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Sample records for bhupendra singh vivek

  1. Plaque Production by Arboviruses in Singh's Aedes albopictus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yunker, C. E.; Cory, J.

    1975-01-01

    We report plaquing tests of 124 virus strains, mostly arboviruses of 21 serological groups, in Singh's line of Aedes albopictus cells. Thirty of these plaqued; all were arboviruses of six groups and were known or presumed to be mosquito borne. Failing to plaque were 86 strains of arboviruses, mostly tick borne, two strains of insect pathogens, and six animal viruses not classified as arboviruses. Among mosquito-borne agents, plaquing ability appeared related to serological classification. California group and most A-group viruses failed to plaque, but nearly all members of B and Bunyamwera groups readily plaqued. Within serological group B, 14 of 16 mosquito-borne agents plaqued, but none of 13 tick-borne or vector-unassociated viruses did so. Some implications of these results for recognition and classification of arboviruses are discussed. Images PMID:234160

  2. The Role of Contrast in the Perception of Achromatic Transparency: Comment on Singh and Anderson (2002) and Anderson (2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Marc K.

    2008-01-01

    M. Singh and B. L. Anderson proposed a perceptual theory of achromatic transparency in which the perceived transmittance of a perceived transparent filter is determined by the ratio of the Michelson contrast seen in the region of transparency to that of the background seen directly. Subsequently, B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, and J. Meng proposed that…

  3. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  4. Applications of Singh-Rajput Mes in Recall Operations of Quantum Associative Memory for a Two- Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2016-03-01

    Recall operations of quantum associative memory (QuAM) have been conducted separately through evolutionary as well as non-evolutionary processes in terms of unitary and non- unitary operators respectively by separately choosing our recently derived maximally entangled states (Singh-Rajput MES) and Bell's MES as memory states for various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES. it has been demonstrated that in both the types of recall processes the first and the fourth states of Singh-Rajput MES are most suitable choices as memory states for the queries `11' and `00' respectively while none of the Bell's MES is a suitable choice as valid memory state in these recall processes. It has been demonstrated that all the four states of Singh-Rajput MES are suitable choice as valid memory states for the queries `1?', `?1', `?0' and `0?' while none of the Bell's MES is suitable choice as the valid memory state for these queries also.

  5. Other Aspects of Sutherland and Singh's Take on Learned Helplessness and Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Mostert, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    Sutherland and Singh (2004) focus on the relationship between students' inappropriate behaviors and academic failure, articulating how this relationship may be mediated by learned helplessness in a reciprocally negative reinforcing cycle. In responding to their work, the authors suggest a thread of disciplined inquiry and contextual framework for…

  6. Processes of Quantum Associative Memory (QuAM) Through New Maximally Entangled States (Singh-Rajput MES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    Using Singh-Rajput MES as memory states in the evolutionary process of pattern storage and the non-evolutionary process of pattern recall (the two fundamental constituents of QuAM), the suitability and superiority of these MES over Bell's MES have been demonstrated in both these processes. It has been shown that, under the operations of all the possible memorization operators for a two-qubit system, the first two states of Singh-Rajput MES are useful for storing the pattern |11> and the last two of these MES are useful in storing the pattern |10> while Bell's MES are not much suitable as memory states in a valid memorization process. The recall operations have also been conducted by separately choosing Singh-Rajput MES and Bell's MES as memory states for possible various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES.

  7. Gastrointestinal helminthiasis: prevalence and associated determinants in domestic ruminants of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Iqbal, Zafar; Hussain, Altaf

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated determinants (e.g., sex, age, on-farm management and husbandry) of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in the domestic animals of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, 1,140 cattle, 1,140 buffaloes, 660 goats, 840 sheep, and 156 camels were randomly selected and their fecal samples were screened every other week for a year using a modified floatation technique. The samples positive for strongyle-type eggs had the parasite species identified using coproculture. It was found that the prevalence of GI helminths was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (44.17%; 371/840) than in other livestock. Sheep were followed in order by goats (40.15%; 265/660), buffaloes (39.82%; 454/1,140), and cattle (33.68%; 384/1,140). The important helminth species identified were Fasciola (F.) gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara vitulorum, Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Ostertagia spp., Cooperia spp., Strongyloides spp., Moniezia spp., and Trichuris spp. The prevalence of GI helminths except F. hepatica and F. gigantica was significantly higher in grazing animals, females (P < 0.05) and young (P < 0.05) of all the host species when compared with stall-fed animals, males and adults, respectively. Using ponds and rivers/canals as drinking water were found to have significant influence (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of GI helminths. The results provide a baseline data for planning future research and control strategies against GI helminthes.

  8. Frequency distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting bubaline population of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2013-02-01

    The current research was conducted to define the epidemiological parameters related to the prevalence and associated risk factors of tick infestation in buffaloes in the Toba Tek Singh District of central Punjab, Pakistan. The prevalence of ticks on buffaloes was 31.21 % (352/1,128). Among the species of ticks, the prevalence of Hyalomma marginatum (75.56 %; 266/352) was higher (P < 0.05; odd's ratios (OR) = 3.09) than Rhipicephalus microplus (24.44 %; 86/352). Female buffaloes (69.60 %; 245/352) and younger animals (59.09 %; 208/352) were more heavily infested than males (30.40 %; 107/352) and adult animals (40.91 %; 144/352), respectively, whereas breed was not a determinant (P > 0.05). With regard to management and husbandry practices, the prevalence of ticks was higher in animals kept on uncemented flooring (54.55 %; 192/352; OR = 1.90) followed in order by partially cemented (28.69 %; 101/352; OR = 1.71) and fully cemented flooring (16.76 %; 59/352). With regard to feeding systems, grazing animals (64.20 %; 226/352) were more burdened compared to stall-fed animals (35.80 %; 126/352). The highest tick prevalence was recorded in closed housing systems (52.27 %; 184/352), followed by semi-closed (34.09 %; 120/352; OR = 1.53), and open housing systems (13.64 %; 48/352). Rope-tied animals (70.73 %; 249/352) were more parasitized (P > 0.05) than open (29.27 %; 103/352). Prevalence in the study district was highest in tehsil Kamalia followed in order by T.T. Singh and Gojra. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, neck, ear, dewlap, back, abdomen, foreleg, shoulder, hind leg, congenital areas, and tail) ranged from highest at inside thigh (17 %) to lowest at rump. In the present survey, the highest prevalence was recorded in July and lowest in December. Comparison of hematological changes showed remarkable differences between infested and non-infested animals, in the form of low values of infested animals, whereas an increment in biochemical parameter

  9. A redescription of Sundanonchus behuri (Agrawal & Singh, 1982) n. comb. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridea: Sundanonchidae) from the gills of the freshwater Gangetic leaffish, Nandus nandus (Perciformes: Nandidae) in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amit; Agrawal, Nirupama; Pandey, Keshava C

    2009-03-01

    Urocleidus behuri [Agrawal N., Singh H.S., On a known and three unknown monogenetic Urocleidus Mueller, 1934. Pranikee 1982; 3: 22-34], described from Nandus nandus in India, is reassigned to Sundanonchus Lim & Furtado [ Lim L.H., Furtado J.I., Sundanonchus g.n. (Monogenea, Tetraonchoididae) from two Malaysian freshwater fishes. Fol Parasitol 1985; 32: 11-19]. Sundanonchus triradicatus Lim & Furtado [Lim L.H., Furtado J.I., Sundanonchus g.n. (Monogenea, Tetraonchoididae) from two Malaysian freshwater fishes. Fol Parasitol 1985; 32: 11-19] is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of U. behuri and a new nomenclatural combination, Sundanonchus behuri is proposed. This article provides a redescription of this new combination, S. behuri [ Agrawal N., Singh H.S., On a known and three unknown monogenetic Urocleidus Mueller, 1934. Pranikee 1982; 3: 22-34], including the previously undescribed egg morphology, based on newly collected specimens from N. nandus in India-a new geographical record.

  10. Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from carnivores in southern Africa, with validation of the related genera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Lane, Emily P; McRee, Anna E; Foggin, Chris; van Dyk, D Schalk; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2013-09-01

    Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 are described from carnivores from southern Africa. Cylicospirura crocutae Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben) in Zimbabwe is distinguished from its congeners by combinations of characters, including the presence of four cephalic and four external labial papillae, while internal labial papillae were not distinct, the presence of groups of small accessory teeth between the six large tricuspid teeth, the fifth and the sixth pairs of the caudal papillae being equidistant from the cloaca, and a large ratio of length of the muscular oesophagus to that of the glandular oesophagus. Cylicospirura pardalis Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) in the Republic of South Africa is characterized by having tricuspid teeth with large, claw-like, abaxial cusps, four cephalic and six internal labial papillae. Based on the number of caudal papillae and the position of the vulva, the subgenera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952 are re-elevated to generic rank. Amended diagnoses are proposed for the genera Cylicospirura, Gastronodus and Skrjabinocercina. Petrowospirura lyncis Matschulsky, 1952 is recognized as valid and, together with P. petrowi Sadykhov, 1957 and P. barusi Arya, 1979, is transferred to Cylicospirura as C. lyncis (Matschulsky, 1952) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., C. petrowi (Sadykhov, 1957) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n. and C. barusi (Arya, 1979) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., respectively. PMID:24261135

  11. Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from carnivores in southern Africa, with validation of the related genera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Lane, Emily P; McRee, Anna E; Foggin, Chris; van Dyk, D Schalk; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2013-09-01

    Two new species of Cylicospirura Vevers, 1922 are described from carnivores from southern Africa. Cylicospirura crocutae Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben) in Zimbabwe is distinguished from its congeners by combinations of characters, including the presence of four cephalic and four external labial papillae, while internal labial papillae were not distinct, the presence of groups of small accessory teeth between the six large tricuspid teeth, the fifth and the sixth pairs of the caudal papillae being equidistant from the cloaca, and a large ratio of length of the muscular oesophagus to that of the glandular oesophagus. Cylicospirura pardalis Junker et Mutafchiev sp. n. from Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) in the Republic of South Africa is characterized by having tricuspid teeth with large, claw-like, abaxial cusps, four cephalic and six internal labial papillae. Based on the number of caudal papillae and the position of the vulva, the subgenera Gastronodus Singh, 1934 and Skrjabinocercina Matschulsky, 1952 are re-elevated to generic rank. Amended diagnoses are proposed for the genera Cylicospirura, Gastronodus and Skrjabinocercina. Petrowospirura lyncis Matschulsky, 1952 is recognized as valid and, together with P. petrowi Sadykhov, 1957 and P. barusi Arya, 1979, is transferred to Cylicospirura as C. lyncis (Matschulsky, 1952) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., C. petrowi (Sadykhov, 1957) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n. and C. barusi (Arya, 1979) Junker et Mutafchiev comb. n., respectively.

  12. Demonstration of a very inexpensive, turbidimetric, real-time, RT-LAMP detection platform using shrimp Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model.

    PubMed

    Arunrut, Narong; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED) light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR) photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65 °C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p ≤ 0.05). This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings. PMID:25255231

  13. Demonstration of a very inexpensive, turbidimetric, real-time, RT-LAMP detection platform using shrimp Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model.

    PubMed

    Arunrut, Narong; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED) light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR) photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65 °C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p ≤ 0.05). This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings.

  14. Comment on 'A reinterpretation of the linear heat flow and heat production relationship for the exponential model of the heat production in the crust' by R.N. Singh & J.G. Negi.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In their recent paper, Singh & Negi, (This journal, 57, 741-744) contend that if thd slope of the empirical linear relation between heat flow and heat production is interpreted as the decay-length of an exponential depth-distribution of sources, a discrepancy rises, whereas if it is interpreted as the depth of a step distribution, it does not. I should like to point out that their discrepancy follows from their arbitrary assumption of one of a range of physical possibilities unconstrained by the observations; with an equally valid alternate assumption (Lachenbruch 1970) the discrepancy disappears. In any case such discrepancies are probably minor compared to physical difficulties that arise from the step model, and to uncertainties introduced by other assumptions in any simple model.-Author

  15. Note on: 'EMLCLLER-A program for computing the EM response of a large loop source over a layered earth model' by N.P. Singh and T. Mogi, Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 1301-1307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamie, Majid

    2016-11-01

    Singh and Mogi (2003) presented a forward modeling (FWD) program, coded in FORTRAN 77 called "EMLCLLER", which is capable of computing the frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) response of a large circular loop, in terms of vertical magnetic component (Hz), over 1D layer earth models; computations at this program could be performed by assuming variable transmitter-receiver configurations and incorporating both conduction and displacement currents into computations. Integral equations at this program are computed through digital linear filters based on the Hankel transforms together with analytic solutions based on hyper-geometric functions. Despite capabilities of EMLCLLER, there are some mistakes at this program that make its FWD results unreliable. The mistakes in EMLCLLER arise in using wrong algorithm for computing reflection coefficient of the EM wave in TE-mode (rTE), and using flawed algorithms for computing phase and normalized phase values relating to Hz; in this paper corrected form of these mistakes are presented. Moreover, in order to illustrate how these mistakes can affect FWD results, EMLCLLER and corrected version of this program presented in this paper titled "EMLCLLER_Corr" are conducted on different two- and three-layered earth models; afterwards their FWD results in terms of real and imaginary parts of Hz, its normalized amplitude, and the corresponding normalized phase curves are plotted versus frequency and compared to each other. In addition, in Singh and Mogi (2003) extra derivations for computing radial component of the magnetic field (Hr) and angular component of the electric field (Eϕ) are also presented where the numerical solution presented for Hr is incorrect; in this paper the correct numerical solution for this derivation is also presented.

  16. Philosophizing cannot substitute for experimentation: comment on Hoffman, Singh & Prakash

    PubMed Central

    Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    The perception of 3D shape must be excluded from Hoffman et al., “interface theory” primarily because shape is characterized by its symmetries. When these symmetries are used as a priori constraints, 3D shapes are always recovered from 2D retinal images veridically. These facts make it clear that 3D shape perception is completely different from, as well as more important than, all other perceptions because the veridicality of our perception of 3D shapes (and 3D scenes) accounts for our successful adaptation to the natural environment. PMID:26384989

  17. N P Singh: History of the first intensive care unit in Delhi – reminiscences

    PubMed Central

    Devanandan, SP

    2010-01-01

    As most of us are aware, ventilator support came to stay after the polio epidemic in Denmark in the ‘50s. Many of us are also aware that Peter Safar, an Anaesthesiologist, is credited with pioneering cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), who also wrote a book titled “The ABC of Resuscitation” in 1957 for training the public in CPR. It was later adopted by the American Heart Association. He also started the first intensive care unit (ICU) in 1958 in the USA. Ten years later, from 1968, the specialty grew from strength to strength in our country and, in 1992, the Society of Critical Care Medicine was formed. PMID:21224980

  18. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  19. Reverse engineering the world: a commentary on Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash, "The interface theory of perception".

    PubMed

    Fields, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Does perception hide the truth? Information theory, computer science, and quantum theory all suggest that the answer is "yes." They suggest, indeed, that useful perception is only feasible because the truth can be hidden.

  20. Contribution to our knowledge of the whitefly genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China, including Taiwan and Hong Kong, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Two new whitefly species, Aleuroclava sterculiae sp. nov., collected from Sterculia nobilis (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) of Qingxiu hill park (Guangxi, China), and Aleuroclava rosae sp. nov., collected from Stranvaesia sp. (Rosales: Rosaceae) of Maoer Mountain (Guangxi, China), are described with morphology, line illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In addition, two other whitefly species, Aleuroclava lefroyi (Sundararaj & David) and Aleuroclava manii (David), are reported as new to the fauna of China, and are discussed. An identification key to Aleuroclava species known from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong is provided. The specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University (YZU). PMID:27470767

  1. Comment on "Atomic structure calculations and identification of EUV and SXR spectral lines in Sr XXX" by A. Goyal, I. Khatri, S. Aggarwal, A.K. Singh, M. Mohan [J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2015;161:157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, Goyal et al. [1] reported energies and lifetimes (τ) for the lowest 113 levels of the 2s22p5, 2s2p6, 2s22p43ℓ, 2s2p53ℓ and 2p63ℓ configurations of F-like Sr XXX. For the calculations they adopted the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) and the flexible atomic code (FAC). Additionally, they also listed radiative rates (A- values), oscillator strengths (f- values) and line strengths (S- values) for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2), but only from the ground to the higher excited levels. However, there are two clear anomalies in their reported data. Firstly, the f-values listed from FAC in their Tables 3-6 are larger than from MCDF by a factor of two, for all transitions. This is because they have blindly listed the output from FAC without realising that, unlike MCDF, FAC lists ωf where ω is the statistical weight, and happens to be exactly 2 in the present case. Secondly, their lifetime for level 2 (2s22p51/2 o 2P) is incorrect. This is because the dominant contributing transition for this level is 1-2 M1 for which A=3.25×106 s-1, listed (correctly) in their Table 5, and this leads to τ=3.08×10-7 s, and not 1.54×10-7 s, as listed in their Table 1.

  2. Comment on “Structural, dielectric, optical and ferroelectric property of urea succinic acid crystals grown in aqueous solution containing maleic acid” by B.K. Singh et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 71 (2010) 1774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew

    2012-07-01

    The volume of elementary cell of the urea succinic acid (M-USA) growing from a solution containing 1 mol% maleic acid is 69% greater than that of urea succinic acid (USA) grown in the usual conditions. M-USA crystallises in the monoclinic system with a centre of symmetry, which excludes the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The results presented in the paper commented on are artefacts.

  3. Brain Chips Help Paralyzed Man Regain Sense of Touch Using Robotic Arm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dr. Vineeta Singh. She is a professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco School ... Singh, a fellow of the American Academy of Neurology. "We're talking about refining it for the ...

  4. Unlocking Shelves: Fostering a Culture of Reading and Inclusion through Open Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukunda, Usha; Vellanki, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    This article features a conversation between Usha Mukunda, who identifies herself as a librarian, and Vivek Vellanki, who is currently pursuing a doctoral degree in education. Mukunda has been successful in challenging the stereotypical image of the librarian as being serious, angry, and detached. Shortly after meeting her, one would likely be…

  5. Education Policy and the Pursuit of Equality: Perspectives from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Vellanki, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    1994 is an important year in South African history. It brought about significant socio-political changes in an attempt to undo the unjust practices perpetuated during the apartheid regime. The apartheid government had severely impacted all spheres and institutions of society, including education. In this interview, Vivek Vellanki asks Doctor Yusuf…

  6. Reply to comment by P.J. O'Brien on: “The onset of India-Asia continental collision: Early, steep subduction required by the timing of UHP metamorphism in the western Himalaya” by Mary L. Leech, S. Singh, A.K. Jain, Simon L. Klemperer and R.M. Manickavasagam, Earth Planetary Science Letters 234 (2005) 83-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, Mary L.; Singh, Sandeep; Jain, A. K.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Manickavasagam, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    We thank O'Brien for directing our attention to his recent publication on modeling of diffusion in garnets, including one garnet from the Tso Morari Complex [1], and allowing us to show how our data and existing interpretation are consistent with his model. It seems O'Brien wants the timing of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) in the Tso Morari Complex to be the same as the well-established 46 Ma UHPM event in Kaghan over 500 km to the northwest (e.g., [2]), and is attempting to reinterpret our U-Pb zircon dating from the Tso Morari Complex to fit his notion. But rather than fight the age data, why not develop a model that fits the data? Guillot et al. [3] describe a warped geometry of the Indian subduction plane that places the Tso Morari Complex and Kaghan at different depths based on their ages of UHPM; this model allows for a 55-54 Ma UHP event in the Tso Morari Complex and a 46 Ma event in Kaghan [4].

  7. Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography--An Honors Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    At the suggestion of a colleague, I read "The Code Book", [32], by Simon Singh to get a basic introduction to the RSA encryption scheme. Inspired by Singh's book, I designed a Ball State University Honors Colloquium in Mathematics for both majors and non-majors, with material coming from "The Code Book" and many other sources. This course became…

  8. The New Leader of the Free World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  9. Natural Decompositions of Perceived Transparency: Reply to Albert (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Barton L.; Singh, Manish; O'Vari, Judit

    2008-01-01

    In M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, the authors proposed a model based on ratios of Michelson contrasts to explain how human observers quantitatively scale the perceived opacity of transparent surfaces. In subsequent work by B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, & J. Meng, the authors found that this model failed to generalize to other contexts and replaced it…

  10. Further Analysis of Picture Interference when Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000; Singh & Solman, 1990; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the…

  11. Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013). Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari Department of Physics, A.P.S.University, Rewa(M.P.) Email: - btiwtari70@yahoo.com mobile 09424981974 Abstract- The geospace environment is dominated by disturbances created by the sun, it is observed that coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare events are the causal link to solar activity that produces geomagnetic storm (GMS).CMEs are large scale magneto-plasma structures that erupt from the sun and propagate through the interplanetary medium with speeds ranging from only a few km/s to as large as 4000 km/s. When the interplanetary magnetic field associated with CMEs impinges upon the earth’s magnetosphere and reconnect occur geomagnetic storm. Based on the observation from SOHO/LASCO spacecraft for solar activity and WDC for geomagnetism Kyoto for geomagnetic storm events are characterized by the disturbance storm time (Dst) index during the period 2006-2013. We consider here only intense geomagnetic storm Dst <-100nT, are 12 during 2006-2013.Geomagnetic storm with maximum Dst< -155nT occurred on Dec15, 2006 associated with halo CME with Kp-index 8+ and also verify that halo CME is the main cause to produce large geomagnetic storms.

  12. Risks for Heart Disease & Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jamal A, Homa DH, O’Connor E, Babb SD, Caraballo RS, Singh T, et al. Current cigarette ... Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Cholesterol Salt Video: Know Your Risk Factors Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... been tried for colds, such as vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea. Talk to your health care ... nih.gov/pubmed/22962927 . Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...

  13. From the NIH Director: A Global Health System

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. During his recent visit to India, NIH Director Dr. Elias Zerhouni (left) met with Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, to discuss NIH's substantial medical research collaborations with ...

  14. New Maximally Entangled States and Pattern Classification in Two-Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Pattern classifications have been performed by employing the method of Grover's iteration on Bell's MES and Singh-Rajput MES in two-qubit system and it has been demonstrated that for any pattern classification in a two-qubit system the maximally entangled states of Singh-Rajput eigen basis provide the most suitable choice of search states while in no case any of Bell's states is suitable for such pattern classifications.

  15. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  16. Comment on 'Further evidence for lightning at Venus'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Cloutier, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    In contradiction to the findings of Singh and Russell (1986), the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) electric-field data are not found to provide evidence for either lightning or volcanism at Venus. It is suggested that the noise considered by Singh and Russell to be clustered at low altitudes actually appears frequently at high altitudes. The frequent appearance of the broadband noise in the upper ionosphere indicates that this noise, like that attributed to lightning by Scarf et al. (1980), is actually generated within the ionosphere near the PVO by the solar wind interaction with the ionosphere.

  17. A binary articulatory production classification of English consonants with derived difference measures.

    PubMed

    Bryans, B; McNutt, J; Lecours, A R

    1980-08-01

    English consonants were classified according to six binary articulatory variables. Differences between the members of each possible consonant pair were quantified and the overall difference between each consonant and all other consonants was calculated. The consonant difference measures were found to be significantly related to children's substitution errors and to account for 56% of the variance in Templin's (1957) data on normal consonant acquisition. Similar measures calculated from the distinctive feature classifications of Chomsky and Halle (1968) and Singh and Singh (1976) accounted for less than one third of this amount. These findings suggest the potential utility of the present classification for the analysis of articulated speech. PMID:7412227

  18. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-08

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  19. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Materials & Methods: An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. Results: The findings of our study revealed that subject’s blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34. PMID:24155617

  1. Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

  2. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Maltais, F., Singh, S., Donald, A., Crater, G., Church, A., Goh, A. et al. (2014) Effects of a combination of umeclidinium/vilanterol on exercise endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: two randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Ther Adv Respir Dis 8: 169-181. PMID:27255756

  3. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  4. Adult Learning and the Future of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This book contains 15 papers: "Introduction" (Madhu Singh); "Adult Learning and the Transformation of Work" (Paul Belanger); "Future of Work and Adult Learning" (Ettore Gelpi); "The Obligation of Education in the Face of Globalisation" (Nicole Arnaud); "Lifelong Learning and Vocational Education and Training: A Teacher's and Trade Union View"…

  5. A Framework for Inclusion: Plurilingual Teachers in Day and Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural diversity is becoming a feature of the teaching profession in OECD countries with the increase in global migration and mobility (Reid, Collins & Singh, 2014). Plurilingual teachers, however, tend to experience marginalisation in terms of gaining employment and in their workplace experiences. Although there is a body of…

  6. The Mathematics of "Star Trek"--An Honors Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    After the success of a course on cryptography for a general audience, based on Simon Singh's "The Code Book" [49], I decided to try again and create a mathematics course for a general audience based on "The Physics of Star Trek" by Lawrence Krauss [32]. This article looks at the challenges of designing a physics-based mathematics course "from…

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P.
    SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

  8. Height, weight and body mass index of girls and boys in a rural school in Punjab India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...

  9. Teaching with the Flow: Fixity and Fluidity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I suggest that as educators we need to understand that the spaces and cultures our students inhabit are to be found not so much in predefinitions of cultural background or in studies of classrooms as cultural spaces as in the transcultural flows with which our students engage. Thus, my argument is not only that, as Singh and Doherty…

  10. Fictionalized Indian English Speech and the Representations of Ideology in Indian Novels in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthiah, Kalaivahni

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the spoken dialogue of four Indian novels in English: Mulk Raj Anand's "Untouchable" (1935), Khushwant Singh's "Train to Pakistan" (1956), Rasipuram Krishnaswami Narayan's "The World of Nagaraj" (1990), and Rohinton Mistry's "Family Matters" (2002). Roger Fowler has said that literature, as a form of discourse, articulates ideology;…

  11. Effect of mean load on the non-linear behavior of spur gear noise source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahraman, Ahmet; Singh, Rajendra

    1989-01-01

    An analytical technique for estimating noise generation by spur-gear pairs with backlash is developed using the results obtained by Comparin and Singh (1989). The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and numerical results for sample problems are presented in graphs. Good agreement with published experimental data (Munro, 1962) is demonstrated.

  12. An Academic Survey Concerning High School and University Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Muharrem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal differences between attitudes and approaches of students from different types of high school and the first grade of university towards problem solving in chemistry. For this purpose, the scale originally developed by Mason and Singh (2010) to measure students' attitude and approaches towards problem solving in…

  13. Cosmopolitanism and Rural Education: A Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Carol

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, recent research into the global movement of teachers [C. Reid, J. Collins, and M. Singh. 2014. "Global Teachers, Australian Perspectives: Goodbye Mr Chips, Hello Ms Banerjee." Singapore: Springer] and their experiences in rural areas of Australia are discussed in order to make the case for a cosmopolitan education theory…

  14. They Can Still Act Chinese and Be Canadian at the Same Time: Reflections on Multiculturalism and the Alberta Art Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how Canadian identity remains a white identity through an examination of the ways in which cultural diversity in Canada has been promoted and controlled in law and in practice through Jakeet Singh's (2004) notion of "culture-blind multiculturalism." It then turns to one instance of this kind of myopic cultural reproduction…

  15. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON PULMONARY RESPONSES DURING ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION TO AEROSOLIZED OVALBUMIN IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Pulmonary Responses During Allergic Sensitization to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels1, D. Andrews1, E. Boykin1, W. P. Linak2 and M.I. Gilmour1. 1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC. 2 USEPA, ORD, NRMRL, RTP, NC.

    Inhala...

  16. CYTOTOXICITY AND CELL SIGNALING IN MH-S CELLS: RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL AND COAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxicity and Cell Signaling in MH-S Cells: Relative Potency of Diesel and Coal Combustion Particles P. Singh1, Y. Kostetski2, M. Daniels1, T. Stevens3 and MI Gilmour 1USEPA, RTP, NC, 2National University of Singapore, Singapore, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC<...

  17. Mechanisms of Modal and Amodal Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Marc K.

    2007-01-01

    P. J. Kellman and T. F. Shipley (1992) and P. J. Kellman, P. Garrigan, and T. F. Shipley (2005) suggested that completion of partly occluded objects and illusory objects involve the same or similar mechanisms at critical stages of contour interpolation. B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, and R. W. Fleming and B. L. Anderson (2007) presented a number of…

  18. From Village to the World: Books with Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2008-01-01

    The Pardada Pardadi Girls Vocational School (PPGVS) in India was established in 2000 by Virendera (Sam) Singh, a retired U.S. Dupont South Asia department head to address the issue of gender bias in India. According to the school's website, nearly half of India's population is illiterate: males outnumber females two-to-one in literacy and drop-out…

  19. Poverty Alleviation, Work and Adult Learning. Report of the UIE Round Table Held during the International Congress on Vocational Education and Training (2nd, Seoul, Korea, April 26-30, 1999). UIE Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.

    This document contains six papers about and from a roundtable discussion of poverty alleviation, work, and adult learning. The "Introduction" (Madhu Singh) presents an overview of the roundtable. "Work-Related Adult Education: Challenges and Possibilities in Poverty Areas" (Enrique Pieck) describes work-related adult education strategies and…

  20. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and sustainable…

  1. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  2. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  3. Evaluating outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Shane

    2015-12-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post “Quantifying the success of public engagement” (22 October, http://ow.ly/TIWYJ), which discussed criticisms (made by science writer Simon Singh) of certain projects designed to boost interest in science.

  4. The Moderating Role of Adult Connections in High School Students' Sense of School Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Amy Dutton

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that students who had a strong sense of school belonging exhibited greater academic motivation and performance (E. Anderman, 2002; Faircloth & Hamm, 2005), had fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties (Furrer & Skinner, 2003; McMahon, Singh, Garner, & Benhorin; 2004), and were less likely to dropout of school…

  5. EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY AND OXIDATIVE MARKERS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT SIZED FRACTIONS OF OUTDOOR PM ON INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN VIVO
    C A J Dick', P Singh2, P. Evansky3, S Becker3 and M I Gilmour3.
    'Center For Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 2NCSU, Raleigh, NC 'Experimental Toxicolog...

  6. Postscript: Qualitative and Quantitative Processes in the Perception of Achromatic Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Marc K.

    2008-01-01

    All of the data reported in Robilotto, Khang, and Zaidi (2002) Robilotto and Zaidi (2004), and Singh and Anderson (2002) are consistent with Robilotto and Zaidi's theory that perceived transparency (or opacity) is determined by the perceived contrast of the filter region. Kasrai and Kingdom's (2001) results also appear largely consistent with the…

  7. Principles of Contour Information: Reply to Lim and Leek (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manish; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Lim and Leek (2012) presented a formalization of information along object contours, which they argued was an alternative to the approach taken in our article (Feldman & Singh, 2005). Here, we summarize the 2 approaches, showing that--notwithstanding Lim and Leek's (2012) critical rhetoric--their approach is substantially identical to ours, except…

  8. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Ep...

  9. 77 FR 57570 - National Institute On Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Deafness and Other Communication..., Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-496-8683, sullivas@mail.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness...-8683, singhs@nidcd.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Deafness and Other...

  10. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  11. Comments on 'Transverse vibrations of simply supported elliptical and circular plates using boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials in two variables' and some additional considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laura, P. A. A.; Ercoli, L.

    1993-06-01

    Some of the results obtained in the paper by Singh and Chakraverty (1992) named in the title are compared with values available in the open literature. From these, it is concluded that the optimized Rayleigh method is convenient in the case of circular plates of nonuniform thickness, while the orthogonal polynomial approach is more convenient for treating rectangular and elliptical boundary shapes.

  12. Editorial: Looking to the Future of Hydrologic Engineering

    EPA Science Inventory

    Being one of the more recent journals of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering (JHE) has made significant strides under the forward-thinking leadership of previous editors (M. Levent Kavvas 1996-2004, and V. P. Singh, 2004-2012) si...

  13. Children with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior Using Chin Movements to Operate Microswitches to Obtain Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tota, Alessia; Antonucci, Massimo; Oliva, Doretta

    2006-01-01

    In these two studies, two children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior were assessed to see if they could use chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation. In Study I, we applied an adapted version of a recently introduced electronic microswitch [Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N.,…

  14. Evaluation of Simulated Photochemical Partitioning of Oxidized Nitrogen in the Upper Troposphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional and global chemical transport models underpredict NOx (NO +NO2) in the upper troposphere where it is a precursor to the greenhouse gas ozone. The NOx bias has been shown in model evaluations using aircraft data (Singh et al., 2007) and to...

  15. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  16. A Comparison of Challenging Behaviour in an Adult Group with Down's Syndrome and Dementia Compared with an Adult Down's Syndrome Group without Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxley, Adam; Van-Schaik, Paul; Witts, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency and severity of challenging behaviour in adults with Down's syndrome with and without signs of dementia. Care staff were interviewed using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community version (M.G. Aman & N.N. Singh, Slosson, East Aurora, NY, 1994), to investigate the frequency and severity of challenging…

  17. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  18. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  19. Correction to Eby et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    In the article “Cross-Lagged Relations Between Mentoring Received From Supervisors and Employee OCBs: Disentangling Causal Direction and Identifying Boundary Conditions,” by Lillian T. Eby, Marcus M. Butts, Brian J. Hoffman, and Julia B. Sauer (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advance online publication. January 19, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038628), the correct citation for Singh, Ragins, and Tharenou (2009) should have been: Singh, R., Ragins, B. R., & Tharenou, P. (2009). Who gets a mentor? A longitudinal assessment of the rising star hypothesis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 11–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j .jvb.2008.09.009 All versions of this article have been corrected.

  20. Radiative effects and the missing energy paradox in the ideal two capacitors problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzúa, Gilberto A.; Jiménez, Omar; Maass, Fernando; Restuccia, Álvaro

    2016-05-01

    Starting from the Poynting theorem, which arises from the exact Maxwell equations, we establish the balance of energy for the radiating ideal two capacitors problem. This balance of energy results in a nonlinear differential equation governing the time evolution of the voltage V. Boykin, Hite and Singh, following an approach not based on first principles, were the first to obtain this nonlinear differential equation and proposed an exponentially decaying voltage as a unique solution for it. We claim that the space of solutions for this differential equation is much richer. In fact, besides the exponentially decaying solution just mentioned there exist solutions with a sudden death behavior. The radiative effect introduced by Boykin, Hite and Singh, complemented with our analysis based on the exact Maxwell equations and the characterization of the more general space of solution of the nonlinear differential equation, explain the missing energy paradox in the ideal two capacitors problem.

  1. Pattern classification using maximally entangled quantum states (MES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pattern classifications have been performed by employing the method of Grover's iteration on Bell's MES and Singh-Rajput MES in a two-qubit system and it has been demonstrated that, for any pattern classification, in a two-qubit system the maximally entangled states of Singh-Rajput eigenbasis provide the most suitable choice of search states while, in no case, any of Bell's states is suitable for such pattern classifications. Applying the method of Grover's iterate on three different superpositions in a three-qubit system, it has been shown that the choice of exclusive superposition, as the search state, is the most suitable one for the desired pattern classifications based on Grover's iterative search algorithm.

  2. News and Views: Where at a supermassive black hole do gamma-rays come from? Keep libel laws out of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Radio observations of galaxy M87 at the time of a massive gamma-ray flare have established that the gamma-ray emission arises close to the central black hole, in the inner jet. Writer Simon Singh is being sued for libel by the British Chiropractic Association because he wrote a newspaper article about the evidence for the effectiveness of spinal manipulation as a treatment for childhood illnesses. Why should scientists care about this action, asks Sue Bowler?

  3. Lipoid Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Singh, Gurdarshan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A case report of a 6-year-old male child who reported with recurrent oral and skin ulcerations since childhood and was diagnosed as lipoid proteinosis manifesting with generalized thickening, hardening, and scarring of the skin and hoarseness of voice; is presented here. How to cite this article: Mittal HC, Yadav S, Malik S, Singh G. Lipoid Proteinosis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):149-151. PMID:27365938

  4. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored. PMID:19848549

  5. Comment on the Brans-Dicke-Bianchi type-I solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Petzold, Dieter

    1984-03-01

    We should like to point out that the Brans-Dicke-Bianchi type-I vacuum solution recently given by Ram and Singh is wrong. The correct solution is nothing but a special case of the general BDT-Bianchi type-I solutions given by us recently (Lorenz-Petzold, 1984). It is the aim of this comment to rediscuss the corresponding field equations and to disprove the statement that the (correct) solution has no analogy in Einstein's theory.

  6. Comment on the Brans Dicke Bianchi Type-Iii Vacuum Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Petzold, Dieter

    1985-02-01

    The author wishes to point out that the Brans-Dicke-Bianchi type-III vacuum solution recently given by Tiwari and Singh (1984) is not new. Moreover, the solution given has no correct Einstein limit, contrary to what is claimed by these authors. The Ellis-MacCallum vacuum solution in the Einstein case can be obtained from the Brans-Dicke solution first given by Lorenz-Petzold (1984).

  7. Are icons sense data?

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Brian P; Green, E J

    2015-12-01

    We argue that Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychon Bull Rev, this issue) have not made the case that "the language of space-time and physical objects is the wrong language for describing the true structure of the objective world." Further, we contend that, contrary to what Hoffman et al. claim, the perceptual icons posited by interface theory seem best taken to be sense data. PMID:26384993

  8. A new species of Aspergillus fumigatus group and comments upon its synonymy.

    PubMed

    Varshney, J L; Sarbhoy, A K

    1981-02-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus Fries, acolumnaris Rai et al. (1) has been raised to a distinct epithet and four different varieties of A. fumigatus (1--2 & 6) viz. A. fumigatus Fries. var. albus Rai et al., A. fumigatus Fries. var. grisei-brunneus Rai and Singh, A. fumigatus Fries. mut. helvola Yuill and A. fumigatus Fries. var. sclerotiorum Rai et al. which were recognised by earlier workers, have also been merged into A. fumigatus.

  9. Nation hails population policy.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    The opinions of several individuals, representing the ''poorer and lesser educated'' strata of Indian society, concerning the National Population Policy announced by Doctor Karan Singh, Union Minister of Health and Family Planning are reviewed. Various steps like the proposals to raise the age of marriage and making early marriages a cognizable offense are well known and generally supported among the people - at least as reflected by the opinions of these several individuals interviewed.

  10. Lipoid Proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Hitesh C; Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Singh, Gurdarshan

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a 6-year-old male child who reported with recurrent oral and skin ulcerations since childhood and was diagnosed as lipoid proteinosis manifesting with generalized thickening, hardening, and scarring of the skin and hoarseness of voice; is presented here. How to cite this article: Mittal HC, Yadav S, Malik S, Singh G. Lipoid Proteinosis. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):149-151. PMID:27365938

  11. Heat transfer characteristics of porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B. S.; Dybbs, A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted regarding the relative effects of conduction and convection in a saturated porous medium. A method reported by Singh et al. (1973) is used to determine the effective thermal conductivity of the saturated porous material. Heat transfer measurements are conducted under conditions of forced convection of the saturated liquid parallel and countercurrent to the flow of heat. The results are compared with the data obtained with the aid of an analytical model.

  12. Classification of Interdental Space for Different Quadrants on the Basis of Standardization through Threshold Data and Its Comparison with BMI and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ronauk; Singh, Jatinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A better knowledge about the Interdental space is important since it provides insights on the prevalence of malocclusion. To date, there is conflicting evidence on the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Socioeconomic status (SES) on interdental space. A recent review concluded that a greater understanding is required of the interdental space. Therefore, there is a need for a more comprehensive and rigorous assessments of the interdental space and impacts of BMI and SES. Aim: BMI and SES can be associated with the interdental spacing in deciduous dentition. Design: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 448 children of age group of 3 to 5 years out of which 392 were meeting our criteria. Research assessment questionnaire on demographic data was completed by the parents. Study model cast of 392 children free from malocclusion were analyzed. Results: A statistically significant association between interdental spacing and BMI category was observed. Comparison of BMI with above threshold interdental space revealed that after an optimum weight there is no effect on interdental space. A significant association between SES and interdental spacing was observed for all the four locations (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Evolved normative value can be taken as a standard and the occlusion and interdental spaces are not two completely separate entities and they are interdependent. How to cite this article: Singh T, Singh R, Singh JP. Classification of Interdental Space for Different Quadrants on the Basis of Standardization through Threshold Data and Its Comparison with BMI and Socioeconomic Status. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):16-21. PMID:25206181

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2015-07-01

    This evaluation of A = 21 has been updated from previous evaluations published in 2004Fi10, 1998En04, 1990En08, and 1978En02. Coverage includes properties of adopted levels and γ-rays, decay-scheme data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and cross reference entries. The following tables continue the tradition of showing the systematic relationships between levels in A = 21. Much of the new data in this evaluations were taken directly from the xundl database, compiled under the direction of Balraj Singh, McMaster University. The evaluator is particularly appreciative of the efforts of the xundl compilers.

  14. Darwin and Mendel today: a comment on "Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution".

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    We comment on a recent paper by Rama Singh, who concludes that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics, and Darwin would not have understood the significance of Mendel's paper had he read it. We argue that Darwin should have been regarded as the father of genetics not only because he was the first to formulate a unifying theory of heredity, variation, and development -- Pangenesis, but also because he clearly described almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, including what he called "prepotency" and what we now call "dominance" or "Mendelian inheritance". The word "gene" evolved from Darwin's imagined "gemmules", instead of Mendel's so-called "factors". PMID:26651239

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 21

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2015-07-15

    This evaluation of A = 21 has been updated from previous evaluations published in 2004Fi10, 1998En04, 1990En08, and 1978En02. Coverage includes properties of adopted levels and γ-rays, decay-scheme data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and cross reference entries. The following tables continue the tradition of showing the systematic relationships between levels in A = 21. Much of the new data in this evaluations were taken directly from the xundl database, compiled under the direction of Balraj Singh, McMaster University. The evaluator is particularly appreciative of the efforts of the xundl compilers.

  16. Non-Adiabatic Holonomic Quantum Gates in an atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid; Canali, Carlo M.; Sjoqvist, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Quantum computation is essentially the implementation of a universal set of quantum gate operations on a set of qubits, which is reliable in the presence of noise. We propose a scheme to perform robust gates in an atomic four-level system using the idea of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation proposed in [1]. The gates are realized by applying sequences of short laser pulses that drive transitions between the four energy levels in such a way that the dynamical phases vanish. [4pt] [1] E. Sjoqvist, D.M. Tong, B. Hessmo, M. Johansson, K. Singh, arXiv:1107.5127v2 [quant-ph

  17. Supergranulation, a convective phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2015-08-01

    Observation of the Solar photosphere through high resolution instruments have long indicated that the surface of the Sun is not a tranquil, featureless surface but is beset with a granular appearance. These cellular velocity patterns are a visible manifestation of sub- photospheric convection currents which contribute substantially to the outward transport of energy from the deeper layers, thus maintaining the energy balance of the Sun as a whole.Convection is the chief mode of transport in the outer layers of all cool stars such as the Sun (Noyes,1982). Convection zone of thickness 30% of the Solar radius lies in the sub-photospheric layers of the Sun. Convection is revealed on four scales. On the scale of 1000 km, it is granulation and on the scale of 8-10 arcsec, it is Mesogranulation. The next hierarchial scale of convection ,Supergranules are in the range of 30-40 arcsec. The largest reported manifestation of convection in the Sun are ‘Giant Cells’or ‘Giant Granules’, on a typical length scale of about 108 m.'Supergranules' is caused by the turbulence that extends deep into the convection zone. They have a typical lifetime of about 20hr with spicules marking their boundaries. Gas rises in the centre of the supergranules and then spreads out towards the boundary and descends.Broadly speaking supergranules are characterized by the three parameters namely the length L, the lifetime T and the horizontal flow velocity vh . The interrelationships amongst these parameters can shed light on the underlying convective processes and are in agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence as applied to large scale solar convection (Krishan et al .2002 ; Paniveni et. al. 2004, 2005, 2010).References:1) Noyes, R.W., The Sun, Our Star (Harvard University Press, 1982)2) Krishan, V., Paniveni U., Singh , J., Srikanth R., 2002, MNRAS, 334/1,2303) Paniveni , U., Krishan, V., Singh, J., Srikanth, R., 2004, MNRAS, 347, 1279-12814) Paniveni , U., Krishan, V., Singh, J

  18. Supergranular Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2015-12-01

    Observation of the Solar photosphere through high resolution instruments have long indicated that the surface of the Sun is not a tranquil, featureless surface but is beset with a granular appearance. These cellular velocity patterns are a visible manifestation of sub- photospheric convection currents which contribute substantially to the outward transport of energy from the deeper layers, thus maintaining the energy balance of the Sun as a whole.Convection is the chief mode of transport in the outer layers of all cool stars such as the Sun (Noyes,1982). Convection zone of thickness 30% of the Solar radius lies in the sub-photospheric layers of the Sun. Here the opacity is so large that heat flux transport is mainly by convection rather than by photon diffusion. Convection is revealed on four scales. On the scale of 1000 km, it is granulation and on the scale of 8-10 arcsec, it is Mesogranulation. The next hierarchial scale of convection , Supergranules are in the range of 30-40 arcsec. The largest reported manifestation of convection in the Sun are ‘Giant Cells’or ‘Giant Granules’, on a typical length scale of about 108 m.'Supergranules' is caused by the turbulence that extends deep into the convection zone. They have a typical lifetime of about 20hr with spicules marking their boundaries. Gas rises in the centre of the supergranules and then spreads out towards the boundary and descends.Broadly speaking supergranules are characterized by the three parameters namely the length L, the lifetime T and the horizontal flow velocity vh . The interrelationships amongst these parameters can shed light on the underlying convective processes and are in agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence as applied to large scale solar convection (Krishan et al .2002 ; Paniveni et. al. 2004, 2005, 2010).References:1) Noyes, R.W., The Sun, Our Star (Harvard University Press, 1982)2) Krishan, V., Paniveni U., Singh , J., Srikanth R., 2002, MNRAS, 334/1,2303) Paniveni

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 91

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2013-10-15

    Experimental nuclear structure and decay data for all known A=91 nuclides (As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd) have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 1 September 2013, supersedes the 1998 evaluation by C. M. Baglin published in Nuclear Data Sheets86, 1 (1999) (15 December 1998 literature cutoff), and subsequent evaluations by C. M. Baglin added to the ENSDF database for Kr, Sr and Zr (29 December 2000 literature cutoff) and by B. Singh for {sup 91}Tc (6 November 2000 literature cutoff)

  20. Modified 8×8 quantization table and Huffman encoding steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongning; Sun, Shuliang

    2014-10-01

    A new secure steganography, which is based on Huffman encoding and modified quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients, is provided in this paper. Firstly, the cover image is segmented into 8×8 blocks and modified DCT transformation is applied on each block. Huffman encoding is applied to code the secret image before embedding. DCT coefficients are quantized by modified quantization table. Inverse DCT(IDCT) is conducted on each block. All the blocks are combined together and the steg image is finally achieved. The experiment shows that the proposed method is better than DCT and Mahender Singh's in PSNR and Capacity.

  1. A possible mechanism for the observed streaming of O(+) and H(+) ions at nearly equal speeds in the distant magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R. W.

    1985-07-01

    In recent years, O(+) and H(+) ions streaming away from the earth along geomagnetic field lines have been observed in the distant magnetotail region. In the present paper, it is suggested that the transverse acceleration of the ions occurs on auroral field lines at altitudes above the field-aligned potential drops, where ion beams and electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron (EHC) waves have been simultaneously observed. It is pointed out that the preferential acceleration of O(+) relative to H(+) occurs through the interaction of O(+) ions with weak EHC waves, as suggested by Singh et al. (1983). A quantitative explanation is provided for the observed relationship between the energies of O(+) and H(+) ions.

  2. Comment on ‘Yet another encounter with the golden ratio: balancing laminar bodies on the edge’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Gautam; Mehta, Mitaxi

    2016-11-01

    When a circle is excised from a bigger circle so that the center of mass of the remaining portion is at a point in the inner edge, then the radii of the two circles are in the golden ratio. The same is true for any even sided regular polygon for excissions along certain symmetry axes of the figure as presented in Pathak and Singh (2016 Eur. J. Phys. 37 055001). We extend the result to shapes that do not have any rotational symmetry and also along axes which are not symmetry axes.

  3. Specific replacement of Q base in the anticodon of tRNA by guanine catalyzed by a cell-free extract of rabbit reticulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, N; Harada, F; Nishimura, S

    1976-01-01

    Guanylation of tRNA by a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes was reported previously by Farkas and Singh. This reaction was investigated further using 18 purified E. coli tRNAs as acceptors.Results showed that only tRNATyr, tRNAHis, tRNAAsn and tRNAAsp which contain the modified nucleoside Q in the anticodon acted as acceptors. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the guanylated tRNA showed that guanine specifically replaced Q base in these tRNAs. Images PMID:792816

  4. Notions such as "truth" or "correspondence to the objective world" play no role in explanatory accounts of perception.

    PubMed

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychonomic Review and Bulletin, 2015, in press) intend to show that perceptions are evolutionarily tuned to fitness rather than to truth. I argue, partly in accordance with their objective, that issues of 'truth' or 'veridicality' have no place in explanatory accounts of perception theory, and rather belong to either ordinary discourse or to philosophy. I regard, however, their general presumption that the evolutionary development of core achievements of the human perceptual system would be primarily determined by aspects of fitness and adaption as unwarranted in light of the evidence available.

  5. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 152

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.J.

    2013-11-15

    Detailed level schemes, decay schemes, and the experimental data on which they are based are presented for all nuclei with mass number A=152. The experimental data are evaluated; inconsistencies and discrepancies are noted; and adopted values for level and γ–ray energies, γ intensities, as well as for other nuclear properties are given. This evaluation replaces the A=152 evaluation published by Agda Artna–Cohen in Nuclear Data Sheets 79, 1 (1996) and the evaluation for 152Dy prepared by Balraj Singh and published in Nuclear Data Sheets 95, 995 (2002)

  6. Dilepton production as a useful probe of quark gluon plasma with temperature dependent chemical potential quark mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, S. Somorendro

    2016-07-01

    We extend the previous study of dilepton production using [S. Somorendro Singh and Y. Kumar, Can. J. Phys. 92 (2014) 31] based on a simple quasiparticle model of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In this model, finite value of quark mass uses temperature dependent chemical potential the so-called Temperature Dependent Chemical Potential Quark Mass (TDCPQM). We calculate dilepton production in the relevant range of mass region. It is observed that the production rate is marginally enhanced from the earlier work. This is due to the effect of TDCPQM and its effect is highly significant in the production of dilepton.

  7. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  8. Darwin and Mendel today: a comment on "Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution".

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    We comment on a recent paper by Rama Singh, who concludes that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics, and Darwin would not have understood the significance of Mendel's paper had he read it. We argue that Darwin should have been regarded as the father of genetics not only because he was the first to formulate a unifying theory of heredity, variation, and development -- Pangenesis, but also because he clearly described almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, including what he called "prepotency" and what we now call "dominance" or "Mendelian inheritance". The word "gene" evolved from Darwin's imagined "gemmules", instead of Mendel's so-called "factors".

  9. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa. PMID:14743817

  10. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads.

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  11. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Using the law to improve access to treatments.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard; Parmar, Sharan; Divan, Vivek; Berger, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    The XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa in July 2000 focused worldwide attention on the problem of accessing treatments in developing countries. In the interim, thanks to the work of activists - from demonstrations to court cases, and from acts of public courage by people living with HIV/AIDS to ongoing lobbying of politicians and trade negotiators - some very significant developments have occurred. But the reality is that the vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS still lack access to affordable, quality medicines. This article, a summary of a paper presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India, explores three approaches for improving access. In the first part, Richard Elliott provides an overview of the state of the right to health as embodied in international human rights law; comments on the experience to date in litigating claims to the right to health; and identifies potential strategies activists can adopt to advance recognition of the right to health. In the second part, Sharan Parmar and Vivek Divan describe price-control and drug-financing mechanisms used by industrialized countries to increase the affordability of medicines; and discuss how some of these mechanisms could be adapted for use in developing countries. Finally, Jonathan Berger describes the use of litigation in the courts by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa.

  12. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam. PMID:27095662

  13. Mitochondria in biology and medicine--2012.

    PubMed

    Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2014-05-01

    As the understanding of mitochondria and their importance for the cell and organism is developing, increasing evidence is demonstrating the organelle to be intricately involved in an extensive range of pathologies. This range of pathologies include general signs of premature aging, neuro-muscular dysfunctions, cancer, diabetes, various heart diseases, inflammation and other conditions not previously known to be related to mitochondrial function. A better understanding of mitochondria therefore allows a better understanding of related pathologies. It enables the usage of mitochondrial function as biomarkers for the diseases and most important, it opens the possibility of a treatment or a cure for a disease. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title of the second annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine-India. The conference was organized by Rana P. Singh, Keshav Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj, and was held at the newly opened School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat (CUG), Gandhinagar, India, during 2-3 November 2012. The conference featured talks from internationally renowned scientists within the field of mitochondrial research and offered both students and fellow researchers a comprehensive update to the newest research within the field. This paper summarizes key outcomes of the presentations.

  14. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the drying kinetics of brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the drying kinetics of brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum under hot-air convective drying was investigated. Pretreatments were carried out at ultrasound intensity levels ranging from 7.00 to 75.78 Wcm(-2) for 10 min using an ultrasonic probe system. It was observed that ultrasound pre-treatments reduced the drying time required. The shortest drying times were obtained from samples pre-treated at 75.78 Wcm(-2). The fit quality of 6 thin-layer drying models was also evaluated using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), root means square error (RMSE), AIC (Akaike information criterion) and BIC (Bayesian information criterion). Drying kinetics were modelled using the Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page, Wang and Singh, Midilli et al. and Weibull models. The Newton, Wang and Singh, and Midilli et al. models showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Color of ultrasound pretreated dried seaweed samples were lighter compared to control samples. It was concluded that ultrasound pretreatment can be effectively used to reduce the energy cost and drying time for drying of A. nodosum. PMID:25454823

  15. Additions to the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae (Chalcidoidea) of India with new distribution and host records for some species

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, A.; V, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India have not been surveyed in depth and hosts are not known for most of the species as the methods of collections used are passive and do not yield firsthand information on the hosts. Based on our ongoing surveys on the Encyrtidae and Mymaridae of India, we report here new distribution and host records for some species. New information Acmopolynema campylurum Xu and Lin, Litus cynipseus Haliday, Omyomymar glabrum Lin and Chiappini and Platystethynium Ogloblin (Mymaridae), and Rhytidothorax purpureiscutellum (Girault) (Encyrtidae) are reported for the first time from India. Anagyrus aquilonaris (Noyes and Hayat) is recorded as new to Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. Paraphaenodiscus indicus Singh and Agarwal and Paraphaenodiscus monawari Bhuiya are recorded from south India for the first time, the latter on a new host, Pulvinaria polygonata. Chorizococcus sorghi Williams (Pseudococcidae) is reported as a host for Cryptanusia ajmerensis (Fatma & Shafee), for which no hosts are hitherto known and the male of Cryptanusia is documented for the first time. Aclerda sp. is recorded as a new host for Neastymachus axillaris Singh, Agarwal and Basha. PMID:26069438

  16. Revision of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with new and previously described species from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Scatophagidae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Nguyen, Ha Van; Ha, Ngo Duy; Heckmann, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    An emended diagnosis of Metahaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) is provided based on specimens of six species collected from the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae) in Vietnam: M. scatophagi Yamaguti, 1953 (type-species); M. cf. yamagutii Mizelle & Price, 1964; M. mizellei Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. kulkarnii Venkatanarasaiah, 1981; M. ypsilocleithrum n. sp.; and M. similis n. sp. Methaliotrema filamentosum Venkatanarasaiah, 1981 from the whipfin silver-biddy Gerres filamentosus Cuvier (Gerreidae) is included as the only other valid member of the genus. Metahaliotrema arii Yamaguti, 1953 from an ariid catfish is considered incertae sedis within the Dactylogyridae; and Metahaliotrema srivastavai Singh & Agarwal, 1994 from a bagrid catfish is transferred to Chauhanellus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1969 as Chauhanellus srivastavai (Singh & Agarwal, 1994) n. comb. Metahaliotrema geminatohamula Pan, Ding & Zhang, 1995 from spotted scat in China is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of M. scatophagi. The two new species and M. scatophagi, M. mizellei, and M. kulkarnii are described or redescribed based on specimens from Vietnam.

  17. Further analysis of picture interference when teaching word recognition to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Lerman, Dorothea C

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000; Singh & Solman, 1990; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the spoken word and picture (i.e., blocking) or due to the mere presence of a picture as an extrastimulus prompt (i.e., overshadowing). Three participants were taught to recognize words that were presented alone or paired with pictures that the participants either could or could not identify prior to training. All participants learned the words more quickly when they were presented alone rather than with pictures, regardless of their prior learning history with respect to pictures representing the words. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of overshadowing. Nonetheless, consistent with blocking, all participants also acquired the words presented alone more quickly if they could not identify the associated pictures prior to training. Together, these findings have important implications for using prompts when teaching skills to individuals with developmental disabilities.

  18. Does disorder destroy eg' pockets in Na0.3CoO2? A new ab initio method for disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlijn, Tom; Volja, Dimitri; Ku, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Hydrated Na0.3CoO2 shows interesting superconductivity[1], with evidence of a nodal order parameter[2]. One possible origin of the nodal structure is f-wave pairing[3] due to the six eg' pockets predicted by the local density approximation[4]. However, ARPES experiments[5] showed no sign of these hole pockets. In this talk, we will investigate a recent proposal[6] of destruction of the eg' pockets due to disorder. An affordable ab initio Wannier function based method will be presented that takes into account spatial distributions of disorder, beyond existing mean-field approximations (e.g. VCA, CPA). We also use our Wannier functions to analyse the crystal field splitting, the sign of which critically determines the role of correlation in DMFT. [3pt] [1] K. Takada et al, Nature 422, 53 (2003)[0pt] [2] Zheng G. et al, JPCM 18, L63 (2006)[0pt] [3] Kuroki K. et al, PRL 93, 077001-1 (2004)[0pt] [4] D. Singh, PRB 61, 13397 (2000)[0pt] [5] Hasan M.Z. et al, PRL 92, 246402 (2004)[0pt] [6] D. Singh et al PRL 97, 016404 (2006)

  19. Drying characteristics of paddy in an integrated dryer.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Barnwal, P; Goyal, R K

    2014-04-01

    Drying characteristics of paddy (long grain variety PR-118 procured from PAU, Ludhiana) in an integrated dryer using single as well as combined heating source was studied at different air temperatures. The integrated dryer comprises three different air heating sources such as solar, biomass and electrical. Drying of paddy occurred in falling rate period. It was observed that duration of drying of paddy from 22 to 13 % moisture content (w.b.) was 5-9 h depending upon the source of energy used. In order to select a suitable drying curve, six thin layer-drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Among the mathematical models investigated, Wang and Singh model best described the drying behaviour of paddy using solar, biomass and combined heating sources with highest coefficient of determination (r (2)) values and least chi-square, χ (2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values. However, Page model adequately described the drying behavior of paddy using electrical heating source. PMID:24741181

  20. Ultrasensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide-mediated DNA damage after alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis using occultation microscopy and TUNEL labeling.

    PubMed

    Kindzelskii, A L; Petty, H R

    1999-05-01

    DNA damage at the level of individual cells can be detected using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or 'comet' assay. In the present study, we report novel variations on the conventional comet assay that can be used to enhance the microscopic detection of DNA damage. Hydrogen peroxide-treated peripheral blood leukocytes were used as a DNA damage model system. Cells were embedded in agarose, treated, and electrophoresed according to the procedure of Singh et al. [N.P. Singh, M.T. McCoy, R.R. Tice, E.L. Schneider, A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells, Exp. Cell Res. 175 (1988), p. 184-191]. However, sites of strand breaks were directly labeled with the TUNEL (TdT-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling) method. This labeling protocol revealed clumps and/or a series of stripes in the comet tail perpendicular to the direction of electrophoresis; these sites may account for the substructure seen in conventional comet assays. In a second comet variation, we passed an opaque disk into a field-conjugated plane of the microscope near the lamp, thus occluding the nucleus' image. Nuclear occultation allows the intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera gain to increase to a single photon detection level thus revealing low levels of DNA damage in the tail. These methods offer a substantial improvement in sensitivity.

  1. Thermodynamic model for the investigation of phase transition properties of homologous series of nAL and nHL ferroic mesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shubha; Singh, Shri

    2014-05-01

    The thermodynamic model, developed by us previously (Singh S, Singh S. Application of thermodynamic model to study the ferroelectric properties of nAL and nHL homologous series. Phase Transit. 2013;86:531-540), has been modified to investigate the phase transition properties of SmC* phase and SmA-SmC* phase transition. As usual, in this approach, the free energy density of a system is written as an expansion series in powers of order parameters (tensor orientational order ?, scalar smectic order ψ and polarization vector order ?) and the couplings between these order parameters. Since ? governs the tilt vector ξ, no term is included in the free energy density involving only ξ. The coupled equations for these order parameters are obtained by the minimization of the free energy density with respect to respective order parameters. A detailed analysis of the relative contribution of each individual term of the expansion series and the values of spontaneous polarization (P0), tilt angle (θ0) and pitch (p) as a function of temperature for the two homologous series nAL(n = 9, 10, 12) and nHL(n = 9, 10, 12, 14, 16) of ferroic mesogens is presented. The influence of the alkyl chain length on the ferroelectric properties has been analysed and found to be substantial. A close agreement between theory and experiment for all the mesogens has been observed.

  2. Application of thermodynamic model to study the ferroelectric properties of nAL and nHL homologous series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shubha; Singh, Shri

    2013-06-01

    Using a thermodynamic model developed by us in an earlier paper [A. Singh and S. Singh, Thermodynamic model for the description of smectic C* and smectic A-smectic C* phase transition properties, Phase Trans. 83 (2010), pp. 205-222] for the description of SmC* and SmA-SmC* phase transition properties, we study, in detail, the temperature variation of spontaneous polarization P 0, tilt angle θ0 and helical pitch p of two homologous series nAL(n = 9, 10, 12) and nHL(n = 9, 10, 12, 14, 16) of ferroelectric mesogens. In this model, the free-energy density of a system is expanded in terms of three degrees of freedom - tensor orientational order ? , scalar smectic order ψ and polarization vector P and their coupling terms. The tilt vector ξ is not considered as an independent order parameter on the plea that ? governs ξ . The coupled equations for these order parameters are obtained, as usual, by the minimization of the free-energy density with respect to respective order parameters together with the criterion for the thermodynamic stability. Adopting usual method, we evaluate the relative contribution of each individual term of the expansion series and the values of P 0, θ0, and p as a function of temperature for the above-mentioned eight ferroic mesogens. We found that the theoretical results agree very well with the experimental data of all the mesogens.

  3. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the drying kinetics of brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the drying kinetics of brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum under hot-air convective drying was investigated. Pretreatments were carried out at ultrasound intensity levels ranging from 7.00 to 75.78 Wcm(-2) for 10 min using an ultrasonic probe system. It was observed that ultrasound pre-treatments reduced the drying time required. The shortest drying times were obtained from samples pre-treated at 75.78 Wcm(-2). The fit quality of 6 thin-layer drying models was also evaluated using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), root means square error (RMSE), AIC (Akaike information criterion) and BIC (Bayesian information criterion). Drying kinetics were modelled using the Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page, Wang and Singh, Midilli et al. and Weibull models. The Newton, Wang and Singh, and Midilli et al. models showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Color of ultrasound pretreated dried seaweed samples were lighter compared to control samples. It was concluded that ultrasound pretreatment can be effectively used to reduce the energy cost and drying time for drying of A. nodosum.

  4. Determining the Probability Distribution of Hillslope Peak Discharge Using an Analytical Solution of Kinematic Wave Time of Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-04-01

    Hillslope hydrology is fundamental for understanding the flood phenomenon and for evaluating the time of concentration. The latter is a key variable for predicting peak discharge at the basin outlet and for designing urban infrastructure facilities. There have been a multitude of studies on the hydrologic response at the hillslope scale, and the time of concentration has been derived for different approaches. One approach for deriving hillslope response utilizes, in a distributed form, the differential equations of unsteady overland flow, specifically developed at the hydrodynamic scale, in order to account for the spatial heterogeneity of soil characteristics, topography, roughness and vegetation cover on the hillslope. Therefore, this approach seemingly mimics the complete hydraulics of flow. However, the very complex patterns generated by spatial heterogeneity can cause considerable error in the prediction even by very sophisticated models. Another approach that directly operates at the hillslope scale is by averaging over the hillslope the soil hydraulics, the topography, and the roughness characteristics. A physically-based lumped model of hillslope response was first proposed by Horton (1938), under the assumption that the flow regime is intermediate between laminar and turbulent regimes (transitional flow regime), by applying the mass conservation equation to the hillslope as a whole and by using the kinematic wave assumption for the friction slope (Singh, 1976, 1996). Robinson et al. (1995) and Robinson and Sivapalan (1996) generalized Horton's approach, suggesting an approximate solution of the overland flow equation that is valid for all flow regimes. Agnese et al. (2001) derived an analytical solution of a nonlinear storage model of hillslope response that is valid for all flow regimes, and the associated time of concentration. Recently, the well-known kinematic wave equation for computing the time of concentration for impervious surfaces has been

  5. Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc

  6. Statistical Analysis of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide1, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  7. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 5 Floor Sample Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.

    2012-08-01

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, and the radionuclide, elemental, and chemical concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements

  8. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 5 FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E.

    2012-03-14

    Sampling has been completed for the characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 in the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, SC. The sampling was performed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC using a stratified random sampling plan with volume-proportional compositing. The plan consisted of partitioning the residual material on the floor of Tank 5 into three non-overlapping strata: two strata enclosed accumulations, and a third stratum consisted of a thin layer of material outside the regions of the two accumulations. Each of three composite samples was constructed from five primary sample locations of residual material on the floor of Tank 5. Three of the primary samples were obtained from the stratum containing the thin layer of material, and one primary sample was obtained from each of the two strata containing an accumulation. This report documents the statistical analyses of the analytical results for the composite samples. The objective of the analysis is to determine the mean concentrations and upper 95% confidence (UCL95) bounds for the mean concentrations for a set of analytes in the tank residuals. The statistical procedures employed in the analyses were consistent with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) technical guidance by Singh and others [2010]. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) measured the sample bulk density, nonvolatile beta, gross alpha, radionuclide, inorganic, and anion concentrations three times for each of the composite samples. The analyte concentration data were partitioned into three separate groups for further analysis: analytes with every measurement above their minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs), analytes with no measurements above their MDCs, and analytes with a mixture of some measurement results above and below their MDCs. The means, standard deviations, and UCL95s were computed for the analytes in the two groups that had at least some measurements above their

  9. Classification of Variable Stars Using Thick-Pen Transform Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Oh, H.-S.; Kim, D.

    2013-04-01

    A suitable classification of variable stars is an important task for understanding galaxy structure and evaluating stellar evolution. Most traditional approaches for classification have used various features of variable stars such as period, amplitude, color index, and Fourier coefficients. Recently, by focusing only on the light curve shape, Deb and Singh proposed a classification method based on multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). They applied the PCA method to light curves and compared its results with those obtained by Fourier coefficients. In this article, we propose a new procedure based on the thick-pen transform for obtaining accurate information on the light curve shape as well as for improving the accuracy of classification. The proposed method is applied to the data sets of variable stars from the Stellar Astrophysics and Research on Exoplanets (STARE) project and a small number of stars from Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO).

  10. A Method for Calculating Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of a Helium-Xenon Gas Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    A method for calculating viscosity and thermal conductivity of a helium-xenon (He-Xe) gas mixture was employed, and results were compared to AiResearch (part of Honeywell) analytical data. The method of choice was that presented by Hirschfelder with Singh's third-order correction factor applied to thermal conductivity. Values for viscosity and thermal conductivity were calculated over a temperature range of 400 to 1200 K for He-Xe gas mixture molecular weights of 20.183, 39.94, and 83.8 kg/kmol. First-order values for both transport properties were in good agreement with AiResearch analytical data. Third-order-corrected thermal conductivity values were all greater than AiResearch data, but were considered to be a better approximation of thermal conductivity because higher-order effects of mass and temperature were taken into consideration. Viscosity, conductivity, and Prandtl number were then compared to experimental data presented by Taylor.

  11. Persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Green, Vanessa A; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). Aberrant Behavior Checklist: Manual. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications; (1994). Aberrant Behavior Checklist--Community. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications]. Problem behaviors were present in all children at the beginning of the study. Nine of the 13 children entered the study with relatively high levels of aberrant behaviors that showed little change over the 3 years. These data suggest that aberrant behaviors often emerge early and can be highly persistent during the preschool years. Prevention would, therefore, seem to require home-based interventions that begin before 4 years of age.

  12. A calibration curve for immobilized dihydrofolate reductase activity assay.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Morris, Holly; Tivanski, Alexei V; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-09-01

    An assay was developed for measuring the active-site concentration, activity, and thereby the catalytic turnover rate (k cat) of an immobilized dihydrofolate reductase model system (Singh et al., (2015), Anal. Biochem). This data article contains a calibration plot for the developed assay. In the calibration plot rate is plotted as a function of DHFR concentration and shows linear relationship. The concentration of immobilized enzyme was varied by using 5 different size mica chips. The dsDNA concentration was the same for all chips, assuming that the surface area of the mica chip dictates the resulting amount of bound enzyme (i.e. larger sized chip would have more bound DHFR). The activity and concentration of each chip was measured.

  13. Analytic equation of state and thermodynamic properties for He-H 2 fluid mixtures over a wide range of pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xinying; Sun, Jiuxun

    2007-08-01

    The analytical expressions for the equation of state and thermo-physical quantities of Exp-6 fluid are derived based on the Ross variational perturbation theory and with the quantum effect taken into account. The formalism developed is applied to the He-H 2 mixtures. The agreement of numerical results of pressure and internal energy with MC simulations is shown far better than the analytic equation of state developed by [I. Ali, S.M. Osman, N. Sulaiman, R.N. Singh, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 0561045]. The isotherms for pressure, internal energy and packing factor for five concentrations and four temperatures versus volume are calculated and analyzed. The numerical results for excess Gibbs free energy and entropy of mixing are presented. The variation of the excess Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the variation of the excess entropy of mixing versus temperature and pressure are different from and similar to that of Ali et al., respectively.

  14. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 4. The Neutrino

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". It's the most populous particle in the universe. Millions of these subatomic particles are passing through each one of us. With no charge and virtually no mass they can penetrate vast thicknesses of matter without any interaction - indeed the sun emits huge numbers that pass through earth at the speed of light. Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge. As a result they're extremely difficult to detect . But like HG Wells' invisible man they can give themselves away by bumping into things at high energy and detectors hidden in mines are exploiting this to observe these rare interactions.

  15. A Shape-Memory Alloy Thermal Conduction Switch for Use at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    The following summarizes the activities performed under NASA grant NAG10-323 from September 1, 2002 through September 30, 2004 at the. Univ ersity of Central Florida. A version of this has already been submitt ed for publication in the international journal Swart Materials and S tructures in December 2004. Additionally, a version of this has alrea dy appeared in print in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, American Institute of Physics, (2004) 50A 26-3; in an article entitled "A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch" by V.B. Krish nan. J.D. Singh. T.R. Woodruff. W.U. Notardonato and R. Vaidyanathan (article is attached at the end of this report).

  16. Effect of microwave power on kinetics and characteristics of microwave vacuum-dried longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan

    2015-03-01

    The drying kinetics of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp processed by microwave vacuum under different microwave levels (2.67, 5.33, 8.00, and 10.67 W/g) was investigated (pressure controlled at -85 ± 2 kPa) in the present study. It was found that the drying rate of longan pulp was dependent on the microwave power, and the rehydration rate increased from 1.96 to 2.17 with the increase of microwave power from 2.67 to 10.67 W/g. Among nine selected thin layer models, the microwave vacuum drying of longan pulp was well represented by five models, which were Page, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Wang and Singh, Logarithmic, and Midilli models. Furthermore, the results of statistical analysis indicated that the Midilli model could describe the best experimental data. In addition, scanning electron microscope observation showed that the microwave vacuum-dried longan pulp had a porous structure.

  17. A novel dehydration technique for carrot slices implementing ultrasound and vacuum drying methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Tao

    2016-05-01

    A novel drying technique using a combination of ultrasound and vacuum dehydration was developed to shorten the drying time and improve the quality of carrot slices. Carrot slices were dried with ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying and vacuum drying at 65 °C and 75 °C. The drying rate was significantly influenced by the drying techniques and temperatures. Compared with vacuum drying, USV drying resulted in a 41-53% decrease in the drying time. The drying time for the USV and vacuum drying techniques at 75 °C was determined to be 140 and 340 min for carrot slices, respectively. The rehydration potential, nutritional value (retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid), color, and textural properties of USV-dried carrot slices are predominately better compared to vacuum-dried carrot slices. Moreover, lower energy consumption was used in the USV technique. The drying data (time versus moisture ratio) were successfully fitted to Wang and Singh model.

  18. Elasticity of Tantalum to 105 Gpa using a stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cynn, H; Yoo, C S

    1999-08-11

    Determining the mechanical properties such as elastic constants of metals at Mbar pressures has been a difficult task in experiment. Following the development of anisotropic elastic theory by Singh et al. [l], Mao et a1.[2] have recently developed a novel experimental technique to determine the elastic constants of Fe by using the stress and energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (SEX). In this paper, we present an improved complementary technique, stress and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (SAX), which we have applied to determine the elastic constants of tantalum to 105 GPa. The extrapolation of the tantalum elastic data shows an excellent agreement with the low-pressure ultrasonic data [3]. We also discuss the improvement of this SAX method over the previous SEX. [elastic constant, anisotropic elastic theory, angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction, mechanical properties

  19. Uptake and translocation of Cd[sup 109] by two aquatic ferns in relation to relative toxic response

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Viswanathan, P.N. ); Gupta, M.; Devi, S. )

    1993-12-01

    Considerable variations exist in the phytotoxic response of different plants to cadmium exposure and uptake as observed in experimental and field studies. Quantitative and qualitative variations in comparative anatomy, physiology and biochemistry could be responsible for selective toxicity. Variations in uptake, translocation, sequestration by cell wall, phytochelation or formation of inclusion bodies have been reported in phytotoxic response to cadmium. Earlier studies by Singh et al. (1991) with the aquatic fern Marsilea minuta Linn showed Cd[sup 2+] induced both ultrastructural lesions and metallothioneins at concentrations above 0.5 ppm. However, another aquatic fern, Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brogn was even more sensitive to the basis of this variation, the comparative uptake and translocation of radioactive Cd[sup 109] by these plans was studied. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Electronic Apex Locators and Radiovisiography for Working Length Determination in Primary Teeth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neerja; Rathore, Monika S; Tandon, Shobha; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different varieties of electronic apex locators and radiovisiography (RVG) for working length determination in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 30 primary teeth indicated for pulpectomy in children aged 3 to 8 years were randomly selected and subjected to working length determination using two varieties of electronic apex locators and RVG separately. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A very strong correlation between electronic measurement methods and RVG length was observed. Conclusion: Radiovisiography and apex locators are equally effective in determining working length in primary teeth. How to cite this article: Abdullah A, Singh N, Rathore MS, Tandon S, Rajkumar B. Comparative Evaluation of Electronic Apex Locators and Radiovisiography for Working Length Determination in Primary Teeth in vivo. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):118-123. PMID:27365931

  1. No-signaling, perfect bipartite dichotomic correlations and local randomness

    SciTech Connect

    Seevinck, M. P.

    2011-03-28

    The no-signaling constraint on bi-partite correlations is reviewed. It is shown that in order to obtain non-trivial Bell-type inequalities that discern no-signaling correlations from more general ones, one must go beyond considering expectation values of products of observables only. A new set of nontrivial no-signaling inequalities is derived which have a remarkably close resemblance to the CHSH inequality, yet are fundamentally different. A set of inequalities by Roy and Singh and Avis et al., which is claimed to be useful for discerning no-signaling correlations, is shown to be trivially satisfied by any correlation whatsoever. Finally, using the set of newly derived no-signaling inequalities a result with potential cryptographic consequences is proven: if different parties use identical devices, then, once they have perfect correlations at spacelike separation between dichotomic observables, they know that because of no-signaling the local marginals cannot but be completely random.

  2. Theoretical constraints for the magnetic-dimer transition in two-dimensional spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Leonardo; Becca, Federico; Sorella, Sandro

    2006-04-01

    From general arguments, that are valid for spin models with sufficiently short-range interactions, we derive strong constraints on the excitation spectrum across a continuous phase transition at zero temperature between a magnetic and a dimerized phase, that breaks the translational symmetry. From the different symmetries of the two phases, it is possible to predict, at the quantum critical point, a branch of gapless excitations, not described by standard semiclassical approaches. By using these arguments, supported by intensive numerical calculations, we obtain a rather convincing evidence in favor of a first-order transition from the ferromagnetic to the dimerized phase in the two-dimensional spin-half model with a four-spin ring-exchange interaction, recently introduced by A.W. Sandvik, S. Daul, R.R.P. Singh, and D.J. Scalapino [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 247201 (2002)].

  3. Phases and Phase Transitions in the Two-Dimensional Ionic Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Tyler; Singh, Rajiv R. P.

    2005-03-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ionic Hubbard model at half filling on a square lattice using linked cluster expansions [1]. The model consists of a Hubbard model with alternating site energies. In one dimension, it is known that there is an intermediate spontaneously dimerized phase separating the band insulator phase from the Mott insulator phase [2,3]. We calculate the ground state energy, local moment, spin-spin correlations, and dimer-dimer correlations to 12th order, starting from the band insulator phase. Using series extrapolation techniques the phase diagram of the model and the nature of the phase transitions is studied.[1] M.P. Gelfand, R.R.P. Singh, Adv. Phys. 49, 93 (2000)[2] C.D. Batista and A.A. Aligia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246405 (2004)[3] S.R. Manmana, V. Meden, R.M. Noack, K. Sch" onhammer, Phys. Rev. B 70, 155115 (2004)

  4. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  5. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  6. Determination of the stoichiometry, structure, and distribution in living cells of protein complexes from analysis of single-molecular-complexes FRET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneman, Michael R.; Patowary, S.; Roesch, M. T.; Singh, D. R.; Strogolov, V.; Oliver, J. A.; Raicu, V.

    2011-03-01

    Advances in two-photon microscopy with spectral resolution (TPM-SR) and the development of a simple theory of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for single molecular complexes recently lead to the development of a novel method for the determination of structure and localization in living cells of membrane protein complexes (Raicu et al., Nature Photon., 3, 2009). An appealing feature of this method is its ability to provide such important information while being unaffected by spurious signals originating from stochastic FRET (Singh and Raicu, Biophys. J., 98, 2010). We will present the results obtained from our recent studies of trimeric FRET calibration standards expressed in the cytoplasm of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, as well as a model G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the membrane of yeast. Emphasis will be placed on the measurement and analysis of single-molecular-complex FRET data for determination of the quaternary structure of some proteins (or the protein complex structure).

  7. Description and evaluation of the QUIC bio-slurry scheme: droplet evaporation and surface deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zajic, Dragan; Brown, Michael J; Nelson, Matthew A; Williams, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) dispersion modeling system was developed with the goal of improving the transport and dispersion modeling capabilities within urban areas. The modeling system has the ability to rapidly obtain a detailed 3D flow field around building clusters and uses an urbanized Lagrangian random-walk approach to account for transport and dispersion (e.g., see Singh et al., 2008; Williams et al., 2009; and Gowardhan et al., 2009). In addition to wind-tunnel testing, the dispersion modeling system has been evaluated against full-scale urban tracer experiments performed in Salt Lake City, Oklahoma City, and New York City (Gowardhan et al., 2006; Gowardhan et al., 2009; Allwine et al., 2008) and the wind model output to measurements taken in downtown Oklahoma City.

  8. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Thayath, Muhamad Nishad; Singh, Shikha; Sinha, Anju

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm and low birthweight children comprise approximately 6% of all live births. It is now a well-known fact that premature children experience many oral complications associated with their preterm births. Prematurely born infants have a short prenatal development period and they are prone to many serious medical problems during the neonatal period, which may affect the development of oral tissues. Adverse perinatal factors, premature birth and exceptional early adaptation to extra-uterine life and functional activity may influence dental occlusal development and symmetry in the jaws. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to elucidate further the effect of preterm birth on the development of the dentition. How to cite this article: Zaidi I, Thayath MN, Singh S, Sinha A. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 215-219. PMID:26628856

  9. Mitochondria in health and disease - 3rd annual conference of society for mitochondrial research and medicine - 19-20 December 2013 - Bengaluru, India.

    PubMed

    Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of mitochondria was long considered to be production of cellular energy. However, as the understanding of mitochondria in disease is ever expanding, so is their additional function for a healthy organism. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to a range of pathologies, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, premature aging, diabetes and muscular diseases. Mitochondrial diseases can be hard to diagnose and treat and, therefore, interdisciplinary research and communication are important. The Third Annual Conference of Society for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine - India (SMRM) was titled "Mitochondria in Health and Disease". The conference was organized by Gayathri N, K Thangaraj, and KK Singh and was held at the National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore, India, from the 19th to 20th of December 2013. The meeting featured internationally renowned speakers within the field of mitochondrial research and medicine with the goal of bridging the gap between basic and clinical researchers. This review summarizes key outcomes of the conference.

  10. The termites of Early Eocene Cambay amber, with the earliest record of the Termitidae (Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Grimaldi, David A; Nascimbene, Paul C; Singh, Hukam

    2011-01-01

    The fauna of termites (Isoptera) preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin (Gujarat, India) are described and figured. Three new genera and four new species are recognized, all of them Neoisoptera - Parastylotermes krishnai Engel & Grimaldi, sp. n. (Stylotermitidae); Prostylotermes kamboja Engel & Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n. (Stylotermitidae?); Zophotermes Engel, gen. n., with Zophotermes ashoki Engel & Singh, sp. n. (Rhinotermitidae: Prorhinotermitinae); and Nanotermes isaacae Engel & Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n. (Termitidae: Termitinae?). Together these species represent the earliest Tertiary records of the Neoisoptera and the oldest definitive record of Termitidae, a family that comprises >75% of the living species of Isoptera. Interestingly, the affinities of the Cambay amber termites are with largely Laurasian lineages, in this regard paralleling relationships seen between the fauna of bees and some flies. Diversity of Neoisoptera in Indian amber may reflect origin of the amber deposit in Dipterocarpaceae forests formed at or near the paleoequator.

  11. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  12. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, P. Hari; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Randeep; Jha, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total PAs are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high respectively. Among the 28 protected areas- National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh Baratha WLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  13. Map showing depth to bedrock of the Tacoma and part of the Centralia 30' x 60' quadrangles, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.; Collins, Donley S.

    1994-01-01

    The heavily populated Puget Sound region in the State of Washington has experienced moderate to large earthquakes in the recent past (Nuttli, 1952; Mullineaux and others, 1967). Maps showing thickness of unconsolidated sedimentary deposits are useful aids in delineating areas where damage to engineered structures can result from increased shaking resulting from these earthquakes. Basins containing thick deposits of unconsolidated materials can amplify earthquakes waves and cause far more damage to structures than the same waves passing through bedrock (Singh and others, 1988; Algermissen and others, 1985). Configurations of deep sedimentary basins can also cause reflection and magnification of earthquake waves in ways still not fully understood and presently under investigation (Frankel and Vidale, 1992).

  14. Surgical Removal of Coronal Fragment of Tooth Embedded in Lower Lip and Esthetic Management of Fractured Crown Segment

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Alok; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Prasad, Swati

    2014-01-01

    AbSTRACT Dental fractures of the permanent maxillary anterior teeth are relatively frequent accidents during childhood. The Efficient diagnosis and treatment of dental injury are important elements in clinical dentistry. This article describes a case of trauma in permanent right central maxillary incisors with tooth fragments embedded in the lower lip. Thorough clinical examination followed by soft tissue radiographs confirmed the presence of a fractured incisal fragment, which was surgically retrieved under local anesthesia. Direct composite restoration was placed. After finishing and polishing, an esthetic and natural-looking restoration was achieved; this completely satisfied the functional and esthetic expectation of the patient and dental team. How to cite this article: Avinash A, Dubey A, Singh RK, Prasad S. Surgical Removal of Coronal Fragment of Tooth Embedded in Lower Lip and Esthetic Management of Fractured Crown Segment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):65-68. PMID:25206243

  15. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, B.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Mendonça, J. T.; Mendonça

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is devoted to the memory of Professor Padma Kant Shukla, who passed away 26 January 2013 on his travel to New Delhi, India to receive the prestigious Hind Rattan (Jewel of India) award. Padma was born in Tulapur, Uttar Pradesh, India, 7 July 1950, where he grew up and got his education. He received a PhD degree in Physics at the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, in 1972, under the supervision of late Prof. R. N. Singh, and a second PhD degree in Theoretical Plasma Physics from Umeå University in Sweden in 1975, under the supervision of Prof. Lennart Stenflo. He worked at the Faculty of Physics & Astronomy, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany since January 1973, where he was a permanent faculty member and Professor of International Affairs, a position that was created for him to honour his international accomplishments and reputation.

  16. Tuning quantum properties in bilayer ruthenates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xianglin

    The mutual coupling among spin, charge, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxide materials often leads to the competition of various types of energetic states. This makes such materials dramatically susceptible to external parameters, giving rise to novel physical properties and rich phase diagrams. In this talk, I shall use a bilayer ruthenate, Ca3Ru2O7, as an example to discuss the emergent phenomena achieved by systematically tuning materials magnetic and electronic properties via chemical doping, magnetic field, and pressure. I shall show that this system provides a rare opportunity to investigate the interplay between correlated metal and Mott insulator. This work was done in collaboration with M. Zhu, T. Tao, S. D. Mahanti, Z. Q. Mao, J. Peng, T. Hong, W. Tian, H. Cao, C. R. dela Cruz, D. Singh, and K. Prokes.

  17. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 1. The Electron

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 1. The Electron Just over a century ago, British physicist J.J. Thompson experimenting with electric currents and charged particles inside empty glass tubes, showed that atoms are divisible into indivisible elementary particles. But how could atoms be built up of these so called "corpuscles"? An exciting 30 year race ensued, to grasp the planetary model of the atom with its orbiting electrons, and the view inside the atom was born. Whilst the number of electrons around the nucleus of an atom determines their the chemistry of all elements, the power of electrons themselves have been harnessed for everyday use: electron beams for welding,cathode ray tubes and radiation therapy.

  18. Career involvement and family involvement as moderators of relationships between work-family conflict and withdrawal from a profession.

    PubMed

    Greenhaus, J H; Parasuraman, S; Collins, K M

    2001-04-01

    This study extended prior analyses by J. H. Greenhaus, K. M. Collins, R. Singh, and S. Parasuraman (1997) by examining relationships between 2 directions of work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict) and withdrawal from public accounting. The sample consisted of 199 members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (135 men and 64 women) who were married or in a long-term relationship and who had 1 or more children. It was found that work-to-family conflict (but not family-to-work conflict) was positively related to withdrawal intentions. In addition, relationships of work-to-family conflict with withdrawal intentions and withdrawal behavior were stronger for individuals who were relatively uninvolved in their careers than for those who were highly involved in their careers. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 192

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2012-08-15

    Experimental structure and decay data for all nuclei with mass A=192 (Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At) have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 15 June 2012, supersedes the 1998 evaluation by C. M. Baglin (Nuclear Data Sheets84, 717 (1998), literature cutoff August 1998) and the subsequent inclusion in the ENSDF database of the new nuclide {sup 192}At (C. M. Baglin, literature cutoff 16 May 2006). It also incorporates the current evaluation of superdeformed-band information by B. Singh. Since the last publication, {sup 192}Ta, {sup 192}W and {sup 192}At have been observed, and an isomeric state has been identified in {sup 192}Re. The {epsilon} decay of {sup 192}Au has been studied using a multidetector array resulting in an extensively revised level scheme for {sup 192}Pt.

  20. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Misuriya, Abhinav; Maroli, Sohani; Manjula, S; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It has the potential to bring enormous changes into the fields of medicine and dentistry. A day may soon come when nanodentistry will succeed in maintaining near-perfect oral health through the aid of nanorobotics, nanomaterials and biotechnology. However, as with all developments, it may also pose a risk for misuse. Time, economical and technical resources, and human needs will determine the direction this revolutionizing development may take. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology, nanaomedicine and nanodentistry. How to cite the article: Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj A, Misuriya A, Maroli S, Manjula S, Singh AK. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. J Int Oral Health 2013;6(1):121-6.

  1. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  2. Management of pigmented gingiva in child patient: a new era to the pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200. PMID:25206222

  3. Computational Study of Vibrational Dynamics of Binary Mg0.70Zn0.30 Metallic Glass by a Pseudopotential Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2008-11-01

    The vibrational dynamics of Mg70Zn30 metallic glass has been studied at room temperature in terms of phonon eigen-frequencies of longitudinal and transverse modes employing three different approaches proposed by Hubbard-Beeby (HB), Takeno-Goda (TG) and Bhatia-Singh (BS). The well-recognized model potential is employed successfully to explain electron-ion interaction in the metallic glass; instead of using experimental values of the pair correlation function g(r), which is generated from the computed pair potential. The present findings of phonon dispersion curve are found in fair agreement with available theoretical as well as experimental data. The thermodynamic properties obtained by HB and TG approaches are found much lower than those obtained by BS approach. The pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) model is applied for the first time instead of Vegard's Law.

  4. Usefulness of the Modified NRCS-CN Method for the Assessment of Direct Runoff in a Mountain Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wałęga, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of modified methods, developed on the basis of NRCS-CN method, in determining the size of an effective rainfall (direct runoff). The analyses were performed for the mountain catchment of the Kamienica river, right-hand tributary of the Dunajec. The amount of direct runoff was calculated using the following methods: (1) Original NRCS-CN model, (2) Mishra- Singh model (MS model), (3) Sahu-Mishra-Eldho model (SME model), (4) Sahu 1-p model, (5) Sahu 3-p model, and (6) Q_base model. The study results indicated that the amount of direct runoff, determined on the basis of the original NRCS-CN method, may differ significantly from the actually observed values. The best results were achieved when the direct runoff was determined using the SME and Sahu 3-p model.

  5. Inertia in Friedmann Universes with variable and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.

    2015-09-01

    In light of the recent interest in dynamical dark energy models based on a cosmology with varying gravitational and cosmological parameters and , we present here a model of inertia in a type of Friedmann universe with ; being the dimensionless scale factor, that was recently studied by Singh et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 345:213, 2013). The proposed Machian model of inertia utilizes the curved space generalization of Sciama's law of inertial induction, which is based on the analogy between the retarded far fields of electrodynamics and those of gravitation, and expresses the total inertial force on an accelerating mass in terms of contributions from all matter in the observable Universe. We show that for a varying Friedmann model with , inertial induction alone can account for the total inertial force on the accelerating mass. We then compare this cosmological model with current observational constraints for the variation of.

  6. A New Framework for Adptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Yonas Demissie, a research assistant supported by the project, has successfully created artificial data and assimilated it into coupled Modflow and artificial neural network models. His initial findings show that the neural networks help correct errors in the Modflow models. Abhishek Singh has used test cases from the literature to show that performing model calibration with an interactive genetic algorithm results in significantly improved parameter values. Meghna Babbar, the third research assistant supported by the project, has found similar results when applying an interactive genetic algorithms to long-term monitoring design. She has also developed new types of interactive genetic algorithms that significantly improve performance. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has shown that sampling branches of phytoremediation trees is an accurate approach to estimating soil and groundwater contaminations in areas surrounding the trees at the Argonne 317/319 site.

  7. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200. PMID:25206222

  8. Management of pigmented gingiva in child patient: a new era to the pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200.

  9. Perceptual representation, veridicality, and the interface theory of perception.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (henceforth, HSP) argue that perception was not selected for veridical representation, hence that, contrary to a very widespread consensus, there's much less of the latter than you might expect in perception. And they put forward an alternative "interface" theory, on which perception is an adaptively useful but truth-obscuring veil between perceiver and perceived. But HSP's case against veridical perception, and their case for an alternative account, turn crucially on significant misapprehensions in the early going about what veridicality amounts to. In this paper I'll identify this mistake, and then argue that it both undercuts HSP's arguments against perceptual veridicality and prevents them from seeing that their own preferred conception of perception is itself committed to veridical representation, rather than an alternative to it. In the end, I'll conclude, HSP give us no reasons to abandon the standard view that perception veridically represents the world.

  10. Pathogenic and free-living protozoa cultured from the nasopharyngeal and oral regions of dental patients.

    PubMed

    Rivera, F; Medina, F; Ramírez, P; Alcocer, J; Vilaclara, G; Robles, E

    1984-04-01

    Protozoa of nose, mouth, and pharynx of 30 randomly chosen female caries patients at an odontological clinic of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, were surveyed by culture from swabs. Culture tubes of swabs from each patient were observed every other day during 5 weeks. Pathogenic protozoa found included Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903; Naegleria fowleri Carter, 1970; Acanthamoeba castelanii Douglas, 1930; Acanthamoeba culbertsoni Singh & Das, 1970; and Balantidium coli (Malmsten, 1857) Stein, 1862. This isolation of pathogens suggests that healthy patients may be healthy carriers of cysts of protozoa, mainly amoebae, responsible for several diseases, including primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Small pathogenic free-living amoebae have not been isolated before from females in Mexico. Many species of free-living protozoa were also cultured from swabs from the patients. PMID:6370674

  11. Vertex amplitudes in spin foam loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David

    2016-03-01

    We discuss properties of the vertex expansion for homogeneous, isotropic loop quantum cosmological models sourced by a massless, minimally coupled scalar field, which in this model plays the role of an internal matter ``clock''. We show that the vertex expansion, first written down by Ashtekar, Campiglia and Henderson, must be thought of as a short-time expansion in the sense that the amplitude for volume transitions is constrained both by the order of the expansion and by the elapsed scalar field. To calculate the amplitude for significant volume changes or between large differences in the value of the scalar field requires the expansion be evaluated to very high order. This contribution describes work in collaboration with P. Singh.

  12. A focus on two major health problems in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Ajzenberg, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Every 2 years, Professor Sarman Singh organizes the International Conference on Opportunistic Pathogens, which is held in the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. International experts in the field of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients and transplant recipients are invited to share their experience with their Indian colleagues. In this article, two presentations are summarized. The focus on those presentations is not necessarily because they convey new information (most of the data are available on the WHO website or in the literature), but rather because this information is still highly relevant today and because, in the opinion of the author, it is very important to heighten readers' awareness of these major health problems in the Indian subcontinent.

  13. Perceptual representation, veridicality, and the interface theory of perception.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (henceforth, HSP) argue that perception was not selected for veridical representation, hence that, contrary to a very widespread consensus, there's much less of the latter than you might expect in perception. And they put forward an alternative "interface" theory, on which perception is an adaptively useful but truth-obscuring veil between perceiver and perceived. But HSP's case against veridical perception, and their case for an alternative account, turn crucially on significant misapprehensions in the early going about what veridicality amounts to. In this paper I'll identify this mistake, and then argue that it both undercuts HSP's arguments against perceptual veridicality and prevents them from seeing that their own preferred conception of perception is itself committed to veridical representation, rather than an alternative to it. In the end, I'll conclude, HSP give us no reasons to abandon the standard view that perception veridically represents the world. PMID:26452374

  14. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Misuriya, Abhinav; Maroli, Sohani; Manjula, S; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It has the potential to bring enormous changes into the fields of medicine and dentistry. A day may soon come when nanodentistry will succeed in maintaining near-perfect oral health through the aid of nanorobotics, nanomaterials and biotechnology. However, as with all developments, it may also pose a risk for misuse. Time, economical and technical resources, and human needs will determine the direction this revolutionizing development may take. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology, nanaomedicine and nanodentistry. How to cite the article: Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj A, Misuriya A, Maroli S, Manjula S, Singh AK. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. J Int Oral Health 2013;6(1):121-6. PMID:24653616

  15. Analytical Modeling for Mechanical Strength Prediction with Raman Spectroscopy and Fractured Surface Morphology of Novel Coconut Shell Powder Reinforced: Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Savita; Singh, Alok; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an analytical modeling and prediction of tensile and flexural strength of three dimensional micro-scaled novel coconut shell powder (CSP) reinforced epoxy polymer composites have been reported. The novel CSP has a specific mixing ratio of different coconut shell particle size. A comparison is made between obtained experimental strength and modified Guth model. The result shows a strong evidence for non-validation of modified Guth model for strength prediction. Consequently, a constitutive modeled equation named Singh model has been developed to predict the tensile and flexural strength of this novel CSP reinforced epoxy composite. Moreover, high resolution Raman spectrum shows that 40 % CSP reinforced epoxy composite has high dielectric constant to become an alternative material for capacitance whereas fractured surface morphology revealed that a strong bonding between novel CSP and epoxy polymer for the application as light weight composite materials in engineering.

  16. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on plant and grain nutrition of wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, Partha Sarathi

    2010-08-01

    We recently reported the use of low dose gamma irradiation to improve plant vigor, grain development and yield attributes of wheat ( Singh and Datta, 2010). Further, we report here the results of a field experiment conducted to assess the effect of gamma irradiation at 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 kGy on flag leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthetic rate and plant and grain nutritional quality. Gamma irradiation improved plant nutrition but did not improve the nutritional quality of grains particularly relating to micronutrients. Grain carotene, a precursor for vitamin A, was higher in irradiated grains. Low grain micronutrients seem to be caused by a limitation in the source to sink nutrient translocation rather than in the nutrient uptake capacity of the plant root.

  17. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejos, Víctor M.; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); Singh and Sinha J. Chem. Phys. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  18. Understanding critical barriers to implementing a clinical information system in a nursing home through the lens of a socio-technical perspective.

    PubMed

    Or, Calvin; Dohan, Michael; Tan, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses key barriers to implementing a clinical information system (CIS) in a Hong Kong nursing home setting, from a healthcare specific socio-technical perspective. Data was collected through field observations (n = 12) and semi-structured individual interviews (n = 18) of CIS stakeholders in a Hong Kong nursing home, and analyzed using the immersion/crystallization approach. Complex interactions relevant to our case were contextualized and interpreted within the perspective of the Sittig-Singh Healthcare Socio-Technical Framework (HSTF). Three broad clusters of implementation barriers from the eight HSTF dimensions were identified: (a) Infrastructure-based barriers, which relate to conflict between government regulations and system functional needs of users; lack of financial support; inconsistency between workflow, work policy, and procedures; and inadequacy of hardware-software infrastructural and technical support; (b) Process-based barriers, which relate to mismatch between the technology, existing work practice and workflow, and communication; low system speed, accessibility, and stability; deficient computer literacy; more experience in health care profession; clinical content inadequacy and unavailability; as well as poor system usefulness and user interface design; and (c) Outcome-based barriers, which relate to the lack of measurement and monitoring of system effectiveness. Two additional dimensions underlining the importance of the ability of a CIS to change are proposed to extend the Sittig-Singh HSTF. First, advocacy would promote the articulation and influence of changes in the system and subsequent outcomes by CIS stakeholders, and second, adaptability would ensure the ability of the system to adjust to emerging needs. The broad set of discovered implementation shortcomings expands prior research on why CIS can fail in nursing home settings. Moreover, our investigation offers a knowledge base and recommendations that can serve

  19. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    PubMed

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%). PMID:27390647

  20. Seismo-electromagnetic phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Biagi, Pier; Namorado Rosa, Rui; Salgueiro da Silva, Manuel; Caldeira, Bento; Heitor Reis, Artur; Borges, José Fernando; Tlemçani, Mouhaydine; Manso, Marco

    2010-05-01

    variations of EM properties of the crust/plate in relation with the strain field, and in space in relation with composition and temperature and stress fields. Further, the interplay between atmospheric (and solar) perturbations with crust perturbations will be monitored, to observe geomagnetic perturbations at different locations. Our study will be focused in the analyses of low magnitude earthquakes with M =< 4, these events are frequent in the WENP region, but have been almost completely disregarded in literature [5,6]. [1] J. Borges, A. J. S. Fitas, M. Bezzeghoud, and P. Teves-Costa, Tectonophysics 337, 373 (2001). [2] V. Chauhan, O.P. Singh, V. Kushwah, V. Singh, B. Singh, Journal of Geodynamics 48, 68 (2009). [3] L. Telesca, V. Lapenna, M. Macchiato, and K. Hattori, Earth and Planet. Science Lett. 268, 219 (2008). [4] P. F. Biagi, L. Castellana, T. Maggipinto, D. Loiacono, L. Schiavulli, T. Ligonzo, M. Fiore, E. Suciu, and A. Ermini, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 9, 1551 (2009). [5] A. Rozhnoi , M.S. Solovieva, O.A. Molchanov, and M. Hayakawa, Phys. and Chem. of the Earth 29, 589-598 (2004). [6] K. Hattori, I. Takahashi, C. Yoshino, N. Isezaki, H. Iwasaki, M. Harada, K. Kawabata, E. Kopytenko, Y. Kopytenko, P. Maltsev, V. Korepanov, O. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, Y. Noda, T. Nagao, S. Uyeda, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29, 481-494 (2004).

  1. Inferences on sediment provenance and source weathering using major, trace and Sr-Nd isotopic compositional variations in alluvial sediments from Sirhind, Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, D.; Amir, M.; Sinha, R.; Singh, A.; Balakrishnan, S.

    2013-12-01

    sediments show less radiogenic Sr and more radiogenic Nd (Higher Himalayan signature) whereas sediments deposited around the post-LGM show more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic in Nd (Lesser Himalayan signature). These variations can be attributed to decreased monsoon precipitation and larger ice cover over the Higher Himalaya during LGM that reduced Higher Himalayan contribution to the post-LGM samples. Similarly, decreasing glacial cover during Holocene may have resulted in relatively more sediment contribution from the Higher Himalayas giving rise to lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher ɛNd values. The findings of this study are consistent with those from the down-stream (Ghaggar river) core sediments2 and Ganga-Yamuna interfluve sediments1. Sr-Nd compositions coupled with CIA values indicate a dominant control of climate on provenance and source weathering. 1Rahaman, W., S. K. Singh., R. Sinha., and S. K. Tondon (2009), Geology, 37, 559-526. 2Singh, A., D. Paul., S. K. Singh., and R. Sinha (2013), PAGES 4th meeting, Goa, India.

  2. Effect of apical hyperosmotic sodium challenge and amiloride on sodium transport in human bronchial epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis donors.

    PubMed

    Rasgado-Flores, Hector; Krishna Mandava, Vamsi; Siman, Homayoun; Van Driessche, Willy; Pilewski, Joseph M; Randell, Scott H; Bridges, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation therapy benefits cystic fibrosis (CF) patients [Donaldson SH, Bennet WD, Zeman KL, Knowles MR, Tarran R, Boucher RC. N Engl J Med 354: 241-250, 2006; Elkins MR, Robinson M, Rose BR, Harbour C, Moriarty CP, Marks GB, Belousova EG, Xuan W, Bye PT; the National Hypertonic Saline in Cystic Fibrosis (NHSCF) Study Group. N Engl J Med 354: 229-240, 2006]. Surprisingly, these benefits are long-lasting and are diminished by the epithelial Na(+) channel blocker amiloride (Donaldson SH, Bennet WD, Zeman KL, Knowles MR, Tarran R, Boucher RC. N Engl J Med 354: 241-250, 2006). Our aim was to explain these effects. Human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells from CF lungs were grown in inserts and were used in three experimental approaches: 1) Ussing chambers to measure amiloride-sensitive short-circuit currents (INa); 2) continuous perfusion Ussing chambers; and 3) near "thin-film" conditions in which the airway surface of the inserts was exposed to a small volume (30 μl) of isosmotic or HS solution as the inserts were kept in their incubation tray and were subsequently used to measure INa under isosmotic conditions (near thin-film experiments; Tarran R, Boucher RC. Methods Mol Med 70: 479-492, 2002). HS solutions (660 mosmol/kgH2O) were prepared by adding additional NaCl to the isosmotic buffer. The transepithelial short-circuit current (ISC), conductance (GT), and capacitance (CT) were measured by transepithelial impedance analysis (Danahay H, Atherton HC, Jackson AD, Kreindler JL, Poll CT, Bridges RJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 290: L558-L569, 2006; Singh AK, Singh S, Devor DC, Frizzell RA, van Driessche W, Bridges RJ. Methods Mol Med 70: 129-142, 2002). Exposure to apical HS inhibited INa, GT, and CT. The INa inhibition required 60 min of reexposure to the isosmotic solution to recover 75%. The time of exposure to HS required to inhibit INa was <2.5 min. Under near thin-film conditions, apical exposure to HS inhibited INa, but as

  3. Tensor network states and algorithms in the presence of a global SU(2) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Vidal, Guifre

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of exploiting the presence of symmetries in tensor network algorithms have been extensively demonstrated in the context of matrix product states (MPSs). These include the ability to select a specific symmetry sector (e.g., with a given particle number or spin), to ensure the exact preservation of total charge, and to significantly reduce computational costs. Compared to the case of a generic tensor network, the practical implementation of symmetries in the MPS is simplified by the fact that tensors only have three indices (they are trivalent, just as the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the symmetry group) and are organized as a one-dimensional array of tensors, without closed loops. Instead, a more complex tensor network, one where tensors have a larger number of indices and/or a more elaborate network structure, requires a more general treatment. In two recent papers, namely, (i) [Singh, Pfeifer, and Vidal, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.050301 82, 050301 (2010)] and (ii) [Singh, Pfeifer, and Vidal, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.83.115125 83, 115125 (2011)], we described how to incorporate a global internal symmetry into a generic tensor network algorithm based on decomposing and manipulating tensors that are invariant under the symmetry. In (i) we considered a generic symmetry group G that is compact, completely reducible, and multiplicity free, acting as a global internal symmetry. Then, in (ii) we described the implementation of Abelian group symmetries in much more detail, considering a U(1) symmetry (e.g., conservation of global particle number) as a concrete example. In this paper, we describe the implementation of non-Abelian group symmetries in great detail. For concreteness, we consider an SU(2) symmetry (e.g., conservation of global quantum spin). Our formalism can be readily extended to more exotic symmetries associated with conservation of total fermionic or anyonic charge. As a practical demonstration, we

  4. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  5. Extreme Erosion of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis Traced by Isotopic Compositions of River and Bengal Fan Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Galy, V.; Pik, R.; Singh, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    Sediments of the Brahmaputra basin were collected in Assam and Bangladesh including the Siang-Tsangpo that drains the Namche Barwa syntaxis. Chemistry, and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions trace sediment provenance and erosion distribution in eastern Himalaya. Overall sediments display a large range of 87Sr/86Sr (0.705 to 0.825) and ɛNd (-20.5 to -6.9) (Singh et al. 2001). Nevertheless, sediments of the Siang and along course of the Brahmaputra show almost constant isotopic signatures. Mass balance calculations based on these data along with data available for the Tsangpo in Tibet and in Namche Barwa region show that the basin is marked with differential erosion. About half of the sediments is derived from the syntaxis, which is only 20% of the mountainous area. Zircon-He ages from the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh range from 0.4 to 77 Ma. 40% of the zircon have ages between 0.4 and 1 Ma defining a distribution peak centred at 0.5 Ma. These young ages correspond to extreme denudation rates of 5 to 7 mm/yr. Dispersed ages from 12 to 77 Ma do not define any disctinct group and the remaining 40% of the zircons have ages between 2.5 and 7 Ma, which correspond to the pool of ages recorded by on other Himalayan rivers. The Namche Barwa syntaxis shows the same type of very young zircon ages as observed in the Siang (Stewart et al., 2004). The intense erosion of the eastern syntaxis is likely sustained by the high incision potential of the Tsangpo river due to its very high water discharge prior to the Syntaxis. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the Brahmaputra are different from those of the Himalayan tributaries and of the Ganga due to the contribution of the Calc-alkaline formations of the Transhimalaya. This contribution is also traced on modern sediments of the delta as well as in upper Bengal fan aged between 30 and 20 000 years and suggest a rather steady erosion regime since the LGM. On a longer time scale, Mio-Pliocene sediments from the middle Bengal Fan (DSDP Site 218

  6. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  7. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ira J; Godinez, Guillermo L; Singh, Baljit K; McCaughey, Kelly M; Alcantara, Raniel R; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S; Nguyen, Henry N; Friera, Annabelle M; White, Kathy A; McLaughlin, John R; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Claypool, Mark D; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C; Gelman, Marina S; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L; Creger, Daniel P; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J; Powers, Scott K; Masuda, Esteban S; Taylor, Vanessa C; Payan, Donald G; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.-Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  8. Raman scattering investigations of the interaction of a COV with pure and acid doped ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, S.; Oancea, A.; Focsa, C.; Chazallon, B.

    2009-04-01

    (183 K to 273 K). Information at the molecular level on the surface structure can be derived from accompanying changes observed in band shapes and vibrational mode frequencies. The influence of the presence of nitric acid on the molecular interactions with the trapped organic species in ice particles can be also spectroscopically characterized. (1) Gao et al., Science, 2004, 303, 516. (2) Journet et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2005, 109, 14112. (3)H. Singh, M. Kanakidou, P.J Crutzen & D.J Jacob, Nature, 1995, 378, 50. (4)H. Singh, Y. Chen, A. Staudt, D. Jacob, D. Blake, B. Heikes & J. Snow, Nature, 2001, 410, 1078. (5)F. Dominé & P.B Shepson, Science, 2002, 297, 1506

  9. Application of an extension of the MAI method to the Acapulco City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, M.; Aguirre, J.

    2001-12-01

    The site effects and the source parameters, are inverted from a Fourier displacement spectra of seismograms that are corrected by geometrical spreading and regional attenuation valid for south center of Mexico(Ordaz and Singh, 1992). We used Genetic Algorithms (GA) to perform the non-linear inversion, like in the MAI method (Moya et al., 2000) . The GA have proved to produce better results than other traditional methods which are frequently trapped in a local minimum. GA is a method that mimics the evolution laws in living creatures. The best individuals reproduce and develop themselves with every generation. In our case each individual correspond to one source and the genes correspond to the source parameters. As in nature, the best source remain and are improved with each iteration. We assume that the site effect at each station are the same independently of the earthquake, because of that we can search for the combination of sources that can produce the smaller standard deviation of the estimated site effects from the different Fourier displacement earthquake spectra. Then we use the obtained site effects to generate a Fourier displacement spectra of an earthquake scenario. With this, we are able to compute the response spectra by means of random vibration theory (Reinoso et al., 1990). We apply this method to four stations located in the Acapulco City, Mexico, that recorded four earthquakes with epicenter located in the Guerrero Subduction Zone. The site effect estimated for one of the stations, called ACAZ, shows a good agreement with the estimated by Chávez-García et al. (1994) using spectral ratios between the ACAZ station and a rock reference site. Also we compare the response spectra from other earthquake, obtained by the former method and the response spectra computed using the acceleration record. We find an acceptable correlation between them. Chávez-García, J. Cuenca y M. Cárdenas (1994), "Estudio complementario de efectos de sitio en Acapulco

  10. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aman; Singh, Vijay Pratap

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most important steps is accurate impression making for fabrication of fixed partial denture. The two different putty-wash techniques that are commonly used are: (1) Putty-wash one-step technique, (2) putty-wash two-step technique. A uniform wash space is needed for an accurate impression. Nissan et al recommended the use of two-step technique for accurate impression making as there is uniform wash space for the light body material to polymerize. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts obtained from different putty-wash impression techniques using various spacer thickness. The critical factor that influences the accuracy of putty-wash impression techniques is the controlled wash bulk which is absent in one-step putty-wash impression technique and with polyethylene spacer was used. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Arora A, Singh VP. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):33-38. PMID:25206132

  11. Bis[(1S)-1 4-azanediyl-1-(9-deazaadenin-9-yl)-1 4-dideoxy-5-methylsulfanyl-D-ribitol] tetrakis(hydrochloride) monohydrate: structure DFT energy and ligand docking results of a potent methylthioadenosine phosphorylase inhibitor found in different

    SciTech Connect

    G Gainsford; G Evans; K Johnston; M Seth

    2011-12-31

    The title compound, abbreviated as 5'ThiomethylImmA, is a potent inhibitor of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase [Singh et al. (2004). Biochemistry, 43, 9-18]. The synchrotron study reported here shows that the hydrochloride salt crystallizes with two independent, nearly superimposable, dications as a monohydrate with formula 2C{sub 12}H{sub 19}N{sub 5}O{sub 2}S{sup 2+}{center_dot}4Cl{sup -}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O. Hydrogen bonding utilizing the H atoms of the dication is found to favor certain molecular conformations in the salt, which are significantly different from those found as bound in the enzyme. Ligand docking studies starting from either of these dications or related neutral structures successfully place the conformationally revised structures in the enzyme active site but only under particular hydrogen-bonding and molecular flexibility criteria. Density functional theory calculations verify the energy similarity of the indendent cations and confirm the significant energy cost of the required conformation change to the enzyme bound form. The results suggest the using crystallographically determined free ligand coordinates as starting parameters for modelling may have serious limitations.

  12. Time-dependent mechanical response of HDPE geomembranes

    SciTech Connect

    Merry, S.M.; Bray, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Geomembranes are used extensively in the construction of base liners and cover systems for both hazardous and municipal waste-containment facilities. Characterization of the long-term mechanical response of geomembranes used in waste-containment facilities is crucial to designing base liner and over systems that perform satisfactorily. To investigate the long-term mechanical response, strain-controlled multiaxial tension testing was performed over a fourfold variation of strain rate using a newly developed multiaxial tension-test apparatus capable of performing constant strain rate and constant stress creep tests. This device subjects a geomembrane specimen to multiaxial stress states and allows for the development of strain conditions that vary from plane strain at the clamped edges to balanced biaxial at the center. Results from testing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) specimens indicate that the secant modulus and strength decreases considerably at strain rates appropriate for long-term field applications. The strength of HDPE measured at a typical laboratory strain rate of 1% per minute can be more than twice the strength predicted at a strain rate of 1E-6% per minute, which may be representative of field performance for a typical 30-year design life. A hyperbolic model and the Singh-Mitchell creep model (which was originally formulated for soils) are shown to capture the time-dependent mechanical response of HDPE well.

  13. Mapping Variation in Vegetation Functioning with Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Couture, J. J.; Kruger, E. L.; Serbin, S.; Singh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopy (otherwise known as hyperspectral remote sensing) offers the potential to characterize the spatial and temporal variation in biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation that can be costly or logistically difficult to measure comprehensively using traditional methods. A number of recent studies have illustrated the capacity for imaging spectroscopy data, such as from NASA's AVIRIS sensor, to empirically estimate functional traits related to foliar chemistry and physiology (Singh et al. 2015, Serbin et al. 2015). Here, we present analyses that illustrate the implications of those studies to characterize within-field or -stand variability in ecosystem functioning. In agricultural ecosystems, within-field photosynthetic capacity can vary by 30-50%, likely due to within-field variations in water availability and soil fertility. In general, the variability of foliar traits is lower in forests than agriculture, but can still be significant. Finally, we demonstrate that functional trait variability at the stand scale is strongly related to vegetation diversity. These results have two significant implications: 1) reliance on a small number of field samples to broadly estimate functional traits likely underestimates variability in those traits, and 2) if trait estimations from imaging spectroscopy are reliable, such data offer the opportunity to greatly increase the density of measurements we can use to predict ecosystem function.

  14. Ground motion estimation in Delhi from postulated regional and local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Himanshu; Kumar, Ashok; Kamal

    2013-04-01

    Ground motions are estimated at 55 sites in Delhi, the capital of India from four postulated earthquakes (three regional M w = 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5 and one local). The procedure consists of (1) synthesis of ground motion at a hard reference site (NDI) and (2) estimation of ground motion at other sites in the city via known transfer functions and application of the random vibration theory. This work provides a more extensive coverage than earlier studies (e.g., Singh et al., Bull Seism Soc Am 92:555-569, 2002; Bansal et al., J Seismol 13:89-105, 2009). The Indian code response spectra corresponding to Delhi (zone IV) are found to be conservative at hard soil sites for all postulated earthquakes but found to be deficient for M w = 8.0 and 8.5 earthquakes at soft soil sites. Spectral acceleration maps at four different natural periods are strongly influenced by the shallow geological and soil conditions. Three pockets of high acceleration values are seen. These pockets seem to coincide with the contacts of (a) Aravalli quartzite and recent Yamuna alluvium (towards the East), (b) Aravalli quartzite and older quaternary alluvium (towards the South), and (c) older quaternary alluvium and recent Yamuna alluvium (towards the North).

  15. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist with children and adolescents with dual diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, J; Helsel, W J

    1991-03-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC; Aman, Singh, Stewart, & Field, 1985a, 1985b) is a 58-item third-party informant rating scale originally developed for institutionalized, low-functioning adolescents and adults. The present study investigated the appropriateness of the scale for youngsters with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychiatric disturbance. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, 204 patients (199 after data reduction) from a child psychiatry unit were rated twice daily by direct care staff. Data analysis addressed internal consistency, interrater reliability, criterion validity, and robustness of the factor structure. Internal consistency was satisfactory with alpha coefficients ranging from .82 to .94. Interrater reliability varied between subscales but was relatively low (Pearson correlations between .39 to .61). In terms of its criterion validity, the ABC was sensitive to psychiatric diagnoses and age and the original 5-factor structure was robust (congruence coefficients ranged between .80 to .89). Yet, only a relatively small proportion of the variance (31.5%) was explained by factor analysis indicating possible limitations of the ABC for this population. Given the paucity of assessment instruments for this particular population and the difficulty involved in developing new population-specific instruments, the ABC can be recommended for children and adolescents with dual diagnosis.

  16. An evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for children under age 5.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Huete, John M; Fodstad, Jill C; Chin, Michelle D; Kurtz, Patricia F

    2013-04-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in this population. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman & Singh, 1994) is a rating scale that measures the severity of a range of problem behaviors commonly observed in individuals with IDD. While it has been used with children under 5, investigations into the fit of the ABC-C for this population are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to report on ABC-C scores in a sample of 97 children under age 5 with problem behavior. Analyses included evaluating differences in scores between age groups, comparing sample norms to established norms for older children, and conducting a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated differences in mean scores based on age with younger children generally scoring higher on some subscales of the ABC-C. Furthermore, the original 5-factor structure of the ABC-C was not fully supported. In general, the ABC-C may over- or underestimate behavior problems in younger children; therefore more extensive investigation into the utility of the ABC-C for children under age 5 is warranted.

  17. Universal conductivity in a two-dimensional superfluid-to-insulator quantum critical system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Longxiang; Deng, Youjin; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2014-01-24

    We compute the universal conductivity of the (2+1)-dimensional XY universality class, which is realized for a superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition at constant density. Based on large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the classical (2+1)-dimensional J-current model and the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we can precisely determine the conductivity on the quantum critical plateau, σ(∞) = 0.359(4)σQ with σQ the conductivity quantum. The universal conductivity curve is the standard example with the lowest number of components where the bottoms-up AdS/CFT correspondence from string theory can be tested and made to use [R. C. Myers, S. Sachdev, and A. Singh, Phys. Rev. D 83, 066017 (2011)]. For the first time, the shape of the σ(iω(n)) - σ(∞) function in the Matsubara representation is accurate enough for a conclusive comparison and establishes the particlelike nature of charge transport. We find that the holographic gauge-gravity duality theory for transport properties can be made compatible with the data if temperature of the horizon of the black brane is different from the temperature of the conformal field theory. The requirements for measuring the universal conductivity in a cold gas experiment are also determined by our calculation. PMID:24484123

  18. Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemas, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    Tracking and Monitoring Oil Slicks Using Remote Sensing Victor Klemas, Ph.D. , College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 Abstract Oil spills can harm marine life in the ocean, estuaries and wetlands. To limit the damage by a spill and facilitate cleanup efforts, emergency managers need information on spill location, size and extent, direction and speed of oil movement, wind, current, and wave information for predicting oil drift and dispersion. The main operational data requirements are fast turn-around time and frequent imaging to monitor the dynamics of the spill. Radar and multispectral remote sensors on satellites and aircraft meet most of these requirements by tracking the spilled oil at various resolutions, over wide areas and at frequent intervals. They also provide key inputs to drift prediction models and facilitate targeting of skimming and booming efforts. Satellite data are frequently supplemented by information provided by aircraft, ships and remotely controlled underwater robots. The Sea Princess tanker grounding off the coast of Wales and the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico provide two representative, yet different, scenarios for evaluating the effectiveness of remote sensors during oil spill emergencies. Session NH17: Remote Sensing of Natural Hazards Session Chair: Ramesh P. Singh Sponsor: Natural Hazards (NH)

  19. Active Terahertz Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Antoinette

    2011-03-01

    In recent years terahertz technology has become an optimistic candidate for numerous sensing, imaging, and diagnostic applications. Nevertheless, THz technology still suffers from a deficiency in high-power sources, efficient detectors, and other functional devices ubiquitous in neighboring microwave and infrared frequency bands, such as amplifiers, modulators, and switches. One of the greatest obstacles in this progress is the lack of materials that naturally respond well to THz radiation. The potential of metamaterials for THz applications originates from their resonant electromagnetic response, which significantly enhances their interaction with THz radiation. Thus, metamaterials offer a route towards helping to fill the so-called ``THz gap''. Here, we present a series of novel THz metamaterials. Importantly, the critical dependence of the resonant response on the supporting substrate and/or the fabricated structure enables the creation of active THz metamaterial devices. We show that the resonant response can be controlled using optical or electrical excitation and thermal tuning, enabling efficient THz devices which will be of importance for advancing numerous real world THz applications. We acknowledge contribution to this work from H. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Azad, J. Zhou, R. Singh, M. Reiten, and D. Chowdhury of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies.

  20. Family 18 Chitolectins: Comparison of MGP40 and HUMGP39

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer-ul-Haq; Dalal, Pranav; Aronson, Nathan N.; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2007-01-01

    Glycosidase and lectins both bind sugars, but only the glycosidases have catalytic activity. The glycosidases occur among 91 evolved protein families and Family 18 is one of the two chitinases (EC 3, 2.1.14) families. Interestingly, lectins are also in this evolutionary group of Family 18 glycosidase proteins. The proteins belonging to the enzymatically inactive class are referred to as, chitolectins and have a binding site that is highly similar to the catalytic Family 18 enzymes. We present a comparison of the recently obtained structures of two Family 18 chitolectins, MGP40 (Mohanty, Singh et al., 2003) and HumGP39 (Fusetti, Pijning et al., 2003; Houston, Anneliese et al., 2003) with glycosidases active site. We compare the sequence and the structure of these two Family 18 proteins. The difference between the active and inactive protein is a glutamic acid which acts as the essential acid/base residue for chitin cleavage is replaced with leucine or glutamine. Furthermore, mechanism for the interaction between the chitolectin and oligosaccharides were proposed. PMID:17543889

  1. Drying kinetics of syrup of Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa.

    PubMed

    Benhura, Chakare; Kugara, Jameson; Muchuweti, Maud; Nyagura, Stella F; Matarise, Florence; Gombiro, Power E; Nyandoro, George

    2015-08-01

    Drying properties of syrup prepared from Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa prepared from the syrup and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) meal were studied using a convective tray drier at temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C and air velocity of 0.72 m/s. Nine mathematical models namely Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, Midilli et al., Modified Page, Page, Two Term, Weibull, Modified Page Equation (II) and Wang and Singh were fitted to data for thin layer drying of the products using non-linear regression analysis. Thin layer drying processes for the syrup and zvambwa were best described by the Modified Page model. Effective moisture diffusivities for drying of syrup were higher than those for drying of zvambwa. The activation energies for drying of syrup and zvambwa were 21.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol and19.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol respectively. PMID:26243916

  2. Disentangling the secondary relaxations in the orientationally disordered mixed crystals: cycloheptanol + cyclooctanol two-component system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Julio C; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Pardo, Luis C; Barrio, María; Rzoska, Sylwester J; Droz-Rzoska, Aleksandra

    2010-05-13

    The dynamics of the pure compounds and mixed crystals formed between cycloheptanol (cC7-ol) and cyclooctanol (cC8-ol) has been studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at temperatures near and above the orientational glass transition temperature. Both compounds are known to display at least one orientationally disordered (OD) phase of simple cubic symmetry, and within this phase, a continuous formation of mixed crystals was demonstrated in the past (Rute, M. A. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 5914). The dielectric loss spectra of cC7-ol and cC8-ol show, in addition to the well-pronounced alpha-relaxation peaks with a continuous temperature shift (characteristic of the freezing of the molecular dynamics), secondary relaxations (beta and gamma for cC8-ol and gamma for cC7-ol) which are intramolecular in nature. The dynamics of several OD mixed crystals was recently studied (Singh, L. P.; Murthy, S. S. N. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 2606), and surprisingly enough one of the secondary relaxations was not evidenced. We show here by means of a careful set of measurements for several mixed crystals and of a detailed analysis procedure the existence of the secondary relaxations for the mixed crystals. The results, moreover, doubtless reinforce the physical origin of each of the secondary relaxations.

  3. Phase diagram and skin effect of the relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3+xPbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Peter; Phelan, Daniel; Rodriguez, Efrain; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2012-02-01

    We revisit the phase diagram of the relaxor ferroelectric PMN-xPT using neutron powder diffraction to test suggestions that defects in the oxygen stoichiometry and/or strain affect the ground state crystal structure. Two identical sets of PMN-xPT powders were prepared with x=0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40. One set was annealed in air at 873K for 2h. For a given composition and temperature the same structural phase is observed in each set, thus indicating that the effects of strain and oxygen vacancies are minimal. But the distortions measured in the annealed samples are consistently smaller than those in the as-grown samples. In addition, the average grain size of the annealed samples is approximately twice that of the as-grown samples (1.2±0.6 microns vs 0.6±0.3 microns). This result is consistent with a skin effect in which Ti-poor bulk crystals show significantly smaller distortions than do powders of the same composition. The diffraction patterns for both the as-grown and annealed samples with compositions x=0.10 and x=0.20 are best refined using the monoclinic Cm space group, which agrees with recent speculation by Singh et al., Phys. Rev. B 74, 024101 (2006).

  4. Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjelde, Kristine; Chromy, Barbara; Pankow, Debra

    2008-12-01

    This article examined social issues surrounding casino gambling among older adults both nationally and in the state of North Dakota. An exploratory review of gambling trends among older adults and an examination of policies to protect older gamblers revealed that older adults are targeted by the gaming industry as a lucrative market (Singh et al. J Retail Leisure Property 2007, 6(1):61-68). The authors used the national literature to frame their qualitative study, which explored gambling issues among older adults in North Dakota from the perspective of six counselors trained in gambling addiction who provide treatment services in the state. Findings indicated that relatively few policies existed at the state and national levels to protect older, more vulnerable adults who gamble. Further, the six casinos in North Dakota were viewed as very effective in marketing their casino gaming opportunities to older citizens by the gambling treatment providers interviewed. Additionally, barriers to gambling addiction treatment involved lack of available services and distance to receive services in this rural state. Based on the findings of this study, social policy changes which could lead to increased protection for older adult gamblers in the state were included.

  5. Evaluation of the Majorana phases of a general Majorana neutrino mass matrix: Testability of hierarchical flavour models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Rome; Chakraborty, Mainak; Ghosal, Ambar

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the Majorana phases for a general 3 × 3 complex symmetric neutrino mass matrix on the basis of Mohapatra-Rodejohann's phase convention using the three rephasing invariant quantities I12, I13 and I23 proposed by Sarkar and Singh. We find them interesting as they allow us to evaluate each Majorana phase in a model independent way even if one eigenvalue is zero. Utilizing the solution of a general complex symmetric mass matrix for eigenvalues and mixing angles we determine the Majorana phases for both the hierarchies, normal and inverted, taking into account the constraints from neutrino oscillation global fit data as well as bound on the sum of the three light neutrino masses (Σimi) and the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) parameter |m11 |. This methodology of finding the Majorana phases is applied thereafter in some predictive models for both the hierarchical cases (normal and inverted) to evaluate the corresponding Majorana phases and it is shown that all the sub cases presented in inverted hierarchy section can be realized in a model with texture zeros and scaling ansatz within the framework of inverse seesaw although one of the sub cases following the normal hierarchy is yet to be established. Except the case of quasi degenerate neutrinos, the methodology obtained in this work is able to evaluate the corresponding Majorana phases, given any model of neutrino masses.

  6. A molecular model for the active site of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Yeh, J C; Borchardt, R T; Vedani, A

    1991-06-01

    S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase, EC 3.3.1.1), a specific target for antiviral drug design, catalyzes the hydrolysis of AdoHcy to adenosine (Ado) and homocysteine (Hcy) as well as the synthesis of AdoHcy from Ado and Hcy. The enzyme isolated from different sources has been shown to contain tightly bound NAD+. Based on the 2.0 A-resolution X-ray crystal structure of dogfish lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is functionally homologous to AdoHcy hydrolase, and the primary sequence of rat liver AdoHcy hydrolase, we have derived a molecular model of an extended active site for AdoHcy hydrolase. The computational mutation was performed using the software MUTAR (Yeh et al., University of Kansas, Lawrence), followed by molecular mechanics optimizations using the programs AMBER (Singh et al., University of California, San Francisco) and YETI (Vedani, University of Kansas). Solvation of the model structure was achieved by use of the program SOLVGEN (Jacober, University of Kansas); 56 water molecules were explicitly included in all refinements. Some of these may be involved in the catalytic reaction. We also studied a model of the complex of AdoHcy hydrolase with NAD+, as well as the ternary complexes of the enzyme, NAD+, and substrate or inhibitor molecules. Our refined model is capable of explaining part of the redox reaction catalyzed by AdoHcy hydrolase and has been used to differentiate the relative binding strength of inhibitors.

  7. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  8. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  9. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  10. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  11. Psychometric evaluation of responses to the NEO-PI-3 in a multi-ethnic sample of adults in India.

    PubMed

    Piedmont, Ralph L; Braganza, Dinesh J

    2015-12-01

    Cross-cultural studies have demonstrated the utility of the NEO scales in organizing research on personality development (McCrae, 2004). The NEO PI-3 is the latest updated version that has modified item content more suitable to younger populations and to adults with lower literacy levels. The present study examined the utility of the English version of the NEO PI-3 in a multiethnic sample of adults from India (N = 188) by examining mean level data, Cronbach's alpha, retest reliabilities, and construct validity with particular attention given to previous findings that used the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) in an Indian sample. Principal components analyses employing orthogonal procrustean rotations demonstrated convergence with U.S. norms and prior Indian data. The current Cronbach's alpha and retest reliability values were slightly better than data using the NEO-PI-R in 2 Indian samples (Lodhi, Deo, & Belhekar, 2002; Singh, 2009). Scores correlated significantly, and in appropriate ways, with several psychosocial measures. These findings underscore the potential utility of the NEO PI-3 in research among those for whom English is a second language.

  12. The global financial crisis and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Rajiv G

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a re-examination of the global financial crisis that began in and was accompanied by the most severe recession since the Great Depression. It builds on our earlier paper (Dore and Singh, 2009) and expands its scope. It is divided into parts. The first part deals with the ideological backdrop in which this crisis occurred, namely the belief in the rationality and stability of all markets including the capital markets, called the 'efficient market hypothesis.' The second part is a survey of the role of income distribution and its relations to aggregate spending and the growing role played by credit in the circular flow of income. The third part examines some features of the business cycle expansion phase of to . The fourth part is a brief report on a nonlinear Vector Error Correction model spanning the period to and how this expansion came to an end. The fifth part is a brief comparison of the Great Recession with the Great Depression. Finally in the sixth part, the international impact of the Great Recession is considered briefly, followed by some conclusions.

  13. Seven tenths incorrect: heterogeneity and change in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners.

    PubMed

    Freese, Jeremy; Meland, Sheri

    2002-05-01

    Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation in waist-to-hip ratios among these women is greater than reported. Second, the center of the distribution of waist-to-hip ratios is not 0.70, but less than this. Third, the average waist-to-hip ratio within both samples has changed over time in a manner that is statistically significant and can be regarded as mutually consistent. Taken together, the findings undermine some of the evidence given for the repeated suggestion that there is something special--evolutionarily hard-wired or otherwise--about a specific female waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 as a preference of American heterosexual males. PMID:12476245

  14. Data on importance of hematopoietic cell derived Lipocalin 2 against gut inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Piu; Singh, Vishal; Xiao, Xia; Yeoh, Beng San; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-09-01

    The data herein is related to the research article entitled "Microbiota-inducible innate immune siderophore binding protein Lipocalin 2 is critical for intestinal homeostasis" (Singh et al., 2016) [1]. In the present article, we monitored dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis development upon Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) neutralization, and examined the survival of Lcn2 deficient (Lcn2KO) mice and their WT littermates upon DSS challenge. To dissect the relative contribution of immune and non-immune cells-derived Lcn2 in mediating protection against gut inflammation, we generated respective bone marrow chimera and evaluated their susceptibility to IL-10 receptor neutralization-induced chronic colitis. Neutralization of Lcn2 in WT mice resulted in exacerbated DSS-induced colitis. Notably, mice lacking Lcn2 exhibited 100% mortality whereas only 20% mortality was observed in WT mice upon DSS challenge. Further, data from bone marrow chimera showed that immune cell-derived Lcn2 is the major contributor in conferring protection against colitis. PMID:27500193

  15. 23 Na and 17O NMR studies of hyperkagome Na4Ir3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shockley, Abigail; Bert, Fabrice; Orain, Jean-Christophe; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Mendels, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Na4Ir3O8 is a unique case of a 3D corner sharing triangular lattice which can be decorated with quantum spins. It has spurred a lot of theoretical interest as a spin liquid candidate of a new kind where the Hamiltonian might not be thought in terms of a simple Heisenberg case because of spin orbit coupling on the Ir 5d element. We present a comprehensive set of NMR data taken on both the 23Na and 17O sites. We have found that magnetic freezing of all Ir sites sets in below Tf ~ 7.5K ~ 0 . 019 J with a clear hyperfine field transferred from Ir moments and a drastic decrease of 1 /T1 . Above Tf, physical properties are expected to be a landmark of frustration in this exotic geometry. We will discuss our shift and relaxation data in the temperature range of 300K to 7.5 K in the light of published thermodynamic measurements (Y. Okamotoa et al, PRL 99 137207, 2007 and Y. Singh et al, PRB 88 220413(R), 2013) and comment on their implications for the already existing large body of theoretical work.

  16. Geometric figure-ground cues override standard depth from accretion-deletion.

    PubMed

    Tanrikulu, Ömer Daglar; Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Accretion-deletion is widely considered a decisive cue to surface depth ordering, with the accreting or deleting surface interpreted as behind an adjoining surface. However, Froyen, Feldman, and Singh (2013) have shown that when accretion-deletion occurs on both sides of a contour, accreting-deleting regions can also be perceived as in front and as self-occluding due to rotation in three dimensions. In this study we ask whether geometric figure-ground cues can override the traditional "depth from accretion-deletion" interpretation even when accretion-deletion takes place only on one side of a contour. We used two tasks: a relative-depth task (front/back), and a motion-classification task (translation/rotation). We conducted two experiments, in which texture in only one set of alternating regions was moving; the other set was static. Contrary to the traditional interpretation of accretion-deletion, the moving convex and symmetric regions were perceived as figural and rotating in three dimensions in roughly half of the trials. In the second experiment, giving different motion directions to the moving regions (thereby weakening motion-based grouping) further weakened the traditional accretion-deletion interpretation. Our results show that the standard "depth from accretion-deletion" interpretation is overridden by static geometric cues to figure-ground. Overall, the results demonstrate a rich interaction between accretion-deletion, figure-ground, and structure from motion that is not captured by existing models of depth from motion.

  17. COMMITTEES COMMITTEES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE Chairman: Alexander G Petrov Director, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria Chairman Emeritus: Nikolay Kirov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria Local Organising Committee: Chairman: Alexander G Petrov Members: Diana Nesheva, Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Eleonora Popova, Lyubomila Dedinska, Christo Popov, Vasil Lovchinov, Marina Primatarowa, Emilia Vlaikova, Irina Velkova, Hassan Chamati PROGRAMME COMMITTEE Chairman: A G Petrov Members: D Alexandrov (Thunder Bay), V Celebonovic (Belgrade), D Dimova-Malinovska (Sofia), B Dulmet (Besancon), A Grechnikov (Moscow), M Gunes (Mugla), C Main (Dundee), D Nesheva (Sofia), M C Petty (Durham), M Popescu (Bucharest), S Reynolds (Dundee), K Shimakawa (Gifu), J Singh (Darwin), N Starbov (Sofia), M Tomilin (St Petersburg), Ph Vanderbemden (Liege), A Vaseashta (Washington) LOCAL SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL Chairman: A G Petrov Members: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences N Sabotinov (President) I Nedkov (Scientific Secretary, Physics) Institute of Solid State Physics N Kirov, D Nesheva, V Lovchinov, St Andreev, M Primatarowa Institute of Electronics R Enikov (Director) Central Lab. of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources D Dimova-Malinovska Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies V Saynov, N Starbov Central Lab. of Applied Physics R Kakanakov (Director) Sofia University - Faculty of Physics A Andreeva, S Russev (Heads of Departments)

  18. Transport coefficients for the shear dynamo problem at small Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Nishant K.; Sridhar, S.

    2011-05-15

    We build on the formulation developed in S. Sridhar and N. K. Singh [J. Fluid Mech. 664, 265 (2010)] and present a theory of the shear dynamo problem for small magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers, but for arbitrary values of the shear parameter. Specializing to the case of a mean magnetic field that is slowly varying in time, explicit expressions for the transport coefficients {alpha}{sub il} and {eta}{sub iml} are derived. We prove that when the velocity field is nonhelical, the transport coefficient {alpha}{sub il} vanishes. We then consider forced, stochastic dynamics for the incompressible velocity field at low Reynolds number. An exact, explicit solution for the velocity field is derived, and the velocity spectrum tensor is calculated in terms of the Galilean-invariant forcing statistics. We consider forcing statistics that are nonhelical, isotropic, and delta correlated in time, and specialize to the case when the mean field is a function only of the spatial coordinate X{sub 3} and time {tau}; this reduction is necessary for comparison with the numerical experiments of A. Brandenburg, K. H. Raedler, M. Rheinhardt, and P. J. Kaepylae [Astrophys. J. 676, 740 (2008)]. Explicit expressions are derived for all four components of the magnetic diffusivity tensor {eta}{sub ij}({tau}). These are used to prove that the shear-current effect cannot be responsible for dynamo action at small Re and Rm, but for all values of the shear parameter.

  19. Four-year follow-up of children with low intelligence and ADHD: a replication.

    PubMed

    Aman, Michael G; Armstrong, Sharon; Buican, Brett; Sillick, Traci

    2002-01-01

    Twenty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low IQs, who participated in a drug study, were followed up 4.5 years later, when their ages averaged 12.4 years (range: 8-20 years: SD = 2.78). Participants were assessed by their parents and teachers on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC; Aman & Singh, 1994), on the Child Symptom Inventory (CSI; Gadow & Sprafkin, 1994), and on a structured interview. A majority of children continued to screen positive for ADHD at follow-up, as well as display high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, tics, and elimination disorders. Educational placement became slightly more restrictive over the follow-up interval. Multiple medication trials (30 in all, among 14 participants) were attempted between initial contact and follow-up. Ratings on the ABC by parents and teachers showed significantly lower scores at follow-up on the Hyperactivity subscale. Relatively few associations were found between initial ratings and follow-up ratings on standardized scales.

  20. Accuracy of different putty-wash impression techniques with various spacer thickness.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Anshul; Arora, Aman; Singh, Vijay Pratap

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps is accurate impression making for fabrication of fixed partial denture. The two different putty-wash techniques that are commonly used are: (1) Putty-wash one-step technique, (2) putty-wash two-step technique. A uniform wash space is needed for an accurate impression. Nissan et al recommended the use of two-step technique for accurate impression making as there is uniform wash space for the light body material to polymerize. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of stone casts obtained from different putty-wash impression techniques using various spacer thickness. The critical factor that influences the accuracy of putty-wash impression techniques is the controlled wash bulk which is absent in one-step putty-wash impression technique and with polyethylene spacer was used. How to cite this article: Chugh A, Arora A, Singh VP. Accuracy of Different Putty-Wash Impression Techniques with Various Spacer Thickness. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):33-38.

  1. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  2. Investigation on the forced response of a radial turbine under aerodynamic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chaochen; Huang, Zhi; Qi, Mingxu

    2016-04-01

    Rotor blades in a radial turbine with nozzle guide vanes typically experience harmonic aerodynamic excitations due to the rotor stator interaction. Dynamic stresses induced by the harmonic excitations can result in high cycle fatigue (HCF) of the blades. A reliable prediction method for forced response issue is essential to avoid the HCF problem. In this work, the forced response mechanisms were investigated based on a fluid structure interaction (FSI) method. Aerodynamic excitations were obtained by three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation with phase shifted periodic boundary conditions. The first two harmonic pressures were determined as the primary components of the excitation and applied to finite element (FE) model to conduct the computational structural dynamics (CSD) simulation. The computed results from the harmonic forced response analysis show good agreement with the predictions of Singh's advanced frequency evaluation (SAFE) diagram. Moreover, the mode superposition method used in FE simulation offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of mode response levels and resonant strength.

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Singh, Balraj

    2016-07-01

    The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A = 42 (Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr). Detailed evaluated level properties and related information are presented, including adopted values of level and γ-ray energies, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A = 42 published by B. Singh, J.A. Cameron - Nucl.Data Sheets 92, 1 (2001) and P.M. Endt - Nucl. Phys. A521, 1 (1990); Errata and Addenda Nucl. Phys. A529, 763 (1991); Errata Nucl. Phys. A564, 609 (1993) (also P.M. Endt - Nucl. Phys. A633, 1 (1998) update). No excited states are known in 42Al, 42P, 42V and 42Cr, and structure information for 42Si and 42S is quite limited. There are no decay schemes available for the decay of 42Al, 42Si, 42P, 42V and 42Cr, while the decay schemes of 42Cl and 42Ti are incomplete in view of scarcity of data, and large gap between their Q-values and the highest energy levels populated in corresponding daughter nuclei. Structures of 42Ca, 42K, 42Sc and 42Ar nuclides remain the most extensively studied via many different nuclear reactions and decays.

  4. On a Continuum Limit for Loop Quantum Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Corichi, Alejandro; Vukasinac, Tatjana; Zapata, Jose Antonio

    2008-03-06

    The use of non-regular representations of the Heisenberg-Weyl commutation relations has proved to be useful for studying conceptual and technical issues in quantum gravity. Of particular relevance is the study of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), symmetry reduced theory that is related to Loop Quantum Gravity, and that is based on a non-regular, polymeric representation. Recently, a soluble model was used by Ashtekar, Corichi and Singh to study the relation between Loop Quantum Cosmology and the standard Wheeler-DeWitt theory and, in particular, the passage to the limit in which the auxiliary parameter (interpreted as ''quantum geometry discreetness'') is sent to zero in hope to get rid of this 'regulator' that dictates the LQC dynamics at each 'scale'. In this note we outline the first steps toward reformulating this question within the program developed by the authors for studying the continuum limit of polymeric theories, which was successfully applied to simple systems such as a Simple Harmonic Oscillator.

  5. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Navreet; Puri, Taruna; Gulati, Ritika; Kashyap, Rita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth and a correlation, if any, among the three variables. Materials and methods: The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 80 subjects (40 males, 40 females; age range: 10 to 19 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman, frontal sinus width was measured by the method described by Ertürk and antegonial notch depth as described by Singer et al. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were estimated to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth. Results: The Pearson’s correlation coefficient were 0.855 (p < 0.001) between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and 0.333 (p < 0.001) between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Conclusion: A highly significant positive correlation was found between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Nonsignificant correlation was found between chronological age and antegonial notch depth. How to cite this article: Singh S, Sandhu N, Puri T, Gulati R, Kashyap R. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 190-195. PMID:26628853

  6. The "other" side of labor reform: accounts of incarceration and resistance in the Straits Settlements penal system, 1825-1873.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Anoma

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.

  7. Sorting Out Identities: An Educational Primer for Use with “Novel Tools for Genetic Manipulation of Follicle Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary Reveal an Integrin-Dependent Transition from Quiescence to Proliferation”

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diane; Jemc, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Organisms are made up of thousands of different cell types that must migrate, proliferate, and interact with each other to yield functional organ systems and ultimately a viable organism. A characteristic that distinguishes one cell type from another is the set of genes that it expresses. An article by Hartman et al. in the April 2015 issue of GENETICS identified methods to uniquely identify different cell populations during oogenesis, providing valuable tools for future studies. This Primer article provides background information on the Drosophila ovary as a system in which to study stem cell regulation, mechanisms for regulating gene expression, and the techniques used by Hartman et al. to identify specific cell populations and study their function. Related article in GENETICS: Hartman, T. R., E. M. Ventresca, A. Hopkins, D. Zinshteyn, T. Singh et al., 2015 Novel Tools for Genetic Manipulation of Follicle Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary Reveal an Integrin-Dependent Transition from Quiescence to Proliferation. Genetics 199: 935–957. PMID:26354974

  8. The global financial crisis and the Great Recession of 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Rajiv G

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a re-examination of the global financial crisis that began in and was accompanied by the most severe recession since the Great Depression. It builds on our earlier paper (Dore and Singh, 2009) and expands its scope. It is divided into parts. The first part deals with the ideological backdrop in which this crisis occurred, namely the belief in the rationality and stability of all markets including the capital markets, called the 'efficient market hypothesis.' The second part is a survey of the role of income distribution and its relations to aggregate spending and the growing role played by credit in the circular flow of income. The third part examines some features of the business cycle expansion phase of to . The fourth part is a brief report on a nonlinear Vector Error Correction model spanning the period to and how this expansion came to an end. The fifth part is a brief comparison of the Great Recession with the Great Depression. Finally in the sixth part, the international impact of the Great Recession is considered briefly, followed by some conclusions. PMID:20587304

  9. Size-dependent spinodal and miscibility gaps for intercalation in nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Burch, Damian; Bazant, Martin Z

    2009-11-01

    Using a recently proposed mathematical model for intercalation dynamics in phase-separating materials ( Singh , G. K. , Ceder , G. and Bazant , M. Z. Electrochimica Acta 2008 , 53 , 7599. ), we show that the spinodal and miscibility gaps generally shrink as the host particle size decreases to the nanoscale. Our work is motivated by recent experiments on the high-rate Li-ion battery material LiFePO(4); this serves as the basis for our examples, but our analysis and conclusions apply to any intercalation material. We describe two general mechanisms for the suppression of phase separation in nanoparticles, (i) a classical bulk effect, predicted by the Cahn-Hilliard equation in which the diffuse phase boundary becomes confined by the particle geometry; and (ii) a novel surface effect, predicted by chemical-potential-dependent reaction kinetics, in which insertion/extraction reactions stabilize composition gradients near surfaces in equilibrium with the local environment. Composition-dependent surface energy and (especially) elastic strain can contribute to these effects but are not required to predict decreased spinodal and miscibility gaps at the nanoscale. PMID:19824617

  10. Loss of dsRNA-based gene silencing in Entamoeba histolytica: implications for approaches to genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Ryan C; Singh, Upinder

    2008-06-01

    The ability to regulate gene expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is critical in determining gene function. We previously published that expression of dsRNA specific to E. histolytica serine threonine isoleucine rich protein (EhSTIRP) resulted in reduction of gene expression [MacFarlane, R.C., Singh, U., 2007. Identification of an Entamoeba histolytica serine, threonine, isoleucine, rich protein with roles in adhesion and cytotoxicity. Eukaryotic Cell 6, 2139-2146]. However, after approximately one year of continuous drug selection, the expression of EhSTIRP reverted to wild-type levels. We confirmed that the parasites (i) contained the appropriate dsRNA plasmid, (ii) were not contaminated with other plasmids, (iii) the drug selectable marker was functional, and (iv) sequenced the dsRNA portion of the construct. This work suggests that in E. histolytica long term cultivation of parasites expressing dsRNA can lead to the loss of dsRNA based silencing through the selection of "RNAi" negative parasites. Thus, users of the dsRNA silencing approach should proceed with caution and regularly confirm gene down regulation. The development and use of constructs for inducible expression of dsRNA may help alleviate this potential problem. PMID:18346737

  11. The Effect of Nickel on the Strength of Hcp-Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. M.; Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrostatic nuclear resonance inelastic x-ray scattering coupled with non-hydrostatic radial x-ray diffraction measurements can be used to determine the shear strength of Fe-bearing materials at core pressures. Using the Singh et al. formalism (2006), the bulk shear strength (t) of a material is related to its shear modulus(G) and to the average differential strain () over all measured lattice planes (hkl) by t = 6G. We followed an existing framework (Gleason & Mao, 2013) and extend the strength determinations to investigate the effect of nickel on the strength of iron at high pressure. We collected radial X-ray diffraction data on Fe90Ni10 and Fe80Ni20 using a panoramic diamond anvil cell with an X-ray transparent gasket to 100 GPa. This data was combined with existing NRIXS data (Lin 2003) to calculate the strength of these compounds. From this we extrapolated the strength of these iron-nickel alloys to deep earth pressures to give a new constraint on the strength of the inner core. Gaining a better understanding of the strength of iron and its alloys at high pressures can shed light on the strength of the inner core and provide insight into the deformation processes operating in the most remote region of our planet.

  12. Effect of household processing on fenazaquin residues in okra fruits.

    PubMed

    Duhan, Anil; Kumari, Beena; Gulati, Rachna

    2010-02-01

    Fenazaquin (4-[[4 (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] ethoxy]quinazoline) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. Residue levels of fenazaquin were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing, boiling and washing followed by boiling) in reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) @ 125 ga.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 250 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 3, 7, 15 days after treatment and at harvest (30 days). Residues were estimated by gas chromatograph equipped with capillary column and nitrogen phosphorus detector. Residues reached below maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.13 days at lower dose and 4.43 days at higher dose. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (60-61%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by boiling/cooking (38-40%) and then by washing (31-32%).

  13. Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits.

    PubMed

    Samriti; Chauhan, Reena; Kumari, Beena

    2011-08-01

    Residue levels of chlorpyriphos were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing and washing followed by boiling/cooking) on reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) at 200 g a.i./ha and 400g a.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 400 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days and at harvest after treatment. Residues were estimated by GC-ECD system and reached BDL of 0.010 mg kg(-1) on 7th and 15th day in case of single and double dose, respectively. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.15 days at lower dose and 3.46 days at higher dose following biphasic first order kinetics. Processing was found very effective in reducing the levels of chlorpyriphos residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (64-77%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (13-35%).

  14. Investigation of various Techniques for Intermodulation Suppression in a TWT Amplifier*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aarti; Scharer, John; Wirth, Mike; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Booske, John

    2002-11-01

    Power efficient and reliable data communication requires high-power amplifier operation with high efficiency as well as good linearity. Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifiers are used for their high power output but the non-linear behavior of these tubes leads to intermodulation interference when closely spaced multiple tones are amplified. Growth of non-linear distortion products along the helix of the tube is measured using XWING, a custom-modified research tube jointly developed by UW and Northup-Grumman researchers that has sensors along the helix. Experimental techniques are being investigated for eliminating these in-band intermodulation product (IMP) distortions by suppressing the IMPs using second harmonic, IM3 and difference frequency injection. These techniques involve injecting pre-distortion signals at the input of the TWT, along with the carrier tones, and adjusting their amplitude and phase so as to suppress the IMPs. Using the harmonic injection technique, suppression of up to 24 dB has been measured [1]. Amplitude and phase sensitivity, as well as bandwidth over which suppression is effective, are examined and comparison of the various techniques will be presented. [1] M. Wirth, A. Singh, J. Scharer and J. Booske, "Third Â- Order Intermodulation Reduction by Harmonic Injection in a TWT Amplifier", IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, pp. 1082-1084, vol. 49, Issue 6, June 2002. * This work is supported in part by AFOSR, and by DUSD (S) under the Innovative Microwave Electronics Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program, managed by AFOSR.

  15. Magnetism and transport properties of layered rare-earth cobaltates Ln{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Knížek, K. Novák, P.; Jirák, Z.; Hejtmánek, J.; Maryško, M.; Buršík, J.

    2015-05-07

    The ab-initio (GGA+U) electronic structure calculations of layered cobaltates Ln{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 2} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd) prepared by ionic exchange from Na{sub 0.90}CoO{sub 2} precursors have been performed. The data are used for numerical modeling of Seebeck coefficient within Boltzmann transport theory using BoltzTraP program [G. K. H. Madsen and D. J. Singh, Comput. Phys. Commun. 175, 67 (2006)], as well as for determination of the crystal field split levels of rare-earth ions using a method based on a transformation of Bloch states into the basis of Wannier functions [P. Novák et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 205139 (2013)]. An overall agreement with observed magnetism and transport properties is obtained. In particular, the high p-type thermopower is well reproduced in a broad temperature range, but instead of theoretical linear decrease down to the lowest temperatures, the real systems exhibit an anomalous change of Seebeck sign, which might be related to the change of bare metallic carriers into the polaronic ones.

  16. A finite element model for simulating runoff and soil erosion from mechanically treated agricultural lands: 2. Field validation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, V. N.; Singh, Sita Ram; Sastry, G.; Dhruvanarayana, V. V.

    1994-07-01

    The finite element model for simulation of runoff and soil erosion as developed by Sharda and Singh (this issue) is evaluated using data collected from agricultural land treated with major mechanical soil and water conservation measures, namely, contour bunding, graded bunding, bench terracing, and conservation bench terracing. The simulated and experimentally realized hydrographs and soil loss values are in reasonably good agreement for various measures. Probable reasons for discrepancies between the predicted and observed values are discussed. The model has the potential of being used on a single storm or a continuous basis provided the soil, crop, and climatic parameters are precisely known or estimated for a given location and for the period under consideration. The model logically simulates the effects of flow, topographic, soil, and crop parameters such as antecedent moisture level, roughness coefficient, saturated hydraulic conductivity, slope, depth of impoundment, size of outlet, longitudinal slope of the channel, vertical interval, and cropping management factor. The model is found to be quite sensitive to changes in roughness coefficient, rainfall excess rate, and cover management factor, and hence these parameters need to be assessed carefully in the field. The general applicability of the model as a planning tool for soil conservation measures and the scope for future development are also discussed.

  17. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of High Field Polars (FUSE 00)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The following work has been accomplished: 1) The emission lines of O VI1 and He II were used to produce Doppler tomograms of the plasma emission. 2) An improved interstellar absorption model is being developed for the CIAO spectral fitting program, Sherpa. Use of the earlier version of this model showed it to be inadequate for its purpose. Once this model is working, we intend to complete our analysis of V884 Her and those of other FUSE programs. In addition to the above work, this grant has helped support the following related work: 1) The publication of the paper "Periodicities in the X-ray intensity variations of TV Columbae: an Intermediate Polar" by Rana, V. R., Singh, K. P., Schlegel, E. M., & Barrett, P. 2004, AJ, 126,489, and 2) FUSE data of a possible nova-like variable Ret 1 has been analyzed and shown to contain a hot (37000 deg) white dwarf (WD 0334-6400). The FUV spectrum shows strong absorption lines of C III.

  18. An in situ method for observing wax crystallization under pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Steer, Tyrone N.; Stetzer, Mackenzie R.; Kautsky, Sacha P.; Merz, Hugh; Idziak, Stefan H. J.; Sirota, Eric B.

    2003-03-01

    As the phenomenon of wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is of great relevance to the petroleum industry, there has been considerable work on both real and model oil pipeline systems in an effort to gain insight into the deposition process itself. In an effort to develop a truly in situ means of characterizing the formation and evolution of the wax gel layers deposited in model pipeline systems, we have performed x-ray diffraction measurements of wax crystallization in wax-oil mixtures under flow. We conducted a time dependent investigation of the nucleation and growth of wax crystals and the evolution of the resulting wax gel deposit in mixtures of paraffin wax and dodecane under pipe flow through a standard x-ray quartz capillary of diameter 1mm. Our results were compared with those of larger scale, pressure drop experiments[1]. 1. Singh, P., et al., Formation and Aging of Incipient Thin Film Wax-Oil Gels. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal, 2000. 46(5): p. 1059-1074.

  19. Environmental Applications of Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Arturo A.

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently used in many applications including agriculture (Gruère, 2012; Khot et al. 2012; Lopez-Moreno et al. 2010; Peralta-Videa et al. 2011; Zhao et al. 2012), aerogels (Bigall et al. 2009), aerospace (Baur and Silverman, 2007), automotive (Coelho et al. 2012; Presting and König, 2003; Salonitis et al. 2010), catalysts (Zhou et al. 2011), coatings, paints and pigments (Dhoke et al. 2009; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011; Khanna, 2008), composites (Borchardt, 2003; Khanna and Bakshi, 2009; Petrov and Georgiev, 2012; Sahoo et al. 2010), construction (Lee et al. 2010), cosmetics (Musee, 2011; Sabitha et al. 2012; Singh and Nanda, 2012), electronics and optics (Alda et al. 2005; Avasthi et al. 2007; Song et al. 2012; Subramanian and Takhee, 2012), energy (Serrano et al. 2009), environmental remediation (Dionysiou 2004; Khin et al. 2012), filtration and purification (Dhakras, 2011; Savage and Diallo, 2005), food products (Blasco and Picó, 2011; Weiss et al. 2006), medical (Boisseau and Loubaton, 2011; Farokhzad and Langer, 2006), packaging (Silvestre et al. 2011), paper and board (Kharisov and Kharissova, 2010), plastics, security (Marín and Merkoçi, 2012), sensors (Ding et al. 2010; Duncan et al. 2012; Su et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2012), and textiles (Qian and Hinestroza, 2004; Wong et al. 2006), and research is underway on many new applications...

  20. Size-dependent spinodal and miscibility gaps for intercalation in nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Burch, Damian; Bazant, Martin Z

    2009-11-01

    Using a recently proposed mathematical model for intercalation dynamics in phase-separating materials ( Singh , G. K. , Ceder , G. and Bazant , M. Z. Electrochimica Acta 2008 , 53 , 7599. ), we show that the spinodal and miscibility gaps generally shrink as the host particle size decreases to the nanoscale. Our work is motivated by recent experiments on the high-rate Li-ion battery material LiFePO(4); this serves as the basis for our examples, but our analysis and conclusions apply to any intercalation material. We describe two general mechanisms for the suppression of phase separation in nanoparticles, (i) a classical bulk effect, predicted by the Cahn-Hilliard equation in which the diffuse phase boundary becomes confined by the particle geometry; and (ii) a novel surface effect, predicted by chemical-potential-dependent reaction kinetics, in which insertion/extraction reactions stabilize composition gradients near surfaces in equilibrium with the local environment. Composition-dependent surface energy and (especially) elastic strain can contribute to these effects but are not required to predict decreased spinodal and miscibility gaps at the nanoscale.

  1. Manufacturing of Wearable Sensors for Human Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2015-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of physiological and biological parameters is expected to improve performance and medical outcomes by assessing overall health status and alerting for life-saving interventions. Continuous monitoring of these parameters requires wearable devices with an appropriate form factor (lightweight, comfortable, low energy consuming and even single-use) to avoid disrupting daily activities thus ensuring operation relevance and user acceptance. Many previous efforts to implement remote and wearable sensors have suffered from high cost and poor performance, as well as low clinical and end-use acceptance. New manufacturing and system level design approaches are needed to make the performance and clinical benefits of these sensors possible while satisfying challenging economic, regulatory, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. In this talk we will review several recent design and manufacturing efforts aimed at designing and building prototype wearable sensors. We will discuss unique opportunities and challenges provided by additive manufacturing, including 3D printing, to drive innovation through new designs, faster prototyping and manufacturing, distributed networks, and new ecosystems. We will also show alternative hybrid self-assembly based integration techniques for low cost large scale manufacturing of single use wearable devices. Coauthors: Prabhjot Singh and Jeffrey Ashe.

  2. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  3. Optimization and kinetic studies on treatment of textile dye wastewater using Pleurotus floridanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathian, S.; Radha, G.; Shanmugapriya, V.; Rajasimman, M.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried using Pleurotus floridanus in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration for the decolorization of textile dye wastewater. The optimum conditions for the maximum decolorization was: pH 6.6, temperature 28.8 °C, agitation speed 183 rpm and dye wastewater concentration 1:2. From the results it was found that, the linear effect of agitation speed and initial textile dye wastewater concentration were more significant than other factors for the textile dye wastewater treatment. At these optimized conditions, the maximum decolorization and COD reduction was found to be 71.2 and 80.5 %, respectively. Kinetics of textile dye degradation process was studied by various models like first order, diffusional and Singh model. From the results it was found that the degradation follows first order model with R 2 value of 0.9550.

  4. The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig; Duffin, Rodger; Bonner, James

    2012-06-01

    1. Carbon nanotube structure, synthesis and applications C. Singh and W. Song; 2. The aerodynamic behaviour and pulmonary deposition of carbon nanotubes A. Buckley, R. Smith and R Maynard; 3. Utilising the concept of the biologically effective dose to define the particle and fibre hazards of carbon nanotubes K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, F. Murphy and C. Poland; 4. CNT, biopersistence and the fibre paradigm D. Warheit and M. DeLorme; 5. Length-dependent retention of fibres in the pleural space C. Poland, F. Murphy and K. Donaldson; 6. Experimental carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes in the context of other fibres K. Unfried; 7. Fate and effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. Ryman-Rasmussen, M. Andersen and J. Bonner; 8. Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes V. Castranova and R. Mercer; 9. Genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes R. Schins, C. Albrecht, K. Gerloff and D. van Berlo; 10. Carbon nanotube-cellular interactions; macrophages, epithelial and mesothelial cells V. Stone, M. Boyles, A. Kermanizadeh, J. Varet and H. Johnston; 11. Systemic health effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. McDonald; 12. Dosimetry and metrology of carbon nanotubes L. Tran, L. MacCalman and R. Aitken; Index.

  5. Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. J.; Haberl, H.

    2012-04-01

    Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales Simron Jit Singh and Helmut Haberl Institute of Social Ecology, Vienna, Austria Understanding trajectories of change in coupled socio-ecological (or human-environment) systems requires monitoring and analysis at several spatial and temporal scales. Long-term ecosystem research (LTER) is a strand of research coupled with observation systems and infrastructures (LTER sites) aimed at understanding how global change affects ecosystems around the world. In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that sustainability concerns require extending this approach to long-term socio-ecological research, i.e. a more integrated perspective that focuses on interaction processes between society and ecosystems over longer time periods. Thus, Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research, abbreviated LTSER, aims at observing, analyzing, understanding and modelling of changes in coupled socio-ecological systems over long periods of time. Indeed, the magnitude of the problems we now face is an outcome of a much longer process, accelerated by industrialisation since the nineteenth century. The paper will provide an overview of a book (in press) on LTSER with particular emphasis on 'socio-ecological transitions' in terms of material, energy and land use dynamics across temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Principles of contour information: Reply to Lim and Leek (2012).

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Lim and Leek (2012) presented a formalization of information along object contours, which they argued was an alternative to the approach taken in our article (Feldman & Singh, 2005). Here, we summarize the 2 approaches, showing that--notwithstanding Lim and Leek's (2012) critical rhetoric--their approach is substantially identical to ours, except for the technical details of the formalism. Following the logic of our article point by point, Lim and Leek (a) defined probabilistic expectations about the geometry of smooth contours (which they based on differential contour geometry, while we used a discrete approximation--the only essential difference in their approach), (b) assumed that information along the contour was proportional to the negative logarithm of probability, following standard information theory, and then (c) extended this formulation to closed contours. We analyze what they described as errors in our approach, all of which rest on mathematical misunderstandings or bizarre misreadings of our article. We also show that their extension to 3-dimensional surfaces and their "modified minima rule" contain fatal deficiencies. PMID:22775501

  7. A Palaeohydrological Shift during Neogene East Antarctic Ice Sheet Retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees-Owen, R. L.; Newton, R.; Ivanovic, R. F.; Francis, J.; Tindall, J. C.; Riding, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The East Antarctic Ice Sheet is an important driver of global climate, playing a particular role in governing albedo and atmospheric circulation (eg. Singh et al., 2013). Recent evidence from marine sediment and terrestrial glaciovolcanic sequences suggests that the EAIS underwent periodic retreat and collapse in response to warmer climates during the late Neogene (14 to 3 million years ago). Mummified prostrate trees recovered from palaeosols at Oliver Bluffs in the Beardmore Glacier region, Transantarctic Mountains (85° S), represent a rare insight into the terrestrial palaeoclimate during one of these periods of retreat. Prostrate trees are an understudied but useful tool for interrogating endmember (e.g. periglacial) environments at high altitudes and latitudes. We present exciting new palaeoclimate data from the sequence at Oliver Bluffs. δ18O analysis of tree ring cellulose suggests that Antarctic summer palaeoprecipitation was enriched relative to today (-25 to -5‰ for ancient, -35 to -20‰ for modern); consistent with our isotope-enabled general circulation model simulations. The MBT/CBT palaeothermometer gives a summer temperature of 3-6ºC, consistent with other palaeobotanical climate indices. These geological and model data have wide-ranging implications for our understanding of the hydrological cycle during this time period. We present data suggesting that changes in moisture recycling and source region indicate a markedly different hydrological cycle.

  8. Generalized SIMD algorithm for efficient EM-PIC simulations on modern CPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren; Silva, Luis

    2012-10-01

    There are several relevant plasma physics scenarios where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate. Further understanding of these scenarios is generally explored through relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS [1], but this algorithm is computationally intensive, and efficient use high end parallel HPC systems, exploring all levels of parallelism available, is required. In particular, most modern CPUs include a single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) vector unit that can significantly speed up the calculations. In this work we present a generalized PIC-SIMD algorithm that is shown to work efficiently with different CPU (AMD, Intel, IBM) and vector unit types (2-8 way, single/double). Details on the algorithm will be given, including the vectorization strategy and memory access. We will also present performance results for the various hardware variants analyzed, focusing on floating point efficiency. Finally, we will discuss the applicability of this type of algorithm for EM-PIC simulations on GPGPU architectures [2]. [4pt] [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002)[0pt] [2] V. K. Decyk, T. V. Singh; Comput. Phys. Commun. 182, 641-648 (2011)

  9. Clinical relevance of radiologic examination of the skeleton and bone density measurements in osteoporosis of old age

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, W.; Seidl, G.; Linkesch, W.; Kotscher, E.; Kovarik, J.; Willvonseder, R.; Kovarik, J.; Willvonseder, R.; Dorda, W.

    1981-10-01

    For the diagnosis of primary osteoporosis, various semiquantitative radiologic methods were compared in 149 unselected patients, aged over 50 years. Crush fracture syndrome (CFS), lumbar spine index (LSI), and Singh Index (SI) were assessed by three radiologists and after reevaluation, the intra- and interobserver errors were calculated. The reliability of the subjective grading was improved by joint and repeated reading of the radiographs. Additionally, the peripheral trabecular bone content was measured by photon absorption densitometry (PAD). To test the value of the various semiquantitative methods. LSI, Si, and PAD have been compared with sex-matching before and after separation into age in decades in CFS-positive and CFS-negative patients. In an attempt to differentiate osteoporotics and non-osteoporotics by CFS, our results indicate that CFS-positive and CFS-negative males cannot be separated by LSI, Si, and PAD, whereas in females these methods can discriminate irrespective of the age in decades. However, in age related groups, only SI can discriminate significantly between CFS-positive and CFS-negative females. Correlation of the semiquantitative methods, regardless of the diagnosis of a CFS, revealed a significant correlation-between SI and PAD, but no correlation between LSI and SI, and LSI and PAD, respectively.

  10. FANNING OUT OF THE SOLAR f-MODE IN THE PRESENCE OF NON-UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELDS?

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Nishant K.; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    We show that in the presence of a magnetic field that is varying harmonically in space, the fundamental mode, or f-mode, in a stratified layer is altered in such a way that it fans out in the diagnostic kω diagram, with mode power also within the fan. In our simulations, the surface is defined by a temperature and density jump in a piecewise isothermal layer. Unlike our previous work (Singh et al. 2014), where a uniform magnetic field was considered, here we employ a non-uniform magnetic field together with hydromagnetic turbulence at length scales much smaller than those of the magnetic field. The expansion of the f-mode is stronger for fields confined to the layer below the surface. In some of those cases, the kω diagram also reveals a new class of low-frequency vertical stripes at multiples of twice the horizontal wavenumber of the background magnetic field. We argue that the study of the f-mode expansion might be a new and sensitive tool to determine subsurface magnetic fields with azimuthal or other horizontal periodicity.

  11. Biodynamic Performance of Hyaluronic Acid versus Synovial fluid of the Knee for Osteoarthritic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model and evaluation for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, the comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA [Singh et al. 2104]. PMID:25858258

  12. Higher derivative massive spin-3 models in D =2 +1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, E. L.

    2016-07-01

    We find new higher derivative models describing a parity doublet of massive spin-3 modes in D =2 +1 dimensions. One of them is of fourth order in derivatives while the other one is of sixth order. They are complete, in the sense that they contain the auxiliary scalar field required to remove spurious degrees of freedom. Both of them are obtained through the master action technique starting with the usual (second-order) spin-3 Singh-Hagen model, which guarantees that they are ghost free. The fourth- and sixth-order terms are both invariant under (transverse) Weyl transformations, quite similarly to the fourth-order K -term of the "new massive gravity." The sixth-order term slightly differs from the product of the Schouten by the Einstein tensor, both of third order in derivatives. It is also possible to write down the fourth-order term as a product of a Schouten-like by an Einstein-like tensor (both of second order in derivatives) in close analogy with the K -term.

  13. Analytical investigation of the SAFE diagram for bladed wheels, numerical and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, L.; Neri, P.; Santus, C.; Guglielmo, A.; Mariotti, G.

    2014-09-01

    Compressor and turbine bladed wheels interact with the fluid distributed by the stator vanes. They are subject to vibration and fatigue loading, especially when resonance conditions are excited. Avoiding resonance is fundamental when designing bladed wheels. The Campbell diagram approach is too conservative since bladed wheels show many close frequency natural modes, thus it is almost impossible to avoid frequency matching. Singh's Advanced Frequency Evaluation (SAFE) diagram, or interference diagram, also introduces shape matching in addition to the frequency, for resonance prediction, therefore many frequency matching cases can be identified as non-critical and thus tolerated. The present paper explains and demonstrates the SAFE diagram by introducing an analytical expression to identify bladed wheel resonance conditions. The mode shape matching with a harmonic component is investigated by means of specific examples. Symmetry properties of the matching distribution of harmonic indices and mode shapes are also introduced and demonstrated. Finally, a bladed wheel analysis is used for validation, both in FE simulations and experiments.

  14. Genotoxicity of select herbicides in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles using the alkaline single-cell gel DNA electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Clements, C; Ralph, S; Petras, M

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides are broadly used for pest control in agriculture despite possible negative impacts they may pose to the environment. Thus, we examined the DNA damage caused by five herbicides commonly used in southern Ontario (Canada). Erythrocytes from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) tadpoles were evaluated for DNA damage following exposure to selected herbicides, using the alkaline single-cell gel DNA electrophoresis (SCG) or "comet" assay [Singh et al. (1988): Exp Cell Res 175:184-191; Ralph et al. (1996): Eviron Mol Mutagen 28:112-120]. This approach involves detection, under alkaline conditions, of DNA fragments that upon electrophoresis migrate from the nuclear care, resulting in a comet formation. The herbicides tested, along with their active ingredients, were AAtrex Nine-O (atrazine), Dual-960E (metalochlor), Roundup (glyphosate), Sencor-500F (metribuzin), and Amsol (2,4-D amine). Tadpoles were exposed in the laboratory for a 24-hr period to several concentrations of the herbicides dissolved in dechlorinated water. Methyl methanesulphonate was used as a positive control. The herbicides AAtrex Nine-O-, Dual-960E-, Roundup-, and Sencor-500F-treated tadpoles showed significant DNA damage when compared with unexposed control animals, whereas, Amsol-treated tadpoles did not. Unlike the other responding herbicides, Sencor-500F did not show a relationship between dosage and DNA damage. In summary, the results indicate that at least some of the herbicides currently used in southern Ontario are capable of inducing DNA damage in tadpoles.

  15. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long- Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and is beginning to fit spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has gotten the site's Modflow model working and is developing a transport model that will be used to generate artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, has performed a literature review on inverse modeling and is receiving training on the software that will be used in this project (D2K). He has also created two models of user preferences and successfully implemented them with an interactive genetic algorithm on test functions. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has created an interactive genetic algorithm code and initial user interface in D2K. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected and analyzed data from the phytoremediation systems at the 317/319 site. She has found good correlations between concentrations in the ground water and in branches of the trees, which indicates excellent promise for using the trees as cost-effective long-term monitoring of the contaminants.

  16. [The verge and the abyss: tiotropium (Spiriva) in COPD].

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Ben-Dov, Issahar

    2011-01-01

    Tiotropium, a Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, has many beneficial effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among them are: a bronchodilator effect which is additive to that of beta-adrenergic agonists, that persists long-term without tolerance; reduction of dyspnea; improved exercise tolerance; enhanced response to rehabilitation; improved quality of life; and reduced frequency of exacerbations and hospital admissions. Therefore, tiotropium is widely used, and has been added to the Health Basket by the Israel Ministry of Health. In March 2008, the manufacturer informed the US Food and Drug Administration (FDAI that ongoing safety monitoring had identified a possible increased risk of stroke in patients who take this medicine. In September 2008, Singh and colleagues published a meta-analysis suggesting an increased risk of cardiovascular events in COPD patients treated with tiotropium, although there was no difference in overall mortality. A month later, the UPLIFT investigators published a 4 year placebo-controlled trial of tiotropium involving 5993 patients, in which there were slightly less cardiovascular events in the treatment group, and a trend to reduced overall mortality. The authors review the benefits and safety data, and conclude that while the benefits of tiotropium in COPD are clear, the evidence of an adverse effect on cardiovascular mortality is not sufficiently convincing. Hence, the balance of evidence supports continued use of tiotropium, especially in severe COPD. PMID:21449160

  17. Dependence of magnetic field and electronic transport of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-Electron Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alvar; Singh, Simranjeet; Haque, Firoze; Del Barco, Enrique; Nguyen, Tu; Christou, George

    2012-02-01

    Dependence of magnetic field and electronic transport of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-Electron Transistor A. Rodriguez, S. Singh, F. Haque and E. del Barco Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 USA T. Nguyen and G. Christou Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA Abstract We have performed single-electron transport measurements on a series of Mn-based low-nuclearity single-molecule magnets (SMM) observing Coulomb blockade. SMMs with well isolated and low ground spin states, i.e. S = 9/2 (Mn4) and S = 6 (Mn3) were chosen for these studies, such that the ground spin multiplet does not mix with levels of other excited spin states for the magnetic fields (H = 0-8 T) employed in the experiments. Different functionalization groups were employed to change the mechanical, geometrical and transport characteristics of the molecules when deposited from liquid solution on the transistors. Electromigration-broken three-terminal single-electron transistors were used. Results obtained at temperatures down to 240 mK and in the presence of high magnetic fields will be shown.

  18. Evaluating the Thermal Damage Resistance of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Lamuel; Feldman, Ari; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Lehman, John; Singh, Gurpreet; National Institute of Standards and Technology Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are known to exhibit some exceptional thermal (K ~ 2000 to 4400 W.m-1K-1 at 300K) and optical properties. Here, we demonstrate preparation and testing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chemically modified graphene-composite spray coatings for use on thermal detectors for high-power lasers. The synthesized nanocomposite material was tested by preparing spray coatings on aluminum test coupons used as a representation of the thermal detector's surface. These coatings were then exposed to increasing laser powers and extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The graphene/carbon nanotube (prepared at varying mass% of graphene in CNTs) coatings demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power (10.6 μm wavelength) than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens showed that the composite coating endured high laser-power densities (up to 2 kW.cm-2) without significant visual damage. This research is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation (Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division), under grant no. 1335862 to G. Singh.

  19. Fate of partially oxidised hydrocarbons in the UT: Reaction of OH with acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and methanol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumaran, V.; Cameron, M.; Dillon, T. J.; Hoelscher, D.; Horowitz, A.; Crowley, J. N.

    2003-04-01

    Partially Oxidised Hydrocarbons (POH) strongly influence the formation of HOx and ozone in the upper troposphere [1]. POH are formed in the atmosphere as intermediates in the oxidation of methane non-methane hydrocarbons and are also directly emitted in the boundary layer as a result of biogenic processes and from combustion systems. Although the OH initiated oxidation is an important sink of many POH, the available kinetic data for the reaction of OH with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and methanol relevant to upper tropospheric temperatures (210-240 K) is limited, and the measured rate constants have a large uncertainties [2]. Also there is a lack of definitive product and mechanistic data for these reactions. We present new, highly accurate rate constants for reaction of OH with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and methanol at temperatures down to 201 K. We also present direct measurements of branching ratios to the various thermodynamically accessible product channels of these reactions. 1. Singh, H., et al., Evidence from the Pacific troposphere for large global sources of oxygenated organic compounds. Nature, 410, 2001, 1078-1081. 2. Atkinson, R., et al., Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry, organic species: Supplement VII. IUPAC subcommittee on gas kinetic data evaluation for atmospheric chemistry. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 28, 1999. 191-393.

  20. Universal conductivity in a two-dimensional superfluid-to-insulator quantum critical system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Longxiang; Deng, Youjin; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2014-01-24

    We compute the universal conductivity of the (2+1)-dimensional XY universality class, which is realized for a superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition at constant density. Based on large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the classical (2+1)-dimensional J-current model and the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we can precisely determine the conductivity on the quantum critical plateau, σ(∞) = 0.359(4)σQ with σQ the conductivity quantum. The universal conductivity curve is the standard example with the lowest number of components where the bottoms-up AdS/CFT correspondence from string theory can be tested and made to use [R. C. Myers, S. Sachdev, and A. Singh, Phys. Rev. D 83, 066017 (2011)]. For the first time, the shape of the σ(iω(n)) - σ(∞) function in the Matsubara representation is accurate enough for a conclusive comparison and establishes the particlelike nature of charge transport. We find that the holographic gauge-gravity duality theory for transport properties can be made compatible with the data if temperature of the horizon of the black brane is different from the temperature of the conformal field theory. The requirements for measuring the universal conductivity in a cold gas experiment are also determined by our calculation.

  1. Nonlinear instability and intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Hillier, Andrew; Isobe, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-10-01

    The recent observations of Singh et al. (2012, ApJ, 759, 33) have shown multiple plasma ejections and the intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere, highlighting the need for fast reconnection to occur in highly collisional plasma. However, the physical process through which fast magnetic reconnection occurs in partially ionized plasma, like the solar chromosphere, is still poorly understood. It has been shown that for sufficiently high magnetic Reynolds numbers, Sweet-Parker current sheets can become unstable leading to tearing mode instability and plasmoid formation, but when dealing with a partially ionized plasma the strength of coupling between the ions and neutrals plays a fundamental role in determining the dynamics of the system. We propose that as the reconnecting current sheet thins and the tearing instability develops, plasmoid formation passes through strongly, intermediately, and weakly coupled (or decoupled) regimes, with the time scale for the tearing mode instability depending on the frictional coupling between ions and neutrals. We present calculations for the relevant time scales for fractal tearing in all three regimes. We show that as a result of the tearing mode instability and the subsequent non-linear instability due to the plasmoid-dominated reconnection, the Sweet-Parker current sheet tends to have a fractal-like structure, and when the chromospheric magnetic field is sufficiently strong the tearing instability can reach down to kinetic scales, which are hypothesized to be necessary for fast reconnection.

  2. Rectification of the chordal axis transform and a new criterion for shape decomposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier work we proposed the chordal axis transform (CAT) as a more useful alternative to the medial axis transform (MAT) for obtaining skeletons of discrete shapes. Since then, the CAT has benefited various applications in 2D and 3D shape analysis. In this paper, we revisit the CAT to address its deficiencies that are an artifact of the underlying constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT). We introduce a valuation on the internal edges of a discrete shape's CDT based on a concept of approximate co-circularity. This valuation provides a basis for suppression of the role of certain edges in the construction of the CAT skeleton. The result is a rectified CAT skeleton that has smoother branches as well as branch points of varying degrees, unlike the original CAT skeleton whose branches exhibit oscillations in tapered sections of shapes and allows only degree 3 branch points. Additionally, the valuation leads to a new criterion for parsing shapes into visually salient parts that closely resemble the empirical decompositions of shapes by human subjects as recorded in experiments by M. Singh, G. Seyranian, and D. Hoffinan.

  3. Microbial Decontamination of Dried Alaska Pollock Shreds Using Corona Discharge Plasma Jet: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soee; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2016-04-01

    Nonthermal techniques for microbial decontamination are becoming more common for ensuring food safety. In this study, a corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) was used for inactivation of microbial contaminants of dried Alaska pollock shreds. Corona plasma jet was generated at a current strength of 1.5 A, and a span length of 25 mm was maintained between the electrode tip and the sample. Upon the CDPJ treatment (0 to 3 min) of dried shreds, microbial contaminants namely aerobic and marine bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus were inactivated by 2.5, 1.5, and >1.0 log units, respectively. Also, a one-log reduction of molds and yeasts contaminants was observed. The inactivation patterns are fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetics or Singh-Heldman model. The CDPJ treatment did not exert statistically significant (P > 0.05) changes in physicochemical properties, namely color characteristics, volatile basic nitrogen, and peroxide value of dried fish shreds, with some exceptions, as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, CDPJ treatment had no significant impact on the sensory characteristics of dried fish shreds. PMID:26953810

  4. Sobre a atividade pós-periélica do cometa de órbita parabólica Yanaka (1988r)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    Greenberg, Singh & de Almeida (ApJ, 414: L45-48, 1993) mostraram que a deficiência nas abundâncias observadas de C2 e CN no Cometa Yanaka (1988r) pode ser explicada em termos das propriedades dos seus componentes refratários orgânicos, além do fato que trata-se de um cometa dinamicamente novo, observado através de abertura de fenda pequena projetada muito próximo do núcleo. Neste trabalho, complementamos o estudo sobre a atividade deste cometa de órbita parabólica, através da determinação da lei de potência que exprime sua taxa de produção de H2O (o principal indicador de atividade) na fase pós-periélica, determinamos o raio nuclear efetivo mínimo com sua fração de área ativa e analisamos a emissão de partículas de poeira observadas no contínuo em 625,0 nm.

  5. Relation between the increased transmission in the EXAFS region of X-ray absorption and the increase in the number of Abrikosov Vortices as cuprate superconductors go through Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigvinadze, Jaba G.; Mamniashvilli, Gogi I.; Acrivos, Juana V.

    2004-03-01

    The increased flux expulsion as T->Tc (observed as the external magnetic field, Bz = +/- 0.75 oe. goes through zero [1]) is related to the increased transmission as T->Tc (observed in all cuprate superconductors in the EXFAS region of X-ray absorption [2]). The expulsion of Abrikosov vortices as T->Tc is a cooperative dynamic phenomenon that affects only the EXAFS region of the spectrum. When the flux expulsion diverges beyond a critical value, we propose the EXAFS transmission increases because photoelectrons are involved in the Abrikosov Vortex. The phenomenon is similar to the increased transmission observed in He 4 by the formation of supercritical vortices [3]. [1] J.V. Acrivos, Lei Chen, C.M. Burch, P. Metcalf, J.M.Honig, R.S.Liu and K.K.Singh, Phys. Rev. B 50, 13710 (1994), [2] J.V. Acrivos, L.Nguyen, T.Norman, C.T. Lin, W.Y.Liang, J.M Honig and P.Somasundaram, Microchemical Journal, 71, 117 (2002), [3] E.J.Yarmchuk, M.J.V.Gordon, R.E.Packard, Phys.Rev.Lett. 43, 214 (1979)

  6. Microearthquakes at the active Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 26°08'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontbriand, C.; Reves-Sohn, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    A small 200 m aperture network of five ocean bottom seismometers around the periphery the active TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08’N) detected microearthquake events that may be associated with the subsurface hydraulics of the massive hydrothermal deposit. Seismic data were sampled at 100 Hz for a period of eight months spanning June, 2003 to February, 2004, during which time 24,191 locatable events were detected. Microearthquake hypocenters are concentrated within a 300 m radius of the sulfide mound in the top 250 m of crust, and exhibit a conical shape with the deepest events beneath the mound center. Event rates are steady at 180 events per day at the beginning of the study period and decline slightly to 116 events per day after whale calls elevate background noise levels about 2/3 of the way through the deployment. The mean local magnitude of events is -1.2 with a range of -2.9≦ML≦0.3. We suggest that events may be largely due to hydraulic fracturing of clogged flow conduits in the mineral deposit, which provides the possibility of using the microearthquake data to constrain subsurface flow parameters and the permeability structure of the active TAG deposit. Figure: A bathymetric map of the TAG area depicts a small aperture network of 5 ocean bottom seismometers (white triangles) around the periphery of the active TAG hydrothermal mound. High resolution bathymetry is from Roman and Singh, 2005.

  7. On Statistical Methods for Common Mean and Reference Confidence Intervals in Interlaboratory Comparisons for Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkovský, Viktor; Wimmer, Gejza; Ďuriš, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    We consider a problem of constructing the exact and/or approximate coverage intervals for the common mean of several independent distributions. In a metrological context, this problem is closely related to evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison experiments, and in particular, to determination of the reference value (estimate) of a measurand and its uncertainty, or alternatively, to determination of the coverage interval for a measurand at a given level of confidence, based on such comparison data. We present a brief overview of some specific statistical models, methods, and algorithms useful for determination of the common mean and its uncertainty, or alternatively, the proper interval estimator. We illustrate their applicability by a simple simulation study and also by example of interlaboratory comparisons for temperature. In particular, we shall consider methods based on (i) the heteroscedastic common mean fixed effect model, assuming negligible laboratory biases, (ii) the heteroscedastic common mean random effects model with common (unknown) distribution of the laboratory biases, and (iii) the heteroscedastic common mean random effects model with possibly different (known) distributions of the laboratory biases. Finally, we consider a method, recently suggested by Singh et al., for determination of the interval estimator for a common mean based on combining information from independent sources through confidence distributions.

  8. Ethnic and gender consensus for the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on judgment of women's attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Luis, S

    1995-03-01

    The western consensus is that obese women are considered attractive by Afro-Americans and by many societies from nonwestern developing countries. This belief rests mainly on results of nonstandardized surveys dealing only with body weight and size, ignoring body fat distribution. The anatomical distribution of female body fat as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR) is related to reproductive age, fertility, and risk for various major diseases and thus might play a role in judgment of attractiveness. Previous research (Singh 1993a, 1993b) has shown that in the United States Caucasian men and women judge female figures with feminine WHRs as attractive and healthy. To investigate whether young Indonesian and Afro-American men and women rate such figures similarly, female figures representing three body sizes (underweight, normal weight, and overweight) and four WHRs (two feminine and two masculine) were used. Results show that neither Indonesian nor Afro-American subjects judge overweight figures as attractive and healthy regardless of the size of WHR. They judged normal weight figures with feminine WHRs as most attractive, healthy, and youthful. The consensus on women's attractiveness among Indonesian, Afro-American, and U.S. Caucasian male and female subjects suggests that various cultural groups have similar criteria for judging the ideal woman's shape. PMID:24202830

  9. Determination of the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergün, Kadriye; Çalışkan, Gülşah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of freeze dried kiwi slices. Well-known thin layer drying models (Lewis, Page, Modified Page I, Henderson and Pabis, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli, Modified Midilli, Two-term, Two-term Exponential, Modified Two-term Exponential, and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental data. A nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models using statistical software SPSS 16.0. For the freeze drying process of the kiwi slices, the highest R2 value (0.997), and the lowest RMSE (0.018) as well as the χ2 (0.0004) values were obtained from the Two-term Exponential model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the freeze dried kiwi slices was calculated with the Fick's diffusion model as 7.302 × 10-10 m2/s. The rehydration behavior was determined using distilled water at different solid-liquid ratios at room temperature (18 ± 1 °C) using Peleg's model. The kinetics of the total soluble solid loss was also determined.

  10. On the resolution of the big bang singularity in isotropic loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2009-04-01

    In contrast to previous work in the field, we construct the loop quantum cosmology (LQC) of the flat isotropic model with a massless scalar field in the absence of higher order curvature corrections to the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian constraint. The matter part of the constraint contains the inverse triad operator which can be quantized with or without the use of a Thiemann-like procedure. With the latter choice, we show that the LQC quantization is identical to that of the standard Wheeler-DeWitt theory (WDW) wherein there is no singularity resolution. We argue that the former choice leads to singularity resolution in the sense of a well-defined, regular (backward) evolution through and beyond the epoch where the size of the universe vanishes. Our work along with that of the seminal work of Ashtekar, Pawlowski and Singh (APS) clarifies the role, in singularity resolution, of the three 'exotic' structures in this LQC model, namely: curvature corrections, inverse triad definitions and the 'polymer' nature of the kinematic representation. We also critically examine certain technical assumptions made by APS in their analysis of WDW semiclassical states and point out some problems stemming from the infrared behaviour of their wavefunctions.

  11. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Wind and Cloud Measurements on Venus from an Orbiting or Floating/Flying Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra; Limaye, Sanjay; Emmitt, George; Kavaya, Michael; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    an orbiting or floating/flying platform. This presentation will describe the concept, simulation and technology development plan for wind and cloud measurements on Venus. References [1] M.J. Kavaya, U.N. Singh, G.J. Koch, B.C. Trieu, M. Petros, and P.J. Petzar, "Development of a Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver and Plans for Flights on NASA's DC-8 and WB-57 Aircraft," Coherent Laser Radar Conference, Toulouse, France, June 2009. [2] G.J. Koch, J.Y. Beyon, B.W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, F. Amzajerdian, M.J. Kavaya, and U.N. Singh, "High-Energy 2-micron Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements," Optical Engineering 46(11), 116201-14 (2007). [3] J.Y. Beyon and G.J. Koch, "Novel Nonlinear Adaptive Doppler Shift Estimation Technique for the Coherent Doppler Validation Lidar," Optical Engineering 46(1), 0160021-9 (2007).

  12. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Shao, Habing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    Current research into Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. However, potential leakage of CO2 can cause environmental problems, particularly if freshwater resources are nearby. In this regards, it is important to understand the chemistry of CO2 and the water system. CO2 leakage across the fluid interface (CO2 and water) is controlled by the difference in the partial pressure of CO2 in the storage and in the freshwater body. Once the CO2 is in solution, it equilibrates with the bicarbonate and carbonate ions. According to Millero (1994)such a system can be characterized by two parameters out of the four: total alkalinity (TA), total carbonate (TCO2), fugacity of CO2(fCO2) and pH. In the present modeling study, we are interested in the (i) CO2 leakage into a freshwater body (while injecting CO2 for storage) through an inclined fracture and (ii) characterization of the system by measuring fugacity of CO2 and pH. According to work presented by Singh et al. (2012), about 31% of injected CO2 leaks into the freshwater body. Solubility of CO2 in water follows Henry's law, while the Henry constant, K0 is calculated by an empirical relation developed by Murray and Riley (1971), which is a function of salinity and temperature. According to our results, pH and fugacity both appear to be a linear function of temperature. To simulate the discussed problem, a corresponding numerical module has been developed for multi-component fluid flow coupled with heat and mass transport processes. Governing equations and Volume Translated Peng-Robinson equations of state are implemented within the object-oriented finite element code OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012; www.opengeosys.org). Primary variables are pressure, temperature and salinity which are obtained by solving the governing equations in a monolithic way The governing equations are discretized spatially within the context of a Galerkin approach, whereas the temporal

  13. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Singh, Tejinder

    2014-03-01

    painstaking task of proofreading and copyediting the accepted papers. We also thank the SOC, and the Workshop Chairs for their help in putting together an excellent scientific programme, the LOC for the wonderful organization, and the referees of papers for their help in improving the quality of the papers. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors who have made the publication of these proceedings possible, through their contribution. B S Sathyaprakash and Tejinder P Singh Scientific Organizing Committee Pijushpani Bhattacharjee (SINP, India) J Richard Bond (CITA, Canada) Manuela Campanelli (RIT, USA) Debajyoti Choudhury (Delhi University, India) Richard Ellis (Caltech, USA) Gary Gibbons (DAMTP, UK) Pankaj Joshi (TIFR, India) Romesh Kaul (IMSc, India) Subhabrata Majumdar (TIFR, India) Don Marolf (UCSB, USA) Ramesh Narayan (CfA, Harvard University, USA) Lyman Page (Princeton University, USA) Misao Sasaki (YITP, Japan) B S Sathyaprakash (Cardiff University, UK) Ashoke Sen (HRI, India) Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, India) [Chair] P S Sreekumar (ISRO, India) Alexei Starobinsky (Landau Institute, Russia) Sumati Surya (RRI, India) C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, India) Spenta Wadia (TIFR, India) Local Organzing Committee Ghanashyam Date A Gopakumar Subhabrata Majumdar D Narasimha T P Singh (Chair) Supporting Staff V Chellathurai [Scientific Programmes Coordinator] Ashok Deshpande [Accounts Officer] Margaret D'Souza [Secretary] Shobha Jagtap [Secretary] Nishikant Kadam [Secretary] Vijay Kadam [Assistant] A list of participants is available in the PDF

  14. Improving a stage forecasting Muskingum model by relating local stage and remote discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, S.; Moramarco, T.; Melone, F.; Brocca, L.

    2009-04-01

    Following the parsimonious concept of parameters, simplified models for flood forecasting based only on flood routing have been developed for flood-prone sites located downstream of a gauged station and at a distance allowing an appropriate forecasting lead-time. In this context, the Muskingum model can be a useful tool. However, critical points in hydrological routing are the representation of lateral inflows contribution and the knowledge of stage-discharge relationships. As regards the former, O'Donnell (O'Donnell, T., 1985. A direct three-parameter Muskingum procedure incorporating lateral inflow, Hydrol. Sci. J., 30[4/12], 479-496) proposed a three-parameter Muskingum procedure assuming the lateral inflows proportional to the contribution entering upstream. Using this approach, Franchini and Lamberti (Franchini, M. & Lamberti, P., 1994. A flood routing Muskingum type simulation and forecasting model based on level data alone, Water Resour. Res., 30[7], 2183-2196) presented a simple model Muskingum type to provide forecast water levels at the downstream end by selecting a routing time interval and, hence, a forecasting lead-time allowing to express the forecast stage as a function of only observed quantities. Moramarco et al. (Moramarco, T., Barbetta, S., Melone, F. & Singh, V.P., 2006. A real-time stage Muskingum forecasting model for a site without rating curve, Hydrol. Sci. J., 51[1], 66-82) enhanced the modeling scheme incorporating a procedure for adapting the parameter linked to lateral inflows. This last model, called STAFOM (STAge FOrecasting Model), was also extended to a two connected river branches schematization in order to improve significantly the forecasting lead-time. The STAFOM model provided satisfactory results for most of the analysed flood events observed in different river reaches in the Upper-Middle Tiber River basin in Central Italy. However, the analysis highlighted that the stage forecast should be enhanced when sudden modifications

  15. Raman scattering investigation of VOCs in interaction with ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, Sébastien; Oancea, Adriana; Focsa, Cristian; Chazallon, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    formed. These results are finally compared with those obtained by co-deposition trapping process. [1] K. Liou, "Influence of Cirrus Clouds on Weather and Climate Processes: A Global Perspective," Monthly Weather Review, vol. 114, Juin. 1986, pp. 1167-1199. [2] A. Heymsfield and R. Sabin, "Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 46, 1989, pp. 2252-2264. [3] J.P.D. Abbatt, "Interactions of Atmospheric Trace Gases with Ice Surfaces: Adsorption and Reaction," Chemical Reviews, vol. 103, Déc. 2003, pp. 4783-4800. [4] H. Singh, Y. Chen, A. Staudt, D. Jacob, D. Blake, B. Heikes, et J. Snow, "Evidence from the Pacific troposphere for large global sources of oxygenated organic compounds," Nature, vol. 410, Avr. 2001, pp. 1078-1081. [5] H.B. Singh, M. Kanakidou, P.J. Crutzen, and D.J. Jacob, "High concentrations and photochemical fate of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the global troposphere," Nature, vol. 378, Nov. 1995, pp. 50-54.

  16. Development of a 3D Potential Field Forward Modelling System in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, P.

    2012-12-01

    The collection of potential field data has long been a standard part of geophysical exploration. Specifically, airborne magnetic data is collected routinely in any brown-fields area, because of the low cost and fast acquisition rate compared to other geophysical techniques. However, the interpretation of such data can be a daunting task, especially when 3D models are becoming more necessary. The current trend in modelling software is to follow either the modelling of individual profiles, which are then "joined" up into 3D sections, or to model in a full 3D using polygonal based models (Singh and Guptasarma, 2001). Unfortunately, both techniques have disadvantages. When modelling in 2.5D the impact of other profiles is not truly available on your current profile being modelled, and vice versa. The problem is not present in 3D, but 3D polygonal models, while being easy to construct the initial model, are not as easy to make fast changes to. In some cases, the entire model must be recreated from scratch. The ability to easily change a model is the very basis of forward modelling. With this is mind, the objective of the project was to: 1) Develop software which was truly modelling in 3D 2) Create a system which would allow the rapid changing of the 3D model, without the need to recreate the model. The solution was to adopt a voxel based approach, rather than a polygonal approach. The solution for a cube (Blakely 1996) was used to calculate potential field for each voxel. The voxels are then summed over the entire volume. The language used was python, because of its huge capacity for scientific development. It enables full 3D visualisation as well as complex mathematical routines. Some properties worth noting are: 1) Although 200 rows by 200 columns by 200 layers would imply 8 million calculations, in reality, since the calculation for adjacent voxels produces the same result, only 200 calculations are necessary. 2) Changes to susceptibility and density do not affect

  17. Repeating and not so Repeating Large Earthquakes in the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Singh, S.; Iglesias, A.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2013-12-01

    The rupture area and recurrence interval of large earthquakes in the mexican subduction zone are relatively small and almost the entire length of the zone has experienced a large (Mw≥7.0) earthquake in the last 100 years (Singh et al., 1981). Several segments have experienced multiple large earthquakes in this time period. However, as the rupture areas of events prior to 1973 are only approximately known, the recurrence periods are uncertain. Large earthquakes occurred in the Ometepec, Guerrero, segment in 1937, 1950, 1982 and 2012 (Singh et al., 1981). In 1982, two earthquakes (Ms 6.9 and Ms 7.0) occurred about 4 hours apart, one apparently downdip from the other (Astiz & Kanamori, 1984; Beroza et al. 1984). The 2012 earthquake on the other hand had a magnitude of Mw 7.5 (globalcmt.org), breaking approximately the same area as the 1982 doublet, but with a total scalar moment about three times larger than the 1982 doublet combined. It therefore seems that 'repeat earthquakes' in the Ometepec segment are not necessarily very similar one to another. The Central Oaxaca segment broke in large earthquakes in 1928 (Mw7.7) and 1978 (Mw7.7) . Seismograms for the two events, recorded at the Wiechert seismograph in Uppsala, show remarkable similarity, suggesting that in this area, large earthquakes can repeat. The extent to which the near-trench part of the fault plane participates in the ruptures is not well understood. In the Ometepec segment, the updip portion of the plate interface broke during the 25 Feb 1996 earthquake (Mw7.1), which was a slow earthquake and produced anomalously low PGAs (Iglesias et al., 2003). Historical records indicate that a great tsunamigenic earthquake, M~8.6, occurred in the Oaxaca region in 1787, breaking the Central Oaxaca segment together with several adjacent segments (Suarez & Albini 2009). Whether the updip portion of the fault broke in this event remains speculative, although plausible based on the large tsunami. Evidence from the

  18. Mathematical and numerical analysis of non-planer static mode-II crack in a two-layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, S.; Yamashita, T.

    2009-12-01

    A crack in an infinite homogeneous medium is widely assumed as a model for earthquake fault. It is, however, well known that the earth's crust is heterogeneous and its structure is approximated well by a layered medium. Hence, such structure should be taken into account to model earthquake fault reasonably. We mathematically analyze the behavior of a 2-D static mode-II non-planar crack in a two-layered elastic medium in order to understand the effect of layer boundary on earthquake faulting. Although Rani and Singh (1993) and Rivalta et al.(2002) studied similar problems, focuses of their studies were quite narrow probably because of inherent mathematical difficulty. Actually the former assumed a planar crack with uniform slip and the latter assumed a planar crack perpendicular to the layer boundary. While a serious difficulty of the analysis of mode-II crack lies in the derivation of stress distribution due to point source as a kernel function, we first overcome the difficulty by writing its expression in a sequence of complex functions in the real (not the Fourier) domain. A very important characteristic in the sequence is that it has recursive property, which makes possible to derive the kernel function explicitly and to integrate it by parts; the integration by parts is required before the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is applied. Our kernel function is much easier to treat than the expression given by Rani and Singh (1993). This enables us to analyze arbitrarily oriented non-planar crack in a two-layered medium. Next, we calculate the spatial distribution of stress due to crack that does not intersect the layer boundary using the above derived kernel function. We find in the calculation that the existence of layer boundary amplifies or reduces the stress at the crack tip when the crack is located close to the boundary; the stress is amplified when the crack exists in the layer with lower rigidity. Our method of analysis can easily be applied to the

  19. Geochemical proxies for weathering and provenance of Late Quaternary alluvial core-sediments from NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Amir, Mohd; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv

    2014-05-01

    The Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains are formed by sediment deposition in the foreland basin as a result of upliftment and subsequent erosion of the Himalaya. Earlier study (Sinha et al., 2013) has shown the subsurface existence of buried channel bodies beneath the Ghaggar plains in NW Indo-Gangetic plains. The mapped sand bodies follow trace of a paleochannel that begins at the mountain front near the exit of river Sutlej and extends to the northern margin of the Thar desert, suggesting existence of a large Himalayan-sourced river (Singh et al., 2011) in the past. The buried sand bodies hold potential records of erosion history over the Himalaya that could be used to assess climate-controlled erosion over the Himalaya. Geochemical variations in the sediments from two (~45m long) cores drilled below the trace of the paleochannel (upstream) near Sirhind, Punjab and two cores (GS-10 & 11) from downstream near Kalibangan, Rajasthan, are used in this study to understand the erosional pattern over the Himalaya during Late Quaternary. Down-core variations in chemical index of alteration (CIA=51-79) along with K2O/Na2O and Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O) ratios are consistent with the trends of SW summer monsoonal fluctuations during the Glacial-Interglacial periods indicating climate controlled weathering at the source; higher values during Interglacial and lower during Glacial periods with maximum value during the Holocene. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of drill-cores sediments, 87Sr/86Sr (0.7314-0.7946), ɛNd (-23.2 to -14) are within the range of silicate rocks from the Higher and Lesser Himalaya. Significant down-core variations in 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd are observed that reflect the mixing of varying proportions of the Higher and Lesser Himalayan sediments, the two dominant sources to the core sites. Sediments deposited during MIS-2 and MIS-4, cold and dry Glacial periods, show high 87Sr/86Sr and low ɛNd suggesting an enhanced contribution from the Lesser Himalayan rocks that are

  20. To Study the Incidence, Predictive Factors and Clinical Outcome of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients of Cirrhosis with Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmine; Kazal, Harbans Lal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence and predictive factors of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients of cirrhosis with ascites and to study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with SBP. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 122 cases admitted in Department of Medicine, through emergency, in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India. Cases of cirrhosis (irrespective of aetiology) with ascites between the ages of 18-75 years were included in this study. Ascitic fluid of every patient was aspirated under all aseptic measures, before initiation of antibiotic therapy and was sent for biochemical analysis, culture and cytological analysis. Results Mean age of patients enrolled was 50.30± 10.98 years. 85% were male and 15% were female. Alcohol (73.8%) was the leading cause of cirrhosis followed by HCV (37.7%) and HBV (4.9%). Of the 122 patients studied, 27 (20.4%) patients were diagnosed as having SBP and its variants. Monomicrobial Bacterascites (BA) was present in 5 patients and Culture Negative Neutrocytic Ascites (CNNA) was present in 22 patients. Escherichia coli were the most common isolated organism followed by Klebsiella. The various factors that predispose to development of SBP include low ascitic fluid protein concentration, a high level of serum bilirubin, deranged serum creatinine, high Child-Pugh score and high MELD score. Conclusion Ascitic fluid analysis remains the single most important test for identifying and assessing a course of SBP. Bedside inoculation of 10-20ml of ascitic fluid into culture bottle at patient bedside will yield better results. Early diagnosis and treatment will reduce the mortality rate in these patients. PMID:26393155

  1. Molecular identification of a new myxozoan, Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting scales of Labeo rohita Hamilton in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection. PMID:27330981

  2. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  3. Evidence for a link between histone deacetylation and Ca²+ homoeostasis in sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase-deficient fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ihlefeld, Katja; Claas, Ralf Frederik; Koch, Alexander; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar

    2012-11-01

    Embryonic fibroblasts from S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) lyase-deficient mice [Sgpl1-/- MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts)] are characterized by intracellular accumulation of S1P, elevated cytosolic [Ca2+]i and enhanced Ca2+ storage. Since S1P, produced by sphingosine kinase 2 in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells, inhibited HDACs (histone deacetylases) [Hait, Allegood, Maceyka, Strub, Harikumar, Singh, Luo, Marmorstein, Kordula, Milstein et al. (2009) Science 325, 1254-1257], in the present study we analysed whether S1P accumulated in the nuclei of S1P lyase-deficient MEFs and caused HDAC inhibition. Interestingly, nuclear concentrations of S1P were disproportionally elevated in Sgpl1-/- MEFs. HDAC activity was reduced, acetylation of histone 3-Lys9 was increased and the HDAC-regulated gene p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor was up-regulated in these cells. Furthermore, the expression of HDAC1 and HDAC3 was reduced in Sgpl1-/- MEFs. In wild-type MEFs, acetylation of histone 3-Lys9 was increased by the S1P lyase inhibitor 4-deoxypyridoxine. The non-specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A elevated basal [Ca2+]i and enhanced Ca2+ storage, whereas the HDAC1/2/3 inhibitor MGCD0103 elevated basal [Ca2+]i without influence on Ca2+ storage in wild-type MEFs. Overexpression of HDAC1 or HDAC2 reduced the elevated basal [Ca2+]i in Sgpl1-/- MEFs. Taken together, S1P lyase-deficiency was associated with elevated nuclear S1P levels, reduced HDAC activity and down-regulation of HDAC isoenzymes. The decreased HDAC activity in turn contributed to the dysregulation of Ca2+ homoeostasis, particularly to the elevated basal [Ca2+]i, in Sgpl1-/- MEFs.

  4. The Prevalence of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance Among Staphylococci in a Tertiary Care Hospital – A Study from the Garhwal Hills of Uttarakhand, India

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Deepak; Shamanth, A.S; Pal, Shekhar; Sharma, Munesh Kumar; Prakash, Rajat; Sharma, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of the phenotypic expression of the inducible resistance to clindamycin which was due to the expression of the erm genes in various clinical isolates of the Staphylococcus species. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Govt. Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Srikot, Uttarakhand, from July 2010 to December 2011. A total of 373 consecutive, non duplicate strains of Staphylococci isolated from various clinical samples like pus, wound swab, blood, urine and other body fluids, were tested. The isolates which had a discordant resistance pattern (clindamycin-sensitive and erythromycin-resistant) by Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion method were selected and subjected to the D-test for inducible clindamycin resistance, as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Among the 373 clinical isolates of Staphylococci which were studied, 134 isolates showed a discordant resistance pattern. Among these discordant strains, 45 (33.6%) isolates were D-test positive, which had inducible clindamycin resistance and belonged to the inducible macrolide lincosamide streptogramin- B phenotype (MLSBi). 89 (66.4%) isolates were D-test negative and they belonged to the macrolide streptogramin phenotype (MS). Among the MLSBi phenotypes, 6 (13.3%) isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 13 (28.9%) were Methicillin-sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) and 26 (57.8%) were coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS). Conclusion: The D-test is a simple, effective and an important method for the phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance and it should be used routinely, as it will help in guiding the empirical therapy. The possible clinical failures can thus be avoided. PMID:23450310

  5. A simple approximation of moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of an extended stochastic theta-logistic model with non-integer powers.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Subhadip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic versions of the logistic and extended logistic growth models are applied successfully to explain many real-life population dynamics and share a central body of literature in stochastic modeling of ecological systems. To understand the randomness in the population dynamics of the underlying processes completely, it is important to have a clear idea about the quasi-equilibrium distribution and its moments. Bartlett et al. (1960) took a pioneering attempt for estimating the moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the stochastic logistic model. Matis and Kiffe (1996) obtain a set of more accurate and elegant approximations for the mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the same model using cumulant truncation method. The method is extended for stochastic power law logistic family by the same and several other authors (Nasell, 2003; Singh and Hespanha, 2007). Cumulant truncation and some alternative methods e.g. saddle point approximation, derivative matching approach can be applied if the powers involved in the extended logistic set up are integers, although plenty of evidence is available for non-integer powers in many practical situations (Sibly et al., 2005). In this paper, we develop a set of new approximations for mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution under more general family of growth curves, which is applicable for both integer and non-integer powers. The deterministic counterpart of this family of models captures both monotonic and non-monotonic behavior of the per capita growth rate, of which theta-logistic is a special case. The approximations accurately estimate the first three order moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution. The proposed method is illustrated with simulated data and real data from global population dynamics database.

  6. Clinico-bacteriological profile of primary pyodermas in Kashmir: a hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Y J; Hassan, I; Bashir, S; Farhana, A; Maroof, P

    2016-03-01

    Pyodermas are a common group of infectious dermatological conditions on which few studies have been conducted. This study aimed to characterise the clinical and bacteriological profile of pyodermas, and to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in primary pyodermas in a dermatology outpatient department in Kashmir. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross-sectional study in the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy of Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Patients presenting with primary pyodermas were included in the study. A detailed history and complete physical and cutaneous examination was carried out along with microbiological testing to find aetiological microorganisms and their respectiveantimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, including that for methicillin resistance, was carried out by standard methods as outlined in the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results In total, 110 patients were included; the age of the study population ranged from 3 to 65 years (mean age 28 years); 62% were male. Poor personal hygiene was noted in 76 (69%). Furunculosis (56; 51%) was the most common clinical presentation. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 89 (81%) of cases, and MRSA formed 54/89 (61%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA was high in this sample of communityacquired primary pyodermas. It is therefore important to monitor the changing trends in bacterial infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and to formulate a definite antibiotic policy which may be helpful in decreasing the incidence of MRSA infection.

  7. Scaffold of Asymmetric Organic Compounds - Magnetite Plaquettes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Martinez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Life on Earth shows preference towards the set of organics with particular spatial configurations, this 'selectivity' is a crucial criterion for life. With only rare exceptions, life prefers the left- (L-) form over the right- (D-) form of amino acids, resulting in an L-enantiomeric excess (L-ee). Recent studies have shown Lee for alpha-methyl amino acids in some chondrites. Since these amino acids have limited terrestrial occurrence, the origin of their stereoselectivity is nonbiological, and it seems appropriate to conclude that chiral asymmetry, the molecular characteristic that is common to all terrestrial life form, has an abiotic origin. A possible abiotic mechanism that can produce chiral asymmetry in meteoritic amino acids is their formation with the presence of asymmetric catalysts, as mineral crystallization can produce spatially asymmetric structures. Magnetite is shown to be an effective catalyst for the formation of amino acids that are commonly found in chondrites. Magnetite 'plaquettes' (or 'platelets'), first described by Jedwab, show an interesting morphology of barrel-shaped stacks of magnetite disks with an apparent dislocation-induced spiral growth that seem to be connected at the center. A recent study by Singh et al. has shown that magnetites can self-assemble into helical superstructures. Such molecular asymmetry could be inherited by adsorbed organic molecules. In order to understand the distribution of 'spiral' magnetites in different meteorite classes, as well as to investigate their apparent spiral configurations and possible correlation to molecular asymmetry, we observed polished sections of carbonaceous chondrites (CC) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The sections were also studied by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to reconstruct the crystal orientation along the stack of magnetite disks.

  8. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Satish V

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  9. A rational function approach for estimating land surface evapotranspiration based on the complementary hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.

    2007-12-01

    Evapotranspiration, which occurs in the boundary layer between the land surface and the bottom atmospheric layer, plays an important role in both water balance and energy balance. Models based on the Penman hypothesis (1948) and the Budyko hypothesis (1974) estimate actual evapotranspiration from a land surface process prospective, while models based on the complementary hypothesis (Bouchet, 1963) do this from the atmospheric perspective. Penman-based models require detailed data on soil moisture or stomatal resistance (Crago and Crowley, 2006); Budyko models, e.g. Fu's equation (1981), estimate the mean annual evapotranspiration only; while models based on the complementary hypothesis, including advection aridity model (AA for short) (Brutsaert and Stricker, 1979) and the Granger model (1989, 1991, 1996) estimate actual evapotranspiration at various time scales using climate data only. The AA and Granger models use different definitions for wet environment evaporation and potential evaporation and their comparative study are conducted by several researchers (Xu and Singh, 2005; Liu et al., 2006; Crago and Crowley, 2006). In this paper we explore the uniformity of the two complementary models by dimensional analysis. A new index (the proportion of the radiation term in Penman equation, termed the air humidity index) is proposed as a measure of the wetness of the evaporating surface via the wetness of over-passing air, and a general functional form for actual evaporation is developed in which the evaporation ratio is expressed as a function of the air humidity index. The similarity and differences between the AA and Granger models are interpreted via this rational function approach, and a new power function method is proposed. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by observational data under various climate conditions.

  10. The C1q Family of Proteins: Insights into the Emerging Non-Traditional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Hosszu, Kinga K.; Valentino, Alisa; Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage-modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders – including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia, and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh et al. (2011) showing that pregnant C1q−/− mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q−/− mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al. (2009) which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1) and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand, enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNF-α-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the tumor necrosis factor family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral “cytokine-like” activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions. PMID:22536204

  11. Molecular identification of a new myxozoan, Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. (Myxosporea) infecting scales of Labeo rohita Hamilton in Harike Wetland, Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni; Joshi, Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a new species Myxobolus dermiscalis n. sp. infecting scales of Labeo rohita, an Indian major carp from Harike Wetland in Punjab, India has been described on the basis of spore morphology and amplification of a part of 18S rDNA gene. The pseudocysts of M. dermiscalis n. sp. are milky white with irregular outline, 0.5-3.6 mm in diameter embedded within the dermal scale in the form of a cavity. The spores 5.84-7.98 × 3.98-5.98 μm in size, having two equal polar capsules 3.98-5.98 × 1.85-3.85 μm in size. The most differentiating feature from closely related species, Myxobolus saugati (Kaur and Singh, 2011) is the presence of two parietal folds at the posterior - lateral margins of the shell valves. The present species is regarded as host, organ and tissue specific in nature. The partial sequence of SSU gene of M. dermiscalis n. sp. clustered with other Myxobolus species infecting cyprinids available in the GenBank. Blast search revealed 98% homogeneity with Myxobolus sp (KM401439) infecting scales of L. rohita in Myanmar (unpubl. data). The present myxobolid parasite has been recorded to cause serious, highly symptomatic disease of the scales, causing their loosening from the skin of L. rohita. It rendered the host fish unsightly giving it cloudy appearance with white patches and mucoid body surface. Scale pseudocyst Index (SPI) has been provided to record the intensity of infection.

  12. Deep Conservation of Genes Required for Both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans Sleep Includes a Role for Dopaminergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Komudi; Ju, Jennifer Y.; Walsh, Melissa B.; DiIorio, Michael A.; Hart, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cross-species conservation of sleep-like behaviors predicts the presence of conserved molecular mechanisms underlying sleep. However, limited experimental evidence of conservation exists. Here, this prediction is tested directly. Measurements and Results: During lethargus, Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneously sleep in short bouts that are interspersed with bouts of spontaneous locomotion. We identified 26 genes required for Drosophila melanogaster sleep. Twenty orthologous C. elegans genes were selected based on similarity. Their effect on C. elegans sleep and arousal during the last larval lethargus was assessed. The 20 most similar genes altered both the quantity of sleep and arousal thresholds. In 18 cases, the direction of change was concordant with Drosophila studies published previously. Additionally, we delineated a conserved genetic pathway by which dopamine regulates sleep and arousal. In C. elegans neurons, G-alpha S, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A act downstream of D1 dopamine receptors to regulate these behaviors. Finally, a quantitative analysis of genes examined herein revealed that C. elegans arousal thresholds were directly correlated with amount of sleep during lethargus. However, bout duration varies little and was not correlated with arousal thresholds. Conclusions: The comprehensive analysis presented here suggests that conserved genes and pathways are required for sleep in invertebrates and, likely, across the entire animal kingdom. The genetic pathway delineated in this study implicates G-alpha S and previously known genes downstream of dopamine signaling in sleep. Quantitative analysis of various components of quiescence suggests that interdependent or identical cellular and molecular mechanisms are likely to regulate both arousal and sleep entry. Citation: Singh K, Ju JY, Walsh MB, Dilorio MA, Hart AC. Deep conservation of genes required for both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans sleep includes a role for

  13. Protein Expression in Insect and Mammalian Cells Using Baculoviruses in Wave Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kadwell, Sue H; Overton, Laurie K

    2016-01-01

    Many types of disposable bioreactors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells are now available. They differ in design, capacity, and sensor options, with many selections available for either rocking platform, orbitally shaken, pneumatically mixed, or stirred-tank bioreactors lined with an integral disposable bag (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). WAVE Bioreactors™ were among the first disposable systems to be developed (Singh, Cytotechnology 30:149-158, 1999). Since their commercialization in 1999, Wave Bioreactors have become routinely used in many laboratories due to their ease of operation, limited utility requirements, and protein expression levels comparability to traditional stirred-tank bioreactors. Wave Bioreactors are designed to use a presterilized Cellbag™, which is attached to a rocking platform and inflated with filtered air provided by the bioreactor unit. The Cellbag can be filled with medium and cells and maintained at a set temperature. The rocking motion, which is adjusted through angle and rock speed settings, provides mixing of oxygen (and CO2, which is used to control pH in mammalian cell cultures) from the headspace created in the inflated Cellbag with the cell culture medium and cells. This rocking motion can be adjusted to prevent cell shear damage. Dissolved oxygen and pH can be monitored during scale-up, and samples can be easily removed to monitor other parameters. Insect and mammalian cells grow very well in Wave Bioreactors (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). Combining Wave Bioreactor cell growth capabilities with recombinant baculoviruses engineered for insect or mammalian cell expression has proven to be a powerful tool for rapid production of a wide range of proteins. PMID:26820862

  14. Report on errors in pretransfusion testing from a tertiary care center: A step toward transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Meena; Meenia, Renu; Akhter, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay; Irm, Yasmeen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the process of pretransfusion testing for blood transfusion can occur at any stage from collection of the sample to administration of the blood component. The present study was conducted to analyze the errors that threaten patients’ transfusion safety and actual harm/serious adverse events that occurred to the patients due to these errors. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was conducted in the Department Of Transfusion Medicine, Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh Hospital, Government Medical College, Jammu, India from January 2014 to December 2014 for a period of 1 year. Errors were defined as any deviation from established policies and standard operating procedures. A near-miss event was defined as those errors, which did not reach the patient. Location and time of occurrence of the events/errors were also noted. Results: A total of 32,672 requisitions for the transfusion of blood and blood components were received for typing and cross-matching. Out of these, 26,683 products were issued to the various clinical departments. A total of 2,229 errors were detected over a period of 1 year. Near-miss events constituted 53% of the errors and actual harmful events due to errors occurred in 0.26% of the patients. Sample labeling errors were 2.4%, inappropriate request for blood components 2%, and information on requisition forms not matching with that on the sample 1.5% of all the requisitions received were the most frequent errors in clinical services. In transfusion services, the most common event was accepting sample in error with the frequency of 0.5% of all requisitions. ABO incompatible hemolytic reactions were the most frequent harmful event with the frequency of 2.2/10,000 transfusions. Conclusion: Sample labeling, inappropriate request, and sample received in error were the most frequent high-risk errors. PMID:27011670

  15. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of laboratory flames and an industrial flare.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwar Devesh; Gangadharan, Preeti; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Li, Xianchang; Richmond, Peyton

    2014-11-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology for simulating the combustion process has been validated with experimental results. Three different types of experimental setups were used to validate the CFD model. These setups include an industrial-scale flare setups and two lab-scale flames. The CFD study also involved three different fuels: C3H6/CH/Air/N2, C2H4/O2/Ar and CH4/Air. In the first setup, flare efficiency data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) 2010 field tests were used to validate the CFD model. In the second setup, a McKenna burner with flat flames was simulated. Temperature and mass fractions of important species were compared with the experimental data. Finally, results of an experimental study done at Sandia National Laboratories to generate a lifted jet flame were used for the purpose of validation. The reduced 50 species mechanism, LU 1.1, the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model, and the EDC turbulence-chemistry interaction model were usedfor this work. Flare efficiency, axial profiles of temperature, and mass fractions of various intermediate species obtained in the simulation were compared with experimental data and a good agreement between the profiles was clearly observed. In particular the simulation match with the TCEQ 2010 flare tests has been significantly improved (within 5% of the data) compared to the results reported by Singh et al. in 2012. Validation of the speciated flat flame data supports the view that flares can be a primary source offormaldehyde emission.

  16. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants.

  17. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. From 1970 to 2000, motorized mobility (passenger-km) has risen by 888%, compared with an 88% population growth (Singh,2006). This contributed to many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provide information on driving forces behind energy use and sometime show large inconsistencies. Many previous studies address only a single transportation mode such as passenger road travel; did not include comprehensive data collection or analysis has yet been done, or lack detail on energy demand by each mode and fuel mix. The current study will fill a considerable gap in current efforts, develop a data base on all transport modes including passenger air and water, and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios and assess significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared with aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions on freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, we estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the mid-range road freight growth case and 12% for the high road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growth rate in those years.

  18. G-CSF, but not corticosterone, mediates circulating neutrophilia induced by febrile-range hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Garrettson S; Carlson, Drew E; Hester, Lisa; He, Ju-Ren; Bagby, Gregory J; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffery D

    2005-05-01

    We previously showed that sustained exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) for 24 h caused an increase in circulating granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels and a peripheral neutrophilia in mice (Hasday J, Garrison A, Singh I, Standiford T, Ellis G, Rao S, He JR, Rice P, Frank M, Goldblum S, and Viscardi R. Am J Pathol 162: 2005-2017, 2003). In this study, we utilized a conscious temperature-clamped mouse model to analyze the kinetics of G-CSF expression and peripheral neutrophil expansion and the contributions of FRH-induced G-CSF expression, glucocorticoid generation, and catecholamine-induced neutrophil demargination. In conscious mice housed at an ambient temperature of 34.5 degrees C, core temperature rapidly equilibrated at 39.5-40 degrees C. Peripheral neutrophil counts increased 2-fold after 24-h exposure to hyperthermia, peaked at 3.6-fold baseline levels after 36-h exposure to FRH, and returned to baseline levels after 42 h of sustained hyperthermia. Plasma G-CSF levels were increased by 6.8-fold after 24 h and peaked at 40-fold baseline levels after 36 h in the hyperthermic mice. Plasma corticosterone levels peaked at 3.3-fold baseline levels after 30-h sustained hyperthermia and returned to baseline by 42 h. Immunoneutralization of G-CSF blocked FRH-induced peripheral neutrophilia, but blockade of the glucocorticoid receptor with mifepristone failed to modify FRH-induced neutrophilia. Epinephrine induced similar increases in peripheral blood absolute neutrophil counts in euthermic mice (2.2-fold increase) and mice exposed to FRH for 36 h (1.8-fold increase). Collectively, these data suggest that FRH-induced expression of G-CSF drives the sustained peripheral neutrophilia that occurs during sustained (36 h) hyperthermia, whereas glucocorticoid generation and catecholamine-induced demargination play little role in this response.

  19. Upper limit to magnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In 2004 Ohtomo and Hwang reported unusually high conductivity in LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 bilayer samples. Since then, metallic conduction, superconductivity, magnetism, and coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism have been attributed to LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. Very recently, two studies have reported large magnetic moments attributed to interfaces from measurement techniques that are unable to distinguish between interfacial and bulk magnetism. Consequently, it is imperative to perform magnetic measurements that by being intrinsically sensitive to interface magnetism are impervious to experimental artifacts suffered by bulk measurements. Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we measured the neutron spin dependent reflectivity from four LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. Our results indicate the upper limit for the magnetization averaged over the lateral dimensions of the sample induced by an 11 T magnetic field at 1.7 K is less than 2 G. SQUID magnetometry of the neutron superlattice samples sporadically finds an enhanced moment (consistent with past reports), possibly due to experimental artifacts. These observations set important restrictions on theories which imply a strongly enhanced magnetism at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Work performed in collaboration with N.W. Hengartner, S. Singh, M. Zhernenkov (LANL), F.Y. Bruno, J. Santamaria (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), A. Brinkman, M.J.A. Huijben, H. Molegraaf (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology), J. de la Venta and Ivan K. Schuller (UCSD). [4pt] Work supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS and DMR under grant DE FG03-87ER-45332. Work at UCM is supported by Consolider Ingenio CSD2009-00013 (IMAGINE), CAM S2009-MAT 1756 (PHAMA) and work at Twente is supported by the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM).

  20. Mw Systematic Study of Alkaloids: the Distorted Tropane of Scopoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Fernandez, Jose A.; Castano, Fernando; Lesarri, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Tropane alkaloids have diverse pharmacological uses and are well-known for their neurostimulant activity. Previous structure-activity-relationship established correlations between bioactivity and several aspects of ligand conformation and stereochemistry, including delicate intramolecular effects like nitrogen inversion^{a}. We have initiated a series of structural studies on tropane alkaloids^{b}, aimed to discerning their intrinsic stereochemical properties using rotational spectroscopy in supersonic jets^{c}. Here we extend these studies to the epoxytropanes, initially motivated to interrogate the influence of the epoxy group on nitrogen inversion and ring conformation. The rotational spectrum evidences a single structure in the gas phase, providing a first description of the (three ring) structurally-distorted tropane in scopoline. The determined rotational parameters of scopoline reveal the structural consequences of the intramolecular cyclation of scopine, which breaks the original epoxy group and creates a new ether bridge and a 7β-hydroxytropane configuration. The hydroxyl group further stabilizes the molecule by an O-H \\cdots N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which, in turn, forces the N-methyl group to the less stable axial form^{b}. The experimental work was supported by ab initio and DFT calculations. ^{a} i) S.Singh, Chem. Rev. 100, 925 (2000); ii) A. Krunic, D. Pan, W.J. Dunn III, S.V.S. Miariappan, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. 17, 811 (2009). ^{b} E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 6076 (2010). ^{c} E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 12486 (2010).

  1. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of laboratory flames and an industrial flare.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwar Devesh; Gangadharan, Preeti; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Li, Xianchang; Richmond, Peyton

    2014-11-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology for simulating the combustion process has been validated with experimental results. Three different types of experimental setups were used to validate the CFD model. These setups include an industrial-scale flare setups and two lab-scale flames. The CFD study also involved three different fuels: C3H6/CH/Air/N2, C2H4/O2/Ar and CH4/Air. In the first setup, flare efficiency data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) 2010 field tests were used to validate the CFD model. In the second setup, a McKenna burner with flat flames was simulated. Temperature and mass fractions of important species were compared with the experimental data. Finally, results of an experimental study done at Sandia National Laboratories to generate a lifted jet flame were used for the purpose of validation. The reduced 50 species mechanism, LU 1.1, the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model, and the EDC turbulence-chemistry interaction model were usedfor this work. Flare efficiency, axial profiles of temperature, and mass fractions of various intermediate species obtained in the simulation were compared with experimental data and a good agreement between the profiles was clearly observed. In particular the simulation match with the TCEQ 2010 flare tests has been significantly improved (within 5% of the data) compared to the results reported by Singh et al. in 2012. Validation of the speciated flat flame data supports the view that flares can be a primary source offormaldehyde emission. PMID:25509554

  2. Progression of a Fracture Site Impaction as a Prognostic Indicator of Impacted Femoral Neck Fracture Treated with Multiple Pinning

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. Methods There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. Results There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant. PMID:22379557

  3. Protein Expression in Insect and Mammalian Cells Using Baculoviruses in Wave Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kadwell, Sue H; Overton, Laurie K

    2016-01-01

    Many types of disposable bioreactors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells are now available. They differ in design, capacity, and sensor options, with many selections available for either rocking platform, orbitally shaken, pneumatically mixed, or stirred-tank bioreactors lined with an integral disposable bag (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). WAVE Bioreactors™ were among the first disposable systems to be developed (Singh, Cytotechnology 30:149-158, 1999). Since their commercialization in 1999, Wave Bioreactors have become routinely used in many laboratories due to their ease of operation, limited utility requirements, and protein expression levels comparability to traditional stirred-tank bioreactors. Wave Bioreactors are designed to use a presterilized Cellbag™, which is attached to a rocking platform and inflated with filtered air provided by the bioreactor unit. The Cellbag can be filled with medium and cells and maintained at a set temperature. The rocking motion, which is adjusted through angle and rock speed settings, provides mixing of oxygen (and CO2, which is used to control pH in mammalian cell cultures) from the headspace created in the inflated Cellbag with the cell culture medium and cells. This rocking motion can be adjusted to prevent cell shear damage. Dissolved oxygen and pH can be monitored during scale-up, and samples can be easily removed to monitor other parameters. Insect and mammalian cells grow very well in Wave Bioreactors (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). Combining Wave Bioreactor cell growth capabilities with recombinant baculoviruses engineered for insect or mammalian cell expression has proven to be a powerful tool for rapid production of a wide range of proteins.

  4. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and has fit initial spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has completed generation of the artificial data that will be used for model development and testing. In order to generate the artificial data a detailed groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed based upon characteristics of the 317/319 site. The model covers a multi-year time horizon that includes both before and after planting of the trees. As described in the proposal, the artificial data is created by adding ''measurement'' error to the ''true'' value from the numerical model. To date, only simple white noise error models have been considered. He is now reviewing the literature and beginning to develop a hierarchical modeling approach for the artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, is implementing learning models for learning users preferences in an interactive genetic algorithm for solving the inverse problem. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has been improving the user interface for the interactive genetic algorithm and preparing a long-term monitoring design problem for testing the approach. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected substantial data from the 317/319 phytoremediation site at Argonne and has begun learning approaches for modeling these data.

  5. On the orthogonalised reverse path method for nonlinear system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, P.; Sims, N. D.; Worden, K.

    2012-09-01

    The problem of obtaining the underlying linear dynamic compliance matrix in the presence of nonlinearities in a general multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system can be solved using the conditioned reverse path (CRP) method introduced by Richards and Singh (1998 Journal of Sound and Vibration, 213(4): pp. 673-708). The CRP method also provides a means of identifying the coefficients of any nonlinear terms which can be specified a priori in the candidate equations of motion. Although the CRP has proved extremely useful in the context of nonlinear system identification, it has a number of small issues associated with it. One of these issues is the fact that the nonlinear coefficients are actually returned in the form of spectra which need to be averaged over frequency in order to generate parameter estimates. The parameter spectra are typically polluted by artefacts from the identification of the underlying linear system which manifest themselves at the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies. A further problem is associated with the fact that the parameter estimates are extracted in a recursive fashion which leads to an accumulation of errors. The first minor objective of this paper is to suggest ways to alleviate these problems without major modification to the algorithm. The results are demonstrated on numerically-simulated responses from MDOF systems. In the second part of the paper, a more radical suggestion is made, to replace the conditioned spectral analysis (which is the basis of the CRP method) with an alternative time domain decorrelation method. The suggested approach - the orthogonalised reverse path (ORP) method - is illustrated here using data from simulated single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and MDOF systems.

  6. Impact of treatment of gastrointestinal nemathelminths on body weight of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepesh; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal nemathelminths affect productive as well as reproductive performance of a wide range of ruminants. To assess the impact of anthelmintic treatment on gain in body weight (b. wt.) of sheep and goat, a study was conducted using two different flocks of sheep and goats each maintained in semi intensive system. Infected animals in both the flocks were divided into three groups each. Group I and II in each flock were treated with levamisole (@7.5 mg/kg b. wt. subcutaneously) and fenbendazole (@5 mg/kg b. wt. orally), respectively. Animals of group III were kept as untreated control. Individual b. wt. and faecal egg count were recorded up to 42nd day post treatment. Results showed 100 % reduction in faecal egg count of sheep on day 7 after treatment with levamisole and on day 10 after treatment with fenbendazole. In goats, the reduction in faecal egg count was 82.60 % after treatment with levamisole and 78.87 % after treatment with fenbendazole on day 14 post treatment. The study also revealed mean increase of 29.57 and 22.67 % in b. wt. of sheep treated with levamisole and fenbendazole respectively 42nd day post treatment whereas mean b. wt. of infected untreated control groups decreased by 7.14 %. Similarly, there was an increase of 10.71 and 14.47 % in mean b. wt. of goats 42nd day post treatment with levamisole and fenbendazole, respectively whereas mean b. wt. of untreated control group decreased by 15.38 %. More weight gain was recorded in sheep as compare to goats after treatment as compared to the untreated control group, which may be due to some drug resistance in goat and required clarification by further studies in these ecological zones of Udham Singh Nagar. PMID:27605787

  7. Induction of CaSR expression circumvents the molecular features of malignant CaSR null colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2013-11-15

    We recently reported on the isolation and characterization of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) null human colon cancer cells (Singh et al., Int J Cancer 2013; 132: 1996-2005). CaSR null cells possess a myriad of molecular features that are linked to a highly malignant and drug resistant phenotype of colon cancer. The CaSR null phenotype can be maintained in defined human embryonic stem cell culture medium. We now show that the CaSR null cells can be induced to differentiate in conventional culture medium, regained the expression of CaSR with a concurrent reversal of the cellular and molecular features associated with the null phenotype. These features include cellular morphology, expression of colon cancer stem cell markers, expression of survivin and thymidylate synthase and sensitivity to fluorouracil. Other features include the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition linked molecules and transcription factors, oncogenic miRNAs and tumor suppressive molecule and miRNA. With the exception of cancer stem cell markers, the reversal of molecular features, upon the induction of CaSR expression, is directly linked to the expression and function of CaSR because blocking CaSR induction by shRNA circumvented such reversal. We further report that methylation and demethylation of the CaSR gene promoter underlie CaSR expression. Due to the malignant nature of the CaSR null cells, inclusion of the CaSR null phenotype in disease management may improve on the mortality of this disease. Because CaSR is a robust promoter of differentiation and mediates its action through diverse mechanisms and pathways, inactivation of CaSR may serve as a new paradigm in colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Low cost and manufacturable complete microTAS for detecting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Mirer, Paul; Chatterjee, Anirban; Klapperich, Catherine M; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated lab-on-a-chip and associated instrument for the detection of bacteria from liquid samples. The system conducts bacterial lysis, nucleic acid isolation and concentration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and end-point fluorescent detection. To enable truly low-cost manufacture of the single-use disposable chip, we designed the plastic chip in a planar format without any active components to be amenable to injection molding and utilized a novel porous polymer monolith (PPM) embedded with silica that has been shown to lyse bacteria and isolate the nucleic acids from clinical samples (M. D. Kulinski, M. Mahalanabis, S. Gillers, J. Y. Zhang, S. Singh and C. M. Klapperich, Biomed. Microdevices, 2009, 11, 671-678).(1) The chip is made of Zeonex(R), a thermoplastic with a high melting temperature to allow PCR, good UV transmissibility for UV-curing of the PPM, and low auto-fluorescence for fluorescence detection of the amplicon. We have built a prototype instrument to automate control of the fluids, temperature cycling, and optical detection with the capability of accommodating various chip designs. To enable fluid control without including valves or pumps on the chip, we utilized a remote valve switching technique. To allow fluid flow rate changes on the valveless chip, we incorporated speed changing fluid reservoirs. The PCR thermal cycling was achieved with a ceramic heater and air cooling, while end-point fluorescence detection was accomplished with an optical spectrometer; all integrated in the instrument. The chip seamlessly and automatically is mated to the instrument through an interface block that presses against the chip. The interface block aligns and ensures good contact of the chip to the temperature controlled region and the optics. The integrated functionality of the chip was demonstrated using Bacillus subtilis as a model bacterial target. A Taqman assay was employed on-chip to detect the isolated bacterial DNA

  9. Geometric figure–ground cues override standard depth from accretion-deletion

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıkulu, Ömer Dağlar; Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Accretion-deletion is widely considered a decisive cue to surface depth ordering, with the accreting or deleting surface interpreted as behind an adjoining surface. However, Froyen, Feldman, and Singh (2013) have shown that when accretion-deletion occurs on both sides of a contour, accreting-deleting regions can also be perceived as in front and as self-occluding due to rotation in three dimensions. In this study we ask whether geometric figure–ground cues can override the traditional “depth from accretion-deletion” interpretation even when accretion-deletion takes place only on one side of a contour. We used two tasks: a relative-depth task (front/back), and a motion-classification task (translation/rotation). We conducted two experiments, in which texture in only one set of alternating regions was moving; the other set was static. Contrary to the traditional interpretation of accretion-deletion, the moving convex and symmetric regions were perceived as figural and rotating in three dimensions in roughly half of the trials. In the second experiment, giving different motion directions to the moving regions (thereby weakening motion-based grouping) further weakened the traditional accretion-deletion interpretation. Our results show that the standard “depth from accretion-deletion” interpretation is overridden by static geometric cues to figure–ground. Overall, the results demonstrate a rich interaction between accretion-deletion, figure–ground, and structure from motion that is not captured by existing models of depth from motion. PMID:26982528

  10. The effects of drying on physical properties of bilimbi slices (Averrhoa bilimbi l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Nursabrina, M.; Suhairah, A. Zai

    2015-05-01

    Physical appearance analyses of fruits are used to maintain food quality throughout and at the end of processing. However, control variables have to be designed to obtained the desired food quality. In the present study, the effects of pretreatment and drying air temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the drying kinetics of belimbi slices were investigated using a hot-air dryer. In order to investigate and select the appropriate drying model, seven experiment based mathematical drying models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE and RMSE), a Logarithmic model was found to be the best model to describe the drying behaviour of belimbi slices at 40°C for control; The Page/modified Page model was the best model to describe drying behaviour at 40°C, 60°C pre-treatment and 50°C for the control and the Wang and Singh model fitted well for 50°C pre-treatment and 60°C for the control. Comparison between experiment based mathematical modelling with a single phase mathematical model shows that close agreement was produced. The qualities of belimbi slices in terms of colour, texture and shrinkage with different air temperature and pre-treatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lighter colour but greater product shrinkage, whilst pre-treatment can reduce product shrinkage and drying time and can also give good texture properties. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important to improve mass and heat transfer as well as the product characteristics such as colour, shrinkage and texture.

  11. Report of the IAU Working Group on Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-08-01

    The Working Group on Solar Eclipses coordinates scientists and information in the study of the Sun and the heliosphere at solar eclipses. Our Website at http://eclipses.info has a wide variety of information, including links to maps and other websites dealing with solar eclipses, as well as information on how to observe the partial-phases of solar eclipses safely and why it is interesting for not only scientists but also for the public to observe eclipses and to see how we work to uncover the mysteries of the sun's upper atmosphere. In the last triennium, there were total eclipses in Australia and the Pacific in 2012; in an arc across Africa from Gabon to Uganda and Kenya in 2013; and in the Arctic, including Svalbard and the Faeroes plus many airplanes aloft, in 2015. In the coming triennium, there will be total solar eclipses in Indonesia and the Pacific in 2016 and then, on 21 August 2017, a total solar eclipse that will sweep across the Continental United States from northwest to southeast. Mapping websites, all linked to http://eclipses.info, include Fred Espenak's http://EclipseWise.com; Michael Zeiler's http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com and http://eclipse-maps.com; Xavier Jubier's http://xjubier.free.fr; and (with weather and cloudiness analysis) Jay Anderson's http://eclipser.ca. Members of the Working Group, chaired by Jay Pasachoff (U.S.), include Iraida Kim (Russia), Kiroki Kurokawa (Japan), Jagdev Singh (India), Vojtech Rusin (Slovakia), Zhongquan Qu (China), Fred Espenak (U.S.), Jay Anderson (Canada), Glenn Schneider (U.S.), Michael Gill (U.K.), Xavier Jubier (France), Michael Zeiler (U.S.), and Bill Kramer (U.S.).

  12. The influence of electron-phonon coupling and spin fluctuations on the superconductivity of the Ti-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, Md.; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Chattopadhyay, Maulindu Kumar; Roy, Sindhunil Barman

    2014-06-01

    We report a study of the normal and superconducting state properties of the Ti x V1- x alloys for x = 0.4, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 with the help of dc magnetization, electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements along with the electronic structure calculation. The superconducting transition temperature T c of these alloys is higher than that of elemental Ti and is also higher than elemental V for x ≤ 0.7. The roles of electron density of states, electron-phonon coupling and spin fluctuations in the normal and superconducting state properties of these alloys have been investigated in detail. The experimentally observed value of T c is found to be considerably lower than that estimated on the basis of electron density of states and electron-phonon coupling in the x = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 alloys. There is some evidence as well for the preformed Cooper pair in all these Ti-V alloys in the temperature regime well above T c . Similar to x = 0.6 [Md. Matin, L.S. Sharath Chandra, R.K. Meena, M.K. Chattopadhyay, A.K. Sinha, M.N. Singh, S.B. Roy, Physica B 436, 20 (2014)], the normal state properties of the x = 0.4 alloy showed the signature of the presence of spin fluctuations. The difference between the experimentally observed T c and that estimated by considering electron density of states and electron-phonon coupling in the x = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.7 alloys is attributed to the possible influence of these spin fluctuations. We show that the non-monotonous variation of T c as a function of x in the Ti x V1- x alloys is due to the combined effects of the electron-phonon coupling and the spin fluctuations.

  13. Conformational preferences of a few enkephalin unsaturated analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagona, G.; Ciuffo, G. M.; Ghio, C.

    1994-07-01

    The conformational behavior of enkephalin analogs containing α-β unsaturated residues was studied employing a recent modification (G. Alagona, C. Ghio and C. Pratesi, J. Comput. Chem., 12 (1991) 934) of an existing force field for nucleic acids and proteins (S.J. Weiner, P.A. Kollman, D.A. Case, U. Chandra Singh, C. Ghio, G. Alagona, S. Profeta, Jr., and P. Weiner, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106 (1984) 765) with molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the structures obtained, the rationale proposed for the morphine-like activity of enkephalins (i.e. the presence of β-turn of type II', considered important for the binding to opiate receptors) was checked and confirmed on the basis of topological features associated with a compact positioning of the aromatic side chains, tyrosine and phenylalanine or dehydrophenylalanine. The molecular electrostatic potential in the plane perpendicular to the α-β double bond may account only in part for the enhanced potency often observed in unsaturated compounds, and attributed to the intrinsic reactivity of the double bond toward nucleophilic sites on the opiate receptor or to a stronger binding to receptors. In the presence of the solvent, described as a continuous dielectric medium, most of the least stable conformations in vacuo are greatly stabilized, thus becoming even more favored than the gas-phase minimum-energy structures. Interestingly enough, the solvent stabilization is noticeable not only for the extended conformers, as expected, but also for several β-turn structures of type II'.

  14. Half-metallic superconducting triplet spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Alidoust, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study a finite-size S F1N F2 spin valve, where a normal metal (N ) insert separates a thin standard ferromagnet (F1) and a thick half-metallic ferromagnet (F2). For sufficiently thin superconductor (S ) widths close to the coherence length ξ0, we find that changes to the relative magnetization orientations in the ferromagnets can result in substantial variations in the transition temperature Tc, consistent with experimental results [Singh et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 021019 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.021019]. Our results demonstrate that, in good agreement with the experiment, the variations are largest in the case where F2 is in a half-metallic phase and thus supports only one spin direction. To pinpoint the origins of this strong spin-valve effect, both the equal-spin f1 and opposite-spin f0 triplet correlations are calculated using a self-consistent microscopic technique. We find that when the magnetization in F1 is tilted slightly out of plane, the f1 component can be the dominant triplet component in the superconductor. The coupling between the two ferromagnets is discussed in terms of the underlying spin currents present in the system. We go further and show that the zero-energy peaks of the local density of states probed on the S side of the valve can be another signature of the presence of superconducting triplet correlations. Our findings reveal that for sufficiently thin S layers, the zero-energy peak at the S side can be larger than its counterpart in the F2 side.

  15. Computing a Synthetic Chronic Psychosocial Stress Measurement in Multiple Datasets and its Application in the Replication of G × E Interactions of the EBF1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abanish; Babyak, Michael A; Brummett, Beverly H; Jiang, Rong; Watkins, Lana L; Barefoot, John C; Kraus, William E; Shah, Svati H; Siegler, Ilene C; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Williams, Redford B

    2015-09-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress adversely affects health and is associated with the development of disease [Williams, 2008]. Systematic epidemiological and genetic studies are needed to uncover genetic variants that interact with stress to modify metabolic responses across the life cycle that are the proximal contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease and precipitation of acute clinical events. Among the central challenges in the field are to perform and replicate gene-by-environment (G × E) studies. The challenge of measurement of individual experience of psychosocial stress is magnified in this context. Although many research datasets exist that contain genotyping and disease-related data, measures of psychosocial stress are often either absent or vary substantially across studies. In this paper, we provide an algorithm to create a synthetic measure of chronic psychosocial stress across multiple datasets, applying a consistent criterion that uses proxy indicators of stress components. We validated the computed scores of chronic psychosocial stress by observing moderately strong and significant correlations with the self-rated chronic psychosocial stress in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort (Rho = 0.23, P < 0.0001) and with the measures of depressive symptoms in five datasets (Rho = 0.15-0.42, Ps = 0.005 to <0.0001) and by comparing the distributions of the self-rated and computed measures. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this computed chronic psychosocial stress variable by providing three additional replications of our previous finding of gene-by-stress interaction with central obesity traits [Singh et al., 2015].

  16. Theoretical assessment on mixing properties of liquid Tl-Na alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, I. S.; Khadka, R.; Koirala, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Adhikari, D.

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of mixing of molten Tl-Na alloys at 673 K have been investigated using quasi-chemical model. To understand the mixing behaviour in more detail, emphasis is placed on the role of interaction energy term, and viscosity and surface tension of the alloys have also been analysed under statistical considerations. Our study shows negative deviation from the Raoultian behaviour in the properties of Tl-Na alloy thereby indicating hetero-coordination in the Tl-Na melt at 673 K in the full range of concentration. Theoretically, computed thermodynamic data at 673 K agree very well with the corresponding experimental data. The viscosities of the alloys computed from Kaptay equation show small negative deviation and those computed from Singh and Sommer's formulation show small positive deviation from ideal values while the Budai-Benko-Kaptay equation predicts noticeable negative deviation in Na-rich end and positive deviation in Tl-rich end of the composition. The calculations of surface tension reveal that results obtained from layered structure approach and compound formation model are in good agreement in the Na-rich side and in reasonable agreement in Tl-rich side of the composition, while those computed from Butler equation show noticeable deviations in the intermediate compositions. Both the viscosity and surface tension of liquid Tl-Na alloys increase with addition of Tl-component, viscosity having approximately linear variation with concentration. The study shows that there is non-linear variation in surface composition with bulk concentration and for most of the compositions the surface of the alloy is enriched with Na-atoms which segregate to the surface.

  17. On the relationship between gas and dust in 15 comets: an application to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 target of the NASA EPOXI mission of opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; Sanzovo, D. Trevisan; de Almeida, A. A.

    After the success of Deep Impact mission to hit the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with an impactor, the concerns are turned now to the possible reutilization of this dormant flyby spacecraft in the study of another comet, for only about 10% of the cost of the original mission. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on UT 2010 October 11 is the most attractive target in terms of available fuel at rendezvous and arrival time at the comet. In addition, the comet has a low inclination so that major orbital plane changes in the spacecraft trajectory are unnecessary. In an effort to provide information concerning the planning of this new NASA EPOXI space mission of opportunity, we use in this work, visual magnitudes measurements available from International Comet Quarterly (ICQ) to obtain, applying the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes - SEMVM (de Almeida, Singh, & Huebner 1997), the water production rates (in molecules/s) related to its perihelion passage of 1997. When associated to the water vaporization theory of Delsemme (1982), these rates allowed the acquisition of the minimum dimension for the effective nuclear radius of the comet. The water production rates were then converted into gas production rates (in g/s) so that, with the help of the strong correlation between gas and dust found for 12 periodic comets and 3 non-period comets (Trevisan Sanzovo 2006), we obtained the dust loss rates (in g/s), its behavior with the heliocentric distance and the dust-to-gas ratios in this physically attractive rendezvous target-comet to Deep Impact spacecraft at a closest approach of 700 km.

  18. Origin of Meyer-Neldel type compensation behavior in organic semiconductors at large carrier concentrations: Disorder versus thermodynamic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishchuk, I. I.; Kadashchuk, A.; Mityashin, A.; Gavrilyuk, M. M.; Köhler, A.; Bässler, H.; Genoe, J.; Sitter, H.; Sariciftci, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have extended an effective medium approximation theory [Fishchuk, Kadashchuk, Genoe, Ullah, Sitter, Singh, Sariciftci, and Bässler, Phys. Rev. B 81, 045202 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.045202] to investigate how polaron formation affects the Meyer-Neldel (MN) compensation behavior observed for temperature-dependent charge-carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors at large carrier concentrations, as realized in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We show that the compensation behavior in organic semiconductor thin films can be consistently described for both nonpolaronic and polaronic hopping transport in the framework of the disorder formalism using either Miller-Abrahams or polaron Marcus rates, respectively, provided that the polaron binding energy is small compared to the width of the density of states (DOS) distribution in the system. We argue that alternative models based on thermodynamic reasoning, like the multiexcitation entropy (MEE) model, which assumes charge transport dominated by polarons with multiphonon processes and ignores the energy disorder, are inherently not applicable to describe adequately the charge-carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors. We have suggested and realized a test experiment based on measurements of the compensation behavior for the temperature-dependent conductivity and mobility in OFET devices to check the applicability of these models. We point out that the MN behavior observed in thin-film OFETs has nothing to do with the genuine MN rule predicted by the MEE approach, but rather it is an apparent effect arising as a consequence of the functional dependence of the partial filling of the DOS in a disordered system with hopping transport. This fact is fully supported by experimental results. The apparent MN energy was found to depend also on the shape of the DOS distribution and polaron binding energy.

  19. Influence of the presence of ethanol on the homogeneous freezing of ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, S.; Focsa, C.; Ziskind, M.; Chazallon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. It has been recently demonstrated that water uptake of aerosols, heterogeneous chemical reactions in aerosol particles, as well as ice nucleation and ice crystal growth can be significantly impeded or even completely inhibited in organic-enriched aqueous solutions at upper tropospheric temperatures with implications for cirrus cloud formation and upper tropospheric relative humidity [1]. However, the presence of oxygenated volatile organic compounds such as alcohols, ketones and carboxylic acids in the upper troposphere is also well established [2]. These soluble species are likely scavenged by supercooled droplets contained in polluted air masses. When ice particles are then forming, soluble species contained in those particles that freeze may be retained in the bulk of these new ice crystals until they evaporate in the upper troposphere [3]. In this study, we perform laboratory work to examine and characterize the influence of the presence of a VOC, ethanol, on the homogeneous freezing of ice particles. Supercooled micro-droplets (in the micrometer size range) produced in emulsion are characterized by optical microscopy and micro-Raman analysis. It is found that the first solid that nucleates during the cooling of micro-droplets of ethanol aqueous solutions of concentrations (0 to 2.62 mol %) is ice whereas it is an ethanol hydrate for concentrations in the range (5.30 to 20 mol %). These experimental results imply some deviation from the behaviour of homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions predicted by the water-activity-based nucleation theory. [1] Zobrist et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5221 (2008) [2] Singh et al. Nature, 410, 1078 (2001) [3] Kerbrat et al. J. Phys. Chem., 111, 925 (2007)

  20. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-14

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); and ibid. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  1. Nrf2 reduces allergic asthma in mice through enhanced airway epithelial cytoprotective function.

    PubMed

    Sussan, Thomas E; Gajghate, Sachin; Chatterjee, Samit; Mandke, Pooja; McCormick, Sarah; Sudini, Kuladeep; Kumar, Sarvesh; Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Biswal, Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Asthma development and pathogenesis are influenced by the interactions of airway epithelial cells and innate and adaptive immune cells in response to allergens. Oxidative stress is an important mediator of asthmatic phenotypes in these cell types. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is the key regulator of the response to oxidative and environmental stress. We previously demonstrated that Nrf2-deficient mice have heightened susceptibility to asthma, including elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, mucus, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) (Rangasamy T, Guo J, Mitzner WA, Roman J, Singh A, Fryer AD, Yamamoto M, Kensler TW, Tuder RM, Georas SN, Biswal S. J Exp Med 202: 47-59, 2005). Here we dissected the role of Nrf2 in lung epithelial cells and tested whether genetic or pharmacological activation of Nrf2 reduces allergic asthma in mice. Cell-specific activation of Nrf2 in club cells of the airway epithelium significantly reduced allergen-induced AHR, inflammation, mucus, Th2 cytokine secretion, oxidative stress, and airway leakiness and increased airway levels of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin. In isolated airway epithelial cells, Nrf2 enhanced epithelial barrier function and increased localization of zonula occludens-1 to the cell surface. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 by 2-trifluoromethyl-2'-methoxychalone during the allergen challenge was sufficient to reduce allergic inflammation and AHR. New therapeutic options are needed for asthma, and this study demonstrates that activation of Nrf2 in lung epithelial cells is a novel potential therapeutic target to reduce asthma susceptibility.

  2. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis cleaves single strand DNA within the human c-myc promoter in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Verma, Anjali; Saini, Adesh Kumar; Chopra, Puneet; Chakraborti, Pradip K; Singh, Yogendra; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2005-01-01

    The reason for secretion of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NdK), an enzyme involved in maintaining the cellular pool of nucleoside triphosphates in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is intriguing. We recently observed that NdK from M.tuberculosis (mNdK) localizes within nuclei of HeLa and COS-1 cells and also nicks chromosomal DNA in situ (A. K. Saini, K. Maithal, P. Chand, S. Chowdhury, R. Vohra, A. Goyal, G. P. Dubey, P. Chopra, R. Chandra, A. K. Tyagi, Y. Singh and V. Tandon (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 50142-50149). In the current study, using a molecular beacon approach, we demonstrate that the mNdK catalyzes the cleavage of single strand DNA. It displays Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a kcat/K(M) of 9.65 (+/-0.88) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). High affinity (K(d) approximately K(M) of approximately 66 nM) and sequence-specific binding to the sense strand of the nuclease hypersensitive region in the c-myc promoter was observed. This is the first study demonstrating that the cleavage reaction is also enzyme-catalyzed in addition to the enzymatic kinase activity of multifunctional NdK. Using our approach, we demonstrate that GDP competitively inhibits the nuclease activity with a K(I) of approximately 1.9 mM. Recent evidence implicates mNdK as a potent virulence factor in tuberculosis owing to its DNase-like activity. In this context, our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism that could be the basis for assessing in situ DNA damage by secretory mNdK.

  3. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita; Singh, Murari; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor

    2014-11-07

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O–O–O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O–O–O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  4. Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Promotes Bacterial Biofilm Development via Ferrous Iron Acquisition▿†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Wilks, Jessica C.; Danhorn, Thomas; Ramos, Itzel; Croal, Laura; Newman, Dianne K.

    2011-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which render it more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Levels of iron in excess of what is required for planktonic growth have been shown to promote biofilm formation, and therapies that interfere with ferric iron [Fe(III)] uptake combined with antibiotics may help treat P. aeruginosa infections. However, use of these therapies presumes that iron is in the Fe(III) state in the context of infection. Here we report the ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a common phenazine made by all phenazine-producing pseudomonads, to help P. aeruginosa alleviate Fe(III) limitation by reducing Fe(III) to ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. In the presence of PCA, a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the ability to produce the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin can still develop into a biofilm. As has been previously reported (P. K. Singh, M. R. Parsek, E. P. Greenberg, and M. J. Welsh, Nature 417:552-555, 2002), biofilm formation by the wild type is blocked by subinhibitory concentrations of the Fe(III)-binding innate-immunity protein conalbumin, but here we show that this blockage can be rescued by PCA. FeoB, an Fe(II) uptake protein, is required for PCA to enable this rescue. Unlike PCA, the phenazine pyocyanin (PYO) can facilitate biofilm formation via an iron-independent pathway. While siderophore-mediated Fe(III) uptake is undoubtedly important at early stages of infection, these results suggest that at later stages of infection, PCA present in infected tissues may shift the redox equilibrium between Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby making iron more bioavailable. PMID:21602354

  5. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect ELISA for the detection of serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sheep through Bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Mainar-Jaime, R C; Barberán, M

    2007-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracies of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and indirect ELISA test for the detection of serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sheep were evaluated through Bayesian approaches on two populations of sheep created from three different groups of animals (T. gondii-aborted ewes, colostrums-deprived newborn lambs, and ewe-lambs and adult ewes with unknown T. gondii infection status). Tests showed a high degree of agreement (kappa statistic = 0.93; 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 0.98) and a significant specificity (Sp) correlation (gamma(Sp) = 0.26; 95% credibility interval = 0.017, 0.61). When prior information was used for all unknown parameters the posterior medians for the sensitivity (Se) and Sp of the MAT and ELISA were, respectively, 92.6% (95% credibility interval = 85.2, 96.9), 95.5% (89.9, 98.7), 90.5% (83.4, 95.6), and 97.8% (94.2, 99.5). These estimates remained similar when uninformative priors were included. The Se estimates of the MAT and ELISA were higher than those obtained on pigs in other study using the same approach (Se = 80.6% and Sp = 89.5% for the MAT, and Se = 71.5% and Sp = 85.5% for the ELISA [Georgiadis, M.P., Wesley, O.J., Gardner, I.A., Singh, R., 2003. Correlation-adjusted estimation of sensitivity and specificity of two diagnostic tests. Appl. Stat. 52, 63-78]. This finding supported the believe that test performances may vary when applied on different animal species. Thus, if these tests are planned to be used on animal species other than sheep or pigs, their diagnostic accuracy should be re-assessed to prevent biased inferences from their results.

  6. Epigenetic rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Maria; Singh, Prim B

    2012-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided a rational means of obtaining histo-compatible tissues for 'patient-specific' regenerative therapies (Hanna et al. 2010; Yamanaka & Blau 2010). Despite the obvious potential of iPS cell-based therapies, there are certain problems that must be overcome before these therapies can become safe and routine (Ohi et al. 2011; Pera 2011). As an alternative, we have recently explored the possibility of using 'epigenetic rejuvenation', where the specialized functions of an old cell are rejuvenated in the absence of any change in its differentiated state (Singh & Zacouto 2010). The mechanism(s) that underpin 'epigenetic rejuvenation' are unknown and here we discuss model systems, using key epigenetic modifiers, which might shed light on the processes involved. Epigenetic rejuvenation has advantages over iPS cell techniques that are currently being pursued. First, the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that arise through the cycle of dedifferentiation of somatic cells to iPS cells followed by redifferentiation of iPS cells into the desired cell type are avoided (Gore et al. 2011; Hussein et al. 2011; Pera 2011): epigenetic rejuvenation does not require passage through the de-/redifferentiation cycle. Second, because the aim of epigenetic rejuvenation is to ensure that the differentiated cell type retains its specialized function it makes redundant the question of transcriptional memory that is inimical to iPS cell-based therapies (Ohi et al. 2011). Third, to produce unrelated cell types using the iPS technology takes a long time, around three weeks, whereas epigenetic rejuvenation of old cells will take only a matter of days. Epigenetic rejuvenation provides the most safe, rapid and cheap route to successful regenerative medicine. PMID:22487104

  7. Structural basis of clade-specific HIV-1 neutralization by humanized anti-V3 monoclonal antibody KD-247

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Karen A.; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Hachiya, Atsuko; Laughlin, Thomas G.; Chiang, Leslie A.; Pan, Yun; Moran, Jennifer L.; Marchand, Bruno; Singh, Kamalendra; Gallazzi, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas P.; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Toshio; Matsushita, Shuzo; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Humanized monoclonal antibody KD-247 targets the Gly312-Pro313-Gly314-Arg315 arch of the third hypervariable (V3) loop of the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein. It potently neutralizes many HIV-1 clade B isolates, but not of other clades. To understand the molecular basis of this specificity, we solved a high-resolution (1.55 Å) crystal structure of the KD-247 antigen binding fragment and examined the potential interactions with various V3 loop targets. Unlike most antibodies, KD-247 appears to interact with its target primarily through light chain residues. Several of these interactions involve Arg315 of the V3 loop. To evaluate the role of light chain residues in the recognition of the V3 loop, we generated 20 variants of KD-247 single-chain variable fragments with mutations in the antigen-binding site. Purified proteins were assessed for V3 loop binding using AlphaScreen technology and for HIV-1 neutralization. Our data revealed that recognition of the clade-specificity defining residue Arg315 of the V3 loop is based on a network of interactions that involve TyrL32, TyrL92, and AsnL27d that directly interact with Arg315, thus elucidating the molecular interactions of KD-247 with its V3 loop target.—Kirby, K. A., Ong, Y. T., Hachiya, A., Laughlin, T. G., Chiang, L. A., Pan, Y., Moran, J. L., Marchand, B., Singh, K., Gallazzi, F., Quinn, T. P., Yoshimura, K., Murakami, T., Matsushita, S., Sarafianos, S. G. Structural basis of clade-specific HIV-1 neutralization by humanized anti-V3 monoclonal antibody KD-247. PMID:25351987

  8. SU-E-I-43: Pediatric CT Dose and Image Quality Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G; Singh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design an approach to optimize radiation dose and image quality for pediatric CT imaging, and to evaluate expected performance. Methods: A methodology was designed to quantify relative image quality as a function of CT image acquisition parameters. Image contrast and image noise were used to indicate expected conspicuity of objects, and a wide-cone system was used to minimize scan time for motion avoidance. A decision framework was designed to select acquisition parameters as a weighted combination of image quality and dose. Phantom tests were used to acquire images at multiple techniques to demonstrate expected contrast, noise and dose. Anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts were imaged on a 160mm CT system with tube voltage capabilities as low as 70kVp. Previously acquired clinical images were used in conjunction with simulation tools to emulate images at different tube voltages and currents to assess human observer preferences. Results: Examination of image contrast, noise, dose and tube/generator capabilities indicates a clinical task and object-size dependent optimization. Phantom experiments confirm that system modeling can be used to achieve the desired image quality and noise performance. Observer studies indicate that clinical utilization of this optimization requires a modified approach to achieve the desired performance. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential to optimize radiation dose and image quality for pediatric CT imaging. In addition, the methodology can be used in an automated parameter selection feature that can suggest techniques given a limited number of user inputs. G Stevens and R Singh are employees of GE Healthcare.

  9. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  10. Growth, tolerance efficiency and phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis (L.) and Brassica juncea (L.) in salinity and drought affected cadmium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that Ricinus communis (castor) is more tolerant to soil cadmium (Cd) and more efficient for Cd phytoremediation than Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) (Bauddh and Singh, 2012). In the present study, R. communis was found more tolerant to salinity and drought in presence of Cd and removed more Cd in a given time than Indian mustard. R. communis produced 23 and twelve folds higher biomass in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, respectively than that in B. juncea during three months when grown in Cd contaminated soil in presence of 100mM NaCl salinity and ten day water withdrawal based drought at 90 day after sowing (DAS). Castor plants showed stronger self-protection ability in form of proline bioaccumulation (r(2)=0.949) than Indian mustard (r(2)=0.932), whereas a lower r(2) for malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble protein in R. communis (r(2)=0.914 and r(2)=0.915, respectively) than that of B. juncea (r(2)=0.947 and r(2)=0.927, respectively) indicated a greater damage to cell membrane in Indian mustard during the multiple stress conditions. Though, the amount of Cd accumulated in the roots and shoots of Indian mustard was higher as per unit biomass than that in castor, total removal of the metal from soil was much higher in castor on per plant basis in the same period in presence of the stresses. R. communis accumulated about seventeen and 1.5 fold higher Cd in their roots and shoots, respectively than that of B. juncea in 90 DAS under the multiple stresses. Salinity alone enhanced Cd uptake, whereas drought stress reduced its uptake in both the plants. PMID:22959315

  11. Determination of the 3He+α→7Be asymptotic normalization coefficients, the nuclear vertex constants, and their application for the extrapolation of the 3He(α,γ)7Be astrophysical S factors to the solar energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tursunmahatov, Q. I.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2012-04-01

    A new analysis of the modern astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture 3He(α,γ)7Be reaction, precisely measured in recent works [B.S. Nara Singh , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.262503 93, 262503 (2004); D. Bemmerer , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.122502 97, 122502 (2006);F. Confortola , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.065803 75, 065803 (2007), Gy. Gyürky , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.035805 75, 035805 (2007), T. A. D. Brown , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.76.055801 76, 055801 (2007), and A. Di Leva, , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.232502 102, 232502 (2009)], has been carried out within the modified two-body potential approach. New estimates are obtained for the “indirectly determined” values of the asymptotic normalization constants and the respective nuclear vertex constants for 3He+α→7Be(g.s.) and 3He+α→7Be(0.429 MeV) as well as the astrophysical S factors S34(E) at E≤90 keV, including E=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used to obtain the values of the ratio of the α-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror (7Li7Be) pair.

  12. Evaluation of a facile method of template DNA preparation for PCR-based detection and typing of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Ramesh, Aiyagari

    2009-08-01

    The objective of our investigation was to develop a convenient and reliable method of generating template DNA for routine PCR-based detection and typing of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Template DNA extracted from Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc using a combination of urea, SDS and NaOH yielded amplicons of expected size in PCR with genus-specific primers. Apart from LAB, the proposed method could also be adopted to generate PCR-compatible template DNA from a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. DNA template prepared by the proposed method from various standard strains of Lactobacillus sp. also generated discriminating fingerprints with BOXA1R primer in rep-PCR. A significant finding of the investigation was that a comparable banding profile of LAB strains was obtained in rep-PCR using template DNA prepared by urea-SDS-NaOH method and a commercially available DNA isolation kit. This was further evidenced by high dice coefficient values obtained in the range of 81.8-96.7 when cluster analysis was performed by UPGAMA method. The application potential of this DNA extraction method for PCR-based direct detection of LAB in fermented food samples such as dahi, idli batter and salt-fermented cucumber was validated by detecting specific amplicons of LAB genera in the fermented samples. The applicability of the proposed template DNA extraction method was further substantiated when 29 bacteriocinogenic LAB strains (Bac+) previously detected in salt-fermented cucumber by PCR [Singh, A.K., Ramesh, A., 2008. Succession of dominant and antagonistic lactic acid bacteria in fermented cucumber: Insights from a PCR-based approach. Food. Microbiol. 25, 278-287] generated differentiating fingerprints in BOX element based rep-PCR and formed clusters with reference LAB strains. PMID:19465247

  13. Human-associated fungi in deep subseafloor sediment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulfer, V. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have reported fungi in marine sediment samples from depths as great as 1740 meters below seafloor (mbsf) (Rédou et al., 2014). Such studies have utilized a variety of techniques to identify fungi, including cultivation of isolates, amplicon sequencing, and metagenomics. Six recent studies of marine sediment collectively identify nearly 100 fungal taxa at the genus and species levels (Damare et al., 2006; Lai et al., 2007; Edgcomb et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2010; Orsi et al., 2013; Rédou et al., 2014). Known marine taxa are rarely identified by these studies. For individual studies with more than two taxa, between 16% and 57% of the fungal taxa are human microflora or associated with human environments (e.g., human skin or indoor air). For example, three of the six studies identified Malassezia species that are common skin inhabitants of humans and dogs. Although human-associated taxa have been identified in both shallow and deep sediment, they pose a particularly acute problem for deep subseafloor samples, where claims of a eukaryotic deep biosphere are most striking; depending on the study, 25% to 38% of species identified in sediment taken at depths greater than 40 meters are human-associated. Only one to three species have been reported from each of the four samples taken at depths greater than one km (eight species total; Rédou et al., 2014). Of these eight species, three are human-associated. This ubiquity of human-associated microflora is very problematic for interpretations of an indigenous deep subseafloor fungal community; either human-associated taxa comprise a large fraction of marine sedimentary fungi, or sample and analytical contamination is so widespread that the extent and ubiquity of a deep subseafloor fungal community remains uncertain. This highlights the need for stringent quality control measures throughout coring, sampling, and recovery of marine sediment, and when cultivating, extracting, and/or sequencing fungi from

  14. Effect of a novel synthesized sulfonamido-based gallate-SZNTC on chondrocytes metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Li, Mu-Yan; Lin, Xiao; Lin, Cui-Wu; Liu, Bu-Ming; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-Min

    2014-09-25

    The ideal therapeutic agent for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) should have not only potent anti-inflammatory effect but also favorable biological properties to restore cartilage function. Gallic acid (GA) and its derivatives are anti-inflammatory agents reported to have an effect on OA (Singh et al., 2003) [1]. However, GA has much weaker antioxidant effects and inferior bioactivity compared with its derivatives. We modified GA with the introduction of sulfonamide to synthesize a novel sulfonamido-based gallate named sodium salt of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-N-[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-benzamide (SZNTC) and analyzed its chondro-protective and pharmacological effects. Comparison of SZNTC with GA and sulfathiazole sodium (ST-Na) was also performed. Results showed that SZNTC could effectively inhibit the Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-mediated induction of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 and could induce the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), which demonstrated ability to reduce the progression of OA. SZNTC can also exert chondro-protective effects by promoting cell proliferation and maintaining the phenotype of articular chondrocytes, as evidenced by improved cell growth, enhanced synthesis of cartilage specific markers such as aggrecan, collagen II and Sox9. Expression of the collagen I gene was effectively down-regulated, revealing the inhibition of chondrocytes dedifferentiation by SZNTC. Hypertrophy that may lead to chondrocyte ossification was also undetectable in SZNTC groups. The recommended dose of SZNTC ranges from 3.91μg/ml to 15.64μg/ml, among which the most profound response was observed with 7.82μg/ml. In contrast, its source products of GA and ST-Na have a weak effect in the bioactivity of chondrocytes, which indicated the significance of this modification. This study revealed SZNTC as a promising novel agent in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions. PMID:25130855

  15. Suppression of superconductivity with Pr substitution in Nd 1- xPr xBaCaCu 3O 7 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Cardoso, Claudio A.; de Lima, O. F.; Singh, Rajvir; Narlikar, A. V.; Yelon, W. B.; Malik, S. K.

    1999-05-01

    The structural, superconducting and magnetic properties of Nd 1- xPr xBaCaCu 3O 7 system with x=0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.35, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 have been investigated. X-ray diffraction results reveal that Pr substitutes isostructurally in NdBaCaCu 3O 7 (Nd:1113) superconductor with complete solubility. The superconducting transition temperature ( Tc), measured by ac susceptibility technique, decreases with increasing x. However, suppression of Tc with increasing Pr substitution is less in Nd:1113 superconductor compared to that reported for Nd 1- xPr xBa 2Cu 3O 7 system. Interestingly, in the fully Pr substituted compounds of the above series, i.e., in PrBaCaCu 3O 7 and PrBa 2Cu 3O 7, the Pr moments order antiferromagnetically with TN of 10 and 17 K, respectively. The present results along those reported earlier [V.P.S. Awana, J. Horvat, S.X. Dou, A. Sedky, A.V. Narlikar, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 182 (1998) L280; V.P.S. Awana, S.X. Dou, S.K. Malik, Rajvir Singh, A.V. Narlikar, D.A. Landinez Tellez, J.M. Ferreira, J. Albino Aguiar, S. Uma, E. Gmelin, W.B. Yelon, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 187 (1998) 192], clearly suggest that there is a correlation between the Tc suppression due to Pr and the magnetic ordering temperature of the fully substituted Pr moments in these systems. The TN may be taken to be a measure of the strength of hybridization between the Pr-4f electrons with Cu-O conduction band, and hence a lower TN may imply a less deleterious effect on superconductivity.

  16. A forum: how big is the population factor?

    PubMed

    Sadik, N; Wattenberg, B J; Daly, H E; Commoner, B; Mchugh, J T; Singh, K

    1990-01-01

    6 protagonists responded to the issue of population growth and its likely ramifications: Nafis Sadik, Ben J. Wattenberg, Herman E. Daily, Barry Commoner, James T. McHugh, and Karan Singh. Sadik stated that at the current rate of growth the world's population could double in 40 years. In 1990 the total reached 5.3 billion with the addition of another 92 million people that year. At this rate the number could reach 6.25 billion by 2000, 8.5 billion by 2025, and 10-11 billion before leveling off around 2085 with 96% of this growth in the developing countries. The African rate of growth of 3-4% cancels out development programs. The present signs of environmental stress include the impairment of the ozone layer, acidification, depletion of rain forests, and erosion. According to Wattenberg the problem is not population, it is culture, what people do that makes the difference. In south Korea, Indonesia, India, China, Brazil, and Mexico there have been major decreased in fertility since the early 1960s. Free market opportunities with family planning offer the solution. Daly opined that affluence was the main environment problem. Poverty induces higher fertility and environmental degradation; the specter of the consumption level of the average Indian rising to the levels of the average Swede looms; thus the consumption of industrial countries must be reduced. Commoner declared that the demographic transition as it had occurred in developed countries explains population growth as a result of improved living conditions and reduced mortality before fertility plummets because of even higher living standards. The economies of developing countries must be strengthened to eliminate poverty whereby they can attain stable populations. Cooperation among nations, enhancement of human life and dignity, and intensified efforts to provide family planning were advocated by the others.

  17. Forecasting discharges at the downstream end of a river reach through two simple Muskingum based procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Marco; Bernini, Anna; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe Muskingum-Cunge model (MC, Cunge, 1969) can be used for real-time forecasting of discharges at the downstream end of a river reach for a predetermined lead time Δ t∗, which is closely connected to the two routing parameters k and x ( Franchini and Lamberti, 1994). Similarly, the Rating Curve Method (RCM, Moramarco and Singh, 2001) can be used for real-time forecasting of discharges at the downstream end of a river reach for an assigned lead time T L, equal to the mean travel time of the flood events in the river reach. In this article two procedures are presented, the first based on use of the MC model alone and the second on a cascade combination of the MC and RCM models. These two procedures enable real-time forecasting of the discharges at one end of a river reach - with or without taking account of lateral inflows - for variable lead times ranging between 1 h and the mean travel time of flood events in that reach, assuming that only the length and the mean slope and width of that reach are known. Each procedure is moreover associated with a suitable method for estimating the confidence band for the forecast which takes into account the heteroscedastic nature of forecasting errors. These two procedures were applied to two consecutive reaches of the Tiber river (Italy), characterised, respectively, by a strong and limited presence of lateral inflows, and to the reach obtained as a sum of the two. The results show the reliability of the two procedures: the first one produces good results for all forecast lead times considered, the second only when the lead times are close to the mean travel time and in such a case, especially when the mean travel time is long (long reach), it provides a forecast of better quality than the other procedure.

  18. On the pre-perihelion temporal activity of comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the favorable apparition of 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, A.; Serrano, G.; Sanzovo, G.; Trevisan Sanzovo, D.

    2014-07-01

    The short-period (5.5 years) comet 9P/Tempel 1 was revisited by NASA's Stardust-NExT probe in 2011 February 15, in a flyby at a distance of only about 181 km. This is the first time a comet is visited twice by two different probes (the first visit in 2005 July 4, by NASA's Deep Impact probe). Tempel 1 is not a bright or very active comet. The brightest apparent magnitude in 25 appearances, since the discovery (1867), has been m=9.5, well below the limit of visibility to the naked eye. Here, we study the temporal activity, based on 495 apparent visual magnitude estimates (ICQ), obtained during the very favorable apparition of 2005 (the comet passed at 0.71 au from the Earth in 2005 May 3) by the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes (SEMVM, de Almeida, Singh&Huebner, 1997). We determine a model dependent activity at the time immediately before the Deep Impact (4 July 2005 at 5:52 UTC) in fairly good agreement with Schleicher et al. (2006), Feaga et al. (2007) and Gicquel et al. (2012) from the Spitzer spacecraft observations, and a day later, at the time of the perihelion passage (5 July 2005 at 5:31 UTC), also in good agreement with Biver et al. (2007) and Farnham et al. (2010), most likely powered by water-ice sublimation. Our results are consistent, for an active area of 10% and a minimum nuclear radius of 2.5 km , with the radio OH observations in 18-cm (Howell et al., 2007; Biver et al., 2007), and the H_2O observations by satellites SWAN (Mäkinen et al., 2007; Bensch et al., 2007) and Odin (Biver et al., 2007), in the pre-perihelion phase.

  19. Identification of Acetylene on Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; McCord, T. B.; Rodriguez, S.; Combe, J. P.; Cornet, T.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Chevrier, V.; Clark, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere is opaque in the near infrared due to gaseous absorptions, mainly by methane, and scattering by aerosols, except in a few "transparency windows" (e.g., Sotin et al., 2005). Thus, the composition of Titan surface remains difficult to access from space and is still poorly constrained, limited to ethane in the polar lakes (Brown et al., 2008) and a few possible organic molecules on the surface (Clark et al., 2010). Photochemical models suggest that most of the organic compounds formed in the atmosphere are heavy enough to condense and build up at the surface in liquid and solid states over geological timescale (Cordier et al., 2009, 2011). Acetylene (C2H2) is one of the most abundant organic molecules in the atmosphere and thus thought to present on the surface as well. Here we report direct evidence of solid C2H2 on Titan's surface using Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data. By comparing VIMS observations and laboratory measurements of solid and liquid C2H2, we identify a specific absorption at 1.55 µm that is widespread over Titan but is particularly strong in the brightest terrains. This surface variability suggests that C2H2 is mobilized by surface processes, such as surface weathering, topography, and dissolution/evaporation. The detection of C2H2 on the surface of Titan opens new paths to understand and constrain Titan's surface activity. Since C2H2 is highly soluble in Titan liquids (Singh et al. 2015), it can easily dissolve in methane/ethane and may play an important role in carving of fluvial channels and existence of karstic lakes at higher latitudes on Titan. These processes imply the existence of a dynamic surface with a continued history of erosion and deposition of C2H2 on Titan.

  20. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid promotes bacterial biofilm development via ferrous iron acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Wilks, Jessica C; Danhorn, Thomas; Ramos, Itzel; Croal, Laura; Newman, Dianne K

    2011-07-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which render it more resistant to antimicrobial agents. Levels of iron in excess of what is required for planktonic growth have been shown to promote biofilm formation, and therapies that interfere with ferric iron [Fe(III)] uptake combined with antibiotics may help treat P. aeruginosa infections. However, use of these therapies presumes that iron is in the Fe(III) state in the context of infection. Here we report the ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a common phenazine made by all phenazine-producing pseudomonads, to help P. aeruginosa alleviate Fe(III) limitation by reducing Fe(III) to ferrous iron [Fe(II)]. In the presence of PCA, a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the ability to produce the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin can still develop into a biofilm. As has been previously reported (P. K. Singh, M. R. Parsek, E. P. Greenberg, and M. J. Welsh, Nature 417:552-555, 2002), biofilm formation by the wild type is blocked by subinhibitory concentrations of the Fe(III)-binding innate-immunity protein conalbumin, but here we show that this blockage can be rescued by PCA. FeoB, an Fe(II) uptake protein, is required for PCA to enable this rescue. Unlike PCA, the phenazine pyocyanin (PYO) can facilitate biofilm formation via an iron-independent pathway. While siderophore-mediated Fe(III) uptake is undoubtedly important at early stages of infection, these results suggest that at later stages of infection, PCA present in infected tissues may shift the redox equilibrium between Fe(III) and Fe(II), thereby making iron more bioavailable. PMID:21602354

  1. Integrated framework for the flux calculation of neutral species inside trenches and holes during plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Kokkoris, George; Boudouvis, Andreas G.; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2006-11-15

    An integrated framework for the neutral flux calculation inside trenches and holes during plasma etching is described, and a comparison between the two types of structure in a number of applications is presented. First, a detailed and functional set of equations for the neutral and ion flux calculations inside long trenches and holes with cylindrical symmetry is explicitly formulated. This set is based on early works [T. S. Cale and G. B. Raupp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1242 (1990); V. K. Singh et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1091 (1992)], and includes new equations for the case of holes with cylindrical symmetry. Second, a method for the solution of the respective numerical task, i.e., one or a set of linear or nonlinear integral equations, is described. This method includes a coupling algorithm with a surface chemistry model and resolves the singularity problem of the integral equations. Third, the fluxes inside trenches and holes are compared. The flux from reemission is the major portion of the local flux at the bottom of both types of structure. The framework is applied in SiO{sub 2} etching by fluorocarbon plasmas to predict the increased intensity of reactive ion etching lag in SiO{sub 2} holes compared to trenches. It is also applied in deep Si etching: By calculating the flux of F atoms at the bottom of very high aspect ratio (up to 150) Si trenches and holes during the gas chopping process, the aspect ratio at which the flux of F atoms is eliminated and etching practically stops is estimated.

  2. Time-Dependent Variational Methods for Strongly Driven Quantum Systems and Their Applications to Optimal Control Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keon-Gee

    The Balian-Veneroni time-dependent variational method (R. Balian and M. Veneroni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1353 and 1765(E) (1981)) is applied to calculate the radial oscillations of an atomic electron after the beta decay of a tritium atom using an L^2-Sturmian function basis. Various Sturmian function matrix elements are evaluated in a compact form. The results from the variational calculations employing 4-, 6-, and 8-basis states are compared with one another and also compared with the result of a conventional expansion calculation using 70 hydrogenic bound eigenstates with the nuclear charge Z = 2 after the beta decay. Numerical instabilities associated with the calculational scheme for the "tracking" control theory proposed by Rabitz and co-workers (P. Gross, H. Singh, H. Rabitz, K. Mease, and G. M. Huang, Phys. Rev. A 47, 4593 (1993)) are illustrated through a simple example of a driven two-state system. Also demonstrated are possible situations both where no finite control field exists and where multiple control fields can exist. After constructing a generalized Bloch vector for a driven N-state system, an effective calculational scheme utilizing the observable dynamics is presented, which is expected to be applicable to any finite-dimensional problem. Finally, an integral equation approach to optimal control theory, which is nonperturbative and hence applicable to strong-field cases, is suggested. It combines the Balian-Veneroni variational equations for the density and target operators, possibly including other operators depending on the Hamiltonian under consideration. By deriving a closed, symmetric expression for the exact kernel of the Fredholm nonlinear integral equation of the second kind, it is guaranteed that a globally optimal control field is obtained at each stage of the iteration in this calculational scheme.

  3. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Singh, Murari; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2014-11-01

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O-O-O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O-O-O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  4. PREFACE: Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    measurement. Advances in such technologies are bringing with them new opportunities in surface and buried interface science. In the not too distant future, we will publish a special issue or a book detailing such progress. Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques contents Lateral uniformity in chemical composition along a buried reaction front in polymers using off-specular reflectivity Kristopher A Lavery, Vivek M Prabhu, Sushil Satija and Wen-li Wu Orientation dependence of Pd growth on Au electrode surfaces M Takahasi, K Tamura, J Mizuki, T Kondo and K Uosaki A grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering analysis on capped Ge nanodots in layer structures Hiroshi Okuda, Masayuki Kato, Keiji Kuno, Shojiro Ochiai, Noritaka Usami, Kazuo Nakajima and Osami Sakata High resolution grazing-incidence in-plane x-ray diffraction for measuring the strain of a Si thin layer Kazuhiko Omote X-ray analysis of mesoporous silica thin films templated by Brij58 surfactant S Fall, M Kulij and A Gibaud Review of the applications of x-ray refraction and the x-ray waveguide phenomenon to estimation of film structures Kouichi Hayashi Epitaxial growth of largely mismatched crystals on H-terminated Si(111) surfaces Hidehito Asaoka Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at 'water-window' wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy H Kumagai, Y Tanaka, M Murata, Y Masuda and T Shinagawa Depth-selective structural analysis of thin films using total-external-reflection x-ray diffraction Tomoaki Kawamura and Hiroo Omi Structures of Yb nanoparticle thin films grown by deposition in He and N2 gas atmospheres: AFM and x-ray reflectivity studies Martin Jerab and Kenji Sakurai Ga and As composition profiles in InP/GaInAs/InP heterostructures—x-ray CTR scattering and cross-sectional STM measurements Yoshikazu Takeda, Masao Tabuchi and Arao Nakamura Polarized neutron reflectivity study of a thermally treated MnIr/CoFe exchange bias system Naoki

  5. Ancient Black Hole Speeds Through Sun's Galactic Neighborhood, Devouring Companion Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    1118+480 orbits the Galaxy's center in a path similar to those of the globular clusters, moving at 145 kilometers per second (90 miles per second) relative to the Earth. How did it get into such an orbit? "There are two possibilities: either it formed in the Galaxy's plane and was somehow kicked out of the plane or it formed in a globular cluster and was kicked out of the cluster," said Vivek Dhawan, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. A massive star ends its life by exploding as a supernova, leaving either a neutron star or a black hole as a remnant. Some neutron stars show rapid motion, thought to result from a sideways "kick" during the supernova explosion. "This black hole has much more mass -- about seven times the mass of our Sun -- than any neutron star," said Dhawan. "To accelerate it to its present speed would require a kick from the supernova that we consider improbable," Dhawan added. "We think it's more likely that it was gravitationally ejected from the globular cluster," Dhawan said. Simulations of the gravitational interactions in globular clusters have shown that the black holes resulting from the collapse of the most massive stars should eventually be ejected from the cluster. "The star that preceded this black hole probably formed in a globular cluster even before our Galaxy's disk was formed," Mirabel said. "What we're doing here is the astronomical equivalent of archaeology, seeing traces of the intense burst of star formation that took place during an early stage of our Galaxy's development." The black hole has consumed so much of its companion star that the inner layers of the smaller star -- only about one-third the mass of the Sun -- now are exposed. The scientists believe the black hole captured the companion before being ejected from the globular cluster, as if it were grabbing a snack for the road. The Very Long Baseline Array "Because this microquasar happened to be relatively close to the

  6. Chikungunya Infection in India: Results of a Prospective Hospital Based Multi-Centric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H.; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, B. S.; Kalaivani, Mani; Wig, Naveet

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIKV) has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. Methods and Findings A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karnataka (South); Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS) Rajasthan (West), and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi (North) from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36%) followed by west (16.28%) and north (0.56%) India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05). Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05). Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM) were detected for more than 60days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15) revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. Conclusions The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate molecular

  7. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  8. Cosmic ray research in India: 1912-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonwar, Suresh C.

    2013-02-01

    The progress of research in cosmic rays in India over the last 100 years is reviewed, starting with the pioneering work of Debendra Mohan Bose and Homi Bhabha. Experimental research in cosmic rays in India received a big push with the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research by Homi Bhabha in Bombay in 1945, the Physical Research Laboratory by Vikram Sarabhai in Ahemedabad in 1947 and the setting up of a cosmic ray research group by Piara Singh Gill at the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh in 1949. Studies on high energy interactions by B.V. Sreekantan and colleagues and on muons and neutrinos deep underground in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon and coworkers were the highlights of the research work in India in 1950's and 60's. In 1970's and 80's, important advances were made in India in several areas, for example, search for proton decay in KGF mines by M.G.K. Menon et al, search for TeV cosmic gamma-ray sources at Ooty and Pachmari by P.V. Ramanamurthy and colleagues, search for PeV cosmic gamma ray sources by S.C. Tonwar et al at Ooty and by M.V.S. Rao and coworkers at KGF. In 1990's, Sreekantan and Tonwar initiated the GRAPES-3 project at Ooty to determine the composition of cosmic ray flux around the 'knee' in the primary energy spectrum at PeV energies using a large muon detector and a compact air shower array. Another major effort to search for TeV gamma-ray sources was initiated by H. Razdan and C.L. Bhat, initially at Gulmarg in Kashmir in the 1980's, leading to successful observations with a stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope at Mount Abu in early 2000. In recent years the Pachmari group and the Mount Abu group have joined together to install a sophisticated system of atmospheric Cherenkov detectors at Hanle in the Ladakh region at an altitude of 4200 m to continue studies on VHE sources of cosmic gammarays.

  9. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR

  10. Structure and Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Target from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,V.; Shi, W.; Almo, S.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; Tyler, P.; Painter, G.; Lenz, D.; Mee, S.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic deadenylation of its substrates to form adenine and 5-methylthioribose or S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH). MTAN is not found in mammals but is involved in bacterial quorum sensing. MTAN gene disruption affects the growth and pathogenicity of bacteria, making it a target for antibiotic design. Kinetic isotope effects and computational studies have established a dissociative S{sub N}1 transition state for Escherichia coli MTAN, and transition state analogues resembling the transition state are powerful inhibitors of the enzyme [Singh, V., Lee, J. L., Nunez, S., Howell, P. L., and Schramm, V. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11647-11659]. The sequence of MTAN from S. pneumoniae is 40% identical to that of E. coli MTAN, but S. pneumoniae MTAN exhibits remarkably distinct kinetic and inhibitory properties. 5'-Methylthio-Immucillin-A (MT-ImmA) is a transition state analogue resembling an early S{sub N}1 transition state. It is a weak inhibitor of S. pneumoniae MTAN with a K{sub i} of 1.0 {mu}M. The X-ray structure of S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA indicates a dimer with the methylthio group in a flexible hydrophobic pocket. Replacing the methyl group with phenyl (PhT-ImmA), tolyl (p-TolT-ImmA), or ethyl (EtT-ImmA) groups increases the affinity to give K{sub i} values of 335, 60, and 40 nM, respectively. DADMe-Immucillins are geometric and electrostatic mimics of a fully dissociated transition state and bind more tightly than Immucillins. MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibits with a K{sub i} value of 24 nM, and replacing the 5'-methyl group with p-Cl-phenyl (p-Cl-PhT-DADMe-ImmA) gave a K{sub i}* value of 0.36 nM. The inhibitory potential of DADMe-Immucillins relative to the Immucillins supports a fully dissociated transition state structure for S. pneumoniae MTAN. Comparison of active site contacts in the X-ray crystal structures of E. coli and S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT

  11. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 168

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass A=168 (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt) have been evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication (V.S. Shirley, Nuclear Data Sheets 71, 261 (1994) (literature cutoff date July 1993)) and subsequent ENSDF file revisions for Tb and Dy (C. Baglin, literature cutoff date of 15 June 1999) and Hf (B. Singh, literature cutoff date of 30 April 2001), and includes literature available by 15 June 2010. Since the above evaluations, the first excited states in 168Pt have been identified (1998Ki20, 2009Go16) and α decay from 172Hg has been observed (2009Sa27, 2004Ke06, 1999Se14). New levels in 168Dy have been excited using the 170Er( 82Se, 84Kr γ) reaction (2010So03). (HI,xn γ) studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of level structure in 168Lu (1999Ka17, 2002Ha33), 168Ta (2008QiZZ), 168Yb (1995Fi01), 168Tm (2007CaZW), 168Hf (2009Ya21), 168Os (2001Jo11, 2009Od02) and, for 168Tm, important information has come also from (d,2n γ) and ( α,n γ) reactions (1995Si20). Revised decay schemes are available following new studies of 168Hf ɛ decay (6.7 min) (1997Ba26), 168Lu ɛ decay (1999Ba65), 168Ta ɛ decay (2007Mc08) and 172Au α decay (2009Ha42). Significant new information for 168Er is available from (p,t) (2006Bu09), (d,p) and (t,d) (1996Ma50), ( γ, γ') (1996Ma18), (136Xe, X γ) (2010Dr02), ( 238U, 238Uγ) (2003Wu07) and (n, nγ) (1998Be20, 1998Be62) reactions, and the availability of γγ coin data (1994Ju02, 1996Gi09) for the (n, γ) E=thermal reaction has resulted in some significant level scheme revisions.

  12. Could a strong alkali deproteinization replace the standard lysis step in alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay (pH>13)?

    PubMed

    Vivek Kumar, P R; Cheriyan, V D; Seshadri, M

    2009-08-01

    The alkaline version of single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay is widely used for evaluating DNA damage at the individual cell level. The standard alkaline method of the comet assay involves deproteinization of cells embedded in agarose gel using a high salt-detergent lysis buffer, followed by denaturation of DNA and electrophoresis using a strong alkali at pH>13 [N.P. Singh, M.T. McCoy, R.R. Tice, E.L. Schneider, A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells, Exp. Cell. Res. 175 (1988) 184-191]. However, a recent report showed that a strong alkali treatment results in simultaneous deproteinization of cells and denaturation of genomic DNA [P. Sestili, C. Martinelli, V. Stocchi, The fast halo assay: an improved method to quantify genomic DNA strand breakage at the single cell-level, Mutat. Res. 607 (2006) 205-214]. This study was carried out to test whether the strong alkali deproteinization of cells could replace the high salt-detergent lysis step used in the standard method of the alkaline comet assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 3 healthy individuals were irradiated with gamma rays at doses varying between 0 and 10 Gy. Following irradiation, the comet assay was performed according to the standard alkaline method (pH>13) and a modified method. In the modified method, agarose embedded cells were treated with a strong alkali (0.3M NaOH, 0.02 M Trizma and 1mM EDTA, pH>13) for 20 min to allow deproteinization of cells and denaturation of DNA. This was followed by electrophoresis using the same alkali solution to obtain comets. DNA damage expressed in terms of comet tail length, percentage of DNA in comet tail and tail moment obtained by the standard alkaline method and the modified method were compared. In both methods, DNA damage showed a good correlation with the dose of gamma ray. The results indicate a satisfactory sensitivity of the modified method in detecting radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral

  13. Melt anomalies and propagating ridge offsets: Insights from the East Pacific Rise and Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Marjanovic, M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Canales, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observations of crustal structure associated with propagating ridge offsets at both the Endeavour and East Pacific Rise (EPR) ISS indicate local crustal thickness anomalies are associated with propagating ridge tips and renew the question of the role of melt anomalies in driving ridge propagation. Seismic and gravity data from the flanks of the Endeavour and adjoining segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge reveal a 10-20 km wide zone of thicker and possibly denser crust on the young crust side of pseudofaults left by former propagating offsets. A sequence of bright ridge-ward dipping sub-Moho seismic reflections underlie the region of thicker crust and are interpreted as frozen magma sills at the base of the crust emplaced behind the propagating ridge tips [Nedimovic et al., 2005]. Crust within the pseudofault zones is denser and the presence of iron-enriched compositions is inferred, with the sub-crust magma sills the presumed source magma bodies for these denser, iron-enriched crustal rocks. Comparisons with the well-studied overlapping spreading center discontinuity at the EPR 9°03’N reveals a similar suite of crustal anomalies. On the flanks of this southward propagating discontinuity, an ~20 km wide band of crust that is both thicker and denser is located behind the V-shaped discordant zone of the OSC [Canales et al., 2002; Toomey and Hooft, 2008]. A broad swath of higher crustal magnetizations encompasses the region of thicker and denser crust as well as the adjoining discordant zone of relict OSC ridge tips and overlap basins [Carbotte and Macdonald, 1992]. At the southern edge of the band of thick crust, Singh et al. [2008] find evidence for a large melt anomaly in the lower crust and anomalously thick crust at the propagating eastern ridge of the OSC. The presence of local melt accumulations inferred from these bands of thicker crust behind propagating ridge offsets at both EPR and Juan de Fuca, presumably contributes to the forces driving ridge

  14. Trajectories of Sleep Complaints From Early Midlife to Old Age: Longitudinal Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E.; Akbaraly, Tasnime; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dauvilliers, Yves; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate trajectories of sleep lost over worry as a function of age, using longitudinal modeling, and compare these trajectories with those for insomnia symptoms. Design and Setting: Data from two prospective, occupational cohorts (the Whitehall II and Finnish Public Sector studies) comprising 84,384 observations from four to eight repeat measurements in 1985-2010. Participants: There were 16,408 men and women age 34-79 yr. Measurements and Results: Age-related trajectories of sleep lost over worry and insomnia symptoms (sleep initiation or maintenance problems, nonrefreshing sleep) were estimated using repeated-measures log-binomial regression analysis and generalized estimating equations. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and time of measurement to minimize confounding by cohort or period effects. The prevalence ratio for insomnia symptoms was higher in older age groups compared with participants age 34-45 yr. In contrast, the age-related trajectory of sleep lost over worry included two phases: a period of high prevalence of sleep complaints at age 34-60 yr followed by a declining trajectory at older ages. Compared with participants age 34-45 yr, prevalence ratios for sleep lost over worry were 0.63 (0.49-0.80) and 0.59 (0.41-0.84) in the Whitehall II study participants ages 61-65 and 71-79 years. Corresponding figures were 0.62 (0.52-0.75) and 0.46 (0.32-0.66) in the Finnish Public Sector study. Conclusion: This study shows a general age-related decrease in sleep lost over worry between late midlife and old age, a pattern strikingly different from the age-related increase in insomnia symptoms. Citation: Salo P; Vahtera J; Ferrie JE; Akbaraly T; Goldberg M; Zins M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Shipley MJ; Singh-Manoux A; Dauvilliers Y; Kivimaki M. Trajectories of sleep complaints from early midlife to old age: longitudinal modeling study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1559-1568. PMID:23115405

  15. Robust multi-objective calibration strategies - possibilities for improving flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauße, T.; Cullmann, J.; Saile, P.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-10-01

    Process-oriented rainfall-runoff models are designed to approximate the complex hydrologic processes within a specific catchment and in particular to simulate the discharge at the catchment outlet. Most of these models exhibit a high degree of complexity and require the determination of various parameters by calibration. Recently, automatic calibration methods became popular in order to identify parameter vectors with high corresponding model performance. The model performance is often assessed by a purpose-oriented objective function. Practical experience suggests that in many situations one single objective function cannot adequately describe the model's ability to represent any aspect of the catchment's behaviour. This is regardless of whether the objective is aggregated of several criteria that measure different (possibly opposite) aspects of the system behaviour. One strategy to circumvent this problem is to define multiple objective functions and to apply a multi-objective optimisation algorithm to identify the set of Pareto optimal or non-dominated solutions. Nonetheless, there is a major disadvantage of automatic calibration procedures that understand the problem of model calibration just as the solution of an optimisation problem: due to the complex-shaped response surface, the estimated solution of the optimisation problem can result in different near-optimum parameter vectors that can lead to a very different performance on the validation data. Bárdossy and Singh (2008) studied this problem for single-objective calibration problems using the example of hydrological models and proposed a geometrical sampling approach called Robust Parameter Estimation (ROPE). This approach applies the concept of data depth in order to overcome the shortcomings of automatic calibration procedures and find a set of robust parameter vectors. Recent studies confirmed the effectivity of this method. However, all ROPE approaches published so far just identify robust model

  16. Maximally anisotropic point Fermi surface system: VO2 films embedded in TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Oxide heterostructures provide an unusually rich canvas for the design of unprecedented electronic states. Here we will discuss multilayer (TiO2)m/(VO2)n nanostructures, namely V^4+:d^1 - Ti^4+:d^0 interfaces, with no polar discontinuity, studied by density functional theory techniques[1]. This system shows a metal-insulator transition with respect to the VO2 layer thickness in our first principles calculations[2]. For n = 1 and 2 VO2 layers, the system is insulating. For 5 and more layers, it is ferromagnetic and half-metallic. For the quantum confined cases of n = 3 and 4 the system is neither insulating nor conducting, instead an unexpected state arises: the Fermi surface is point-like as in graphene, except that extreme anisotropy is present[3]. The electrons (or holes, depending on doping) behave as massless fermions along the zone diagonal in k-space, and as conventional (massive) fermions along the perpendicular direction. Certain characteristics identify this ``semi-Dirac'' phase as resulting from quantum confinement, rather than being an interface phenomenon. This point Fermi surface system differs from graphene not only in its extreme anisotropy, but that it arises in a half-metallic system, so spin degrees of freedom are removed. In this presentation an analysis of the evolution of the electronic structure through this unprecedented insulator-to-metal transition will be provided, and the role of a non-intuitive orbital ordering of the V d^1 ions will be discussed. Also the robustness of the semi-Dirac electronic structure to interfacial disorder and the introduction of spin-orbit coupling in the calculations will be analyzed. [4pt] [1] V. Pardo and W.E. Pickett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 107003 (2009).[0pt] [2] V. Pardo and W.E. Pickett, arXiv:0910.4411.[0pt] [3] S. Banerjee, R.R.P. Singh, V. Pardo and W.E. Pickett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 016402 (2009).

  17. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  18. Application of Ion and Electron Momentum Imaging to Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocke, C. L.

    2000-06-01

    COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) combines fast imaging detectors with a supersonically cooled gas target to allow the charged particles from any ionizing collision, including both recoil ions and electrons, to be collected with extremely high efficiency and with fully measured vector momenta. Since all particles are measured in event mode, the full multi-dimensional momentum space is mapped. We will review several examples of the use of this technique to study two- , three- and four-body final states created in ionizing interactions of photons and charged particles with He and D2 . The momentum spectra of electrons ejected from these targets by slow projectiles reveal the stucture of the molecular orbitals which are promoted into the continuum. Double photoionization of the same targets reveals patterns which can be interpreted in terms of collective coordinates. Two-electron removal from D2 by Xe ^26+ reveals the influence of the projectile field on the dissociation process. A recent application of the technique to ionization by high intensity laser fields will be discussed. Work performed in collaboration with M.A.Abdallah^1, I.Ali^1, Matthias Achler^2, H.Braeuning^2,3, Angela Braeuning-Deminian^2, Achim Czasch^2,3, R.Doerner^2,3, R.DuBois^6, A. Landers^1,5, V.Mergel^2, R.E.Olson^6, T.Osipov^1, M.Prior^3, H.Schmidt-Boecking^2, M.Singh^1, A.Staudte^2,3, T.Weber^2, W.Wolff^4, and H.E.Wolf^4 ^1J.R.Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506; ^2 Institut fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Frankfurt, August-Euler-Str.6,D-60486 Frankfurt, Germany ; ^3Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720; ^4Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Caixa Postal 68.528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ^5Physics Dept., Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008; ^6Physics Dept., Univ. Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 Work supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic

  19. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Methods Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. Results The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health

  20. Fracture mechanics of human cortical bone: The relationship of geometry, microstructure and composition with the fracture of the tibia, femoral shaft and the femoral neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeni, Yener Nail

    influence of bone quality, i.e., mineralization, water content, osteon size, area and number, microdamage and crystallinity differed between different locations, age groups and fracture mode. Fracture toughness was also significantly correlated with clinical parameters such as cortical index and Singh index, significance level being dependent upon bone location, fracture mode and age. Several mechanistic models to predict how bone microstructure influences bone fracture toughness were proposed based on experimental results and available literature.

  1. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    model element will be explored in further detail for this research. Preliminary investigations into a seismotectonic investigation for the province have been undertaken by Singh et al. (2011). Under the framework of this research the following tasks are planned for the KZN coastal region: i) Development of a historical earthquake catalogue ii) Development of a GeoDatabase for Seismotectonic Zonation iii) Development of a Seismotectonic Model and iv) Development of an Earthquake Recurrence Model. The author will present progress made to date towards this research.

  2. Upper Mantle Shear Wave Anisotropy for Stations in Mexico and its Relationship to Subduction at the Middle America Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, S. A.; Valenzuela, R. W.

    2007-05-01

    We have calculated the splitting parameters that describe upper mantle shear wave anisotropy under stations in continental Mexico located over the subducting Cocos Plate. SKS and SKKS arrivals recorded on both the radial and transverse horizontal components were used. The splitting parameters which quantify anisotropy are the delay time (δt) and the fast polarization direction (φ). The anisotropy is calculated using the approach by Silver and Chan [1991]. A time segment containing the SKS arrival is selected from both horizontal components. The space of possible solutions is then searched in one-degree intervals with φ ranging between 0 and 180°. Specifically, the coordinate axes are rotated every 1 degree increment and the autocorrelation and crosscorrelation between the components is calculated. For each value of φ, the solution space is also searched in 0.05 s increments. Next the eigenvalues corresponding to each δt and φ combination are calculated. In the presence of noise, the desired solution will be given by the matrix which is most nearly singular. In order to check our results, we apply a correction in the amount of the measured δt and φ to the original records and then rotate them to make sure that the anisotropy disappears. The shapes and the difference in the arrival times of the fast and slow waves are compared to make sure that the result is robust. As a further check, the polarization of the particle motion for the radial and transverse components before and after correction is plotted. The records used were taken from Mexico's Servicio Sismológico Nacional broadband network [Singh et al., 1997]. The orientation of the fast polarization direction, φ, can be explained by the absolute motion of the North American plate for some of the stations. Most of the stations, however, require a different explanation for the orientation of φ. For example, the orientation of φ for stations Platanillo (PLIG), Yautepec (YAIG), and Popocatépetl (PPIG

  3. Technial Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Chairpersons Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE), Ministry of Defence, Malaysia Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Members Professor Dr Li Jing, Beijing Normal University, China Professor Dr Iyyanki Muralikrishna, Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), India Professor Dr Alias Abdul Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Ismat Mohamed El Hassan, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Professor Dr George Miliaresis, Open University of Cyprus, Cyprus Professor Dr Christine Pohl, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Professor Dr Mahender Kotha, Goa University, India Associate Professor Dr Paolo Gamba, University of Pavia, Italy Associate Professor Dr Behara Seshadri Daya Sagar, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), India Associate Professor Sr Ranjit Singh, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Abdul Nasir Matori, Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP), Malaysia Associate Dr Lucian Dragut, West University of Timişoara, Romania Associate Professor Dr Saied Pirasteh, Islamic Azad University, Iran Associate Professor Dr Peter Yuen, Cranfield University, United Kingdom Associate Professor Dr Lim Hwee San, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Wayan Suparta, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Tuong Thuy Vu, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Maged Mahmoud Marghany, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Rami Al-Ruzouq, University of Sharjah, UAE Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia

  4. Influences of Forest Tree Species and Early Spring Temperature on Surface-Atmosphere Transfers of Water and Carbon in the Northeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, J. L.; Kuzeja, P.; Mulcahy, T.; Singh, S.

    2008-12-01

    Influences of Forest Tree Species and Early Spring Temperature on Surface-Atmosphere Transfers of Water and Carbon in the Northeastern U.S. Julian Hadley, Paul Kuzeja, Safina Singh and Thomas Mulcahy Transfers of water vapor from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere affect regional hydrology, weather and climate over short time scales, and forest-atmosphere CO2 exchange affects global climate over long timescales. To better understand these effects for forests dominated by two very different tree species, we measured forest-atmosphere water vapor and CO2 transfers by the eddy flux technique to at two sites in central Massachusetts USA for three years. Average annual evapotranspiration (ET) for a young deciduous forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L., the most abundant tree species in the area), was about 430 mm or 25 percent greater than for a coniferous forest dominated by 100 to 230 year old eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.). The difference in ET was most pronounced in July and August when the deciduous forest lost about 50 percent more water by ET in the average year (192 mm for oak forest versus 130 mm for hemlock). These data indicate that if deciduous trees with similar physiology to red oak replace hemlocks, summertime ET will increase while summer streamflow, soil water content and the extent of year- round wetlands will decrease. Increased summertime ET should also lead to slightly higher regional atmospheric humidity and precipitation. Hemlock-to-deciduous forest conversion has occurred from North Carolina to southern New England and is continuing northward as a lethal insect pest, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) continues to kill hemlocks. Average annual carbon storage for the old hemlock forest in our study was about 3.3 Mg C/ha, nearly equal to the average for the deciduous forest, 3.5 Mg C/ha. This calls into question ecological theory that predicts large declines in the rate of carbon uptake for old forests, and

  5. Comparison between the Analgesic Effect of two Techniques on the Level of Pain Perception During venipuncture in Children up to 7 Years of Age: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek Vardhan; Kaur, Amanlo; Singla, Ruku; Chitkara, Neha; Bajaj, Krushnan V.; Rawat, H.C.L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Distraction techniques are often provided by nurses, parents or child life specialists and help in pain alleviation during procedures. The use of non pharmacological procedures to cope with pain behaviour is less costly and most of these procedures can be administered by a nurse. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess and compare the analgesic effect of holding the child by a family member versus holding the child by a family member along with an animation distraction intervention on the level of pain perception during venipuncture in children up to seven years of age. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling technique was used to select 70 children admitted in paediatric ward of Guru Gobind Singh Medical Hospital, Faridkot, 35 children in each group viz. Group 1(child held by family member during venipuncture) and Group 2 (child held by family member along with an animation distraction during venipuncture) and video clippings were made for each subject in both groups. Standardized FLACC pain scale was used to assess the level of pain during venipuncture by seeing the video clips of procedure in both groups. Results: Findings revealed that the mean pain score of Group 1 was 3.86 and that of Group 2 was 2.43. Findings revealed that in Group 1 majority 31(88.57%) got severe pain and none remained relaxed during venipuncture whereas in Group 2 majority 10(28.58%) got moderate pain, 09(25.71%) remained relaxed and only 07(20%) got severe pain. The comparison of mean pain score of both groups was checked statistically by computing independent t-test and the value of t comes out to be 7.199 with p-value 0.000*** which was found to be highly significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that when during painful procedures like venipuncture if children are given any non-pharmacological intervention like animated distraction along with their family member it helps in managing the pain. In other words, it distracts/diverts the child’s attention from

  6. THE USE OF NARRATIVES IN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION: An example of the use of comic strips (narratives) in communicating scientific information about sustainable development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete, Aquiles

    2015-04-01

    It is quite reasonable to claim that narratives can include, explain and recreate science and that this means of science communication is generally popular. This idea seems to be supported by the fact that many contemporary authors who include science as a theme in their work receive a good reception among the public (at least in Britain). Novels like Fermat's Last Theorem by Simon Singh, Longitude by Dava Sobel and Neuromancer by William Gibson stayed on the best seller lists for weeks. Plays like Copenhagen by Michael Frayn, Arcadia by Tom Stoppard, Oxigen by Carl Djerassi and Ronald Hoffmann, Diary of a steak by Deborah Levy as well as Blue heart by Caryl Churchill enjoyed complete sell-outs in London and other cities in Britain. The explanation for this popularity seems to be that narratives are amusing, attractive, and interesting. Therefore, we can maintain that they are popular. But are they also a long-lasting way of transmitting knowledge? Do people remember scientific information conveyed by this means better than they remember the traditional formats like paradigmatic textbooks? These are questions that need to be addressed. To understand how narratives organize, represent and convey information, it is an important task to evaluate the advantages that this media offers for the communication of science. Narratives include several characteristics that make them memorable, understandable, enjoyable and a good way to present and communicate knowledge. Some of these attributes are achieved through narrative structures, including literary devices. In this research I discuss how the general public is familiar with the narrative structure of a story, how schemas for these narrative structures allow identification, induce emotions and promote understanding - important elements for the learning and memory process. I also look at how individually the narrative resources (or literary devices), in addition to their aesthetic value, can also work as mnemonic

  7. The Eemian climate simulated by two models of different complexities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, Irina; Yin, Qiuzhen; Berger, Andre; Singh, Umesh; Karami, Pasha

    2013-04-01

    Australia. Tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) annual cycle, modeled by CCSM3, suggests a minor shift towards an El Nino. However, the SST variability in our LOVECLIM simulations is particularly small due to the overestimated thermocline's depth. The simulated large-scale climate change during the Eemian compares reasonably well with proxy data, giving credit to both models and climate reconstructions. Acknowledgments This work and I. Nikolova, U. K. Singh and M. P. Karami are supported by the European Research Council Advanced Grant EMIS (No 227348 of the Program 'Ideas'). Q. Z. Yin is supported by the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (F. R. S. -FNRS). N. Herold is thanked for the simulations with CCSM3. Access to computer facilities was made easier through sponsorship from S. A. Electrabel, Belgium. Keywords: CCSM3, LOVECLIM, MIS-5, surface temperature, monsoon, vegetation, ENSO

  8. Imaging Lithospheric Structure beneath the Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S.; Montagner, J. P.; Mangalampally, R. K.; Stutzmann, E.; Burgos, G.; Kumar, P.; Davuluri, S.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric structure and thickness to the LAB are the most debated issues, especially beneath continents. In this context, the structure and thickness of the Indian lithosphere has been controversial. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the Indian continent moved northwards at exceptionally high speeds (18-20 cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5 cm/year after its collision with Asia ≈40 Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (≈100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from 65 Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, recent results of P and S wave travel time tomography of India suggest that the lithospheric roots are not uniformly thick on a regional scale. Although high velocity roots typical of Precambrian shields are preserved beneath a few cratons of the Indian shield, they seem to have suffered attrition, in the plume ravaged regions like the NDVP and the Southern SGT (Singh et al., 2014). We assembled a new massive surface wave database towards obtaining 3D isotropic and anisotropic models for the Indian sub-continent, using surface waves. This necessitated processing of data from more than 500 seismic broadband stations across India and surrounding regions. Surface waves group and phase dispersion measurements are performed in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our phase velocity anomaly maps recover most of the known geological structures. The cratons are associated with high velocity (4-6%) anomalies till 200 sec, with the WDC being faster than the EDC. Slow velocities in NW India and very high velocity anomalies (6-8%) beneath the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains are possibly associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. The LAB depths inferred from

  9. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shrikant; Trikamji, Bhavesh; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Parampreet; Nair, Rajasekharan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN). Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of

  10. The Comet Assay and its applications in the field of ecotoxicology: a mature tool that continues to expand its perspectives

    PubMed Central

    de Lapuente, Joaquín; Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia A.; Borràs, Miquel; Martins, Marta G.; Costa, Pedro M.; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers

  11. Sedimentary Facies and their possible significance in Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction: Example of Baraila Tal, Central Ganga Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Pavani; Sinha, Rajiv; Tandon, Sampat Kumar

    2016-04-01

    and clay facies are subdivided into 21 sub-facies. One of the trenches has been studied for its clay mineralogy, TOC and grain size distribution, using XRD, Rock Eval pyrolysis and the wet sieving method, respectively. High resolution chronology will be based on AMS C-14 dates. These data will then be assessed for their utility as proxy-indicators of past climate. Reference: Sharma S., Joachimski M., Sharma M., Tobschall H.J., Singh I.B., Sharma C., Chauhan M.S., Morgenroth G., 2004. Lateglacial and Holocene environmental changes in Ganga plain, Northern India. Quaternary Science Review, 23: 145-159

  12. Study of Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling Using Whistler Data (P51)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, L.

    2006-11-01

    singh_shubha@yahoo.co.in singhshubhadhu@gmail.com The VLF waves observed at the ground stations are used for probing the ionosphere/magnetosphere parameters. The probing principle depends on the analysis of dispersion produced in the whistler mode waves during their propagation from the source to the observation point. Dispersion depends on the distribution of plasma particles and ambient magnetic field along the path of propagation. Specifically, we derive the information about the equatorial electron density, total electron content in a flux tube, equatorial east-west electric field, transport of electron flux from one region to the other, electron temperature etc. The transport of flux and electric fields are essentially involved in the study of coupling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In the present paper, we shall report the analysis of whistler data recorded at Varanasi and Jammu. The analysis shows that the analyzed whistlers from both the stations belong to mid-high latitudes contrary to the belief that they were low latitude phenomena. Further, there is no correspondence between the dispersion and derived L-value for the path of propagation. This leads to the requirement of detailed study of VLF wave propagation in the inhomogeneous ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The electron density and the total electron content in a flux tube derived from whistler measurements at Varanasi and Jammu are approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the previously reported data from the whistler measurements at mid- high latitudes. However, their variation with L-value has the same nature. The time development of the content of flux is evaluated which could easily explain the reported flux transport during the study of coupling of ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We have also evaluated electric field, which compares well with the previously reported value. These results clearly indicate that the VLF wave propagation at low latitude and their diagnostic

  13. Mitochondrial function and redox control in the aging eye: Role of MsrA and other repair systems in cataract and macular degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Lisa A.; Kantorow, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs when the level of prooxidants exceeds the level of antioxidants in cells resulting in oxidation of cellular components and consequent loss of cellular function. Oxidative stress is implicated in wide range of age related disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease and the aging process itself (Lin and Beal, 2006). In the anterior segment of the eye, oxidative stress has been linked to lens cataract (Truscott, 2005) and glaucoma (Tezel, 2006) while in the posterior segment of the eye oxidative stress has been associated with macular degeneration (Hollyfield et al., 2008). Key to many oxidative stress conditions are alterations in the efficiency of mitochondrial respiration resulting in superoxide (O2-) production. Superoxide production precedes subsequent reactions that form potentially more dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) species such as the hydroxyl radical (˙OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite (OONO-). The major source of ROS in the mitochondria, and in the cell overall, is leakage of electrons from complexes I and III of the electron transport chain. It is estimated that 0.2-2% of oxygen taken up by cells is converted to ROS, through mitochondrial superoxide generation, by the mitochondria (Hansford et al., 1997). Generation of superoxide at complex I and III has been shown to occur at both the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane and the cytosolic side of the membrane (Kakkar and Singh 2007). While exogenous sources of ROS such as UV light, visible light, ionizing radiation, chemotherapeutics, and environmental toxins may contribute to the oxidative milieu, mitochondria are perhaps the most significant contribution to ROS production affecting the aging process. In addition to producing ROS, mitochondria are also a target for ROS which in turn reduces mitochondrial efficiency and leads to the generation of more ROS in a vicious self

  14. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  15. Climate change effects on Glacier recession in Himalayas using Multitemporal SAR data and Automatic Weather Station observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Singh, S. K.; Venkataraman, G.

    2009-04-01

    Hahadur, The Himalayas: A Third Polar Region, Snow and Glacier Hydrology (Proceedings of the Kathmandu Symposium, November 1992). IAHSPubl.no. 218,1993. 2.A. Paul, Mayewski and Peter, Jeschke A., Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan Glacier Fluctuations Since AD 1812, Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 267-287 1979) 3.Tazio Strozzi, Adrian Luckman, Tavi Murray, Urs Wegmüller, and Charles L. Werner, IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 40, NO. 11, November 2002 4.Vijay Kumar, Y.S.Rao, Gulab Singh G.Venkataraman, Snehmani , "Spaceborne InSAR technique for study of Himalayan glaciers using ENVISAT ASAR and ERS data", Proc. IGARSS 2008, July 6-11, 2008 Bostan, USA,2008.

  16. The Comet Assay and its applications in the field of ecotoxicology: a mature tool that continues to expand its perspectives.

    PubMed

    de Lapuente, Joaquín; Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia A; Borràs, Miquel; Martins, Marta G; Costa, Pedro M; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers

  17. Laser Spectroscopic Study of CaH in the B^2σ^+ and D^2σ^+ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Uchida, Kanako; Kobayashi, Kaori; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Moriwaki, Yoshiki

    2015-06-01

    Calcium hydride is one of the abundant molecules in the stellar environment, and is considered as a probe of stellar analysis. Ab initio calculations have shown that the electronic excited states of CaH have complex potential curves. It is suggested that the B^2σ^+ state has an interesting double minimum potential due to the avoided crossing. Such a potential leads to drastic change of the rotational constants when the vibrational energy level goes across the potential barrier. Spectroscopic studies on CaH began in the 1920's, and many studies have been carried out since then. Bell et al. extensively assigned the D^2σ^+-X^2σ^+ bands in the UV region. Bernath's group has observed transitions in the IR and visible regions and identified their upper states as the A^2σ^+, B^2σ^+ and E^2σ^+ states. We have carried out a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) study in the UV region between 360 and 430 nm. We have produced CaH by using laser ablation of a calcium target in a hydrogen gas environment, then molecules have been excited by a second harmonic pulse of dye laser and the fluorescence from molecules have been detected through a monochromator. Detection of the D^2σ^+-X^2σ^+ bands already identified by Bell et al. indicates the production of CaH. In addition, many other bands have been also found and a few bands have been assigned by using the combination differences, the lower state of these bands have been confirmed to the vibrational ground state of X^2σ^+ state. We have tentatively assigned these bands as the B^2σ^+ -X^2σ^+ transition. We will discuss the assignment of these bands, together with the rotational constants comparing with those calculated from the ab initio potential. B. Barbuy, R. P. Schiavon, J. Gregorio-Hetem, P. D. Singh C. Batalha , Astron. Astrophys. Sippl. Ser. 101, 409 (1993). P. F. Weck and P. C .Stabcil, J. Chem. Phys. {118}, 9997 (2003). R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. {25}, 509 (1925). G. D. Bell, M, Herman, J. W. C. Johns, and E. R

  18. Analysis of magnitude and duration of floods and droughts in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshetu Debele, Sisay; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Strupczewski, Witold

    2016-04-01

    Research and scientific information are key elements of any decision-making process. There is also a strong need for tools to describe and compare in a concise way the regime of hydrological extreme events in the context of presumed climate change. To meet these demands, two complementary methods for estimating high and low-flow frequency characteristics are proposed. Both methods deal with duration and magnitude of extreme events. The first one "flow-duration-frequency" (known as QdF) has already been applied successfully to low-flow analysis, flood flows and rainfall intensity. The second one called "duration-flow-frequency" (DqF) was proposed by Strupczewski et al. in 2010 to flood frequency analysis. The two methods differ in the treatment of flow and duration. In the QdF method the duration (d-consecutive days) is a chosen fixed value and the frequency analysis concerns the annual or seasonal series of mean value of flows exceeded (in the case of floods) or non-exceeded (in the case of droughts) within d-day period. In the second method, DqF, the flows are treated as fixed thresholds and the duration of flows exceeding (floods) and non-exceeding (droughts) these thresholds are a subject of frequency analysis. The comparison of characteristics of floods and droughts in reference period and under future climate conditions for catchments studied within the CHIHE project is presented and a simple way to show the results to non-professionals and decision-makers is proposed. The work was undertaken within the project "Climate Change Impacts on Hydrological Extremes (CHIHE)", which is supported by the Norway-Poland Grants Program administered by the Norwegian Research Council. The observed time series were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland. Strupczewski, W. G., Kochanek, K., Markiewicz, I., Bogdanowicz, E., Weglarczyk, S., & Singh V. P. (2010). On the Tails of Distributions of Annual Peak Flow. Hydrology Research, 42, 171

  19. Shamanism as a healing paradigm for complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Money, M

    2001-08-01

    Any healing process--whether recovery from infection, physical trauma, or psychological distress--must entail the stimulation and direction of the body's own restorative functions. In former times these functions were called the vis mediatrix naturae. Arguably best articulated within traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Reid 1993), many complementary therapies have identified this principle. The immune system is implicated in the operation of these healing processes, and immune system functions are modulated by both internal and external variables. External variables include the nature of the infection or trauma. Internal variables include the meaning of the illness to the patient or the patient's imagery surrounding the illness. It follows that any modulation of internal variables that increases immune function will therefore be highly beneficial in the healing process. Sometimes such modulation happens spontaneously, when it may be referred to as the placebo effect, or a good bedside manner, or spontaneous remission. Sometimes such modulation may be brought about intentionally either by the patient or by a therapist or healer. One body of technique for such modulation is shamanism, which pays particular attention to bridging the internal world of the patient to the external world where the problem originates. Shamanic practice is specifically focused on this healing task, and has its own toolkit of techniques for the modification of consciousness, the manipulation of imagery and meaning, and the generation of a healing milieu and therapeutic images from its mythic content. Early concerns about the mental health of shamanic practitioners are now thoroughly resolved (e.g. Stephen & Suryani 2000). Indeed, the relevance of shamanism to positive mental health is currently being explored (e.g. Money 1994, Singh 1999). Its relevance to social work (Voss et al. 1999) and to the near death experience (Green 1998) are also subjects of academic inquiry. The shamanic corpus

  20. c-Myc quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 induces extensive damage in both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of DNA.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Ashraful; Thomas, Shelia D; Murty, Vundavalli V; Sedoris, Kara J; Miller, Donald M

    2014-03-21

    Quadruplex-forming DNA sequences are present throughout the eukaryotic genome, including in telomeric DNA. We have shown that the c-Myc promoter quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 selectively kills transformed cells (Sedoris, K. C., Thomas, S. D., Clarkson, C. R., Muench, D., Islam, A., Singh, R., and Miller, D. M. (2012) Genomic c-Myc quadruplex DNA selectively kills leukemia. Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 66-76). In this study, we show that Pu-27 induces profound DNA damage, resulting in striking chromosomal abnormalities in the form of chromatid or chromosomal breaks, radial formation, and telomeric DNA loss, which induces γ-H2AX in U937 cells. Pu-27 down-regulates telomeric shelterin proteins, DNA damage response mediators (RAD17 and RAD50), double-stranded break repair molecule 53BP1, G2 checkpoint regulators (CHK1 and CHK2), and anti-apoptosis gene survivin. Interestingly, there are no changes of DNA repair molecules H2AX, BRCA1, and the telomere maintenance gene, hTERT. ΔB-U937, where U937 cells stably transfected with deleted basic domain of TRF2 is partially sensitive to Pu-27 but exhibits no changes in expression of shelterin proteins. However, there is an up-regulation of CHK1, CHK2, H2AX, BRCA1, and survivin. Telomere dysfunction-induced foci assay revealed co-association of TRF1with γ-H2AX in ATM deficient cells, which are differentially sensitive to Pu-27 than ATM proficient cells. Alt (alternating lengthening of telomere) cells are relatively resistant to Pu-27, but there are no significant changes of telomerase activity in both Alt and non-Alt cells. Lastly, we show that this Pu-27-mediated sensitivity is p53-independent. The data therefore support two conclusions. First, Pu-27 induces DNA damage within both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of the genome. Second, Pu-27-mediated telomeric damage is due, at least in part, to compromise of the telomeric shelterin protein complex.

  1. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  2. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwon, Kim; Li, Lu; Taehyun, Nam; Jouhyeon, Ahn

    2010-05-01

    The 3rd International Symposium on Functional Materials 2009 (ISFM 2009) and its preconference, Advances in Functional Materials 2009 (AFM 2009), were successfully held in the Republic of Korea from 15-18 June 2009 and in the People's Republic of China from 8-12 June 2009, respectively. The two conferences attracted over 300 oral and poster presentations from over 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, India, Israel, Korea, The Netherlands, Thailand, the UK and the USA. In the two conferences, eight keynote lectures were delivered by S Miyazaki, S A Akbar, D J Singh, C Suryanarayana, M~Greenblatt, H Zhang, T Sato and J Ding. This topical issue of Physica Scripta contains papers presented at the ISFM 2009 and AFM 2009. Keyan Li from Dalian University, People's Republic of China, presents some empirical formulae to estimate the elastic moduli of rocksalt-, zincblende- and chalcopyrite-structured crystals, on the basis of electronegativities of bonded atoms in the crystallographic frame. Min-Jung Kim from Hanyang University, Korea, reports on the preparation and characterization of carboxyl functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles for oligonucleotide immobilization. F Yan from the National University of Singapore studies the fabrication of Bi(Fe0.5Sc0.5)O3-PbTiO3 (BSF-PT) thin films by pulsed laser deposition, and the enhanced magnetic moment with respect to BiFeO3-PbTiO3. Dong-Gil Lee from Pusan National University, Korea, reports on the sterilization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli using nanofiber TiO2 films prepared by the electrostatic spray method. Sang-Eun Park from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology reports on the study of encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a silica thin layer with a reversible capacity of about 363 mAhg-1. Other researchers report on many other exiting achievements in the fields of ferromagnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, thermoelectric materials, shape memory materials, fuel-cell and

  3. Release of prostaglandins from the isolated frog ventricle and associated changes in endogenous cyclic nucleotide levels.

    PubMed Central

    Flitney, F W; Singh, J

    1980-01-01

    reached: thus, 8-bromo-3'5'-cyclic GMP accelerates the decline in contractility and depresses the steady-state level, whereas dibutyryl 3'5'-cyclic AMP delays the development of hypodynamic depression, and elevates the final twitch tension. The effects of both 3'5' cyclic nucleotide derivatives are dose-dependent. 7. The possible involvement of prostaglandins and 3'5'-cyclic nucleotides as causal agents in the mechanism of hypodynamic depression is discussed. The biochemical basis for the implied antangonistic effects of 3'5'-cyclic AMP and 3'5'-cyclic GMP in regulating ventricular contractility is considered in the following paper (Flitney & Singh, 1980). PMID:6255139

  4. Structure and Variability of Mediterranean Outflow Water Flow Recorded in Contourite Sedimentation in the Gulf of Cadiz and west of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, R. D.; Ducassou, E.; Covelli, V.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Stow, D. A.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    to retain some characteristics of the flow events which formed them. The grain size patterns and other bed characteristics suggest that these silty and sandy contourites provide important information about the both the short-term and long-term history of MOW events. Exp 339 Scientists: Acton, G., Bahr, A., Balestra, B., Flores, J-A., Furota, S., Grunert, P., Hodell, D., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Kim, J. K., Krissek, L., Kuroda, J., Li, B., Llave, E., Lofi, J., Lourens, L., Miller, M., Nanayama, F., Nishida, N., Pereira, H., Richter, C., Roque, C., Sanchez Goñi, M., Sierro, F.J., Singh, A., Sloss, C., Takashimizu, Y., Tzanova, A., Voelker, A., Williams, T., Xuan, C.

  5. Modeling And Economics Of Extreme Subduction Earthquakes: Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Emerson, D.; Perea, N.; Moulinec, C.

    2008-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 and the 19/09/1985, two TSS earthquakes occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero and Michoacan, with Ms 7+ and 8.1. The economical losses for the later were of about 7 billion US dollars. Also, the largest Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, and the 9/10/1995 another similar, Ms 7.4 event occurred in the same region, the later produced economical losses of hundreds of thousands US dollars.The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. Therefore there is a lack of strong ground motions records for extreme TSS earthquakes in Mexico, which as mentioned above, recently had an important economical impact on MC and potentially could have it in G. In this work we obtained samples of broadband synthetics [2,3] expected in MC and G, associated to extreme (plausible) magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes, with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The economical impacts of the proposed extreme TSS earthquake scenarios for MC and G were considered as follows: For MC by using a risk acceptability criteria, the probabilities of exceedance of the maximum seismic responses of their construction stock under the assumed scenarios, and the estimated economical losses observed for the 19/09/1985 earthquake; and for G, by estimating the expected economical losses, based on the seismic vulnerability assessment of their construction stock under the extreme seismic scenario considered. ----------------------- [1] Nishenko S.P. and Singh SK, BSSA 77, 6, 1987 [2] Cabrera E., Chavez M., Madariaga R., Mai M, Frisenda M., Perea N., AGU, Fall Meeting, 2005 [3] Chavez M., Olsen K

  6. Effect of Retirement on Sleep Disturbances: the GAZEL Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Hall, Martica; Sjösten, Noora; Kivimäki, Mika; Salo, Paula; Ferrie, Jane E.; Jokela, Markus; Pentti, Jaana; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2009-01-01

    ; Pentti J; Singh-Manoux A; Goldberg M; Zins M. Effect of retirement on sleep disturbances: the GAZEL prospective cohort study. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1459-1466. PMID:19928385

  7. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 168

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2010-07-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass A=168 (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt) have been evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication (V.S. Shirley, Nuclear Data Sheets 71, 261 (1994) (literature cutoff date July 1993)) and subsequent ENSDF file revisions for Tb and Dy (C. Baglin, literature cutoff date of 15 June 1999) and Hf (B. Singh, literature cutoff date of 30 April 2001), and includes literature available by 15 June 2010. Since the above evaluations, the first excited states in {sup 168}Pt have been identified (1998Ki20, 2009Go16) and {alpha} decay from {sup 172}Hg has been observed (2009Sa27, 2004Ke06, 1999Se14). New levels in {sup 168}Dy have been excited using the {sup 170}Er({sup 82}Se,{sup 84}Kr{gamma}) reaction (2010So03). (HI,xn{gamma}) studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of level structure in {sup 168}Lu (1999Ka17, 2002Ha33), {sup 168}Ta (2008QiZZ), {sup 168}Yb (1995Fi01), {sup 168}Tm (2007CaZW), {sup 168}Hf (2009Ya21), {sup 168}Os (2001Jo11, 2009Od02) and, for {sup 168}Tm, important information has come also from (d,2n{gamma}) and ({alpha},n{gamma}) reactions (1995Si20). Revised decay schemes are available following new studies of {sup 168}Hf {epsilon} decay (6.7 min) (1997Ba26), {sup 168}Lu {epsilon} decay (1999Ba65), {sup 168}Ta {epsilon} decay (2007Mc08) and {sup 172}Au {alpha} decay (2009Ha42). Significant new information for {sup 168}Er is available from (p,t) (2006Bu09), (d,p) and (t,d) (1996Ma50), ({gamma},{gamma}') (1996Ma18), (136Xe, X{gamma}) (2010Dr02), ({sup 238}U,{sup 238}U{sup '{gamma}}) (2003Wu07) and (n,n{sup '{gamma}}) (1998Be20, 1998Be62) reactions, and the availability of {gamma}{gamma} coin data (1994Ju02, 1996Gi09) for the (n,{gamma}) E=thermal reaction has resulted in some significant level scheme revisions.

  8. Trinitrophenyl-ATP blocks colonic Cl- channels in planar phospholipid bilayers. Evidence for two nucleotide binding sites

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    reported blocker (Singh, A. K., G. B. Afink, C. J. Venglarik, R. Wang, and R. J. Bridges. 1991. American Journal of Physiology. 260 [Cell Physiology. 30]:C51-C63). Thus, TNP-ATP should be useful in future studies of ion channel nucleotide binding sites and possibly in preliminary steps of ion channel protein purification. In addition, we have obtained good evidence that there are at least two nucleotide binding sites located on opposite sides of the colonic Cl- channel and that occupancy of either site produces a blocked state. PMID:8389396

  9. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    geographical conditions, especially on hydrographical and hydrological ones, which determine their variability and distribution. The objects of research have been chosen to be the two largest coastal lakes in the Polish section of the southern Baltic shore, i.e. Łebsko and Gardno. References: Ataie-Ashtiani, B., Volkerand, R.E., Lockington, D.A. (1999) Tidal effects on sea water intrusion in unconfined aquifers, Journal of Hydrology, 216 (1-2), 17-31. Cieśliński R., Drwal J. (2005) Quasi - estuary processes and consequences for human activity, South Baltic, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 62, 477 - 485. De Louw, P., Oude Essink, G. (2001) Salinisation of the northern coastel area of the netherlands due to land subsidence and sea level rise. In: Vijay P. Singh (eds), Coastal Environment and Water Quality (ed. by Y. Jun Xu & V. P. Singh), 424 - 434. Water Resources Publications. Demirel, Z. (2004) The history and evaluation of saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer in Mersin, Turkey, Journal of Environmental Management, 70 (3), 275-282. Drwal, J., Cieśliński, R. (2007) Coastal lakes and marine intrusions on the southern Baltic coast, Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, XXXVI (2), 61 - 75. Grassi, S., Netti, R. (2000) Sea water intrusion and mercury pollution of some coastal aquifers in the province of Grosseto (Southern Tuscany — Italy), Journal of Hydrology, 237 (3-4), 198-211. Hsing-Juh, L., Xiao-Xun, D., Kwang-Tsao, S., Huei-Meei, S., Wen-Tseng, L., Hwey-Lian, H., Lee-Shing, F., Jia-Jang, H. (2006) Trophic structure and functioning in a eutrophic and poorly flushed lagoon in southwestern Taiwan, Marine environmental research, 62 (1), 61-82. Ishitobi, Y., Kamiya, H., Yokoyama, K., Kumagai, M., Okuda, S. (1999) Physical Conditions of Saline Water Intrusion into a Coastal Lagoon, Lake Shinji, Japanese Journal of Limnology, 4, 439-452. Uncles, R. J. , Stephens, J. A., Smith, R. E. (2002) The dependence of estuarine turbidity on tidal intrusion length

  10. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  11. A prototype of radar-drone system for measuring the surface flow velocity at river sites and discharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moramarco, Tommaso; Alimenti, Federico; Zucco, Graziano; Barbetta, Silvia; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Mezzanotte, Paolo; Rosselli, Luca; Orecchini, Giulia; Virili, Marco; Valigi, Paolo; Ciarfuglia, Thomas; Pagnottelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    , altimeter, camera) and artificial intelligence. Finally it has more than 0.3 kg payload that can be used for further instruments. With respect to the conventional approach, that uses radar sensors on fixed locations, the system prototype composed of drone and Doppler radar is more flexible and would allow carrying out velocity measurements obtaining the whole transverse surface velocity profile during high flow and for inaccessible river sites as well. This information represents the boundary condition of the entropy model (Moramarco et al. 2004) able to turn the surface velocity in discharge, known the geometry of the river site. Nowadays the prototype is being implemented and the Doppler radar sensor is tested in a static way, i.e. the flow velocity accuracy is determined in real-case situations by comparing the sensor output with that of conventional instruments. The first flying test is planned shortly in some river sites of Tiber River in central Italy and based on the surface velocity survey the capability of the radar-drone prototype will be tested and the benefit in discharge assessment by using the entropy model will be verified. Alimenti, F., Placentino, F., Battistini, A., Tasselli, G., Bernardini, W., Mezzanotte, P., Rascio, D., Palazzari, V., Leone, S., Scarponi, A., Porzi, N., Comez, M. and Roselli, L. (2007). "A Low-Cost 24GHz Doppler Radar Sensor for Traffic Monitoring Implemented in Standard Discrete-Component Technology". Proceedings of the 2007 European Radar Conference (EuRAD 2007), pp. 162-165, Munich, Germany, 10-12 October 2007 Chiu, C. L. (1987). "Entropy and probability concepts in hydraulics". J. Hydr. Engrg., ASCE, 113(5), 583-600. Moramarco, T., Saltalippi, C., Singh, V.P.(2004). "Estimation of mean velocity in natural channels based on Chiu's velocity distribution equation", Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 9 (1), pp. 42-50

  12. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Isoguchi, 2005. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. JGR-Bio-geo. VOL. 111, G01010, doi:10.1029/2005JG000050, 2006. Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045; Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, TV Dien. MA Lee, 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 268: 31-41; Tang, DanLing, H ZHAO, B. Satyanarayana, GM ZHENG, RP. SINGH, JH LV, 2009, Enhancement of Chlorophyll-a in the Northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian Tsunami, Int. J. Remote Sensing doi10.1080/01431160802603778 , Vol.30 (17):4553-4565; Zhao, H., DanLing Tang, and Y. Wang, 2008, Comparison of phyto-plankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China SeaMar Ecol Prog Ser, 365, 57-65; Zheng, GM. and DanLing Tang ,2007Off-shore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 333, 61-72; H Zhao, DanLing TANG, DX Wang, 2009, Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River Estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri, Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans. 114, C12027; YQ Chen, DanLing Tang, 2010, Cold eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms induced by tropical cyclone Linfa in the South China Sea. In preparation; XX Yang, DanLing Tang, 2010, Sea Surface Temperature Decreasing in the Northern South China Sea Induced by Typhoon. In preparation.

  13. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    collider and neutrino factory - summary of working group 2 / J. Galambos, R. Garoby and S. Geer -- Prospects for a very high power CW SRF linac / R. A. Rimmer -- Indian accelerator program for ADS applications / V. C. Sahni and P. Singh -- Ion accelerator activities at VECC (particularly, operating at low temperature) / R. K. Bhandari -- Chinese efforts in high intensity proton accelerators / S. Fu, J. Wang and S. Fang -- ADSR activity in the UK / R. J. Barlow -- ADS development in Japan / K. Kikuchi -- Project-X, SRF, and very large power stations / C. M. Ankenbrandt, R. P. Johnson and M. Popovic -- Power production and ADS / R. Raja -- Experimental neutron source facility based on accelerator driven system / Y. Gohar -- Transmutation mission / W. S. Yang -- Safety performance and issues / J. E. Cahalan -- Spallation target design for accelerator-driven systems / Y. Gohar -- Design considerations for accelerator transmutation of waste system / W. S. Yang -- Japan ADS program / T. Sasa -- Overview of members states' and IAEA activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) / A. Stanculescu -- Linac for ADS applications - accelerator technologies / R. W. Garnett and R. L. Sheffield -- SRF linacs and accelerator driven sub-critical systems - summary working groups 3 & 4 / J. Delayen -- Production of Actinium-225 via high energy proton induced spallation of Thorium-232 / J. Harvey ... [et al.] -- Search for the electric dipole moment of Radium-225 / R. J. Holt, Z.-T. Lu and R. Mueller -- SRF linac and material science and medicine - summary of working group 5 / J. Nolen, E. Pitcher and H. Kirk.

  14. Global Lithospheric Apparent Susceptibility Distribution Converted from Geomagnetic Models by CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Magnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinsong; Chen, Chao; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Yongdong; Liang, Qing

    2016-04-01

    magnetic measurements and obtained global lithospheric apparent susceptibility distribution models. Finally, we compared these deduced models with previous results in the literature and some other geophysical, geodetic and geologic datum. Both tests and applications suggest, indeed, that the improved AS85 method can be adopted as a fast and effective interpretation tool of global induced large-scale magnetic anomaly field models in form of spherical harmonics. Arkani-Hamed, J. & Srangway, D.W., 1985. Lateral variations of apparent magnetic susceptibility of lithosphere deduced from Magsat data, J. Geophys. Res., 90(B3), 2655-2664. Gubbins, D., Ivers, D., Masterton, S.M. & Winch, D.E., 2011. Analysis of lithospheric magnetization in vector spherical harmonics, Geophys. J. Int., 187(1), 99-117. Hemant, K. & Maus, S., 2005. Geological modeling of the new CHAMP magnetic anomaly maps using a geographical information system technique, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B12103, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003837. Masterton, S.M., Gubbins, D., Müller, R.D. & Singh, K.H., 2013. Forward modeling of oceanic lithospheric magnetization, Geophys. J. Int., 192(3), 951-962. Nolte, H.J. & Siebert, M., 1987. An analytical approach to the magnetic field of the Earth's crust, J. Geophys., 61, 69-76. This study is supported by State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth's Dynamics (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) (SKLGED2015-5-5-EZ), Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (2015CFB361), International Cooperation Project in Science and Technology of China (2010DFA24580), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M572217 and 2014T70753), Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory (Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan) (SMIL-2015-06) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574070, 41104048 and 41504065).

  15. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  16. Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

    2010-05-01

    The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power

  17. Committee for International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan Bin

    2012-09-01

    Scientific Advisory Committee: 1) Prof. Dr. Ahmad Kamal Ariffin (UKM) 2) Prof. Dr. Hj. Rosli Abu Bakar (UMP) 3) Prof. Dr. Hanafi Ismail (USM) 4) Prof. Ir. Dr. Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor (MoHE) 5) Prof. Dr. Zahari Taha (UMP) 6) Prof. Dr. Masjuki Haji Hassan 7) Prof. Ir. Dr. Ramesh Singh (UNITEN) 8) Prof. Dr. Razali Ayob (UTEM) 9) Prof. Dr. Wan Khairuddin (UTM) 10) Prof. Dr. Sulaiman Hj. Hasan (UTHM) 11) Prof. Dr. Zuraidah Mohd. Zain (UniMAP) 12) Prof. Dr. Horizon Gitano (USM) 13) Prof. Dr. K.V Sharma (UMP) 14) Prof. Dr. Shahrani Anuar (UMP) 15) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abd Rashid Abd. Aziz (UTP) 16) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aidy Ali (UPM) 17) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Saidur Rahman (UM) 18) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Md Abdul Maleque (UIA) Organizing Committee Chairman: Prof. Dr. Hj. Rosli Abu Bakar Co-Chair: Prof. Dr. Zahari Taha Co-Chair: Prof. Ir. Dr. Jailani Salihon Secretary: Dr. Rizalman Mamat Committee on Keynote Speaker 1) Kumaran Kadirgama (Chair) 2) Prof. Dr. K.V. Sharma 3) Haji Amirruddin Abdul Kadir 4) Miminorazeansuhaila Loman 5) Mohd Akramin Mohd Romlay Technical Committee (Peer Review & Proceedings) 1) Dr. Abdul Adam Abdullah (Chair) 2) Dr. Ahmad Razlan Yusoff 3) Mohd Yusof Taib 4) Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman 5) Dr. Hjh. Yusnita Rahayu 6) Dr. Gigih Priyandoko 7) Dr. Agung Sudrajad 8) Muhammad Hatifi Mansor 9) Mohd Fadzil Abdul Rahim Technical Committee (Panels & Session Chairs) 1) Dr. Mahadzir Ishak (Chair) 2) Prof. Dr. Shahrani Anuar 3) Dr. Maisara Mohyeldin Gasim Mohamed 4) Muhammad Ammar Nik Mu'tasim 5) Ahmad Basirul Subha bin Alias Technical Committee (Journal Publication) 1) Dr. Ahmad Razlan bin Yusoff (Chair) 2) Mohd Yusof Taib 3) Dr. Mahadzir Ishak 4) Dr. Abdul Adam Abdullah 5) Hj. Amirruddin Abdul Kadir 6) Hadi Abdul Salaam Bureau of Publicity & Website 1) Dr. Muhamad Arifpin Mansor (Chair) 2) Amir Abdul Razak 3) Idris Mat Sahat 4) Prof. Dr. Hj. Rosli Abu Bakar 5) Muhamad Zuhairi Sulaiman 6) Dr. Sugeng Ariyono 7) Asnul Hadi Ahmad 8) Mohd Tarmizy Che Kar 9) Mohd Padzly Radzi Bureau of

  18. RHUM-RUM investigates La Réunion mantle plume from crust to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.; Barruol, G.

    2012-12-01

    neighboring ridges of the Indian Ocean. There is in particular a long-standing hypothesis, not yet examined seismically, that channelized plume flow beneath the aseismic Rodrigues Ridge could feed the Central Indian Ridge at 1000 km distance. The RHUM-RUM group (www.rhum-rum.net): * IPG Paris & Géosciences Réunion: G. Barruol, J.P. Montagner, E. Stutzmann, F.R. Fontaine, C. Deplus, M. Cannat, G. Roult, J. Dyment, S. Singh, W. Crawford, C. Farnetani, N. Villeneuve, L. Michon. V. Ferrazzini, Y. Capdeville. * Univ. Munich (LMU): K. Sigloch, H. Igel. AWI Bremerhaven: V. Schlindwein. Univ. Frankfurt: G. Rümpker. Univ. Münster: C. Thomas. Univ. Bonn: S. Miller. * Géosciences Montpellier: C. Tiberi, A. Tommasi, D. Arcay, C. Thoraval. * Mauritius Oceanography Institute: D. Bissessur. Univ. Antananarivo: G. Rambolamanana. SEYPEC Seychelles Petroleum: P. Samson, P. Joseph. * Other institutes: A. Davaille, M. Jegen, M. Maia, G. Nolet, D. Sauter, B. Steinberger.

  19. RHUM-RUM investigates La Réunion mantle plume from crust to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, Karin; Barruol, Guilhem

    2013-04-01

    neighboring ridges of the Indian Ocean. There is in particular a long-standing hypothesis, not yet examined seismically, that channelized plume flow beneath the aseismic Rodrigues Ridge could feed the Central Indian Ridge at 1000 km distance. The RHUM-RUM group (www.rhum-rum.net): * IPG Paris & Géosciences Réunion: G. Barruol, J.P. Montagner, E. Stutzmann, F.R. Fontaine, C. Deplus, M. Cannat, G. Roult, J. Dyment, S. Singh, W. Crawford, C. Farnetani, N. Villeneuve, L. Michon. V. Ferrazzini, Y. Capdeville. * Univ. Munich (LMU): K. Sigloch, H. Igel. AWI Bremerhaven: V. Schlindwein. Univ. Frankfurt: G. Rümpker. Univ. Münster: C. Thomas. Univ. Bonn: S. Miller. * Géosciences Montpellier: C. Tiberi, A. Tommasi, D. Arcay, C. Thoraval. * Mauritius Oceanography Institute: D. Bissessur. Univ. Antananarivo: G. Rambolamanana. SEYPEC Seychelles Petroleum: P. Samson, P. Joseph. * Other institutes: A. Davaille, M. Jegen, M. Maia, G. Nolet, D. Sauter, B. Steinberger.

  20. Field measurement of infiltration rate using an oscillating nozzle rainfall simulator in the cold semiarid grassland of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Tanaka, Yukiya; Asano, Maki

    2010-05-01

    infiltration rate under certain rainfall intensity experimental condition, and the maximum spatially averaged infiltration rate for the whole plot attained can be observed when the entire plot is contributing surface runoff (Dunne et al., 1991). We used the mathematical relationships between rainfall intensity and infiltration rate represented by using hyperbolic tangent curve (Tanaka and Tokioka, 2007) to estimate the maximum spatially averaged infiltration rate for the observed steady state infiltration rates. The relationships between surface cover and the calculated maximum spatially averaged infiltration rate for the Mongolian grassland were compared to those in various other regions. The relationships between the surface vegetation cover and the infiltration rate showed approximate correspondence to the different grassy hillslopes. The high consistency in these relationships suggested rather common effects of surface cover on the infiltration rate throughout grass-covered hillslopes in semiarid environments. References: Dunne, T., Zhang, W., Aubry, B.F., 1991. Effects of rainfall, vegetation, and microtopography on infiltration and runoff. Water Resources Research, 27(9), 2271-2285. Hawkins, R.H., 1982. Interpretation of source-area variability in rainfall-runoff relationships. In Rainfall-Runoff Relationships edited by Singh V.P., pp.303-324. Water Resources Publications, Fort Collins, Colorado. Murai, H., Iwasaki, Y., 1975. Studies on function of water and soil conservation based on forest land (1) -Influence of difference in forest condition upon water run-off, infiltration and soil erosion-. Bull. Gov. For. Exp. Sta., 274, 23-84 (in Japanese with English abstract). Tanaka, S., Tokioka, T., 2007. The 62th Annual Proceeding of Japanese Society of Civil Engineers (CD-ROM), 2-003, pp.5-6 (in Japanese).

  1. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to find out accredited social health activists' (ASHA) communication competence and effectiveness while working as leaders with groups in the rural setting. ASHA, as the "first point of contact" for pregnant women in rural areas, plays a significant role in building awareness and disseminating key information at critical times (e.g. antenatal and post-natal period), promotes healthy maternal and newborn care practices and facilitates identification and referral of maternal and newborn complications. ASHA plays critical role of a leader in bridging the gap between health system and community. In the entire process, effective communication competency is the key to her effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts seven items from the farmers communication (FACOM) scale of communication measures developed by Udai Pareek and Y.P Singh. Preliminary editing of the items was done keeping certain points in mind such as the items should not be judgemental, should be acts of behaviour, should be observable and should be simple. This scale was adopted for the study, as it was designed to measure farmers' communication competence and suited the context. The evaluation criteria included the seven essential elements of communication identified in the FACOM scale. Findings - Results from the study identified a need to sensitise ASHAs on the critical role of effective communication and need for investing more in building her capacity for health communication. The trainings being imparted to ASHAs have to be strengthened in terms of communication skills. They should focus upon developing all three variables of communication skills equally and integrating them to get desired results. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted in one state while the programme is running across the country. The sample size was small. Practical implications - The learning of the study will help in developing a better understanding of the

  2. The hidden life of pyrite: how low can it go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Alan; Barrie, Craig; Salter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    preserve internal lattice ‘distortion' or ‘bending' indicating plastic deformation mechanisms operated. Many pyrite grains in the ore deposits also contain low-angle (~2°) sub-grain boundaries or ‘dislocation walls', indicating that both dislocation glide and creep deformation mechanisms have operated within the pyrite grains. These results indicate that plastic deformation of pyrite, under geological strain-rates, can go down to as low as ~200 °C suggesting the brittle-ductile transition in pyrite occurs at temperatures potentially as low as ~200 °C; much lower than the generally accepted temperature of ~425 °C. Many pyrite grains in sulphide ore deposits preserve internal chemical zonation of trace elements (e.g. Large et al. 2009). The potential relationship between plastic deformation and trace element distribution in pyrite will be discussed. Barrie, C. D., Boyle, A. P. & Salter, M., 2009. How low can you go? - Extending downwards the limits of plastic deformation in pyrite. Mineralogical Magazine, 73(6), 895-913. Freitag, K., Boyle, A. P., Nelson, E., Hitzman, M., Churchill, J. & Lopez-Pedrosa, M., 2004. The use of electron backscatter diffraction and orientation contrast imaging as tools for sulphide textural studies: example from the Greens Creek deposit (Alaska). Mineralium Deposita, 39, 103-113. Large, R. R., Danyushevsky, L., Hollit, C., Maslennikov, V., Meffre, S., Gilbert, S., Bull, S., Scott, R., Emsbo, P., Thomas, H., Singh, B. & Foster, J., 2009. Gold and Trace Element Zonation in Pyrite Using a Laser Imaging Technique: Implications for the Timing of Gold in Orogenic and Carlin-Style Sediment-Hosted Deposits. Economic Geology, 104(5), 635-668.

  3. An evaluation of the uncertainties in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, A.; Garcia Menendez, F.; Hu, Y.; Odman, M.

    2012-12-01

    burned in Northern California causing unprecedented damage. NASA Aircraft commissioned for the ARCTAS campaign at the time flew over the fires and collected data detailing composition of gases and aerosols in the fire plumes (Singh et al., 2012). We model the fires using a newly developed system consisting of a plume rise and dispersion model specifically designed for wild-land fire plumes (Daysmoke; Achtemeier et al., 2011) coupled with a regional-scale chemistry-transport model (CMAQ). Wind fields generated by a weather prediction model (WRF) are adjusted locally to match the aircraft measurements of wind speed and direction. The fires are simulated using both ground-based and satellite-based estimates of emissions. Predicted concentrations of gases and aerosols are compared to corresponding aircraft measurements. Satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth are also used in evaluating model predictions. The new modeling system along with the wind adjustments reduces several of the uncertainties inherent to regional-scale modeling of plume transport. This allows for a more reliable analysis of the uncertainties related to emissions. Uncertainties in the magnitudes and timings of emissions, and in plume injection heights with respect to boundary layer heights are investigated. Uncertainties associated with ground-based and satellite-based emissions estimation methods are compared to each other.

  4. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) data and orbital cycle records: preliminary interpretation from the Asian Monsoon IODP Expedition 346

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanna, Lofi; Grizel, Jimenez Soto; Ryuji, Tada; Murray Richard, W.; Alvarez Zarikian Carlos, A.; Martin, Ziegler

    2015-04-01

    contain higher frequency, smaller scale interbedded layers. The transition between resistive and conductive intervals is marked by an intermediate level of medium conductivity in the FMS images, possibly indicating relative changes in productivity conditions. The FMS images have been interpreted in term of FMS facies (low, medium, high conductivity) and their thickness measured along a 100-m long interval since the late Miocene. Vertical changes in thickness of FMS facies are plotted vs. depth, and we propose an attempt of orbital tuning based on the Site U1425 preliminary age model. In the future, the FMS data will be compared to other proxies measured on cores, and physical and chemical properties of sediments such as color reflectance or XRF data. This research project is undertaken as part of IODP Expedition 346. IODP Expedition 346 Scientists: W.T. Anderson, M.-A. Bassetti, B.J. Brace, S.C. Clemens, G.R. Dickens, A.G. Dunlea, S.J. Gallagher, L.Giosan, M.H. da Costa Gurgel, A.C.G. Henderson, A.E. Holbourn, K. Ikehara, T. Irino, T. Itaki, A. Karasuda, C.W. Kinsley, Y. Kubota, G.S. Lee, K.E. Lee, C.I.C.D. Lopes, M. Saavedra Pellitero, L.C. Peterson, T. Sagawa, R.K. Singh, S. Sugisaki, S. Toucanne, S. Wan, C. Xuan, H. Zheng, C.H. Lee

  5. Prospects for electric-dipole-moment measurements in radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    and make measurements on the short-lived species (T1 / 2 ~ 25 m) featuring high-efficiency collection and spin-exchange polarization of noble-gas isotopes. Nuclear-structure issues include determining the octupole collectivity as well as the spacing of opposite parity levels. Experiments are underway at ISOLDE, NSCL and ISAC to study the nuclear structure of isotopes in this mass region. I will report on progress and comment on how we learn about the basic physical parameters of CP violation from EDM measurements. T. Chupp (spokesman), C. Svensson (spokesman), S. Degenkolb, R. Dunlop, P. Fierlinger, A. Garnsworthy, F. Gong, P. Garret, G. Hackman, M. Hayden, M. Pearson, R. Picker, E. Rand, J. Singh, N. Sachdeva.

  6. Novel approaches for pharmacological management of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Joachim R; Nattel, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the progressively increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), medical awareness of the need to develop improved therapeutic approaches for the arrhythmia has also risen over the last decade. AF reduces quality of life and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite several setbacks as a result of negative results from rhythm control trials, the potential advantages of sinus-rhythm (SR) maintenance have motivated continued efforts to design novel pharmacological options aiming to terminate AF and prevent its recurrence, with a hope that optimized medical therapy will improve outcomes in AF patients. Pathophysiologically, AF is associated with electrical and structural changes in the atria, which increase the propensity to arrhythmia perpetuation but may eventually allow for new modalities for therapeutic intervention. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy has traditionally targeted ionic currents that modulate excitability and/or repolarization of cardiac myocytes. Despite efficacious suppression of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias, traditional antiarrhythmic drugs present problematic risks of pro-arrhythmia, potentially leading to excess mortality in the case of Na+-channel blockers or IKr (IKr=the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current) blockers. New anti-AF agents in development do not fit well into the classical Singh and Vaughan-Williams formulation, and are broadly divided into 'atrial-selective compounds' and 'multiple-channel blockers'. The prototypic multiple-channel blocker amiodarone is the most efficient presently available compound for SR maintenance, but the drug has extra-cardiac adverse effects and complex pharmacokinetics that limit widespread application. The other available drugs are not nearly as efficient for SR maintenance and have a greater risk of proarrhythmia than amiodarone. Two new antiarrhythmic drugs are on the cusp of introduction into clinical practice. Vernakalant affects

  7. Comparing a simple methodology to evaluate hydrodynamic parameters with rainfall simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Iovino, Massimo; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    and, reasonably, it can better be represented by the high runs than the low runs (Alagna et al., 2015). Obviously, this methodology is also simpler than an approach involving soil characterization both before and after natural or simulated rainfall since it needs less equipment and field work. On the other hand, rainfall simulation experiments are more realistic and accurate, but also more sophisticated and costly (Cerdà, 1997). Rainfall simulation is often used to measure the infiltration process (e.g., Bhardwaj and Singh, 1992; Cerdà, 1999, 1997, 1996; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007; Iserloh et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2011; Tricker, 1979), and it has become an important method for assessing the subjects of soil erosion and soil hydrological processes (Iserloh et al., 2013). Its application allows a quick, specific and reproducible assessment of the meaning and impact of several factors, such as slope, soil type (infiltration, permeability), soil moisture, splash effect of raindrops (aggregate stability), surface structure, vegetation cover and vegetation structure (Bowyer-Bower and Burt, 1989). The objectives of this investigation are: (i) to compare infiltration rates measured by applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface with those obtained by rainfall simulation experiments and (ii) to verify if the Ks values determined with the BEST procedure are in line with the occurrence of runoff measured with a more robust methodology. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Alagna, V., Bagarello, V., Di Prima, S., Giordano, G., Iovino, M., 2015. Testing infiltration run effects on the estimated hydrodynamic parameters of a sandy-loam soil. Submitted to Geoderma. Bagarello, V., Castellini, M., Di Prima, S., Iovino, M., 2014. Soil hydraulic properties determined by infiltration experiments and

  8. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  9. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  10. Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollberg, Leo; Bergquist, James Charles; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    .] -- Pinhead town talk, public lecture and mountainfilm. The quantum revolution - towards a new generation of supercomputers / R. Blatt -- Cold atoms and molecules I. Ultracold & ultrafast: making and manipulating ultracold molecules with time-dependent laser fields / C. P. Koch ... [et al.]. Bose-Einstein condensates on magnetic film microstructures / M. Singh ... [et al.] -- Cold atoms and molecules II. Ultracold metastable Helium-4 and Helium-3 gases / W. Vassen ... [et al.] -- Single atoms and quantum optics I. Recent progress on the manipulation of single atoms in optical tweezers for quantum computing / A. Browaeys ... [et al.]. Progress in atom chips and the integration of optical microcavities / E. A. Hinds ... [et al.] -- Single atoms and quantum optics II. Quantum optics with single atoms and photons / H. J. Kimble -- Optical atomic clocks. Frequency comparison of Al[symbol] and Hg[symbol] optical standards / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Sr optical clock with high stability and accuracy / A. Ludlow ... [et al.].

  11. Extent of slow slip events in the Guerrero seismic gap (Mexico): observations from space-borne SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathier, E.; Bacques, G.; Doin, M.; Cavalié, O.; Radiguet, M.; Lasserre, C.; Cotte, N.; Walpersdorf, A.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1998, four slow slip events (SSEs) have been recorded by geodesy in the Guerrero state of Mexico. They occurred on the subduction interface where the Coco plate subducts at about 6 cm/year beneath the North-America plate. SSEs spatially overlap the seismic gap of Guerrero which is a 100km-long portion of the Mexican subduction zone where no significant earthquakes have occurred since 1911. This duration contrasts with the average recurrence time of 30-60 years for large subduction earthquakes observed along the Mexican subduction zone (Nishenko and Singh, 1987a). To the west, the gap is limited by the slip distribution of the 1979 (M=7.6) and the 1985 (M=8.1) earthquakes, and to the east by the 1957 (M=7.8) and 1962 Acapulco events (M=7 and 7.1). An important issue is to know whether SSEs penetrate into the seismogenic zone and whether they are restricted to the seismic gap or have a larger extent. Radiguet et al, (2012) studied three SSEs that occurred in 2002, 2006 and 2009-2010, based on continuous GPS data. They show that SSEs have variable lateral extents, with significant slip within the 100km-long seismic gap, but also occurring on a wider area with a 250 km lateral extension when considering slip downdip the seismogenic zone (estimated to end at about 25km depth according to Suarez et al, 1990). Within the gap, results from Radiguet et al. suggest also that SSE can propagate shallower than the 25 km limit and that, west of the gap, the aseismic slip overlaps the 1979 and the 1985 earthquakes coseismic slip distribution. However, the GPS network design used in their analysis is mainly composed of two perpendicular profiles: a profile along the coast and a profile perpendicular to the coast from Acapulco to Mexico. Away from these profiles the resolution of the SSE location decreases rapidly, which limits the analysis of SSE extents. Here, we used space-borne SAR interferometry (InSAR) to overcome this limitation. Despite atmospheric and decorrelation

  12. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  13. What is Different Between Borazine-Acetylene and Benzene-Acetylene a Matrix Isolation and Ab-Initio Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kanupriya; Viswanathan, K. S.

    2016-06-01

    . Sathyamurthy Chem. Phys. Lett. 2013,557,59-65 2. K. Sundararajan, K.S. Viswanathan, A.D. Kulkarni and S.R. Gadre. J. Mol. Str. 2002,613,209-222. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr.Sanjay Singh in the preparation of borazine.

  14. Significance of hydrological model choice and land use changes when doing climate change impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnholt Karlsson, Ida; Obel Sonnenborg, Torben; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    quantification of the effects of climate change on hydrological response." Climate Change 35: 415-434. Hewitt, C. D. and D. J. Griggs (2004). "Ensembles-based predictions of climate changes and their impacts." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 85: 1-566. Jiang, T., Y. D. Chen, C. Xu, X. Chen, X. Chen and V. P. Singh (2007). "Comparison of hydrological impacts of climate change simulated by six hydrological models in the Dongjiang Basin, South China." Journal of hydrology 336: 316-333. Refsgaard, J. C., K. Arnbjerg-Nielsen, M. Drews, K. Halsnæs, E. Jeppesen, H. Madsen, A. Markandya, J. E. Olesen, J. R. Porter and J. H. Christensen (2013). "The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies - A Danish water management example." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 18: 337-359.

  15. Contribution of wastes and biochar amendment to the sorption capacity of heavy metals by a minesoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    (A) sorbed element is preferably Pb and Cu is the least sorbed (P <0.05). References Asensio, V.; Vega, F.A.; Singh, B.R.; Covelo, E.F. 2013. Science of the Total Environment. 443:446-453. Pérez-de-Mora, A.; Madrid, F.; Cabrera, F.; Madejón, E. 2007. Geoderma. 139: 1-10 Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. 2009. J. Hazard. Mater. 169: 36-45. Vega, F.A.; Covelo, E.F.; Andrade, M.L. 2008. J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 327: 275-286.

  16. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  17. An experimental case study to estimate Pre-harvest Wheat Acreage/Production in Hilly and Plain region of Uttarakhand state: Challenges and solutions of problems by using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, D.; Kimothi, M. M.; Bhagya, N.; Ram, R. D.; Patel, N. K.; Dhaundiya, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is an economically important Rabi crop for the state, which is grown on around 26 % of total available agriculture area in the state. There is a variation in productivity of wheat crop in hilly and tarai region. The agricultural productivity is less in hilly region in comparison of tarai region due to terrace cultivation, traditional system of agriculture, small land holdings, variation in physiography, top soil erosion, lack of proper irrigation system etc. Pre-harvest acreage/yield/production estimation of major crops is being done with the help of conventional crop cutting method, which is biased, inaccurate and time consuming. Remote Sensing data with multi-temporal and multi-spectral capabilities has shown new dimension in crop discrimination analysis and acreage/yield/production estimation in recent years. In view of this, Uttarakhand Space Applications Centre (USAC), Dehradun with the collaboration of Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad and Uttarakhand State Agriculture Department, have developed different techniques for the discrimination of crops and estimation of pre-harvest wheat acreage/yield/production. In the 1st phase, five districts (Dehradun, Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar) with distinct physiography i.e. hilly and plain regions, have been selected for testing and verification of techniques using IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellites), LISS-III, LISS-IV satellite data of Rabi season for the year 2008-09 and whole 13 districts of the Uttarakhand state from 2009-14 along with ground data were used for detailed analysis. Five methods have been developed i.e. NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), Supervised classification, Spatial modeling, Masking out method and Programming on visual basics methods using multitemporal satellite data of Rabi season along with the collateral and ground data. These methods were used for wheat discriminations and preharvest acreage estimations and subsequently results

  18. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils from a copper mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Daniel; Lago, Manoel; Vega, Flora; Andrade, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    -8%, Mn and Ni: <3% Pb and Zn: 1.5% and Cr <0.01%). Therefore, most of heavy metal contents are strongly retained in low accessible soil fractions. Still, the high Cu content together with high soil acidity and low organic matter contents and endanger the environmental quality of the surroundings due to the possibility of leaching and run-off waters. Acknowledgments This research was supported by Project CGL2010-16765 (MICINN-FEDER). F.A. Vega and D. Arenas-Lago acknowledge the Ministry of Science and Innovation and the University of Vigo for the Ramón y Cajal and FPI-MICINN, respectively. References Asensio, V., Vega, F.A., Singh, B.R., Covelo, E.F. 2013. Science of The Total Environment. 443. 446-453. Mulligan, C.N., Yong, R.N., Gibbs, B.F. 2001. Engineering Geology. 60. 193-207. Shuman, L. M. 1979. Soil Science. 127, 10-17. Shuman, L.M. 1985. Soil Science. 140 11-22.

  19. Multiannual tropical tropospheric ozone columns and the case of the 2015 el Niño event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventidou, Elpida; Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Stratospheric ozone is well known for protecting the surface from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation whereas ozone in the troposphere plays a more complex role. In the lower troposphere ozone can be extremely harmful for human health as it can oxidize biological tissues and causes respiratory problems. Several studies have shown that the tropospheric ozone burden (300±30Tg (IPCC, 2007)) increases by 1-7% per decade in the tropics (Beig and Singh, 2007; Cooper et al., 2014) which makes the need to monitor it on a global scale crucial. Remote sensing from satellites has been proven to be very useful in providing consistent information of tropospheric ozone concentrations over large areas. Tropical tropospheric ozone columns can be retrieved with the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) technique (Ziemke et al. 1998) using retrieved total ozone columns and cloud parameters from space-borne observations. We have developed a CCD-IUP algorithm which was applied to GOME/ ERS-2 (1995-2003), SCIAMACHY/ Envisat (2002-2012), and GOME-2/ MetOpA (2007-2012) weighting function DOAS (Coldewey-Egbers et al., 2005, Weber et al., 2005) total ozone data. A unique long-term record of monthly averaged tropical tropospheric ozone columns (20°S - 20°N) was created starting in 1996. This dataset has been extensively validated by comparisons with SHADOZ (Thompson et al., 2003) ozonesonde data and limb-nadir Matching (Ebojie et al. 2014) tropospheric ozone data. The comparison shows good agreement with respect to range, inter-annual variation, and variance. Biases where found to be within 5DU and the RMS errors less than 10 DU. This 17-years dataset has been harmonized into one consistent time series, taking into account the three instruments' difference in ground pixel size. The harmonised dataset is used to determine tropical tropospheric ozone trends and climatological values. The 2015 el Niño event has been characterised as one of the top three strongest el Niños since 1950. El Ni

  20. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  1. BOOK REVIEW: The Legacy of Albert Einstein: A Collection of Essays in Celebration of the Year of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-10-01

    During the 'World Year of Physics' much has been written on the epoch-making 1905 papers of Albert Einstein and his later great contributions to physics. Why another book on the enormous impact of Einstein's work on 20th-century physics? The short answer is that the present collection of 13 relatively short essays on the legacy of Einstein by outstanding scientists is very pleasant to read and should be of interest to physicists of all branches. Beside looking back, most articles present later and topical developments, whose initiation began with the work of Einstein. During the year 2005, the growing recognition among physicists, historians, and philosophers of Einstein's revolutionary role in quantum theory was often emphasized. It is truly astonishing that most active physicists were largely unaware of this before. Fortunately, the article 'Einstein and the quantum' by V Singh puts the subject in perspective and describes all the main steps, beginning with the truly revolutionary 1905 paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and ending with Einstein's extension of the particle-wave duality to atoms and other particles in 1924 1925. The only point which, in my opinion, is not sufficiently emphasized in the discussion of the 1916 1917 papers on absorption and emission of radiation is the part on the momentum transfer in each elementary process. Einstein's result that there is a directed recoil hν/c—also for spontaneous emission—in complete contrast to classical theory, was particularly important to him. I enjoyed reading the articles on Brownian motion (S Majumdar), Bose Einstein condensation (N Kumar) and strongly correlated electrons (T Ramakrishnan), which are all written for non-experts. Connected with Einstein's most lasting work—general relativity—there are two articles on cosmology. The one by J Narlikar gives a brief historical account of the development that was initiated by the 1917 paper of Einstein. S Sarkar's essay emphasizes the remarkable

  2. Immunological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  3. Measuring communication competence and effectiveness of ASHAs (accredited social health activist) in their leadership role at rural settings of Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Archana; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to find out accredited social health activists' (ASHA) communication competence and effectiveness while working as leaders with groups in the rural setting. ASHA, as the "first point of contact" for pregnant women in rural areas, plays a significant role in building awareness and disseminating key information at critical times (e.g. antenatal and post-natal period), promotes healthy maternal and newborn care practices and facilitates identification and referral of maternal and newborn complications. ASHA plays critical role of a leader in bridging the gap between health system and community. In the entire process, effective communication competency is the key to her effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts seven items from the farmers communication (FACOM) scale of communication measures developed by Udai Pareek and Y.P Singh. Preliminary editing of the items was done keeping certain points in mind such as the items should not be judgemental, should be acts of behaviour, should be observable and should be simple. This scale was adopted for the study, as it was designed to measure farmers' communication competence and suited the context. The evaluation criteria included the seven essential elements of communication identified in the FACOM scale. Findings - Results from the study identified a need to sensitise ASHAs on the critical role of effective communication and need for investing more in building her capacity for health communication. The trainings being imparted to ASHAs have to be strengthened in terms of communication skills. They should focus upon developing all three variables of communication skills equally and integrating them to get desired results. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted in one state while the programme is running across the country. The sample size was small. Practical implications - The learning of the study will help in developing a better understanding of the

  4. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Yung, Y. L.; Chavez, F. P.

    1996-01-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  5. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  6. Accretion-powered Compact Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; The workshop logo; A short history of the CV workshop F. A. Córdova; Part I. Observations: 1. Low mass x-ray binaries A. P. Cowley, P. C. Schmidtke, D. Crampton, J. B. Hutchings, C. A. Haswell, E. L. Robinson, K. D. Horne, H. M. Johnston, S. R. Kulkarni, S. Kitamoto, X. Han, R. M. Hjellming, R. M. Wagner, S. L. Morris, P. Hertz, A. N. Parmar, L. Stella, P. Giommi, P. J. Callanan, T. Naylor, P. A. Charles, C. D. Bailyn, J. N. Imamura, T. Steiman-Cameron, J. Kristian, J. Middleditch, L. Angelini and J. P. Noris; 2. Nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables R. S. Polidan, C. W. Mauche, R. A. Wade, R. H. Kaitchuck, E. M. Schlegel, P. A. Hantzios, R. C. Smith, J. H. Wood, F. Hessman, A. Fiedler, D. H. P. Jones, J. Casares, P. A. Charles, J. van Paradijs, E. Harlaftis, T. Naylor, G. Sonneborn, B. J. M. Hassall, K. Horne, C. A. la Dous, A. W. Shafter, N. A. Hawkins, D. A. H. Buckley, D. J. Sullivan, F. V. Hessman, V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, J. Singh, S. Seetha, F. Giovannelli, A. Bianchini, E. M. Sion, D. J. Mullan, H. L. Shipman, G. Machin, P. J. Callanan, S. B. Howell, P. Szkody, E. M. Schlegel and R. F. Webbink; 3. Magnetic cataclysmic variables C. Hellier, K. O. Mason, C. W. Mauche, G. S. Miller, J. C. Raymond, F. K. Lamb, J. Patterson, A. J. Norton, M. G. Watson, A. R. King, I. M. McHardy, H. Lehto, J. P. Osborne, E. L. Robinson, A. W. Shafter, S. Balachandran, S. R. Rosen, J. Krautter, W. Buchholz, D. A. H. Buckley, I. R. Tuoly, D. Crampton, B. Warner, R. M. Prestage, B. N. Ashoka, M. Mouchet, J. M. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M. Hameury, P. Szkody, P. Garnavich, S. Howell, T. Kii, M. Cropper, K. Mason, J. Bailey, D. T. Wickramasinghe, L. Ferrario, K. Beuermann, A. D. Schwope, H.-C. Thomas, S. Jordan, J. Schachter, A. V. Filippenko, S. M. Kahn, F. B. S. Paerels, K. Mukai, M. L. Edgar, S. Larsson, R. F. Jameson, A. R. King, A. Silber, R. Remillard, H. Bradt, M. Ishida, T. Ohashi and G. D. Schmidt; Part II. Accretion Theory: 4. Nonmagnetic W. Kley, F. Geyer, H. Herold, H

  7. Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Agramunt, Silvia; Anna, Lívia; Besselink, Harrie; Botsivali, Maria; Brady, Nigel J.; Ceppi, Marcello; Chatzi, Leda; Chen, Bowang; Decordier, Ilse; Farmer, Peter B.; Fleming, Sarah; Fontana, Vincenzo; Försti, Asta; Fthenou, Eleni; Gallo, Fabio; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Gmuender, Hans; Godschalk, Roger W.; Granum, Berit; Hardie, Laura J.; Hemminki, Kari; Hochstenbach, Kevin; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kovács, Katalin; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Løvik, Martinus; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Pedersen, Marie; Rydberg, Per; Schoket, Bernadette; Segerbäck, Dan; Singh, Rajinder; Sunyer, Jordi; Törnqvist, Margareta; van Loveren, Henk; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Vande Loock, Kim; von Stedingk, Hans; Wright, John; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; van Delft, Joost H.M.

    2013-01-01

    frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/2 and CYP2E1 were associated with MNBN. Conclusion: We measured in utero exposure to selected environmental carcinogens and circulating hormonally acting factors and detected associations with MN frequency in newborns circulating T lymphocytes. The results highlight mechanisms that may contribute to carcinogen-induced leukemia and require further research. Citation: Merlo DF, Agramunt S, Anna L, Besselink H, Botsivali M, Brady NJ, Ceppi M, Chatzi L, Chen B, Decordier I, Farmer PB, Fleming S, Fontana V, Försti A, Fthenou E, Gallo F, Georgiadis P, Gmuender H, Godschalk RW, Granum B, Hardie LJ, Hemminki K, Hochstenbach K, Knudsen LE, Kogevinas M, Kovács K, Kyrtopoulos SA, Løvik M, Nielsen JK, Nygaard UC, Pedersen M, Rydberg P, Schoket B, Segerbäck D, Singh R, Sunyer J, Törnqvist M, van Loveren H, van Schooten FJ, Vande Loock K, von Stedingk H, Wright J, Kleinjans JC, Kirsch-Volders M, van Delft JHM, NewGeneris Consortium. 2014. Micronuclei in cord blood lymphocytes and associations with biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens and hormonally active factors, gene polymorphisms, and gene expression: The NewGeneris Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:193–200; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206324 PMID:24252472

  8. The effect of weathering in the Buyukmelen River basin on the geochemistry of suspended and bed sediments and the hyrogeochemical characteristics of river water, Duzce, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivan, Rustem

    2010-07-01

    , and to quality class 2 based on Mn concentration in summer period. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) indices observed in the suspended and bed sediments (average of 55) suggest that their source area underwent moderate degrees of chemical weathering processes. According to Upper Continental Crust (UCC) values, the suspended sediment was rich in elements such as Fe 2O 3, CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO 2, P 2O 5, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Pb. The element concentrations of the suspended sediments were related to size fractionation, mainly of clay content. The mentioned enrichment was contributed by agglomerate, basalt, volcanic sandstone and graywacke from rocks in the study area. Source of ions such as Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Ti and Hg and major in the Buyukmelen River is interaction with rocks such as the agglomerate, basalt, andesite, volcanic sandstone and graywacke. As suggested by Singh et al. (2005), before weathering of some rocks in the Buyukmelen River basin, it was determined that they were graywacke and literanite based on the geochemistry of the suspended and bed sediments.

  9. Extreme Subduction Earthquake Scenarios and their Economical Consequences for Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Perea, N.

    2007-05-01

    to date seismotectonic, seismological, geophysical, and geotechnical information for the mentioned subduction zones and for MC and G. The economical impacts of the proposed extreme TSS earthquake scenarios for MC and G are fully discussed. We acknowledge the support of DGSCA, UNAM, for using its supercomputer facilities. ----------------------- [1] Nishenko S.P. and Singh SK, BSSA 77, 6, 1987 [2] Chavez M. and Ramirez R., 12th World Conf. Earthq. Eng., 2000 [3] Cabrera E., Chavez M., Madariaga R., Mai M, Frisenda M., Perea N., AGU, Fall Meeting, 2005 [4] Chavez M., Olsen K.B., Cabrera E., 13th World Conf. Earthq. Eng., 2004

  10. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Position Paper for the Use of Telemedicine for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaspal; Badr, M. Safwan; Diebert, Wendy; Epstein, Lawrence; Hwang, Dennis; Karres, Valerie; Khosla, Seema; Mims, K. Nicole; Shamim-Uzzaman, Afifa; Kirsch, Douglas; Heald, Jonathan L.; McCann, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    providers, and other members of the healthcare team aim to improve the value of healthcare delivery in a coordinated fashion.Appropriate technical standards should be upheld throughout the telemedicine care delivery process, at both the originating and distant sites, and specifically meet the standards set forth by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).Methods that aim to improve the utility of telemedicine exist and should be explored, including the utilization of patient presenters, local resources and providers, adjunct testing, and add-on technologies.Quality Assurance processes should be in place for telemedicine care delivery models that aim to capture process measures, patient outcomes, and patient/provider experiences with the model(s) employed.Time for data management, quality processes, and other aspects of care delivery related to telemedicine encounters should be recognized in value-based care delivery models.The use of telemedicine services and its equipment should adhere to strict professional and ethical standards so as not to violate the intent of the telemedicine interaction while aiming to improve overall patient access, quality, and/or value of care.When billing for telemedicine services, it is recommended that patients, providers, and others rendering services understand payor reimbursements, and that there be financial transparency throughout the process.Telemedicine utilization for sleep medicine is likely to rapidly expand, as are broader telehealth applications in general; further research into the impact and outcomes of these are needed. This document serves as a resource by defining issues and terminology and explaining recommendations. However, it is not intended to supersede regulatory or credentialing recommendations and guidelines. It is intended to support and be consistent with professional and ethical standards of the profession. Citation: Singh J, Badr MS, Diebert W, Epstein L, Hwang D, Karres V, Khosla S, Mims KN

  11. PREFACE: Rheology and Elasticity Studies at Ultra-High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haozhe; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2006-06-01

    mm3) of materials can be deformed at pressure and temperature. Unfortunately these experiments do not currently extend to pressures of the lower mantle, which comprises most of the volume of the Earth. Thus deformation mechanisms of minerals such as perovskite (in the lower mantle), post-perovskite (in the anisotropic D" zone) and epsilon-iron (in the inner core) remain enigmatic. Here developments in the DAC offer new opportunities. At present, this is a novel, and in many ways still very primitive, method to deform minerals at high pressure, confined to room temperature and moderate strains. No doubt this will change in the near future as new technologies become implemented, for example laser heating, remote pressure control, especially fine control of strain rate during compression, decompression and cycling procedures for DAC radial diffraction studies. The first paper, by Bassett, gives a perspective on the significance of stress in DAC experiments. An issue once considered by many a nuisance has become a gold mine when it comes to unravelling material properties at very high pressures. At high pressures many silicates and oxides become ductile, even at room temperature, and ductile deformation results in development of preferred orientation that can be used to infer deformation mechanisms as illustrated in the reviews by Wenk et al and Merkel. Mao et al investigate the strength of solidified argon and find it increases greatly and exceeds 2.7~GPa with applied pressure at 55 GPa. Singh et al investigate the dependence of strength on grain size by studying nanocrystalline gold, while Yoneda and Kubo use axial diffraction geometry to determine both mean pressure and deviatoric stress of gold. Miyagi et al illustrate the Rietveld method for quantitative texture analysis of CaSiO3 perovskite. Speziale et al map strain gradients in the DAC by investigating texture variations in copper to 25 GPa. Naturally, efficient and accurate image processing is a requirement for

  12. PREFACE: The Sixth International Conference on Gravitation & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Ghanashyam; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    (Chennai), RRI (Bangalore), SINP (Kolkata) and IUCAA. The conference banquet was sponsored by Hewlett-Packard and the reception dinner was sponsored by the Bank of Baroda. We thank them all. It is a pleasure to thank Professor Naresh Dadhich, Director, IUCAA, members of the IAGRG council, members of the SOC and members of the LOC for their pivotal role in the organization of the conference, and the speakers, the participants, and the IUCAA staff for their efforts which made the sixth ICGC a very successful meeting. Ghanashyam Date Institute for Mathematical Science, Chennai Tarun Souradeep Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Pune Scientific Organizing Committee Ghanashyam Date (Chairman, SOC, IMSc, India) Abhay Ashtekar (Pennsylvania State Univ., US) Bhuvnesh Jain (Univ. of Pennsylvania, US) Carlo Rovelli (CPT, Marseille, France) Clifford M. Will (Washington Univ., US) Gabriela Gonza'lez (Lousiana State Univ., US) Hideo Kodama (Kyoto Univ. Japan) John Ellis (CERN, Switzerland) Luc Blanchet (IAP, France) Madhavan Varadarajan (RRI, India) Masaru Shibata (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan) Narayan Banerjee (Jadavpur Univ. India) Parthasarathi Mitra (SINP, India) Rajesh Gopakumar (HRI, India) Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, India) Somnath Bharadwaj (IITKGP, India) Subhendra Mohanty (PRL, India) Subir Sarkar (Univ. of Oxford, UK) Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, India) T. P. Singh (TIFR, India) Local Organizing Committee Tarun Souradeep (Chairman, LOC) Biswajit Pandey Gaurang Mahajan Manjiri Mahabal Maulik Parikh Minu Joy Moumita Aich Niranjan Abhyankar Nirupama Bawdekar Ratna Rao Saugata Chatterjee Savita Dalvi Sharanya Sur Snehlata Shankar Subharthi Ray Sudhanshu Barway Tuhin Ghosh Plenary Speakers and Talks The Plenary Talks are available at http://meghnad.iucaa.ernet.in/~icgc07/ Gary Hinshaw Status of WMAP Data Andrew Jaffe The Future of CMB Studies Subir Sarkar Cosmology beyond the Standard Model HongSheng Zhao Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Puzzles and an Alternative Solution

  13. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    )VECC A K RayBARC/IndiaT K Saha BARC R Reid IUVSTA/UKVikrant SanglikarEdwards India Amit Roy IUAC/IndiaD SarkarVECC Milan SanyalSINP/IndiaY C SaxenaIPR V K SaraswantDRDO/IndiaS K ShuklaRRCAT E SchamilogluUNM/USAGurnam SinghRRCAT R K SinhaBARC/IndiaP SinghBARC P StrubinCERN/SwitzerlandA K SinhaIUC-DAEF T OkanoVSJ/JapanS K ThakurVECC Local Organizing Committee Dr R K BhandariShri Subimal Saha ChairmanCo-chairman Scientific ProgrammeReception & Registration 1. Dr V S Pandit, Convener1. Shri C Mallik, Convener 2. Dr K C Mittal2. Shri P Y Nabhiraj 3. Shri S K Gupta3. Shri Manas Dutta 4. Shri Gautam Pal4. Kum Ranjini Menon 5. Dr Arup Bandyopadhyay5. Shri Malay Kanti Dey 6. Shri Anjan Duttagupta6. Shri Samit Bandyopadhyay 7. Shri Chinmay Nandi7. Miss. Swantana Kumari 8. Shri Anindya Roy8. Smt Sudeshna Seth 9. Shri R C Yadav9. Shri Anirban De Transport & AccommodationPublication 1. Shri N V S V Prasad, Convener1. Shri Subimal Saha, Convener 2. Shri S K Thakur2. Dr V S Pandit 3. Shri Sumantra Bhattacharyya3. Shri C D Dutta 4. Shri Debjit Gupta4. Dr Tapas Bandyopadhyay 5. Shri S R Gupta5. Dr Vaishali Naik 6. Shri Jayanta Sur6. Shri Anirban De 7. Shri Sujit SahaCatering Auditorium 1. Dr Arup Bandyopadhyay, Convener 1. Shri Gautam Pal, Convener2. Shri Asis Polley 2. Shri Tamal Bhattacharyya3. Shri S. Chattopadhayay 3. Shri Tanmay Das4. Shri Debjit Gupta 4. Smt. Seema Bhattacharyya, SINP5. Shri Tanmay Das 5. Shri Susanta Chakroborti, SINP6. Shri R L Singh 6. Shri S C JenaFinance Exhibition/Souvenir1. Shri S Sambath, Convener 1. Shri R. Dey, Convener2. Dr Surajit Pal 2. Smt Seema Bhattacharyya, SINP3. Shri Asis Dey 3. Shri S K Thakur4. Shri V K Khare 4. Shri N DuttaCultural 5. Shri S K Pati1. Dr Alok Chakrabarti, Convener 6. Shri Yashwant Kumar2. Dr Vaishali Naik Website3. Shri Dirtha Sanyal 1. Shri Tapas Samanta, Convener4. Shri Suman Guha 2. Dr Surajit Pal 3. Shri Gaurav Saxena Indian Vacuum Society The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 900 members

  14. Comparing a simple methodology to evaluate hydrodynamic parameters with rainfall simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Iovino, Massimo; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    and, reasonably, it can better be represented by the high runs than the low runs (Alagna et al., 2015). Obviously, this methodology is also simpler than an approach involving soil characterization both before and after natural or simulated rainfall since it needs less equipment and field work. On the other hand, rainfall simulation experiments are more realistic and accurate, but also more sophisticated and costly (Cerdà, 1997). Rainfall simulation is often used to measure the infiltration process (e.g., Bhardwaj and Singh, 1992; Cerdà, 1999, 1997, 1996; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007; Iserloh et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2011; Tricker, 1979), and it has become an important method for assessing the subjects of soil erosion and soil hydrological processes (Iserloh et al., 2013). Its application allows a quick, specific and reproducible assessment of the meaning and impact of several factors, such as slope, soil type (infiltration, permeability), soil moisture, splash effect of raindrops (aggregate stability), surface structure, vegetation cover and vegetation structure (Bowyer-Bower and Burt, 1989). The objectives of this investigation are: (i) to compare infiltration rates measured by applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface with those obtained by rainfall simulation experiments and (ii) to verify if the Ks values determined with the BEST procedure are in line with the occurrence of runoff measured with a more robust methodology. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Alagna, V., Bagarello, V., Di Prima, S., Giordano, G., Iovino, M., 2015. Testing infiltration run effects on the estimated hydrodynamic parameters of a sandy-loam soil. Submitted to Geoderma. Bagarello, V., Castellini, M., Di Prima, S., Iovino, M., 2014. Soil hydraulic properties determined by infiltration experiments and

  15. Applications of molecular analysis for the study of early land plant evolution during the upper Silurian - Lower Devonian: borehole M.G.1, Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia, North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, M. F.; Vecoli, M.; Riboulleau, A.; Versteegh, G.

    2009-04-01

    in the palynofacies of all sampling levels. REFERENCES [1]Spina, A., Vecoli, M., 2008. Palynostratigraphy and miospore biodiversity dynamics across the Silurian-Devonian boundary in North Africa (Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-09147. [2]Grice, K., Backhouse, J., Alexander, R., Marshall, N., Logan, G., 2005. Correlating terrestrial signatures from biomarker distributions, 13C, and palynology in fluvio-deltaic deposits from NW Australia (Triassic - Jurassic). Organic Geochemistry 36, 1347 - 1358. [3]Ellis, L., Singh, R., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 1996. Formation of isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from aromatization-rearrangement of terpenoids in the sedimentary environment: A new class of biomarker. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 60, No. 23. 4747 - 4763. [4]Van Aarssen, B., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 2000. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 64, No. 8. 1417 - 1424. [5]Wen, Z., Ruiyong, W., Radke, M., Qingyu, W., Guoying, S., Zhili, L., 2000. Retene in pyrolysates of algal and bacterial organic matter. Organic Geochemistry 31, 757 - 762.

  16. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  18. PREFACE: Progress in the ITER Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.

    2007-06-01

    Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy and European Fusion Development Agreement—Close Support Unit) N. Sauthoff (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, USA) Y. Saxena (Institute for Plasma Research, India) Y. Shimomura (ITER Organization) R. Singh (Institute for Plasma Research, India) S. Takamura (Nagoya University, Japan) K. Toi (National Institute for Fusion Studies, Japan) M. Wakatani (Kyoto University, Japan (deceased)) H. Zohm (Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany)

  19. EDITORIAL: Power is nothing without control Power is nothing without control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-04-01

    review, synthesis of these materials is now a refined art allowing considerable control over the parameters. The mechanisms behind the growth using different techniques is also understood, making the alchemy of creating these prized nanostructures into an advanced science. With these new nanomaterials researchers in nanoscale science and technology now have the power to create devices with performance attributes previously unimagined, and the advancing fine art of controlled synthesis allows these devices to be made on demand. References [1] Kroto H W, Heath J R, O'Brien S C, Curl R F and Smalley R E Nature 318 162-3 [2] Iijima S 1991 Nature B 354 56-8 [3] Journet C, Picher M and Jourdain V 2012 Nanotechnology 23 296-304 [4] Singh N, Zhang T and Lee P S 2009 Nanotechnology 20 195605 [5] Qiu J, Li X, He W, Park S-J, Kim H-K, Hwang Y-H, Lee J-H and Kim Y-D 2009 Nanotechnology 20 155603 [6]Dmitriev S, Lilach Y, Button B, Moskovits M and Kolmakov A 2007 Nanotechnology 18 055707 [7] Hao H L and Shen W Z 2008 Nanotechnology 19 055601 [8] Rocha A R, Martins T B, Fazzio A and da Silva A J R 2010 Nanotechnology 21 345202

  20. A stochastic method for optimal location of groundwater monitoring sites at aquifer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barca, E.; Passarella, G.

    2009-04-01

    . Applied Mathematics and Computation, 16, 189-202 Deutsch, C.V. & Cockerham, P. W. (1994). Practical Considerations in the Application of Simulated Annealing to Stochastic Simulation. Mathematical Geology, 26, 67-82 Harmancioglu, N.B., Alpaslan,M.N., Singh,V.P., Fistikoglu, O. & Ozkul, S.D. (1999). Water Quality Monitoring Network Design. (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers) Isaaks, E.H. & Srivastava, R.M. (1989). An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics. (New York: Oxford Unversity Press) Journel, A.G. & Huijbrechts, C.J. (1978). Mining geostatistics. (London: Academic Press) Meyer, D., Valocchi, A.J. & Eheart, J.W. (1994). Monitoring network design to provide initial detection of groundwater contamination. Water Resources Research, 30, 2647-2659 Metropolis, N., Rosenbluth, A., Rosenbluth, M., Teller, A. & Teller, E. (1953). Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines. Journal of Chemical Physics, 21, 1087-1092 Van Groenigen, J.W. & Stein, A. (1998). Constrained optimization of spatial sampling using continuous simulated annealing, Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 1078-1086 Wu, Y. (2004). Optimal design of a groundwater monitoring network in Daqing, China. Environmental Geology, 45, 527-535.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  2. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  3. PREFACE: International Symposium on `Vacuum Science and Technology' (IVS 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, K. C.; Gupta, S. K.

    2008-03-01

    Chandrachoodan, P.P. BRNS Desai, Tushar Mumbai Univ. Dhamija, Lokesh BOC Edwards Dixit, Anand New Poona Ind. Gadkari, S.C. BARC Gantayet, L.M BARC Gupta, A.C. NPL Gupta, S.K. BARC (Co Convener) Handu, V.K. BARC Jathar, Rajendra Varian Joshi, S.N. CEERI Korgaonkar, A.V. IVS Kotaiah, S. CAT Kumar, Vijay BARC Matkar, A.W. BARC Mittal, K.C. BARC (Convener) Nema, P.K. BRNS Pandit, V.S. VEC Puranik, S.G. Ashwani Enterprises Puri, R.R. BARC Ranga Rao, Y. Vac. Techniques Sabharwal, Rajat Alcatel Sakhamuri, Prashant HHV Bangalore Sanyal, T. NFC Sarkar, S.K. TIFR Sarma, K.R. Atomic Vacuum Saxena, Y.C. IPR Sharma, B.P. BARC Shukla, S.K. RRCAT Singh, R.P. BARC Suri, A.K. BARC Suthar ,R.L. BARC Venugopa,l V. BARC Vyavahare, Mohan Ultimate Technologies Yakhmi, J.V. BARC

  4. Quantifying the contribution of Long-Range Transport to PM, NOx, and SO2 loadings at a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Harshita; Sachan, Himanshu; Garg, Saryu; Arya, Ruhani; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Sinha, Baerbel; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    Planck-DST India Partner Group on Tropospheric OH reactivity and VOCs for funding the research, H. Panwar, H. Sachan and N. K. Singh acknowledge the DST-INSPIRE Fellowship program and R. Arya thanks IISER Mohali for providing an IISER Summer Research Fellowship.

  5. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    ), E Noruzifar (Mainz), M Oettel (Mainz), O Otto (Leipzig), S Overduin (Düsseldorf), E C Oğuz (Düsseldorf), T Palberg (Mainz), G Pauschenwein (Vienna), G Pellicane (Messina), F Pesth (Mainz), P Pfleiderer (Mainz), D J Pine (New York), D Pini (Milan), H Reiber (Mainz), V Reshetnyak (Kiev), M Rex (Düsseldorf), M Ripoll (Jülich), M Roth (Mainz), P Royall (Bristol), M Rubin-Zuzic (Garching), T Schilling (Mainz), A Schmidt (Düsseldorf), M Schmiedeberg (Berlin), H J Schöpe (Mainz), S Schreiber (Bayreuth), B Schumann (Düsseldorf), F Sciortino (Rome), L Shapran-Reiber (Mainz), M Siebenbürger (Bayreuth), S P Singh (New Delhi), R Siquieri (Aachen), F Smallenburg (Utrecht), I Snook (Melbourne), M Sperl (Cologne), J Stellbrink (Jülich), E Stiakakis (Jülich), T Szymborski (Warsaw), H Tanaka (Tokyo), P Tierno (Barcelona), U Tkalec (Ljubljana), A Tsigkri (Jülich), T Tückmantel (Düsseldorf), C Valeriani (Edinburgh), A van Blaaderen (Utrecht), E van den Pol (Utrecht), J van Meel (Amsterdam), P van Oostrum (Utrecht), R van Roij (Utrecht), S van Teeffelen (Düsseldorf), L Verhoeff (Utrecht), E Vermolen (Utrecht), R Vink (Göttingen), P Virnau (Mainz), T Voigtmann (Cologne), D Vollmer (Mainz), G J Vroege (Utrecht), H R Vutukuri (Utrecht), C Walz (Konstanz), M Walz (Erlangen), D A Weitz (Harvard), J Wenk (Düsseldorf), R Wensink (London), F Weyßer (Konstanz), L Willner (Jülich), R G Winkler (Jülich), A Wynveen (Düsseldorf), A Wysocki (Düsseldorf), J Zausch (Mainz), J Zhao (Mainz), M Zietara (Konstanz), U Zimmermann (Düsseldorf), J Zwanikken (Utrecht).

  6. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  7. Closure of Tethys and early stages of Himalayan evolution: constraints from the detrital record, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, D.; Najman, Y.; Godin, L.; Parrish, R.; Horstwood, M.; Green, O.; Bown, P.; Garzanti, E.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    detrital zircons allows discrimination between Asian provenance (dominated by Mesozoic grains from the Trans-Himalayan arc) and Indian provenance (characterized by Precambrian grains and an absence of Mesozoic grains). Our data from the Kong and Chulung La Formations shows a primary provenance from the Asian plate (arc derived), with dominant grain populations between 55-70 Ma and 90-100 Ma, and a subordinate population of Precambrian grains suggesting an origin on either the Indian (High or Tethyan Himalaya) or Asian (Lhasa Block) plate. Thus collision is constrained by arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian plate during SBZ9-10, 53-50.5 Ma. Our results and identification of first arrival of Asian material on the Indian plate at 53-50.5 Ma 1) conflicts with the recent view that the commonly quoted 50 Ma collision was between the Indian plate and a small intra-oceanic arc [4] rather than Asia and 2) correlates with data from analogous sediments along strike in Southern Tibet [12,13], eastern Himalaya, implying collision was synchronous along a large portion of the Himalayas. In addition, our new ages from the Trans-Himalayan arc contribute to the existing database which shows a very low proportion of grains dated between 80-90 Ma. This has been interpreted by previous workers as an expression of a reduction in magmatic activity around this time, due to a period of "flat subduction" of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab followed by slab roll back and a more vigorous period of magmatism [14]. [1] Jaeger, J. J., Courtillot, V., and Tapponnier, P., 1989, Geology, 17 (4), 316-319. [2] Leech, M. L., Singh, S., Jain, A. K., Klemperer, S. L., Manickavasagam, R. M., 2005, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 234, 83-97. [3] Klootwijk, C. T., Gee, J. S., Peirce, J. W., Smith, G. M., and McFadden, P. L., 1992, Geology, 20 (5), 395-398. [4] Aitchison, J. C., Ali, J. R., and Davis, A. M., 2007,Journal of Geophysical Research, 112 B05423, doi:10.1029/2006JB004706,. [5] Searle, M., Corfield

  8. Highlights and prizes of an international meeting.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2008-01-01

    : "Evaluation of visceral sensitivity after transient inflammation-An experimental model". Their aim was to characterise the inflammatory response to the transient chemically-induced colitis after instillation of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Inflammation was tested by (99m)Tc-Sn-colloid-leucocytes. They concluded that the Group of Lewis rats compared to Fisher rats, developed a prolonged visceral hyperalgesia and more severe inflammation following colorectal instillation of TNBS/ethanol doses, possibly involving the systemic immune response. The Lewis rat species appears to be a good model of transient colitis, because of its heightened sensitivity to the chemical stimulus, and due to detectable visceral changes long after administration of the above stimulus. Professor A.M. Peters from England, received the fourth prize with his original paper: "New quantitative techniques for investigating and predicting lymphoedema resulting from breast cancer treatment". In lymphoedema from breast cancer treatment he investigated local uptake via putative peripheral lympho-venous communications (LVCs), using intradermally injected labelled red cells. He concluded that his results suggest that protective mechanisms could include i) interstitial proteolysis, ii) increased peripheral trans-endothelial protein transport or iii) development of peripheral LVCs. Other prizes were awarded to: Professor G.P. Bandopadhyaya et al. from New-Delhi for their original paper: "Molecular targetting of infective bacterial maltose binding protein for infection imaging using Tc-99m hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin in patients with knee joint replacement and other prostheses", to Dr P.J. Marsouvanidis et al. from Demokritos Athens and Patras for their original paper: "Synthesis, radiochemistry and preclinical comparison of [(111)In-DOTA(0)]SS-14 and [(111)In-DOTA(0),(D)Trp(8)]SS-14 in AR4-2J cells and Swiss albino mice", to Professor B. Singh et al. from Chandigarh and New Delhi for their original paper: "Efficacy

  9. ISMB Conference Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa, Gaasterand; Martin, Vingron

    2011-07-01

    the EasyChair submission and reviewing system; Mona Singh and Joel S. Bader for sharing their experience from last year; the team at Oxford University Press for typesetting the papers; Conference Chairs Burkhard Rost, Michal Linial, Peter Schuster and Kurt Zatloukal, as well as the ISMB/ECCB 2011 Steering Committee, for their valuable input; and Steven Leard for helping us oversee the process.

  10. The SAWO (Small And Well Organized) avatar teaches the importance of the aggregates on the soil system and how to determine their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1996. Soil aggregate stability in three mediterranean environments. Soil Technology, 9, 129-133. Cerdà, A. 1998. Soil aggregate stability under different Mediterranean vegetation types. Catena, 32, 73-86. Cerdà, A. 2000. Aggregate stability against water forces under different climates on agriculture land and scrubland in southern Bolivia. Soil and Tillage Research, 36, 1- 8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V. (2012, April). Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 14, p. 3772). García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28(4): 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Gelaw, A. M., Singh, B. R., Lal, R. 2015. Organic carbon and nitrogen associated with soil aggregates and particle sizes under different land uses in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development.DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2261 Hallett, P., Ogden, M., Karim, K., Schmidt, S., Yoshida, S. (2014, May). Beneath aggregate stability-quantifying thermodynamic properties that drive soil structure dynamics. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16, p. 10792). Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A. L., Alanís, N. (2011). Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena, 84(3), 136-147. Jordan, M., Garcia-Orenes, F., Mataix-Solera, J., Garcia-Sanchez, E. (2012, April). Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate

  11. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    tailor a random substrate potential for colloids [20] or to bind colloids optically [21]. External magnetic fields are typically used to create dipolar repulsions of colloids pending at an air-water interface. This provides an avenue to two-dimensional systems, where the freezing transition [22] and various transport phenomena through channels are the focus of recent research [23, 24]. Confinement typically leads to interfaces. The classical problem of the Tolman length for a fluid-fluid interface is reviewed in detail in [25]. In fact, colloid-polymer mixtures constitute ideal model systems for liquid-gas interfaces in various geometries [26] and are also suitable for measuring the Tolman length experimentally. Crystalline phases in confinement [27] and crystal-fluid interfaces [28] are even more complex due to the inhomogeneity of the solid phase. Also in the confined fluid phase, there are still open issues in slit-pore geometry. These include how to scale the interparticle distance [29] and how to measure hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles [30]. Other external fields which can be applied to colloids are gravity [31] and temperature [32]. An important field of recently emerging research is active colloidal particles (so-called microswimmers) which possess fascinating nonequilibrium properties; for recent reviews see [33-35]. Two examples are also included in this issue: an active deformable particle [36] moving in gravity and the collective turbulent swarming behaviour of dense self-propelled colloidal rod suspensions [37]. References [1]Löwen H 2001 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13 R415 [2]Löwen H and Likos C N (ed) 2004 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16 (special issue) [3]Löwen H 1976 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20 404201 [4]Guu D, Dhont J K G, Vliegenthart G A and Lettinga M P 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464101 [5]Gupta S, Kundu S, Stellbrink J, Willner L, Allgaier J and Richter D 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464102 [6]Singh S P, Fedosov D A

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlewood, P. B.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Saxena, S. S.; Sutherland, M. L.; Sebastian, S. E.; Artacho, E.; Grosche, F. M.; Hadzibabic, Z.

    2012-11-01

    , Pittsburgh P. Chandra, PiscatawayN. Mathur, CambridgeJ.C. Gomez-Sal, Santander S-W. Cheong, RutgersK. Miyake, OsakaV. Tripathi, Mumbai P. Coleman, PiscatawayA Navrotsky, DavisA. Vasiliev, Moscow M. Vojta, Cologne Local Committee S. E. Sebastian (chair)R. NeedsJ. Keeling N. MathurE. PughD. Khmelnitskii M. ParishM. CarpenterM. Koehl M. AtatureR. CowburnW. Milne C. BarnesJ. McManus DriscollS. Redfern N. BerloffA. FerrariD. Ritchie M. BlamireC. GreyJ. Robertson J. BaumbergZ. HadzibabicB. Simons A. Cheetham National Advisory Committee G. Aeppli, LondonV. Falko, LancasterM. Pepper, Cambridge A. Ardavan, OxfordR. Friend, CambridgeT. Perring, Didcot P. Attfield, EdinburghC. Frost, RutherfordJ. Saunders, London A. Boothroyd, OxfordG. Gehring, ShefieldA. Schofield, Birmingham A. Coldea, OxfordS. Hayden, BristolN. Shannon, Bristol L. Eaves, NottinghamN. Hussey, BristolM. Skolnick, Sheffield D. Edwards, LondonA. Huxley, EdinburghS. Thompson, York M. Ellerby, LondonH. Wilhelm, Didcot International Advisory Committee E. Abrahams, UCLAG. Kotliar, Piscataway E. V. Sampathkumaran, Mumbai G. Aeppli, LondonD. Khmelnitskii, CambridgeUK J. Sarrao, Los Alamos J. W. Allen, Ann ArborK. Kugel, MoscowJ. Schilling, St. Louise P. W. Anderson, Princeton C. Lacroix, Grenoble A. Schofield, Birmingham M. Aronson, Stony Brook P. A. LeeCambridge, USA V. Sechovsky, Prague Y. K. Bang, Kwangju and Pohang C.T. Liang, Taipei T. Senthil, Cambridge, USA M. Barma, Mumbai P. Majumdar, Allahabad J. G. Sereni, Bariloche G. Baskaran, Chennai Y. Maeno, Kyoto K. Shimizu, Osaka E. Bauer, Vienna J. Mannhart, Augsburg Q. Si, Houston G. Boebinger, Tallahassee M. B. Maple, San Diego M. Sigrist, Zurich R. Budhani, Delhi Y. Matsuda, Kyoto A. Simoni, Trento P. Canfield, Ames R. Moessner, Dresden D. Singh, Oak Ridge M. Continentino, Rio di Janiero A. Millis, New York A. Sood, Bangalore S. Coppersmith, Madison J. Mydosh, Leiden J. Spalek, Krakow B. Coqblin, Paris S. Nakatsuji, Tokyo F. Steglich, Dresden A. Chubukov, Madison G. Oomi

  13. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    from 280 kg/person to 380 kg/person and meat from 22 kg/person to 34 kg/person (McIntyre, 2008); (c) new cultivar types (e.g., hybrid varieties of wheat and rice, biotechnology); and (d) modern agronomic and crop management practices (e.g., fertilizers, herbicide, pesticide applications). However, some of the factors that lead to the green revolution have stressed the environment to limits leading to salinization and decreasing water quality. For example, from 1960 to 2000, the phosphorous use doubled from 10 million tons to 20 MT, pesticide use tripled from near zero to 3 MT, and nitrogen use as fertilizer increased to a staggering 80 MT from just 10 MT (Foley et al., 2007; Khan and Hanjra, 2008). Further, diversion of croplands to bio-fuels is already taking water away from food production; the economics, carbon sequestration, environmental, and food security impacts of biofuel production are net negative (Lal and Pimentel, 2009), leaving us with a carbon debt (Gibbs et al., 2008; Searchinger et al., 2008). Climate models predict that in most regions of the world the hottest seasons on record will become the norm by the end of the century-an outcome that bodes ill for feeding the world (Kumar and Singh, 2005). Also, crop yield increases of the green revolution era have now stagnated (Hossain et al., 2005). Thereby, further increase in food production through increase in cropland areas and\\or increased allocations of water for croplands are widely considered unsustainable and\\or infeasible. Indeed, cropland areas have even begun to decrease in many 3 parts of the World due to factors such as urbanization, industrialization, and salinization. Furthermore, ecological and environmental imperatives such as biodiversity conservation and atmospheric carbon sequestration have put a cap on the possible expansion of cropland areas to other lands such as forests and rangelands. Other important factors limit food security. These include factors such as diversion of croplands

  14. [Tuberculosis in Asia].

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    1. Philippines: The development, expansion and maintenance of pilot area activities: Cristina B. Giango (Technical Division, Cebu Provincial Health Office, the Philippines) In 1994, the Department of Health developed the new NTP policies based on WHO recommendations and started a pilot project in Cebu Province in collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency. To test its feasibility and effectiveness, the new NTP policies were pre-tested in one city and one Rural Health Unit. The test showed a high rate of three sputum collection (90%), high positive rate (10%), and high cure rate (80%). Before the new guidelines were introduced, the new policy was briefed, a baseline survey of the facility was conducted, equipment was provided, and intensive training was given. Recording/Reporting forms and procedures were also developed to ensure accurate reporting. Supervision, an important activity to ensure effective performance, was institutionalized. Laboratory services were strengthened, and a quality-control system was introduced in 1995 to ensure the quality of the laboratory services. With the implementation of DOTS strategy, barangay health workers were trained as treatment partners. In partnership with the private sector, the TB Diagnostic Committee was organized to deliberate and assess sputum negative but X-ray positive cases. The implementation of the new NTP guidelines in Cebe Province has reached a satisfactory level, the cure rate and positive rate have increased, and laboratory services have improved. Because of its successful implementation, the new NTP guidelines are now being used nationwide. 2. Nepal: The DOTS Strategy in the area with hard geographic situation: Dirgh Singh Bam (National Tuberculosis Center, Nepal) Three groups of factors characterize the population of Nepal: 1) Socio-cultural factors, e.g. migration, poverty, language; 2) Environmental factors, e.g. geography and climate; and 3) Political factors, prisoners and refugee

  15. PREFACE: Rheology and Elasticity Studies at Ultra-High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haozhe; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2006-06-01

    mm3) of materials can be deformed at pressure and temperature. Unfortunately these experiments do not currently extend to pressures of the lower mantle, which comprises most of the volume of the Earth. Thus deformation mechanisms of minerals such as perovskite (in the lower mantle), post-perovskite (in the anisotropic D" zone) and epsilon-iron (in the inner core) remain enigmatic. Here developments in the DAC offer new opportunities. At present, this is a novel, and in many ways still very primitive, method to deform minerals at high pressure, confined to room temperature and moderate strains. No doubt this will change in the near future as new technologies become implemented, for example laser heating, remote pressure control, especially fine control of strain rate during compression, decompression and cycling procedures for DAC radial diffraction studies. The first paper, by Bassett, gives a perspective on the significance of stress in DAC experiments. An issue once considered by many a nuisance has become a gold mine when it comes to unravelling material properties at very high pressures. At high pressures many silicates and oxides become ductile, even at room temperature, and ductile deformation results in development of preferred orientation that can be used to infer deformation mechanisms as illustrated in the reviews by Wenk et al and Merkel. Mao et al investigate the strength of solidified argon and find it increases greatly and exceeds 2.7~GPa with applied pressure at 55 GPa. Singh et al investigate the dependence of strength on grain size by studying nanocrystalline gold, while Yoneda and Kubo use axial diffraction geometry to determine both mean pressure and deviatoric stress of gold. Miyagi et al illustrate the Rietveld method for quantitative texture analysis of CaSiO3 perovskite. Speziale et al map strain gradients in the DAC by investigating texture variations in copper to 25 GPa. Naturally, efficient and accurate image processing is a requirement for

  16. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Higher Himalaya. References. Burbank, D.W., 2005. Cracking the Himalaya. Nature 434, 963-964. Burbank, D.W., Blythe, A.E., Putkonen, J., Pratt-Sitaula, B., Gabet, E., Oskin, M., Barros, A., Ojha, T.P., 2003. Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas. Nature 426, 652-654. Carosi, R., Montomili, C., Visonà, D., 2007. A structural transect in the lower Dolpo: insights in the tectonic evolution of Western Nepal. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29, 407-423. Chambers J.A., Argles, T.W., Horstwood, M.S.A., Harris, N.B.W., Parrish, R.R., Ahmad, T., 2008. Tectonic implications of Palaeoproterozoic anatexis and Late Miocene metamorphism in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence, Sutlej valley, NW India. Journal of the Geological Society, London 165, 725-737. Godin, L., Grujic, D., Law, R.D. and Searle, M.P., 2006. Channel flow, extrusion and extrusion in continental collision zones: an introduction. In: R.D. Law and M.P. Searle (Editors) Channel Flow, Extrusion and Extrusion in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society of London Special Publication 268, 1-23. Grujic, D., Casey, M., Davidson, C., 1996. Ductile extrusion of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline in Bhutan: evidence from quartz microfabrics. Tectonophysics 260, 21-43. Grujic, D., Hollister, L.S., Parrish, R.R., 2002. Himalayan metamorphic sequence as an orogenic channel: insight from Bhutan. Earth Planetary Science Letters 198, 177-191. Harris, N., 2007. Channel flow and the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen: a critical review. Journal of Geological Society, London 164, 511-523. Hollister, L.S. and Grujic, D., 2006. Himalaya Tiber Plateau. Pulsed channel flow in Bhutan. In: R.D. Law, M.P. Searle and L. Godin (Editors). Channel flow, Ductile Extrusion and Extrusion in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society of London Special Publication 268, pp. 415-423. Jain, A.K., Kumar, D., Singh, S., Kumar, A., Lal, N., 2000. Timing, quantification and tectonic modelling of Pliocene-Quaternary movements in the NW Himalaya

  17. The SAWO (Small And Well Organized) avatar teaches the importance of the aggregates on the soil system and how to determine their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A. 1996. Soil aggregate stability in three mediterranean environments. Soil Technology, 9, 129-133. Cerdà, A. 1998. Soil aggregate stability under different Mediterranean vegetation types. Catena, 32, 73-86. Cerdà, A. 2000. Aggregate stability against water forces under different climates on agriculture land and scrubland in southern Bolivia. Soil and Tillage Research, 36, 1- 8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V. (2012, April). Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 14, p. 3772). García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28(4): 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Gelaw, A. M., Singh, B. R., Lal, R. 2015. Organic carbon and nitrogen associated with soil aggregates and particle sizes under different land uses in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development.DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2261 Hallett, P., Ogden, M., Karim, K., Schmidt, S., Yoshida, S. (2014, May). Beneath aggregate stability-quantifying thermodynamic properties that drive soil structure dynamics. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 16, p. 10792). Jordán, A., Zavala, L. M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A. L., Alanís, N. (2011). Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena, 84(3), 136-147. Jordan, M., Garcia-Orenes, F., Mataix-Solera, J., Garcia-Sanchez, E. (2012, April). Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate

  18. PREFACE New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B.; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2010-11-01

    molecular simulations Amit Kumar, Eric Hajjar, Paolo Ruggerone and Matteo Ceccarelli Dehydration and ionic conductance quantization in nanopores Michael Zwolak, James Wilson and Massimiliano Di Ventra Current oscillations generated by precipitate formation in the mixing zone between two solutions inside a nanopore Erik C Yusko, Yazan N Billeh and Michael Mayer Precise electrochemical fabrication of sub-20 nm solid-state nanopores for single-molecule biosensing Mariam Ayub, Aleksandar Ivanov, Jongin Hong, Phillip Kuhn, Emanuele Instuli, Joshua B Edel and Tim Albrecht The distribution of DNA translocation times in solid-state nanopores Jiali Li and David S Talaga Crowding effects in non-equilibrium transport through nano-channels A Zilman and G Bel Permeation through nanochannels: revealing fast kinetics Kozhinjampara R Mahendran, Pratik Raj Singh, Jürgen Arning, Stefan Stolte, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer and Mathias Winterhalter LILBID-mass spectrometry of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase TOM Frauke Mager, Lucie Sokolova, Julia Lintzel, Bernhard Brutschy and Stephan Nussberger Evidence that small proteins translocate through silicon nitride pores in a folded conformation Radu I Stefureac, Dhruti Trivedi, Andre Marziali and Jeremy S Lee Methods for controlling the pore properties of ultra-thin nanocrystalline silicon membranes D Z Fang, C C Striemer, T R Gaborski, J L McGrath and P M Fauchet

  19. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    hydrocarbons. Loss of ozone by catalytic reactions involving halogen radicals lowers the concentrations of the hydroxyl radical OH and thus the oxidation power of the atmosphere. Figure 1 shows these and other relevant halogen-related processes schematically. The sum of particulate and gaseous halogen concentrations maximize in the marine troposphere. Important for our climate - via feedback with cloud microphysics mainly in the large regions of marine stratocumulus - are links between halogen chemistry and the sulfur cycle. HOBraq and HOClaq can increase the liquid phase oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), while BrO can decrease the most important in situ source for SO2 in the marine troposphere, namely, the oxidation of DMS to SO2 by reaction with OH by providing an alternate pathway (BrO+DMS) that reduces the yield of SO2 from DMS oxidation. Thus, the presence of bromine and chlorine in the troposphere lowers gas phase SO2 concentrations and thus the formation of new sulfate particles via the reaction sequence SO2+OH→H2SO4. (17K)Figure 1. Schematic depiction of the most important halogen-related processes in the troposphere. High mixing ratios of iodine oxide at a coastal site indicate a potentially significant role of iodine for the destruction of O3 and new particle embryo formation (Alicke et al., 1999; O'Dowd et al., 1998). Almost 20 years earlier, Chameides and Davis (1980) suggested that open ocean iodine chemistry would be initiated by the photolysis of CH3I. This was based on the measurements of Lovelock et al. (1973) and Singh et al. (1979), who found volume mixing ratios of CH3I of 1-5 pmol mol-1 over the ocean.The potentially strong involvement of halogens in tropospheric chemistry was first observed in the Arctic, where strong ozone depletion events were found to coincide with high levels of bromine (Barrie et al., 1988).The first mid-latitude demonstration of reactive halogen chemistry in the troposphere was made downwind of salt pans in the Dead Sea area, where the

  20. PREFACE: Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Panchenko, Anna R.; Przytycka, Teresa

    2011-06-01

    networks have been identified, including scale free distribution of the vertex degree, network motifs, and modularity, to name a few. These studies of network organization require the network to be as complete as possible, which given the limitations of experimental techniques is not currently the case. Therefore, experimental procedures for detecting biomolecular interactions should be complemented by computational approaches. The paper by Lees et al provides a review of computational methods, integrating multiple independent sources of data to infer physical and functional protein-protein interaction networks. One of the important aspects of protein interactions that should be accounted for in the prediction of protein interaction networks is that many proteins are composed of distinct domains. Protein domains may mediate protein interactions while proteins and their interaction networks may gain complexity through gene duplication and expansion of existing domain architectures via domain rearrangements. The latter mechanisms have been explored in detail in the paper by Cohen-Gihon et al. Protein-protein interactions are not the only component of the cell's interactome. Regulation of cell activity can be achieved at the level of transcription and involve a transcription factor—DNA binding which typically requires recognition of a specific DNA sequence motif. Chip-Chip and the more recent Chip-Seq technologies allow in vivo identification of DNA binding sites and, together with novel in vitro approaches, provide data necessary for deciphering the corresponding binding motifs. Such information, complemented by structures of protein-DNA complexes and knowledge of the differences in binding sites among homologs, opens the door to constructing predictive binding models. The paper by Persikov and Singh provides an example of such a model in the Cys2His2 zinc finger family. Recent studies have indicated that the presence of such binding motifs is, however, neither necessary

  1. The Assessment of Susceptibility on Drainage in an Aquifer on the Basis of Pumping Tests in a Lignite Mine / Ocena Podatności Ośrodka Wodonośnego Na Odwodnienie Na Podstawie Próbnych Pompowań W Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Krzysztof; Kaznowska-Opala, Karolina; Pawlecka, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Kazimierz; Klich, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    Drainage of the rock mass is a key component affecting the safety of mining operations and is associated with the removal of the overburden, dumping and excavation of useful minerals. The primary method of drainage in lignite coal mines are bored wells. The efficiency of drainage of rock mass depends on their accurate positioning and quality of workmanship. The paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning the distribution of the components of drawdown (1) in pumping well (Walton, 1955; Bruin & Hudson, 1961; Kruseman & de Ridder, 1991; Avci, 1992; Atkinson, 1994; Helweg, 1994; Kawecki, 1995; Singh, 2002; Dufresne, 2011) and their dependence on the hydrogeological parameters of the drained aquifer (Fig. 2). The results of pumping tests conducted in drainage wells operating in lignite mines are also presented. The subject of analysis was the geohydraulic resistance coefficient B, describing the resistance of the aquifer under laminar flow. This coefficient also takes the hydrogeological parameters into account which determines the dynamics and range of influence of drainage (12, 13). The value of the parameter and its spatial variability can be used for planning, designing and evaluating the effectiveness of wells drainage In view of the results of the pumping tests, classification of aquifer susceptibility to drainage was proposed, which can be used to support decision-making in the scope of expansion of the drainage system, the necessary timing and dynamics of pumping water. The classification is preliminary and is the starting point for the development of methods to rationalize functioning costs of the drainage systems. Zadaniem studni odwadniających jest obniżenie zwierciadła wody podziemnej możliwie w jak najkrótszym czasie. W zależności od przeznaczenia studni oraz wymagań technicznych ich czas "życia" jest zróżnicowany. Studnie zlokalizowane w obrębie wyrobiska, tj. studnie nadkładowe i podłożowe (pomocnicze

  2. Effects of Potassium Mineral Fertilization on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield on a Chernozem Soil in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    varieties, estimated at 85-100 t/ha for potato, 75-85 t/ha for beet and 12-15 t/ha for wheat (Evans 1977). These are far higher than the yields commonly obtained in practice. World average yields were only 1/6th of the potential for potato, 1/6th for wheat and 2/5th for sugar beet in 1995. Utilization of the crop The major part of potato production is usually used for human consumption. Human consumption of potatoes however has declined in the industrialised countries as the standard of living has increased. In these countries an increasing proportion of the crop is used for manufacturing products such as crisp, oven-ready chips, dehydrated potato powder. Thus, in Hungary the consumption of potatoes per person decreased from 110 kg in 1951/1960 to 60 kg in 1995, whereas the consumption of processed potatoes increased from 1 to 15 kg/person during this period. Uptake of potassium Potassium is the nutrient taken up by potato in the greatest quantity, it also takes up much nitrogen and appreciable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Perrenoud 1993). Maximum uptakes by different varieties in Japan range between 140 and 267 K2O (Kali Kenkyu Kai 1980). In England, potatoes grown on the " blueprint" system and giving the very high yield of 77.7 t/ha took up 450 kg/ha K2O (Anderson and Hewgill 1978). Brazílian experiments with 6 varieties showed the following uptakes (kg/ha): potassium 207-367 (Motta 1976). Removal of potassium by tubers 23 experimental crops in France (Loué 1977), -with a mean yield of 37.3 t/ha tubers removed: 196 kg K2O, respectively. It is equal to 5.3 kg K2O per 1 tonne tuber. Motta Macedo (1976) reports the following removals in kg/ha for 6 varieties grown in Brazíl: K2O: 118-192. In 14 experiments in India (Grewal and Singh 1979) a mean yield of 28.8 t/ha tuber was obtained which removed an average of 91 kg/ha K2O. At very high yield level, nutrient removal in tuber is very high. Anderson and Hewgill (1978) report a yield of 90 t

  3. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    , phone: 734/764-7329; email: bcoppola@umich.edu. The deadline for submission of proposals for symposia and workshops is December 13, 1999; the deadline for submission of abstracts of papers and posters is February 4, 2000. For general information contact Seyhan Ege, phone: 734/764-7340; email: snege@umich.edu. 16th IUPAC Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics 16th IUPAC Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics (concurrent with 55th Calorimetry Conference and 10th Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials) August 6­11, 2000 Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada This conference will cover research topics in all areas of thermodynamics. In addition, there will be a special poster session for papers on two aspects of thermodynamics education: lecture demonstrations and undergraduate laboratory experiments. Come and join us for lobster and learn what is new and exciting in thermodynamics. To be on the email list for this meeting, send a message to: ICCT@IS.DAL.CA. For further details, consult the conference Web site: http://IS.DAL.CA/ ICCT. Chair: Mary Anne White, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J3, Canada; phone and fax: 902/494-3894, email: Mary.Anne.White@DAL.CA. Microscale Workshops The National Microscale Chemistry Center, located at Merrimack College in North Andover, Massachusetts, will offer several workshops in fall 1999, spring 2000, and fall 2000. Workshops for elementary school teachers run from 8:30 a.m. on a Thursday to 2:00 p.m. the following day. Workshops for high school teachers run from 5:30 p.m. on a Friday until 2:00 p.m. on Sunday. There are also workshops for college/2-year college/high school teachers that will be held during summer 2000, from 8:30 a.m. on a Monday to 2:00 p.m. on Friday. The workshops include all materials, free housing, and all meals; there is a registration fee. Early registration is advised. For further information, contact Mono M. Singh, Director, National Microscale Chemistry Center, 315

  4. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    , pp. 219-232. RS (Royal Society). 2005. Climate change warming over food production. Web address: http://www.newscientist.com Runge, E. C. 1968. Effect of rainfall and temperature interaction during the growing season on corn yield. Agron. J, 60:503-507. Russell, C. M.-Jennifer, A. B. 1991. Climatic Risk in Crop Production: Models and Management for the Semiarid Tropics and Subtropics. C. A. B. International, Wallingford Semenov, M. A. and Porter, J. R. 1995. Climatic variability and modeling of crop yields. Agric. For Meteorol. 73:265-283. Seth, G. P. & Yeffrey, S. A. 2005. Crops and Environmental Change. Food Product Press. New York-London-Oxford Schulze, R. E., Gregory, A. K. and Richard, P. K. 1993. Global climate change and agricultural productivity in southern Africa. Global Environmental Change, Vol. 3, No. 4, December, pp. 330-349 Smith, W. J. 1920. Agricultural meteorology. The effect of weather on crops. Macmillan Comp., New York. Singh, B., Mustapha, E. M., Pierre A., Christopher, R. B. and Jean, P. T. 1998. Impacts of a Ghg-induced climate change on crop yields: Efects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature. Climatic change, Vol. 38, No. 1, January, pp. 51-86. SPSS. 2000. SigmaPlot for Windows. Ver. 3.2, Chicago, III.: SPSS, Inc Szász G. 2005. Climatic instability causing variability in crop output in the Carpathian Basin. (In Hungarian) In: „AGRO-21" Füzetek. 40. 33-69. Tubiello, F. N., Rosenzweig, C., Goldberg, R. A. Jagtap, S. and Jones, J. W. 2002. Effects of climate change on U.S. crop production: Simulation results using two different GCM scenarios. Part I: Wheat, potato, maize and citrus. Climate Research, Vol. 20, pp. 259-270. Uprety, D. C. 1999. Global change series. IARI, New Delhi Vesselin, A., Eitzinger, J., Vesna, C. and Michael, O. 2002. Potential impact of climate change on selected agricultural crops in north-eastern Austria. Global Change Biology. 8:372. Várallyay, Gy. 1992. Globális kl

  5. Quantum Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin

    The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. 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  6. PREFACE: Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    functional theory methods in soft and hard matter' has established the first contact between the soft-matter community working with advanced classical density functional techniques and a theoretical materials science community working with engineering materials and armed with a simple but numerically very efficient dynamical density functional technique, the phase-field crystal method. A large number of common problems have been identified, which represent challenges for both communities during the coming years. This has been borne out by the lively discussions and some of the provocative talks. The organizers think that the workshop proved to be a truly successful event, matching to the high standards of the CECAM workshops, and hope that the workshop will indeed catalyze a long-term interaction between the two communities. As a final note, we would like to emphasize that progress in the areas highlighted in this special issue will positively impact both fields, and we expect that these issues will provide the natural link for collaborations and intellectual exchanges between these traditionally separate-yet-allied fields. In particular, such activities would lead to significant improvements in the applicability and versatility of classical DFT methods in both soft and hard matter systems, for the common benefit of physicists, chemists, and materials scientists. References [1] Evans R 1979 Adv. Phys. 28 143 [2] Oxtoby D W 1991 Liquids, Freezing and the Glass Transition (Session LI (1989) of Les Houches Summer Schools of Theoretical Physics) (Amsterdam: North Holland) p 147 [3] Singh Y 1991 Phys. Rep. 207 351 [4] Löwen H 1994 Phys. Rep. 237 249 [5] Español P and Löwen H 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 131 244101 [6] Elder K R, Katakowski M, Haataja M and Grant M 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 245701 [7] Elder K R and Grant M 2004 Phys. Rev. E 70 051605 [8] Berry J, Grant M and Elder K R 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 031609 [9] Stefanovic P, Haataja M and Provatas N 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 225504

  7. Poster Session C

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    maximally activated pTpY isoform represented ∼40% of total ERK, falling to less than 10% at 2 h. The time course and dose-response profiles of individual phosphorylated ERK isoforms indicated that singly phosphorylated pT-ERK never increases significantly, while the increase of pY-ERK paralleled that of pTpY-ERK. This data supports for a processive, rather than distributed, model of ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the observation of maximal ERK activation at low number of occupied EGF receptors provided some useful insights into the feedback regulation of the ERK pathway. The data implicates that a component downstream of the EGFR, but upstream of ERK, e.g. adaptor proteins such as SOS1, is likely the limiting factor. The early 10 min time point indicated an amplification factor of >300 fold with less than 500 occupied EGFR gave rise to more than 125,000 doubly-phosphorylated ERK molecules. By 2 h, the amplification had fallen to approximately 10-fold, demonstrating the presence of strong negative feedback. Our data also illustrates the potential of PRISM-SRM for simultaneous quantification of multiple PTMs in a single sample. Such accurate quantitative data on individual phosphorylation sites has the potential to elucidate molecular mechanisms, thus contributing to improved computational models of signal transduction. C.3 Comprehensive Proteomic Dissection of the Battle Between Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Host Cells Jeffrey Gorman1, Keyur Dave1, Emma Norris1, Madeleine Headlam1, Toshna Singh1, Keith Chappel2, Alexander Bukreyev3, Ursula Buchholz3, Peter Collins3 1QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Australia; 2University of Queensland, Australia; 3NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most serious cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. It is also a serious concern for other immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. There are no licensed vaccines or efficacious