discrete characters, whereas the multivariate analysis was based on nine leaf variables. Key Results Of the 461 plants examined, 9·5 % were found to be triploid hybrids. The three ploidy groups were morphologically distinguishable but their variation overlapped. The diploid, triploid and tetraploid groups had average scores of 1·3, 4·1 and 8·3, respectively, in the morphology index scale from 0 (B. nana) to 13 (B. pubescens). A linear discriminant analysis also revealed significant separation among the three ploidy groups and the model assigned 96 % and 97 % of the B. nana and B. pubescens individuals correctly. The triploid hybrids were difficult to predict since only half of them could be assigned correctly. Leaf length was the most useful variable identifying triploid hybrids. Geographical patterns within the ploidy groups could partly be explained by differences in mean July temperature. Conclusions Hybridization between B. nana and B. pubescens is widespread in Iceland. The species can be distinguished from each other morphologically, and from the triploid hybrids. The overlapping morphological variation indicates bidirectional introgression between the two species via triploid hybrids. Iceland could be

  6. 20th century Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii tree- and forest lines in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bryn, Anders; Potthoff, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Georeferenced tree- and forest line data has a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. monitoring of climate change impacts and range shift modelling. As part of a research project, registrations of previously re-mapped tree- and forest lines have been georeferenced. The data described in this paper contains 100 re-mapped registrations of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii throughout Norway. All of the re-mapped tree- and forest line localities are georeferenced, elevation and aspect are given, elevational and spatial uncertainty are provided, and the re-mapping methods are explained. The published data weremapped for the first time between 1819 and 1963. The same sites were re-mapped between 1928 and 1996, but have until now been missing spatial coordinates. The entries contain 40 x 2 tree lines and 60 x 2 forest lines, most likely presenting the regionally highest registered tree- and forest lines at the given time. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server. Previously, the entries have been published in journals or reports, partly in Norwegian or German only. Without the provision of the spatial coordinates, the specific locations have been unknown. The material is now available for modelling and monitoring of tree- and forest line range shifts: The recordings are useful for interpretation of climate change impacts on tree- and forest lines, and the locations of re-mapped tree- and forest lines can be implemented in future monitoring projects. Since the recordings most likely provide the highest registered Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii locations within their specific regions, they are probably representing the contemporary physiognomic range limits.

  7. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment.

    PubMed

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  8. Defensive effect of surface flavonoid aglycones of Betula pubescens leaves against first instar Epirrita autumnata larvae.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Maria; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Kapari, Lauri; Lempa, Kyösti; Ossipov, Vladimir; Sinkkonen, Jari; Valkama, Elena; Haukioja, Erkki; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2004-11-01

    The surface of birch leaves contains glandular trichomes that secrete exudates containing flavonoid aglycones. We investigated the biological activities of white birch (Betula pubescens) leaf surface exudates against larvae of the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, a common insect pest of birch. We found that tree-specific mortality (up to 100%) of first instar larvae correlated strongly with the tree-specific contents of surface flavonoid aglycones (r(s) = 0.905) in emerging leaves. We also found that first instars clearly preferred birch buds from which surface exudates had been removed. In addition, the duration of the first instar was shortened by 29%, and the weights and relative growth rates of first instars improved by 8% and 52%, respectively, as a result of removal of the exudates from their leaf diet. The correlation of tree-specific foliar contents of flavonoid aglycones, especially 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavanone, with changes in larval performance, suggests that flavonoid aglycones are responsible for the changes observed in first instar larval performance. The results show that chemical characteristics of birch leaves are effective against neonate E. autumnata larvae. However, the removal of leaf surface exudates from fully expanded leaves did not affect the leaf acceptance for the voracious fifth instars. This is probably a result of reduction in contents of flavonoid aglycones compared to those of emerging leaves.

  9. Waterlogging in late dormancy and the early growth phase affected root and leaf morphology in Betula pendula and Betula pubescens seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Fang; Roitto, Marja; Sutinen, Sirkka; Lehto, Tarja; Heinonen, Jaakko; Zhang, Gang; Repo, Tapani

    2016-01-01

    The warmer winters of the future will increase snow-melt frequency and rainfall, thereby increasing the risk of soil waterlogging and its effects on trees in winter and spring at northern latitudes. We studied the morphology of roots and leaves of 1-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings exposed to waterlogging during dormancy or at the beginning of the growing season in a growth-chamber experiment. The experiment included 4-week dormancy (Weeks 1-4), a 4-week early growing season (Weeks 5-8) and a 4-week late growing season (Weeks 9-12). The treatments were: (i) no waterlogging, throughout the experiment ('NW'); (ii) 4-week waterlogging during dormancy (dormancy waterlogging 'DW'); (iii) 4-week waterlogging during the early growing season (growth waterlogging 'GW'); and (iv) 4-week DW followed by 4-week GW during the early growing season ('DWGW'). Dormancy waterlogging affected the roots of silver birch and GW the roots and leaf characteristics of both species. Leaf area was reduced in both species by GW and DWGW. In pubescent birch, temporarily increased formation of thin roots was seen in root systems of GW seedlings, which suggests an adaptive mechanism with respect to excess soil water. Additionally, the high density of non-glandular trichomes and their increase in DWGW leaves were considered possible morphological adaptations to excess water in the soil, as was the constant density of stem lenticels during stem-diameter growth. The higher density in glandular trichomes of DWGW silver birch suggests morphological acclimation in that species. The naturally low density of non-glandular trichomes, low density of stem lenticels in waterlogged seedlings and decrease in root growth seen in DWGW and DW silver birch seedlings explain, at least partly, why silver birch grows more poorly relative to pubescent birch in wet soils. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  10. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  11. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  12. Seed galls of Semudobia betulae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on species of birch (Betula spp.)

    Treesearch

    Vaclav Skuhravy

    1991-01-01

    Semudobia betulae Winnertz, described in 1853, is the most common species of gall insect occurring on the genus Betula in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions of the world. S. betulae has been observed on four species of Betula according to Barnes (1951) and on 14 additional species according to Roskam (1977). At the Arboretum of...

  13. Multispecies genetic structure and hybridization in the Betula genus across Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sebastiani, Federico; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Lascoux, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern Eurasia, and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. However, although many population genetic studies of forest tree species have been conducted in Europe or Eastern Asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. Here, we focus on the birch genus Betula, which is commonly distributed in boreal and cool temperate forests, and examine 129 populations of two tetraploid and four diploid species collected from Iceland to Japan. All individuals were genotyped at seven to 18 nuclear simple sequence repeats (nSSRs). Pairwise FST' among the six species ranged from 0.285 to 0.903, and genetic differentiation among them was clear. structure analysis suggested that Betula pubescens is an allotetraploid and one of the parental species was Betula pendula. In both species pairs of B. pendula and B. plathyphylla, and B. pubescens and B. ermanii, genetic diversity was highest in central Siberia. A hybrid zone was detected around Lake Baikal for eastern and western species pairs regardless of ploidy level. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that the divergence of B. pendula and B. platyphylla occurred around the beginning of the last ice age (36 300 years BP, 95% CI: 15 330-92 700) and hybridization between them was inferred to have occurred after the last glacial maximum (1614 years BP, 95% CI: 561-4710), with B. pendula providing a higher contribution to hybrids. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Near-ambient ozone concentrations reduce the vigor of Betula and Populus species in Finland.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku; Vapaavuori, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    2009-12-01

    In this review the main growth responses of Finnish birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen species (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides x P. tremula) are correlated with ozone exposure, indicated as the AOT40 value. Data are derived from 23 different laboratory, open-top chamber, and free-air fumigation experiments. Our results indicate that these tree species are sensitive to increasing ozone concentrations, though high intraspecific variation exists. The roots are the most vulnerable targets in both genera. These growth reductions, determined from trees grown under optimal nutrient and water supply, were generally accompanied by increased visible foliar injuries, carbon allocation toward defensive compounds, reduced carbohydrate contents of leaves, impaired photosynthesis processes, disturbances in stomatal function, and earlier autumn senescence. Because both genera have shown complex ozone defense and response mechanisms, which are modified by variable environmental conditions, a mechanistically based approach is necessary for accurate ozone risk assessment.

  15. Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens)

    Treesearch

    H.Q. Yu; Z.H. Jiang; C.Y. Hse; T.F. Shupe

    2008-01-01

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Selected physical and mechanical properties of 4?6 year old moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) grown in Zhejiang, China were investigated at different vertical and horizontal positions. Two way analysis of variance and Tukey?s mean comparison...

  16. Silvical characteristics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera

    Treesearch

    Russell J. Hutnik; Frank E. Cunningham

    1961-01-01

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) is commonly known also as white birch. The bark, which gives not only name but also unique character to this tree, is distinguishable from the white bark of other species by its pearly surface, its creamy cast, and its chalky whiteness that rubs off onto clothing. This bark separates easily into papery thin...

  17. [Chemical constituents from stems of Ilex pubescens].

    PubMed

    Xing, Xian-dong; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Feng; Liu, Wen-yuan

    2012-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Am. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various column chromatographic methods with diatomite, silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on physical properties and spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated and determined as luteolin(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), rutin(4), 1, 5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(5),3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid-1-O-beta-D-glucoside(6), hexadecanoic acid(7), stearic acid(8), n-tetratriacontanol(9), respectively. All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 5 and 6 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  18. The SSP Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radakovitz, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Describes a cure for the high school chemistry student with Second Semester Poisoning (SSP), the student disease of apathy which occurs in the spring. Remedy: an outdoor (preferably) demonstration of a series of controlled combustion experiments, with accompanying explanations of the chemistry involved. (MLH)

  19. Chemical changes with maturation of the bamboo species phyllostachys pubescens

    Treesearch

    X.B. Li; T.F. Shupe; G.F. Peter; C.Y. Hse; T.L. Eberhardt

    2007-01-01

    Chemical changes with maturation of the bamboo species Phyllostachys pubescens. Bamboo chemical properties were measured at three different heights from one-, three- and five-year-old plants and at three different radial positions from the thre-year-old culms of Phyllostachys pubescenssouth-eastern USA. Small but significant...

  20. [Position of Betula ermanii population ecotone in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chunjing; Wang, Xiaochun; Han, Shijie

    2004-12-01

    The vegetation on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains forms a vertical zone due to the vertical differentiation of moisture and heat conditions. Ecotones are obviously existed between different vegetation zones, but it is difficult to decide their positions. In the area from 1400 m to 2200 m elevation, we adopted the methods of gradient sampling, fractal analysis, population pattern analysis, and interspecific competition index analysis to describe Betula ermanii population ecotone. The results showed that there was a forest ecotone between Betula ermanii and Picea-Abies forest near elevation 1650 m, and there was a forest line ecotone between Betula ermanii and alpine tundra near elevation 2080 m.

  1. Biology and control of Eriophyid mites with a case study of Aceria sp. on New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens)

    Treesearch

    Tessa R. Grasswitz

    2012-01-01

    The biology, recognition, and impact of eriophyid mites (with emphasis on species associated with trees and shrubs) are briefly reviewed. A case study of a leaf-curling eriophyid mite (Aceria sp.) attacking New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens) is used to illustrate the complexities of developing control strategies for eriophyids in native plant...

  2. Hepatoprotective triterpenoids and lignans from the stems of Schisandra pubescens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Wei; Deng, Li-Qing; Luo, You-Ping; Liao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Min

    2017-08-01

    One new triterpenoid (1) and 13 known compounds (2-14) were isolated from Schisandra pubescens stems. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of 1D/2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activities against D-GalN-induced cell injury in QSG7701 cells. Compounds 1, 13 and 14 at 10 μM showed hepatoprotective activities, with survival rates of 60.5, 50.4 and 48.9%, respectively.

  3. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus: a chronicle of evolution in action.

    PubMed

    El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Kennedy, Sean; Galleron, Nathalie; Quinquis, Benoît; Batto, Jean-Michel; Moumen, Bouziane; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2014-05-28

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus are lactic acid producing bacteria that are largely used in dairy industries, notably in cheese-making and yogurt production. An earlier in-depth study of the first completely sequenced ssp. bulgaricus genome revealed the characteristics of a genome in an active phase of rapid evolution, in what appears to be an adaptation to the milk environment. Here we examine for the first time if the same conclusions apply to the ssp. lactis, and discuss intra- and inter-subspecies genomic diversity in the context of evolutionary adaptation. Both L. delbrueckii ssp. show the signs of reductive evolution through the elimination of superfluous genes, thereby limiting their carbohydrate metabolic capacities and amino acid biosynthesis potential. In the ssp. lactis this reductive evolution has gone less far than in the ssp. bulgaricus. Consequently, the ssp. lactis retained more extended carbohydrate metabolizing capabilities than the ssp. bulgaricus but, due to high intra-subspecies diversity, very few carbohydrate substrates, if any, allow a reliable distinction of the two ssp. We further show that one of the most important traits, lactose fermentation, of one of the economically most important dairy bacteria, L. delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, relies on horizontally acquired rather than deep ancestral genes. In this sense this bacterium may thus be regarded as a natural GMO avant la lettre. The dairy lactic acid producing bacteria L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus appear to represent different points on the same evolutionary track of adaptation to the milk environment through the loss of superfluous functions and the acquisition of functions that allow an optimized utilization of milk resources, where the ssp. bulgaricus has progressed further away from the common ancestor.

  5. Cytotoxic and potential anticancer constituents from the stems of Schisandra pubescens.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Li, Yu-Quan; Liu, Yi-Nan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2013-09-01

    The diethyl ether extract of the stems of Schisandra pubescens Hemsl. et Wils. (Schisandraceae) was found to exhibit cytotoxic activity in vitro. However, investigations of the bioactive constituents of this plant have been very limited. Elucidation of the cytotoxic constituents of S. pubescens was performed. Repeated silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC were used for the chemical investigation of the diethyl ether extract of S. pubescens stems. All isolates were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against A549, PC-3, KB and KBvin human cancer cell lines. Nine known compounds were obtained, including four lignans, epischisandrone (1), tigloylgomisin P (2), cagayanone (3) and (-)-gomisin L₂ (4), together with five triterpenoids, micranoic acid B (5), lancifodilactone H (6), coccinic acid (7), schisanlactone B (8) and anwuweizonic acid (9). Compounds 2-6 and 8 showed moderate to marginal cytotoxicity, with GI₅₀ values of 11.83-35.65 μM. The isolation of 1-9 from S. pubescens and the cytotoxicities of 3-6 are first reported. Compounds 2-6 and 8 could be the active principles responsible for the anticancer effects of S. pubescens.

  6. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberger, S.

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will usemore » other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.« less

  7. Analysis of Phyllostachys pubescens bamboo residues for liquefaction: chemical components, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry

    Treesearch

    Jinqiu Qi; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Residues of Phyllostachys pubescens bamboo obtained from central Louisiana, USA, were comprehensively investigated for use in liquefaction. The results showed that bamboo branches had the highest Klason lignin and ash content, about 26% and 2.75%, respectively. The epidermis layer sample had relatively higher carbohydrate content, while the wax layer sample had the...

  8. Molecular phylogeny and genome size evolution of the genus Betula (Betulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nian; McAllister, Hugh A.; Bartlett, Paul R.; Buggs, Richard J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Betula L. (birch) is a genus of approx. 60 species, subspecies or varieties with a wide distribution in the northern hemisphere, of ecological and economic importance. A new classification of Betula has recently been proposed based on morphological characters. This classification differs somewhat from previously published molecular phylogenies, which may be due to factors such as convergent evolution, hybridization, incomplete taxon sampling or misidentification of samples. While chromosome counts have been made for many species, few have had their genome size measured. The aim of this study is to produce a new phylogenetic and genome size analysis of the genus. Methods Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced for 76 Betula samples verified by taxonomic experts, representing approx. 60 taxa, of which approx. 24 taxa have not been included in previous phylogenetic analyses. A further 49 samples from other collections were also sequenced, and 108 ITS sequences were downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were built for these sequences. The genome sizes of 103 accessions representing nearly all described species were estimated using flow cytometry. Key Results As expected for a gene tree of a genus where hybridization and allopolyploidy occur, the ITS tree shows clustering, but not resolved monophyly, for the morphological subgenera recently proposed. Most sections show some clustering, but species of the dwarf section Apterocaryon are unusually scattered. Betula corylifolia (subgenus Nipponobetula) unexpectedly clusters with species of subgenus Aspera. Unexpected placements are also found for B. maximowicziana, B. bomiensis, B. nigra and B. grossa. Biogeographical disjunctions were found within Betula between Europe and North America, and also disjunctions between North-east and South-west Asia. The 2C-values for Betula ranged from 0·88 to 5·33 pg, and polyploids are scattered widely throughout the

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla) Autotetraploids

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Huai-Zhi; Liu, Zi-Jia; Lin, Lin; Li, Hui-Yu; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Gui-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA) and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees. PMID:23202935

  10. Overexpression of BpAP1 induces early flowering and produces dwarfism in Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haijiao; Wang, Shan; Jiang, Jing; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Huiyu; Chen, Su; Xu, Huanwen

    2014-08-01

    The involvement of APETALA1 (AP1) in the flowering transition has been the focus of much research. Here, we produced Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula (birch) lines that overexpressed BpAP1 using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation; we obtained five independent 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern, northern and western analyses were used to identify the transformants. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), BpAP1 expression in roots, shoots, leaves and terminal buds of 35S::BpAP1 transgenic lines was significantly higher than that in the wild type (WT, P < 0.01). The average height of 2-year-old 35S::BpAP1 plants was significantly lower (41.17%) than that of non-transgenic plants. In the 35S::BpAP1 lines, inflorescences emerged successively beginning 2 months after transplanting. In addition, the length-diameter ratio of fully developed male and female inflorescences were both significantly less than those of the WT (P < 0.05), i.e. the morphological characteristic was stubby. The male inflorescences emerged early, with empty, draped anthers, and pollen was rarely produced, whereas the female floret structure was not different from WT. The pistils developed normally and could accept pollen, leading to the production of hybrid progeny (F1 ). F1 plants completed flowering within only 1 year after sowing. We demonstrate that BpAP1 can be inherited through sexual reproduction. Overexpression of BpAP1 caused early flowering and dwarfism; these lines had an obviously shortened juvenile phase. These results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the flowering transition and enhance genetic studies of birch traits, and they open up new possibilities for the breeding of birch and other woody plants. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48–68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53–66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994–2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages. PMID:24032035

  12. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48-68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53-66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994-2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages.

  13. Characteristics of pollinosis caused by Betula in patients from Ourense (Galicia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Varela, S; Mendez, J; González de la Cuesta, C; Iglesias, I; González, C; Menéndez, M

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to describe the features of the pollinosis caused by Betula in the area of Ourense, Spain. The pollen count was carried out with a Lanzoni volumetric Hirts spore trap (1993-2000). The Betula pollen represented 5% over the annual total (annual mean quantity: 965 grains). It was present in the air from March to mid-May. The highest peaks took place in April (maximum values mean: 131 grains/m3). The medical records of 222 patients (mean age 25.66 years) diagnosed with pollinosis (1998-2000), who lived at less than 30 km. from the spore trap, were reviewed. In all of them, the skin-prick test (SPT) was carried out with pollen allergens. The percentages of positive SPT were: Lolium perenne, 91.89% (16.6% monosensitized); Plantago lanceolata, 71.17% (1.26% monosensitized); Betula alba, 41.89% (10.75% monosensitized); Platanus hybrida, 34.95%; Olea europea, 10.36%; and Parietaria judaica, 6.3%. The mean age of Betula monosensitized patients was 44.7 years. The majority of them had symptoms in March-April, 40% had asthma symptoms, 80% had lived in Central Europe, and 30% of them presented an oral allergy syndrome to fruits. There were 41.93% of the patients with positive SPT to Betula pollen who had asthma symptoms, in comparison with 23.25% of the patients with negative SPT to Betula (p = 0.0034). There were 20.28% of the patients with positive SPT to Betula pollen, who had lived in Central Europe, in comparison with 4.27% of the patients with negative SPT to Betula, p: 0.00049. The relative risk of sensitization was 2.05. Betula pollen was the second cause of clinical pollinosis in our patients, after grass, being responsible of the symptoms in the early spring, in a small number of the patients in their forties. The presence of asthma was higher in Betula sensitized patients, and the residence in Central Europe was a sensitization risk factor.

  14. Vitrification, a complementary cryopreservation method for Betula pendula Roth.

    PubMed

    Ryynänen, Leena; Aronen, Tuija

    2005-10-01

    Cryopreservation--the storage of plant germplasm in liquid nitrogen--provides a modern tool for the conservation of forest genetic resources. It is especially applicable for species in which their micropropagation can be initiated from mature tree buds, e.g., silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), thus enabling the conservation of specific genotypes: endangered elite trees and trees expressing rare, valuable or interesting characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop a vitrification protocol applicable for the cryostorage of silver birch that avoids the use of expensive sophisticated freezers. The average recovery of vitrified axillary silver birch buds was 71% using a protocol that started with four-week cold hardening of bud-bearing in vitro donor shoots on modified medium under short day conditions. After cold hardening, the excised axillary buds were precultivated on medium containing 0.7 M sucrose for 24 h under the same conditions as during the cold hardening period. Following preculture, the buds were treated with loading solution containing 2M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Finally, the buds were dehydrated with PVS2 cryoprotectant for 120 min followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. According to the morphology and the RAPD profiles of regenerated plants in the greenhouse, the genetic fidelity of the vitrified birch material seems to have remained unchanged.

  15. Pterodon pubescens oil: characterisation, certification of origin and quality control via mass spectrometry fingerprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    Cabral, E C; Sevart, L; Spindola, H M; Coelho, M B; Sousa, I M O; Queiroz, N C A; Foglio, M A; Eberlin, M N; Riveros, J M

    2013-02-01

    The oil obtained from Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) seeds are known to display anti-cancer, anti-dermatogenic and anti-nociceptive activitiy. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated that its main constituents are diterpenoids with voucapan skeletons. Considering the potential biological activities of the oil, rapid and efficient methods for assessing its quality would facilitate certification and quality control. To develop a direct mass spectrometric fingerprinting method for the P. pubescens seed oil that would focus on the major diterpenoids constituents, enabling quality control, origin certification and recognition of marker species in commercially available products. Two techniques were used: (i) direct infusion electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry after solvent extraction and dilution and (ii) ambient desorption/ionisation via easy ambient sonic-spray ionisation, EASI(+)-MS, performed directly on the seed surface or at a paper surface imprinted with the oil. From a combination of ESI-MS, HRESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS data, 12 diterpenes were characterised, and typical profiles were obtained for the oil extract or the crude oil via both ESI-MS and EASI-MS. These techniques require no or very simple sample preparation protocols and the whole analytical processes with spectra acquisition take just a few minutes. Both techniques, but particularly EASI-MS, provide simple, fast and efficient MS fingerprinting methodologies to characterise the P. pubescens oil with typical (di)terpene profiles being applicable to quality control and certification of authenticity and origin. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of copper sulfate on seedlings of Prosopis pubescens (screwbean mesquite).

    PubMed

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an established method of removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils worldwide. Phytoextraction is most efficient if local plants are used in the contaminated site. We propose that Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) would be a successful phytoextractor of copper in our local soils. In order to determine the feasibility of using Screw bean mesquite, we utilized inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and elemental analysis to observe the uptake of copper and the effects on macro and micro nutrients within laboratory-grown seedlings. We have previously shown that P. pubescens is a hyperaccumulator of copper in soil-grown seedlings. Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated death of root cells and ultrastructural changes due to the presence of copper from 50 mg/L - 600 mg/L. Ultrastructural changes included plasmolysis, starch accumulation, increased vacuolation and swollen chloroplasts with disarranged thylakoid membranes in cotyledons. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analyses of macro- and micro-nutrients revealed that the presence of copper sulfate in the growth medium of Petri-dish grown Prosopis pubescens seedlings resulted in dramatic decreases of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. At 500-600 mg/L of copper sulfate, a substantial increase of sulfur was present in roots.

  17. Allocation to Floral Structures in Thalictrum pubescens (Ranunculaceae), a Cryptically Dioecious Species

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, SANDRA L.

    2002-01-01

    Females of Thalictrum pubescens produce stamens that contain sterile pollen, whereas males are both functionally and morphologically unisexual. This study examines the investment in stamen production by females of T. pubescens by comparing the female structures with those of their fully functional male counterparts. Stamens from females had the same biomass and contained the same amount of nitrogen and phosphorus as stamens from males. Anther size was the same in males and females, but filaments were longer in stamens from males. Females produced more pollen per anther than males, and pollen size was the same in both sexes. Within flowers, there was a positive correlation between the amount of pollen per anther and the length of anthers in males, but not in females. This would be expected if males growing in better environmental conditions or with greater vigour invested more resources in pollen production, thereby increasing fitness. Females, who receive no fitness benefits from increased pollen production, did not show this pattern. There was also evidence of a trade‐off within female flowers between the number of stamens and the number of pistils. This trade‐off was noted in conditions when variance among plants was reduced, namely in the field during a year when flower size was particularly small and in a previous glasshouse study. Therefore, it appears that when environmental variance is low, stamens are produced at the expense of producing more pistils, and hence seeds. In conclusion, stamen production does not appear to be inconsequential to females of Thalictrum pubescens. PMID:12125765

  18. Identification of Independent Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB Functions in Coaggregation with Actinomyces naeslundii

    PubMed Central

    Egland, Paul G.; Dû, Laurence D.; Kolenbrander, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    The initial stages of dental plaque formation involve the adherence of early colonizing organisms such as Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces naeslundii to the saliva-coated tooth surface and to each other. The S. gordonii surface proteins SspA and SspB are known to play a role in adherence to salivary proteins and mediate coaggregation with other bacteria. Coaggregation is the adhesin receptor-mediated interaction between genetically distinct cell types and appears to be ubiquitous among oral isolates. To define the function of SspA and SspB separately on the surface of their natural host, we constructed and analyzed the coaggregation properties of an isogenic sspB mutant of S. gordonii DL1, an sspAB double mutant, and a previously described sspA mutant. A. naeslundii strains have been previously classified into six coaggregation groups based on the nature of their coaggregations with S. gordonii DL1 and other oral streptococci. Coaggregation assays with the sspA and sspB mutants showed that SspA and SspB are the streptococcal proteins primarily responsible for defining these coaggregation groups and, thus, are highly significant in the establishment of early dental plaque. SspA exhibited two coaggregation-specific functions. It participated in lactose-inhibitable and -noninhibitable interactions, while SspB mediated only lactose-noninhibitable coaggregations. Accordingly, the sspAB double mutant lacked these functions and allowed us to detect a third coaggregation interaction with one of these organisms. These proteins may play an important role in development of S. gordonii-A. naeslundii communities in early dental plaque. Understanding these adhesin proteins will aid investigations of complex microbial communities that characterize periodontal diseases. PMID:11705927

  19. Chloroplast genomes of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea: Structures and comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea using Illumina paired-end sequencing to understand their genetic organization and structure. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between 154.4~154.5 kbp, with a large single-copy region (84,197~84,158 bp), a small single-copy region (17,738~17,813 bp) and pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 26,264~26,259 bp). Both cp genomes encode 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes. Whole cp genome comparison of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, along with ten other Arabidopsis species, showed an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with divergence among some intergenic spacers. The location and distribution of repeat sequences were determined, and sequence divergences of shared genes were calculated among related species. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the entire genomic data set and 70 shared genes between both cp genomes confirmed the previous phylogeny and generated phylogenetic trees with the same topologies. The sister species of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera is A. umezawana, whereas the closest relative of A. lyrata spp. petraea is A. arenicola.

  20. Efficiency of a new bioaerosol sampler in sampling Betula pollen for antigen analyses.

    PubMed

    Rantio-Lehtimäki, A; Kauppinen, E; Koivikko, A

    1987-01-01

    A new bioaerosol sampler consisting of Liu-type atmospheric aerosol sampling inlet, coarse particle inertial impactor, two-stage high-efficiency virtual impactor (aerodynamic particle sizes respectively in diameter: greater than or equal to 8 microns, 8-2.5 microns, and 2.5 microns; sampling on filters) and a liquid-cooled condenser was designed, fabricated and field-tested in sampling birch (Betula) pollen grains and smaller particles containing Betula antigens. Both microscopical (pollen counts) and immunochemical (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analyses of each stage were carried out. The new sampler was significantly more efficient than Burkard trap e.g. in sampling particles of Betula pollen size (ca. 25 microns in diameter). This was prominent during pollen peak periods (e.g. May 19th, 1985, in the virtual impactor 9482 and in the Burkard trap 2540 Betula p.g. X m-3 of air). Betula antigens were detected also in filter stages where no intact pollen grains were found; in the condenser unit the antigen concentrations instead were very low.

  1. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    PubMed

    Skjøth, C A; Smith, M; Brandt, J; Emberlin, J

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts>80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts (n=60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Leaf Trichome Structure and Composition of Epicuticular Flavonoids in Finnish Birch Species

    PubMed Central

    VALKAMA, ELENA; SALMINEN, JUHA‐PEKKA; KORICHEVA, JULIA; PIHLAJA, KALEVI

    2003-01-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, density and distribution of trichomes on leaves of Betula pendula, B. pubescens ssp. pubescens, B. pubescens ssp. czerepanovii and B. nana were examined by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composition of flavonoids in ethanolic leaf surface extracts was analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography. All taxa examined contained both glandular and non‐glandular trichomes (short and/or long hairs) but differed from each other in trichome ultrastructure, density and location on the leaf. Leaves of B. pubescens were more hairy than those of B. pendula, but the latter species had a higher density of glandular trichomes. Of the two subspecies of B. pubescens, leaves of ssp. pubescens had more short hairs on the leaf surface and four times the density of glandular trichomes of leaves of ssp. czerepanovii, whereas, in the latter subspecies, short hairs occurred largely on leaf veins, as in B. nana. The glandular trichomes were peltate glands, consisting of medullar and cortical cells, which differed structurally. Cortical cells possessed numerous small, poorly developed plastids and small vacuoles, whereas medullar cells had several large plastids with well‐developed thylakoid systems and fewer vacuoles. In B. pubescens subspecies, vacuoles of the glandular cells contained osmiophilic deposits, which were probably phenolic, whereas in B. pendula, vacuoles of glandular trichomes were characterized by the presence of numerous myelin‐like membranes. The composition of epicuticular flavonoids also differed among species. The two subspecies of B. pubescens and B. nana shared the same 12 compounds, but five of these occurred only in trace amounts in B. nana. Leaf surface extracts of B. pendula contained just six flavonoids, three of which occurred only in this species. In summary, the structure, density and distribution of leaf trichomes and the composition of epicuticular flavonoids represent good

  3. A new C20-diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum soongaricum var. pubescens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Shan, Lianhai; Xu, Wenliang; Zhang, Jifa; Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xianli

    2017-03-01

    A new denudatine-type C 20 -diterpenoid alkaloid, pubesine (1), along with seven known diterpenoid alkaloids, altaconitine (2), 14-benzoylaconine (3), spicatine A (4), 14-benzoylaconine-8-palmitate (5), 14-O-acetylsenbusine A (6), senbusine A (7) and 14-acetylneoline (8) were isolated from the whole plant of Aconitum soongaricum var. pubescens. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analyses (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against H460, MCF-7 and Hep G2 human cancer cell lines.

  4. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  5. Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine-treeline ecotone, central Greater Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

    Treesearch

    Nicole M Hughes; Daniel M. Johnson; Maia Akhalkatsi; Otar Abdaladze

    2009-01-01

    Seedling establishment is an important factor dictating the altitudinal limits of treeline species. Factors that affect seedling mortality and survival, however, have yet to be fully characterized, especially for deciduous treeline species. Here we describe microsite characteristics of successfully established Betula litwinowii seedlings at the...

  6. Leaf size and surface characteristics of Betula papyrifera exposed to elevated CO2 and O3

    Treesearch

    Johanna Riikonen; Kevin E. Percy; Minna Kivimaenpaa; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil D. Nelson; Elina Vapaavuori; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    Betula papyrifera trees were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 (1.4 x ambient), O3 (1.2 x ambient) or CO2 + O3 at the Aspen Free-air CO2 Enrichment Experiment. The treatment effects on leaf surface characteristics were studied...

  7. Spatiotemporal models for predicting high pollen concentration level of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula.

    PubMed

    Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Corylus, Alnus, and Betula trees are among the most important sources of allergic pollen in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and have a large impact on the quality of life and productivity of allergy sufferers. Therefore, it is important to predict high pollen concentrations, both in time and space. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate spatiotemporal models for predicting high Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels, based on gridded meteorological data. Aerobiological monitoring was carried out in 11 cities in Poland and gathered, depending on the site, between 2 and 16 years of measurements. According to the first allergy symptoms during exposure, a high pollen count level was established for each taxon. An optimizing probability threshold technique was used for mitigation of the problem of imbalance in the pollen concentration levels. For each taxon, the model was built using a random forest method. The study revealed the possibility of moderately reliable prediction of Corylus and highly reliable prediction of Alnus and Betula high pollen concentration levels, using preprocessed gridded meteorological data. Cumulative growing degree days and potential evaporation proved to be two of the most important predictor variables in the models. The final models predicted not only for single locations but also for continuous areas. Furthermore, the proposed modeling framework could be used to predict high pollen concentrations of Corylus, Alnus, Betula, and other taxa, and in other countries.

  8. Spatiotemporal models for predicting high pollen concentration level of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Corylus, Alnus, and Betula trees are among the most important sources of allergic pollen in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and have a large impact on the quality of life and productivity of allergy sufferers. Therefore, it is important to predict high pollen concentrations, both in time and space. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate spatiotemporal models for predicting high Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels, based on gridded meteorological data. Aerobiological monitoring was carried out in 11 cities in Poland and gathered, depending on the site, between 2 and 16 years of measurements. According to the first allergy symptoms during exposure, a high pollen count level was established for each taxon. An optimizing probability threshold technique was used for mitigation of the problem of imbalance in the pollen concentration levels. For each taxon, the model was built using a random forest method. The study revealed the possibility of moderately reliable prediction of Corylus and highly reliable prediction of Alnus and Betula high pollen concentration levels, using preprocessed gridded meteorological data. Cumulative growing degree days and potential evaporation proved to be two of the most important predictor variables in the models. The final models predicted not only for single locations but also for continuous areas. Furthermore, the proposed modeling framework could be used to predict high pollen concentrations of Corylus, Alnus, Betula, and other taxa, and in other countries.

  9. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Treesearch

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  10. Diversity in tree species in southeastern Ohio Betula nigra L. communities

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Cribben; Dina D. Scacchetti

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative data were obtained for arboreal species within 50 lowland forests in southeastern Ohio. Thirty-seven communities were dominated by Betula nigra L. and 13 were dominated by Acer saccharinum L. The acidic soils collected from B. nigra communities contained toxic concentrations of exchangeable aluminum...

  11. Isoprene emission rates and fluxes measured above a Mediterranean oak ( Quercus pubescens) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Bouchou, P.; Torres, L.; Lopez, A.

    2005-03-01

    The present work, carried out as part of the European fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions project (ESCOMPTE), brings a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources that are liable to participate in the production of ozone. The measurement campaign was conducted in Montmeyan, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim of quantifying the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Quercus pubescens, an important Mediterranean tree species. Biogenic emissions by Q. pubescens were determined by the enclosure of an intact branch of this tree in a Teflon cuvette. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values ranged between 40 and 350 μg g Dry Weight-1 h -1. Emissions were correlated strongly with leaf temperature and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR). The fluxes were also determined by extrapolating the results of the enclosure method and by using aerodynamic gradient method. They reach around 73 mg m -2 h -1 with the first method and 55 mg m -2 h -1 with the second one. The obtained values fit with a maximal ratio of 2.

  12. Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyper accumulators of copper

    PubMed Central

    Zappala, Marian N.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was utilized to localize copper within leaves. A 600 ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. In order for a plant to be considered a hyper accumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf: root ratio of <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf: root ratios of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that Prosopis pubescens grown in soil is a hyper accumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested. PMID:23612918

  13. Shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra: Betula nana effects on above- and belowground litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Jennie R; Buckeridge, Kate M; van de Weg, Martine J; Shaver, Gaius R; Schimel, Joshua P; Gough, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species. We conducted a 2-yr decomposition experiment in moist acidic tundra in northern Alaska, where we decomposed three tundra species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Rhododendron palustre, and Eriophorum vaginatum) alone and in combination with Betula litter. Decomposition patterns for leaf and root litter were determined using three different measures of decomposition (mass loss, respiration, extracellular enzyme activity). We report faster decomposition of Betula leaf litter compared to other species, with support for species differences coming from all three measures of decomposition. Mixing effects were less consistent among the measures, with negative mixing effects shown only for mass loss. In contrast, there were few species differences or mixing effects for root decomposition. Overall, we attribute longer-term litter mass loss patterns to patterns created by early decomposition processes in the first winter. We note numerous differences for species patterns between leaf and root decomposition, indicating that conclusions from leaf litter experiments should not be extrapolated to below-ground decomposition. The high decomposition rates of Betula leaf litter aboveground, and relatively similar decomposition rates of multiple species below, suggest a potential for increases in turnover in the fast-decomposing carbon pool of leaves and fine roots as the dominance of deciduous shrubs in the Arctic increases, but this outcome may be tempered by

  14. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps). Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more widespread in the past, leading

  15. A Case Study of SSP for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostavan, A.; Kaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    The market of the Solar Power Satellite must be worldwide, because it can be provide electricity anywhre in the world from the Earth's orbits. We have perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provide by the Space Solar Power, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of the Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the Solar Power Satellite. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia and the benefits and disadvantages of he SSP for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot SPS.

  16. Cryptic dioecy in Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae): a species with stigma-height dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Min; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Dian-Xiang; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2010-10-01

    Evolutionary transitions from heterostyly to dioecy have been proposed in several angiosperm families, particularly in Rubiaceae. These transitions involve the spread of male and female sterility mutations resulting in modifications to the gender of ancestral hermaphrodites. Despite sustained interest in the gender strategies of plants, the structural and developmental bases for transitions in sexual systems are poorly understood. Here, floral morphology, patterns of fertility, pollen-tube growth and floral development are investigated in two populations of the scandent shrub Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae), native to southern China, by means of experimental and open-pollinations, light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with paraffin sectioning. Mussaenda pubescens has perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers and populations with two style-length morphs but only weak differentiation in anther position (stigma-height dimorphism). Experimental pollinations demonstrated that despite morphological hermaphroditism, the species is functionally dioecious. The long-styled (L) morph possesses sterile pollen and functions as a female, whereas the short-styled (S) morph is female sterile and functions as a male. Self- and intra-morph pollinations of the S-morph were consistent with those expected from dimorphic incompatibility. The two populations investigated were both S-morph (male) biased. Investigations of early stages of floral development indicated patterns typical of hermaphroditic flowers, with no significant differences in organ growth between the floral morphs. Meiosis of microspore mother cells was of the simultaneous type with tetrads isobilateral in shape. The tapetal cells in anther walls of the L-morph became vacuolized during meiosis I, ahead of the uninucleate microspore stage in the S-morph. In the L-morph, the microspore nucleus degenerated at the tetrad stage resulting in male sterility. Microsporogenesis and male

  17. Withanolides from the stems and leaves of Physalis pubescens and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guiyang; Li, Yang; Sun, Jiawen; Wang, Liqing; Tang, Xiaolong; Lin, Bin; Kang, Ning; Huang, Jian; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2016-11-01

    A phytochemical study of Physalis pubescens L. afforded twelve compounds, including six new withanolides (1, 4, and 6i-9), four new withanolide glucosides (2, 3, 5, and 6), and two known withanolides (10 and 11). Their structures were established via extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 3 was assigned using X-ray crystallography, and the absolute configurations of the 1,2-diol moiety in 1 were determined using the in situ dimolybdenum electronic circular dichroism method. Compounds 7, 9, and 10 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against human prostate cancer cells (C4-2B and 22Rvl), human renal carcinoma cells (786-O, A-498, Caki-2, and ACHN), human melanoma cells (A375 and A375-S2), and human normal hepatic cell line (L02) with IC 50 values in the range of 0.17-5.30μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Jasminum pubescens leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Temraz, Abeer; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido; Braca, Alessandra

    2009-12-01

    The essential oil obtained from the leaves and flowers of Jasminum pubescens (Retz.) Willd. (Oleaceae) has been analyzed by GC/MS. Sixty-three and sixty-four components of the essential oils, representing 95.0% of the total oil for the leaves and 91.9% for the flowers, were identified, respectively. Both the oils were mainly constituted by non-terpene derivatives (58.2% and 50.8%, respectively), among which aldehydes (44.7%) characterized the essential oil from the leaves. Besides aldehydes (14.3%) and other carbonylic compounds (acids, esters, and ketones, 38.1%) were the main non-terpene compounds of the oil from the flowers.

  19. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Triterpenoids in Ilex pubescens by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Di; Wang, Qing; Jin, Jing; Qiu, Maosong; Zhou, Lian; Zhou, Xinghong; Li, Hui; Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2018-03-01

    Ilex pubescens Hook et Arn mainly contains triterpenoids that possess antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the triterpenoids in I. pubescens can be useful for determining the authenticity and quality of raw materials and guiding its clinical preparation. To establish a method for rapid and comprehensive analysis of triterpenoids in I. pubescens using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), which will also be applied to evaluate the contents of nine triterpenoids among root, root heartwood and root bark of I. pubescens to judge the value of the root bark to avoid wastage. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS data from the extracts of I. pubescens in negative mode were analysed using Peakview and Masterview software that provided molecular weight, mass errors, isotope pattern fit and MS/MS fragments for the identification of triterpenoids. The quantification of nine investigated compounds of I. pubescens was accomplished using MultiQuant software. A total of 33 triterpenoids, five phenolic acids, two lignans and a flavonol were characterised in only 14 min. The total content of the nine compounds in the root bark was generally slightly higher than that of the root and root heartwood, which has not been reported before. The developed UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was proven to be rapid and comprehensive for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of the characteristic triterpenoids in I. pubescens. The results may provide a basis for holistic quality control and metabolic studies of I. pubescens, as well as serve as a reference for the analysis of other Ilex plants. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  1. [Fitness of sexual reproduction of Toona ciliata var. pubescens natural populations and their sexual reproduction and regeneration].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong Lan; Zhang, Lu; Jia, Li Ming; Liang, Yue-Long; Cai, Jun Huo

    2018-04-01

    To examine the reproduction fitness coefficients and individual-level fitness of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, their sexual reproduction and natural regeneration were investigated during 2006-2016, with four natural populations in Jiulianshan National Reserve as test objects. The results showed that there were only 2-10 trees for the natural populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens with a small initial number of fruiting plants (3-9 trees), which were from the initial fruiting plants or their first/second generation. The sexual reproduction of these isolated populations were significantly different, and their seed production capacities tended to decline over time. With the maturing of communities, soil seed banks and seed germinations were extremely poor, and the number of trees that could be growing to mature stage was nearly zero. The optimum maturity age of T. ciliata var. pubescens was about 40 a, and the fitness coefficients (2.0-2.8) rapidly increased in early development stage, but then was sharply reduced (0.3-0.5), and then gradually dropped to almost 0. There were significant differences in the fitness at individual level (0-14 tree·cm -2 ) among different populations, but their values were low (close to zero). Based on the existing reproduction rate, the actual values of sexual reproduction and regeneration fitness were much lower than the predicted ones. Due to the low level of genetic fitness, the sexual reproductive ability of different populations all showed decreasing trends. The natural sexual regeneration ability tended to decline, while the fitness of T. ciliata var. pubescens further decreased. All those factors suggested higher investment risks. Therefore, the systems of sexual reproduction became unbalanced and deteriorating. We proposed that more studies, including breeding mating, pollination, seed setting, and genetic diversity evaluation, are needed. Moreover, we should provide suitable forest environment through cleaning up litter in the

  2. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demandmore » for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.« less

  3. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  4. Two new triterpene saponins from the anti-inflammatory saponin fraction of Ilex pubescens root.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Liang

    2008-07-01

    The saponin fraction from the ethanolic extracts of the root of Ilex pubescens Hook. et Arn. (Ilexaceae) was found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Two novel triterpene saponins, pubescenosides C and D (1 and 2, resp.), together with five known saponins were isolated from this saponin fraction. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated as (20beta)-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and (20beta)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]ursa- 12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. Five known saponins isolated from the saponin fraction were identified as ilexsaponin B(1), B(2), B(3), A(1), and chikusetsusaponin IV(a).

  5. Lead accumulation and tolerance of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings: applications of phytoremediation*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Li, Song; Islam, Ejazul; Chen, Jun-ren; Wu, Jia-sen; Ye, Zheng-qian; Peng, Dan-li; Yan, Wen-bo; Lu, Kou-ping

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment was aimed at identifying the lead (Pb) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings grown under different Pb treatments. Experimental results indicated that at the highest Pb concentration (400 μmol/L), the growth of bamboo seedlings was inhibited and Pb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached the maximum of 148.8, 482.2, and 4282.8 mg/kg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the excessive Pb caused decreased stomatal opening, formation of abundant inclusions in roots, and just a few inclusions in stems. The ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy revealed that the addition of excessive Pb caused abnormally shaped chloroplasts, disappearance of endoplasmic reticulum, shrinkage of nucleus and nucleolus, and loss of thylakoid membranes. Although ultrastructural analysis revealed some internal damage, even the plants exposed to 400 μmol/L Pb survived and no visual Pb toxicity symptoms such as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in these plants. Even at the highest Pb treatment, no significant difference was observed for the dry weight of stem compared with controls. It is suggested that use of Moso bamboo as an experimental material provides a new perspective for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil owing to its high metal tolerance and greater biomass. PMID:25644467

  6. Metabolomic profiling of the nectars of Aquilegia pubescens and A. Canadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Noutsos, Christos; Perera, Ann M.; Nikolau, Basil J.

    To date, variation in nectar chemistry of flowering plants has not been studied in detail. Such variation exerts considerable influence on pollinator–plant interactions, as well as on flower traits that play important roles in the selection of a plant for visitation by specific pollinators. Over the past 60 years the Aquilegia genus has been used as a key model for speciation studies. In this study, we defined the metabolomic profiles of flower samples of two Aquilegia species, A. Canadensis and A. pubescens. We identified a total of 75 metabolites that were classified into six main categories: organic acids, fattymore » acids, amino acids, esters, sugars, and unknowns. The mean abundances of 25 of these metabolites were significantly different between the two species, providing insights into interspecies variation in floral chemistry. Using the PlantSEED biochemistry database, we found that the majority of these metabolites are involved in biosynthetic pathways. Finally, we explored the annotated genome of A. coerulea, using the PlantSEED pipeline and reconstructed the metabolic network of Aquilegia. As a result, this network, which contains the metabolic pathways involved in generating the observed chemical variation, is now publicly available from the DOE Systems Biology Knowledge Base (KBase; http://kbase.us).« less

  7. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  8. Metabolomic profiling of the nectars of Aquilegia pubescens and A. Canadensis

    DOE PAGES

    Noutsos, Christos; Perera, Ann M.; Nikolau, Basil J.; ...

    2015-05-01

    To date, variation in nectar chemistry of flowering plants has not been studied in detail. Such variation exerts considerable influence on pollinator–plant interactions, as well as on flower traits that play important roles in the selection of a plant for visitation by specific pollinators. Over the past 60 years the Aquilegia genus has been used as a key model for speciation studies. In this study, we defined the metabolomic profiles of flower samples of two Aquilegia species, A. Canadensis and A. pubescens. We identified a total of 75 metabolites that were classified into six main categories: organic acids, fattymore » acids, amino acids, esters, sugars, and unknowns. The mean abundances of 25 of these metabolites were significantly different between the two species, providing insights into interspecies variation in floral chemistry. Using the PlantSEED biochemistry database, we found that the majority of these metabolites are involved in biosynthetic pathways. Finally, we explored the annotated genome of A. coerulea, using the PlantSEED pipeline and reconstructed the metabolic network of Aquilegia. As a result, this network, which contains the metabolic pathways involved in generating the observed chemical variation, is now publicly available from the DOE Systems Biology Knowledge Base (KBase; http://kbase.us).« less

  9. Can compost improve Quercus pubescens Willd establishment in a Mediterranean post-fire shrubland?

    PubMed

    Larchevêque, Marie; Montès, Nicolas; Baldy, Virginie; Ballini, Christine

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge compost (control, 20 kg m(-2), 40 kg m(-2)) supplied to Quercus pubescens Willd seedlings planted in a post-fire calcareous site in Provence (France). Changes in soil properties, seedling survival, growth and nutrition were monitored 7 months, 1.5 years and 2.5 years after amendment, and possible trace metal contamination of soil and seedlings by compost was also evaluated. Compost improved overall soil fertility by increasing organic matter, cation exchange capacity, total N and exchangeable P, K, Mg and B concentrations, but 40 kg m(-2) induced a more significant and more durable effect than 20 kg m(-2). However, the compost had no effect on seedling survival and growth, but increased foliar P and B concentrations at 40 kg m(-2). No foliar contamination of seedlings by trace metals occurred, although amendment increased exchangeable Cu and Zn concentrations in soil. Compost P and exchangeable Cu and Zn concentrations could induce eutrophication and water pollution, and limit rates that can be applied without environmental hazard.

  10. Culm Age and Rhizome Affects Night-Time Water Recharge in the Bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuhua; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Liwei; Hu, Yanting; Ouyang, Lei; Ni, Guangyan; Ye, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo species—the only herbaceous trees—have unique structural and physiological characteristics that differ from those of other tree taxa. However, the role of night-time water use in bamboo is poorly understood and has rarely been investigated. We studied the day- and night-time sap flow response to culm age and rhizome structure in three age levels (juvenile, mature, and senescent) of Phyllostachys pubescens growing in the Nankun Mountain Natural Reserve, South China. We found that sap flow density and whole-tree hydraulic conductance decreased with culm age. After cutting of rhizome, the day-time sap flow and night-time water recharge decreased obviously. In addition, night-time water recharge accounted for the largest proportion (up to 30%) of total daily transpiration in normal senescent bamboos. Therefore, our study indicates that the connected rhizome system and night-time water recharge played a significant role in water compensation during the day and at night in bamboos. Night-time water recharge is especially critical to senescent bamboos, given their weaker transpiration due to the lower whole-tree hydraulic conductance, and consequently, they are more dependent on night-time water recharge for fulfilling their whole-day water consumption needs. PMID:29176989

  11. Culm Age and Rhizome Affects Night-Time Water Recharge in the Bamboo Phyllostachys pubescens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuhua; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Liwei; Hu, Yanting; Ouyang, Lei; Ni, Guangyan; Ye, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo species-the only herbaceous trees-have unique structural and physiological characteristics that differ from those of other tree taxa. However, the role of night-time water use in bamboo is poorly understood and has rarely been investigated. We studied the day- and night-time sap flow response to culm age and rhizome structure in three age levels (juvenile, mature, and senescent) of Phyllostachys pubescens growing in the Nankun Mountain Natural Reserve, South China. We found that sap flow density and whole-tree hydraulic conductance decreased with culm age. After cutting of rhizome, the day-time sap flow and night-time water recharge decreased obviously. In addition, night-time water recharge accounted for the largest proportion (up to 30%) of total daily transpiration in normal senescent bamboos. Therefore, our study indicates that the connected rhizome system and night-time water recharge played a significant role in water compensation during the day and at night in bamboos. Night-time water recharge is especially critical to senescent bamboos, given their weaker transpiration due to the lower whole-tree hydraulic conductance, and consequently, they are more dependent on night-time water recharge for fulfilling their whole-day water consumption needs.

  12. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis pubescens L. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Long; Yuan, Yonglei; Ma, Zhongjun; Chen, Zhe; Gan, Lishe; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Huang, Dongsheng

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Physalis pubescens L. (DEPP) had weak potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity, but an UPLC-ESI-MS method with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate revealed that the DEPP had electrophiles (with an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety). These electrophiles could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, four withanolides, including three new compounds physapubescin B (2), physapubescin C (3), physapubescin D (4), together with one known steroidal compound physapubescin (1) were isolated. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis and that of physapubescin C (3) was confirmed by a combination of molecular modeling and quantum chemical DFT-GIAO calculations. Evaluation of the QR inducing activities of all withanolides indicated potent activities of compounds 1 and 2, which had a common α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidative and Antidiabetic Activity of Bark of Holarrhena Pubescens Wall

    PubMed Central

    Jamarkattel, Nirmala; Shrestha, Aasmin; Lamsal, Nisha Kiran; Shakya, Sangam; Rajbhandari, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the study are to screen out various phytochemicals and to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the stem bark of Holarrhena pubescens Wall (Holarrhena antidysenterica). Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity where ascorbic acid was taken as positive control. The antioxidant property was later exploited and the methanolic extract of plant was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic mice. The extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively where Glipizide 5 mg/kg was taken as standard reference drug. All results are presented as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation). Significant differences between experimental groups were determined by Student’s t-test. Results: The methanolic and water extract showed strong antioxidant activity with inhibition of more than 90% DPPH free radicals at the concentration of 100μg/mL. The hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract on glucose tolerance test were significant (p <0.05) for the effects of 500 mg/kg after 120 min of treatment and (p <0.01) for 250 mg/kg of extract after half hour of treatment compared to control. Conclusion: The presence of flavonoides, phenolic compounds suggested that they may be partially responsible for antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. PMID:25386454

  14. Evaluation of antioxidative and antidiabetic activity of bark of holarrhena pubescens wall.

    PubMed

    Bhusal, Anup; Jamarkattel, Nirmala; Shrestha, Aasmin; Lamsal, Nisha Kiran; Shakya, Sangam; Rajbhandari, Sneha

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of the study are to screen out various phytochemicals and to evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of the stem bark of Holarrhena pubescens Wall (Holarrhena antidysenterica). The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity where ascorbic acid was taken as positive control. The antioxidant property was later exploited and the methanolic extract of plant was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic mice. The extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively where Glipizide 5 mg/kg was taken as standard reference drug. All results are presented as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation). Significant differences between experimental groups were determined by Student's t-test. The methanolic and water extract showed strong antioxidant activity with inhibition of more than 90% DPPH free radicals at the concentration of 100μg/mL. The hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract on glucose tolerance test were significant (p <0.05) for the effects of 500 mg/kg after 120 min of treatment and (p <0.01) for 250 mg/kg of extract after half hour of treatment compared to control. The presence of flavonoides, phenolic compounds suggested that they may be partially responsible for antioxidant and antidiabetic activity.

  15. Risk analysis of Safety Service Patrol (SSP) systems in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Brett D; Santos, Joost R

    2011-12-01

    The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities. In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols (SSPs), which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  17. SSP Plus at 36 Months: Effects of Adding Employment Services to Financial Work Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Ying; Michalopoulos, Charles

    A study examined effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) Plus program. A small group of long-term income assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services (SSP Plus); a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…

  18. Temporal and spatiotemporal autocorrelation of daily concentrations of Alnus, Betula, and Corylus pollen in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowosad, J; Stach, A; Kasprzyk, I; Grewling, Ł; Latałowa, M; Puc, M; Myszkowska, D; Weryszko-Chmielewska, E; Piotrowska-Weryszko, K; Chłopek, K; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, B; Uruska, A

    The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of temporal and space-time autocorrelation of pollen counts of Alnus , Betula , and Corylus in the air of eight cities in Poland. Daily average pollen concentrations were monitored over 8 years (2001-2005 and 2009-2011) using Hirst-designed volumetric spore traps. The spatial and temporal coherence of data was investigated using the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions. The calculation and mathematical modelling of 61 correlograms were performed for up to 25 days back. The study revealed an association between temporal variations in Alnus , Betula , and Corylus pollen counts in Poland and three main groups of factors such as: (1) air mass exchange after the passage of a single weather front (30-40 % of pollen count variation); (2) long-lasting factors (50-60 %); and (3) random factors, including diurnal variations and measurements errors (10 %). These results can help to improve the quality of forecasting models.

  19. Artificial neural network model of the relationship between Betula pollen and meteorological factors in Szczecin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2012-03-01

    Birch pollen is one of the main causes of allergy during spring and early summer in northern and central Europe. The aim of this study was to create a forecast model that can accurately predict daily average concentrations of Betula sp. pollen grains in the atmosphere of Szczecin, Poland. In order to achieve this, a novel data analysis technique—artificial neural networks (ANN)—was used. Sampling was carried out using a volumetric spore trap of the Hirst design in Szczecin during 2003-2009. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that humidity had a strong negative correlation with Betula pollen concentrations. Significant positive correlations were observed for maximum temperature, average temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation. The ANN resulted in multilayer perceptrons 366 8: 2928-7-1:1, time series prediction was of quite high accuracy (SD Ratio between 0.3 and 0.5, R > 0.85). Direct comparison of the observed and calculated values confirmed good performance of the model and its ability to recreate most of the variation.

  20. Capsule treatments to enhance seedling emergence of Gaura neomexicana ssp

    Treesearch

    Leah M. Burgess; Ann L. Hild; Nancy L. Shaw

    2005-01-01

    Management of riparian vegetation is difficult because these communities are frequently impacted by herbivores, invasive weeds, and altered hydrologic regimes. Multiple and intertwined factors affecting rare species recruitment are particularly difficult to identify. Gaura neomexicana ssp. coloradensis Munz (Gaura) is a short-lived perennial forb endemic to riparian...

  1. Seed ecology of a rare sage, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii

    Treesearch

    Kristin D. Huisinga

    2001-01-01

    Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii is endemic to central Arizona. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to its limited fruit production, low seedling establishment, and germination requirements. Heavy herbivory pressures decreased the numbers of mature fruits in populations in two different...

  2. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  3. Volatile and capsaicinoid composition of ají (Capsicum baccatum) and rocoto (Capsicum pubescens), two Andean species of chile peppers.

    PubMed

    Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Nitz, Siegfried; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    Ají (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) and rocoto (Capsicum pubescens R. & P.) are two species of chile pepper used for millennia in Andean cuisine. The introduction of these relatively unknown Capsicum species to new markets requires an understanding of their flavour-related compounds. Thus both heat level (Scoville method and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)) and, particularly, aroma (headspace solid phase microextraction and GC/MS/olfactometry) were studied in different accessions of ají and rocoto and a C. chinense control. Ajíes and rocotos are mildly pungent compared with C. chinense (13-352 vs 1605 mg kg(-1) total capsaicinoids). More than 200 volatiles were detected and marked differences in volatile pattern were found between the studied accessions. The powerful fruity/exotic aroma of the C. chinense control is due to esters such as ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, norcarotenoids such as β-ionone and the hydrocarbon ectocarpene. In contrast, the Andean peppers had more earthy/vegetable/bell pepper-like aromas. Rocotos also exhibited a distinct additional cucumber odour, while one of the ajíes had a distinctive sweet/fruity note. The aroma of C. pubescens fruits is mainly due to substituted 2-methoxypyrazines and lipoxygenase cleavage products (e.g. 2-nonenals, 2,6-nonadienal). 2-Heptanethiol, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and several phenols (e.g. guaiacol) and terpenoids (e.g. α-pinene, 1,8-cineol, linalool) are the basis of C. baccatum aroma, with some 3-methyl-2-butyl esters contributing to fruity notes. In this study the compounds responsible for heat and aroma in the Andean peppers C. baccatum and C. pubescens were identified. The results will be of use to inspire future studies aimed at improving the flavour of these species. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Anticancer effect of PP31J isolated from Physalis pubescens L. in human cervical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenjie; Wang, Qianqian; Chen, Lifeng; Huang, Lu; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Extracts derived from Physalis pubescens L. may function as cancer therapies. The pharmacological effects of PP31J on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated in this study. HeLa cells were treated with PP31J, and then cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution were measured using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry. Protein expression levels of regulators of cell apoptosis and cell cycle were also examined using western blotting. Our data show that PP31J inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Significant growth inhibition compared to the vehicle-treated group was observed using a concentration of 5 μM PP31J at 24, 48, and 72 h. PP31J also selectively arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 phase at 40 μM (P < 0.05) and in the G2/M phase at 20 μM (P < 0.01) and 40 μM (P < 0.001). Our results further demonstrate a significant increase in cell apoptosis (P < 0.001) following PP31J treatment (10, 20, and 40 μM). Immunoblotting data show that PP31J downregulated (P < 0.01) the expression of Bcl-xL and decreased (P < 0.05) the expression of Survivin and Cyclin D1 at 20 and 40 μM. This study shows the anti-tumor activity of PP31J in HeLa cells and that the effects of PP31J on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were partially attributed to the regulation of Cyclin D1, Survivin, and Bcl-xL. PMID:28559997

  5. Surface runoff and nitrogen (N) loss in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest under different fertilization regimes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichun; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Wang, Jinwen; Song, Qiujin; Xue, Qiaoyun; Yu, Yan; Lin, Xianyong; Hussain, Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural fields have been extensively studied. In contrast, surface runoff and N losses have rarely been considered for bamboo forests that are widespread in regions such as southern China. The thriving of bamboo industries has led to increasing fertilizer use in bamboo forests. In this study, we evaluated surface runoff and N losses in runoff following different fertilization treatments under field conditions in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in the catchment of Lake Taihu in Jiangsu, China. Under three different fertilization regimes, i.e., control, site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), and farmer's fertilization practice (FFP), the water runoff rate amounted to 356, 361, and 342 m(3) ha(-1) and accounted for 1.91, 1.98, and 1.85% of the water input, respectively, from June 2009 to May 2010. The total N losses via surface runoff ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 kg ha(-1). Compared with FFP, the SSNM treatment reduced total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) losses by 31 and 34%, respectively. The results also showed that variations in N losses depended mainly on runoff fluxes, not N concentrations. Runoff samples collected from all treatments throughout the year showed TN concentrations greater than 0.35 mg L(-1), with the mean TN concentration in the runoff from the FFP treatment reaching 8.97 mg L(-1). The loss of NO3(-)-N was greater than the loss of NH4(+)-N. The total loss of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) reached 23-41% of the corresponding DN. Therefore, DON is likely the main N species in runoff from bamboo forests and should be emphasized in the assessment and management of N losses in bamboo forest.

  6. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  7. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    Treesearch

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil Nelson; Elina Oksanan; Elina Vapaavuori; David F. Karnosky

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO2 and/or O3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO2 increased both...

  8. Decomposition of Betula papyrifera leaf litter under the independent and interactive effects of elevated CO2 and O3

    Treesearch

    William F.J. Parsons; Richard L. Lindroth; James G. Bockheim

    2004-01-01

    Litter decay dynamics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were assessed at the Aspen free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in northern Wisconsin, USA. Leaf litter was decomposed for 12 months under factorial combinations of 360 vs. 560 µLCO2 L-1, crossed with 36 vs. 55 nLO...

  9. The influence of log soaking temperature on surface quality and integrity performance of birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer

    Treesearch

    Anti Rohumaa; Toni Antikainen; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Wood material surface properties play an important role in adhesive bond formation and performance. In the present study, a test method was developed to evaluate the integrity of the wood surface, and the results were used to understand bond performance. Materials used were rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers, produced from logs soaked at 20 or 70 °C prior...

  10. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    PubMed Central

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910–1930 to 1990–2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991–1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997–2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed ‘greening of the Arctic’ which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. PMID:25788025

  11. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea.

  12. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera)

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Gabriel; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-01-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera) is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana) enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1) develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2) assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3) describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome), binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S–transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees. PMID:27082755

  13. Detection of allergen composition and in vivo immunogenicity of depigmented allergoids of Betula alba.

    PubMed

    Carnés, J; Himly, M; Gallego, M; Iraola, V; Robinson, D S; Fernández-Caldas, E; Briza, P

    2009-03-01

    Chemical modification of allergen vaccines to reduce IgE binding improves safety while maintaining clinical efficacy. However, this also complicates the characterization of allergoids using techniques as for native allergen extracts. The objective of this study was to analyse the molecular size of Betula alba depigmented allergoids, conservation of major allergens in the allergoids and in vivo antibody response to immunization. The molecular size of depigmented allergoids was evaluated by high performance-size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques. Protein composition was compared with native extracts by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based peptide mapping. Rabbits were immunized with depigmented allergoid of Betula pollen adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide (Depigoid). IgG antibodies against individual allergens were determined by ELISA and immunoblot. Depigmented allergoids contained a range of high molecular weight particles, approximately 60% of which had a molecular weight of 1-3 MDa. Peptide sequencing confirmed the preservation of five isoforms of Bet v 1, as well as Bet v 2, Bet v 6 and Bet v 7. Sera from immunized rabbits showed high levels of specific IgG to rBet v 1.0101 and rBet v 2. The mean protein content was 544+/-106 microg per mg of freeze-dried material for depigmented allergoids and 434+/-71 for native extracts. They retain the capacity to induce specific IgG antibodies against individual allergens present in the native extract. These findings confirm the immunogenicity of depigmented allergoids and may explain why patients treated with these vaccines are protected against the native allergens. Analysis of molecular size and allergen content may be useful techniques for characterization and standardization of allergoid products.

  14. Soil Organic Carbon Pool and Its Chemical Composition in Phyllostachy pubescens Forests at Two Altitudes in Jian-ou City, China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Zhong, Zheke

    2015-01-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens forests play an important role in soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the estimation and mechanism of SOC sequestration by P. pubescens forests remain unclear. In this study, the effect of P. pubescens forest distribution with elevation was investigated at two altitude sites in Jian-ou City, Southeast China. SOC storage was estimated and its chemical composition was obtained via 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical classification, and spectral analysis. Results showed that the SOC contents and stocks were significantly higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site in the entire soil profile (0-60 cm). The C contents of the three combined humus forms exhibited similar responses to the elevation change, and all of these forms were higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site regardless of soil layer. However, the proportions of the three combined humus C showed no significant differences between the two altitudes. The results of 13C-NMR showed that the SOC chemical composition did not significantly vary with elevation as well. This finding was consistent with the E465/E665 of the loosely combined humus. Overall, the results suggested that altitude should be considered during regional SOC estimation and that altitude affected the quantity rather than the quality of the SOC under the same P. pubescens vegetation.

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Pool and Its Chemical Composition in Phyllostachy pubescens Forests at Two Altitudes in Jian-ou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Zhong, Zheke

    2015-01-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens forests play an important role in soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the estimation and mechanism of SOC sequestration by P. pubescens forests remain unclear. In this study, the effect of P. pubescens forest distribution with elevation was investigated at two altitude sites in Jian-ou City, Southeast China. SOC storage was estimated and its chemical composition was obtained via 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical classification, and spectral analysis. Results showed that the SOC contents and stocks were significantly higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site in the entire soil profile (0–60 cm). The C contents of the three combined humus forms exhibited similar responses to the elevation change, and all of these forms were higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site regardless of soil layer. However, the proportions of the three combined humus C showed no significant differences between the two altitudes. The results of 13C-NMR showed that the SOC chemical composition did not significantly vary with elevation as well. This finding was consistent with the E465/E665 of the loosely combined humus. Overall, the results suggested that altitude should be considered during regional SOC estimation and that altitude affected the quantity rather than the quality of the SOC under the same P. pubescens vegetation. PMID:26716688

  16. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  17. Chemical characteristic of salt fermented meat inoculated with Pediococcus ssp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Y. B.; Rahayu, E. S.; Suparmo; Utami, T.; Nurwantoro; Yunianto, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The research goal is knowing of the characteristict of salt fermented meat by Pediococcus ssp. There were microbiological, chemical, and off-flavor compound during fermentation. This study was conducted on research of influence of salt-meat fermentation inoculated used starter. They were included microbiological characteristics, and chemical characteristics. Microbiological characteristics observed were total bacteria, number of coliform groups, bacteria producing bioamine, and total lactic acid bacteria. The result showed that decreasing of coliform and bioamine producer bacteria, and total lactic acid bacteria decreased 3 log cycle. While the soluble protein increased of 7-8% and bioamine increased of 5-6 mg/100 g. And then Off-flavour compound, TVN and TMA increased of 36-20 mg/100g and 16-30 mg/100g, respectively. Conclusion of the research that Pedioccoccus ssp. influenced salt fermented meat.

  18. Flavonoids from Ulex airensis and Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus.

    PubMed

    Máximo, Patrícia; Lourenço, Ana; Feio, Sónia Savluchinske; Roseiro, José Carlos

    2002-02-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Ulex airensis three new isoflavonoids, ulexin C (1), ulexin D (2), and 7-O-methylisolupalbigenin (3), were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Ulexin D (2) was also identified from the dichloromethane extract of Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus. Together with these new metabolites, 18 compounds of previously known structures were isolated and identified from both species. The antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Cladosporium cucumerinum by a bioautographic TLC assay.

  19. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  20. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Forecasting model of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels using spatiotemporal correlation properties of pollen count.

    PubMed

    Nowosad, Jakub; Stach, Alfred; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Puc, Małgorzata; Grewling, Łukasz; Pędziszewska, Anna; Uruska, Agnieszka; Myszkowska, Dorota; Chłopek, Kazimiera; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate models for predicting high levels of daily pollen concentration of Corylus , Alnus , and Betula using a spatiotemporal correlation of pollen count. For each taxon, a high pollen count level was established according to the first allergy symptoms during exposure. The dataset was divided into a training set and a test set, using a stratified random split. For each taxon and city, the model was built using a random forest method. Corylus models performed poorly. However, the study revealed the possibility of predicting with substantial accuracy the occurrence of days with high pollen concentrations of Alnus and Betula using past pollen count data from monitoring sites. These results can be used for building (1) simpler models, which require data only from aerobiological monitoring sites, and (2) combined meteorological and aerobiological models for predicting high levels of pollen concentration.

  2. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  3. Are the Pyrenees a barrier for the transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Central Europe to the Iberian Peninsula?

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; De Linares, Concepción; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Belmonte, Jordina

    2017-01-01

    This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004-2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory analysis and a source receptor model. Betula pollen outbreaks were associated with the meteorological scenario characterized by the presence of a high-pressure system overm over Morocco and Southern Iberian Peninsula. France and Central Europe have been identified as the probable source areas of Betula pollen that arrives to Northern Spain. However, the specific source areas are mainly determined by the particular prevailing atmospheric circulation of each location. Finally, the Weather Research and Forecasting model highlighted the effect of the orography on the atmospheric transport patterns, showing paths through the western and easternmost lowlands for Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bellaterra respectively, and the direct impact of air flows over Vielha through the Garona valley. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential responses of Picea asperata and Betula albosinensis to nitrogen supply imposed by water availability.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunying; Palmroth, Sari; Pang, Xueyong; Tang, Bo; Liu, Qing; Oren, Ram

    2018-05-16

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) addition (0, 20, 40 g N m-2 year-1, N0, N20, N40, respectively) on the growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation of coniferous and deciduous (Picea asperata Mast. and Betula albosinensis Burk.) seedlings under a range of soil moisture limitation (40%, 50%, 60%, 80% and 100% of field capacity, FC). At 100% FC, growth of shade-tolerant P. asperata increased with N supply, while that of shade-intolerant B. albosinensis reached a maximum at N20, declining somewhat thereafter. At 60% FC and lower moisture content, water availability limited the growth of P. asperata seedlings, while N availability became progressively limiting to growth with moisture increasing above 60% FC. The transition from principally water-limited response to N-limited response in B. albosinensis occurred at lower moisture content. For P. asperata, these patterns reflected the responses of roots, consistent with changes in root/shoot biomass. For B. albosinensis the response reflected changes in shoot dimensions and root biomass fraction, the latter decreasing with size and foliar [N]. We are not aware of another study demonstrating such differences in the shape of the growth responses of seedlings of differing potential growth rate, across a range in belowground resource supply. The responses of leaf photosynthesis (as well as photosynthetic water and N-use efficiencies) were consistent with the observed growth response of P. asperata to water and N availability, but not of B. albosinensis, suggesting that leaf area dynamics (not measured) dominated the response of this species. Betula albosinensis, a fast-growing species, has a relative narrow range of soil water and N availability for maximum growth, achieved by preferential allocation to the shoot as resources meet the requirements at moderate N and water supply. In contrast, P. asperata increases shoot biomass progressively with increasing resources up to moderate

  5. Chronological Sequence of Leaf Phenology, Xylem and Phloem Formation and Sap Flow of Quercus pubescens from Abandoned Karst Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Lavrič, Martina; Eler, Klemen; Ferlan, Mitja; Vodnik, Dominik; Gričar, Jožica

    2017-01-01

    Intra-annual variations in leaf development, radial growth, including the phloem part, and sap flow have rarely been studied in deciduous trees from drought-prone environments. In order to understand better the chronological order and temporal course of these processes, we monitored leaf phenology, xylem and phloem formation and sap flow in Quercus pubescens from abandoned karst grasslands in Slovenia during the growing season of 2014. We found that the initial earlywood vessel formation started before bud opening at the beginning of April. Buds started to open in the second half of April and full leaf unfolding occurred by the end of May. LAI values increased correspondingly with leaf development. About 28% of xylem and 22% of phloem annual increment were formed by the time of bud break. Initial earlywood vessels were fully lignified and ready for water transport, indicating that they are essential to provide hydraulic conductivity for axial water flow during leaf development. Sap flow became active and increasing contemporarily with leaf development and LAI values. Similar early spring patterns of xylem sap flow and LAI denoted that water transport in oaks broadly followed canopy leaf area development. In the initial 3 weeks of radial growth, phloem growth preceded that of xylem, indicating its priority over xylem at the beginning of the growing season. This may be related to the fact that after bud break, the developing foliage is a very large sink for carbohydrates but, at the same time, represents a small transpirational area. Whether the interdependence of the chronological sequence of the studied processes is fixed in Q. pubescens needs to be confirmed with more data and several years of analyses, although the ‘correct sequence’ of processes is essential for synchronized plant performance and response to environmental stress. PMID:28321232

  6. Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban

  7. Spatial variation of vessel grouping in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Vessel grouping in angiosperms may improve hydraulic integration and increase the spread of cavitations through redundancy pathways. Although disputed, it is increasingly attracting research interest as a potentially significant hydraulic trait. However, the variation of vessel grouping in a tree is poorly understood. I measured the number of solitary and grouped vessels in the xylem of Betula platyphylla Roth. from the pith to the bark along the water flow path. The vessel grouping parameters included the mean number of vessels per vessel group (VG), percentage of solitary vessels (SVP), percentage of radial multiple vessels (MVP), and percentage of cluster vessels (CVP). The effects of cambial age (CA) and flow path-length (PL) on the vessel grouping were analyzed using a linear mixed model.VG and CVP increased nonlinearly, SVP decreased nonlinearly with PL. In trunks and branches, VG and CVP decreased nonlinearly, and SVP increased nonlinearly with CA. In roots, the parameters had no change with CA. MVP was almost constant with PL or CA. The results suggest that vessel grouping has a nonrandom variation pattern, which is affected deeply by cambial age and water flow path.

  8. Hydraulic responses to environmental perturbations in Tsuga canadensis and Betula lenta.

    PubMed

    Daley, Michael J; Phillips, Nathan G; Pettijohn, Justin C; Hadley, Julian

    2008-09-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L). Carr.) is a late-successional species found across the northeastern United States of America that is currently threatened by the exotic pest, hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Because whole-tree physiological characteristics may scale to influence ecosystem processes, we considered whole-tree hydraulic controls in eastern hemlock and the replacement species black birch (Betula lenta L.). Through a series of misting perturbations, whole-tree resistances (R), capacitances (C) and time constants (tau) were determined from time series sap flux data in eastern hemlock and black birch. Black birch trees responded more rapidly to environmental perturbations than eastern hemlock. Utilizing the step function after applied treatments, whole-tree tau ranged between 9.4 and 24.8 min in eastern hemlock trees compared with 5.9 to 10.5 min in black birch. Species was not a significant predictor of R or C when controlling for tree size. In both species, R decreased with sapwood area and C increased. Our tau results indicate that the loss and replacement of eastern hemlock by black birch will decrease the lag between transpiration and absorption of water from the soil and potentially alter the diurnal pattern of carbon and water uptake.

  9. Variations in phenology and growth of European white birch (Betula pendula) clones.

    PubMed

    Rousi, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki

    2005-02-01

    Phenology can have a profound effect on growth and climatic adaptability of northern tree species. Although the large interannual variations in dates of bud burst and growth termination have been widely discussed, little is known about the genotypic and spatial variations in phenology and how these sources of variation are related to temporal variation. We measured bud burst of eight white birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones in two field experiments daily over 6 years, and determined the termination of growth for the same clones over 2 years. We also measured yearly height growth. We found considerable genetic variation in phenological characteristics among the birch clones. There was large interannual variation in the date of bud burst and especially in the termination of growth, indicating that, in addition to genetic effects, environmental factors have a strong influence on both bud burst and growth termination. Height growth was correlated with timing of growth termination, length of growth period and bud burst, but the relationships were weak and varied among years. We accurately predicted the date of bud burst from the temperature accumulation after January 1, and base temperatures between +2 and -1 degrees C. There was large clonal variation in the duration of bud burst. Interannual variation in bud burst may have important consequences for insect herbivory of birches.

  10. [Spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana - Betula platyphylla secondary forest].

    PubMed

    Shao, Fang-Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Song, Si-Ming; Zhao, Yang

    2011-11-01

    This paper analyzed the spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana - Betula platyphylla secondary forest in a 4 hm2 plot of Mulan Paddock, based on the diameter distribution and the spatial structure parameters mingling degree, neighborhood comparison, and angle index. In the forest, the diameter distribution of the stands presented as an inverse 'J' curve, the average mingling degree was 0.4, with the individuals at weak and zero mingling degree reached 51.6%, and the average mingling degree of P. davidiana and B. platyphylla was 0.25 and 0.39, respectively. The neighborhood comparison based on the diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height was almost the same, suggesting that the P. davidiana and B. platyphylla were in the transition state from subdominant to middle. The horizontal distribution pattern had a close relation to the minimum measured DBH, being clustered when the DBH was > or = 1 cm and < 6 cm, and random when the DBH was > or = 6 cm.

  11. Leaf size and surface characteristics of Betula papyrifera exposed to elevated CO2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Percy, Kevin E; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil D; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F

    2010-04-01

    Betula papyrifera trees were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO(2) (1.4 x ambient), O(3) (1.2 x ambient) or CO(2) + O(3) at the Aspen Free-air CO(2) Enrichment Experiment. The treatment effects on leaf surface characteristics were studied after nine years of tree exposure. CO(2) and O(3) increased epidermal cell size and reduced epidermal cell density but leaf size was not altered. Stomatal density remained unaffected, but stomatal index increased under elevated CO(2). Cuticular ridges and epicuticular wax crystallites were less evident under CO(2) and CO(2) + O(3). The increase in amorphous deposits, particularly under CO(2) + O(3,) was associated with the appearance of elongated plate crystallites in stomatal chambers. Increased proportions of alkyl esters resulted from increased esterification of fatty acids and alcohols under elevated CO(2) + O(3). The combination of elevated CO(2) and O(3) resulted in different responses than expected under exposure to CO(2) or O(3) alone. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Airborne Betula Pollen in Finland; a 31-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yli-Panula, Eija; Fekedulegn, Desta Bey; Green, Brett James; Ranta, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In this 31-year retrospective study, we examined the influence of meteorology on airborne Betula spp. (birch) pollen concentrations in Turku, Finland. The seasonal incidence of airborne birch pollen in Turku occurred over a brief period each year during spring (April 30 – May 31). Mean peak concentrations were restricted to May (May 5 to 13). Statistically significant increases in the annual accumulated birch pollen sum and daily maximum values were observed over the study period. Birch pollen counts collected in April were retrospectively shown to increase over the duration of the study. Increases in April temperature values were also significantly associated with the earlier onset of the birch pollen season. Furthermore, the number of days where daily birch pollen concentrations exceeded 10 and 1,000 grains/m3 also increased throughout the study period. These data demonstrate that increases in temperature, especially during months preceding the onset of the birch pollen season, favor preseason phenological development and pollen dispersal. Birch pollen derived from other geographical locations may also contribute to the aerospora of Turku, Finland. To date, the public health burden associated with personal exposure to elevated birch pollen loads remains unclear and is the focus of future epidemiological research. PMID:19578456

  13. Shotgun Bisulfite Sequencing of the Betula platyphylla Genome Reveals the Tree’s DNA Methylation Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Wang, Chao; He, Lin; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Most studies of DNA methylation have been performed in herbaceous plants, and little is known about the methylation patterns in tree genomes. In the present study, we generated a map of methylated cytosines at single base pair resolution for Betula platyphylla (white birch) by bisulfite sequencing combined with transcriptomics to analyze DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression. We obtained a detailed view of the function of DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the genome of B. platyphylla. There are 34,460 genes in the whole genome of birch, and 31,297 genes are methylated. Conservatively, we estimated that 14.29% of genomic cytosines are methylcytosines in birch. Among the methylation sites, the CHH context accounts for 48.86%, and is the largest proportion. Combined transcriptome and methylation analysis showed that the genes with moderate methylation levels had higher expression levels than genes with high and low methylation. In addition, methylated genes are highly enriched for the GO subcategories of binding activities, catalytic activities, cellular processes, response to stimulus and cell death, suggesting that methylation mediates these pathways in birch trees. PMID:25514241

  14. Photosynthesis and canopy characteristics in genetically defined families of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Tigerstedt, P M; Viherä-Aarnio, A

    1995-10-01

    Net photosynthetic rates (A) of leaves in upper and lower crown layers (A(upper) and A(lower)), leaf area index (LAI), mean tilt angle (MTA), several leaf characteristics, and volume growth were observed in fast- and slow-growing families of a 14-year-old full-sib and half-sib family progeny test of Betula pendula Roth. Each measure of net photosynthetic rate was calculated after correcting measured net photosynthesis for the effects of environmental variables. The differences in A(upper) and LAI among families were significant. The proportions of the total variance assigned to family for A(upper), A(lower) and LAI were 33.64, 28.93 and 54.99%, respectively. The mean A(upper) and LAI of the fast-growing families were significantly higher than those of the slow-growing families, whereas the mean A(lower) of the fast-growing families was significantly lower than that of the slow-growing families. There were also significant differences among families in leaf size, leaf shape, and the ratios leaf fresh weight/area and leaf dry weight/area. Between 27.55 and 54.55% of the total variance in these characteristics could be assigned to the family effect. Volume growth was positively correlated with A(upper) and LAI, but it was most strongly correlated with A(upper) x LAI.

  15. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Drooping Birch (Betula pendula Roth) Parameters Under Motor Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose–response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011. PMID:26676071

  16. Foliar fungi of Betula pendula: impact of tree species mixtures and assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Diem; Boberg, Johanna; Cleary, Michelle; Bruelheide, Helge; Hönig, Lydia; Koricheva, Julia; Stenlid, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Foliar fungi of silver birch (Betula pendula) in an experimental Finnish forest were investigated across a gradient of tree species richness using molecular high-throughput sequencing and visual macroscopic assessment. We hypothesized that the molecular approach detects more fungal taxa than visual assessment, and that there is a relationship among the most common fungal taxa detected by both techniques. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the fungal community composition, diversity, and distribution patterns are affected by changes in tree diversity. Sequencing revealed greater diversity of fungi on birch leaves than the visual assessment method. One species showed a linear relationship between the methods. Species-specific variation in fungal community composition could be partially explained by tree diversity, though overall fungal diversity was not affected by tree diversity. Analysis of specific fungal taxa indicated tree diversity effects at the local neighbourhood scale, where the proportion of birch among neighbouring trees varied, but not at the plot scale. In conclusion, both methods may be used to determine tree diversity effects on the foliar fungal community. However, high-throughput sequencing provided higher resolution of the fungal community, while the visual macroscopic assessment detected functionally active fungal species. PMID:28150710

  17. Speciation analysis of aluminium in plant parts of Betula pendula and in soil.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    The research presents the first results of aluminium speciation analysis in aqueous extracts of individual plant parts of Betula pendula and soil samples, using High Performance Ion Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPIC-DAD). The applied method allowed us to carry out a full speciation analysis of aluminium in the form of predominant aluminium-fluoride complexes: AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) (first analytical signal), AlF 2+ (second analytical signal) and Al 3+ (third analytical signal) in samples of lateral roots, tap roots, twigs, stem, leaf and soil collected under roots of B. pendula. Concentrations of aluminium and its complexes were determined for two types of environment characterised by different degree of human impact: contaminated site of the Chemical Plant in Luboń and protected area of the Wielkopolski National Park. For all the analysed samples of B. pendula and soil, AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) had the largest contribution, followed by Al 3+ and AlF 2+ . Significant differences in concentration and contribution of Al-F complexes and Al 3+ form, depending on the place of sampling (different anthropogenic pressure) and plant part of B. pendula were observed. Based on the obtained results, it was found that transport of aluminium is "blocked" by lateral roots, and is closely related to Al content of soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [Biomass distribution patterns of Alnus hirsuta and Betula platyphylla-swamp ecotone communities in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Mu, Changcheng; Wan, Shucheng; Su, Ping; Song, Hongwen; Sun, Zhihu

    2004-12-01

    In order to reveal the growth patterns of dominant tree species and the distribution patterns of community biomass along the horizontal environmental gradients or among the vertical layers of communities in Changbai Mountains, this paper studied the biomass distribution patterns of Alnus hirsuta-swamp and Betula platyphylla-swamp ecotone communities. The results showed that there were some differences in growth rate and in adaptability to habitats between A. hirsuta and B. platyphylla. In the wetland habitats of the ecotone, A. hirsuta grew 1-2 times faster than B. platyphylla, but along the gradient from swamp to forest, it grew slowly, while B. platyphylla grew fast. Therefore, A. hirsuta was a favorite tree species in wetland habitats. The distribution pattern of organ biomass was similar between A. hirsute and B. platyphylla, the trunk being 1/2, tree root 1/4, branch 1/10, bark 1.5/20, and leaf 1/20. The vertical distribution pattern of biomass was also similar between A. hirsute-swamp and B. platyphylla-swamp ecotone communities, the tree, shrub, and herbage layer accounted for 87%-90%, 7%-9%, and 2%-3%, respectively in the whole ecotone communities. The community biomass increased linearly from swamp to forest with the change of environment factors.

  19. Characterization of Betula platyphylla gene transcripts associated with early development of male inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xue-Mei

    2012-02-01

    Birch (Betula platyphylla), an eminent tree species in Northeast and Inner Mongolia of China, has been widely used in architecture, furniture, and paper making in recent years. In order to retrieve genes involved in early development of B. platyphylla male inflorescence, RNA populations extracted from early and late developmental stage were analyzed by cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique. Following amplification of 256 pairs of primer combinations, ~7000 fragments were generated, of which 350 transcripts expressing more in early stage than late. Of 350 specific transcripts, 198 clear and reproducible electrophoresis bands were retrieved and sequenced successfully, 74 of them (37%) showing significant homologies to known genes after GO annotation. Majority of the predicted gene products were involved in metabolism (24.56%), cellular process (27.19%), response to stimulus (11.4%) and cell growth (8.7%). Transcripts ME56, ME108, ME206 and ME310, representing metabolism, cellular process, response to stimulus and cell growth, respectively, were selected for further study to validate cDNA-AFLP expression patterns via RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR expression pattern results were consistent with cDNA-AFLP analysis results.

  20. Variations in bacterial and fungal communities through soil depth profiles in a Betula albosinensis forest.

    PubMed

    Du, Can; Geng, Zengchao; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Tongtong; He, Wenxiang; Hou, Lin; Wang, Yueling

    2017-09-01

    Microbial communities in subsurface soil are specialized for their environment, which is distinct from that of the surface communities. However, little is known about the microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) that exist in the deeper soil horizons. Vertical changes in microbial alpha-diversity (Chao1 and Shannon indices) and community composition were investigated at four soil depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm) in a natural secondary forest of Betula albosinensis by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S and internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions. The numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and the Chao1 and Shannon indices decreased in the deeper soil layers. Each soil layer contained both mutual and specific OTUs. In the 40-60 cm soil layer, 175 and 235 specific bacterial and fungal OTUs were identified, respectively. Acidobacteria was the most dominant bacterial group in all four soil layers, but reached its maximum at 40-60 cm (62.88%). In particular, the 40-60 cm soil layer typically showed the highest abundance of the fungal genus Inocybe (47.46%). The Chao1 and Shannon indices were significantly correlated with the soil organic carbon content. Redundancy analysis indicated that the bacterial communities were closely correlated with soil organic carbon content (P = 0.001). Collectively, these results indicate that soil nutrients alter the microbial diversity and relative abundance and affect the microbial composition.

  1. Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Deslippe, Julie R; Simard, Suzanne W

    2011-11-01

    • Shrubs are expanding in Arctic tundra, but the role of mycorrhizal fungi in this process is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that mycorrhizal networks are involved in interplant carbon (C) transfer within a tundra plant community. • Here, we installed below-ground treatments to control for C transfer pathways and conducted a (13)CO(2)-pulse-chase labelling experiment to examine C transfer among and within plant species. • We showed that mycorrhizal networks exist in tundra, and facilitate below-ground transfer of C among Betula nana individuals, but not between or within the other tundra species examined. Total C transfer among conspecific B. nana pairs was 10.7 ± 2.4% of photosynthesis, with the majority of C transferred through rhizomes or root grafts (5.2 ± 5.3%) and mycorrhizal network pathways (4.1 ± 3.3%) and very little through soil pathways (1.4 ± 0.35%). • Below-ground C transfer was of sufficient magnitude to potentially alter plant interactions in Arctic tundra, increasing the competitive ability and mono-dominance of B. nana. C transfer was significantly positively related to ambient temperatures, suggesting that it may act as a positive feedback to ecosystem change as climate warms. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  3. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in US

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2013-01-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause Allergic Airway Disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The Growing Degree Hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994–2000 and 2001–2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1–2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%–248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be March 1, 8°C, and 1879 hours respectively for birch; March 1, 5°C, and 4760 hours respectively for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions. PMID:23793955

  5. Elevation of night-time temperature increases terpenoid emissions from Betula pendula and Populus tremula

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Mäenpää, Maarit; Hassinen, Viivi; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Malec, Lukáš; Rousi, Matti; Pietikäinen, Liisa; Tervahauta, Arja; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Oksanen, Elina J.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to have an important role in plant adaptation to high temperatures. The impacts of increasing night-time temperature on daytime terpenoid emissions and related gene expression in silver birch (Betula pendula) and European aspen (Populus tremula) clones were studied. The plants were grown under five different night-time temperatures (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 °C) while daytime temperature was kept at a constant 22 °C. VOC emissions were collected during the daytime and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In birch, emissions per leaf area of the C11 homoterpene 4,8-dimethy1-nona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT) and several sesquiterpenes were consistently increased with increasing night-time temperature. Total sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions showed an increase at higher temperatures. In aspen, emissions of DMNT and β-ocimene increased from 6 °C to 14 °C, while several other monoterpenes and the SQTs (Z,E)-α-farnesene and (E,E)-α-farnesene increased up to 18 °C. Total monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission peaked at 18 °C, whereas isoprene emissions decreased at 22 °C. Leaf area increased across the temperature range of 6–22 °C by 32% in birch and by 59% in aspen. Specific leaf area (SLA) was also increased in both species. The genetic regulation of VOC emissions seems to be very complex, as indicated by several inverse relationships between emission profiles and expression of several regulatory genes (DXR, DXS, and IPP). The study indicates that increasing night temperature may strongly affect the quantity and quality of daytime VOC emissions of northern deciduous trees. PMID:20181662

  6. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Developing Xylem Responding to Artificial Bending and Gravitational Stimuli in Betula platyphylla

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Caiqiu; Cui, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dan; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Betula platyphylla Suk (birch) is a fast-growing woody species that is important in pulp industries and the biofuels. However, as an important pulp species, few studies had been performed on its wood formation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular responses of birch xylem to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli. After trunks of birch trees were subjected to bending for 8 weeks, the cellulose content was significantly greater in tension wood (TW) than in opposite wood (OW) or normal wood (NW), whereas the lignin content in TW was significantly lower than that in OW and NW. In addition, TW grew more rapidly than OW and generated TW-specific fibers with an additional G-layer. Three transcriptome libraries were constructed from TW, OW and NW of B. platyphylla, respectively, after the plants were subjected to artificial bending. Overall, 80,909 nonredundant unigenes with a mean size of 768 nt were assembled. Expression profiles were generated, and 9,684 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the TW, OW and NW libraries. These included genes involved in secondary cell wall structure, wood composition, and cellulose or lignin biosynthesis. Our study showed that during TW formation, genes involved in cellulose synthesis were induced, while the expression of lignin synthesis-related genes decreased, resulting in increased cellulose content and decreased lignin levels in TW. In addition, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins play important role in TW formation. These findings may provide important insights into wood formation at the molecular level. PMID:24586282

  7. Growth and branching habit of rooted cuttings collected from epicormic shoots of Betula pendula Roth.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A D; Sani, H

    1994-04-01

    Patterns of shoot growth and branching were studied over two growing seasons in rooted cuttings collected from both epicormic shoots and seedlings of Betula pendula Roth. Epicormic shoots were induced to sprout on stumps and small logs of 5-, 10- and 30-year-old trees. The use of epicormic shoots enhanced the rooting capacity of stem cuttings collected from these shoots but did not appear to reverse the process of maturation. In this study, maturation was based on characteristics typical of mature trees but not necessarily those of the mother plant, because it was not possible to root cuttings, for comparison, from 5-, 10- and 30-year-old ortets, other than from epicormic shoots. There was evidence of the persistence of mature characteristics through an increase in shoot plagiotropism with increasing ortet age. Rooted cuttings from both seedlings and epicormic shoots, however, assumed an increasingly orthotropic habit with a smaller shoot angle at the end of the first growing season than at the beginning and this continued into the second growing season. Other indications of maturation, such as delayed bud flushing and the incidence of flowering with increasing ortet age, were also evident in rooted cuttings from epicormic shoots. There was a clear difference in branching habit depending on cutting source. Rooted cuttings derived from epicormic shoots produced nearly twice as many lateral branches compared with rooted cuttings collected from seedlings, but this was not an effect of maturation. There was some evidence that rooted cuttings derived from seedlings grew taller than rooted cuttings from epicormic shoots.

  8. Methyl salicylate differently affects benzenoid and terpenoid volatile emissions in Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Kaurilind, Eve; Jiang, Yifan; Niinemets, Ülo

    2018-06-20

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a long-distance signal transduction chemical that plays an important role in plant responses to abiotic stress and herbivore and pathogen attacks. However, it is unclear how photosynthesis and elicitation of plant volatile organic compounds (VOC) from different metabolic pathways respond to the dose of MeSA. We applied different MeSA concentrations (0-50 mM) to study how exogenous MeSA alters VOC profiles of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) leaves from application through recovery (0.5-23 h). Methyl salicylate application significantly reduced net assimilation rate in 10 mM and 20 mM MeSA-treated plants. No significant effects of MeSA were observed on the stomatal conductance at any MeSA concentration. Methyl salicylate elicited emissions of benzenoids (BZ), monoterpenes (MT) and fatty acid derived compounds (LOX products). Emission rates of BZ were positively, but emission rates of MT were negatively correlated with MeSA concentration. Total emission of LOX products was not influenced by MeSA concentration. Emission rate of MT was negatively correlated with BZ and the share of MT in the total emission blend decreased and the share of BZ increased with increasing MeSA concentration. Although the share of LOX products was similar across MeSA treatments, some LOX products responded differently to MeSA concentration, ultimately resulting in unique VOC blends. Overall, this study demonstrates inverse responses of MT and BZ to different MeSA doses such that plant defense mechanisms induced by lower MeSA doses mainly lead to enhanced MT synthesis, whereas greater MeSA doses trigger BZ-related defense mechanisms. Our results will contribute to improving the understanding of birch defenses induced upon regular herbivore attacks and pathogen infections in boreal forests.

  9. Forecasting plant phenology: evaluating the phenological models for Betula pendula and Padus racemosa spring phases, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kalvāns, Andis; Bitāne, Māra; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2015-02-01

    A historical phenological record and meteorological data of the period 1960-2009 are used to analyse the ability of seven phenological models to predict leaf unfolding and beginning of flowering for two tree species-silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa-in Latvia. Model stability is estimated performing multiple model fitting runs using half of the data for model training and the other half for evaluation. Correlation coefficient, mean absolute error and mean squared error are used to evaluate model performance. UniChill (a model using sigmoidal development rate and temperature relationship and taking into account the necessity for dormancy release) and DDcos (a simple degree-day model considering the diurnal temperature fluctuations) are found to be the best models for describing the considered spring phases. A strong collinearity between base temperature and required heat sum is found for several model fitting runs of the simple degree-day based models. Large variation of the model parameters between different model fitting runs in case of more complex models indicates similar collinearity and over-parameterization of these models. It is suggested that model performance can be improved by incorporating the resolved daily temperature fluctuations of the DDcos model into the framework of the more complex models (e.g. UniChill). The average base temperature, as found by DDcos model, for B. pendula leaf unfolding is 5.6 °C and for the start of the flowering 6.7 °C; for P. racemosa, the respective base temperatures are 3.2 °C and 3.4 °C.

  10. [Individual tree diameter increment model for natural Betula platyphylla forests based on meteorological factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai Ping; Li, Feng Ri; Dong, Li Hu; Liu, Qiang

    2017-06-18

    Based on the 212 re-measured permanent plots for natural Betula platyphylla fore-sts in Daxing'an Mountains and Xiaoxing'an Mountains and 30 meteorological stations data, an individual tree growth model based on meteorological factors was constructed. The differences of stand and meteorological factors between Daxing'an Mountains and Xiaoxing'an Mountains were analyzed and the diameter increment model including the regional effects was developed by dummy variable approach. The results showed that the minimum temperature (T g min ) and mean precipitation (P g m ) in growing season were the main meteorological factors which affected the diameter increment in the two study areas. T g min and P g m were positively correlated with the diameter increment, but the influence strength of T g min was obviously different between the two research areas. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R a 2 ) of the diameter increment model with meteorological factors was 0.56 and had an 11% increase compared to the one without meteorological factors. It was concluded that meteorological factors could well explain the diameter increment of B. platyphylla. R a 2 of the model with regional effects was 0.59, and increased by 18% compared to the one without regional effects, and effectively solved the incompatible problem of parameters between the two research areas. The validation results showed that the individual tree diameter growth model with regional effect had the best prediction accuracy in estimating the diameter increment of B. platyphylla. The mean error, mean absolute error, mean error percent and mean prediction error percent were 0.0086, 0.4476, 5.8% and 20.0%, respectively. Overall, dummy variable model of individual tree diameter increment based on meteorological factors could well describe the diameter increment process of natural B. platyphylla in Daxing'an Mountains and Xiaoxing'an Mountains.

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Betula pendula leaves extract and its effects on model foods.

    PubMed

    Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Skowyra, Monika; Muhammad, Kwestan; Gallego, María Gabriela; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The lipid deterioration in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) of lyophilized extract of BP stored in 80:20 (v/v) O 2 :CO 2 modified atmosphere (MAP) at 4 °C for 10 days was determined using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), % metmyoglobin and colour value. The BP methanol extract revealed the presence of catechin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin, and p-coumaric acid. The BP ethanol (50% w/w) extract showed scavenging activity in TEAC, ORAC and FRAP assays with values of 1.45, 2.81, 1.52 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, respectively. Reductions in lipid oxidation were found in samples treated with lyophilized BP extract (0.1% and 0.3% w/w) as manifested by the changes of colour and metmyoglobin concentration. A preliminary study film with BP showed retard degradation of lipid in muscle food. The present results indicated that the BP extracts can be used as natural food antioxidants.

  12. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event.

    PubMed

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Vessel chronologies in ring-porous species have been successfully employed in the past to extract the climate signal from tree rings. Environmental signals recorded in vessels of ring-porous species have also been used in previous studies to reconstruct discrete events of drought, flooding and insect defoliation. However, very little is known about the ability of diffuse-porous species to record environmental signals in their xylem cells. Moreover, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response of diffuse-porous Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Betula pendula Roth to debris-flow-induced wounding. Tree microscopic response to wounding was assessed through the analysis of wood anatomical differences between injured rings formed in the debris-flow event year and uninjured rings formed in the previous year. The two ring types were examined close and opposite to the injury in order to determine whether wound effects on xylem cells decrease with increasing tangential distance from the injury. Image analysis was used to measure vessel parameters as well as fiber and parenchyma cell (FPC) parameters. The results of this study indicate that injured rings are characterized by smaller vessels as compared with uninjured rings. By contrast, FPC parameters were not found to significantly differ between injured and uninjured rings. Vessel and FPC parameters mainly remained constant with increasing tangential distance from the injury, except for a higher proportion of vessel lumen area opposite to the injury within A. incana. This study highlights the existence of anatomical tree-ring signatures-in the form of smaller vessels-related to past debris-flow activity and addresses a new methodological approach to date injuries inflicted on trees by geomorphic processes.

  13. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduousmore » species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.« less

  14. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA) Genes from Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Wang, Qiuyu; Chen, Pengfei; Song, Funan; Guan, Minxiao; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Yucheng; Yang, Chuanping

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose synthase (CESA), which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the CesA gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as BplCesA3, −4, −7 and −8. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their Arabidopsis homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four BplCesAs were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in Betula. The distinct expression pattern of the four BplCesAs suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in Betula. PMID:23202892

  15. Influence of meteorological parameters and air pollution on hourly fluctuation of birch (Betula L.) and ash (Fraxinus L.) airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that originate allergic processes. Knowledge of intradiurnal variation of the atmospheric pollen may be useful for the treatment and prevention of pollen allergies. Intradiurnal fluctuation of hourly pollen counts in 24 h are related to the daily rhythm of anther opening, and modified by various interacting factors. Flowering and pollen production of individual species are influenced by genetic, phenological, ecological, meteorological and climatic factors. Estimation of the intradiurnal variability in the pollen count permits evaluation of the threat posed by allergens over a given area. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 7 years (2006-2012) permitted analysis of hourly variation of the pollen count of birch (Betula) and ash (Fraxinus) in 24 h, and evaluation of the impact of weather conditions and the concentration of gas air pollutants on the intradiurnal patterns of both taxa. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000). Consecutive phases during the day were defined as 1, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 99% of annual total pollen. The analysis revealed that 50% of total daily pollen was noted at 14:00 for Betula and Fraxinus. The hourly distribution of birch pollen count skewed to the left and the majority of pollen of this taxon appears in the air in the first 12 hours of the day. However, for ash, the hourly distribution of pollen count skewed to the right. Statistically significant correlation was noted between the Betula and Fraxinus pollen concentration and the mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, air pressure, total radiation and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)).

  16. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    PubMed

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  18. Tetrahydroxanthones from Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuangxin; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Damdinjav, Davaadagva; Dorjbal, Enkhjargal; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Two tetrahydroxanthones, 1,3,5S,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (1) and 1,3,5R,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (2), and six new tetrahydroxanthone glycosides, amarellins A-F (3-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of a Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta (Gentianaceae). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, chemical conversion, and ECD calculation. Amarellins A-C (3-5) were assigned as 8-O-β-D-glucoside, 8-O-β-D-xyloside, and 1-O-β-D-glucoside of 1, respectively, while amarellins D-F (6-8) were elucidated to be 8-O-β-D-xyloside, 1-O-β-D-glucoside, and 3-O-β-D-glucoside of 2, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  20. Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of Red and Yellow Physalis (Physalis alkekengi L. and P. pubescens L.) Fruits and Calyces.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Hempel, Judith; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Ni, Yuanying; Carle, Reinhold

    2017-08-02

    Carotenoid profiles of fruits and calyces of red (Physalis alkekengi L.) and yellow (P. pubescens L.) Physalis were characterized by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS n . Altogether 69 carotenoids were detected in red Physalis, thereof, 45 were identified. In yellow Physalis, 40 carotenoids were detected and 33 were identified. Zeaxanthin esters with various fatty acids were found to be the most abundant carotenoids in red Physalis, accounting for 51-63% of total carotenoids, followed by β-cryptoxanthin esters (16-24%). In yellow Physalis, mainly free carotenoids such as lutein and β-carotene were found. Total carotenoid contents ranged between 19.8 and 21.6 mg/100 g fresh red Physalis fruits and 1.28-1.38 mg/100 g fresh yellow Physalis fruits, demonstrating that Physalis fruits are rich sources of dietary carotenoids. Yellow Physalis calyces contained only 153-306 μg carotenoids/g dry weight, while those of red Physalis contained substantially higher amounts (14.6-17.6 mg/g dry weight), thus possibly exhibiting great potential as a natural source for commercial zeaxanthin extraction.

  1. Evaluation and decontamination of crude oil-polluted soils using Centrosema pubescen Benth and amendment-support options.

    PubMed

    Nwaichi, Eucharia O; Osuji, Leo C; Onyeike, Eugene N

    2011-04-01

    Growth performance and phytoremediation of soil of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria artificially-contaminated with crude oil (up to 100 mL/2 kg soil) using centrosema pubescen Benth was investigated for 12 weeks. The soil samples in which the plants were established were either un-amended, or amended with NPK, or UREA or chicken manure. The extents of removal of PAHs and BTEX were measured as well as the rates of growth of the plants. Gas Chromatographic analysis confirmed the degradation of carcinogenic hydrocarbons like BTEXs and PAHs with this technique. At the highest dose of crude, the contaminant concentrations were 43 mg/kg PAHs, 10 mg/kg BTEX, and 5,613 mg/kg O&G. The greatest percent removal of BTEX was observed at the highest contaminant dose, and with the manure amendment. Similar trends were observed with PAHs and although they were less marked, the trends with PAHs may have been more highly statistically significant. There was no measurable plant uptake of contaminants. Inhibition of plant growth (measured as leaf area, shoot length and production of dry weight) was proportional to the dose of crude oil, but the manure amendment was very effective at reducing the growth inhibition. Interestingly, manure amendment reduced the phytotoxicity significantly in this study.

  2. Carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests along a latitude gradient in the subtropical region of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengjie; Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao

    2018-01-01

    Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8.37 cm to 10.12 cm that well fitted by Weibull model, whereas the bamboo culm density decreased from 4722 culm ha-1 to 3400 culm ha-1 with increasing latitude. The bamboo biomass carbon decreased from 60.58 Mg C ha-1 to 48.31 Mg C ha-1 from north to south. The total carbon stock of Moso bamboo forests, which comprises soil and biomass carbon, ranged from 87.83 Mg C ha-1 to 119.5 Mg C ha-1 and linearly increased with latitude. As a fast-growing plant, Moso bamboo could be harvested amounts of 6.0 Mg C ha-1 to 7.6 Mg C ha-1 annually, which indicates a high potential of this species for carbon sequestration. Parameters obtained in this study can be used to accurately estimate the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest to establish models of the global carbon balance.

  3. A natural inhibitor of kidney-type glutaminase: a withanolide from Physalis pubescens with potent anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Canrong; Zheng, Mengzhu; Gao, Suyu; Luan, Shanshan; Cheng, Li; Wang, Liqing; Li, Jiachen; Chen, Lixia; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Kidney-type glutaminase (KGA), a mitochondrial enzyme converting glutamine to glutamate for energy supply, was over-expressed in many cancers and had been regarded as a promising therapeutic target in recent years. Structure-based virtual ligand screening predicted physapubescin K, a new withanolide from Physalis pubescens, to be potential KGA inhibitor. Enzyme activity inhibition assays and microscale thermophoresis experiments had demonstrated the efficiency and specificity of physapubescin K targeting KGA. Additionally, physapubescin K exhibited potent proliferation inhibitory effects on a panel of human cancer cell lines, such as SW1990 and HCC827-ER. It blocked glutamine metabolism in SW1990 with increasing intracellular level of glutamine and decreasing glutamate and its downstream metabolites. Physapubescin K also significantly inhibited the tumor growth in a SW1990 xenograft mouse model. Interestingly, physapubescin K could reverse the resistance of HCC827-ER cells to erlotinib and synergize with the hexokinase 2 inhibitor to markedly enhance the inhibition of SW1990 cell proliferation. PMID:29371926

  4. Carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests along a latitude gradient in the subtropical region of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengjie; Ji, Haibao

    2018-01-01

    Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8.37 cm to 10.12 cm that well fitted by Weibull model, whereas the bamboo culm density decreased from 4722 culm ha−1 to 3400 culm ha−1 with increasing latitude. The bamboo biomass carbon decreased from 60.58 Mg C ha−1 to 48.31 Mg C ha−1 from north to south. The total carbon stock of Moso bamboo forests, which comprises soil and biomass carbon, ranged from 87.83 Mg C ha−1 to 119.5 Mg C ha−1 and linearly increased with latitude. As a fast-growing plant, Moso bamboo could be harvested amounts of 6.0 Mg C ha−1 to 7.6 Mg C ha−1 annually, which indicates a high potential of this species for carbon sequestration. Parameters obtained in this study can be used to accurately estimate the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest to establish models of the global carbon balance. PMID:29451911

  5. Comparison of cadmium and lead sorption by Phyllostachys pubescens biochar produced under a low-oxygen pyrolysis atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhu, Yaoyao

    2017-08-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens (PP) biochars produced under a low oxygen pyrolysis atmosphere (oxygen content 1-4%) were prepared as sorbents for investigating the mechanisms of cadmium and lead sorption. A low-oxygen pyrolysis atmosphere increased biochar ash and specific surface area, promoting heavy metal precipitation and complexation. The maximum sorption capacity (Q m ) of Pb 2+ obtained from the Langmuir model was 67.4mg·g -1 , while Q m of Cd 2+ was 14.7mg·g -1 . The contribution of each mechanism varied with increasing oxygen content at a low pyrolysis temperature. Mineral precipitation with Pb 2+ was the predominant mechanism for Pb 2+ removal and the contribution proportion significantly increased from 17.2% to 71.7% as pyrolysis oxygen atmosphere increased from 0% to 4%. The results showed that cadmium sorption primarily involved coordination with π electrons, at 54.1-82.6% of the total adsorption capacity. The PP biochar shows potential for application in removing heavy metal contaminants, especially Pb 2+ . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption. PMID:22713117

  7. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  8. The role of the parenchyma sheath and PCD during the development of oil cavities in Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    Pterodon pubescens cavities are constituted by lumen and uniseriated epithelium surrounded by multiseriate parenchyma sheath. We studied the development of secretory cavities, including the role of parenchyma sheath, using light and transmission electron microscopy. A Tunel assay was performed to verify whether programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during the process. The lumen is formed by schizogeny and lysigeny occur in later developmental stages of the secretory cavities. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells in later developmental stages become dark and with sinuous walls; the protoplast becomes retracted and the cytoplasm shows low organelle definition. Degenerated cells are released toward the lumen. Our results showed that PCD occurs during later developmental stages of cavities and plays a critical role in functioning of these glands. New cells originated from the parenchyma sheath differentiate into secretory cells and replace those degenerated ones. This fact associated to PCD guarantees epithelium renovation during the secretory cycle and the maintenance of secretory activity of cavities. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of Trametes pubescens Laccase under Submerged and Semi-Solid Culture Conditions on Agro-Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F.; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Oscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69±0.28 U mg-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08±0.001 and 2.86±0.05 U mg-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  10. Effect of leaf extract buasbuas (Premna pubescens Blume) for against of bacteria growth Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restuati, Martina; Pratiwi, Nanda; Widiyastuti, Gita

    2017-08-01

    Buasbuas (Premna pubescens Blume) is the one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia. This plant contains flavonoids potential as an antibacterial. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp is the one of the bacteria that can cause poisoning. This research aims to find out of inhibitory the extract of buasbuas leaves the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. This research was conducted in Medan Health Laboratory used hole sinks methods. Buasbuas leaves which has been condensed ethanol extract was diluted using aquadest with a concentration of 0%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and dropped into MSA (Mannitol Salt Agar) media inoculated bacteria and wich is a hole sinks. Them incubated for 1 × 24 hours at a temperature of 37°C. The results of this research that the buasbuas extract with the different concentrations can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, then the result were analyzed used of Non Factorial Experimental Method (ANOVA) where Fcount (337.54)> Ftable 0,05 (2,77); Ftabel 0.01 (4.25). While the maximum concentration buasbuas extract were more effective the growh of bacteria is 90% with average inhibition zone diameter of 11 mm.

  11. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (200 μM), ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O (100 μM), CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (25 μM), and CdCl 2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R 2 values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  12. Development of SSR Markers and Genetic Diversity in White Birch (Betula platyphylla)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wei; Wang, Shengji; Liu, Huajing; Zhou, Boru; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2015-01-01

    In order to study genetic diversity of white birch (Betula platyphylla), 544 primer pairs were designed based on the genome-wide Solexa sequences. Among them, 215 primer pairs showed polymorphism between five genotypes and 111 primer pairs that presented clear visible bands in genotyping 41 white birch plants that were collected from 6 different geographical regions. A total of 717 alleles were obtained at 111 loci with a range of 2 to 12 alleles per locus. The results of statistic analysis showed that polymorphic frequency of the alleles ranged from 17% to 100% with a mean of 55.85%; polymorphism information content (PIC) of the loci was from 0.09 to 0.58 with a mean of 0.30; and gene diversity between the tested genotypes was from 0.01 to 0.66 with a mean of 0.36. The results also indicated that major allele frequency ranged from 0.39 to 1.00 with an mean of 0.75; expected heterozygosity from 0.22 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; observed heterozygosity from 0.02 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.26; Nei's index from 0.21 to 0.54 with a mean of 0.46; and Shannon's Information from 0.26 to 0.87 with a mean of 0.66. The 41 white birch genotypes at the 111 selected SSR loci showed low to moderate similarity (0.025-0.610), indicating complicated genetic diversity among the white birch collections. The UPGMA-based clustering analysis of the allelic constitution of 41 white birch genotypes at 111 SSR loci suggested that the six different geographical regions can be further separated into four clusters at a similarity coefficient of 0.22. Genotypes from Huanren and Liangshui provenances were grouped into Cluster I, genotypes from Xiaobeihu and Qingyuan provenances into Cluster II, genotypes from Finland provenance into Cluster III, and genotypes from Maoershan into Cluster IV. The information provided in this study could help for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation, evaluation and utilization in white birch tree breeding program. PMID:25923698

  13. Tree competition and species coexistence in a Quercus--Betula forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ji-hua; Mi, Xiang-cheng; Liu, Can-ran; Ma, Ke-ping

    2006-09-01

    The population size structure, growth dynamics and mode of competition among adult trees (≥ 4 cm DBH) of six abundant tree species in a 5 ha study plot of a temperate deciduous forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China were investigated using diffusion and growth dynamics models. In the year of 2000, two dominant species, Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica accounted for ca. 68.69% of the total basal area and 52.71% of the total density of adult plants. Q. liaotungensis, Populus davidiana and Acer mono exhibited inverse J-shaped DBH distributions whereas Betula dahurica, B. platyphylla and Salix caprea had unimodal DBH distributions. One-sided interspecific competition was detected between some species combinations at the scale of the 5 ha study plot, and the competitive effect was mainly size-dependent rather than from species-specific interactions with large individuals in the canopy layer out competing smaller individuals in the understory. Symmetric competition was found between Q. liaotungensis and A. mono only. However, considering the straight line relationship of G ( t, x) - √{D(t, x)}, which suggests that competitive asymmetry is very low or absent, combined with the relatively low mortality of trees with a DBH larger than 4 cm, we speculate that asymmetric interspecific competition was not important in structuring this tree community. Regeneration characteristics of each species are most likely important in regulating species coexistence and stand dynamics in this forest.

  14. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    PubMed

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association.

  15. An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.

    SciTech Connect

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono; Fraij, Fares

    2004-08-01

    The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibilitymore » of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.« less

  16. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. MySSP: Non-stationary evolutionary sequence simulation, including indels

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    MySSP is a new program for the simulation of DNA sequence evolution across a phylogenetic tree. Although many programs are available for sequence simulation, MySSP is unique in its inclusion of indels, flexibility in allowing for non-stationary patterns, and output of ancestral sequences. Some of these features can individually be found in existing programs, but have not all have been previously available in a single package. PMID:19325855

  18. Stem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after three years of treatments to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    Treesearch

    Seija Kaakinen; Katri Kostiainen; Fredrik Ek; Pekka Saranpaa; Mark E. Kubiske; Jaak Sober; David F. Karnosky; Elina Vapaavuori

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] and ozone [O3] and their interaction on wood chemistry and anatomy of five clones of 3-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Wood chemistry was studied also on paper birch (Betula papyrifera...

  19. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Bioactivities Evaluation of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Mediated by the Roots of Chinese Herbal Angelica pubescens Maxim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, Josua; Wang, Dandan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Ahn, Sungeun; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-01-01

    A facile synthesis and biological applications of silver (DH-AgNps) and gold nanoparticles (DH-AuNps) mediated by the aqueous extract of Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (Du Huo) are explored. Du Huo is a medicinal root belonging to Angelica pubescens Maxim which possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant properties. The absorption spectra of nanoparticles in varying root extract and metal ion concentration, pH, reaction temperatures, and time were recorded by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The presence of DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps was confirmed from the surface plasmon resonance intensified at 414 and 540 nm, respectively. Field emission transmission electron micrograph (FE-TEM) analysis revealed the formation of quasi-spherical DH-AgNps and spherical icosahedral DH-AuNps. These novel DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps maintained an average crystallite size of 12.48 and 7.44 nm, respectively. The biosynthesized DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps exhibited antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH) radicals and the former exhibited antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica. The expected presence of flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, and phenols on the nanoparticle surface were conjectured to grant protection against aggregation and free radical scavenging activity. DH-AgNps and DH-AuNps were further investigated for their cytotoxic properties in RAW264.7 macrophages for their potential application as drug carriers to sites of inflammation. In conclusion, this green synthesis is favorable for the advancement of plant mediated nano-carriers in drug delivery systems, cancer diagnostic, and medical imaging.

  20. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Persisting soil drought reduces leaf specific conductivity in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens).

    PubMed

    Sterck, Frank J; Zweifel, Roman; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Chowdhury, Qumruzzaman

    2008-04-01

    Leaf specific conductivity (LSC; the ratio of stem conductivity (K(P)) to leaf area (A(L))), a measure of the hydraulic capacity of the stem to supply leaves with water, varies with soil water content. Empirical evidence for LSC responses to drought is ambiguous, because previously published results were subject to many confounding factors. We tested how LSC of similar-sized trees of the same population, under similar climatic conditions, responds to persistently wet or dry soil. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) trees were compared between a dry site and a wet site in the Valais, an inner alpine valley in Switzerland. Soil water strongly influenced A(L) and K(P) and the plant components affecting K(P), such as conduit radius, conduit density and functional sapwood area. Trees at the dry site had lower LSC than trees with the same stem diameter at the wet site. Low LSC in trees at the dry site was associated with a smaller functional sapwood area and narrower conduits, resulting in a stronger reduction in K(P) than in A(L). These observations support the hypothesis that trees maintain a homeostatic water pressure gradient. An alternative hypothesis is that relatively high investments in leaves compared with sapwood contribute to carbon gain over an entire season by enabling rapid whole-plant photosynthesis during periods of high water availability (e.g., in spring, after rain events and during morning hours when leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit is small). Dynamic data and a hydraulic plant growth model are needed to test how investments in leaves versus sapwood and roots contribute to transpiration and to maximizing carbon gain throughout entire growth seasons.

  2. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Victoria; Navazas, Alejandro; González-Gil, Ricardo; González, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Béatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R; Sánchez, Jesús; Peláez, Ana Isabel

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica 's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales , Burkholderiales , and Pseudomonadales , especially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera. A total of 54 cultivable rhizobacteria and 41 root endophytes, mainly affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria , were isolated and characterized with respect to several potentially useful features for metal plant accumulation, such as the ability to promote plant growth, metal chelation, and/or mitigation of heavy-metal stress. Seven bacterial isolates were further selected and tested for in vitro accumulation of arsenic in plants; four of them were finally assayed in field-scale bioaugmentation experiments. The exposure to arsenic in vitro caused an increase in the total nonprotein thiol compound content in roots, suggesting a detoxification mechanism through phytochelatin complexation. In the contaminated field, the siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid producers of the endophytic bacterial consortium enhanced arsenic accumulation in the leaves and roots of Betula celtiberica , whereas the rhizosphere isolate Ensifer adhaerens strain 91R mainly promoted plant growth. Field experimentation showed that additional factors, such as soil arsenic content and pH, influenced arsenic uptake in the plant, attesting to the relevance of field conditions in the success of phytoextraction strategies. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms and plants have developed several ways of dealing with arsenic, allowing them to resist and metabolize this metalloid. These properties form the basis of

  3. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica

    PubMed Central

    Navazas, Alejandro; González-Gil, Ricardo; González, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Béatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R.; Sánchez, Jesús; Peláez, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica. The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales, Burkholderiales, and Pseudomonadales, especially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera. A total of 54 cultivable rhizobacteria and 41 root endophytes, mainly affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, were isolated and characterized with respect to several potentially useful features for metal plant accumulation, such as the ability to promote plant growth, metal chelation, and/or mitigation of heavy-metal stress. Seven bacterial isolates were further selected and tested for in vitro accumulation of arsenic in plants; four of them were finally assayed in field-scale bioaugmentation experiments. The exposure to arsenic in vitro caused an increase in the total nonprotein thiol compound content in roots, suggesting a detoxification mechanism through phytochelatin complexation. In the contaminated field, the siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid producers of the endophytic bacterial consortium enhanced arsenic accumulation in the leaves and roots of Betula celtiberica, whereas the rhizosphere isolate Ensifer adhaerens strain 91R mainly promoted plant growth. Field experimentation showed that additional factors, such as soil arsenic content and pH, influenced arsenic uptake in the plant, attesting to the relevance of field conditions in the success of phytoextraction strategies. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms and plants have developed several ways of dealing with arsenic, allowing them to resist and metabolize this metalloid. These properties form the basis of

  4. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase genes from Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengyan; Wang, Siyao; Yin, Jing; Li, Chunxiao; Zhan, Yaguang; Xiao, Jialei; Liang, Tian; Li, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Betula platyphylla is a rich repository of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites known as birch triterpenoids (TBP). Here, we cloned the squalene synthase (SS) and squalene epoxidase genetic (SE) sequences from B. platyphylla that encode the key enzymes that are involved in triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed the conserved domains and phylogenetics of their corresponding proteins. The full-length sequence of BpSS is 1588 bp with a poly-A tail, which contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1241 bp that encoded a protein of 413 amino acids. Additionally, the BpSE full-length sequence of 2040 bp with a poly-A tail was also obtained, which contained an ORF of 1581 bp encoding a protein of 526 amino acids. Their organ-specific expression patterns in 4-week-old tissue culture seedlings of B. platyphylla were detected by real-time PCR and showed that they were all highly expressed in leaves, as compared to stem and root tissues. Additionaly, both BpSS and BpSE were enhanced following stimulation with ethephon and MeJA. The expression of BpSS was enhanced by ABA, whereas BpSE was not. The SA treatment did not affect the BpSS and BpSE transcripts notably. Using a genome walking approach, promoter sequences of 965 and 1193 bp, respectively, for BpSS and BpSE were isolated, and they revealed several key cis-regulatory elements known to be involved in the response to phytohormone and abiotic plant stress. We also found that the BpSS protein is localized in the cytoplasm. Opening reading frames of BpSS and BpSE were ligated into yeast expression plasmid pYES2 under control of GAL1 promoter and introduced into the yeast INVScl1 strain. The transformants were cultured for 12 h, the squalene content of galactose-induced BpSS expression yeast cells was 13.2 times of control (empty vector control yeast cells) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test method. And, the squalene epoxidase activity of induced BpSE expression yeast cell was about 11.8 times

  5. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    PubMed

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  6. [137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in birch wood (Betula pendula Roth.) growing in regions with different soil conditions].

    PubMed

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Bulavik, I M; Perevolotskaia, T V; Paskrobko, L A; Andrush, S N

    2005-01-01

    The studies of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation characteristics by birch wood (Betula pendula Roth.) growing in different edaphic conditions. Were conducted was stated that the increase in soil fertility from trophotops A to D results in 5-fold 137Cs transfer factor decrease and 2-fold decrease of 90Sr. Soil humidity increase for each grade of trophic net results happens the increase of 137Cs transfer factors to wood and decrease for 90Sr. Total activity of 37Cs and 90Sr in birch wood plantation depends on plantation productivity and on radionuclide transfer factors depending on different plantation conditions. In the most prevailing edaphotops (B2, B3, C2 and C3) birch wood accumulates 0.6-1.2% of 137Cs and 13-19% of 90Sr from total activity of radionuclides in biogeocenosis.

  7. Overexpression of a MADS-Box Gene from Birch (Betula platyphylla) Promotes Flowering and Enhances Chloroplast Development in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guan-Zheng; Zheng, Tangchun; Liu, Guifeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Lina; Liu, Huanzhen; Yang, Chuanping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla). Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS). In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco. PMID:23691043

  8. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction.

    PubMed

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vapaavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F

    2008-10-01

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO(2) and/or O(3) on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO(2) increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O(3) also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO(2)+O(3)) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO(2) may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O(3) will likely have a negative impact.

  9. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla) promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Qu, Guan-Zheng; Zheng, Tangchun; Liu, Guifeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Lina; Liu, Huanzhen; Yang, Chuanping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla). Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS). In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  10. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    PubMed

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp. © 2013.

  11. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  12. Competitive success of southern populations of Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia under simulated southern climate experiment in the subarctic.

    PubMed

    Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Saravesi, Karita; Jylänki, Tanja; Kainulainen, Aila; Pajala, Jonna; Markkola, Annamari; Suominen, Otso; Saikkonen, Kari

    2017-06-01

    Global warming has been commonly accepted to facilitate species' range shifts across latitudes. Cross-latitudinal transplantations support this; many tree species can well adapt to new geographical areas. However, these studies fail to capture species' adaptations to new light environment because the experiments were not designed to explicitly separate species' responses to light and temperature. Here we tested reaction norms of tree seedlings in reciprocal transplantations 1,000 km apart from each other at two latitudes (60°N and 69°N). In contrast to past studies, we exposed our experimental plants to same temperature in both sites (temperature of 60°N growing site is recorded to adjust temperature of 69°N site in real time via Internet connection) while light environment (photoperiod, light quality) remained ambient. Shoot elongation and autumn coloration were studied in seedlings of two deciduous trees ( Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia ), which were expected to respond differently to day length. Sorbus as a member of Rosaceae family was assumed to be indifferent to photoperiod, while Betula responds strongly to day length. We hypothesized that (1) southern and northern populations of both species perform differently; (2) southern populations perform better in both sites; (3) autumn phenology of southern populations may delay in the northern site; (4) and Sorbus aucuparia is less dependent on light environment. According to the hypotheses, shoot elongation of northern population was inherently low in both species. An evolutionary consequence of this may be a competitive success of southern populations under warming climate. Southern population of B. pendula was delayed in autumn coloration, but not in growth cessation. Sorbus aucuparia was less responsive to light environment. The results suggest that light provides selection pressure in range shifts, but the response is species dependent.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Ca, Mg, and K in the Roots of Angelica pubescens f. biserrata by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Combined with Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shi, M.; Zheng, P.; Xue, Sh.; Peng, R.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been applied for the quantitative analysis of Ca, Mg, and K in the roots of Angelica pubescens Maxim. f. biserrata Shan et Yuan used in traditional Chinese medicine. Ca II 317.993 nm, Mg I 517.268 nm, and K I 769.896 nm spectral lines have been chosen to set up calibration models for the analysis using the external standard and artificial neural network methods. The linear correlation coefficients of the predicted concentrations versus the standard concentrations of six samples determined by the artificial neural network method are 0.9896, 0.9945, and 0.9911 for Ca, Mg, and K, respectively, which are better than for the external standard method. The artificial neural network method also gives better performance comparing with the external standard method for the average and maximum relative errors, average relative standard deviations, and most maximum relative standard deviations of the predicted concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K in the six samples. Finally, it is proved that the artificial neural network method gives better performance compared to the external standard method for the quantitative analysis of Ca, Mg, and K in the roots of Angelica pubescens.

  14. Stimulation of the activity of a novel tannase produced in white-rot fungi Phellinus pini, Fomes fomentarius, and Tyromyces pubescens by medium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Prendecka, Monika; Jaszek, Magdalena; Grąz, Marcin; Głuszak, Natalia; Małysz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Agata; Żuchowski, Jerzy; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, tannase has gained increasing interest mainly because of its potential applications. One of the most important functions of tannic acid (TA) hydrolase is the release of gallic acid (GA) from complex tannins. The aim of the study was to determine the dynamic changes in tannase activity depending on the carbon source in the culture medium. An extracellular and intracellular tannase activity analysis was carried out with the use of spectrophotometric analysis and confirmed by capillary electrophoresis in cultures of white-rot fungi: Phellinus pini, Fomes fomentarius, and Tyromyces pubescens. The inducible potential of TA and rapeseed meal on the activity of tannin acyl hydrolase was confirmed during 14 days of culturing. Different effects of the tested compounds on stimulation of tannase activity in selected fungal strains have been demonstrated. We concluded that rapeseed meal was the best inducer of tannase activity in the case of P. pini. However, the highest concentrations of GA were observed after stimulation by the TA in the cultures of F. fomentarius and T. pubescens. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Searching for moving objects in HSC-SSP: Pipeline and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Alexandersen, Mike; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wang, Jen-Hung; Yoshida, Fumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) is currently the deepest wide-field survey in progress. The 8.2 m aperture of the Subaru telescope is very powerful in detecting faint/small moving objects, including near-Earth objects, asteroids, centaurs and Tran-Neptunian objects (TNOs). However, the cadence and dithering pattern of the HSC-SSP are not designed for detecting moving objects, making it difficult to do so systematically. In this paper, we introduce a new pipeline for detecting moving objects (specifically TNOs) in a non-dedicated survey. The HSC-SSP catalogs are sliced into HEALPix partitions. Then, the stationary detections and false positives are removed with a machine-learning algorithm to produce a list of moving object candidates. An orbit linking algorithm and visual inspections are executed to generate the final list of detected TNOs. The preliminary results of a search for TNOs using this new pipeline on data from the first HSC-SSP data release (2014 March to 2015 November) present 231 TNO/Centaurs candidates. The bright candidates with Hr < 7.7 and i > 5 show that the best-fitting slope of a single power law to absolute magnitude distribution is 0.77. The g - r color distribution of hot HSC-SSP TNOs indicates a bluer peak at g - r = 0.9, which is consistent with the bluer peak of the bimodal color distribution in literature.

  16. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jin-shuang; Sun, Cheng-zhen; Zhang, Shu-ning; Hou, Xi-lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis. PMID:27507974

  17. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  18. The bright-star masks for the HSC-SSP survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, Jean; Czakon, Nicole; Bosch, James; Komiyama, Yutaka; Medezinski, Elinor; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune

    2018-01-01

    We present the procedure to build and validate the bright-star masks for the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Subaru Proposal (HSC-SSP) survey. To identify and mask the saturated stars in the full HSC-SSP footprint, we rely on the Gaia and Tycho-2 star catalogues. We first assemble a pure star catalogue down to GGaia < 18 after removing ˜1.5% of sources that appear extended in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We perform visual inspection on the early data from the S16A internal release of HSC-SSP, finding that our star catalogue is 99.2% pure down to GGaia < 18. Second, we build the mask regions in an automated way using stacked detected source measurements around bright stars binned per GGaia magnitude. Finally, we validate those masks by visual inspection and comparison with the literature of galaxy number counts and angular two-point correlation functions. This version (Arcturus) supersedes the previous version (Sirius) used in the S16A internal and DR1 public releases. We publicly release the full masks and tools to flag objects in the entire footprint of the planned HSC-SSP observations at "ftp://obsftp.unige.ch/pub/coupon/brightStarMasks/HSC-SSP/".

  19. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence. PMID:23959029

  20. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  1. Antiplatelet mechanism of an herbal mixture prepared from the extracts of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Prunus mume fruits.

    PubMed

    Son, Eunjung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Seon; Cha, Jimin

    2017-12-19

    Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves and Japanese apricot (Mume fructus) fruit are traditionally recognized to be safe herbs broadly used for food and medicinal purposes in Southeast Asia. Our group previously explored their antiplatelet effects. This study was designed to confirm inhibition effects of PM21 (a 2:1 mixture of bamboo leaf extract and Japanese apricot fruit extract) on platelet aggregation and evaluate its potency to use as an herbal remedy to prevent and/or treat the diseases caused by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Washed platelets were prepared and platelet aggregation was induced by adding 5 μg/mL collagen. Anti-platelet effects of PM21 (75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg for ex vivo and in vivo assays, and 50, 100, 200 μg/mL for in vitro assays) were evaluated. In ex vivo assays, PM21 was orally administered to rats daily after overnight fasting for 3 days and blood was collected 1 h after the final treatment. In vivo antithrombotic effect of PM21 was observed from a carrageenan induced mouse tail thrombosis model. In ex vivo assay, PM21 inhibited platelet aggregation significantly. PM21 showed a strong antithrombotic effect by reducing significantly the length of mouse tail thrombus. PM21 increased intracellular cAMP level and reduced the release of ATP, TXA 2 , and serotonin. PM21 also reduced intracellular concentration of calcium ion, fibrinogen binding to integrin α IIb β 3 , and phosphorylation of ERK2, p38, PLCγ2, and PI3 K. PM21 showed remarkable inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Its inhibitory function seems to influence on GPVI binding to its ligand and subsequent initiation of a signaling cascade that involves activation of effector proteins and secretion of effector molecules, such as ATP, TXA 2 , serotonin, and Ca 2+ . PM21 also appears to exert its anti-platelet effect by deactivation of ERKs activation pathway as well as inhibition of fibrinogen binding to integrin

  2. Recombinant Salmonella expressing SspH2-EscI fusion protein limits its colonization in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maozhi; Zhao, Weixin; Gao, Wei; Li, Wenhua; Meng, Chuang; Yan, Qiuxiang; Wang, Yuyang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Geng, Shizhong; Pan, Zhiming; Cui, Guiyou; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-05-03

    Activation of inflammasome contributes to the clearance of intracellular bacteria. C-terminus of E. coli EscI protein can activate NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing-4) inflammasome in macrophages. The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of NLRC4 inflammasome by EscI can reduce the colonization of Salmonella in mice. A recombinant S. typhimurium strain expressing fusion protein of the N-terminal SspH2 (a Salmonella type III secretion system 2 effector) and C-terminal EscI was constructed and designated as X4550(pYA3334-SspH2-EscI). In vitro assay showed that X4550(pYA3334-SspH2-EscI) significantly enhanced IL-1β and IL-18 secretion (P < 0.05) and pyroptotic cell death of mouse peritoneal macrophages, compared with those infected with control strain, X4550(pYA3334-SspH2). In vivo studies showed that colonization of X4550(pYA3334-SspH2-EscI) in both spleen and liver were significantly lower than that of X4550(pYA3334-SspH2) (P < 0.05). The bacterial counts of X4550(pYA3334-SspH2-EscI) in mice decreased, while those of X4550(pYA3334-SspH2) increased over the time after infection. Additionally, X4550(pYA3334-SspH2-EscI) induced a less pathological alteration in spleen and liver than X4550(pYA3334-SspH2). Fusion protein SspH2-EscI may be translocated into macrophages and activate NLRC4 inflammasome, which limits Salmonella colonization in spleen and liver of mice.

  3. A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

  4. Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

    In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

  5. Multigenerational effects of inbreeding in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, C Nelson; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2005-02-01

    The shape of the fitness function relating the decline in fitness with coefficient of inbreeding (f) can provide evidence concerning the genetic basis of inbreeding depression, but few studies have examined inbreeding depression across a range of f using noncultivated species. Futhermore, studies have rarely examined the effects of inbreeding depression in the maternal parent on offspring fitness. To estimate the shape of the fitness function, we examined the relationship between f and fitness across a range off from 0.000 to 0.875 for components of both male and female fitness in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana. Each measure of female fitness declined with f, including pistillate flower number, fruit number, seed number per fruit, seed mass per fruit, and percentage seed germination. Several aspects of male fitness also declined with f, including staminate flower number, pollen number per flower, and the number of days of flowering, although cumulative inbreeding depression was less severe for male (0.34) than for female function (0.39). Fitness tended to decline linearly with f between f = 0.00 and f = 0.75 for most traits and across cumulative lifetime fitness (mean = 0.66), suggesting that individual genes causing inbreeding depression are additive and the result of many alleles of small effect. However, most traits also showed a small reduction in inbreeding depression between f = 0.75 and f = 0.875, and evidence of purging or diminishing epistasis was found for in vitro pollen-tube growth rate. To examine inbreeding depression as a maternal effect, we performed outcross pollinations on f = 0.0 and f = 0.5 mothers and found that depression due to maternal inbreeding was 0.07, compared to 0.10 for offspring produced through one generation of selfing. In at least some families, maternal inbreeding reduced fruit number, seed number and mass, staminate flower number, pollen diameter, and pollen-tube growth rate. Collectively these results suggest that, while the

  6. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  7. Divergences in hydraulic architecture form an important basis for niche differentiation between diploid and polyploid Betula species in NE China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Song, Jia; Wang, Miao; Liu, Yan-Yan; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-05-01

    Habitat differentiation between polyploid and diploid plants are frequently observed, with polyploids usually occupying more stressed environments. In woody plants, polyploidization can greatly affect wood characteristics but knowledge of its influences on xylem hydraulics is scarce. The four Betula species in NE China, representing two diploids and two polyploids with obvious habitat differentiation, provide an exceptional study system for investigating the impact of polyploidization on environmental adaptation of trees from the point view of xylem hydraulics. To test the hypothesis that changes in hydraulic architecture play an important role in determining their niche differentiation, we measured wood structural traits at both the tissue and pit levels and quantified xylem water transport efficiency and safety in these species. The two polyploids had significantly larger hydraulic weighted mean vessel diameters than the two diploids (45.1 and 45.5 vs 25.9 and 24.5 μm) although the polyploids are occupying more stressed environments. As indicated by more negative water potentials corresponding to 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivities, the two polyploids exhibited significantly higher resistance to drought-induced embolism than the two diploids (-5.23 and -5.05 vs -3.86 and -3.13 MPa) despite their larger vessel diameters. This seeming discrepancy is reconciled by distinct characteristics favoring greater embolism resistance at the pit level in the two polyploid species. Our results showed clearly that the two polyploid species have remarkably different pit-level anatomical traits favoring greater hydraulic safety than their congeneric diploid species, which have likely contributed to the abundance of polyploid birches in more stressed habitats; however, less porous inter-conduit pits together with a reduced leaf to sapwood area may have compromised their competitiveness under more favorable conditions. Contrasts in hydraulic architecture between diploid and

  8. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana methanolic extracts on the guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rodríguez, Rodolfo; González-Trujano, María Eva; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe E; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Gómez, Claudia

    2017-01-20

    Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action. The effect of AMM and AMX methanol extracts were tested on the spontaneous activity in the isolated guinea pig ileum and on tissues pre-contracted with KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) or ACh. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of each subspecies on gut motility was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium, indomethacin, L-NAME, verapamil, atropine or pyrylamine. A comparative chromatographic profile of these extracts was also done to indicate the most abundant flavonoids presents in methanol extracts of both subspecies. AMM, but not AMX, induced a contractile effect in the guinea pig ileum. This spasmogenic effect was partially inhibited by atropine, antagonist of muscarinic receptors; and pyrilamine, antagonist of H 1 receptors. In contrast, AMX, but not AMM, diminished the contractions induced by KCl, EFS or ACh. The spasmolytic activity of AMX was partially inhibited by hexamethonium, ganglionic blocker; and indomethacin, inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins; but not by L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, AMX diminished the maximal contraction induced by CaCl 2 in a calcium-free medium. Chromatographic analyses of these methanol extracts showed the presence of acacetin and tilanin in both. These results suggest that in folk medicine only AMX should be used as spasmolytic, and not in combination with AMM as traditionally occurs, due to the spasmogenic effects of the latter. In addition, activation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins and calcium channels, but

  9. Variation in Vegetation Structure and Soil Properties, and the Relation Between Understory Plants and Environmental Variables Under Different Phyllostachys pubescens Forests in Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changshun; Xie, Gaodi; Fan, Shaohui; Zhen, Lin

    2010-04-01

    Biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are key sustainable forestry objectives. Research on the effects of bamboo forest management on plant diversity and soil properties are therefore necessary in bamboo-growing regions, such as southeastern China’s Shunchang County, that have not been studied from this perspective. We analyzed the effects of different Phyllostachys pubescens proportions in managed forests on vegetation structure and soil properties using pure Cunninghamia lanceolata forests as a contrast, and analyzed the relation between understory plants and environmental variables (i.e., topography, stand and soil characteristics) by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The forest with 80% P. pubescens and 20% hardwoods (such as Phoebe bournei, Jatropha curcas, Schima superba) maintained the highest plant diversity and best soil properties, with significantly higher plant diversity than the C. lanceolata forest, and better soil physicochemical and biological properties. The distribution of understory plants is highly related to environmental factors. Silvicultural disturbance strongly influenced the ability of different bamboo forests to maintain biodiversity and soil quality under extensive management, and the forest responses to management were consistent with the intermediate-disturbance hypothesis (i.e., diversity and soil properties were best at intermediate disturbance levels). Our results suggest that biodiversity maintenance and soil improvement are important management goals for sustainable bamboo management. To achieve those objectives, managers should balance the inputs and outputs of nutrients and protect understory plants by using appropriate fertilizer (e.g., organic fertilizer), adjusting stand structure, modifying utilization model and the harvest time, and controlling the intensity of culms and shoots harvests.

  10. Alnus maritime ssp. oklahomensis performance in non-irrigated landscapes in the Intermountain West

    Treesearch

    Heidi A. Kratsch

    2008-01-01

    Alnus maritima (Marsh.) Muhl. ex Nutt. ssp. oklahomensis Schrader & Graves has potential for ornamental use in the Intermountain West. Because this taxon is native to low-elevation wetlands, we sought to determine its response to the dry soils and climate of northern Utah. Although seeds sown directly at three non-irrigated sites in northern Utah either did not...

  11. Seed production estimation for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana)

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Landeen; Loreen Allphin; Stanley G. Kitchen; Steven L. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Seed production is an essential component of postdisturbance recovery for mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp vaseyana [Rydb] Beetle; MBS). We tested a method for rapid estimation of MBS seed production using measurements of inflorescence morphology. We measured total stem length, stem length from first branchlet to stem tip, stem diameter, fresh...

  12. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied.more » Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.« less

  13. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  14. Occurrence of aphidborne viruses in southernmost South American populations of Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild and cultivated Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis (Fcc) plants were collected at different locations in southern Chile in order to determine the current viral status of this native strawberry. The following aphidborne viruses (ABVs): Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle...

  15. Identification of Functional Candidates amongst Hypothetical Proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:25894582

  16. Bovine glycomacropeptide promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis and modulates its gene expression.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, N; O'Callaghan, J; Buttò, L F; Kilcoyne, M; Joshi, L; Hickey, R M

    2018-05-23

    Bovine milk glycomacropeptide (GMP) is derived from κ-casein, with exclusively o-linked glycosylation. Glycomacropeptide promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis in a concentration-dependent manner, and this activity was lost following periodate treatment of the GMP (GMP-P), which disables biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides. Transcriptional analysis of B. longum ssp. infantis following exposure to GMP revealed a substantial response to GMP relative to bacteria treated with GMP-P, with a greater number of differentially expressed transcripts and larger fold changes versus the control. Therefore, stimulation of B. longum ssp. infantis growth by GMP is intrinsically linked to the peptide's O-linked glycosylation. The pool of differentially expressed transcripts included 2 glycoside hydrolase (family 25) genes, which were substantially upregulated following exposure to GMP, but not GMP-P. These GH25 genes were present in duplicated genomic islands that also contained genes encoding fibronectin type III binding domain proteins and numerous phage-related proteins, all of which were also upregulated. Homologs of this genomic arrangement were present in other Bifidobacterium species, which suggest it may be a conserved domain for the utilization of glycosylated peptides. This study provides insights into the molecular basis for the prebiotic effect of bovine milk GMP on B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. Growth Responses of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger) to Changes in Mineral Supply 1

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Daan

    1988-01-01

    Plants of an inbred line of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma were subjected to an alteration in mineral supply. Observed responses of growth rate and shoot to root ratio are thought to be induced by changes in endogenous cytokinin concentration and not by mineral concentration in plant tissue. PMID:16666183

  19. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Treesearch

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  20. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  1. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  2. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Treesearch

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  3. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenhai; Wang, Fuwei; Li, Shuchun; Zang, Lina; Zheng, Mi; Li, Ying; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla) ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar) show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl) stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8) and wild type (WT). In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees. PMID:27802286

  4. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by composted sewage sludge in Cd-treated Schmidt birch (Betula schmidtii) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Han, Sim-Hee; Lee, Jae-Cheon; Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2006-10-01

    We investigated alleviation of Cd toxicity and changes in the physiological characteristics of Betula schmidtii seedlings following application of composted sewage sludge to Cd-treated plants. Plants were grown under four test conditions: control, Cd treatment, sludge amendment, and Cd treatment with sludge amendment. B. schmidtii treated with Cd only accumulated the greatest amount of Cd in the leaves, but absorbed Cd was also highly concentrated in the roots. In contrast, Cd concentrations in the Cd and sludge amendment treated seedlings were the lowest in the roots. Since sludge amendment increased the growth of seedlings, it may have alleviated toxicity by dilution of Cd. Additionally, the absorbed Cd was more widely distributed since it was transported from the roots and accumulated in the stems and leaves of Cd and sludge treated plants. Cd treatment inhibited the growth and physiological functions of B. schmidtii seedlings, but sludge amendment compensated for these effects and improved growth and physiological functions in both Cd-treated and control plants. SOD activity in the leaves of seedlings was increased in the Cd-treated plants, but not in the Cd and sludge amendment treated seedlings. In conclusion, alleviation of Cd toxicity in response to sludge amendment may be related to a dilution effect, in which the Cd concentration in the tissues was effectively lowered by the improved growth performance of the seedlings.

  5. Does lignin modification affect feeding preference or growth performance of insect herbivores in transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth)?

    PubMed

    Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Ylioja, Tiina; Roininen, Heikki; Häggman, Hely

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines were produced in order to modify lignin biosynthesis. These lines carry COMT (caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase) gene from Populus tremuloides driven by constitutive promoter 35S CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) or UbB1 (ubiquitin promoter from sunflower). The decreased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was found in stem and leaf lignin of 35S CaMV-PtCOMT transgenic silver birch lines when compared to non-transformed control or UbB1-PtCOMT lines. In controlled feeding experiments the leaves of transgenic birch lines as well as controls were fed to insect herbivores common in boreal environment, i.e., larvae of Aethalura punctulata, Cleora cinctaria and Trichopteryx carpinata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) as well as the adults of birch leaf-feeding beetles Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Phyllobius spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The feeding preferences of these herbivores differed in some cases among the tested birch lines, but these differences could not be directly associated to lignin modification. They could as well be explained by other characteristics of leaves, either natural or caused by transgene site effects. Growth performance of lepidopteran larvae fed on transgenic or control leaves did not differ significantly.

  6. [Species composition and point pattern analysis of standing trees in secondary Betula albosinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao-xin; Kang, Bing; Li, Gang; Wang, De-xiang; Yang, Gai-he; Wang, Da-wei

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species composition and population diameter-class structure of a typical secondary Betula albo-sinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains, and the spatial distribution pattern and interspecific correlations of the main populations were analyzed at multiple scales by the O-ring functions of single variable and double variables. In the test forest, B. albo-sinensis was obviously dominant, but from the analysis of DBH class distribution, the B. albo-sinensis seedlings were short of, and the natural regeneration was very poor. O the contrary, the regeneration of Abies fargesii and Populus davidianas was fine. B. albo-sinensis and Salix matsudana had a random distribution at almost all scales, while A. fargesii and P. davidianas were significantly clumped at small scale. B. albo-sinensis had positive correlations with A. fargesii and P. davidianas at medium scale, whereas S. matsudana had negative correlations with B. albo-sinensis, A. fargesii, and P. davidianas at small scale. No significant correlations were observed between other species. The findings suggested that the spatial distribution patterns of the tree species depended on their biological characteristics at small scale, but on the environmental heterogeneity at larger scales. In a period of future time, B. albo-sinensis would still be dominant, but from a long-term view, it was necessary to take some artificial measures to improve the regeneratio of B. albo-sinensis.

  7. Seasonal variation in biomass and carbohydrate partitioning of understory sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Catherine; Gougeon, Sébastien; Mauffette, Yves; Messier, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We investigated seasonal patterns of biomass and carbohydrate partitioning in relation to shoot growth phenology in two age classes of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) seedlings growing in the understory of a partially harvested forest. The high root:shoot biomass ratio and carbohydrate concentration of sugar maple are characteristic of species with truncated growth patterns (i.e., cessation of aboveground shoot growth early in the growing season), a conservative growth strategy and high shade tolerance. The low root:shoot biomass ratio and carbohydrate concentration of yellow birch are characteristic of species with continuous growth patterns, an opportunistic growth strategy and low shade tolerance. In both species, starch represented up to 95% of total nonstructural carbohydrates and was mainly found in the roots. Contrary to our hypothesis, interspecific differences in shoot growth phenology (i.e., continuous versus truncated) did not result in differences in seasonal patterns of carbohydrate partitioning. Our results help explain the niche differentiation between sugar maple and yellow birch in temperate, deciduous understory forests.

  8. Artificial neural networks as a useful tool to predict the risk level of Betula pollen in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano-Méndez, M.; Aira, M. J.; Iglesias, I.; Jato, V.; González-Manteiga, W.

    2005-05-01

    An increasing percentage of the European population suffers from allergies to pollen. The study of the evolution of air pollen concentration supplies prior knowledge of the levels of pollen in the air, which can be useful for the prevention and treatment of allergic symptoms, and the management of medical resources. The symptoms of Betula pollinosis can be associated with certain levels of pollen in the air. The aim of this study was to predict the risk of the concentration of pollen exceeding a given level, using previous pollen and meteorological information, by applying neural network techniques. Neural networks are a widespread statistical tool useful for the study of problems associated with complex or poorly understood phenomena. The binary response variable associated with each level requires a careful selection of the neural network and the error function associated with the learning algorithm used during the training phase. The performance of the neural network with the validation set showed that the risk of the pollen level exceeding a certain threshold can be successfully forecasted using artificial neural networks. This prediction tool may be implemented to create an automatic system that forecasts the risk of suffering allergic symptoms.

  9. Vertical profiles reveal impact of ozone and temperature on carbon assimilation of Betula pendula and Populus tremula.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Maarit; Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Rousi, Matti; Oksanen, Elina

    2011-08-01

    Rising temperature and tropospheric ozone (O(3)) concentrations are likely to affect carbon assimilation processes and thus the carbon sink strength of trees. In this study, we investigated the joint action of elevated ozone and temperature on silver birch (Betula pendula) and European aspen (Populus tremula) saplings in field conditions by combining free-air ozone exposure (1.2 × ambient) and infrared heaters (ambient +1.2 °C). At leaf level measurements, elevated ozone decreased leaf net photosynthesis (P(n)), while the response to elevated temperature was dependent on leaf position within the foliage. This indicates that leaf position has to be taken into account when leaf level data are collected and applied. The ozone effect on P(n) was partly compensated for at elevated temperature, showing an interactive effect of the treatments. In addition, the ratio of photosynthesis to stomatal conductance (P(n)/g(s) ratio) was decreased by ozone, which suggests decreasing water use efficiency. At the plant level, the increasing leaf area at elevated temperature resulted in a considerable increase in photosynthesis and growth in both species.

  10. Short-term effects of light quality on leaf gas exchange and hydraulic properties of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Niglas, Aigar; Papp, Kaisa; Sekiewicz, Maciej; Sellin, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Leaves have to acclimatize to heterogeneous radiation fields inside forest canopies in order to efficiently exploit diverse light conditions. Short-term effects of light quality on photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf water use and hydraulic traits were studied on Betula pendula Roth shoots cut from upper and lower thirds of the canopy of 39- to 35-year-old trees growing in natural forest stand, and illuminated with white, red or blue light in the laboratory. Photosynthetic machinery of the leaves developed in different spectral conditions acclimated differently with respect to incident light spectrum: the stimulating effect of complete visible spectrum (white light) on net photosynthesis is more pronounced in upper-canopy layers. Upper-canopy leaves exhibit less water saving behaviour, which may be beneficial for the fast-growing pioneer species on a daily basis. Lower-canopy leaves have lower stomatal conductance resulting in more efficient water use. Spectral gradients existing within natural forest stands represent signals for the fine-tuning of stomatal conductance and tree water relations to afford lavish water use in sun foliage and enhance leaf water-use efficiency in shade foliage sustaining greater hydraulic limitations. Higher sensitivity of hydraulic conductance of shade leaves to blue light probably contributes to the efficient use of short duration sunflecks by lower-canopy leaves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  13. Streptococcal adhesin SspA/B analogue peptide inhibits adherence and impacts biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tatsuro; Ichinosawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340). This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K), a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2), suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K) may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K) on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h) was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h) was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K) significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K) had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K) significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide’s activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06) and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06) biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K) acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further

  14. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  15. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana

    PubMed Central

    Broere, Tom; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Donders, Timme H.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1) the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2) the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch) over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400–450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data. PMID:27285314

  16. Intrapopulation Genotypic Variation of Foliar Secondary Chemistry during Leaf Senescence and Litter Decomposition in Silver Birch (Betula pendula)

    PubMed Central

    Paaso, Ulla; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Keinänen, Markku; Karvinen, Heini; Silfver, Tarja; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Abundant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, and their interpopulation genotypic variation can remain through plant leaf senescence and affect litter decomposition. Whether the intrapopulation genotypic variation of a more diverse assortment of secondary metabolites equally persists through leaf senescence and litter decomposition is not well understood. We analyzed concentrations of intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones, epicuticular triterpenoids, condensed tannins, and lignin in green leaves, senescent leaves and partly decomposed litter of silver birch, Betula pendula. Broad-sense heritability (H2) and coefficient of genotypic variation (CVG) were estimated for metabolites in senescent leaves and litter using 19 genotypes selected from a B. pendula population in southern Finland. We found that most of the secondary metabolites remained through senescence and decomposition and that their persistence was related to their chemical properties. Intrapopulation H2 and CVG for intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones and condensed tannins were high and remarkably, increased from senescent leaves to decomposed litter. The rank of genotypes in metabolite concentrations was persistent through litter decomposition. Lignin was an exception, however, with a diminishing genotypic variation during decomposition, and the concentrations of lignin and condensed tannins had a negative genotypic correlation in the senescent leaves. Our results show that secondary metabolites and their intrapopulation genotypic variation can for the most part remain through leaf senescence and early decomposition, which is a prerequisite for initial litter quality to predict variation in litter decomposition rates. Persistent genotypic variation also opens an avenue for selection to impact litter decomposition in B. pendula populations through acting on their green foliage secondary chemistry. The negative genotypic correlations and diminishing

  17. Annual and spatial variation in shoot demography associated with masting in Betula grossa: comparison between mature trees and saplings

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Masae Iwamoto; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro

    2009-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Shoot demography affects the growth of the tree crown and the number of leaves on a tree. Masting may cause inter-annual and spatial variation in shoot demography of mature trees, which may in turn affect the resource budget of the tree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of masting on the temporal and spatial variations in shoot demography of mature Betula grossa. Methods The shoot demography was analysed in the upper and lower parts of the tree crown in mature trees and saplings over 7 years. Mature trees and saplings were compared to differentiate the effect of masting from the effect of exogenous environment on shoot demography. The fate of different shoot types (reproductive, vegetative, short, long), shoot length and leaf area were investigated by monitoring and by retrospective survey using morphological markers on branches. The effects of year and branch position on demographic parameters were evaluated. Key Results Shoot increase rate, production of long shoots, bud mortality, length of long shoots and leaf area of a branch fluctuated periodically from year to year in mature trees over 7 years, in which two masting events occurred. Branches within a crown showed synchronized annual variation, and the extent of fluctuation was larger in the upper branches than the lower branches. Vegetative shoots varied in their bud differentiation each year and contributed to the dynamic shoot demography as much as did reproductive shoots, suggesting physiological integration in shoot demography through hormonal regulation and resource allocation. Conclusions Masting caused periodic annual variation in shoot demography of the mature trees and the effect was spatially variable within a tree crown. Since masting is a common phenomenon among tree species, annual variation in shoot demography and leaf area should be incorporated into resource allocation models of mature masting trees. PMID:19734164

  18. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    PubMed

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  19. Carbon dynamics in the deciduous broadleaf tree Erman's birch (Betula ermanii) at the subalpine treeline on Changbai Mountain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Qi, Lin; Zhou, Wangming; Liu, Cheng-Gang; Yu, Dapao; Dai, Limin

    2018-01-01

    The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) and carbon limitation hypothesis (CLH) are two dominant explanations for treeline formation. The GLH proposes that low temperature drives the treeline through constraining C sinks more than C sources, and it predicts that non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels are static or increase with elevation. Although the GLH has received strong support globally for evergreen treelines, there is still no consensus for deciduous treelines, which experience great asynchrony between supply and demand throughout the year. We investigated growth and the growing-season C dynamics in a common deciduous species, Erman's birch (Betula ermanii), along an elevational gradient from the closed forest to the treeline on Changbai Mountain, Northeast China. Samples were collected from developing organs (leaves and twigs) and main storage organs (stems and roots) for NSC analysis. Tree growth decreased with increasing elevation, and NSC concentrations differed significantly among elevations, organs, and sampling times. In particular, NSC levels varied slightly during the growing season in leaves, peaked in the middle of the growing season in twigs and stems, and increased continuously throughout the growing season in roots. NSCs also tended to increase or vary slightly in developing organs but decreased significantly in mature organs with increasing elevation. The decrease in NSCs with elevation in main storage organs indicates support for the CLH, while the increasing or static trends in new developing organs indicate support for the GLH. Our results suggest that the growth limitation theory may be less applicable to deciduous species' growth than to that of evergreen species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula)

    PubMed Central

    Sellin, Arne; Rosenvald, Katrin; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Tullus, Arvo; Ostonen, Ivika; Lõhmus, Krista

    2015-01-01

    As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH). A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems) remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio) observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem–wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR) to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area) decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits) and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation. PMID:26528318

  1. [Spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperature of Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica and its influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu Ran; Wang, Xing Chang; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Quan Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Plant temperature is an important parameter for estimating energy balance and vegetation respiration of forest ecosystem. To examine spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperatures (T s ) and its influencing factors, we measured the T s with copper constantan thermocouples at different depths, heights and azimuths within the stems of two broadleaved tree species with contrasting bark and wood properties, Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica. The results showed that the monthly mean diurnal courses of the T s largely followed that of air temperature with a 'sinusoi dal' pattern, but the T s lagged behind the air temperature by 0 h at the stem surface to 4 h at 6 cm depth. The daily maximal values and ranges of the diurnal course of T s decreased gradually with increasing measuring depth across the stem and decreasing measuring height along the stem. The circumferential variation in T s was marginal, with slightly higher daily maximal values in the south and west directions during the daytime of the dormant season. Differences in thermal properties (i.e. , specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) of both bark and wood tissue between the two species contributed to the inter specific variations in the radial variation in T s through influencing the heat exchange between the stem surface and ambient air as well as heat diffusion within the stem. The higher reflectance of the bark of B. platyphylla decreased the influence of solar radiation on T s . The stepwise regression showed that the diurnal courses of T s could be well predicted by the environmental factors (R 2 > 0.85) with an order of influence ranking as air temperature > water vapor pressure > net radiation > wind speed. It is necessary to take the radial, vertical and inter specific varia-tions in T s into account when estimating biomass heat storage and stem CO2 efflux.

  2. Intrapopulation Genotypic Variation of Foliar Secondary Chemistry during Leaf Senescence and Litter Decomposition in Silver Birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Paaso, Ulla; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Keinänen, Markku; Karvinen, Heini; Silfver, Tarja; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Abundant secondary metabolites, such as condensed tannins, and their interpopulation genotypic variation can remain through plant leaf senescence and affect litter decomposition. Whether the intrapopulation genotypic variation of a more diverse assortment of secondary metabolites equally persists through leaf senescence and litter decomposition is not well understood. We analyzed concentrations of intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones, epicuticular triterpenoids, condensed tannins, and lignin in green leaves, senescent leaves and partly decomposed litter of silver birch, Betula pendula . Broad-sense heritability ( H 2 ) and coefficient of genotypic variation ( CV G ) were estimated for metabolites in senescent leaves and litter using 19 genotypes selected from a B. pendula population in southern Finland. We found that most of the secondary metabolites remained through senescence and decomposition and that their persistence was related to their chemical properties. Intrapopulation H 2 and CV G for intracellular phenolics, epicuticular flavonoid aglycones and condensed tannins were high and remarkably, increased from senescent leaves to decomposed litter. The rank of genotypes in metabolite concentrations was persistent through litter decomposition. Lignin was an exception, however, with a diminishing genotypic variation during decomposition, and the concentrations of lignin and condensed tannins had a negative genotypic correlation in the senescent leaves. Our results show that secondary metabolites and their intrapopulation genotypic variation can for the most part remain through leaf senescence and early decomposition, which is a prerequisite for initial litter quality to predict variation in litter decomposition rates. Persistent genotypic variation also opens an avenue for selection to impact litter decomposition in B. pendula populations through acting on their green foliage secondary chemistry. The negative genotypic correlations and

  3. Temporal variation in epidermal flavonoids due to altered solar UV radiation is moderated by the leaf position in Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Morales, Luis O; Tegelberg, Riitta; Brosché, Mikael; Lindfors, Anders; Siipola, Sari; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2011-11-01

    The physiological mechanisms controlling plant responses to dynamic changes in ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are not fully understood: this information is important to further comprehend plant adaptation to their natural habitats. We used the fluorimeter Dualex to estimate in vivo the epidermal flavonoid contents by measuring epidermal UV absorbance (A(375) ) in Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) leaves of different ages under altered UV. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse for 15 days without UV and transferred outdoors under three UV treatments (UV-0, UV-A and UV-A+B) created by three types of plastic film. After 7 and 13 days, Dualex measurements were taken at adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the first three leaves (L1, L2 and L3) of the seedlings. After 14 days, some of the seedlings were reciprocally swapped amongst the treatments to study the accumulation of epidermal flavonoids in the youngest unfolded leaves (L3) during leaf expansion under changing solar UV environments. A(375) of the leaves responded differently to the UV treatment depending on their position. UV-B increased the A(375) in the leaves independently of leaf position. L3 quickly adjusted A(375) in their epidermis according to the UV they received and these adjustments were affected by previous UV exposure. The initial absence of UV-A+B or UV-A, followed by exposure to UV-A+B, particularly enhanced leaf A(375) . Silver birch leaves modulate their protective pigments in response to changes in the UV environment during their expansion, and their previous UV exposure history affects the epidermal-absorbance achieved during later UV exposure. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  4. Multiple plasmid-borne virulence genes of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici critical for disease development in pepper.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sun; Oh, Eom-Ji; Kim, Donghyuk; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2018-02-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici is a Gram-positive plant-pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial canker disease in pepper. Virulence genes and mechanisms of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici in pepper have not yet been studied. To identify virulence genes of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici, comparative genome analyses with C. michiganensis ssp. capsici and its related C. michiganensis subspecies, and functional analysis of its putative virulence genes during infection were performed. The C. michiganensis ssp. capsici type strain PF008 carries one chromosome (3.056 Mb) and two plasmids (39 kb pCM1 Cmc and 145 kb pCM2 Cmc ). The genome analyses showed that this bacterium lacks a chromosomal pathogenicity island and celA gene that are important for disease development by C. michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato, but carries most putative virulence genes in both plasmids. Virulence of pCM1 Cmc -cured C. michiganensis ssp. capsici was greatly reduced compared with the wild-type strain in pepper. The complementation analysis with pCM1 Cmc -located putative virulence genes showed that at least five genes, chpE, chpG, ppaA1, ppaB1 and pelA1, encoding serine proteases or pectate lyase contribute to disease development in pepper. In conclusion, C. michiganensis ssp. capsici has a unique genome structure, and its multiple plasmid-borne genes play critical roles in virulence in pepper, either separately or together. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Aydin, Süleyman; Oztürk, Yusuf; Caliş, Ihsan

    2002-11-01

    A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  7. Environmental variation influences the magnitude of inbreeding depression in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, C Nelson; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2005-01-01

    We grew inbred and outcrossed Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana plants and measured inbreeding depression for several male and female fitness traits 4 years in a row in adjacent fields at the same field station under the same cultivation conditions. We found that the magnitude of inbreeding depression varied from 0.16 to 0.53 from year to year and that those traits which were most affected tended to vary with year. We also grew inbred and outcrossed C. pepo ssp. texana plants in two adjacent fields differing only in the presence of nitrogen fertilizer to examine the effect of nutrient limitation as a form of environmental stress on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. We found that inbreeding depression was more severe in the unfertilized field. Overall, this study illustrates the notion that any estimate of inbreeding depression represents a single point in a cluster of possible estimates that can vary (often dramatically) with growing conditions.

  8. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  9. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  10. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  11. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time. PMID:23437277

  12. Future possible crop yield scenarios under multiple SSP and RCP scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, G.; Yokozawa, M.; Nishimori, M.; Okada, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the effect of future climate change on global crop yields is one of the most important tasks for global food security. Future crop yields would be influenced by climatic factors such as the changes of temperature, precipitation and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. On the other hand, the effect of the changes of agricultural technologies such as crop varieties, pesticide and fertilizer input on crop yields have large uncertainty. However, not much is available on the contribution ratio of each factor under the future climate change scenario. We estimated the future global yields of four major crops (maize, soybean, rice and wheat) under three Shared Socio Economic Pathways (SSPs) and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). For this purpose, firstly, we estimated a parameter of a process based model (PRYSBI2) using a Bayesian method for each 1.125 degree spatial grid. The model parameter is relevant to the agricultural technology (we call "technological parameter" here after). Then, we analyzed the relationship between the values of technological parameter and GDP values. We found that the estimated values of the technological parameter were positively correlated with the GDP. Using the estimated relationship, we predicted future crop yield during 2020 and 2100 under SSP1, SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios and RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. The estimated crop yields were different among SSP scenarios. However, we found that the yield difference attributable to SSPs were smaller than those attributable to CO2 fertilization effects and climate change. Particularly, the estimated effect of the change of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on global yields was more than four times larger than that of GDP for C3 crops.

  13. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Chen, Cheng Y.; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool. PMID:26125585

  14. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  15. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  16. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  17. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  18. Proteomics characterization of different bran proteins between aromatic and nonaromatic rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    PubMed

    Trisiriroj, Arunee; Jeyachok, Narumon; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2004-07-01

    Proteomic approach is applied for the analysis of seed brans of 14 rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) which can classify to five aromatic rice and nine nonaromatic rice. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) protein patterns for 14 rice varieties were similar within pH ranges of 3-10 and 4-7. To characterize aromatic group-specific proteins, we compared 2-D gels of aromatic rice to nonaromatic rice using PDQUEST image analysis. Four out of six differential spots were identified as hypothetical proteins, but one (SSP 7003) was identified by matrix assisted laser desoption/ionization-quardrupole-time of fight (MALDI-Q-TOF) as prolamin with three matching peptides based on NCBI database. Prolamin is a class of storage proteins with three different polypeptides of 10, 13, and 16 kDa. Spot SSP7003 was identified as a 13 kDa polypeptide of prolamin by combination of mass spectroscopy and N-terminal sequence analyses. In contrast, one sulfur-rich 16 kDa polypeptide of prolamin was found in extremely high intensity in brans of deep-water rice compared to nondeep-water rice. Our results suggest that proteomics is a powerful step to open the way for the identification of rice varieties.

  19. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C.; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K.; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S.; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W.; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4+ T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria. Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD. PMID:28361039

  20. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4 + T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria . Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4 + T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.

  1. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  2. First detection of Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Dobler, Gerhard; Schaper, Sabine; Küpper, Thomas; Kattner, Simone; Wölfel, Silke

    2017-11-01

    Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Tick identification was based on morphological features and further characterized using the 16S rRNA gene. The ticks were individually tested using pan-Rickettsia real-time-PCR for screening, and 23S-5S intergenic spacer region, 16S rDNA, gltA, sca4, ompB, and ompA genes were used to analyze the Rickettsia positive samples. Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia was detected in tick collected in Zambia for the first time, thus demonstrating the possibility of the occurrence of human disease, namely Astrakhan fever, due to this Rickettsia ssp. in this region of Africa. The prevalence of R. conorii ssp. caspia was 0.06% (one positive tick out of 1465 tested ticks) and 0.07% (one positive tick out of 1254 tested Rh. sanguineus).

  3. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays . These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  4. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. [= Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love...Festuca rubra L., in part] Festuca saximontana Rydb. *Festuca vivipara (L.) Smith [= “Festuca vivipara”] Fragaria virginiana Duchesne ssp. glauca...tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love [= Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh ssp. crispa] Betula glandulosa Michx. Betula

  5. Comparison of the results of climate change impact assessment between RCP8.5 and SSP2 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. K.; Park, J. H.; Park, C.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change scenarios are mainly published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and include SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) scenarios (IPCC Third Report), RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios (IPCC 5th Report), and SSP (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) scenarios. Currently widely used RCP scenarios are based on how future greenhouse gas concentrations will change. In contrast, SSP scenarios are that predict how climate change will change in response to socio-economic indicators such as population, economy, land use, and energy change. In this study, based on RCP 8.5 climate data, we developed a new Korean scenario using the future social and economic scenarios of SSP2. In the development of the scenario, not only Korea's emissions but also China and Japan's emissions were considered in terms of space. In addition, GHG emissions and air pollutant emissions were taken into consideration. Using the newly developed scenarios, the impacts assessments of the forest were evaluated and the impacts were evaluated using the RCP scenarios. The average precipitation is similar to the SSP2 scenario and the RCP8.5 scenario, but the SSP2 scenario shows the maximum value is lower than RCP8.5 scenario. This is because the SSP2 scenario simulates the summer precipitation weakly. The temperature distribution is similar for both scenarios, and it can be seen that the average temperature in the 2090s is higher than that in the 2050s. At present, forest net primary productivity of Korea is 693 tC/km2, and it is 679 tC/km2 when SSP2 scenario is applied. Also, the damage of forest by ozone is about 4.1-5.1%. On the other hand, when SSP2 scenario is applied, the forest net primary productivity of Korea is 607 tC/km2 and the forest net primary productivity of RCP8.5 scenario is 657 tC/km2. The analysis shows that the damage caused by climate change is reduced by 14.2% for the SSP2 scenario and 6.9% for the RCP8.5 scenario. The damage caused

  6. Impacts of water and nitrogen supplies on the physiology, leaf demography and nitrogen dynamics of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Renate; Millard, Peter

    1996-01-01

    We determined the response of Betula pendula Roth. trees to a restricted water supply, and quantified the interactions between tree N and water status on leaf demography and internal N cycling. In April 1993, 3-year-old trees were planted in sand culture and four treatments applied: high-N supply (56 mg tree(-1) week(-1)) with either 2 dm(3) water week(-1) (HN+) or 0.9 dm(3) water week(-1) (HN-), or low-N supply (14 mg tree(-1) week(-1)) with 2 dm(3) (LN+) or 0.9 dm(3) (LN-) water week(-1). Until 1994, the N supplied to trees was enriched with (15)N to 5.4 atom %. During 1993, there were few differences in the growth or leaf demography of trees in the LN+ and LN- treatments, but the high-N treatment increased tree growth. Leaf mass and area were initially similar in trees in the HN+ and HN- treatments, but the trees in the HN- treatment had a smaller root system. Net assimilation rate under saturating light was higher in trees in the HN+ treatment than in trees in the LN+ treatment. There was an N x water supply interaction as a result of trees in the HN- treatment closing their stomata by the beginning of August. However, there was no difference in gas exchange characteristics of leaves in the LN+ and LN- treatments. Although leaf senescence and abscission started in the HN- treatment by mid-August and continued for about 90 days, whereas leaf abscission in the other treatments did not start until the beginning of October and only lasted 25-30 days, the trees in the HN+ and HN- treatments remobilized similar amounts of (15)N for leaf growth in the spring of 1994. There were no differences in predawn water potential among treatments and no evidence of osmotic adjustment. We conclude that B. pendula trees avoid rather than tolerate drought. The interaction between the effects of nitrogen and water supplies on leaf demography and internal cycling of N are discussed.

  7. 8 Allergenic Composition of Polymerized Allergen Extracts of Betula verrucosa, Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus and Phleum Pratense

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Cases, Barbara; Tudela, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, Eva Abel; Casanovas, Miguel; Subiza, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergoids have been successfully used in the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases. They are modified allergen extracts that allow the administration of high allergen doses, due to their reduced IgE binding capacity.They maintain allergen-specific T-cell recognition. Since they are native allergen extracts that have been polymerized with glutaraldehyde, identification of the allergenic molecules requires more complicated methods. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative composition of different polymerized extracts and investigate the presence of defined allergenic molecules using Mass spectrometry. Methods Proteomic analysis was carried out at the Proteomics Facility of the Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos (Toledo, Spain). After reduction and alkylation, proteins were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were cleaned using C18 SpinTips Sample Prep Kit; peptides were separated on an Ultimate nano-LC system using a Monolithic C18 column in combination with a precolumn for salt removal. Fractionation of the peptides was performed with a Probot microfraction collector and MS and MS/MS analysis of offline spotted peptide samples were performed using the Applied Biosystems 4800 plus MALDI TOF/TOF Analyzer mass spectrometer. ProteinPilot Software V 2.0.1 and the Paragon algorithm were used for the identification of the proteins. Each MS/MS spectrum was searched against the SwissProt 2010_10 database, Uniprot-Viridiplantae database and Uniprot_Betula database. Results Analysis of the peptides revealed the presence of native allergens in the polymerized extracts: Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der p 8 and Der p 11 in D. pteronyssinus; Bet v 2, Bet v 6, Bet v 7 and several Bet v 1 isoforms in B. verrucosa and Phl p 1, Phl p 3, Phl p 5, Phl p 11 and Phl p 12 in P. pratense allergoids. In all cases, potential allergenic proteins were also identified, including ubiquitin, actin, Eenolase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, luminal

  8. Comparative analysis of Lacistema pubescens and dexamethasone on topical treatment of skin inflammation in a chronic disease model and side effects.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Josiane M; Conegundes, Jéssica L M; Pinto, Nícolas C C; Mendes, Renata F; Castañon, Maria Christina M N; Scio, Elita

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chronic topical anti-inflammatory activity of the pharmaceutical formulation ProHLP containing the hexane fraction of Lacistema pubescens (HLP). It was also investigated the possible cutaneous and systemic adverse effects of HLP and ProHLP in mice when compared to dexamethasone. The chronic topical anti-inflammatory activity was determined by croton oil multiple application-induced mouse ear oedema model. Histopathological analyses of ear tissue samples sensitized with croton oil were performed. Cutaneous atrophy induced by HLP and topical glucocorticoid treatments and excision skin wounds model to evidenced possible adverse reactions were also determined. ProHLP significantly reduced the mice ear oedema and considerably accelerated the wound-healing process. Also, HLP did not lead cutaneous atrophy and preserved the clinical aspect of the thymus, adrenal and spleen, unlike dexamethasone. The results suggested that ProHLP is an efficient and safer pharmaceutical formulation to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Expression, Gene Cloning, and Characterization of Five Novel Phytases from Four Basidiomycete Fungi: Peniophora lycii, Agrocybe pediades, a Ceriporia sp., and Trametes pubescens

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Søren F.; Breinholt, Jens; Østergaard, Peter R.; Brugger, Roland; Bischoff, Andrea; Wyss, Markus; Fuglsang, Claus C.

    2001-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphomonoester bonds of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), thereby creating lower forms of myo-inositol phosphates and inorganic phosphate. In this study, cDNA expression libraries were constructed from four basidiomycete fungi (Peniophora lycii, Agrocybe pediades, a Ceriporia sp., and Trametes pubescens) and screened for phytase activity in yeast. One full-length phytase-encoding cDNA was isolated from each library, except for the Ceriporia sp. library where two different phytase-encoding cDNAs were found. All five phytases were expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, purified, and characterized. The phytases revealed temperature optima between 40 and 60°C and pH optima at 5.0 to 6.0, except for the P. lycii phytase, which has a pH optimum at 4.0 to 5.0. They exhibited specific activities in the range of 400 to 1,200 U · mg, of protein−1 and were capable of hydrolyzing phytate down to myo-inositol monophosphate. Surprisingly, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the hydrolysis of phytate by all five basidiomycete phytases showed a preference for initial attack at the 6-phosphate group of phytic acid, a characteristic that was believed so far not to be seen with fungal phytases. Accordingly, the basidiomycete phytases described here should be grouped as 6-phytases (EC 3.1.3.26). PMID:11571175

  10. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress, response of antioxidants and detection of intracellular cadmium in organs of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Chen, Junren; Islam, Ejazul; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Yan, Wenbo; Peng, Danli; Liu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens (Pradelle) Mazel ex J.Houz.) is recognized as a potential phytoremediation plant due to its huge biomass and high tolerance to environmental stresses. The objectives of this study were to investigate mechanism related to cadmium (Cd) tolerance and to evaluate Cd accumulation capacity of moso bamboo. The results of the pot experiment showed that Cd accumulation by bamboo increased with increasing the Cd levels in soil and the values in stem ranged from 28.51 to 132.13 mg kg(-1). Meanwhile chlorophyll in leaves and total biomass showed a decreasing trend. The bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for roots and stem in all the treatments were more than 1.0 and the translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.70 to 1.06. In hydroponics experiment, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves were significantly increased in Cd treated plants as compared with control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced at initial stage and then decreased consistently with the increase of Cd addition. The proline concentrations were also increased due to the presence of Cd, particularly at 25 μM Cd treatment. According to TEM-EDX analysis, the cytoplasm was the main site for accumulation of Cd in moso bamboo. On the basis of overall results, it is suggested that moso bamboo could be successfully used for the remediation of low Cd (no more than 5 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Application of a chitosan coating as a carrier for natamycin to maintain the storage quality of ground cherry (Physalis pubescens L.)*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Jiao-jiao; Li, Xi-hong; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Ground cherry (Physalis pubescens L.) is a kind of berry fruit favored by consumers in China; however, this fruit is particularly vulnerable to physiological senescence and pathogen attack during the traditional cold storage period. In order to maintain storage quality, a 1.5% (w/w) chitosan (CS) water solution containing 50 mg/L of natamycin (NA) was introduced. After all treatments were completed, the fruit was stored at 0 °C and sampled every 10 d. At each sampling date, the following tests were performed: mold and yeast analyses; enzyme activity and content analyses which included superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and malondialdehyde (MDA); and color analysis. In addition, a sensory evaluation was carried out for quality assessment at the end of the storage period. The results showed that the application of a chitosan coating combined with natamycin (CSNA) enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), reduced the physiological rate of senescence, and inhibited pathogen attack. Thus, CSNA treatment can maintain ground cherries at an acceptable level of storage quality for 50 d.

  12. Fossil-fueled development (SSP5): An energy and resource intensive scenario for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegler, Elmar; Bauer, Nico; Popp, Alexander

    Here, this paper presents a set of energy and resource intensive scenarios based on the concept of Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs). The scenario family is characterized by rapid and fossil-fueled development with high socio-economic challenges to mitigation and low socio-economic challenges to adaptation (SSP5). A special focus is placed on the SSP5 marker scenario developed by the REMIND-MAgPIE integrated assessment modeling framework. The SSP5 scenarios exhibit very high levels of fossil fuel use, up to a doubling of global food demand, and up to a tripling of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions over the course of the century, markingmore » the upper end of the scenario literature in several dimensions. The SSP5 marker scenario results in a radiative forcing pathway close to the highest Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5), and represents currently the only socio-economic scenario family that can be combined with climate model projections based on RCP8.5. This paper further investigates the direct impact of mitigation policies on the energy, land and emissions dynamics confirming high socio-economic challenges to mitigation in SSP5. Nonetheless, mitigation policies reaching climate forcing levels as low as in the lowest Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6) are accessible in SSP5. Finally, the SSP5 scenarios presented in this paper aim to provide useful reference points for future climate change, climate impact, adaption and mitigation analysis, and broader questions of sustainable development.« less

  13. Fossil-fueled development (SSP5): An energy and resource intensive scenario for the 21st century

    DOE PAGES

    Kriegler, Elmar; Bauer, Nico; Popp, Alexander; ...

    2016-08-18

    Here, this paper presents a set of energy and resource intensive scenarios based on the concept of Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs). The scenario family is characterized by rapid and fossil-fueled development with high socio-economic challenges to mitigation and low socio-economic challenges to adaptation (SSP5). A special focus is placed on the SSP5 marker scenario developed by the REMIND-MAgPIE integrated assessment modeling framework. The SSP5 scenarios exhibit very high levels of fossil fuel use, up to a doubling of global food demand, and up to a tripling of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions over the course of the century, markingmore » the upper end of the scenario literature in several dimensions. The SSP5 marker scenario results in a radiative forcing pathway close to the highest Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5), and represents currently the only socio-economic scenario family that can be combined with climate model projections based on RCP8.5. This paper further investigates the direct impact of mitigation policies on the energy, land and emissions dynamics confirming high socio-economic challenges to mitigation in SSP5. Nonetheless, mitigation policies reaching climate forcing levels as low as in the lowest Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6) are accessible in SSP5. Finally, the SSP5 scenarios presented in this paper aim to provide useful reference points for future climate change, climate impact, adaption and mitigation analysis, and broader questions of sustainable development.« less

  14. Global cost analysis on adaptation to sea level rise based on RCP/SSP scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, N.; Tamura, M.; Yotsukuri, M.; Kuwahara, Y.; Yokoki, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low-lying areas are the most vulnerable to sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change in the future. In order to adapt to SLR, it is necessary to decide whether to retreat from vulnerable areas or to install dykes to protect them from inundation. Therefore, cost- analysis of adaptation using coastal dykes is one of the most essential issues in the context of climate change and its countermeasures. However, few studies have globally evaluated the future costs of adaptation in coastal areas. This study tries to globally analyze the cost of adaptation in coastal areas. First, global distributions of projected inundation impacts induced by SLR including astronomical high tide were assessed. Economic damage was estimated on the basis of the econometric relationship between past hydrological disasters, affected population, and per capita GDP using CRED's EM-DAT database. Second, the cost of adaptation was also determined using the cost database and future scenarios. The authors have built a cost database for installed coastal dykes worldwide and applied it to estimating the future cost of adaptation. The unit costs of dyke construction will increase with socio-economic scenario (SSP) such as per capita GDP. Length of vulnerable coastline is calculated by identifying inundation areas using ETOPO1. Future cost was obtained by multiplying the length of vulnerable coastline and the unit cost of dyke construction. Third, the effectiveness of dyke construction was estimated by comparing cases with and without adaptation.As a result, it was found that incremental adaptation cost is lower than economic damage in the cases of SSP1 and SSP3 under RCP scenario, while the cost of adaptation depends on the durability of the coastal dykes.

  15. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize. PMID:28223998

  16. Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Emma; Kavanagh, Kerrie S; Buckley, Tom C; Cooney, Jakki C

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of 'Strangles' in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2-8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are also common in the UK.

  17. Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of ‘Strangles’ in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Results Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2–8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. Conclusions The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are

  18. Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)

    PubMed Central

    Willaume, Magali; Pagès, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability. PMID:21239407

  19. Effect of mid-term drought on Quercus pubescens BVOCs' emission seasonality and their dependency on light and/or temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Amélie; Ormeño, Elena; Boissard, Christophe; Wortham, Henri; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Lecareux, Caroline; Armengaud, Alexandre; Fernandez, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by plants represent a large source of carbon compounds released into the atmosphere, where they account for precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Being directly involved in air pollution and indirectly in climate change, understanding what factors drive BVOC emissions is a prerequisite for modeling their emissions and predict air pollution. The main algorithms currently used to model BVOC emissions are mainly light and/or temperature dependent. Additional factors such as seasonality and drought also influence isoprene emissions, especially in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by a rather long drought period in summer. These factors are increasingly included in models but only for the principal studied BVOC, namely isoprene, but there are still some discrepancies in estimations of emissions. In this study, the main BVOCs emitted by Quercus pubescens - isoprene, methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, MACR, MVK and ISOPOOH (these three last compounds detected under the same m/z) - were monitored with a PTR-ToF-MS over an entire seasonal cycle during both in situ natural and amplified drought, which is expected with climate change. Amplified drought impacted all studied BVOCs by reducing emissions in spring and summer while increasing emissions in autumn. All six BVOCs monitored showed daytime light and temperature dependencies while three BVOCs (methanol, acetone and formaldehyde) also showed emissions during the night despite the absence of light under constant temperature. Moreover, methanol and acetaldehyde burst in the early morning and formaldehyde deposition and uptake were also punctually observed, which were not assessed by the classical temperature and light models.

  20. Biological Evaluation, Overpressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC) separation and Isolation of a New Acetylenic Derivative Compound from Prangos platychlaena ssp. platychlaena Fruit Essential Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the present work, fruits of Prangos platychlaena Boiss. ex Tchihat. ssp. platychlaena (Apiaceae) collected from eastern (Sample A) and central (Sample B) parts of Turkey were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition of P. platychlaena ssp. platychlaen...

  1. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  2. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Kirkey, Fallon M; Matthews, Jennifer; Ryser, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of 226Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Sárka; Benesová, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vanková, Radomíra; Vanek, Tomás

    2007-01-01

    The uptake of 226Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The 226Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers+seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest 226Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of 226Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period.

  4. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactoferrin affects the adherence and invasion of Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Fiona; Beecher, Christine; Chaurin, Valerie; Sweeney, Torres; Giblin, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae is an important causative agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. Lactoferrin is an innate immune protein that is associated with many functions including immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between lactoferrin and a clinical bovine mastitis isolate, Strep. dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Initially a deliberate in vivo bovine intramammary challenge was performed with Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Results demonstrated a significant difference in lactoferrin mRNA levels in milk cells between the control and infused quarters 7h postinfusion. Milk lactoferrin levels in the Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 infused quarters were significantly increased compared with control quarters at 48h postinfusion. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactoferrin had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 and significantly decreased the ability of the bacteria to internalize into HC-11 mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy images of HC-11 cells exposed to Strep. dysgalactiae and lactoferrin further supported this effect by demonstrating reduced invasion of bacteria to HC-11 cells. The combined data suggest that a bovine immune response to Strep. dysgalactiae infection includes a significant increase in lactoferrin expression in vivo, and based on in vitro data, lactoferrin limits mammary cell invasion of this pathogen by binding to the bacteria and preventing its adherence. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation, purification and characterisation of low molecular weight xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, S

    2012-04-01

    Low molecular weight endo-xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatographies. Xylanases were isolated by novel purification protocol which includes the use of anion exchange matrix such as DEAE Sepharose CL 6B with less affinity towards enzyme protein. The purified B. pumilus SSP-34 have a molecular weight of 20 kDa, with optimum pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 50 °C for 30 min. It showed remarkable stability at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 9 when the reaction was carried out at 50 °C. K (m) and V (max) values, determined with oats spelts xylan were 6.5 mg ml⁻¹ and 1,233 μmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein, respectively, and the specific activity was 1,723 U mg⁻¹.

  7. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Nunes, Jairo E. S.; Figueiredo, Josely F.; Rossetti, Carlos A.; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E.; Lewin, Harris. A.; Adams, Leslie Garry

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer’s patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  8. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L; Lawhon, Sara D; Nunes, Jairo E S; Figueiredo, Josely F; Rossetti, Carlos A; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Adams, Leslie Garry

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer's patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  9. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  10. Identification of Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) alleles for resistance to southern leaf blight in near isogenic maize lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern Leaf Blight [(SLB), causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O] is an important fungal disease of maize in the United States. Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the wild progenitor of maize, offers a novel source of resistance alleles that may have been lost during domestication. T...

  11. An Optimally Stable and Accurate Second-Order SSP Runge-Kutta IMEX Scheme for Atmospheric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhzadi, Arman; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Charron, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop an optimized implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta scheme for atmospheric applications focusing on stability and accuracy. Following the common terminology, the proposed method is called IMEX-SSP2(2,3,2), as it has second-order accuracy and is composed of diagonally implicit two-stage and explicit three-stage parts. This scheme enjoys the Strong Stability Preserving (SSP) property for both parts. This new scheme is applied to nonhydrostatic compressible Boussinesq equations in two different arrangements, including (i) semiimplicit and (ii) Horizontally Explicit-Vertically Implicit (HEVI) forms. The new scheme preserves the SSP property for larger regions of absolute monotonicity compared to the well-studied scheme in the same class. In addition, numerical tests confirm that the IMEX-SSP2(2,3,2) improves the maximum stable time step as well as the level of accuracy and computational cost compared to other schemes in the same class. It is demonstrated that the A-stability property as well as satisfying "second-stage order" and stiffly accurate conditions lead the proposed scheme to better performance than existing schemes for the applications examined herein.

  12. Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.

    PubMed

    Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact.

  13. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (<45%). Cis-violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and lutein were the next most relevant carotenoids in the yellow/orange Andean peppers (5% to 14%). As a whole, rocotos showed the highest contributions of provitamin A carotenoids to the carotenoid fraction. In terms of nutritional contribution, both ajíes and rocotos provide a remarkable provitamin A activity, with several accessions showing a content in retinol equivalents higher than California Wonder controls. Furthermore, levels of lutein in yellow/orange ajíes and rocotos were clearly higher than California Wonder pepper (≥1000 μg·100/g). Finally, the Andean peppers, particularly red ajíes, can be also considered as a noticeable source of capsanthin, the most powerful antioxidant compound among pepper carotenoids. Practical Application: Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is

  14. Identification of small secreted peptides (SSPs) in maize and expression analysis of partial SSP genes in reproductive tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye Long; Dai, Xin Ren; Yue, Xun; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Maize 1,491 small secreted peptides were identified, which were classified according to the character of peptide sequences. Partial SSP gene expressions in reproductive tissues were determined by qRT-PCR. Small secreted peptides (SSPs) are important cell-cell communication messengers in plants. Most information on plant SSPs come from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, while little is known about the SSPs of other grass species such as maize (Zea mays). In this study, we identified 1,491 SSP genes from maize genomic sequences. These putative SSP genes were distributed throughout the ten maize chromosomes. Among them, 611 SSPs were classified into 198 superfamilies according to their conserved domains, and 725 SSPs with four or more cysteines at their C-termini shared similar cysteine arrangements with their counterparts in other plant species. Moreover, the SSPs requiring post-translational modification, as well as defensin-like (DEFL) proteins, were identified. Further, the expression levels of 110 SSP genes were analyzed in reproductive tissues, including male flower, pollen, silk, and ovary. Most of the genes encoding basal-layer antifungal peptide-like, small coat proteins-like, thioredoxin-like proteins, γ-thionins-like, and DEFL proteins showed high expression levels in the ovary and male flower compared with their levels in silk and mature pollen. The rapid alkalinization factor-like genes were highly expressed only in the mature ovary and mature pollen, and pollen Ole e 1-like genes showed low expression in silk. The results of this study provide basic information for further analysis of SSP functions in the reproductive process of maize.

  15. Streptococcus gordonii DL1 adhesin SspB V-region mediates coaggregation via receptor polysaccharide of Actinomyces oris T14V.

    PubMed

    Back, C R; Douglas, S K; Emerson, J E; Nobbs, A H; Jenkinson, H F

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB proteins, members of the antigen I/II (AgI/II) family of Streptococcus adhesins, mediate adherence to cysteine-rich scavenger glycoprotein gp340 and cells of other oral microbial species. In this article we investigated further the mechanism of coaggregation between S. gordonii DL1 and Actinomyces oris T14V. Previous mutational analysis of S. gordonii suggested that SspB was necessary for coaggregation with A. oris T14V. We have confirmed this by showing that Lactococcus lactis surrogate host cells expressing SspB coaggregated with A. oris T14V and PK606 cells, while L. lactis cells expressing SspA did not. Coaggregation occurred independently of expression of A. oris type 1 (FimP) or type 2 (FimA) fimbriae. Polysaccharide was prepared from cells of A. oris T14V and found to contain 1,4-, 4,6- and 3,4-linked glucose, 1,4-linked mannose, and 2,4-linked galactose residues. When immobilized onto plastic wells this polysaccharide supported binding of L. lactis expressing SspB, but not binding of L. lactis expressing other AgI/II family proteins. Purified recombinant NAVP region of SspB, comprising amino acid (aa) residues 41-847, bound A. oris polysaccharide but the C-domain (932-1470 aa residues) did not. A site-directed deletion of 29 aa residues (Δ691-718) close to the predicted binding cleft within the SspB V-region ablated binding of the NAVP region to polysaccharide. These results infer that the V-region head of SspB recognizes an actinomyces polysaccharide ligand, so further characterizing a lectin-like coaggregation mechanism occurring between two important primary colonizers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Chemical variability of the needle oil of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Ottavioli, Josephine; Gonny, Marcelle; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2009-12-01

    The composition of 109 samples of essential oil isolated from the needles of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina growing wild in Corsica was investigated by GC (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and 13C-NMR. Forty-four compounds accounting for 86.7-96.7% of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, in particular, limonene (9.2-53.9%), beta-phellandrene (3.7-25.2%), alpha-pinene (1.4-33.7%), and sabinene (0.1-33.6%). The 109 oil compositions were submitted to k-means partitioning and principal component analysis, which allowed the distinction of two groups within the oil samples. The composition of the major group (92% of the samples) was dominated by limonene and beta-phellandrene, while the second group contained mainly sabinene beside limonene and beta-phellandrene.

  17. Bioactive Pentacyclic Triterpene Ester Derivatives from Alnus viridis ssp. viridis Bark.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Miroslav; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Veselinovic, Jovana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vidakovic, Vera; Tesevic, Vele; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2017-05-26

    Seven derivatives of pentacyclic triterpene acids (1-7) were isolated from the bark of Alnus viridis ssp. viridis using a combination of column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 were determined to be new after spectroscopic data interpretation and were assigned as 27-hydroxyalphitolic acid derivatives (1-3), a 27-hydroxybetulinic acid derivative (6), and a 3-epi-maslinic acid derivative (7), respectively. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with a C-27 hydroxymethyl group have been found in species of the genus Alnus for the first time. These compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity testing against a number of cancer cell lines. Also, selected pentacyclic triterpenoids were selected as potential inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIα for an in silico investigation.

  18. Preventative effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius, in the TNBS model of rat colitis

    PubMed Central

    Peran, Laura; Camuesco, Desiree; Comalada, Monica; Nieto, Ana; Concha, Angel; Diaz-Ropero, Maria Paz; Olivares, Monica; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Galvez, Julio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of a probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 in the TNBS model of rat colitis. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used in this study. A group of rats were administered orally the probiotic L. salivarius ssp. salivarius (5×108 CFU suspended in 0.5 mL of skimmed milk) daily for 3 wk. Two additional groups were used for reference, a non-colitic and a control colitic without probiotic treatment, which received orally the vehicle used to administer the probiotic. Two weeks after starting the experiment, the rats were rendered colitic by intracolonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS dissolved in 0.25 mL of 500 mL/L ethanol. One week after colitis induction, all animals were killed and colonic damage was evaluated both histologically and biochemically. The biochemical studies performed in colonic homogenates include determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In addition, the luminal contents obtained from colonic samples were used for microbiological studies, in order to determine Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts. RESULTS: Treatment of colitic rats with L. salivarius ssp. salivarius resulted in amelioration of the inflammatory response in colitic rats, when compared with the corresponding control group without probiotic treatment. This anti-inflammatory effect was evidenced macroscopically by a significant reduction in the extent of colonic necrosis and/or inflammation induced by the administration of TNBS/ethanol (2.3±0.4 cm vs 3.4±0.3 cm in control group, P<0.01) and histologically by improvement of the colonic architecture associated with a reduction in the neutrophil infiltrate in comparison with non-treated colitic rats. The latter was confirmed biochemically by a significant reduction of colonic

  19. E-cinnamic acid derivatives and phenolics from Chilean strawberry fruits, Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Saud, Guillermo; Caligari, Peter D S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-11-02

    Three E-cinnamic acid glycosides, tryptophan, and cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from ripe fruits of the Chilean strawberry Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis. 1-O-E-Cinnamoyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-alpha-xylofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranose are reported for the first time. The cinnamic acid glycosides and aromatic compound patterns in F. chiloensis fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analyses of extracts showed that cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and free ellagic acid are present in achenes while the E-cinnamoyl derivatives and tryptophan were identified only in the thalamus. The free radical scavenging effect of the fruit extract can be associated with the anthocyanin content.

  20. Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD⁺ complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Li, Songgang; Liu, Bin; Deng, Yajun; Dai, Li; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Xiuqing; Cao, Mengliang; Liu, Jing; Sun, Jiandong; Tang, Jiabin; Chen, Yanjiong; Huang, Xiaobing; Lin, Wei; Ye, Chen; Tong, Wei; Cong, Lijuan; Geng, Jianing; Han, Yujun; Li, Lin; Li, Wei; Hu, Guangqiang; Huang, Xiangang; Li, Wenjie; Li, Jian; Liu, Zhanwei; Li, Long; Liu, Jianping; Qi, Qiuhui; Liu, Jinsong; Li, Li; Li, Tao; Wang, Xuegang; Lu, Hong; Wu, Tingting; Zhu, Miao; Ni, Peixiang; Han, Hua; Dong, Wei; Ren, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xiaoli; Cui, Peng; Li, Xianran; Wang, Hao; Xu, Xin; Zhai, Wenxue; Xu, Zhao; Zhang, Jinsong; He, Sijie; Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Jichen; Zhang, Kunlin; Zheng, Xianwu; Dong, Jianhai; Zeng, Wanyong; Tao, Lin; Ye, Jia; Tan, Jun; Ren, Xide; Chen, Xuewei; He, Jun; Liu, Daofeng; Tian, Wei; Tian, Chaoguang; Xia, Hongai; Bao, Qiyu; Li, Gang; Gao, Hui; Cao, Ting; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Wenming; Li, Ping; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Jianfei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Guangyu; Xiong, Yuqing; Li, Zhijie; Mao, Long; Zhou, Chengshu; Zhu, Zhen; Chen, Runsheng; Hao, Bailin; Zheng, Weimou; Chen, Shouyi; Guo, Wei; Li, Guojie; Liu, Siqi; Tao, Ming; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Lihuang; Yuan, Longping; Yang, Huanming

    2002-04-05

    We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact 20-nucleotide oligomer repeats, and most of the transposons were in the intergenic regions between genes. Although 80.6% of predicted Arabidopsis thaliana genes had a homolog in rice, only 49.4% of predicted rice genes had a homolog in A. thaliana. The large proportion of rice genes with no recognizable homologs is due to a gradient in the GC content of rice coding sequences.

  2. The Consensus from the Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Conference 2017.

    PubMed

    Kuenstner, J Todd; Naser, Saleh; Chamberlin, William; Borody, Thomas; Graham, David Y; McNees, Adrienne; Hermon-Taylor, John; Hermon-Taylor, Amy; Dow, C Thomas; Thayer, Walter; Biesecker, James; Collins, Michael T; Sechi, Leonardo A; Singh, Shoor Vir; Zhang, Peilin; Shafran, Ira; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; Rothstein, Robert; Oken, Harry; Schimpff, Stephen; Bach, Horacio; Bull, Tim; Grant, Irene; Ellingson, Jay; Dahmen, Heinrich; Lipton, Judith; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan; Singh, Manju; Agarwal, Prabhat; Kumar, Ashok; Misri, Jyoti; Sohal, Jagdip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Hemati, Zahra; Davis, William; Hier, Michael; Aitken, John; Pierce, Ellen; Parrish, Nicole; Goldberg, Neil; Kali, Maher; Bendre, Sachin; Agrawal, Gaurav; Baldassano, Robert; Linn, Preston; Sweeney, Raymond W; Fecteau, Marie; Hofstaedter, Casey; Potula, Raghava; Timofeeva, Olga; Geier, Steven; John, Kuruvilla; Zayanni, Najah; Malaty, Hoda M; Kahlenborn, Christopher; Kravitz, Amanda; Bulfon, Adriano; Daskalopoulos, George; Mitchell, Hazel; Neilan, Brett; Timms, Verlaine; Cossu, Davide; Mameli, Giuseppe; Angermeier, Paul; Jelic, Tomislav; Goethe, Ralph; Juste, Ramon A; Kuenstner, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees.

  3. The Consensus from the Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Conference 2017

    PubMed Central

    Kuenstner, J. Todd; Naser, Saleh; Chamberlin, William; Borody, Thomas; Graham, David Y.; McNees, Adrienne; Hermon-Taylor, John; Hermon-Taylor, Amy; Dow, C. Thomas; Thayer, Walter; Biesecker, James; Collins, Michael T.; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Singh, Shoor Vir; Zhang, Peilin; Shafran, Ira; Weg, Stuart; Telega, Grzegorz; Rothstein, Robert; Oken, Harry; Schimpff, Stephen; Bach, Horacio; Bull, Tim; Grant, Irene; Ellingson, Jay; Dahmen, Heinrich; Lipton, Judith; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan; Singh, Manju; Agarwal, Prabhat; Kumar, Ashok; Misri, Jyoti; Sohal, Jagdip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Hemati, Zahra; Davis, William; Hier, Michael; Aitken, John; Pierce, Ellen; Parrish, Nicole; Goldberg, Neil; Kali, Maher; Bendre, Sachin; Agrawal, Gaurav; Baldassano, Robert; Linn, Preston; Sweeney, Raymond W.; Fecteau, Marie; Hofstaedter, Casey; Potula, Raghava; Timofeeva, Olga; Geier, Steven; John, Kuruvilla; Zayanni, Najah; Malaty, Hoda M.; Kahlenborn, Christopher; Kravitz, Amanda; Bulfon, Adriano; Daskalopoulos, George; Mitchell, Hazel; Neilan, Brett; Timms, Verlaine; Cossu, Davide; Mameli, Giuseppe; Angermeier, Paul; Jelic, Tomislav; Goethe, Ralph; Juste, Ramon A.; Kuenstner, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees. PMID:29021977

  4. Characterization of SeseC_01411 as a surface protective antigen of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Honglin; Wei, Zigong; Ma, Chunquan; Li, Shun; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is a commensal bacterium related to opportunistic infections of many species, including humans, dogs, cats, and pigs. SeseC_01411 has been proven to be immunogenic. However, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. In the present study, the purified recombinant SeseC_01411 could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect against lethal challenge with virulent SEZ in mice. Our finding confirmed that SeseC_01411 distributes on the surface of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against SeseC_01411 could efficiently kill the bacteria in the phagocytosis test. The present study identified the immunogenic protein, SeseC_01411, as a novel surface protective antigen of SEZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Benzophenones and Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Cheng, Ping; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-11-23

    Two new benzophenones (1 and 2) and four new xanthones (4-6 and 17) together with 24 known compounds (3, 7-16, and 18-30) were isolated from the roots and twigs of Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5 and 26 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL, whereas compounds 7, 20, and 26 displayed selective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (8 μg/mL), Salmonella typhimurium (4 μg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL), respectively. The radical scavenging effects of some isolated compounds were investigated. Compounds 11 and 21 exhibited potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC 50 values of 7.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  6. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar) and the Salpeter (S) IMF. General information about the models is given in table1. For further information, please refer to the paper. Each set of models and their corresponding predictions are available in the website and VIZIER. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from those pages in ascii format . The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from t hose pages in ascii format . The nomenclature of each SED is as follows: isochroneIMFsedXXXXHZX.XXXXXXXXXTgXX.XXXXXXXe+XX - where XXXX tells whether those models contain C-stars or no (COMBO or NOCS respectively) H is the spectral band in which normalization occurred Z_X.XXXXXXXXX is the metallicity in terms of Z Tg_XX.XXXXXXXe+XX is the age in years. Each set of models contains MarS - 96 SEDs GirS - 96 SEDs BaSS - 116 SEDs We have also included in the websites the Integrated colours and line-strength indices from all our models (MarS, GirS and BaSS). The SEDs were convolved to a velocity dispersion of 350km/s before calculating indices. (5 data files).

  8. Identification of a lineage specific zinc responsive genomic island in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eckelt, Elke; Jarek, Michael; Frömke, Cornelia; Meens, Jochen; Goethe, Ralph

    2014-12-06

    Maintenance of metal homeostasis is crucial in bacterial pathogenicity as metal starvation is the most important mechanism in the nutritional immunity strategy of host cells. Thus, pathogenic bacteria have evolved sensitive metal scavenging systems to overcome this particular host defence mechanism. The ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) displays a unique gut tropism and causes a chronic progressive intestinal inflammation. MAP possesses eight conserved lineage specific large sequence polymorphisms (LSP), which distinguish MAP from its ancestral M. avium ssp. hominissuis or other M. avium subspecies. LSP14 and LSP15 harbour many genes proposed to be involved in metal homeostasis and have been suggested to substitute for a MAP specific, impaired mycobactin synthesis. In the present study, we found that a LSP14 located putative IrtAB-like iron transporter encoded by mptABC was induced by zinc but not by iron starvation. Heterologous reporter gene assays with the lacZ gene under control of the mptABC promoter in M. smegmatis (MSMEG) and in a MSMEG∆furB deletion mutant revealed a zinc dependent, metalloregulator FurB mediated expression of mptABC via a conserved mycobacterial FurB recognition site. Deep sequencing of RNA from MAP cultures treated with the zinc chelator TPEN revealed that 70 genes responded to zinc limitation. Remarkably, 45 of these genes were located on a large genomic island of approximately 90 kb which harboured LSP14 and LSP15. Thirty-five of these genes were predicted to be controlled by FurB, due to the presence of putative binding sites. This clustering of zinc responsive genes was exclusively found in MAP and not in other mycobacteria. Our data revealed a particular genomic signature for MAP given by a unique zinc specific locus, thereby suggesting an exceptional relevance of zinc for the metabolism of MAP. MAP seems to be well adapted to maintain zinc homeostasis which might contribute to the peculiarity of MAP

  9. Intra-specific genetic diversity in wild olives (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadi, Z; Samadi-Molayousefi, H; Sheidai, M

    2012-03-19

    Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei's genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H(pop)/H(sp) within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was found for the Keshar population (H(pop) = 0.85 and H(sp) = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F(ST) test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.

  10. The effect of cisplatin administration on certain trace elements homeostasis in rats and the protective effect of silver birch (Betula pendula) sap.

    PubMed

    Muselin, Florin; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Berbecea, Adina; Doma, Alexandru Octavian; Brezovan, Diana; Savici, Jelena; Trif, Alexandra; Cristina, Romeo Teodor

    2018-02-07

    A clinically active structure with known antitumor activities is cisplatin (CDDP), but this it comes with toxicity characteristics which can be faded by the beneficial effects of Silver birch (Betula pendula) sap. We aimed to assess the cisplatin activity on: Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in rats and to observe the effect of birch sap. Healthy Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were divided in four groups: Control: receiving 1 mL saline I.P. way + water; E1: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P.; E2: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P. + birch sap and Control sap group: 1 mL saline I.P. + birch sap. Blood was collected: at the trial's start and after 48 h, and blood and organs (liver, kidney and spleen) for the cytoarchitecture investigation and readings were sampled after seven days. Samples were processed in nitric acid by microwave digestion and readings were completed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, the outcomes being statistically analyzed by ANOVA. Cisplatin produced a significant imbalance in the trace elements homeostasis, the birch sap administration recovering them usual homeostasis status. Comparatively with the Control, rats exposed to cisplatin presented a not significant (p > 0.05) decrease of Zn (-26.74%) and Mg (-10.25%), a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of Cu (-27.73%) at 48 h, a highly significant (p < 0.01) decrease of Cu (-56.08%) and Fe (-85.35%) at seven days after administration and a not significant (p > 0.05) increase of Mn (+28.16%). Birch sap administration after Cisplatin was followed by restoration or nevertheless significant increase (p < 0.05) of the investigated trace elements Zn (+56.88% to 48 h/+89.94% after seven days), Mg (+26.86%/+95.74%), Cu (+23.13%/+74.56%), Fe (+39.64%/+440.11%) and Mn (+4.30%/+15.87%), suggesting them defence against cisplatin. Histology revealed the order of main altered organs after the CDDP exposure: kidney, spleen and liver. The study recommended the

  11. [Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greenhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Mu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Li-dong; Yu, Li-li; Gu, Han

    2011-04-01

    By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8-3.9 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 degrees C and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summer and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring = autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summer under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring = autumn under heavy fire disturbance. At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7%, 65.6% -95.8%, and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore, fire disturbance

  12. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Tropospheric Ozone on Phytochemical Composition of Trembling Aspen ( Populus tremuloides ) and Paper Birch ( Betula papyrifera ).

    PubMed

    Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities are altering levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and tropospheric ozone (O 3 ). These changes can alter phytochemistry, and in turn, influence ecosystem processes. We assessed the individual and combined effects of elevated CO 2 and O 3 on the phytochemical composition of two tree species common to early successional, northern temperate forests. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon dioxide and ozone Enrichment) facility under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO 2 and O 3 . We measured, over three years (2006-08), the effects of CO 2 and O 3 on a suite of foliar traits known to influence forest functioning. Elevated CO 2 had minimal effect on foliar nitrogen and carbohydrate levels in either tree species, and increased synthesis of condensed tannins and fiber in aspen, but not birch. Elevated O 3 decreased nitrogen levels in both tree species and increased production of sugar, condensed tannins, fiber, and lignin in aspen, but not birch. The magnitude of responses to elevated CO 2 and O 3 varied seasonally for both tree species. When co-occurring, CO 2 offset most of the changes in foliar chemistry expressed under elevated O 3 alone. Our results suggest that levels of CO 2 and O 3 predicted for the mid-twenty-first century will alter the foliar chemistry of northern temperate forests with likely consequences for forest community and ecosystem dynamics.

  13. The Evaluation of CP-001 (a Standardized Herbal Mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus) for Cytochrome P450-Related Herb-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hye Hyun; Kim, Sun-A; Kim, In Sook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100 μg/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal. PMID:23935684

  14. Effects of temperature and light on photosynthesis of dominant species of a northern hardwood forest. [Populus grandidentata, Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera

    SciTech Connect

    Jurik, T.W.; Weber, J.A.; Gates, D.M.

    1988-06-01

    The response of CO{sub 2} exchange rate (CER) to temperature and light was determined for 14 dominant plant species of a northern deciduous hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. Leaves at the top of the canopy had temperature optima near 25 C for CER, whereas leaves in the understory had optima near 20 C. There was no change in optimum temperature over the growing season, and overall shapes of response curves were similar among species. The lack of change in temperature optima may be a result of little change in growing conditions rather than a lack of ability to acclimatize.more » Nine of 11 species in the understory had no significant differences in light-saturated, maximum CERs, whereas at the top of the canopy Populus grandidentata had a higher maximum CER than Quercus rubra and Betula papyrifera. The species in the understory also differed little in light-saturation points for CER. Species at the top of the canopy had higher values for maximum CER, light-saturation point for CER, and maximum conductance than did species in the understory.« less

  15. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    PubMed Central

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372). PMID:27746766

  16. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera.

    PubMed

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK ( B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372).

  17. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a

  18. Natural DNA transformation is functional in Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris KW2.

    PubMed

    David, Blandine; Radziejwoski, Amandine; Toussaint, Frédéric; Fontaine, Laetitia; Henry de Frahan, Marie; Patout, Cédric; van Dillen, Sabine; Boyaval, Patrick; Horvath, Philippe; Fremaux, Christophe; Hols, Pascal

    2017-06-16

    Lactococcus lactis is one of the most commonly used lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry. Activation of competence for natural DNA transformation in this species would greatly improve the selection of novel strains with desired genetic traits. Here, we investigated the activation of natural transformation in L. lactis ssp. cremoris KW2, a strain of plant origin whose genome encodes the master competence regulator ComX and the complete set of proteins usually required for natural transformation. In the absence of knowledge about competence regulation in this species, we constitutively overproduced ComX in a reporter strain of late competence phase activation and showed, by transcriptomic analyses, a ComX-dependent induction of all key competence genes. We further demonstrated that natural DNA transformation is functional in this strain and requires the competence DNA uptake machinery. Since constitutive ComX overproduction is unstable, we alternatively expressed comX under the control of an endogenous xylose-inducible promoter. This regulated system was used to successfully inactivate the adaptor protein MecA and subunits of the Clp proteolytic complex, which were previously shown to be involved in ComX degradation in streptococci. In the presence of a low amount of ComX, the deletion of mecA , clpC , or clpP genes markedly increased the activation of the late competence phase and transformability. Altogether, our results report the functionality of natural DNA transformation in L. lactis and pave the way for the identification of signaling mechanisms that trigger the competence state in this species. IMPORTANCE Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium of major importance, which is used as a starter species for milk fermentation, a host for heterologous protein production, and a delivery platform for therapeutic molecules. Here, we report the functionality of natural transformation in L. lactis ssp. cremoris KW2 by the overproduction of the master

  19. Genetic (RAPD) diversity between Oleria onega agarista and Oleria onega ssp. (Ithomiinae, Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera) in north-eastern Peru.

    PubMed

    Gallusser, S; Guadagnuolo, R; Rahier, M

    2004-05-01

    Oleria onega agarista Felder and Felder and Oleria onega ssp. nov. are two Ithomiinae subspecies from north-eastern Peru, that differ for some morphological and behavioural traits. Two contact zones are known near the town of Tarapoto: Ahuashiyacu, where both subspecies cohabit but do not seem to hybridise, and Estero (near the village of Shapaja), where they apparently hybridise. Genetic differences between the two subspecies and between populations were investigated with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Both Cluster and Principal Coordinates Analyses (CCoA and PCoA) performed using these data, provided a clear but weak discrimination between the two subspecies. Genetic diversity is much higher within the populations than between them. Moreover, the geographically more distant populations are grouped together by the genetic data. Morphological traits on the wing patterns of the hybrids are intermediary between the two butterflies subspecies, while RAPDs data place them closer to O. onega agarista than to O. onega ssp. The individuals of the Ahuashiyacu population are clearly separated into two groups, those of O. onega ssp. and O. onega agarista, by both morphology and RAPDs data. Moreover, none of those individuals show RAPD similarity with the hybrids, suggesting that hybridisation has not occurred in this population.

  20. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  1. Reduced CBF recovery detected by longitudinal 3D-SSP SPECT analyses predicts outcome of postoperative patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tatsushi; Totsune, Tomoko; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Nakagawa, Manabu; Suarez, Jose I; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral blood flow (CBF) recovery obtained from brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images on postoperative outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-nine patients who had undergone surgical clipping for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms were analyzed prospectively. Routine measurements of CBF were performed using technetium-99 m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxine SPECT on days 4 and 14 after SAH. Regional voxel data analyzed by three dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) were compared between patients and age-matched normal database (NDB). In 3D-SSP analysis of all patients, cortical hypoperfusion around the surgical site in bilateral frontal lobes was evident on day 4 (P < .05 vs NDB), which was improved significantly on day 14. However, the recovery was less complete in patients with poor clinical grades (P < .05) and presenting symptoms attributable to delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) (P < .05) than those without. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with mild to moderate CBF recovery (relative Z-score differences of <4) (P = .014; odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.93-3.31) was independently associated with poor functional outcome at 3 months. We conclude that reduced CBF recovery detected by serial 3D-SSP SPECT image analyses can be a potential predictor of poor prognosis in postoperative patients after SAH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (<3.5 cm diameter at breast height) were estimated during 2009-2010 and compared with historical documentation from 1976 to 1977. Similarly, all tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  3. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  4. Urease inhibitory profile of extracts and chemical constituents of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Ghias; Ismail; Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Khan, Haroon; Nasruddin; Khan, Majid; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Arifullah

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the urease inhibitory profile of extract and fractions of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks followed by bioactivity-guided isolated compounds. The crude extract was found significantly active with urease inhibitor (95.40% at 0.2 mg/mL) with IC50 values of 32.0 ± 0.28 μg/mL. Upon fractionation, ethyl acetate fraction displayed 100% urease inhibition with IC50 values of 19.9 ± 0.51 μg/mL at 0.2 mg/mL. However, n-hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited insignificant urease inhibition. Similarly, the isolated compound, transilitin (1) and dihydro luteolin (2) demonstrated marked urease attenuation with 95 and 98% respectively, at 0.15 mg/mL. Both the isolated compounds showed marked potency with IC50 values of 8.54 ± 0.54 and 9.58 ± 2.22 μg/mL, respectively. In short, both the extract and fractions and isolated compounds showed marked urease inhibition and thus a useful natural source of urease inhibition.

  5. Androstanes and pregnanes from Trichilia emetica ssp. suberosa J.J. de Wilde.

    PubMed

    Malafronte, Nicola; Sanogo, Rokia; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio

    2013-12-01

    Four pregnanes: 1-methoxy-pregnan-17(R)-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (1), 1-methoxy-pregnan-17(S)-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (2), 2,3-seco-pregnan-17(S)-2,3-dioic acid-16-oxo-dimethyl ester (4), 2α,3α,16α-trihydroxy-5α-pregnan-17(R)-20-yl acetate (7), three androstanes: 1-methoxy-androstan-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (3), 2,3-seco-androstan-2,3-dioic acid-16-oxo-dimethyl ester (5), 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid-16-oxo-2,19-lactone (6), together with three known pregnane derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Trichilia emetica ssp. suberosa. Their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry analysis, as well as by quantum chemical calculations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    PubMed

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

  9. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis: bacterial canker of tomato, molecular interactions and disease management.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Macdonald, Jacqueline; Liu, Peng; Weselowski, Brian; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2018-03-12

    Bacterial canker disease is considered to be one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids. The virulence factors include serine proteases, cell wall-degrading enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, pectinases) and others. Mutational analyses of these genes and gene expression profiling (via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, transcriptomics and proteomics) have begun to shed light on their roles in colonization and virulence, whereas the expression of tomato genes in response to Cmm infection suggests plant factors involved in the defence response. These findings may aid in the generation of target-specific bactericides or new resistant varieties of tomato. Meanwhile, various chemical and biological controls have been researched to control Cmm. This review presents a detailed investigation regarding the pathogen Cmm, bacterial canker infection, molecular interactions between Cmm and tomato, and current perspectives on improved disease management. © 2018 AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2018 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. A new acetophenone derivative from flowers of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Pagano, Ester; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Masullo, Milena; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    A new acetophenone derivative named gnaphaliol 9-O-propanoate (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of EtOH extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers along with the five known acetophenones 12-acetoxytremetone (2), 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (3), [2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (4), 1-[2-[1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (5) and gnaphaliol (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Biological assays on human colonic epithelial cells showed that compound 2 possessed antioxidant effects reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved metabolic control and hepatic oxidative biomarkers with the periconception use of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum.

    PubMed

    Sezik, M; Aslan, M; Orhan, D D; Erdemoglu, E; Pekcan, M; Mungan, T; Sezik, E

    2010-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of the Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum (HPsP) plant extract in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes rat model during pregnancy. Five groups (n = 8, each) were formed: (1) diabetic non-mated control, (2) non-diabetic mated control, (3) diabetic mated control, (4) diabetic non-mated treatment and (5) diabetic mated treatment. The HPsP extract was administered orally for 15 days (250 mg/kg body weight), beginning 3 days before mating. The extract led to decreased blood glucose, increased serum insulin, and decreased serum triglycerides in pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic animals. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) measurements in extract-treated diabetics were similar to non-diabetic pregnant controls, indicating probable reversal of increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. The mean pup number tended to increase (p = 0.06) with extract administration. In conclusion, the beneficial effects we encountered with the periconception use of the studied herbal extract warrant further investigation.

  12. Curated genome annotation of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and comparative genome analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Yamasaki, Chisato; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Hilton, Phillip B.; Antonio, Baltazar A.; Aono, Hideo; Apweiler, Rolf; Bruskiewich, Richard; Bureau, Thomas; Burr, Frances; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Fuks, Galina; Habara, Takuya; Haberer, Georg; Han, Bin; Harada, Erimi; Hiraki, Aiko T.; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hoen, Douglas; Hokari, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Satomi; Hsing, Yue; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Imanishi, Tadashi; Ito, Yukiyo; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kanno, Masako; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Kubooka, Hiromi; Lieberherr, Damien; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Lonsdale, David; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsuya, Akihiro; McCombie, W. Richard; Messing, Joachim; Miyao, Akio; Mulder, Nicola; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nam, Jongmin; Namiki, Nobukazu; Numa, Hisataka; Nurimoto, Shin; O’Donovan, Claire; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okido, Toshihisa; OOta, Satoshi; Osato, Naoki; Palmer, Lance E.; Quetier, Francis; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Saichi, Naomi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Yasumichi; Sakata, Katsumi; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Schoof, Heiko; Seki, Motoaki; Shibata, Michie; Shimizu, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinso, Yuji; Singh, Nagendra K.; Smith-White, Brian; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Tanino, Motohiko; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thongjuea, Supat; Todokoro, Fusano; Tsugane, Mika; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Vanavichit, Apichart; Wang, Aihui; Wing, Rod A.; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Qiang; Higo, Kenichi; Burr, Benjamin; Gojobori, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    We present here the annotation of the complete genome of rice Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cultivar Nipponbare. All functional annotations for proteins and non-protein-coding RNA (npRNA) candidates were manually curated. Functions were identified or inferred in 19,969 (70%) of the proteins, and 131 possible npRNAs (including 58 antisense transcripts) were found. Almost 5000 annotated protein-coding genes were found to be disrupted in insertional mutant lines, which will accelerate future experimental validation of the annotations. The rice loci were determined by using cDNA sequences obtained from rice and other representative cereals. Our conservative estimate based on these loci and an extrapolation suggested that the gene number of rice is ∼32,000, which is smaller than previous estimates. We conducted comparative analyses between rice and Arabidopsis thaliana and found that both genomes possessed several lineage-specific genes, which might account for the observed differences between these species, while they had similar sets of predicted functional domains among the protein sequences. A system to control translational efficiency seems to be conserved across large evolutionary distances. Moreover, the evolutionary process of protein-coding genes was examined. Our results suggest that natural selection may have played a role for duplicated genes in both species, so that duplication was suppressed or favored in a manner that depended on the function of a gene. PMID:17210932

  13. Patterns of diversity and recombination along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Tenaillon, Maud I; Sawkins, Mark C; Anderson, Lorinda K; Stack, Stephen M; Doebley, John; Gaut, Brandon S

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between genetic diversity and recombination in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Genetic diversity was measured in three types of markers: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, and microsatellites. All three were examined in a sample of previously published DNA sequences from 21 loci on maize chromosome 1. Small indels (1-5 bp) were numerous and far more common than large indels. Furthermore, large indels (>100 bp) were infrequent in the population sample, suggesting they are slightly deleterious. The 21 loci also contained 47 microsatellites, of which 33 were polymorphic. Diversity in SNPs, indels, and microsatellites was compared to two measures of recombination: C (=4Nc) estimated from DNA sequence data and R based on a quantitative recombination nodule map of maize synaptonemal complex 1. SNP diversity was correlated with C (r = 0.65; P = 0.007) but not with R (r = -0.10; P = 0.69). Given the lack of correlation between R and SNP diversity, the correlation between SNP diversity and C may be driven by demography. In contrast to SNP diversity, microsatellite diversity was correlated with R (r = 0.45; P = 0.004) but not C (r = -0.025; P = 0.55). The correlation could arise if recombination is mutagenic for microsatellites, or it may be consistent with background selection that is apparent only in this class of rapidly evolving markers. PMID:12454083

  14. Interaction between M-Like Protein and Macrophage Thioredoxin Facilitates Antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Junxi; Li, Yue; Yi, Li; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z) is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP) is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX) was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH). TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis. PMID:22384152

  15. Agronomic, chemical and genetic profiles of hot peppers (Capsicum annuum ssp.).

    PubMed

    De Masi, Luigi; Siviero, Pietro; Castaldo, Domenico; Cautela, Domenico; Esposito, Castrese; Laratta, Bruna

    2007-08-01

    A study on morphology, productive yield, main quality parameters and genetic variability of eight landraces of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum ssp.) from Southern Italy has been performed. Morphological characters of berries and productivity values were evaluated by agronomic analyses. Chemical and genetic investigations were performed by HPLC and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, respectively. In particular, carotenoid and capsaicinoid (pungency) contents were considered as main quality parameters of hot pepper. For the eight selected samples, genetic similarity values were calculated from the generated RAPD fragments and a dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed. All the eight landraces exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their characterization. Agro-morphological and chemical determinations were found to be adequate for selection, but they resulted useful only for plants grown in the same environmental conditions. RAPD application may provide a more reliable way based on DNA identification. The results of our study led to the identification of three noteworthy populations, suitable for processing, which fitted into different clusters of the dendrogram.

  16. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator. PMID:25705205

  17. Experimental colitis is exacerbated by concomitant infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Roy, Bishnudeo; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Basler, Tina; Rohde, Manfred; Falk, Christine S; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the human gastrointestinal tract. Although genetic, immunological, environmental, and bacterial factors have been implicated, the pathogenesis is incompletely understood. The histopathological appearance of CD strikingly resembles Johne's disease, a ruminant inflammatory bowel disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), but a causative role of MAP in CD has not been established. In this work, we hypothesized that MAP might exacerbate an already existing intestinal disease. We combined dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis with MAP infection in mice and monitored the immune response and bacterial count in different organs. An increased size of liver and spleen was observed in DSS-treated and MAP-infected animals (DSS + MAP) as compared with DSS-treated uninfected (DSS + PBS) mice. Similarly, DSS treatment increased the number and size of MAP-induced liver granulomas and enhanced the MAP counts in enteric tissue. MAP infection in turn delayed the mucosal healing of DSS-induced tissue damage. Finally, high numbers of MAP were found in mesenteric fat tissue causing large granuloma and necrotic regions. Taken together, we present an in vivo model to study the role of MAP infection in CD. Our results confirm the hypothesis that MAP is able to exacerbate existing intestinal inflammation.

  18. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  19. The effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on clinical mastitis occurrence in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Grohn, Y T; Schukken, Y H; Smith, R L

    2017-09-01

    Endemic diseases can be counted among the most serious sources of losses for livestock production. In dairy farms in particular, one of the most common diseases is Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Infection with MAP causes direct costs because it affects milk production, but it has also been suspected to increase the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) among infected animals. This might contribute to further costs for farmers. We asked whether MAP infection represents a risk factor for CM and, in particular, whether CM occurrences were more common in MAP-infected animals. Our results, obtained by survival analysis, suggest that MAP-infected cows had an increased probability of experiencing CM during lactation. These results highlight the need to account for the interplay of infectious diseases and other health conditions in economic and epidemiological modeling. In this case, accounting for MAP-infected cows having an increased CM occurrence might have nonnegligible effects on the estimated benefit of MAP control. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential enumeration of subpopulations in concentrated frozen and lyophilized cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2017-11-01

    Differential enumeration of subpopulations in concentrated frozen and lyophilized cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 derived from 2 propagation procedures was determined. The subpopulations consisted of 3 categories (physiological states): viable cells capable of forming colonies on agar plates (VC+), viable cells incapable of forming colonies on agar plates (VC-), widely referred to as viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells, and nonviable or dead cells (NVC). Counts of VC+ were recorded using a conventional plate count procedure. A fluorescent vital staining procedure that discriminates between viable (VC+ and VC-) and NVC cells was used to determine the number of viable and nonviable cells. Both propagation procedures had 2 variables: in procedure (P)1, the propagation medium was rich in yeast extract (4.0%) and the pH was maintained at 5.7; in P2, the medium was devoid of yeast extract and the pH was maintained at 5.1. The results showed that post-propagation operations-concentration of cells by centrifugation and subsequent freezing or lyophilization of cell concentrate-induced different degrees of transience from VC+ to VC- states in cells derived from P1 and P2. Compared with cells derived from P2, cells from P1 were more labile to stress associated with centrifugation, freezing, and lyophilization, as revealed by differential counting. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Sec_205 of Streptococcus equi ssp. Zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huihuang; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Pengpeng; Deng, Mingyong; Yan, Lili; Zhai, Pan; Wei, Zigong

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen of swine streptococcal diseases and can infect a wide range of animals as well as human beings. The absence of effective vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Sec_205, a novel protein identified in the previous study, was inducibly over-expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study. The purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of SEZ C55138 in mouse model. The protection against SEZ infection was mediated by specific antibodies to Sec_205 to some extent and was identified by the passive protection assay. The Sec_205 was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the inhibition assay. These suggest that Sec_205 may play a vital role in pathogenicity and serve as a new vaccine candidate against SEZ infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Short communication: Investigation into Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in pasteurized milk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Bonilauri, P; Giacometti, F; Ricchi, M; Cammi, G; Piva, S; Zambrini, V; Canever, A; Arrigoni, N

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in pasteurized milk produced by Italian industrial dairy plants to verify the prediction of a previously performed risk assessment. The study analyzed 160 one-liter bottles of pasteurized milk from 2 dairy plants located in 2 different regions. Traditional cultural protocols were applied to 500mL of pasteurized milk for each sample. The investigation focused also on the pasteurization parameters and data on the microbiological characteristics of raw milk (total bacterial count) and pasteurized milk (Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria monocytogenes). No sample was positive for MAP, the pasteurization parameters complied with European Union legislation, and the microbiological analysis of raw and pasteurized milk showed good microbiological quality. The results show that a 7-log (or >7) reduction could be a plausible value for commercial pasteurization. The combination of hygiene practices at farm level and commercial pasteurization yield very low or absent levels of MAP contamination in pasteurized milk, suggesting that pasteurized milk is not a significant source of human exposure to MAP in the dairies investigated. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    PubMed

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  5. CD44 deficiency enhanced Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus dissemination and inflammation response in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased. CD44 deficiency accelerated mortality, which was accompanied by increased peritoneal bacterial growth and dissemination to distant body sites. CD44 knock-out (KO) mice showed enhanced early inflammatory cell recruitment into the peritoneal fluid on S. zooepidemicus infection. In line with this, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines in peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal macrophages of CD44 KO mice were increased compared with those of WT mice. In addition, CD44 deficiency was associated with reduced expression of A20, a negative regulator in TLR signaling. Overall, the present study suggests that CD44 plays a protective role in antibacterial defense against S. zooepidemicus in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Boosting the growth of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19.

    PubMed

    Brignone, Desideria; Radmann, Pia; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Single so-called booster substances were added to the fermentation medium of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 to enhance its growth. A wide screening was carried out in microtiter plates and a statistical analysis of the growth parameters was performed. CFU counts were used to correlate the increase in OD 590nm with the increase in viable cell number. Sodium ascorbate, sodium pyruvate, manganese sulfate and cysteine had a remarkable boosting effect on the growth of L. paracasei F19. Three of the boosters increased the growth rate of the strain and led to a higher cell density and biomass yield in laboratory conditions. Cysteine significantly shortened the lag phase, therefore reducing the fermentation times. The boosters were tested on four additional Lactobacillus species and their growth boosting activity was retained. To investigate whether the growth boosters could improve the tolerance of L. paracasei F19 to the adverse condition in the GI tract, additional tests were performed. Sodium ascorbate and sodium pyruvate exerted a certain antioxidant effect, as they improved the tolerance of L. paracasei F19 to H 2 O 2 . Sodium ascorbate enhanced the growth of the strain in low pH.

  7. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J.; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  8. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats.

  9. Influence of casein hydrolysates on exopolysaccharide synthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingli; Yang, Bao; Brashears, Mindy M; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Li, Yinjuan

    2014-05-01

    A lot of interesting research has been undertaken to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of casein hydrolysates (CH) with molecular weight less than 3 kDa on cell viability, EPS synthesis and the enzyme activity involved in EPS synthesis during the co-culturing of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in MRS broth for 72 h at 37 ± 0.1 °C. The highest EPS yield (150.1 mg L⁻¹) was obtained on CH prepared with papain (CHP) at 48 h. At 24 h, EPS were composed of galactose, glucose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 1.0:2.4:1.5. The monosaccharide composition changed with extension of the fermentation time. The activities of α-phosphoglucomutase, uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase were associated with EPS synthesis. Moreover, the activities of β-phosphoglucomutase and deoxythymadine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in rhamnose synthesis were very low at the exponential growth phase and could not be detected during other given periods. The influence of different CH (<3 kDa) on LAB viability, EPS production, EPS monomeric composition and activity levels of key metabolic enzymes was distinct. Besides, their influence was related to the distribution of amino acids. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Midgut glycosidases activities in monophagous larvae of Apollo butterfly, Parnassius apollo ssp. frankenbergeri.

    PubMed

    Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Kedziorski, Andrzej

    2006-10-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) declines on numerous localities all over Europe. Its local subspecies frankenbergeri, inhabiting the Pieniny Mts (southern Poland) and successfully recovered from extinction, is monophagous in larval stage. In natural conditions, it completes development on the orpine Sedum telephium ssp. maximum. Since proper quality and quantity of necessary nutritional compounds of the food plant ensure developmental success, the digestive processes in the insect midgut should reflect adaptation to a specific food source. The paper presents, for the first time, the activity of detected glycolytic enzymes in midgut tissue and liquid gut contents of the L4 and L5 instars of P. apollo larvae. alpha-Amylase plays the main role in utilization of carbohydrates, contrary to cellulase activity. Saccharase seems to be the main disaccharidase, and high activity of beta-glycosidase enables hydrolysis of the plant glycosides. Trehalase activity was unexpectedly low and comparable to those of cellobiase and lactase. alpha-Amylolytic and other glycolytic activities indicate that larvae utilize starch and other carbohydrate compounds as energy sources. Possible use of some plant allelochemicals as energy sources by Apollo larvae is discussed.

  12. Recent advances in the understanding of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri pathogenesis and citrus canker disease management.

    PubMed

    Ference, Christopher M; Gochez, Alberto M; Behlau, Franklin; Wang, Nian; Graham, James H; Jones, Jeffrey B

    2018-06-01

    Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to citrus canker (CC), with grapefruit, lime and lemon being the most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being amongst the least susceptible. Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5-2.0 × 0.5-0.75 µm), Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum. The bacterium forms yellow colonies on culture media as a result of the production of xanthomonadin. Distribution: Present in South America, the British Virgin Islands, Africa, the Middle East, India, Asia and the South Pacific islands. Localized incidence in the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Bangladesh. Widespread throughout Paraguay, Comoros, China, Japan, Malaysia and Vietnam. Eradicated from South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Absent from Europe. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. [Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-02-01

    In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- < meso- < macro-fauna, with the highest contribution of micro-fauna (7.9%), meso-fauna (11.9%), and macro-fauna (22.7%) at the onset of freezing stage, deeply frozen stage, and thawing stage, respectively. The results demonstrated that soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure of Salix and Betula spp. at a Saline Site in Central Poland in Relation to the Seasons and Soil Parameters.

    PubMed

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Thiem, Dominika

    Saline stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting the growth and development of plants and associated microorganisms. While the impact of salinity on associations of arbuscular fungi is relatively well understood, knowledge of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of trees growing on saline land is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the density and diversity of EM fungi associated with three tree species, Salix alba , Salix caprea and Betula pendula , growing in saline soil during two seasons, autumn and spring. The site was located in central Poland, and the increased salinity of the soil was of anthropogenic origin from soda production. The degree of EM colonisation of fine root tips varied between 9 and 34 % and depended on the tree species of interest ( S. caprea < S. alba < B. pendula ) and season (spring < autumn). Moreover, the ectomycorrhizal colonisation of B. pendula was positively correlated with pH and CaCO 3 , while for S. caprea and S. alba, colonisation was associated with most of the other soil parameters investigated; e.g. salinity, C org and N. Analysis of EM fungi revealed four to five different morphotypes per each season: Tomentella sp. Sa-A, Hebeloma collariatum Sc-A, Geopora sp. Sc-A, Helotiales sp. Bp-A in the autumn and Tomentella sp. Sa-S, Tomentella sp. Sc-S and three morphotypes from the families Thelephoraceae and Pyronemataceae in the spring. In conclusion, the density of EM is related to the level of salinity (EC e ), season and tree species. Tomentella spp., Hebeloma sp., Geopora sp. and Helotiales sp. are groups of species highly adapted to saline conditions.

  15. Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kets, Katre; Darbah, Joseph; Oksanen, Elina; Sober, Anu; Vapaavuori, Elina; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil; Karnosky, David F

    2008-02-01

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and three trembling aspen clones (Populus tremuloides Michx.) were studied to determine if alterations in carbon gain in response to an elevated concentration of CO(2) ([CO(2)]) or O(3) ([O(3)]) or a combination of both affected bud size and carbohydrate composition in autumn, and early leaf development in the following spring. The trees were measured for gas exchange, leaf size, date of leaf abscission, size and biochemical characteristics of the overwintering buds and early leaf development during the 8th-9th year of free-air CO(2) and O(3) exposure at the Aspen FACE site located near Rhinelander, WI. Net photosynthesis was enhanced 49-73% by elevated [CO(2)], and decreased 13-30% by elevated [O(3)]. Elevated [CO(2)] delayed, and elevated [O(3)] tended to accelerate, leaf abscission in autumn. Elevated [CO(2)] increased the ratio of monosaccharides to di- and oligosaccharides in aspen buds, which may indicate a lag in cold acclimation. The total carbon concentration in overwintering buds was unaffected by the treatments, although elevated [O(3)] decreased the amount of starch by 16% in birch buds, and reduced the size of aspen buds, which may be related to the delayed leaf development in aspen during the spring. Elevated [CO(2)] generally ameliorated the effects of elevated [O(3)]. Our results show that both elevated [CO(2)] and elevated [O(3)] have the potential to alter carbon metabolism of overwintering buds. These changes may cause carry-over effects during the next growing season.

  16. Genotype × Herbivore Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition in Betula Pendula Saplings: Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences and the Role of Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Rasehorn, Mira; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Plant genetic variation and herbivores can both influence ecosystem functioning by affecting the quantity and quality of leaf litter. Few studies have, however, investigated the effects of herbivore load on litter decomposition at plant genotype level. We reduced insect herbivory using an insecticide on one half of field-grown Betula Pendula saplings of 17 genotypes, representing random intrapopulation genetic variation, and allowed insects to naturally colonize the other half. We hypothesized that due to induced herbivore defence, saplings under natural herbivory produce litter of higher concentrations of secondary metabolites (terpenes and soluble phenolics) and have slower litter decomposition rate than saplings under reduced herbivory. We found that leaf damage was 89 and 53% lower in the insecticide treated saplings in the summer and autumn surveys, respectively, which led to 73% higher litter production. Litter decomposition rate was also affected by herbivore load, but the effect varied from positive to negative among genotypes and added up to an insignificant net effect at the population level. In contrast to our hypothesis, concentrations of terpenes and soluble phenolics were higher under reduced than natural herbivory. Those genotypes, whose leaves were most injured by herbivores, produced litter of lowest mass loss, but unlike we expected, the concentrations of terpenes and soluble phenolics were not linked to either leaf damage or litter decomposition. Our results show that (1) the genetic and herbivore effects on B. pendula litter decomposition are not mediated through variation in terpene or soluble phenolic concentrations and suggest that (2) the presumably higher insect herbivore pressure in the future warmer climate will not, at the ecological time scale, affect the mean decomposition rate in genetically diverse B. pendula populations. However, (3) due to the significant genetic variation in the response of decomposition to herbivory, evolutionary

  17. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  18. Combination treatment of elevated UVB radiation, CO2 and temperature has little effect on silver birch (Betula pendula) growth and phytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lavola, Anu; Nybakken, Line; Rousi, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Petrelius, Mari; Kellomäki, Seppo; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    Elevations of carbon dioxide, temperature and ultraviolet-B (UBV) radiation in the growth environment may have a high impact on the accumulation of carbon in plants, and the different factors may work in opposite directions or induce additive effects. To detect the changes in the growth and phytochemistry of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings, six genotypes were exposed to combinations of ambient or elevated levels of CO2 , temperature and UVB radiation in top-closed chambers for 7 weeks. The genotypes were relatively similar in their responses, and no significant interactive effects of three-level climate factors on the measured parameters were observed. Elevated UVB had no effect on growth, nor did it alter plant responses to CO2 and/or temperature in combined treatments. Growth in all plant parts increased under elevated CO2 , and height and stem biomass increased under elevated temperature. Increased carbon distribution to biomass did not reduce its allocation to phytochemicals: condensed tannins, most flavonols and phenolic acids accumulated under elevated CO2 and elevated UVB, but this effect disappeared under elevated temperature. Leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 . We conclude that, as a result of high genetic variability in phytochemicals, B. pendula seedlings have potential to adapt to the tested environmental changes. The induction in protective flavonoids under UVB radiation together with the positive impact of elevated CO2 and temperature mitigates possible UVB stress effects, and thus atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature are the climate change factors that will dictate the establishment and success of birch at higher altitudes in the future. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    PubMed

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  20. Genetic and metal analyses of fragmented populations of Betula papyrifera (Marsh) in a mining reclaimed region: identification of population–diagnostic molecular marker

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Gabriel; Nkongolo, Kabwe K; Michael, Paul

    2014-01-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera) is an open pollinate species that is, dominant in the Northern Ontario after land reclamation. In fact, this species represents 65% of all trees in the region. We hypothesized that the exchange of genetic information between fragmented populations by range-wide paternal introgression is possible in wind-pollinated species such as B. papyrifera. On the other hand, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on plant growth and population dynamics are well documented. The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the level of genetic variation, gene flow, and population sustainability of B. papyrifera after land reclamation; and (2) to determine the level of phytoavailable metals in soil and their accumulation in trees. We found that B. papyrifera is a Ni and Zn accumulator with a translocation factor of 6.4 and 81, respectively, and an indicator of Cu and Pb. The level of polymorphic loci, Shannon index, Nei's genetic diversity, observed number of alleles, and gene flow were determined for the fragmented populations within the targeted region. The percent of polymorphic loci ranged from 28% to 56%; the gene flow was also low with a value of 0.89, and the population differentiation was very high with a value of 0.36. Two population–diagnostic ISSR markers were identified. They were cloned, sequenced, and converted to SCAR markers. Overall, the fragmented populations of B. papyrifera in Northern Ontario are genetically sustainable based on the moderate level of intrapopulation variability. PMID:25535559

  1. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2009-11-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown under two carbon dioxide concentrations (ambient: 360 micromol mol(-1) and elevated: 720 micromol mol(-1)), three soil temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three moisture regimes (low: 30-40%; intermediate: 45-55% and high: 60-70% field water capacity) in greenhouses. In situ gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2 months of treatments. Net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) of seedlings grown under the intermediate and high moisture regimes increased from low to intermediate T(soil) and then decreased to high T(soil). There were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil), with the exception that A(n) was significantly higher under high than low T(soil) at the high moisture regime. No significant T(soil) effect on A(n) was observed at the low moisture regime. The intermediate T(soil) increased stomatal conductance (g(s)) only at intermediate and high but not at low moisture regime, whereas there were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil) treatments. Furthermore, the difference in g(s) between the intermediate and high T(soil) at high moisture regime was not statistically significant. The low moisture regime significantly reduced the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio at all T(soil). There were no significant individual or interactive effects of treatment on maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization or potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results of this study suggest that soil moisture condition should be taken into account when predicting the responses of white birch to soil warming.

  2. Systemic and Mucosal Immune Reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F.; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2 −/− mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RBhi T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RBlo/int T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired. PMID:24728142

  3. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  4. Short communication: Evaluation of sampling socks for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Kanevets, U; Barkema, H W

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a production-limiting disease in cattle. Detection of infected herds is often done using environmental samples (ES) of manure, which are collected in cattle pens and manure storage areas. Disadvantages of the method are that sample accuracy is affected by cattle housing and type of manure storage area. Furthermore, some sampling locations (e.g., manure lagoons) are frequently not readily accessible. However, sampling socks (SO), as used for Salmonella spp. testing in chicken flocks, might be an easy to use and accurate alternative to ES. The objective of the study was to assess accuracy of SO for detection of MAP in dairy herds. At each of 102 participating herds, 6 ES and 2 SO were collected. In total, 45 herds had only negative samples in both methods and 29 herds had ≥1 positive ES and ≥1 positive SO. Furthermore, 27 herds with ≥1 positive ES had no positive SO, and 1 herd with no positive ES had 1 positive SO. Bayesian simulation with informative priors on sensitivity of ES and MAP herd prevalence provided a posterior sensitivity for SO of 43.5% (95% probability interval=33-58), and 78.5% (95% probability interval=62-93) for ES. Although SO were easy to use, accuracy was lower than for ES. Therefore, with improvements in the sampling protocol (e.g., more SO per farm and more frequent herd visits), as well as improvements in the laboratory protocol, perhaps SO would be a useful alternative for ES. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    PubMed

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  6. Short communication: Passive shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in commercial dairy goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, D G G; Lima, M C; Barros, M; Valente, F L; Scatamburlo, T M; Rosado, N; Oliveira, C T S A M; Oliveira, L L; Moreira, M A S

    2017-10-01

    Goat farming is a low-cost alternative to dairy production in developing countries. In Brazil, goat production has increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of programs encouraging this activity. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease that causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, but MAP transmission dynamics are still poorly understood in goats. In a previously published study of our research group, 10 dairy goat farms (467 animals) from Minas Gerais state were analyzed for MAP detection; 2 fecal cultures and 11 milk samples tested positive for MAP by conventional PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. Because no clinical signs were observed over 1 yr of monitoring, we hypothesized that these MAP-positive goats could be passive shedders. Thus, in the present study, 4 positive goats (4/13) from the previous study were purchased and feces and milk samples were collected for evaluation (twice, with an interval of 3 mo between tests) by culture of MAP, IS900 PCR, or both. All analyses were negative for MAP. At the last time point, blood samples were collected for ELISA, the animals were killed, and tissues collected for tissue culture and histopathology. At necropsy, no macroscopic lesions related to paratuberculosis were observed. Similarly, no histological changes were observed and MAP in samples stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was not detected. These animals were characterized as potential passive shedders with upward contamination of the teat canal by MAP. This is the first report of the passive shedding phenomenon in goats in Brazil and it highlights the importance of identifying these animals for control programs and to ensure the quality of dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification, quantification and antioxidant activity of acylated flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu; Xu, Xue-Min; Chen, Yang; Yu, Meng-Yao; Wen, Fei-Yan; Zhang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A novel acylated flavonol glycoside: isorhamnetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (1), together with two known acylated flavonol glycosides: quercetin (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (2) and kaempferol (3-O-[(6-O-E-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) berries for the first time by chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated using UV, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR. Compounds 1-3 showed good scavenging activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.91, 4.26 and 30.90 μM toward the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; respective Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of 2.89, 4.04 and 2.44 μM μM(-1) toward 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical. The quantitative analysis of the isolated acylated flavonol glycosides was performed by HPLC-DAD method. The contents of compounds 1-3 were in the range of 12.2-31.4, 4.0-25.3, 7.5-59.7 mg/100 g dried berries and 9.1-34.5, 75.1-182.1, 29.2-113.4 mg/100 g dried leaves, respectively. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Systemic and mucosal immune reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Koc, Arzu; Bargen, Imke; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi) T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired.

  9. Structural characterization and antioxidant property of released exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus SRFM-1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weizhi; Dong, Mingsheng; Wang, Weilu; Han, Shuo; Rui, Xin; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Wu, Junjun; Li, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Three released exopolysaccharide fractions (r-EPS1, r-EPS2 and r-EPS3) were isolated from the fermented milk of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus SRFM-1 and purified by anion exchange chromatography, and characterizations of the structures were conducted. The r-EPS1 and r-EPS2 were homogenous with the average molecular weights of 3.97×10 5 Da and 3.86×10 5 Da, respectively. Three r-EPS fractions were composed of galactose and glucose with a molar ratio of 1.23: 1.00, 1.33: 1.00 and 1.00: 1.34, respectively. Structural characterization indicated that the r-EPS1 contained a backbone of →6-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→6)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, and had three branching points which existed in terminal with D-Glcp residues with α/β-d-(1→6) linkages. The r-EPS2 was composed of →6-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→6)-α-d-Galp-(1→ as the backbone chain with a branching point which also existed in terminal D-Glcp residue with β-(1→6) linkage. In addition, three r-EPS fractions exhibited strong scavenging activities on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and chelating activity on ferrous ion, and their antioxidant activities decreased in the order of r-EPS1>r-EPS2>r-EPS3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  11. A selective medium for the enumeration and differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Nwamaioha, Nwadiuto O; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2018-06-01

    Modified reinforced clostridial medium (mRCM) was developed and evaluated for the differential enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, an important species of lactic acid bacteria with health benefits, is used in the production of yogurt and other fermented foods. Our results showed that supplementing reinforced clostridial medium with 0.025% CaCl 2 , 0.01% uracil, and 0.2% Tween 80 (mRCM) significantly enhanced the growth rate of L. bulgaricus RR and ATCC 11842 strains as measured by the optical densities of these strains after 12 h of incubation at 42°C. The bacterial populations (plate count) of the RR and ATCC 11842 strains were 0.76 and 0.77 log cfu/g higher in mRCM than in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe and reinforced clostridial medium media, respectively. Conversely, the population counts for other bacterial species (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus reuteri) were significantly inhibited in the mRCM medium. The addition of aniline blue dye to mRCM (mRCM-blue) improved the selectivity of L. bulgaricus in mixed lactic bacterial cultures compared with de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium and lactic agar with regard to colony appearance and morphology. The mRCM-blue performed better than the conventional medium in culturing, enumerating, and differentiating L. bulgaricus. Therefore, mRCM-blue could be used as a selective medium to enhance the growth and differentiation of L. bulgaricus in order to meet the increasing demand for this beneficial species of bacteria. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SSP-9) derived from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that expresses type I ifn.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Saint-Jean, S; González, C; Monrás, M; Romero, A; Ballesteros, N; Enríquez, R; Perez-Prieto, S

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, the establishment and biological characterization of a new cell line, SSP-9, derived from the pronephros of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, are reported. These cells grew well in Leibovitz's (L15) medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum at temperatures from 15 to 25° C, and they have been sub-cultured over 100 passages to produce a continuous cell line with an epithelial-like morphology. The SSP-9 cells attached and spread efficiently at different plating densities, retaining 80% of cell viability after storage in liquid nitrogen. When karyotyped, the cells had 40-52 chromosomes, with a modal number of 48. Viral susceptibility tests showed that SSP-9 cells were susceptible to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, producing infectious virus and regular cytopathic effects. Moreover, these cells could be stimulated by poly I:C, showing significant up-regulation in the expression of the genes that regulate immune responses, such as ifn and mx-1. SSP-9 cells constitutively express genes characteristic of macrophages, such as major histocompatibility complex (mhc-II) and interleukin 12b (il-12b), and flow cytometry assays confirmed that SSP-9 cells can be permanently transfected with plasmids expressing a reporter gene. Accordingly, this new cell line is apparently suitable for transgenic manipulation, and to study host cell-virus interactions and immune processes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [¹¹C]BF-227.

    PubMed

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Minoshima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Furumoto, Shozo; Iwata, Ren; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze (11)C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy)benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Among the 56 cases we studied, Method 1 demonstrated slight distortions after AS of the image in 16 cases and heavy distortions in 4 cases in which the distortions were not observed with Method 2. Both methods demonstrated that the

  15. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis

    PubMed Central

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

  16. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  17. Comparison of virulence of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica genotypes B.12 and B.FTNF002-00.

    PubMed

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Erdélyi, Károly; Felde, Orsolya; Fabbi, Massimo; Sulyok, Kinga M; Magyar, Tibor; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-02-10

    Two main genetic groups (B.12 and B.FTNF002-00) of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica are endemic in Europe. The B.FTNF002-00 group proved to be dominant in Western European countries, while strains of the B.12 group were isolated mainly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The clinical course of tularemia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) also shows distinct patterns according to the geographical area. Acute course of the disease is observed in hares in Western European countries, while signs of sub-acute or chronic infection are more frequently detected in the eastern part of the continent. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is any difference in the virulence of the strains belonging to the B.FTNF002-00 and B.12 genetic clades. Experimental infection of Fischer 344 rats was performed by intra-peritoneal injection of three dilutions of a Hungarian (B.12 genotype) and an Italian (B.FTNF002-00 genotype) F. tularensis ssp. holarctica strain. Moderate difference was observed in the virulence of the two genotypes. Significant differences were observed in total weight loss values and scores of clinical signs between the two genotypes with more rats succumbing to tularemia in groups infected with the B.FTNF002-00 genotype. Results of the experimental infection are consistent with previous clinical observations and pathological studies suggesting that F. tularensis ssp. holarctica genotype B.FTNF002-00 has higher pathogenic potential than the B.12 genotype.

  18. Intestinal antispasmodic effects of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum and chemical identification of the active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Izzo, Angelo A

    2013-12-12

    In the Mediterranean Area, the flowers of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum are a traditional remedy for the treatment of intestinal complaints and are used as herbal tea for curing digestive, stomachic and intestinal diseases. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of this plant, the effect of an ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Then, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures, active component(s) were identified. Contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with acetylcholine and barium chloride; motility in vivo was evaluated by measuring upper gastrointestinal transit, both in control mice and in mice with experimental intestinal inflammation induced by croton oil. Chromatographic separation techniques such as HPLC and silica gel columns have yielded the active principles of Helichrysum italicum. We found that the ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers elicited antispasmodic actions in the isolated mouse ileum and inhibited transit preferentially in the inflamed gut. A bioassay guided fractionation of the extract yielded the known compounds 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2). Present study supported the traditional use of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers for intestinal complaints and through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures from the crude extract we showed that 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2) acted in a synergistic way to produce an intestinal antispasmodic effect. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis field isolates.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, M; Mazzarelli, A; Piscini, A; Di Caro, A; Cannas, A; Leo, S; Russo, S; Arrigoni, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper ver. 3·0; Bruker Daltonics) and a homemade database containing spectra from both tuberculous and nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Moreover, principal component analysis procedure was employed to confirm the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate between very closely related subspecies. Our results suggest MAP can be differentiated from other Mycobacterium species, both when the species are very close (M. intracellulare) and when belonging to different subspecies (M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. silvaticum). The procedure applied is fast, easy to perform, and achieves an earlier accurate species identification of MAP and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in comparison to other procedures. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis is still isolation of MAP by cultural methods, but additional assays, such as qPCR and subculturing for determination of mycobactin dependency are required to confirm its identification. We have provided here evidence pertaining to the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of this mycobacterium among other members of M. avium complex. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  1. Leaf Structural and Photosynthetic Characteristics, and Biomass Allocation to Foliage in Relation to Foliar Nitrogen Content and Tree Size in Three Betula Species

    PubMed Central

    NIINEMETS, ÜLO; PORTSMUTH, ANGELIKA; TRUUS, LAIMI

    2002-01-01

    Young trees 0·03–1·7 m high of three coexisting Betula species were investigated in four sites of varying soil fertility, but all in full daylight, to separate nutrient and plant size controls on leaf dry mass per unit area (MA), light‐saturated foliar photosynthetic electron transport rate (J) and the fraction of plant biomass in foliage (FL). Because the site effect was generally non‐significant in the analyses of variance with foliar nitrogen content per unit dry mass (NM) as a covariate, NM was used as an explaining variable of leaf structural and physiological characteristics. Average leaf area (S) and dry mass per leaf scaled positively with NM and total tree height (H) in all species. Leaf dry mass per unit area also increased with increasing H, but decreased with increasing NM, whereas the effects were species‐specific. Increases in plant size led to a lower and increases in NM to a greater FL and total plant foliar area per unit plant biomass (LAR). Thus, the self‐shading probably increased with increasing NM and decreased with increasing H. Nevertheless, the whole‐plant average MA, as well as MA values of topmost fully exposed leaves, correlated with NM and H in a similar manner, indicating that scaling of MA with NM and H did not necessarily result from the modified degree of within‐plant shading. The rate of photosynthetic electron transport per unit dry mass (JM) scaled positively with NM, but decreased with increasing H and MA. Thus, increases in MA with tree height and decreasing nitrogen content not only resulted in a lower plant foliar area (LAR = FL/MA), but also led to lower physiological activity of unit foliar biomass. The leaf parameters (JM, NM and MA) varied threefold, but the whole‐plant characteristic FL varied 20‐fold and LAR 30‐fold, indicating that the biomass allocation was more plastically adjusted to different plant internal nitrogen contents and to tree height than the foliar variables. Our results

  2. [Interspecific allelopathic effect of different organs' aqueous extracts of Betula platyphylla and Larix olgensis on their seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Ling; Wang, Qing-Cheng; Hao, Long-Fei

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the Betula platyphylla root-, branch-, and foliage aqueous extracts and Larix olgensis root-, branch-, foliage-, and bark aqueous extracts over a range of concentrations 5.0, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg x mL(-1) were used to study their interspecific allelopathic effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of the two tree species. All the L. olgensis organs' extracts, except its root extracts at concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1), had inhibition effect on B. platyphylla seed germination rate, which was 54%, 58%, 59%, and 66% under the effects of L. olgensis foliage-, branch-, bark-, and root extracts, respectively, as compared with the control. With increasing concentration, the inhibition effect of L. olgensis root- and branch extracts increased while that of L. olgensis foliage- and bark extracts decreased. The L. olgensis organs' extracts, especially the foliage extracts at concentration 100.0 mg x mL(-1), had strong inhibition effect on B. platyphylla seed radicle- and hypocotyl length growth, with a decrement of 38% and 55% (P < 0.05), respectively. L. olgensis branch- and foliage extracts promoted, but root- and bark extracts inhibited B. platyphylla seedling growth and biomass production. B. platyphylla organs' extracts promoted L. olgensis seed germination, root- and branch extracts promoted hypocotyl length growth, but foliage extracts at 50.0 and 100.0 mg x mL(-1) decreased the hypocotyl length growth by 27% and 28% (P < 0.05), respectively. B. platyphylla organs' extracts mainly promoted L. olgensis seedling growth, with the height- and collar diameter growth and biomass accumulation at B. platyphylla foliage extracts concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) increased by 54%, 60%, and 100% (P < 0.05), respectively. Our results suggested that there existed obvious allelopathic effect between B. platyphylla and L. olgensis, and thus, mixed planting B. platyphylla and L. olgensis could have promotion effects on the growth of the two tree species.

  3. Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida: detection by direct amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences and genotypic variation as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

    PubMed

    Kvitt, H; Ucko, M; Colorni, A; Batargias, C; Zlotkin, A; Knibb, W

    2002-04-05

    A PCR protocol for the rapid diagnosis of fish 'pasteurellosis' based on 16S rRNA gene sequences was developed. The procedure combines low annealing temperature that detects low titers of Photobacterium damselae but also related species, and high annealing temperature for the specific identification of P. damselae directly from infected fish. The PCR protocol was validated on 19 piscine isolates of P. damselae ssp. piscicida from different geographic regions (Japan, Italy, Spain, Greece and Israel), on spontaneously infected sea bream Sparus aurata and sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, and on closely related American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains. PCR using high annealing temperature (64 degrees C) discriminated between P. damselae and closely related reference strains, including P. histaminum. Sixteen isolates of P. damselae ssp. piscicida, 2 P. damselae ssp. piscicida reference strains and 1 P. damselae ssp. damselae reference strain were subjected to Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, and a similarity matrix was produced. Accordingly, the Japanese isolates of P. damselae ssp. piscicida were distinguished from the Mediterranean/European isolates at a cut-off value of 83% similarity. A further subclustering at a cut-off value of 97% allowed discrimination between the Israeli P. damselae ssp. piscicida isolates and the other Mediterranean/European isolates. The combination of PCR direct amplification and AFLP provides a 2-step procedure, where P. damselae is rapidly identified at genus level on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and then grouped into distinct clusters on the basis of AFLP polymorphisms. The first step of direct amplification is highly sensitive and has immediate practical consequences, offering fish farmers a rapid diagnosis, while the AFLP is more specific and detects intraspecific variation which, in our study, also reflected geographic correspondence. Because of its superior discriminative properties

  4. SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro storage characteristics of platelet concentrates suspended in 70% SSP+(TM) additive solution versus plasma over a 14-day storage period.

    PubMed

    Saunders, C; Rowe, G; Wilkins, K; Holme, S; Collins, P

    2011-08-01

    The non-paired two-arm study compared the in vitro storage characteristics of platelets suspended as concentrates in either 100% plasma or a mixture of additive solution (SSP+™, MacoPharma, Mouveaux, France) and autologous plasma in a 70:30 ratio over a 14-day storage period. The buffy coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates were sampled on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10 and 14 and tests performed to determine platelet morphology, function, metabolism, activation and apoptosis-like activity. Swirling remained strong (score=3) in SSP+™, whilst scores of 1 and 0 were noted for plasma units by end of storage. In contrast to units in plasma, pH levels remained above seven in SSP+™ units, increasing after day 10. Percent positive expression of CD62P was similar in both groups on day 1 (median of 54% and 56% for plasma (n=13) and SSP+™ (n=12), respectively), with SSP+™ units showing a more moderate increase in activation after day 10. A progressive decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was evident in both groups from day 1, whilst annexin V binding was relatively stable from days 1 to 3, with median values remaining below 6%. Subsequent to this, the percentage of platelets binding annexin V increased to approximately 30% by day 14. Platelets suspended in a medium of 70:30 SSP+™ to plasma ratio performed at least as well as platelets in 100% autologous plasma for up to 10 days of storage. Further, results are suggestive of an apoptosis-like process being involved in the platelet storage lesion. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  7. Comparison of fecal pooling strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S L B; Ritter, C; Dohoo, I; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W

    2018-05-23

    In herds with typical moderate to low within-herd prevalence, testing for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the infectious agent of Johne's disease, will be more cost-effective if individual fecal samples are cultured in composite pools. However, sensitivity to classify a pool containing 1 or more positive individual samples as positive may depend on pool size and number of individual positive samples within a pool. Fecal samples collected from 994 dairy cows sampled at slaughter were cultured to detect MAP. Culturing was done both individually and as composite pooled samples using the TREK ESP Culture System II broth medium (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Composite samples consisted of pools containing feces from 3, 5, 8, 10, or 15 cows. The number of individual fecal culture-positive cows within each pool ranged from 0 to 4. Culture of individual fecal samples detected MAP in 36 (3.6%) of the 994 cows. Individual samples that were detected within the first 50 d by TREK ESP Culture System II were more likely to lead to a positive pool result. In total, 840 pooled fecal samples were examined for presence of MAP, and of those, 272 pools actually contained feces from fecal culture-positive cows. The crude sensitivity (proportion of pools that contained at least 1 fecal-positive cow that tested positive) for pools of 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15 was 47, 67, 44, 59, and 39%, respectively. Across pools, an increase of the number of fecal culture-positive samples from 1 to 2 enhanced overall crude sensitivity from 44 to 71%. However, sensitivity did not further increase for pools with 3 or 4 fecal culture-positive samples (63 and 60%, respectively). Additionally, a simulation analysis assessing probability of pooled fecal samples being positive in herds of 50 and 100 cows was conducted. The simulation assumed that 1, 2, or 5 cows per herd were MAP fecal culture-positive and that pools of 5 and 10 were used. This low

  8. Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus in a semi-occlusively treated horse bite wound in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Schröttner, Percy; Schultz, Jurek; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gunzer, Florian; Thürmer, Alexander; Fitze, Guido; Jacobs, Enno

    2013-01-01

    We report on the isolation of Actinobacillus equuli ssp. haemolyticus from wound smears of a 2-year-old girl who was admitted to the hospital due to partial amputation of the distal phalanx of her right middle finger caused by a horse bite. A. equuli typically causes diseases in horses and only very few reports describing human infections (mostly associated with wounds) are available in the literature. Interestingly, although the bacteria could be found in consecutive samples taken at different points in time, there were no signs of advancing infection or inflammation. Moreover, the fingertip regenerated after 74 days under semi-occlusive dressings with very pleasant results. For strain identification two automated systems were employed producing discrepant results: VITEK 2 described the pathogens as Pasteurella pneumotropica while MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed A. equuli. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene finally confirmed A. equuli ssp. haemolyticus as the isolated strain. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the CLSI criteria for Pasteurella spp. Additionally we conducted a test according to the EUCAST criteria.

  9. In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Mustafa; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Orhan, Nilüfer; Sezik, Ekrem; Yesilada, Erdem

    2007-01-03

    Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration of water and ethanolic extracts at doses of 500mg/kg body weight prepared from the capitulums of plant, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data indicated that water and ethanol extracts of capitulums demonstrate significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced rats which confirmed the folkloric utilization. In order to assess the role of polyphenolic components in the relevant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were also determined in terms of total phenols: 113.5+/-8.6mg (gallic acid equivalent/1g extract) and total flavanoids 50.5+/-1.9mg (quercetin equivalent/1g extract) for ethanol extract, total phenols: 75.9+/-3.7, flavonoids: 31.5+/-2.3 for water extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

  10. Effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1.

    PubMed

    Pawlicka-Kaczorowska, Joanna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The dairy propionibacteria, which are traditionally used for the production of Swiss cheeses, are able to synthesize valuable biomolecules, e.g. B group vitamins, propionic acid, and trehalose with unique chemical and physical properties. Both, dairy propionibacteria cells and trehalose, have found many applications as attractive and effective components in food, beauty and health care products. This study confirmed the ability of several strains from the Propionibacterium genus to create trehalose from glycerol. The research aimed to investigate the effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and on trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1. The results indicated that the capacity for trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium spp. was strain dependent. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1 was able to grow on crude glycerol. For both, pure and crude glycerol, the highest amount of dry biomass leveled off at about 4 g/L. While the use of crude glycerol had no effect on the final concentration of biomass, it reduced the accumulation of trehalose in the cells. An increase in the concentration of carbon source (2-8%) resulted in more than a 5-fold rise in trehalose production. The highest trehalose concentration of 195.04 mg/L was obtained with cultures of the said strain supplemented to 8% with pure glycerol.

  11. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  12. Machine-learning-based real-bogus system for the HSC-SSP moving object detection pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsing-Wen; Chen, Ying-Tung; Wang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yoshida, Fumi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Terai, Tsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques are widely applied in many modern optical sky surveys, e.g., Pan-STARRS1, PTF/iPTF, and the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey, to reduce human intervention in data verification. In this study, we have established a machine-learning-based real-bogus system to reject false detections in the Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP) source catalog. Therefore, the HSC-SSP moving object detection pipeline can operate more effectively due to the reduction of false positives. To train the real-bogus system, we use stationary sources as the real training set and "flagged" data as the bogus set. The training set contains 47 features, most of which are photometric measurements and shape moments generated from the HSC image reduction pipeline (hscPipe). Our system can reach a true positive rate (tpr) ˜96% with a false positive rate (fpr) ˜1% or tpr ˜99% at fpr ˜5%. Therefore, we conclude that stationary sources are decent real training samples, and using photometry measurements and shape moments can reject false positives effectively.

  13. Phytochemical screening, anticancer and antioxidant activities of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, a plant of traditional usage.

    PubMed

    Koldaş, Serkan; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ozen, Tevfik; Demirci, Mehmet Ali; Behçet, Lütfi

    2015-03-15

    A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Differences between the essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were shown. The main component of the essential oil was caryophyllene oxide, while the main volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol as determined by HS-GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Ten phenolic compounds were found in the extracts from O. vulgare and Origanum acutidens: rosmarinic acid (in highest abundance), chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin-7-glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This study provides first results on the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of O. vulgare ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The immunomodulatory properties of viable Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Belén; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Perán, Laura; Camuesco, Desirée; Comalada, Mònica; Bailón, Elvira; Olivares, Mónica; Xaus, Jordi; Kruidenier, Laurens; Sanderson, Ian R; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to better characterise the biological effects of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713, a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties. Live or dead probiotic was assayed in the TNBS model of rat colitis to determine whether viability was a requisite to exert the beneficial effects. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 cells to evaluate its effects on epithelial cell recovery and IL-8 production. Finally, the probiotic was assayed in the LPS model of septic shock in mice to establish its effects when there is an altered systemic immune response. The viability of the probiotic was required for its anti-inflammatory activity. The probiotic inhibited IL-8 production in stimulated Caco-2 cells and facilitated the recovery of damaged intestinal epithelium. In LPS-treated mice, the probiotic inhibited the production of TNFα in plasma and lungs and increased the hepatic glutathione content. These effects were associated with an improvement in the altered production of the T-cell cytokines in splenocytes, by reducing IL-2 and IL-5 and by increasing IL-10. Finally, it reduced the increased plasma IgG production in LPS-treated mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of viable L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Studies of compatibility in Betula

    Treesearch

    Knud E. Clausen

    1966-01-01

    Heterozygosity appears necessary to maintain fitness in many plant populations, and mechanisms favoring or enforcing cross pollination have evolved. Most important among the latter are dioecism and incompatibility.

  16. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    PubMed Central

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  17. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    PubMed

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.

  18. Fine mapping of a quantitative resistance gene for gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays L.) derived from teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the tesosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot resistance. We identified...

  19. Consequences of pre-inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizae on root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings after transplanting

    Treesearch

    Bill Eugene Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a common practice aimed at improving seedling establishment. The success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These events were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush...

  20. To be or not to be a subspecies: description of Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) developing in downy willow (Salix lapponum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wallin, Henrik; Kvamme, Torstein; Bergsten, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new subspecies of the European cerambycid Saperda populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) is described: Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. based on specimens from Scandinavia. The male genitalia characters were examined and found to provide support for this separation, as well as differences in morphology, geographical distribution and bionomy. The preferred host tree for the nominate subspecies S. populnea populnea is Populus tremula L., whereas S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. is considered to be monophagous on Salix lapponum L. DNA sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated from Scandinavian specimens of S. populnea populnea and specimens representing S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. The two subspecies were not reciprocally monophyletic and genetic distances in COI were small. All synonyms of S. populnea populnea have been considered, and species similar to S. populnea populnea have been examined, and not found to be related to S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. A male lectotype has been designated for each of the two following synonyms: Cerambyx decempunctatus De Geer, 1775, and Saperda salicis Zetterstedt, 1818. The synonymised species from Asia, S. balsamifera (Motshulsky, 1860), is elevated to subspecies: S. populnea balsamifera stat. n. We end with a discussion on the definition of subspecies under the unified species concept. PMID:29187784

  1. Leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics, and biomass allocation to foliage in relation to foliar nitrogen content and tree size in three Betula species.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo; Portsmuth, Angelika; Truus, Laimi

    2002-02-01

    Young trees 0.03-1.7 m high of three coexisting Betula species were investigated in four sites of varying soil fertility, but all in full daylight, to separate nutrient and plant size controls on leaf dry mass per unit area (MA), light-saturated foliar photosynthetic electron transport rate (J) and the fraction of plant biomass in foliage (F(L)). Because the site effect was generally non-significant in the analyses of variance with foliar nitrogen content per unit dry mass (N(M)) as a covariate, N(M) was used as an explaining variable of leaf structural and physiological characteristics. Average leaf area (S) and dry mass per leaf scaled positively with N(M) and total tree height (H) in all species. Leaf dry mass per unit area also increased with increasing H, but decreased with increasing N(M), whereas the effects were species-specific. Increases in plant size led to a lower and increases in N(M) to a greater FL and total plant foliar area per unit plant biomass (LAR). Thus, the self-shading probably increased with increasing N(M) and decreased with increasing H. Nevertheless, the whole-plant average M(A), as well as M(A) values of topmost fully exposed leaves, correlated with N(M) and H in a similar manner, indicating that scaling of MA with N(M) and H did not necessarily result from the modified degree of within-plant shading. The rate of photosynthetic electron transport per unit dry mass (J(M)) scaled positively with N(M), but decreased with increasing H and M(A). Thus, increases in M(A) with tree height and decreasing nitrogen content not only resulted in a lower plant foliar area (LAR = F(L)/M(A)), but also led to lower physiological activity of unit foliar biomass. The leaf parameters (J(M), N(M) and M(A)) varied threefold, but the whole-plant characteristic FL varied 20-fold and LAR 30-fold, indicating that the biomass allocation was more plastically adjusted to different plant internal nitrogen contents and to tree height than the foliar variables. Our

  2. Platyphylloside Isolated From Betula platyphylla Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Induce Lipolysis Via Regulating Adipokines Including PPARγ in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mina; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis, lipid contents of BPP on were measured using Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of various adipokines were measured by Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results: Platyphylloside showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed adipocyte differentiation even in the presence of troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. Platyphylloside might suppress adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1-induced adipogenesis, which is synergistically associated with downstream adipocyte-specific gene promoters such as aP2, FAS, SCD-1, LPL, and Adiponectin. In addition, platyphylloside affected lipolysis by down-regulating perilipin and HSL and up-regulating TNFα. Conclusion: Taken together, the results reveal that platyphylloside has anti-adipogenic activity and highlight its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity. SUMMARY The extract of B. platyphylla bark and its isolate, BPP, had anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells via suppression of adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes.Treatment with BPP significantly down-regulated the expression of PPARγ, C/EBP, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1c, SCD-1, FAS, aP2 and LPL.BPP induced a lipolytic response in mature adipocytes via up-regulation krof TNFá and down

  3. Rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis laboratory strains by IS900-Nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad; Mosavari, Nader; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Tadayon, Keyvan; Keshavarz, Rouholah; Pajoohi, Reza Aref; Soleimani, Kioomars; Pour, Shojaat Dashti

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants. As a species, M. avium comprises M. avium subsp. hominissuis and a number of clones that are known to have evolved from this subspecies, namely M. avium subsp. avium (MAA), M. avium subsp. silvaticum, and MAP. Despite the very high genomic similarity of MAP and MAA, the insertion sequence IS900, which is 1,451-bp long, is now understood to be exclusively present in 10-20 copies in the genome of MAP. In the present study, a multidiscipline polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based algorithm targeting16SrRNA, IS6110, IS901, IS1245, and IS900 markers has been employed to differentiate between six laboratory strains of M. avium complex (including MAP 316F, III&V, and 2e plus MAA D4), Mycobacterium tuberculosis DT, and Mycobacterium bovis AN5 strains used at the Razi Institute (Tehran, Iran) for the preparation of paratuberculin, avian, human, and bovine tuberculin, respectively. Three laboratory strains of III&V, 2e, and 316F were subcultured on Herrold's egg yolk medium, whereas the MAA strain of D4 along with M. bovis AN5 and M. tuberculosis DT were subcultured on Lowenstein-Jensen slopes. All the inoculated culture tubes were incubated for 8weeks at 37°C. Eventually, their genomic DNA was extracted according to the method of van Soolingen. Five individual PCRs were conducted on these templates to amplify 16SrRNA (genus-specific marker shared by all mycobacteria), IS900 (MAP-specific marker), IS901 (MAA-specific marker), IS1245 (M. avium complex (MAC)-specific marker), and IS6110 (M. tuberculosis complex (MTC)-specific marker) loci. Consequently, a 543-bp amplicon was amplified by all the six strains in PCR against 16SrRNA, an indication of their identity as members of Mycobacterium genus. A 245-bp fragment was detected in only IS6110-PCR with M. bovis AN5 as well as M. tuberculosis DT. In the IS1245 assessment, the MAA strain of D4 produced a 427-bp amplicon, whereas

  4. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    PubMed

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  5. Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rizzardini, Giuliano; Eskesen, Dorte; Calder, Philip C; Capetti, Amedeo; Jespersen, Lillian; Clerici, Mario

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigated the ability of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. casei 431®) to modulate the immune system using a vaccination model in healthy subjects. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 211 subjects (56 % females, mean age 33·2 (sd 13·1) years). Subjects consumed a minimum of 10⁹ colony-forming units of BB-12® (capsule) or L. casei 431® (dairy drink) or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks for the analysis of antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes from baseline in vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. the corresponding placebo group (L. casei 431®, P = 0·01 for IgG; P < 0·001 for remaining comparisons). The number of subjects obtaining a substantial increase in specific IgG (defined as ≥ 2-fold above baseline) was significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P < 0·001 for IgG, IgG1 and IgG3; L. casei 431®, P < 0·001 for IgG1 and IgG3). Significantly greater mean fold increases for vaccine-specific secretory IgA in saliva were observed in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P = 0·017; L. casei 431®, P = 0·035). Similar results were observed for total antibody concentrations. No differences were found for plasma cytokines or innate immune parameters. Data herein show that supplementation with BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function by augmenting systemic and mucosal immune responses to challenge.

  6. Molecular diversity of α-gliadin expressed genes in genetically contrasted spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) accessions and comparison with bread wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum) and related diploid Triticum and Aegilops species.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Mingeot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat. Genotyping data from 85 spelt accessions obtained with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to select 11 contrasted accessions, from which 446 full open reading frame α-gliadin genes were cloned and sequenced, which revealed a high allelic diversity. High variations among the accessions were highlighted, in terms of the proportion of α-gliadin sequences from each of the three genomes (A, B and D), and their composition in the four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. An accession from Tajikistan stood out, having a particularly high proportion of α-gliadins from the B genome and a low immunogenic content. Even if no clear separation between spelt and bread wheat sequences was shown, spelt α-gliadins displayed specific features concerning e.g. the frequencies of some amino acid substitutions. Given this observation and the variations in toxicity revealed in the spelt accessions in this study, the high genetic diversity held in spelt germplasm collections could be a valuable resource in the development of safer varieties for CD patients.

  7. Development of TaqMan probes targeting the four major celiac disease epitopes found in α-gliadin sequences of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum).

    PubMed

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Muhovski, Yordan; Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Mingeot, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is caused by specific sequences of gluten proteins found in cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ). Among them, the α-gliadins display the highest immunogenicity, with four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. The toxicity of each epitope sequence can be reduced or even suppressed according to the allelic form of each sequence. One way to address the CD problem would be to make use of this allelic variability in breeding programs to develop safe varieties, but tools to track the presence of toxic epitopes are required. The objective of this study was to develop a tool to accurately detect and quantify the immunogenic content of expressed α-gliadins of spelt and bread wheat. Four TaqMan probes that only hybridize to the canonical-i.e. toxic-form of each of the four epitopes were developed and their specificity was demonstrated. Six TaqMan probes targeting stable reference genes were also developed and constitute a tool to normalize qPCR data. The probes were used to measure the epitope expression levels of 11 contrasted spelt accessions and three ancestral diploid accessions of bread wheat and spelt. A high expression variability was highlighted among epitopes and among accessions, especially in Asian spelts, which showed lower epitope expression levels than the other spelts. Some discrepancies were identified between the canonical epitope expression level and the global amount of expressed α-gliadins, which makes the designed TaqMan probes a useful tool to quantify the immunogenic potential independently of the global amount of expressed α-gliadins. The results obtained in this study provide useful tools to study the immunogenic potential of expressed α-gliadin sequences from Triticeae accessions such as spelt and bread wheat. The application of the designed probes to contrasted spelt accessions revealed a high variability and interesting low canonical epitope expression levels in the

  8. Sequence of a new DR12 allele with two silent mutations that affect PCR-SSP typing.

    PubMed

    Zanone, R; Bettens, F; Tiercy, J-M

    2002-02-01

    A new HLA-DR12 allele has been identified in a European Caucasoid bone marrow donor. The DRB1*12012 allele differs from DRB1*12011 by two silent substitutions at codons 72 and 78, two polymorphic positions used for DNA subtyping of the DR12 serotype. The co-occurence of the two nucleotide changes is unique to the DR12 group and results in a new PCR-SSP typing pattern. The complete HLA type of the donor is A24, A68; B55, B61; Cw*01, Cw*0304; DRB1*12012, DRB1*1402; DRB3*0101, DRB3*0202; DQB1*0301. HLA-DRB1*12012 is a rare allele as it occurs in < 0.2% of DR12 donors.

  9. Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Başer, K Hüsnü Can

    2006-03-01

    Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

    PubMed

    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Metabolite profiling approach reveals the interface of primary and secondary metabolism in colored cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Yun; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Yeo, Yunsoo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2013-07-17

    In the present study, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids of cauliflowers ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis) with various colored florets (white, yellow, green, and purple) were characterized to determine their phytochemical diversity. Additionally, 48 metabolites comprising amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). Carotenoid content was considerably higher in green cauliflower; anthocyanins were detected only in purple cauliflower. Phenolic acids were higher in both green and purple cauliflower. Results of partial least-squares discriminant, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that green cauliflower is distinct on the basis of the high levels of amino acids and clusters derived from common or closely related biochemical pathways. These results suggest that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, combined with chemometrics, is a useful tool for determining phenotypic variation and identifying metabolic networks connecting primary and secondary metabolism.

  12. Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Alicja; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the protective efficacy of antigen combinations against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infections in cobia, Rachycentron canadum L.

    PubMed

    Ho, L-P; Chang, C-J; Liu, H-C; Yang, H-L; Lin, J H-Y

    2014-01-01

    Cobia, Rachycentron canadum L., is a very important aquatic fish that faces the risk of infection with the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, and there are few protective approaches available that use multiple antigens. In the present study, potent bivalent antigens from P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed more efficient protection than did single antigens used in isolation. In preparations of three antigens that included recombinant heat shock protein 60 (rHSP60), recombinant α-enolase (rENOLASE) and recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rGAPDH), we analysed the doses that elicited the best immune responses and found that this occurred at a total of 30 μg of antigen per fish. Subsequently, vaccination of fish with rHSP60, rENOLASE and rGAPDH achieved 46.9, 52 and 25% relative per cent survival (RPS), respectively. In addition, bivalent subunit vaccines--combination I (rHSP60 + rENOLASE), combination II (rENOLASE + rGAPDH) and combination III (rHSP60 + rGAPDH)--were administered and the RPS in these groups (65.6, 64.0 and 48.4%, respectively), was higher than that achieved with single-antigen administration. Finally, in combination IV, the trivalent vaccine rHSP60 + rENOLASE + rGAPDH, the RPS was 1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that combinations of two antigens may achieve a better efficiency than monovalent or trivalent antigens, and this may provide new insights into pathogen prevention strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Introduction of Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum chromosomes to wheat by trigeneric hybridization involving Triticum, Secale and Thinopyrum genera.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Lang, Tao; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhihui; Wang, Hongjin; Li, Guangrong; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular markers have confirmed that several chromosomes from Thinopyrum intermedium ssp. trichophorum have been added to a wheat background, which originated from a cross between a wheat- Thinopyrum partial amphiploid and triticale. The lines displayed blue grains and resistance to wheat stripe rust. Thinopyrum intermedium has been used as a valuable resource for improving the disease resistance and yield potential of wheat. With the aim to transfer novel genetic variation from Th. intermedium species for sustainable wheat breeding, a new trigeneric hybrid was produced by crossing an octoploid wheat-Th. intermedium ssp. trichophorum partial amphiploid with hexaploid triticale. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that Thinopyrum chromosomes were transmitted preferably and the number of rye chromosomes tended to decrease gradually in the selfed derivatives of the trigeneric hybrids. Four stable wheat-Th. intermedium chromosome substitution, addition and translocation lines were selected, and a 2J S addition line, two substitution lines of 4J S (4B) and 4J(4B), and a small 4J.4B translocation line were identified by FISH and molecular markers. It was revealed that the gene(s) responsible for blue grains may located on the FL0.60-1.00 of long arm of Th. intermedium-derived 4J chromosome. Disease resistance screenings indicated that chromosomes 4J S and 2J S appear to enhance the resistance to stripe rust in the adult plant stage. The new germplasm with Th. intermedium introgression shows promise for utilization of Thinopyrum chromosome segments in future wheat improvement.

  15. Applying the global RCP-SSP-SPA scenario framework at sub-national scale: A multi-scale and participatory scenario approach.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Abiy S; Nicholls, Robert J; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Iñaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A; Hill, Chris T; Hutton, Craig W; Kay, Susan; Lázár, Attila N; Macadam, Ian; Palmer, Matthew; Suckall, Natalie; Tompkins, Emma L; Vincent, Katharine; Whitehead, Paul W

    2018-09-01

    To better anticipate potential impacts of climate change, diverse information about the future is required, including climate, society and economy, and adaptation and mitigation. To address this need, a global RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways), SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathways), and SPA (Shared climate Policy Assumptions) (RCP-SSP-SPA) scenario framework has been developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR5). Application of this full global framework at sub-national scales introduces two key challenges: added complexity in capturing the multiple dimensions of change, and issues of scale. Perhaps for this reason, there are few such applications of this new framework. Here, we present an integrated multi-scale hybrid scenario approach that combines both expert-based and participatory methods. The framework has been developed and applied within the DECCMA 1 project with the purpose of exploring migration and adaptation in three deltas across West Africa and South Asia: (i) the Volta delta (Ghana), (ii) the Mahanadi delta (India), and (iii) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta (Bangladesh/India). Using a climate scenario that encompasses a wide range of impacts (RCP8.5) combined with three SSP-based socio-economic scenarios (SSP2, SSP3, SSP5), we generate highly divergent and challenging scenario contexts across multiple scales against which robustness of the human and natural systems within the deltas are tested. In addition, we consider four distinct adaptation policy trajectories: Minimum intervention, Economic capacity expansion, System efficiency enhancement, and System restructuring, which describe alternative future bundles of adaptation actions/measures under different socio-economic trajectories. The paper highlights the importance of multi-scale (combined top-down and bottom-up) and participatory (joint expert-stakeholder) scenario methods for addressing uncertainty in adaptation decision

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; Barberio, A; Franklin-Guild, R; Werner, B; McDonough, P; Bennett, J; Gioia, G; Rota, N; Welcome, F; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2015-09-01

    In total, 181 streptococci-like bacteria isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) were submitted by a veterinary clinic to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, and 46 Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and 47 Lactococcus garvieae were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics. No resistant strains were found for β-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinical practice (penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and all minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were far from the resistance breakpoints. Eight strains had MIC intermediate to cefazolin. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprint patterns showed a slightly higher heterogeneity for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis isolates than for Lc. garvieae isolates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

    2014-11-01

    Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    PubMed

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  19. The extracellular phage-host interactions involved in the bacteriophage LL-H infection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808

    PubMed Central

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H was determined in 1996. Accordingly, LL-H has been used as a model phage for the infection of dairy Lactobacillus, specifically for thermophilic Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains, such as ATCC 15808. One of the major goals of phage LL-H research consisted of the characterization of the first phage-host interactions at the level of phage adsorption and phage DNA injection steps to determine effective and practical methods to minimize the risks associated with the appearance and attack of phages in the manufacture of yogurt, and Swiss or Italian hard type cheeses, which typically use thermophilic lactic acid bacteria starter cultures containing L. delbrueckii strains among others. This mini review article summarizes the present data concerning (i) the special features, particle structure, and components of phage LL-H and (ii) the structure and properties of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), which are the phage LL-H receptor components of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains. Moreover, a model of the first, extracellular, phage-host interactions for the infection of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 by phage LL-H is presented and further discussed. PMID:24400001

  20. The extracellular phage-host interactions involved in the bacteriophage LL-H infection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808.

    PubMed

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2013-12-24

    The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H was determined in 1996. Accordingly, LL-H has been used as a model phage for the infection of dairy Lactobacillus, specifically for thermophilic Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains, such as ATCC 15808. One of the major goals of phage LL-H research consisted of the characterization of the first phage-host interactions at the level of phage adsorption and phage DNA injection steps to determine effective and practical methods to minimize the risks associated with the appearance and attack of phages in the manufacture of yogurt, and Swiss or Italian hard type cheeses, which typically use thermophilic lactic acid bacteria starter cultures containing L. delbrueckii strains among others. This mini review article summarizes the present data concerning (i) the special features, particle structure, and components of phage LL-H and (ii) the structure and properties of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), which are the phage LL-H receptor components of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains. Moreover, a model of the first, extracellular, phage-host interactions for the infection of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 by phage LL-H is presented and further discussed.

  1. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. The fate of W chromosomes in hybrids between wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.: no role in sex determination and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Yoshido, A; Marec, F; Sahara, K

    2016-01-01

    Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) have sex chromosome systems with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ or derived variants). The maternally inherited W chromosome is known to determine female sex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, little is known about the role of W chromosome in other lepidopteran species. Here we describe two forms of the W chromosome, W and neo-W, that are transmitted to both sexes in offspring of hybrids from reciprocal crosses between subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia. We performed crosses between S. c. pryeri (2n=28, WZ/ZZ) and S. c. walkeri (2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z) and examined fitness and sex chromosome constitution in their hybrids. The F1 hybrids of both reciprocal crosses had reduced fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed not only the expected sex chromosome constitutions in the backcross and F2 hybrids of both sexes but also females without the W (or neo-W) chromosome and males carrying the W (or neo-W) chromosome. Furthermore, crosses between the F2 hybrids revealed no association between the presence or absence of W (or neo-W) chromosome and variations in the hatchability of their eggs. Our results clearly suggest that the W (or neo-W) chromosome of S. cynthia ssp. plays no role in sex determination and reproduction, and thus does not contribute to the formation of reproductive barriers between different subspecies. PMID:26758188

  3. The fate of W chromosomes in hybrids between wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.: no role in sex determination and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yoshido, A; Marec, F; Sahara, K

    2016-05-01

    Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) have sex chromosome systems with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ or derived variants). The maternally inherited W chromosome is known to determine female sex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, little is known about the role of W chromosome in other lepidopteran species. Here we describe two forms of the W chromosome, W and neo-W, that are transmitted to both sexes in offspring of hybrids from reciprocal crosses between subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia. We performed crosses between S. c. pryeri (2n=28, WZ/ZZ) and S. c. walkeri (2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z) and examined fitness and sex chromosome constitution in their hybrids. The F1 hybrids of both reciprocal crosses had reduced fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed not only the expected sex chromosome constitutions in the backcross and F2 hybrids of both sexes but also females without the W (or neo-W) chromosome and males carrying the W (or neo-W) chromosome. Furthermore, crosses between the F2 hybrids revealed no association between the presence or absence of W (or neo-W) chromosome and variations in the hatchability of their eggs. Our results clearly suggest that the W (or neo-W) chromosome of S. cynthia ssp. plays no role in sex determination and reproduction, and thus does not contribute to the formation of reproductive barriers between different subspecies.

  4. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity of allelopathic plants Adonis vernalis L. Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Vanya; Dragoeva, Asya; Stoyanova, Zheni; Yordanova, Zhenia; Ali, Selime; Uzunov, Nikolay M.; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio; Enchev, Dobromir D.

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants produce various secondary metabolites as a part of their chemical defence and survival in nature. These compounds have a wide range of biological activities. Nowadays, medicinal plants are used as source of allelochemicals and new effective anticancer agents. Our previous studies revealed allelopathic potential of water extracts of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae), Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda (Lamiaceae). Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the same extracts in vitro on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Cell proliferation/viability was assessed using Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent. Adonis water extract (1.83mg/ml) had notable negative influence on cancer cell line tested. Oregano (3.5 mg/ml) also exerted negative effect, but to a lesser degree. On the contrary, nepeta water extract (6.59 mg/ml) had an opposite effect, stimulating cell proliferation. One possible explanation could be the type of extraction: after treatment with nepeta methanol extract (6.59 mg/ml) cell viability was significantly reduced. In conclusion, Adonis vernalis and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda possess metabolites with growth inhibitory effect on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Further research is needed to clarify biological activity of lower concentrations which are appropriate to enable the design of new anticancer drugs.

  6. Assessment of wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) chlorotypes and accompanying woody species in the Eastern Adriatic region.

    PubMed

    Butorac, Lukrecija; Hančević, Katarina; Lukšić, Katarina; Škvorc, Željko; Leko, Mario; Maul, Erika; Zdunić, Goran

    2018-01-01

    The Eastern Adriatic region, encompassing Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, is considered an important area of natural populations of wild grapevines (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris). The wild grapevine arises in the Eastern Adriatic region in a contact zone of the EU-Mediterranean and the sub-Mediterranean characterized by typical karst relief. This study focuses on the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis of wild grapevines and the biodiversity of accompanying woody species to better understand the genetic variation of the sylvestris populations of the Eastern Adriatic region and to investigate how this variation fits within today's wild grapevine distribution in the European continent. The allelic variation at nine cpDNA microsatellite loci of wild individuals was used to characterize haplotype diversity in 53 individuals from four population sites. All individuals were grouped into two chlorotypes: A and D, D being the rare haplotype among wild populations on the European continent. In total, 52 woody plant species were identified. However, the studied vegetation structures have been affected by permanent human pressure on natural resources and the preservation status of the collection sites. Based on our results, we conclude that the investigated areas were probably shelter zones for wild grapevine preservation during the unfavorable glaciation era.

  7. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  8. A new TRAF-like protein from B. oleracea ssp. botrytis with lectin activity and its effect on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Christiane E M; Abranches, Monise V; Silva, Patrick F; de Paula, Sérgio O; Cardoso, Silvia A; Oliveira, Leandro L

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are involved in a wide range of biological mechanisms, like immunomodulatory agent able to activate the innate immunity. In this study, we purified and characterized a new lectin from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea ssp. botrytis - BOL) by three sequential chromatographic steps and confirmed the purity by SDS-PAGE. Additionally, we evaluated the role of the lectin in innate immunity by a phagocytosis assay, production of H 2 O 2 and NO. BOL was characterized like a non-glycosylated protein that showed a molecular mass of ∼34kDa in SDS-PAGE. Its N-terminal sequence (ETRAFREERPSSKIVTIAG) did not reveal any similarity to the other lectins; nevertheless, it showed 100% homology to a putative TRAF-like protein from Brassica rapa and Brassica napus. This is a first report of the TRAF-protein with lectinic activity. The BOL retained its complete hemagglutination activity from 4°C up to 60°C, with stability being more apparent between pH 7.0 and 8.0. Moreover, the lectin was able to stimulate phagocytosis and induce the production of H 2 O 2 and NO. Therefore, BOL can be explored as an immunomodulatory agent by being able to activate the innate immunity and favor antigen removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Yeşilada, Erdem; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL.

  10. The Dynamic Growth Exhibition and Accumulation of Cadmium of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) Grown in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2–3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5–4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

  11. Production of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and associated gene expression profiles of hairy root cultures in turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2016-12-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots. Furthermore, hairy roots efficiently produced several important individual phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Colorimetric analysis revealed that the highest levels of total phenol, flavonoid contents, and their gene expression levels (PAL, CHI and FLS) in hairy roots than non-transformed roots. Our study provides beneficial information on the molecular and physiological active processes that are associated with the phytochemical content and biosynthetic gene expression in turnip. Moreover, antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH scavenging activity, reducing potential, phosphomolybdenum and ferrous ion chelating ability assays was significantly higher in hairy roots. Hairy root extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal species. The extract of hairy roots showed inhibition of human breast and colon cancer cell lines.

  12. Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.

    PubMed

    Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation.

  13. Elevation of secondary metabolites synthesis in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L. via exogenous inoculation of Piriformospora indica with appropriate fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Bilal, Muhammad; Liao, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the impact of exogenous soil inoculation of beneficial fungal strain Piriformospora indica on phytochemical changes and the related genes expression of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L.) by greenhouse pot experiments. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) affirmed that among the different combinations of fungal and organic fertilizer treatments, the phenolic acids and flavonoids were considerably enriched in organic fertilizer and fungi (OP) followed by organic fertilizer, biochar, fungi (OBP) treated plants. The antiradical activity was higher in OP (61.29%) followed by P (60%) and organic fertilizer (OF) (53.84%) inoculated plants which positively correlated with chlorophyll, carotenoids and flavonoids level (P<0.05). Furthermore, results showed that the exogenous application of P. indica significantly (P<0.05) enhanced plant growth, as well as stimulating the activation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and other antioxidant related pathways. The RT-qPCR analysis indicated that key FLS gene triggering the synthesis of kaemferol was up-regulated by the inoculation of P. indica. In conclusion, the results revealed that organic fertilizer and P. indica (OP) is the most appropriate combination for improving phytochemical and antiradical properties in Pakchoi. PMID:28493970

  14. Cellular expression of C3 and C4 photosynthetic enzymes in the amphibious sedge Eleocharis retroflexa ssp. chaetaria.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Osamu; Wakayama, Masataka

    2004-12-01

    The amphibious leafless sedge Eleocharis retroflexa ssp. chaetaria expresses C(4)-like biochemical characteristics in both the terrestrial and submerged forms. Culms of the terrestrial form have Kranz anatomy, whereas those of the submerged form have Kranz-like anatomy combined with anatomical features of aquatic plant leaves. We examined the immunolocalization of C(3) and C(4) enzymes in culms of the two forms. In both forms, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; pyruvate, Pi dikinase; and NAD-malic enzyme were compartmentalized between the mesophyll (M) and Kranz cells, but their levels were somewhat reduced in the submerged form. In the terrestrial form, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) occurred mainly in the Kranz cells, and weakly in the M chloroplasts. In the submerged form, the rubisco occurred at higher levels in the M cells than in the terrestrial form. In both forms, the C(4) pattern of enzyme expression was clearer in the M cells adjacent to Kranz cells than in distant M cells. During the transition from terrestrial to submerged conditions, the enzyme expression pattern changed in submerged mature culms that had been formed in air before submergence, and matched that in culms newly developed underwater. It seems that effects of both environmental and developmental factors overlap in the C(4) pattern expression in this plant.

  15. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) Berries in Nordic Environment: Compositional Response to Latitude and Weather Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-22

    Flavonol glycosides (FGs) in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) berries of varieties 'Tytti' and 'Terhi', cultivated in northern Finland (68°02' N) for six years and southern Finland (60°23' N) for seven years, were investigated and compared by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The average total content of 23 identified glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin was 103 ± 23 and 110 ± 21 mg/100 g fresh berries in 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', respectively. The total contents of FGs, flavonol diglycosides, and triglycosides in both varieties were higher in the north than in the south, whereas total flavonol monoglycoside content behaved vice versa (p < 0.05). Among the 89 weather variables studied, the sum of the daily mean temperatures that are 5 °C or higher from the start of growth season until the day of harvest was the most important variable which associated negatively with the accumulation of FGs in berries. Such influence was much stronger in berries from the north than from the south.

  16. Effects of Moquiniastrum polymorphum ssp floccosum ethnolic extract on colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Limeiras, S M A; Oliveira, B C; Pessatto, L R; Pesarini, J R; Kassuya, C A L; Monreal, A C D; Cantero, W B; Antoniolli-Silva, R; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B; Stefanello, M E A; Oliveira, R J

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moquiniastrum polymorphum ssp floccosum ethanolic extract (MPEE) on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Forty-two male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) were subdivided into six groups (N = 7/group): negative control, DMH, MPEE, pre-treatment, simultaneous, and post-treatment. Results showed that MPEE has antigenotoxic potential on the tested protocols pre- and silmultaneous treatment, and the percent damage reductions (%DRs) were 81.88 and 93.12%, respectively. The micronucleus test demonstrated that MPEE has great antimutagenic activity, with %DRs higher than 77.09 in the associated groups. The aberrant crypt focus assay demonstrated anticarcinogenic potential of MPEE as the associated groups showed %DRs that ranged from 62.13 to 95.14%. The study shows that MPEE is nontoxic and has chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic activity, thus it may prove to be a promising medicinal plant in view of its demonstrated properties.

  17. Prediction of human gait trajectories during the SSP using a neuromusculoskeletal modeling: A challenge for parametric optimization.

    PubMed

    Seyed, Mohammadali Rahmati; Mostafa, Rostami; Borhan, Beigzadeh

    2018-04-27

    The parametric optimization techniques have been widely employed to predict human gait trajectories; however, their applications to reveal the other aspects of gait are questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not the gait prediction model is able to justify the movement trajectories for the higher average velocities. A planar, seven-segment model with sixteen muscle groups was used to represent human neuro-musculoskeletal dynamics. At first, the joint angles, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activations were predicted and validated for normal average velocity (1.55 m/s) in the single support phase (SSP) by minimizing energy expenditure, which is subject to the non-linear constraints of the gait. The unconstrained system dynamics of extended inverse dynamics (USDEID) approach was used to estimate muscle activations. Then by scaling time and applying the same procedure, the movement trajectories were predicted for higher average velocities (from 2.07 m/s to 4.07 m/s) and compared to the pattern of movement with fast walking speed. The comparison indicated a high level of compatibility between the experimental and predicted results, except for the vertical position of the center of gravity (COG). It was concluded that the gait prediction model can be effectively used to predict gait trajectories for higher average velocities.

  18. Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Have Different Influences on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Secretion of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jie, Peng; Zhe, Ma; Chengwei, Hua; Huixing, Lin; Hui, Zhang; Chengping, Lu; Hongjie, Fan

    2017-01-06

    Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified. The proteomic results were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 10 chosen genes and Western blotting for three proteins. All differentially abundant proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Certain downregulated proteins were associated with immunity functions, and the upregulated proteins were related to cytomembrane and cytoskeleton regulation. The phagocytosis rate and cytokine genes transcription in Raw264.7 cells during SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection were detected to confirm the bioinformatics results. These results showed that different effects on macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine expression might explain the different phenotypes of SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection. This research provided clues to the mechanisms of host immunity responses to SEZ ST171and SEZ ATCC35246, which could identify potential therapy and vaccine development targets.

  19. CMS-G from Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima is maintained in natural populations despite containing an atypical cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Etienne H; Lehmann, Caroline; Boivin, Stéphane; Brings, Lea; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Bock, Ralph; Kühn, Kristina; Touzet, Pascal

    2018-02-23

    While mitochondrial mutants of the respiratory machinery are rare and often lethal, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a mitochondrially inherited trait that results in pollen abortion, is frequently encountered in wild populations. It generates a breeding system called gynodioecy. In Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima , a gynodioecious species, we found CMS-G to be widespread across the distribution range of the species. Despite the sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of CMS-G, the mitochondrial sterilizing factor causing CMS-G is still unknown. By characterizing biochemically CMS-G, we found that the expression of several mitochondrial proteins is altered in CMS-G plants. In particular, Cox1, a core subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), is larger but can still assemble into complex IV. However, the CMS-G-specific complex IV was only detected as a stabilized dimer. We did not observe any alteration of the affinity of complex IV for cytochrome c ; however, in CMS-G, complex IV capacity is reduced. Our results show that CMS-G is maintained in many natural populations despite being associated with an atypical complex IV. We suggest that the modified complex IV could incur the associated cost predicted by theoretical models to maintain gynodioecy in wild populations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri requires the outer membrane porin OprB for maximal virulence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ficarra, Florencia A; Grandellis, Carolina; Galván, Estela M; Ielpi, Luis; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2017-06-01

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) causes canker disease in citrus, and biofilm formation is critical for the disease cycle. OprB (Outer membrane protein B) has been shown previously to be more abundant in Xcc biofilms compared with the planktonic state. In this work, we showed that the loss of OprB in an oprB mutant abolishes bacterial biofilm formation and adherence to the host, and also compromises virulence and efficient epiphytic survival of the bacteria. Moreover, the oprB mutant is impaired in bacterial stress resistance. OprB belongs to a family of carbohydrate transport proteins, and the uptake of glucose is decreased in the mutant strain, indicating that OprB transports glucose. Loss of OprB leads to increased production of xanthan exopolysaccharide, and the carbohydrate intermediates of xanthan biosynthesis are also elevated in the mutant. The xanthan produced by the mutant has a higher viscosity and, unlike wild-type xanthan, completely lacks pyruvylation. Overall, these results suggest that Xcc reprogrammes its carbon metabolism when it senses a shortage of glucose input. The participation of OprB in the process of biofilm formation and virulence, as well as in metabolic changes to redirect the carbon flux, is discussed. Our results demonstrate the importance of environmental nutrient supply and glucose uptake via OprB for Xcc virulence. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Analysis of strain-specific genes in glutamic acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum AJ 1511.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yousuke; Koseki, Chie; Tonouchi, Naoto; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-11

    Strains of the bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, are widely used for the industrial production of L-glutamic acid and various other substances. C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum AJ 1511, formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum, and the closely related C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 have been used as industrial strains for more than 50 years. We determined the whole genome sequence of C. glutamicum AJ 1511 and performed genome-wide comparative analysis with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 to determine strain-specific genetic differences. This analysis revealed that the genomes of the two industrial strains are highly similar despite the phenotypic differences between the two strains. Both strains harbored unique genes but gene transpositions or inversions were not observed. The largest unique region, a 220-kb AT-rich region located between 1.78 and 2.00 Mb position in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome, was missing in the genome of C. glutamicum AJ 1511. The next two largest unique regions were present in C. glutamicum AJ 1511. The first region (413-484 kb position) contains several predicted transport proteins, enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, and transposases. The second region (1.47-1.50 Mb position) encodes restriction modification systems. A gene predicted to encode NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, which is involved in L-glutamate biosynthesis, is present in C. glutamicum AJ 1511. Strain-specific genes identified in this study are likely to govern phenotypes unique to each strain.

  3. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic methylation and transcriptomic profiling provides insights into heading depression in inbred Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Cui; Tang, Xuebing; Pei, Surui; Jin, Di; Guo, Minghao; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Yaowei

    2018-07-30

    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness observed in inbred populations. In plants, it leads to disease, weaker resistance to adverse environmental conditions, inhibition of growth, and decrease of yield. To elucidate molecular mechanisms behind inbreeding depression, we compared global DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of a normal and a highly inbred heading degenerated variety of the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). DNA methylation was reduced in inbred plants, suggesting a change in the epigenetic landscape. Transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq revealed that genes in auxin-response and synthesis pathways were differentially expressed in the inbreeding depression lines. Interestingly, methylation levels of some of those genes were also changed. Furthermore, endogenous IAA content was decreased in inbred plants, in agreement with expression and methylation data. Chemical inhibition of auxin also replicated the degenerated phenotype in normal plants, while exogenous IAA application had no effect in inbred depression plants, suggesting a more complex mechanism. These data indicate DNA methylation-regulated auxin pathways play a role in establishing inbred depression phenotypes in plants. Our findings reveal new insights into inbreeding depression and leafy head development in Chinese cabbage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  6. Descent motions of the Huygens probe as measured by the Surface Science Package (SSP): Turbulent evidence for a cloud layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Zarnecki, John C.; Towner, Martin C.; Leese, Mark R.; Ball, Andrew J.; Hathi, Brijen; Hagermann, Axel; Ghafoor, Nadeem A. L.

    2007-11-01

    The Huygens probe underwent vigorous short-period motions during its parachute descent through the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January 2005, at least some of which were excited by the Titan environment. Several sensors in the Huygens Surface Science Package (SSP) detect these motions, indicating the transition to the smaller stabilizer parachute, the changing probe spin rate, aerodynamic buffeting, and pendulum motions. Notably, in an altitude range of about 20-30 km where methane drops will freeze, the frequency content and statistical kurtosis of the tilt data indicate excitation by turbulent air motions like those observed in freezing clouds on Earth, supporting the suggestion of Tokano et al. [Tokano, T., McKay, C.P., Neubauer, F.M., Atreya, S.K., Ferri, F., Fulchignoni, M., Niemann, H.B. (2006a). Methane drizzle on Titan. Nature 442, 432-435] that the probe passed through such a cloud layer. Motions are weak below 20 km, suggesting a quiescent lower atmosphere with turbulent fluctuations of nominally <0.15 m/s (to within a factor of ˜2) but more violent motions in the upper troposphere may have been excited by turbulent winds with amplitudes of 1-2 m/s. Descent in part of the stratosphere (150-120 km) was smooth despite strong ambient wind (˜100 m/s), but known anomalies in the probe spin prevent investigation of turbulence in the known wind-shear layer from 60 to 100 km.

  7. Codon optimisation to improve expression of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-specific membrane-associated antigen by Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christopher; Douarre, Pierre E; Soulimane, Tewfik; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; MacSharry, John; Coffey, Aidan; Sleator, Roy D; O'Mahony, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Subunit and DNA-based vaccines against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) attempt to overcome inherent issues associated with whole-cell formulations. However, these vaccines can be hampered by poor expression of recombinant antigens from a number of disparate hosts. The high G+C content of MAP invariably leads to a codon bias throughout gene expression. To investigate if the codon bias affects recombinant MAP antigen expression, the open reading frame of a MAP-specific antigen MptD (MAP3733c) was codon optimised for expression against a Lactobacillus salivarius host. Of the total 209 codons which constitute MAP3733c, 172 were modified resulting in a reduced G+C content from 61% for the native gene to 32.7% for the modified form. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the PnisA promoter; allowing controlled heterologous expression in L. salivarius. Expression was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and microplate fluorometry via GFP tags translationally fused to the C-termini of the two MptD genes. A > 37-fold increase in expression was observed for the codon-optimised MAP3733synth variant over the native gene. Due to the low cost and improved expression achieved, codon optimisation significantly improves the potential of L. salivarius as an oral vaccine stratagem against Johne's disease. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Wainwright, Alaska,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Nutt. DRYOPTERIS FRAGRANS (L.) Schott ALNUS VIRIDIS Villar ssp. CRISPA (Aiton) A. Loeve & D. Loeve GYMNOCARPIUM DRYOPTERIS (L.) Newman BETULA...OCTOPETALA POLYGONUM AMYHIBIUM L. FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA Duchesne POLYGONUM AVICULARE L. GEUM PERINCISUM Rydb. POLYGONUM CONVOLVULUS L. PENTAPHYLLOIDES

  9. Decomposition of birch leaves in heavily polluted industrial barrens: relative importance of leaf quality and site of exposure.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2015-07-01

    The decrease in litter decomposition rate in polluted habitats is well documented, but the factors that explain the observed variation in the magnitude of this pollution effect on litter decomposition remain poorly understood. We explored effects of environmental conditions and leaf quality on decomposition rate of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) leaves in a heavily polluted industrial barren near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk. Litter bags filled with leaves collected from two heavily polluted barren sites and from two control forest sites were buried at 2.5-cm depth and exposed for 2 and 4 years at each of these four sites. The relative mass loss of native leaves in the industrial barren during 2 years of exposure was reduced to 49% of the loss observed in the unpolluted forest. We found a similar reduction in mass loss when leaves from control sites were exposed to polluted sites and when leaves from polluted sites were exposed to control sites. We conclude that the reduction in leaf litter decomposition in an industrial barren is caused by pollution-induced changes in both environmental conditions and leaf quality. This reduction is much smaller than expected, given the four-fold decrease in soil microbial activity and nearly complete extinction of saprophagous invertebrates in the polluted soil. We suggest that a longer snowless period and higher spring and summer temperatures at the barren sites have partially counterbalanced the adverse effects caused by the toxicity of metal pollutants.

  10. Scandinavian Treelines are Impacted by Herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, D. M.; Granberg, T. C.; Lafon, C. W.; Young, A. B.; Moen, J.

    2011-12-01

    Forest tundra boundaries occur world wide in both Arctic and alpine locations and respond to changes in climate over both short and long time spans. The treeline environments of Fennoscandia are particularly sensitive indicators of climate change. Trees at these treelines are subject to herbivory by a variety of large and small animals, and recent studies have shown that herbivores may be limiting the ability of treeline to migrate upslope in response to climate change. However, the data are typically for small areas. In this paper, we present the results of a dendroecological study of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) that encompasses a large portion of the Swedish Scandes in northern Sweden. Results are based on data from more than 4700 stems gathered at 65 sites in Norrbotten and Vasterbotten counties. Stems from small trees reveal the historical establishment of new individuals at the treeline, and data from large trees are used to detect outbreaks of the autumnal moth. These data indicate that historic autumnal moth outbreaks can be identified and that the effects of reindeer herbivory are equivocal. Data from mountain birch seedlings and saplings indicate that pulses in mountain birch establishment are influenced by both climate and herbivory. These results indicate that the response of both the pattern and location of the treeline should be interpreted as a complex interaction of both climate and herbivory.

  11. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Pratik; Merkel, Glenn J; Bhunia, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    Background Probiotic microorganisms are receiving increasing interest for use in the prevention, treatment, or dietary management of certain diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of AAD and the resulting C. difficile – mediated infection (CDI), is potentially deadly. C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is manifested by severe inflammation and colitis, mostly due to the release of two exotoxins by C. difficile causing destruction of epithelial cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892) on C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods Experiments were carried out to test if the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile-conditioned-medium on Caco-2 cells can be altered by cell-free supernatant (CFS) from LDB B-30892 in different dilutions (1:2 to 1:2048). In a similar experimental setup, comparative evaluations of other probiotic strains were made by contrasting the results from these strains with the results from LDB B-30892, specifically the ability to affect C. difficile induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 monolayers. Adhesion assays followed by quantitative analysis by Giemsa staining were conducted to test if the CFSs from LDB B-30892 and other probiotic test strains have the capability to alter the adhesion of C. difficile to the Caco-2 monolayer. Experiments were also performed to evaluate if LDB B-30892 or its released components have any bactericidal effect on C. difficile. Results and discussion Co-culturing of LDB B-30892 with C. difficile inhibited the C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. When CFS from LDB B-30892-C. difficile co-culture was administered (up to a dilution of 1:16) on Caco-2 monolayer, there were no signs of cytotoxicity. When CFS from separately grown LDB B-30892 was mixed with the cell-free toxin preparation (CFT) of

  12. Tissue Culture as a Source of Replicates in Nonmodel Plants: Variation in Cold Response in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea.

    PubMed

    Kenta, Tanaka; Edwards, Jessica E M; Butlin, Roger K; Burke, Terry; Quick, W Paul; Urwin, Peter; Davey, Matthew P

    2016-12-07

    While genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could be potentially overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here, we examined somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for F v /F m , F v '/F m ', and Φ PSII , representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system). We compared this to variation among half-sibling seedlings from three different families of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea Somaclonal variation was limited, and we could detect within-family variation in change in chlorophyll fluorescence due to cold shock successfully with the help of tissue-culture derived replicates. Icelandic and Norwegian families exhibited higher chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting higher performance after cold shock, than a Swedish family. Although the main effect of tissue culture on F v /F m , F v '/F m ', and Φ PSII was small, there were significant interactions between tissue culture and family, suggesting that the effect of tissue culture is genotype-specific. Tissue-cultured plantlets were less affected by cold treatment than seedlings, but to a different extent in each family. These interactive effects, however, were comparable to, or much smaller than the single effect of family. These results suggest that tissue culture is a useful method for obtaining genetically homogenous replicates for studying genotype-environment interaction related to adaptively-relevant phenotypes, such

  13. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter ssp. strains isolated from medical intensive care units in Cali - Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Andres; Chávez-Vivas, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The extensive use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of multi-resistant strains in some species of the genus Acinetobacter. Objective: To investigate the molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant of Acinetobacter ssp. strains isolated from 52 patients collected between March 2009 and July 2010 in medical intensive care units in Cali - Colombia. Methods: The susceptibility to various classes of antibiotics was determined by disc diffusion method, and the determination of the genomic species was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and by sequencing of the 16s rDNA gene. Also, the genes of beta-lactamases as well as, integrases IntI1 and IntI2 were analyzed by PCR method. Results: The phenotypic identification showed that the isolates belong mainly to A. calcoaceticus- A. baumannii complex. All of them were multi-resistant to almost the whole antibiotics except to tigecycline and sulperazon, and they were grouped into five (I to V) different antibiotypes, being the antibiotype I the most common (50.0%). The percent of beta-lactamases detected was: blaTEM (17.3%), blaCTX-M (9.6%), blaVIM (21.2%), blaIMP (7.7%), blaOXA-58 (21.2%), and blaOXA-51 (21.2%). The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the isolates were clustering to A. baumannii (74.1%), A. nosocomialis (11.1%) and A. calcoaceticus (7.4 %). Besides, the integron class 1 and class 2 were detected in 23.1% and 17.3% respectively. Conclusion: The isolates were identified to species A. baumanii mainly, and they were multiresistant. The resistance to beta-lactams may be by for presence of beta-lactamases in the majority of the isolates. PMID:29662260

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus helveticus and Propionibacterium freudenrichii ssp. shermanii combinations on propensity for split defect in Swiss cheese.

    PubMed

    White, S R; Broadbent, J R; Oberg, C J; McMahon, D J

    2003-03-01

    One of the least controlled defects in Swiss cheese is development of splits that appear during refrigerated storage after cheese is removed from the warm room. Such fissures, or cracks, in the body of the cheese can be as short as 1 cm, or long enough to span a 90-kg block. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was used to determine the effect of different Lactobacillus helveticus/Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii starter culture combinations on the occurrence of split defect in Swiss cheese. Eights vats of cheese were made in summer and eight in winter. Each 90-kg block of cheese was cut into twenty-four 4-kg blocks and graded based on the presence of splits. Only small variations were found in the composition of cheeses made during the same season. There were no correlations between moisture, pH, fat, protein, calcium, lactose contents, D/L lactate ratio, or protein degradation that could be used to predict splits after 90 d of storage. However, cheese made in the summer had 2% higher moisture content and a greater prevalence of splits. There was a sixfold increase in amount of downgraded cheese between the best and worst culture combinations used during cheese manufacture. After 90-d storage, 14 to 90% of cheese had splits in the summer, and 1 to 6% in the winter. Split formation increased with time from 60 to 120 d of storage and extent of split formation was influenced by both the lactobacilli and propionibacteria cultures used.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of BrrTCP Transcription Factors in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiancan; Hu, Simin; Yu, Qin; Wang, Chongde; Yang, Yunqiang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Sun, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    The teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP) gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor that participates in the control of plant development by regulating cell proliferation. However, no report is currently available about this gene family in turnips ( Brassica rapa ssp. rapa ). In this study, a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed in turnips. Thirty-nine TCP genes in turnip genome were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the family was classified as two clades: class I and class II. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that the same clade genes have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The expression profiles of 39 TCP genes were determined through quantitative real-time PCR. Most CIN-type BrrTCP genes were highly expressed in leaf. The members of CYC/TB1 subclade are highly expressed in flower bud and weakly expressed in root. By contrast, class I clade showed more widespread but less tissue-specific expression patterns. Yeast two-hybrid data show that BrrTCP proteins preferentially formed heterodimers. The function of BrrTCP2 was confirmed through ectopic expression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type and loss-of-function ortholog mutant of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the diminished leaf size. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in triple mutants of tcp2/4/10 restored the leaf phenotype of tcp2/4/10 to the phenotype of wild type. The comprehensive analysis of turnip TCP gene family provided the foundation to further study the roles of TCP genes in turnips.

  16. Identification and fine mapping of a stay-green gene (Brnye1) in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yun; Li, Chengyu; Feng, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Using bulked segregant analysis combined with next-generation sequencing, we delimited the Brnye1 gene responsible for the stay-green trait of nye in pakchoi. Sequence analysis identified Bra019346 as the candidate gene. "Stay-green" refers to a plant trait whereby leaves remain green during senescence. This trait is useful in the cultivation of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis), which is marketed as a green leaf product. This study aimed to identify the gene responsible for the stay-green trait in pakchoi. We identified a stay-green mutant in pakchoi, which we termed "nye". Genetic analysis revealed that the stay-green trait is controlled by a single recessive gene, Brnye1. Using the BSA-seq method, a 3.0-Mb candidate region was mapped on chromosome A03, which helped us localize Brnye1 to an 81.01-kb interval between SSR markers SSRWN27 and SSRWN30 via linkage analysis in an F 2 population. We identified 12 genes in this region, 11 of which were annotated based on the Brassica rapa annotation database, and one was a functionally unknown gene. An orthologous gene of the Arabidopsis gene AtNYE1, Bra019346, was identified as the potential candidate for Brnye1. Sequence analysis revealed a 40-bp insertion in the second exon of Bra019346 in nye, which generated the TAA stop codon. A candidate gene-specific Indel marker in 1561 F 2 individuals showed perfect cosegregation with Brnye1 in the nye mutant. These results provide a foundation for uncovering the molecular mechanism of the stay-green trait in pakchoi.

  17. Unsuccessful introduced biocontrol agents can act as pollinators of invasive weeds: Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) as an example.

    PubMed

    Gross, Caroline L; Whitehead, Joshua D; Silveira de Souza, Camila; Mackay, David

    2017-10-01

    The extent of self-compatibility and reliance on pollinators for seed set are critical determinants of reproductive success in invasive plant species. Seed herbivores are commonly used as biocontrol agents but may also act as flower visitors, potentially resulting in pollination. However, such contrasting or potentially counterproductive interaction effects are rarely considered or evaluated for biological control programs. We investigated the breeding system and pollinators of Bitou Bush ( Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata ), an invasive species in Australia that has been the subject of biocontrol programs since 1987. We found the species to be obligate outcrossing in all six populations tested. From 150 video hours, we found 21 species of potential pollinators, including Mesoclanis polana , the Bitou Seedfly, native to South Africa and released in Australia as a biocontrol agent in 1996. Mesoclanis polana transferred pollen to stigmas and was the most common pollinator (52% of pollinator visits), followed by the syrphid fly Simosyrphus grandicornis (9%) and introduced honeybee, Apis mellifera (6.5%). Fruit-to-flower ratios ranged from 0.12 to 0.45 and were highest in the population with the greatest proportion of Mesoclanis polana visits. In an experimental trial, outside the naturalized range, the native bee Homalictus sphecodoides and the native syrphid Melangyna viridiceps were the primary pollinators, and fruit-to-flower ratios were 0.35, indicating that Bitou Bush would have ready pollinators if its range expanded inland. Synthesis . Invasive Bitou Bush requires pollinators, and this is effected by a range of generalist pollinators in eastern Australia including the Bitou Seedfly, introduced as a biocontrol agent, and the major pollinator detected in this study. Fruit-to-flower ratios were highest when the Bitou Seedfly was in high abundance. This study underscores the importance of evaluating the pollination biology of invasive species in their

  18. The influence of collection zone on glucosinolates, polyphenols and flavonoids contents and biological profiles of Capparis sicula ssp. sicula.

    PubMed

    Conforti, F; Marcotullio, M C; Menichini, F; Statti, G A; Vannutelli, L; Burini, G; Menichini, F; Curini, M

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of collection zone on total phenol, flavonoid and glucosinolate contents and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of caper (Capparis sicula ssp. sicula). This species has been characterized through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates). The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the two collection zones. While the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids of the two samples were quite the same, their high-performance liquid chromatography profiles were very different. In both samples, the most abundant aglycone was quercetin which accounted for 60% of total flavonoids. Nuclear magnetic resonance data analysis allowed the identification of two compounds: 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids which represented 6.67% and 15.94%, respectively, of the total amount of flavonoids in sample 1. In sample 2, these two acids were still present, but their percentages were much less (2.20% and 1.71%, respectively). As far as we know, this is the first report about the presence of dicaffeoylquinic acids in Capparis. With regard to glucosinolate content, sample 1 showed a higher content of glucosinolates. In both samples, glucocapparin was the most abundant compound. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic C. sicula extracts using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene bleaching test and oxygen radical absorbance capacity showed that the sample 2 was more active than 1. As regards the inhibition of NO production, the extracts from sample 2 were more active than those from sample 1.

  19. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pollinator community structure and sources of spatial variation in plant--pollinator interactions in Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana.

    PubMed

    Moeller, David A

    2005-01-01

    The structure of diverse floral visitor assemblages and the nature of spatial variation in plant-pollinator interactions have important consequences for floral evolution and reproductive interactions among pollinator-sharing plant species. In this study, I use surveys of floral visitor communities across the geographic range of Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana (hereafter C. x. xantiana) (Onagraceae) to examine the structure of visitor communities, the specificity of the pollination system, and the role of variation in the abiotic vs. biotic environment in contributing to spatial variation in pollinator abundance and community composition. Although the assemblage of bee visitors to C. x. xantiana is very diverse (49 species), few were regular visitors and likely to act as pollinators. Seventy-four percent of visitor species accounted for only 11% of total visitor abundance and 69% were collected in three or fewer plant populations (of ten). Of the few reliable visitors, Clarkia pollen specialist bees were the most frequent visitors, carried more Clarkia pollen compared to generalist foragers, and were less likely to harbor foreign pollen. Overall, the core group of pollinators was obscured by high numbers of incidental visitors that are unlikely to contribute to pollination. In a geographic context, the composition of specialist pollinator assemblages varied considerably along the abiotic gradient spanning the subspecies' range. However, the overall abundance of specialist pollinators in plant populations was not influenced by the broad-scale abiotic gradient but strongly affected by local plant community associations. C. x. xantiana populations sympatric with pollinator-sharing congeners were visited twice as often by specialists compared to populations occurring alone. These positive indirect interactions among plant species may promote population persistence and species coexistence by enhancing individual reproductive success.

  1. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the physical quality of plantain (Musa ssp., group AAB) employing airflow reversal drying.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Miranda, J; Martínez-Sánchez, C E; Hernández-Santos, B; Juárez-Barrientos, J M; Ventura-Báez, E G; Herman-Lara, E

    2018-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the color and texture of plantain ( Musa ssp., group AAB) dried by airflow reversal drying. Plantain slices 1.0 cm thick were used. Pretreatment with two commercial enzymes, Pectinex Ultra SPL ( Aspergillus aculeatus ) and Pectinex 3XL ( Aspergillus niger ), was performed. Drying kinetics were determined with and without pretreatment at temperatures of 50, 65 and 80 °C using a fixed bed convective dryer. An air speed of 6 m/s, a bed height of 5 cm and either unidirectional flow or airflow reversal (every 15 min) were used for drying. Color and texture were analyzed, and consumer acceptance of the results of the best treatments was determined. Pretreatment with the enzyme A. niger and airflow reversal gave the best drying kinetics and showed the greatest reduction in drying time (59.0%) at 80 °C. The best hardness results were found at 80 °C with A. niger enzymatic pretreatment with both types of air flow. Brightness and hue angle showed that samples pretreated with enzymes and dried at 65 °C had a lighter yellow color compared to non-pretreated samples. Plantain samples enzymatically pretreated and dried at 65 and 80 °C were the most accepted by consumers. This kind of enzymatic pretreatment on plantain could allow the conservation of some physical properties and reduction of drying times relative to the current methodology.

  2. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to develop a method to determine the viability of cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 (L. bulgaricus) that may have entered into a viable but nonculturable state. This can happen due to its susceptibility to cold shock during lyophilization and storage. Propidium monoazide concentration, PMA incubation time, and light exposure time were optimized to fully exploit the PMA-qPCR approach to accurately assess the total number of living L. bulgaricus ND02. Although PMA has little influence on living cells, when concentrations of PMA were higher than 30μg/mL the number of PCR-positive living bacteria decreased from 10 6 to 10 5 cfu/mL in comparison with qPCR enumeration. Mixtures of living and dead cells were used as method verification samples for enumeration by PMA-qPCR, demonstrating that this method was feasible and effective for distinguishing living cells of L. bulgaricus when mixed with a known number of dead cells. We suggest that several conditions need to be studied further before PMA-qPCR methods can be accurately used to distinguish living from dead cells for enumeration under more realistic sampling situations. However, this research provides a rapid way to enumerate living cells of L. bulgaricus and could be used to optimize selection of cryoprotectants in the lyophilization process and develop technologies for high cell density cultivation and optimal freeze-drying processes. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  4. Assessment of the relative sensitivity of milk ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infectious dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Emilie L; Sanchez, Javier; Chaffer, Marcelo; McKenna, Shawn L B; Keefe, Greg P

    2017-01-01

    Milk ELISA are commonly used for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in dairy cows, due to low cost and quick processing for large numbers of samples. However, low sensitivity and variations from host and environmental factors can impede detection of MAP antibodies at early disease stages. The objectives of our study were to assess the sensitivity of milk ELISA in comparison with fecal tests and to evaluate how detectable antibody concentrations in milk vary with changes in fecal shedding of MAP, cow age, cow parity, days in milk, and time of year. To compare the sensitivity of a commercial milk ELISA with solid and broth fecal culture and with fecal real-time PCR, a longitudinal study was performed for the identification of MAP-infectious animals as determined by prior fecal testing for MAP shedding. In addition, associations between variation in milk MAP ELISA score and changes in fecal MAP shedding, host age, days in milk, and season were evaluated. Monthly milk and fecal samples were collected over 1 yr from 46 cows that were previously shedding MAP in their feces. Sensitivity of milk ELISA was 29.9% (95% CI: 24.8 to 35.1%), compared with 46.7% (40.7 to 52.7%) for fecal solid culture, 55.0% (49.3 to 60.7%) for fecal broth culture, and 78.4% (73.3 to 83.1%) for fecal direct real-time PCR. The effect of stage of lactation could not be separated from the effect of season, with increased milk ELISA scores at greater days in milk in winter. However, unpredictable monthly variations in results were observed among the 3 assays for individual cow testing, which highlights the importance of identifying patterns in pathogen and antibody detection over time in MAP-positive herds. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro bioassessment of the immunomodulatory activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae components using bovine macrophages and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Kang, H; You, Q; Ossa, F; Mead, P; Quinton, M; Karrow, N A

    2018-04-11

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its components are used for the prevention and treatment of enteric disease in different species; therefore, they may also be useful for preventing Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The objective of this study was to identify potential immunomodulatory S. cerevisiae components using a bovine macrophage cell line (BOMAC). The BOMAC phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species production, and immune-related gene (IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL13, IL23), transforming growth factor β, ARG1, CASP1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were investigated when BOMAC were cocultured with cell wall components from 4 different strains (A, B, C, and D) and 2 forms of dead yeast from strain A. The BOMAC phagocytosis of mCherry-labeled MAP was concentration-dependently attenuated when BOMAC were cocultured with yeast components for 6 h. Each yeast derivative also induced a concentration-dependent increase in BOMAC reactive oxygen species production after a 6-h exposure. In addition, BOMAC mRNA expression of the immune-related genes was investigated after 6 and 24 h of exposure to yeast components. All yeast components were found to regulate the immunomodulatory genes of BOMAC; however, the response varied among components and over time. The in vitro bioassessment studies reported here suggest that dead yeast and its cell wall components may be useful for modulating macrophage function before or during MAP infection. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteogenomic Analysis Greatly Expands the Identification of Proteins Related to Reproduction in the Apogamous Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Jonas; Fernández, Helena; Chaubey, Pururawa M; Valdés, Ana E; Gagliardini, Valeria; Cañal, María J; Russo, Giancarlo; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    Performing proteomic studies on non-model organisms with little or no genomic information is still difficult. However, many specific processes and biochemical pathways occur only in species that are poorly characterized at the genomic level. For example, many plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually, the first one allowing the generation of new genotypes and the latter their fixation. Thus, both modes of reproduction are of great agronomic value. However, the molecular basis of asexual reproduction is not well understood in any plant. In ferns, it combines the production of unreduced spores (diplospory) and the formation of sporophytes from somatic cells (apogamy). To set the basis to study these processes, we performed transcriptomics by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and shotgun proteomics by tandem mass spectrometry in the apogamous fern D. affinis ssp. affinis . For protein identification we used the public viridiplantae database (VPDB) to identify orthologous proteins from other plant species and new transcriptomics data to generate a "species-specific transcriptome database" (SSTDB). In total 1,397 protein clusters with 5,865 unique peptide sequences were identified (13 decoy proteins out of 1,410, protFDR 0.93% on protein cluster level). We show that using the SSTDB for protein identification increases the number of identified peptides almost four times compared to using only the publically available VPDB. We identified homologs of proteins involved in reproduction of higher plants, including proteins with a potential role in apogamy. With the increasing availability of genomic data from non-model species, similar proteogenomics approaches will improve the sensitivity in protein identification for species only distantly related to models.

  7. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset

  8. A novel vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-xing; Ma, Zhe; Yang, Xu-qiu; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2014-06-25

    To develop a vaccine against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) co-infection, the genes of porcine IL-18, capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2 and M-like protein (SzP) of SEZ were inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The recombinant swinepox virus rSPV-ICS was verified by PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSPV-ICS, 28 PCV2 and SEZ seronegative Bama minipigs were immunized with rSPV-ICS (n=8), commercial PCV2 vaccine and SEZ vaccine (n=8) or wild type SPV (n=8). The results showed that SzP-specific antibody and PCV2 neutralizing antibody of the rSPV-ICS immunized group increased significantly compared to the wild type SPV treated group after vaccination and increased continuously over time. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the rSPV-ICS immunized group were significantly higher than the other three groups, respectively. After been co-challenged with PCV2 and SEZ, 87.5% piglets in rSPV-ICS immunized group were survived. Significant reductions in gross lung lesion score, histopathological lung lesion score, and lymph node lesion score were noticed in the rSPV-ICS immunized group compared with the wtSPV treated group. The results suggested that the recombinant rSPV-ICS provided piglets with significant protection against PCV2-SEZ co-infection; thus, it offers proof-of-principle for the development of a vaccine for the prevention of these swine diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium and association analysis of stripe rust resistance in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) population in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sela, Hanan; Ezrati, Smadar; Ben-Yehuda, Pnina; Manisterski, Jacob; Akhunov, Eduard; Dvorak, Jan; Breiman, Adina; Korol, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Rapid LD decay in wild emmer population from Israel allows high-resolution association mapping. Known and putative new stripe rust resistance genes were found. Genome-wide association mapping (GWAM) is becoming an important tool for the discovery and mapping of loci underlying trait variation in crops, but in the wild relatives of crops the use of GWAM has been limited. Critical factors for the use of GWAM are the levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genetic diversity in mapped populations, particularly in those of self-pollinating species. Here, we report LD estimation in a population of 128 accessions of self-pollinating wild emmer, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, the progenitor of cultivated wheat, collected in Israel. LD decayed fast along wild emmer chromosomes and reached the background level within 1 cM. We employed GWAM for the discovery and mapping of genes for resistance to three isolates of Puccinia striiformis, the causative agent of wheat stripe rust. The wild emmer population was genotyped with the wheat iSelect assay including 8643 gene-associated SNP markers (wheat 9K Infinium) of which 2,278 were polymorphic. The significance of association between stripe rust resistance and each of the polymorphic SNP was tested using mixed linear model implemented in EMMA software. The model produced satisfactory results and uncovered four significant associations on chromosome arms 1BS, 1BL and 3AL. The locus on 1BS was located in a region known to contain stripe rust resistance genes. These results show that GWAM is an effective strategy for gene discovery and mapping in wild emmer that will accelerate the utilization of this genetic resource in wheat breeding.

  10. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.): Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    PubMed

    Murray-Dickson, Gillian; Ghazali, Muhammad; Ogden, Rob; Brown, Rafe; Auliya, Mark

    2017-01-01

    As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1) prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%); (2) Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3) individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  11. Novel Tn916-like elements confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kambarev, Stanimir; Pecorari, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane

    2018-02-09

    Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides. However, the underlying antibiotic resistance mobilome of Sgg remains poorly understood. To investigate the mobile genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in multiresistant clinical Sgg. Isolate NTS31106099 was recovered from a patient with IE and CRC at Nantes University Hospital, France and studied by Illumina WGS and comparative genomics. Molecular epidemiology of the identified mobile element(s) was performed using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), PCR, PFGE and WGS. Mobility was investigated by PCR and filter mating. Two novel conjugative transposons, Tn6263 and Tn6331, confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical Sgg. They display classical family Tn916/Tn1545 modular architecture and harbour an aph(3')-III→sat4→ant(6)-Ia→erm(B) multiresistance gene cluster, related to pRE25 of Enterococcus faecium. These and/or closely related elements are highly prevalent among genetically heterogeneous clinical isolates of Sgg. Previously unknown Tn916-like mobile genetic elements conferring aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance make Sgg, collectively with other gut Firmicutes such as enterococci and eubacteria, a potential laterally active reservoir of these antibiotic resistance determinants among the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  12. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.): Conservation implications for the worlds’ most traded snake species

    PubMed Central

    Ghazali, Muhammad; Ogden, Rob; Brown, Rafe; Auliya, Mark

    2017-01-01

    As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins—which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python’s native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1) prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley’s modification of Wallace’s line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%); (2) Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3) individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans. PMID:28817588

  13. Inhibition of Fusarium solani Infection in Murine Keratocytes by Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 Culture Filtrate In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianzhang; Chen, Fang; Kan, Tong; Zhuang, Hua; Zhang, Jingjin; Han, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    To explore the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 (L. salivarius JCM1231) culture filtrate against Fusarium solani (F. solani) and its effects on murine keratocytes (MKs) infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 was cultured in an anaerobic incubator for 24 h, and the L. salivarius culture filtrate (LSCF) was prepared .The antifungal activity of L. salivarius JCM1231 against F. solani was determined with a plate overlay assay, agar diffusion assay, and conidial germination inhibition test. The effects of temperature, pH, and proteolytic enzymes on the antifungal activity of LSCF were detected with microtiter plate-well assay and conidial germination inhibition assay. Furthermore, the effects of LSCF on MKs infected with F. solani were detected. Cell activity and apoptosis were measured using methylthiazoletetrazolium assays and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokines were measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and mycotoxin production was detected with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Conidial germination and mycelia growth of F. solani were significantly inhibited by LSCF. The antifungal substances produced by L. salivarius JCM1231 were heat unstable, proteinaceous, and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were active within a narrow acidic pH range between 2.0 and 4.0. In the presence of 15 µg/ml of LSCF, cell activity was significantly increased, and cell apoptosis, the level of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions, and mycotoxin (zearalenone and fumonisin B1) productions were decreased significantly in MKs infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 culture filtrate can effectively inhibit F. solani growth and protect MKs against F. solani infection.

  14. The novel virulence-related gene nlxA in the lipopolysaccharide cluster of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri is involved in the production of lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide, motility, biofilm formation and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Hu, Xiufang; Wang, Nian

    2012-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence factor of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease. In this research, a novel gene, designated as nlxA (novel LPS cluster gene of X. citri ssp. citri), in the LPS cluster of X. citri ssp. citri 306, was characterized. Our results indicate that nlxA is required for O-polysaccharide biosynthesis by encoding a putative rhamnosyltransferase. This is supported by several lines of evidence: (i) NlxA shares 40.14% identity with WsaF, which acts as a rhamnosyltransferase; (ii) sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that four bands of the O-antigen part of LPS were missing in the LPS production of the nlxA mutant; this is also consistent with a previous report that the O-antigen moiety of LPS of X. citri ssp. citri is composed of a rhamnose homo-oligosaccharide; (iii) mutation of nlxA resulted in a significant reduction in the resistance of X. citri ssp. citri to different stresses, including sodium dodecylsulphate, polymyxin B, H(2)O(2), phenol, CuSO(4) and ZnSO(4). In addition, our results indicate that nlxA plays an important role in extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, stress resistance, motility on semi-solid plates, virulence and in planta growth in the host plant grapefruit. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  15. Reduced-gravity Testing of The Huygens Probe Ssp Tiltmeter and Hasi Accelerometer Sensors and Their Role In Reconstruction of The Probe Descent Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, N.; Zarnecki, J.

    When the ESA Huygens Probe arrives at Titan in 2005, measurements taken during and after the descent through the atmosphere are likely to revolutionise our under- standing of SaturnSs most enigmatic moon. The accurate atmospheric profiling of Titan from these measurements will require knowledge of the probe descent trajectory and in some cases attitude history, whilst certain atmospheric information (e.g. wind speeds) may be inferred directly from the probe dynamics during descent. Two of the instruments identified as contributing valuable information for the reconstruction of the probeSs parachute descent dynamics are the Surface Science Package Tilt sensor (SSP-TIL) and the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument servo accelerometer (HASI-ACC). This presentation provides an overview of these sensors and their static calibration before describing an investigation into their real-life dynamic performance under simulated Titan-gravity conditions via a low-cost parabolic flight opportunity. The combined use of SSP-TIL and HASI-ACC in characterising the aircraft dynam- ics is also demonstrated and some important challenges are highlighted. Results from some simple spin tests are also presented. Finally, having validated the performance of the sensors under simulated Titan conditions, estimates are made as to the output of SSP-TIL and HASI-ACC under a variety of probe dynamics, ranging from verti- cal descent with spin to a simple 3 degree-of-freedom parachute descent model with horizontal gusting. It is shown how careful consideration must be given to the instru- mentsS principles of operation in each case, and also the impact of the sampling rates and resolutions as selected for the Huygens mission. The presentation concludes with a discussion of ongoing work on more advanced descent modelling and surface dy- namics modelling, and also of a proposal for the testing of the sensors on a sea-surface.

  16. Development of a rapid SNP-typing assay to differentiate Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis strains used in probiotic-supplemented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, Sara; Furumoto, Emily J; Loquasto, Joseph R; Morra, Patrizia; Grassi, Ausilia; Roberts, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Identification at the genus, species, and strain levels is desirable when a probiotic microorganism is added to foods. Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BAL) are commonly used worldwide in dairy products supplemented with probiotic strains. However, strain discrimination is difficult because of the high degree of genome identity (99.975%) between different genomes of this subspecies. Typing of monomorphic species can be carried out efficiently by targeting informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Findings from a previous study analyzing both reference and commercial strains of BAL identified SNP that could be used to discriminate common strains into 8 groups. This paper describes development of a minisequencing assay based on the primer extension reaction (PER) targeting multiple SNP that can allow strain differentiation of BAL. Based on previous data, 6 informative SNP were selected for further testing, and a multiplex preliminary PCR was optimized to amplify the DNA regions containing the selected SNP. Extension primers (EP) annealing immediately adjacent to the selected SNP were developed and tested in simplex and multiplex PER to evaluate their performance. Twenty-five strains belonging to 9 distinct genomic clusters of B. animalis ssp. lactis were selected and analyzed using the developed minisequencing assay, simultaneously targeting the 6 selected SNP. Fragment analysis was subsequently carried out in duplicate and demonstrated that the assay yielded 8 specific profiles separating the most commonly used commercial strains. This novel multiplex PER approach provides a simple, rapid, flexible SNP-based subtyping method for proper characterization and identification of commercial probiotic strains of BAL from fermented dairy products. To assess the usefulness of this method, DNA was extracted from yogurt manufactured with and without the addition of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. Extracted DNA was then subjected to the minisequencing

  17. The predictive value of FDG-PET with 3D-SSP for surgical outcomes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Higo, Takuma; Sugano, Hidenori; Nakajima, Madoka; Karagiozov, Kostadin; Iimura, Yasushi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sato, Kiyoshi; Arai, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of (18)F-2-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with statistical analysis for the foci detection and predictive utility for postsurgical seizure outcome of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). We evaluated 40 patients who were diagnosed mTLE and underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in our institute. Preoperative interictal FDG-PET with statistical analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) was detected with several clinical data including seizure semiology, MRI, scalp electroencephalography, surgical procedure with SAH or ATL and postsurgical outcome. The region of interest (ROI) was defined on 'Hippocampus & Amygdala', 'Parahippocampal gyrus & Uncus', 'T1 & T2', and 'T3 & Fusiform gyrus'. We obtained the ratio of hypometabolism difference (RHD) by 3D-SSP, and evaluated the relation among hypometabolic extent, surgical outcome and surgical procedure. The RHD in each ROIs ipsilateral to operative side was significantly higher than that of contralateral side in good outcome group. Hypometabolism of 'Hippocampus & Amygdala' was most reliable prognostic factor. Patients of discordant with presurgical examinations hardly showed obvious lateralized hypometabolism. Nevertheless, when they have significantly high RHD in mesial temporal lobe, good surgical outcome was expected. There was not significant difference of RHD distribution between SAH and ATL in good outcome group. Significant hypometabolism in mesial temporal lobe on FDG-PET with 3D-SSP is useful to predict good surgical outcome for patients with mTLE, particularly in discordant patients with hypometabolism in mesial temporal structure. However, FDG-PET is not indicative of surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A failed tentative to design a super carbonic anhydrase having the biochemical properties of the most thermostable CA (SspCA) and the fastest (SazCA) enzymes.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze a simple reaction in all life domains: the carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons: CO2 + H2O → [Formula: see text] + H(+). Six different, genetically distinct CA families are known to date, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs. Bacteria encode for CAs belong to the α-, β- and γ-classes. Recently, our groups investigated the presence of CAs in two bacteria belonging to the genus Sulfurihydrogenibium living in hot springs all over the world, at temperatures of up to 110 °C. The α-CAs from Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense and Sulfurihydrogenibium azorense, denominated SspCA and SazCA, respectively, are highly thermostable, maintaining a good catalytic activity even after being heated for a prolonged period. Moreover, SazCA was to be the fastest CA known to date with a kcat value of 4.40 × 10(6) s(-1) and a kcat/KM value of 3.5 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). SspCA also showed a good catalytic activity for the same reaction, with a kcat value of 9.35 × 10(5) s(-1) and a kcat/KM value of 1.1 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), proving that the "extremo-α-CAs" are between the most effective CAs known to date. Here, we describe a failed tentative to obtain a super-CA, SupCA, by combining the amino acid sequence of SazCA and SspCA. To achieve this goal we introduced six His residues in N-terminal sequence of SspCA. However the obtained SupCA showed lower catalytic activity and thermostability compared to both extremophilic enzymes from which it has been designed. We rationalized the biochemical reasons of this failure, which may be useful to design enzymes with a better catalytic activity.

  19. Future Climate Prediction of Urban Atmosphere in A Tropical Megacity: Utilization of RCP/SSP Scenarios with an Urban Growth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmanto, N. S.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.; Takakuwa, S.

    2016-12-01

    Economic development in Southeast Asia megacities leads to rapid transformation into more complicated urban configurations. These configurations, including building geometry, enhance aerodynamic drag thus reducing near-surface wind speeds. Roughness parameters representing building geometry, along with anthropogenic heat emissions, contribute to the formation of urban heat islands (UHI). All these have been reproduced successfully in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with an improved single-layer urban canopy model incorporating a realistic distribution of urban parameters and anthropogenic heat emission in the Jakarta Greater Area. We apply this technology to climate change studies by introducing future urbanization defined by urban sprawl, vertical rise in buildings, and increase anthropogenic heat emission (AHE) due to population changes, into futuristic climate modelling. To simulate 2050s future climate, pseudo-global warming method was used which relied on current and ensembles of 5 CMIP5 GCMs for 2 representative concentration pathways (RCP), 2.6 and 8.5. To determine future urbanization level, 2050 population growth and energy consumption were estimated from shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP). This allows the estimation of future urban sprawl, building geometry, and AHE using the SLEUTH urban growth model and spatial growth assumptions. Two cases representing combinations of RCP and SSP were simulated in WRF: RCP2.6-SSP1 and RCP8.5-SSP3. Each case corresponds to best and worst-case scenarios of implementing adaptation and mitigation strategies, respectively. It was found that 2-m temperature of Jakarta will increase by 0.62°C (RCP2.6) and 1.44°C (RCP8.5) solely from background climate change; almost on the same magnitude as the background temperature increase of RCP2.6 (0.5°C) and RCP8.5 (1.2°C). Compared with previous studies, the result indicates that the effect of climate change on UHI in tropical cities may be lesser than

  20. Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Russo, Maria T; Pirisi, Filippo M; Satta, Maurizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2003-02-12

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of the Sardinian dwarf curry plant [Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym] was studied. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of two chemotypes; morphological and chemical differences confirmed the presence of two chemotypes (A and B). The maximum yields were 0.18 and 0.04% (v/w) for flowering tops and stems, respectively. The concentrations of nerol and its esters (acetate and propionate), limonene, and linalool reach their highest values during the flowering stage both in flowers and in stems. Besides the essential oil, type B showed an interesting antifungal activity.

  1. A 16 deg2 survey of emission-line galaxies at z < 1.5 in HSC-SSP Public Data Release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Furusawa, Hisanori; Momose, Rieko; Koyama, Yusei; Silverman, John D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on a comprehensive survey of emission-line galaxies at z < 1.5 based on narrowband imaging. The first Public Data Release provides us with data from two narrowband filters, specifically NB816 and NB921 over 5.7 deg2 and 16.2 deg2 respectively. The 5 σ limiting magnitudes are 25.2 mag (UltraDeep layer, 1.4 deg2) and 24.8 mag (Deep layer, 4.3 deg2) for NB816, and 25.1 mag (UltraDeep, 2.9 deg2) and 24.6-24.8 mag (Deep, 13.3 deg2) for NB921. The wide-field imaging allows us to construct unprecedentedly large samples of 8054 H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25 and 0.40, 8656 [O III] emitters at z ≈ 0.63 and 0.84, and 16877 [O II] emitters at z ≈ 1.19 and 1.47. We map the cosmic web on scales out to about 50 comoving Mpc that includes galaxy clusters, identified by red sequence galaxies, located at the intersection of filamentary structures of star-forming galaxies. The luminosity functions of emission-line galaxies are measured with precision and are consistent with published studies. The wide field coverage of the data enables us to measure the luminosity functions up to brighter luminosities than previous studies. The comparison of the luminosity functions between the different HSC-SSP fields suggests that a survey volume of >5 × 105 Mpc3 is essential to overcome cosmic variance. Since the current data have not reached the full depth expected for the HSC-SSP, the color cut in i - NB816 or z - NB921 induces a bias towards star-forming galaxies with large equivalent widths, primarily seen in the stellar mass functions for the H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25-0.40. Even so, the emission-line galaxies clearly cover a wide range of luminosity, stellar mass, and environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the narrowband data from the HSC-SSP for investigating star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5.

  2. Effects of root medium pH on root water transport and apoplastic pH in red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zwiazek, J J

    2016-11-01

    Soil pH is a major factor affecting plant growth. Plant responses to pH conditions widely vary between different species of plants. However, the exact mechanisms of high pH tolerance of plants are largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the pH responses of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings, a relatively sensitive species to high soil pH, with red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), reported to be relatively tolerant of high pH conditions. We examined the hypotheses that tolerance of plants to high root zone pH is linked to effective control of root apoplastic pH to facilitate nutrient and water transport processes In the study, we exposed paper birch and red-osier dogwood seedlings for six weeks to pH 5, 7 and 9 under controlled-environment conditions in hydroponic culture. Then, we measured biomass, gas exchange, root hydraulic conductivity, ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity, xylem sap pH and the relative abundance of major elements in leaf protoplasts and apoplasts. The study sheds new light on the rarely studied high pH tolerance mechanisms in plants. We found that compared with paper birch, red-osier dogwood showed greater growth, higher gas exchange, and maintained higher root hydraulic conductivity as well as lower xylem sap pH under high pH conditions. The results suggest that the relatively high pH tolerance of dogwood is associated with greater water uptake ability and maintenance of low apoplastic pH. These traits may have a significant impact on the uptake of Fe and Mn by leaf cells. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Implications of PCR and ELISA results on the routes of bulk-tank contamination with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Beaver, A; Cazer, C L; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism itself (by culture or PCR). High ELISA titers may be directly associated with excretion of MAP into milk but only indirectly linked to environmental contamination of the bulk tank. Patterns of bulk-milk ELISA and bulk-milk PCR results could therefore provide insight into the routes of contamination and level of infection or environmental burden. Coupled with questionnaire responses pertaining to management, the results of these diagnostic tests could reveal correlations with herd characteristics or on-farm practices that distinguish herds with high and low environmental bulk-tank MAP contamination. A questionnaire on hygiene, management, and Johne's specific parameters was administered to 292 dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Bulk-tank samples were collected from each farm for evaluation by real-time PCR and ELISA. Before DNA extraction and testing of the unknown samples, bulk-milk template preparation was optimized with respect to parameters such as MAP fractionation patterns and lysis. Two regression models were developed to explore the relationships among bulk-tank PCR, ELISA, environmental predictors, and herd characteristics. First, ELISA optical density (OD) was designated as the outcome in a linear regression model. Second, the log odds of being PCR positive in the bulk tank were modeled using binary logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood. The proportion of PCR-positive bulk tanks was highest for New York and for organic farms, providing a clue as to the geographical patterns of MAP-positive bulk-tank samples and relationship to production type. Bulk-milk PCR positivity was also higher for large relative to small herds. The models

  4. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L . ssp. durum ). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum . The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis -regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots

  5. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation