Science.gov

Sample records for bi-modal network resources

  1. The Bi-Modal Organization: Balancing Autopoiesis and Fluid Social Networks for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assist an organization to restructure as a bi-modal organization in order to achieve sustainability in today's highly complex business world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and is based on relevant literature and the authors' research and practice. Findings: Although fluid…

  2. Small Low Mass Advanced PBR's for Bi-Modal Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael; Powell, James R.

    1994-07-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of a low mass bi-modal reactor for use as a propulsion unit and as a heat source for generating electricity. This reactor is based on the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. It will be able to generate both thrust and electricity simultaneously. This assessment indicates that the reactor can generate approximately 6.8 (4) N of thrust using hydrogen as a coolant, and 100 KWe using a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion system. Two cooling paths pass through the reactor allowing simultaneous operation of both modes. The development of all the components for this reactor are within the experience base of the NTP project.

  3. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  4. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  5. Solar bi-modal system concept: Common development issues with nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laug, Kristi K.; Holmes, Michael; Westerman, Kurt O.; Spickard, Randall

    1995-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion promises great advantages over current chemical upper stages (Meserole 1993). Solar thermal propulsion uses environmentally acceptable and free radiant energy to transfer payloads from LEO to GEO more efficiently than chemical propulsion and more rapidly than electric propulsion. Like nuclear thermal propulsion, solar thermal propulsion can be combined with a power conversion system to form a bi-modal system capable of providing a spacecraft with both power and propulsion from a single energy source. While the power source for a solar bi-modal system may be very different from that of a nuclear bi-modal system, they share a number of common development issues. Both systems must address issues such as: conversion of thermal to electrical energy, waste heat removal, power management and distribution, and the natural tendency to resist change within the spacecraft community. This paper will describe a solar thermal bi-modal concept and highlight the areas where development work can be performed in concert with existing nuclear bi-modal work to reduce the cost or shorten the development schedule of either system.

  6. Application of a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion and power system to military missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of arms technology and space access combined with current economic realities in the United States are creating ever greater demands for more capable space-based military assets. The paper illustrates that bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is a high-leverage tehcnology that can maximize utility while minimizing cost. Mission benefits offered by the bi-modal PBR, including enhanced maneuverability, lifetime, survivability, payload power, and operational flexibility, are discussed. The ability to deliver desired payloads on smaller boosters is also illustrated. System descriptions and parameters for 10 kWe and 100 kWe power output levels are summarized. It is demonstrated via design exercise that bi-modal PBR dramtically enhances performance of a military satellite in geosynchronous orbit, increasing payload mass, payload power, and maneuverability.

  7. Computational Aeroelastic Analysis of Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Bi-Modal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Steven J.; Chwalowski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    A Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes analysis, with and without dynamic aeroelastic effects, is presented for the Ares I-X launch vehicle at transonic Mach numbers and flight Reynolds numbers for two grid resolutions and two angles of attack. The purpose of the study is to quantify the force and moment increment imparted by the sudden transition from fully separated flow around the crew module - service module junction to that of the bi-modal flow state in which only part of the flow reattaches. The bi-modal flow phenomenon is of interest to the guidance, navigation and control community because it causes a discontinuous jump in forces and moments. Computations with a rigid structure at zero zero angle of attack indicate significant increases in normal force and pitching moment. Dynamic aeroelastic computations indicate the bi-modal flow state is insensitive to vehicle flexibility due to the resulting deflections imparting only very small changes in local angle of attack. At an angle of attack of 2.5deg, the magnitude of the pitching moment increment resulting from the bi-modal state nearly triples, while occurring at a slightly lower Mach number. Significant grid induced variations between the solutions indicate that further grid refinement is warranted.

  8. MITEE-B: A Compact Ultra Lightweight Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine for Robotic Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources.

  9. Analysis of the bi-modal nature of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Horton, W.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that the optimal linear prediction filter relating the solar wind electric field and the geomagnetic activity, as measured by the AL index, is both bi-modal and dependent on the level of activity in the magnetosphere. Further studies truncated the prediction filter to a five parameter model containing two low-pass filtered delta functions of arbitrary amplitude and delay time. The present study elaborates on the nature of the bi-modal response by using the five parameter model to quantify the effects of the level of geomagnetic activity on each of the modes of the filter individually. The authors find that at all levels of activity, the second mode, occurring at approximately one hour, is relatively unchanged. The first mode, however, has a one parameter dependence on the level of activity in the magnetosphere. The amplitude of the first mode is shown to have a significant increase with respect to activity.

  10. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  11. Representation of the Bi-modal Distribution of Free Tropospheric Ozone Over the Tropical Western Pacific in CAM-CHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honomichl, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Randel, W. J.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    During the CONTRAST field study, in situ aircraft observations revealed a distinct bi-modal distribution of ozone mixing ratios formed by persistent layers of enhanced of ozone relative to background concentrations in the Western Tropical Pacific middle troposphere during the Northern Hemispheric winter. These enhancements may have a measureable impact on the troposphere's oxidizing capacity in the tropics, which has a direct effect on the regional climate of the western tropical Pacific Ocean and beyond. In this work, we examine the representation of the bi-modal ozone characteristics in the NCAR chemistry-climate model (CAM-CHEM). We also investigate the controlling mechanisms of the bi-modal ozone distribution combining the model and aircraft observations.

  12. A Bridging Interaction Allows Calmodulin to Activate NO Synthase through a Bi-modal Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, Jesús; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Durra, Deborah; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) activates the nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) by a mechanism that is not completely understood. A recent crystal structure showed that bound CaM engages in a bridging interaction with the NOS FMN subdomain. We investigated its importance in neuronal NOS (nNOS) by mutating the two residues that primarily create the bridging interaction (Arg752 in the FMN subdomain and Glu47 in CaM). Mutations designed to completely destroy the bridging interaction prevented bound CaM from increasing electron flux through the FMN subdomain and diminished the FMN-to-heme electron transfer by 90%, whereas mutations that partly preserve the interaction had intermediate effects. The bridging interaction appeared to control FMN subdomain interactions with both its electron donor (NADPH-FAD subdomain) and electron acceptor (heme domain) partner subdomains in nNOS. We conclude that the Arg752–Glu47 bridging interaction is the main feature that enables CaM to activate nNOS. The mechanism is bi-modal and links a single structural aspect of CaM binding to specific changes in nNOS protein conformational and electron transfer properties that are essential for catalysis. PMID:20529840

  13. A bridging interaction allows calmodulin to activate NO synthase through a bi-modal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Jesús; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Durra, Deborah; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2010-08-20

    Calmodulin (CaM) activates the nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) by a mechanism that is not completely understood. A recent crystal structure showed that bound CaM engages in a bridging interaction with the NOS FMN subdomain. We investigated its importance in neuronal NOS (nNOS) by mutating the two residues that primarily create the bridging interaction (Arg(752) in the FMN subdomain and Glu(47) in CaM). Mutations designed to completely destroy the bridging interaction prevented bound CaM from increasing electron flux through the FMN subdomain and diminished the FMN-to-heme electron transfer by 90%, whereas mutations that partly preserve the interaction had intermediate effects. The bridging interaction appeared to control FMN subdomain interactions with both its electron donor (NADPH-FAD subdomain) and electron acceptor (heme domain) partner subdomains in nNOS. We conclude that the Arg(752)-Glu(47) bridging interaction is the main feature that enables CaM to activate nNOS. The mechanism is bi-modal and links a single structural aspect of CaM binding to specific changes in nNOS protein conformational and electron transfer properties that are essential for catalysis. PMID:20529840

  14. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Stich, August

    2015-01-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea. PMID:26539001

  15. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy.

    PubMed

    Unnewehr, Markus; Stich, August

    2015-11-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea.

  16. Networked Resources: Usenet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of Usenet, the User's Network, a computer network that distributes group discussions (newsgroups) on different topics. Network News software is described, the rapid growth in popularity and heavy network traffic is discussed, and a hierarchical classification scheme to limit the amount of information for users is…

  17. Comparing perceived auditory width to the visual image of a performing ensemble in contrasting bi-modal environmentsa)

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Daniel L.; Braasch, Jonas; Myrbeck, Shane A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating auditory spatial impressions in rooms, few have addressed the impact of simultaneous visual cues on localization and the perception of spaciousness. The current research presents an immersive audiovisual environment in which participants were instructed to make auditory width judgments in dynamic bi-modal settings. The results of these psychophysical tests suggest the importance of congruent audio visual presentation to the ecological interpretation of an auditory scene. Supporting data were accumulated in five rooms of ascending volumes and varying reverberation times. Participants were given an audiovisual matching test in which they were instructed to pan the auditory width of a performing ensemble to a varying set of audio and visual cues in rooms. Results show that both auditory and visual factors affect the collected responses and that the two sensory modalities coincide in distinct interactions. The greatest differences between the panned audio stimuli given a fixed visual width were found in the physical space with the largest volume and the greatest source distance. These results suggest, in this specific instance, a predominance of auditory cues in the spatial analysis of the bi-modal scene. PMID:22280585

  18. Comparison of empirical, semi-empirical and physically based models of soil hydraulic functions derived for bi-modal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutílek, M.; Jendele, L.; Krejča, M.

    2009-02-01

    The accelerated flow in soil pores is responsible for a rapid transport of pollutants from the soil surface to deeper layers up to groundwater. The term preferential flow is used for this type of transport. Our study was aimed at the preferential flow realized in the structural porous domain in bi-modal soils. We compared equations describing the soil water retention function h( θ) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K( h), eventually K( θ) modified for bi-modal soils, where θ is the soil water content and h is the pressure head. The analytical description of a curve passing experimental data sets of the soil hydraulic function is typical for the empirical equation characterized by fitting parameters only. If the measured data are described by the equation derived by the physical model without using fitting parameters, we speak about a physically based model. There exist several transitional subtypes between empirical and physically based models. They are denoted as semi-empirical, or semi-physical. We tested 3 models of soil water retention function and 3 models of unsaturated conductivity using experimental data sets of sand, silt, silt loam and loam. All used soils are typical by their bi-modality of the soil porous system. The model efficiency was estimated by RMSE (Root mean square error) and by RSE (Relative square error). The semi-empirical equation of the soil water retention function had the lowest values of RMSE and RSE and was qualified as "optimal" for the formal description of the shape of the water retention function. With this equation, the fit of the modelled data to experiments was the closest one. The fitting parameters smoothed the difference between the model and the physical reality of the soil porous media. The physical equation based upon the model of the pore size distribution did not allow exact fitting of the modelled data to the experimental data due to the rigidity and simplicity of the physical model when compared to the real soil

  19. Comparison of empirical, semi-empirical and physically based models of soil hydraulic functions derived for bi-modal soils.

    PubMed

    Kutílek, M; Jendele, L; Krejca, M

    2009-02-16

    The accelerated flow in soil pores is responsible for a rapid transport of pollutants from the soil surface to deeper layers up to groundwater. The term preferential flow is used for this type of transport. Our study was aimed at the preferential flow realized in the structural porous domain in bi-modal soils. We compared equations describing the soil water retention function h(theta) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), eventually K(theta) modified for bi-modal soils, where theta is the soil water content and h is the pressure head. The analytical description of a curve passing experimental data sets of the soil hydraulic function is typical for the empirical equation characterized by fitting parameters only. If the measured data are described by the equation derived by the physical model without using fitting parameters, we speak about a physically based model. There exist several transitional subtypes between empirical and physically based models. They are denoted as semi-empirical, or semi-physical. We tested 3 models of soil water retention function and 3 models of unsaturated conductivity using experimental data sets of sand, silt, silt loam and loam. All used soils are typical by their bi-modality of the soil porous system. The model efficiency was estimated by RMSE (Root mean square error) and by RSE (Relative square error). The semi-empirical equation of the soil water retention function had the lowest values of RMSE and RSE and was qualified as "optimal" for the formal description of the shape of the water retention function. With this equation, the fit of the modelled data to experiments was the closest one. The fitting parameters smoothed the difference between the model and the physical reality of the soil porous media. The physical equation based upon the model of the pore size distribution did not allow exact fitting of the modelled data to the experimental data due to the rigidity and simplicity of the physical model when compared to the

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  1. Computer Network Resources for Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michael P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the use of computer networks provides an important and effective resource for geography instruction. Describes the use of the Internet network in physical geography instruction. Provides an example of the use of Internet resources in a climatology/meteorology course. (CFR)

  2. Describing and Classifying Networked Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.; Preston, Cecilia M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines usage scenarios for a database of descriptive information to access networked information resources such as online library catalogs, file archives, online journal article repositories, and information servers. Existing classification schemes and their usefulness for networked information resources are discussed. Specific data elements…

  3. Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.

    1990-01-01

    Global optimization problems solved quickly. Neural-network processor optimizes allocation of M resources among N expenditures according to cost of pairing each resource with each expenditure and subject to limit on number of resources feeding into each expenditure and/or limit on number of expenditures to which each resource allocated. One cell performs several analog and digital functions. Potential applications include assignment of jobs, scheduling, dispatching, and planning of military maneuvers.

  4. Networked Resources, Assessment and Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Sue; Derry, Sebastian; Eggleston, Holly

    2004-01-01

    This project provides a critical evaluation of networked resources as they relate to the library's collection development policy, identifies areas of the curriculum not well represented, establishes a reliable method of assessing usage across all resources, and develops a framework of quantitative data for collection development decision making.

  5. Networked Information Resources. SPEC Kit 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiler, Richard, Comp.; Plum, Terry, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This SPEC Kit, published six times per year, examines how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries have structured themselves to identify networked information resources in the market, to evaluate them for purchase, to make purchasing decisions, to publicize them, and to assess their continued utility. In the summer of 1999, the survey…

  6. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  7. Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D.; Shah, R. V.; Kerstman, E. L.; Reyes, D.; Mulcahy, R.; Antonsen, E.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the space medical system. Beyond the traditional limitations in mass, power, and volume, consideration must be given to other factors such as the inability to evacuate to Earth, communication delays, and limitations in clinical skillsets. As NASA develops the medical system for an exploration mission, it must have an ability to evaluate the trade space of what resources will be most important. The Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources (MONSTR) was developed over the past year for this reason, and is now a system for managing data pertaining to medical resources and their relative importance when addressing medical conditions. METHODS: The MONSTR web application with a Microsoft SQL database backend was developed and made accessible to Tableau v9.3 for analysis and visualization. The database was initially populated with a list of medical conditions of concern for an exploration mission taken from the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), a probabilistic model designed to quantify in-flight medical risk. A team of physicians working within the Exploration Medical Capability Element of NASA's Human Research Program compiled a list diagnostic and treatment medical resources required to address best- and worst-case scenarios of each medical condition using a terrestrial standard of care and entered this data into the system. This list included both tangible resources (e.g. medical equipment, medications) and intangible resources (e.g. clinical skills required to perform a procedure). The physician team then assigned criticality values to each instance of a resource, representing the importance of that resource to diagnosing or treating its associated condition(s). Medical condition probabilities of occurrence during a Mars mission were pulled from the IMM and imported into the MONSTR database for use within a resource criticality-weighting algorithm. DISCUSSION

  8. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  9. Outcomes of gamma knife radiosurgery, bi-modality & tri-modality treatment regimens for patients with one or multiple brain metastases: the Columbia University Medical Center experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tony J C; Saad, Shumaila; Qureshi, Yasir H; Jani, Ashish; Isaacson, Steven R; Sisti, Michael B; Bruce, Jeffrey N; McKhann, Guy M; Lesser, Jeraldine; Cheng, Simon K; Clifford Chao, K S; Lassman, Andrew B

    2015-04-01

    Optimal treatment of brain metastases (BMs) is debatable. However, surgery or gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) improves survival when combined with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) versus WBRT alone. We retrospectively reviewed an institutional database of patients treated with GKRS for BMs from 1998 to 2013 to explore effects of single or multi-modality therapies on survival. There were 528 patients with median age 62 years. Histologies included 257 lung, 102 breast, 62 melanoma, 40 renal cell, 29 gastrointestinal, and 38 other primary cancers. Treatments included: 206 GKRS alone, 111 GKRS plus WBRT, 109 GKRS plus neurosurgical resection (NSG), and 102 all three modalities. Median overall survival (mOS) was 16.6 months. mOS among patients with one versus multiple metastasis was 17.2 versus 16.0 months respectively (p = 0.825). For patients with one BM, mOS following GKRS alone, GKRS plus WBRT, GKRS plus NSG, and all three modalities was 9.0, 19.1, 25.5, and 25.0 months, respectively, and for patients with multiple BMs, mOS was 8.6, 20.4, 20.7, 24.5 months for the respective groups. Among all patients, multivariate analysis confirmed that tri-modality group had the longest survival (HR 0.467; 95 % CI 0.350-0.623; p < 0.001) compared to GKRS alone; however, this was not significantly different than bi-modality approaches. Uncontrolled primary extra-CNS disease, age and KPS were also independent predictors of survival. Patients treated with GKRS plus NSG, GKRS plus WBRT, or all three modalities had improved OS versus GKRS alone. In our analysis, resection and GKRS allowed avoidance of WBRT without shortening survival.

  10. South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)

    DOE Data Explorer

    WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

    There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

    There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and

  11. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  12. Dissemination Networks: Information Resources for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    Descriptive information is provided on 22 networks sponsored by the National Institute of Education (NIE) or the United States Office of Education (USOE) for the dissemination of educational information. The directory is arranged alphabetically by network title, followed by its acronym, sponsoring bureau/office, major functions, network members,…

  13. Resource optimization scheme for multimedia-enabled wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-08-08

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment.

  14. Resource Optimization Scheme for Multimedia-Enabled Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md. Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. PMID:25111241

  15. Development of Electronic Resources across Networks in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratchatavorn, Phandao

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of electronic resources across library networks in Thailand to meet user needs, particularly electronic journals. Topics include concerns about journal access; limited budgets for library acquisitions of journals; and sharing resources through a centralized database system that allows Web access to journals via Internet…

  16. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method. PMID:25884031

  17. Living in a network of scaling cities and finite resources.

    PubMed

    Qubbaj, Murad R; Shutters, Shade T; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2015-02-01

    Many urban phenomena exhibit remarkable regularity in the form of nonlinear scaling behaviors, but their implications on a system of networked cities has never been investigated. Such knowledge is crucial for our ability to harness the complexity of urban processes to further sustainability science. In this paper, we develop a dynamical modeling framework that embeds population-resource dynamics-a generalized Lotka-Volterra system with modifications to incorporate the urban scaling behaviors-in complex networks in which cities may be linked to the resources of other cities and people may migrate in pursuit of higher welfare. We find that isolated cities (i.e., no migration) are susceptible to collapse if they do not have access to adequate resources. Links to other cities may help cities that would otherwise collapse due to insufficient resources. The effects of inter-city links, however, can vary due to the interplay between the nonlinear scaling behaviors and network structure. The long-term population level of a city is, in many settings, largely a function of the city's access to resources over which the city has little or no competition. Nonetheless, careful investigation of dynamics is required to gain mechanistic understanding of a particular city-resource network because cities and resources may collapse and the scaling behaviors may influence the effects of inter-city links, thereby distorting what topological metrics really measure. PMID:24722889

  18. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Study No. 1. Life Sciences Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    A life sciences network which will be one of ten Australian resource sharing networks to be developed by the Australian National Scientific and Technical Library (ANSTEL) is proposed. The study outlines major elements and concepts of the system, including technical considerations, costing, management, and an implementation plan for the network.…

  19. A Network-Individual-Resource Model for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Blair T.; Redding, Colleen A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Mustanski, Brian S.; Dodge, Brian M.; Sheeran, Paschal; Warren, Michelle R.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Fisher, William A.; Conner, Mark T.; Carey, Michael P.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Stall, Ronald D.; Fishbein, Martin

    2014-01-01

    HIV is transmitted through dyadic exchanges of individuals linked in transitory or permanent networks of varying sizes. To optimize prevention efficacy, a complementary theoretical perspective that bridges key individual level elements with important network elements can be a foundation for developing and implementing HIV interventions with outcomes that are more sustainable over time and have greater dissemination potential. Toward that end, we introduce a Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) model for HIV prevention that recognizes how exchanges of resources between individuals and their networks underlies and sustains HIV-risk behaviors. Individual behavior change for HIV prevention, then, may be dependent on increasing the supportiveness of that individual's relevant networks for such change. Among other implications, an NIR model predicts that the success of prevention efforts depends on whether the prevention efforts (1) prompt behavior changes that can be sustained by the resources the individual or their networks possess; (2) meet individual and network needs and are consistent with the individual's current situation/developmental stage; (3) are trusted and valued; and (4) target high HIV-prevalence networks. PMID:20862606

  20. A network-individual-resource model for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blair T; Redding, Colleen A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Mustanski, Brian S; Dodge, Brian; Sheeran, Paschal; Warren, Michelle R; Zimmerman, Rick S; Fisher, William A; Conner, Mark T; Carey, Michael P; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Stall, Ronald D; Fishbein, Martin

    2010-12-01

    HIV is transmitted through dyadic exchanges of individuals linked in transitory or permanent networks of varying sizes. A theoretical perspective that bridges key individual level elements with important network elements can be a complementary foundation for developing and implementing HIV interventions with outcomes that are more sustainable over time and have greater dissemination potential. Toward that end, we introduce a Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) model for HIV prevention that recognizes how exchanges of resources between individuals and their networks underlies and sustains HIV-risk behaviors. Individual behavior change for HIV prevention, then, may be dependent on increasing the supportiveness of that individual's relevant networks for such change. Among other implications, an NIR model predicts that the success of prevention efforts depends on whether the prevention efforts (1) prompt behavior changes that can be sustained by the resources the individual or their networks possess; (2) meet individual and network needs and are consistent with the individual's current situation/developmental stage; (3) are trusted and valued; and (4) target high HIV-prevalence networks. PMID:20862606

  1. Resource Discovery within the Networked "Hybrid" Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Sally-Anne

    This paper focuses on the development, adoption, and integration of resource discovery, knowledge management, and/or knowledge sharing interfaces such as interactive portals, and the use of the library's World Wide Web presence to increase the availability and usability of information services. The introduction addresses changes in library…

  2. Dynamic resource allocation in hybrid access femtocell network.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Afaz Uddin; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Ghanbarisabagh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA) for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP) owners' satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners' satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network. PMID:24782662

  3. Space Network Control Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the Space Network Control (SNC) Conference. In the late 1990s, when the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is operational, Space Network communication services will be supported and controlled by the SNC. The goals of the conference were to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches, to identify solutions applicable to the Space Network, and to identify avenues of study in support of the SNC development. The conference was divided into three sessions: (1) Concepts for Space Network Allocation; (2) SNC and User Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) Human-Computer Interface Concepts; and (3) Resource Allocation Tools, Technology, and Algorithms. Key recommendations addressed approaches to achieving higher levels of automation in the scheduling process.

  4. Smart Equipment and Virtual Resources trigger Network Principles in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehnle, H.

    2014-06-01

    Computing miniaturization and smart devices rapidly change manufacturing. Decentralization and atomisation of resources uncover novel manufacturing behaviour. Virtual representations of units, processes and resources enforce unaccustomed network principles with strategic impact and irrefutable implications on manufacturing. Eventually manufacturing in total might have to be reconsidered. Distributed manufacturing, largely engaging interacting intelligent manufacturing units and decentralized planning, may be regarded as the manufacturing future. Gradually evolving decision procedures clearly illustrate important effects of irreversible shifts of focus towards units' collaboration and interoperability.

  5. Deep space network resource scheduling approach and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggemeyer, William C.; Bowling, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) resource scheduling is the process of distributing ground-based facilities to track multiple spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has carried out extensive research to find ways of automating this process in an effort to reduce time and manpower costs. This paper presents a resource-scheduling system entitled PLAN-IT with a description of its design philosophy. The PLAN-IT's current on-line usage and limitations in scheduling the resources of the DSN are discussed, along with potential enhancements for DSN application.

  6. Resource redistribution in polydomous ant nest networks: local or global?

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Daniel W.; Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2014-01-01

    An important problem facing organisms in a heterogeneous environment is how to redistribute resources to where they are required. This is particularly complex in social insect societies as resources have to be moved both from the environment into the nest and between individuals within the nest. Polydomous ant colonies are split between multiple spatially separated, but socially connected, nests. Whether, and how, resources are redistributed between nests in polydomous colonies is unknown. We analyzed the nest networks of the facultatively polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris. Our results indicate that resource redistribution in polydomous F. lugubris colonies is organized at the local level between neighboring nests and not at the colony level. We found that internest trails connecting nests that differed more in their amount of foraging were stronger than trails between nests with more equal foraging activity. This indicates that resources are being exchanged directly from nests with a foraging excess to nests that require resources. In contrast, we found no significant relationships between nest properties, such as size and amount of foraging, and network measures such as centrality and connectedness. This indicates an absence of a colony-level resource exchange. This is a clear example of a complex behavior emerging as a result of local interactions between parts of a system. PMID:25214755

  7. Pricing resources in LTE networks through multiobjective optimization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid "user churn," which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  8. Pricing resources in LTE networks through multiobjective optimization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid "user churn," which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution. PMID:24526889

  9. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-09-15

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  10. Improving land resource evaluation using fuzzy neural network ensembles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    XUE, Y.-J.; HU, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-G.; YANG, J.-F.; CHEN, Q.-C.; BAO, S.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Land evaluation factors often contain continuous-, discrete- and nominal-valued attributes. In traditional land evaluation, these different attributes are usually graded into categorical indexes by land resource experts, and the evaluation results rely heavily on experts' experiences. In order to overcome the shortcoming, we presented a fuzzy neural network ensemble method that did not require grading the evaluation factors into categorical indexes and could evaluate land resources by using the three kinds of attribute values directly. A fuzzy back propagation neural network (BPNN), a fuzzy radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), a fuzzy BPNN ensemble, and a fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were used to evaluate the land resources in Guangdong Province. The evaluation results by using the fuzzy BPNN ensemble and the fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were much better than those by using the single fuzzy BPNN and the single fuzzy RBFNN, and the error rate of the single fuzzy RBFNN or fuzzy RBFNN ensemble was lower than that of the single fuzzy BPNN or fuzzy BPNN ensemble, respectively. By using the fuzzy neural network ensembles, the validity of land resource evaluation was improved and reliance on land evaluators' experiences was considerably reduced. ?? 2007 Soil Science Society of China.

  11. The CREATE Network (Computer Resource Educational Access in Tennessee Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Fletcher F.

    The CREATE Network (Computer Resource Educational Access in Tennessee Education) brought together library professionals from Tennessee's seven historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) for purposes of training and implementation of library applications of computer-based information technology. Annual training seminars were held at…

  12. Resource Management in QoS-Aware Wireless Cellular Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Emerging broadband wireless networks that support high speed packet data with heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) requirements demand more flexible and efficient use of the scarce spectral resource. Opportunistic scheduling exploits the time-varying, location-dependent channel conditions to achieve multiuser diversity. In this work, we study…

  13. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sampangi, Raghav V.; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis. PMID:26389899

  14. An open repositories network development for medical teaching resources.

    PubMed

    Soula, Gérard; Darmoni, Stefan; Le Beux, Pierre; Renard, Jean-Marie; Dahamna, Badisse; Fieschi, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The lack of interoperability between repositories of heterogeneous and geographically widespread data is an obstacle to the diffusion, sharing and reutilization of those data. We present the development of an open repositories network taking into account both the syntactic and semantic interoperability of the different repositories and based on international standards in this field. The network is used by the medical community in France for the diffusion and sharing of digital teaching resources. The syntactic interoperability of the repositories is managed using the OAI-PMH protocol for the exchange of metadata describing the resources. Semantic interoperability is based, on one hand, on the LOM standard for the description of resources and on MESH for the indexing of the latter and, on the other hand, on semantic interoperability management designed to optimize compliance with standards and the quality of the metadata. PMID:20841759

  15. Fair sharing of resources in a supply network with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Just, Wolfram; Helbing, Dirk; Arrowsmith, David K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of network topology on the fair allocation of network resources among a set of agents, an all-important issue for the efficiency of transportation networks all around us. We analyze a generic mechanism that distributes network capacity fairly among existing flow demands. The problem can be solved by semianalytical methods on a nearest-neighbor graph with one source and sink pair, when transport occurs over shortest paths. For this setup, we uncover a broad range of patterns of intersecting shortest paths as a function of the distance between the source and the sink. When the number of intersections is the maximum and the distance between the source and the sink is large, we find that a fair allocation implies a decrease of at least 50% from the maximum throughput. We also find that the histogram of the flow allocations assigned to the agents decays as a power law with exponent -1. Our semianalytical framework suggests possible explanations for the well-known reduction of the throughput in fair allocations. It also suggests that the combination of network topology and routing rules can lead to highly uneven (but fair) distributions of resources, a remark of caution to network designers.

  16. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  17. Intent-based resource deployment in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Sullivan, Paul; Grueneberg, Keith; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Information derived from sensor networks plays a crucial role in the success of many critical tasks such as surveillance, and border monitoring. In order to derive the correct information at the right time, sensor data must be captured at desired locations with respect to the operational tasks in concern. Therefore, it is important that at the planning stage of a mission, sensing resources are best placed in the field to capture the required data. For example, consider a mission goal identify snipers, in an operational area before troops are deployed - two acoustic arrays and a day-night video camera are needed to successfully achieve this goal. This is because, if the resources are placed in correct locations, two acoustic arrays could provide direction of the shooter and a possible location by triangulating acoustic data whereas the day-night camera could produce an affirmative image of the perpetrators. In order to deploy the sensing resources intelligently to support the user decisions, in this paper we propose a Semantic Web based knowledge layer to identify the required resources in a sensor network and deploy the needed resources through a sensor infrastructure. The knowledge layer captures crucial information such as resources configurations, their intended use (e.g., two acoustic arrays deployed in a particular formation with day-night camera are needed to identify perpetrators in a possible sniper attack). The underlying sensor infrastructure will assists the process by exposing the information about deployed resources, resources in theatre, and location information about tasks, resources and so on.

  18. Resource constrained design of artificial neural networks using comparator neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Karnik, Tanay S.

    1992-01-01

    We present a systematic design method executed under resource constraints for automating the design of artificial neural networks using the back error propagation algorithm. Our system aims at finding the best possible configuration for solving the given application with proper tradeoff between the training time and the network complexity. The design of such a system is hampered by three related problems. First, there are infinitely many possible network configurations, each may take an exceedingly long time to train; hence, it is impossible to enumerate and train all of them to completion within fixed time, space, and resource constraints. Second, expert knowledge on predicting good network configurations is heuristic in nature and is application dependent, rendering it difficult to characterize fully in the design process. A learning procedure that refines this knowledge based on examples on training neural networks for various applications is, therefore, essential. Third, the objective of the network to be designed is ill-defined, as it is based on a subjective tradeoff between the training time and the network cost. A design process that proposes alternate configurations under different cost-performance tradeoff is important. We have developed a Design System which schedules the available time, divided into quanta, for testing alternative network configurations. Its goal is to select/generate and test alternative network configurations in each quantum, and find the best network when time is expended. Since time is limited, a dynamic schedule that determines the network configuration to be tested in each quantum is developed. The schedule is based on relative comparison of predicted training times of alternative network configurations using comparator network paradigm. The comparator network has been trained to compare training times for a large variety of traces of TSSE-versus-time collected during back-propagation learning of various applications.

  19. A Novel College Network Resource Management Method using Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen

    At present information construction of college mainly has construction of college networks and management information system; there are many problems during the process of information. Cloud computing is development of distributed processing, parallel processing and grid computing, which make data stored on the cloud, make software and services placed in the cloud and build on top of various standards and protocols, you can get it through all kinds of equipments. This article introduces cloud computing and function of cloud computing, then analyzes the exiting problems of college network resource management, the cloud computing technology and methods are applied in the construction of college information sharing platform.

  20. Reinforcement learning techniques for controlling resources in power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowli, Anupama Sunil

    As power grids transition towards increased reliance on renewable generation, energy storage and demand response resources, an effective control architecture is required to harness the full functionalities of these resources. There is a critical need for control techniques that recognize the unique characteristics of the different resources and exploit the flexibility afforded by them to provide ancillary services to the grid. The work presented in this dissertation addresses these needs. Specifically, new algorithms are proposed, which allow control synthesis in settings wherein the precise distribution of the uncertainty and its temporal statistics are not known. These algorithms are based on recent developments in Markov decision theory, approximate dynamic programming and reinforcement learning. They impose minimal assumptions on the system model and allow the control to be "learned" based on the actual dynamics of the system. Furthermore, they can accommodate complex constraints such as capacity and ramping limits on generation resources, state-of-charge constraints on storage resources, comfort-related limitations on demand response resources and power flow limits on transmission lines. Numerical studies demonstrating applications of these algorithms to practical control problems in power systems are discussed. Results demonstrate how the proposed control algorithms can be used to improve the performance and reduce the computational complexity of the economic dispatch mechanism in a power network. We argue that the proposed algorithms are eminently suitable to develop operational decision-making tools for large power grids with many resources and many sources of uncertainty.

  1. 76 FR 39417 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Tenant Resource Network Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Tenant Resource Network... following information: Title of Proposal: Tenant Resource Network Program. OMB Approval Number:...

  2. 76 FR 12983 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Tenant Resource Network Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Tenant Resource Network... information: Title of Proposal: Tenant Resource Network Program. OMB Control Number, if applicable:...

  3. Resource allocation in circuit-switched all-optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Douglas; Barry, Richard A.; Finn, Steven G.; Parikh, Salil A.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston area, and research surrounding the allocation of optical resources -- frequencies and time slots -- within the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes tea support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Of particular interest for this work is the 'B-service,' which simultaneously hops frequency and time slots on each optical terminal to allow frequency sharing within the AON. B-service provides 1.244 Gbps per optical terminal, with bandwidth for individual connections divided in increments as small as 10 Mbps. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. The packet switches provide FDDI (datacomm), T3 (telecomm), and ATM/SONET switching at backplane rates of over 3 Gbps. We show results on network applications that dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users. Bandwidth allocation granularity is proportional to B-Service slots (10-1244 Mbps), and switching times are on the order of one second. We have also studied the effects of wavelength changers upon the network capacity and blocking probabilities in wide area all-optical networks. Wavelength changers allow a change in the carrier frequency (within the network) without disturbing the data modulation. The study includes both a theoretical model of blocking probabilities based on network design parameters, and a computer simulation of blocking in networks with and

  4. 77 FR 33229 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: National Resource Network. OMB... Resource Network. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2012 (Pub....

  5. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  6. Dynamic optical resource allocation for mobile core networks with software defined elastic optical networking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xinbo

    2016-07-25

    Driven by the forthcoming of 5G mobile communications, the all-IP architecture of mobile core networks, i.e. evolved packet core (EPC) proposed by 3GPP, has been greatly challenged by the users' demands for higher data rate and more reliable end-to-end connection, as well as operators' demands for low operational cost. These challenges can be potentially met by software defined optical networking (SDON), which enables dynamic resource allocation according to the users' requirement. In this article, a novel network architecture for mobile core network is proposed based on SDON. A software defined network (SDN) controller is designed to realize the coordinated control over different entities in EPC networks. We analyze the requirement of EPC-lightpath (EPCL) in data plane and propose an optical switch load balancing (OSLB) algorithm for resource allocation in optical layer. The procedure of establishment and adjustment of EPCLs is demonstrated on a SDON-based EPC testbed with extended OpenFlow protocol. We also evaluate the OSLB algorithm through simulation in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, traffic load distribution, and resource utilization ratio compared with link-based load balancing (LLB) and MinHops algorithms. PMID:27464120

  7. Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  8. HUBNET: Wide Area Network utilization of Local Area Network medical reference and communication resources.

    PubMed Central

    Loonsk, J. W.; Schweigel, J. E.; Carr, D.

    1994-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its associated teaching sites have developed and partially implemented a regional Wide Area Network (WAN) in Buffalo and Western New York. The school wishes to use this WAN to deliver reference and communication resources to students, residents and faculty. The richest pool of easy to use reference and communication resources are PC software programs that are intended for individual workstations or at best, client-server, Local Area Network (LAN) implementation. HUBNET (Hospitals and University at Buffalo Library Resource Network), a project of the School of Medicine and the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo offers integrated presentation of many such LAN resources over this regional WAN. The system crosses many institutional boundaries and reaches physically remote sites in a complex mix of information systems environments with few issues related to performance. The system design provides a level of ease of use that has brought many new users into active computer use while addressing integration into diverse information systems settings and networking environments. PMID:7949959

  9. Integrating In Silico Resources to Map a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanqing; Beck, Tim N.; Golemis, Erica A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of publicly available life science databases offer a wealth of information that can support interpretation of experimentally derived data and greatly enhance hypothesis generation. Protein interaction and functional networks are not simply new renditions of existing data: they provide the opportunity to gain insights into the specific physical and functional role a protein plays as part of the biological system. In this chapter, we describe different in silico tools that can quickly and conveniently retrieve data from existing data repositories and discuss how the available tools are best utilized for different purposes. While emphasizing protein-protein interaction databases (e.g., BioGrid and IntAct), we also introduce metasearch platforms such as STRING and GeneMANIA, pathway databases (e.g., BioCarta and Pathway Commons), text mining approaches (e.g., PubMed and Chilibot), and resources for drug-protein interactions, genetic information for model organisms and gene expression information based on microarray data mining. Furthermore, we provide a simple step-by-step protocol to building customized protein-protein interaction networks in Cytoscape, a powerful network assembly and visualization program, integrating data retrieved from these various databases. As we illustrate, generation of composite interaction networks enables investigators to extract significantly more information about a given biological system than utilization of a single database or sole reliance on primary literature. PMID:24233784

  10. Bi-modal Distribution of the Second Messenger c-di-GMP Controls Cell Fate and Asymmetry during the Caulobacter Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Sören; Hug, Isabelle; Kaever, Volkhard; Abel zur Wiesch, Pia; Jenal, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria mediate important life-style decisions by varying levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP. Behavioral transitions result from the coordination of complex cellular processes such as motility, surface adherence or the production of virulence factors and toxins. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these processes have been elucidated in some cases, the global pleiotropic effects of c-di-GMP are poorly understood, primarily because c-di-GMP networks are inherently complex in most bacteria. Moreover, the quantitative relationships between cellular c-di-GMP levels and c-di-GMP dependent phenotypes are largely unknown. Here, we dissect the c-di-GMP network of Caulobacter crescentus to establish a global and quantitative view of c-di-GMP dependent processes in this organism. A genetic approach that gradually reduced the number of diguanylate cyclases identified novel c-di-GMP dependent cellular processes and unraveled c-di-GMP as an essential component of C. crescentus cell polarity and its bimodal life cycle. By varying cellular c-di-GMP concentrations, we determined dose response curves for individual c-di-GMP-dependent processes. Relating these values to c-di-GMP levels modeled for single cells progressing through the cell cycle sets a quantitative frame for the successive activation of c-di-GMP dependent processes during the C. crescentus life cycle. By reconstructing a simplified c-di-GMP network in a strain devoid of c-di-GMP we defined the minimal requirements for the oscillation of c-di-GMP levels during the C. crescentus cell cycle. Finally, we show that although all c-di-GMP dependent cellular processes were qualitatively restored by artificially adjusting c-di-GMP levels with a heterologous diguanylate cyclase, much higher levels of the second messenger are required under these conditions as compared to the contribution of homologous c-di-GMP metabolizing enzymes. These experiments suggest that a common c-di-GMP pool cannot fully

  11. A Bi-Modal Distribution of ALHA77307 Matrix Olivine: Evidence for Fine-Grained Mixing from Multiple Reservoirs in the CO Formation Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Brearley, A.; Le, L.

    2011-01-01

    The CO 3.0 chondrite ALHA77307 is thought to be the least metamorphosed of all the CO chondrites [1]. As such, the fine-grained (<30 m) olivine found in its matrix is a valuable resource for investigating the CO formation environment since its compositions should be primary. In the CO matrix, we indeed find a wide range of major element compositions (Fa(0.5-71)). However, more importantly, we find that the olivines make up two compositionally distinct populations (Fa(0.5-5) and Fa(21-71)). Grains from both populations are found within an extremely close proximity and we see no obvious evidence of two distinct lithologies within our samples. Therefore, we conclude that the olivine grains found in the ALHA77307 matrix must have crystallized within two unique formation conditions and were later mixed at a very fine scale during the accretion epoch. Here, we propose a possible explanation based on Cr and Mn concentrations in the olivine.

  12. Software for Allocating Resources in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester; Zendejas, Silvino; Baldwin, John

    2003-01-01

    TIGRAS 2.0 is a computer program designed to satisfy a need for improved means for analyzing the tracking demands of interplanetary space-flight missions upon the set of ground antenna resources of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and for allocating those resources. Written in Microsoft Visual C++, TIGRAS 2.0 provides a single rich graphical analysis environment for use by diverse DSN personnel, by connecting to various data sources (relational databases or files) based on the stages of the analyses being performed. Notable among the algorithms implemented by TIGRAS 2.0 are a DSN antenna-load-forecasting algorithm and a conflict-aware DSN schedule-generating algorithm. Computers running TIGRAS 2.0 can also be connected using SOAP/XML to a Web services server that provides analysis services via the World Wide Web. TIGRAS 2.0 supports multiple windows and multiple panes in each window for users to view and use information, all in the same environment, to eliminate repeated switching among various application programs and Web pages. TIGRAS 2.0 enables the use of multiple windows for various requirements, trajectory-based time intervals during which spacecraft are viewable, ground resources, forecasts, and schedules. Each window includes a time navigation pane, a selection pane, a graphical display pane, a list pane, and a statistics pane.

  13. A peer-to-peer resource scheduling approach for photonic grid network based on OBGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Runze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we present a resource scheduling mechanism for providing dynamic lightpaths to photonic grid network and point out that grid enabled by optical network has huge potential effect on pushing the next optical network applications. Furthermore we investigate photonic grid architecture and control plane based on peer-to-peer is also provided to control optical network communication resources dynamically. We also certificate the idea of extending BGP towards optical network, which is called Optical Border Gateway Protocol used to provide IP-based protocols to control optical network, and gives a dynamic lightpath scheduling approach over multi-wavelength optical network as a new grid service based on OBGP.

  14. Network Resources and Training Site at Elizabeth City State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Linda Bailey

    1996-01-01

    The format of the annual report follows the same format as the quarterly report. In the annual report Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) has included responses to the items listed in the 'Critique of Quarterly Report Summary, and the 'Technical Recommendations for Consideration to NRTS/ECSU'. A budget for FY96-97 is included requesting $500,000.00 to cover the operating expenses of the Network Resources Training Site (NRTS) and its current partners as outlined in the original grant. The final attachment is a proposal to expand the partnerships and services of the NRTS at ECSU. This proposal would increase the number of predominantly minority attended secondary schools that this NRTS services and to support participation of these secondary schools in the GLOBE, ATLAS and Skymath projects. The proposal would also make Bennett College a full partner in the NRTS and it would increase the networking funds available to Virginia State University (HBCU/MI partner). Funds to increase the NRTS staff size to support the new partners and extended services is included in the extension budget. The NRTS Office Staff provides training and technical expertise to all its partners. In the appendix of the report, you will find technical soundness questionnaires and campus LAN Diagrams for the HBCU/MI Partners.

  15. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  16. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  17. Opportunistic Resource Scheduling for a Wireless Network with Relay Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jeong-Ahn; Lee, Jang-Won

    In this paper, we study an opportunistic scheduling scheme for the TDMA wireless network with relay stations. We model the time-varying channel condition of a wireless link as a stochastic process. Based on this model, we formulate an optimization problem for the opportunistic scheduling scheme that maximizes the expected system throughput while satisfying the QoS constraint of each user. In the opportunistic scheduling scheme for the system without relay stations, each user has only one communication path between the base station and itself, and thus only user selection is considered. However, in our opportunistic scheduling scheme for the system with relay stations, since there may exist multiple paths between the base station and a user, not only user selection but also path selection for the scheduled user is considered. In addition, we also propose an opportunistic time-sharing method for time-slot sharing between base station and relay stations. With the opportunistic time-sharing method, our opportunistic scheduling provides opportunistic resource sharing in three places in the system: user selection in a time-slot, path selection for the selected user, and time-slot sharing between base station and relay stations. Simulation results show that as the number of places that opportunistic resource sharing is applied to increases, the performance improvement also increases.

  18. Ohio Resource Network: Mobilizing Colleges and Universities to Benefit Business & Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    The Ohio Resource Network's potential usefulness to Ohio's businesses and industries are discussed. The network provides Ohio executives and managers the resources of 62 state-assisted colleges and universities. Faculty can assist business/industry in five types of applications: using the latest technology, increasing productivity, financial…

  19. Creating a specialist protein resource network: a meeting report for the protein bioinformatics and community resources retreat.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Patricia C; Bagos, Pantelis G; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Chen, Mark Jinan; Craik, David J; Finn, Robert D; Gloriam, David; Haft, Daniel H; Henrissat, Bernard; Holliday, Gemma L; Isberg, Vignir; Kaas, Quentin; Landsman, David; Lenfant, Nicolas; Manning, Gerard; Nagano, Nozomi; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; O'Donovan, Claire; Pruitt, Kim D; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Rawlings, Neil D; Saier, Milton H; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Vastermark, Ake; Vriend, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    During 11-12 August 2014, a Protein Bioinformatics and Community Resources Retreat was held at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus in Hinxton, UK. This meeting brought together the principal investigators of several specialized protein resources (such as CAZy, TCDB and MEROPS) as well as those from protein databases from the large Bioinformatics centres (including UniProt and RefSeq). The retreat was divided into five sessions: (1) key challenges, (2) the databases represented, (3) best practices for maintenance and curation, (4) information flow to and from large data centers and (5) communication and funding. An important outcome of this meeting was the creation of a Specialist Protein Resource Network that we believe will improve coordination of the activities of its member resources. We invite further protein database resources to join the network and continue the dialogue. PMID:26284514

  20. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral palsy - resources Celiac disease - resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - ...

  1. Protecting core networks with dual-homing: A study on enhanced network availability, resource efficiency, and energy-savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Furdek, Marija; Monti, Paolo; Wosinska, Lena; Wong, Elaine

    2016-12-01

    Core network survivability affects the reliability performance of telecommunication networks and remains one of the most important network design considerations. This paper critically examines the benefits arising from utilizing dual-homing in the optical access networks to provide resource-efficient protection against link and node failures in the optical core segment. Four novel, heuristic-based RWA algorithms that provide dedicated path protection in networks with dual-homing are proposed and studied. These algorithms protect against different failure scenarios (i.e. single link or node failures) and are implemented with different optimization objectives (i.e., minimization of wavelength usage and path length). Results obtained through simulations and comparison with baseline architectures indicate that exploiting dual-homed architecture in the access segment can bring significant improvements in terms of core network resource usage, connection availability, and power consumption.

  2. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-13

    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use. PMID:24514964

  3. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-13

    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.

  4. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  5. Immiscible Fe- and Si-rich silicate melts in plagioclase from the Baima mafic intrusion (SW China): Implications for the origin of bi-modal igneous suites in large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Christina Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    -scale Si-rich melts at least started from the lower part of the Upper Zone. We thus infer that the Baima high-Ti basaltic magmas evolved into the field of immiscible Fe-rich and Si-rich melts. Prolonged fractional crystallization of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene from the Fe-rich melts formed gabbro and olivine gabbro in the UZa, before the melts became saturated in Fe-Ti oxides and apatite and formed apatite-rich Fe-Ti oxide ores in the UZb. Immiscible Si-rich melts migrated upwards and coalesced to form fayalite syenite around the Baima intrusion. Silicate liquid immiscibility may have played an important role in the petrogenesis of Fe-Ti oxide-rich layered mafic intrusions and syenitic rocks in the ELIP and elsewhere. This mechanism may be common and may explain the traditionally thought bi-modal assemblages of large igneous provinces in intra-continental extensional settings.

  6. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them. PMID:26610512

  7. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  8. DELPHI--An Information Resource in a Multivendor Multiprotocol Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedayao, Jeff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes DELPHI, a networked information resource for Intel Corporation that provides a bulletin board, databases, technical memos, hazardous material handling information, and stock quotes. Topics addressed include the diverse network environments at Intel, connecting the services to these environments, experiences with DELPHI, and future plans.…

  9. Optimal resource allocation for multicast sessions in multi-hop wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Bui, Loc; Srikant, R; Stolyar, Alexander

    2008-06-13

    In this paper, we extend recent results on fair and stable resource allocation in wireless networks to include multicast sessions, in particular multi-rate multicast. The solution for multi-rate multicast is based on scheduling virtual (shadow) 'traffic' that 'moves' in reverse direction from destinations to sources. This shadow scheduling algorithm can also be used to control delays in wireless networks.

  10. Resource and Referral Service: A Report on Electronic Networks for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruth; Smink, Jay

    This report describes the activities of the Resource and Referral Service (RRS), which was established in 1977 as a member of a nationwide dissemination network called the Research and Development Exchange (RDx), in using electronic networks as part of its dissemination effort. Discussed first are the history and objectives of RRS. The next…

  11. Enhancing Teaching and Learning Wi-Fi Networking Using Limited Resources to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Nurul I.

    2013-01-01

    Motivating students to learn Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) wireless networking to undergraduate students is often difficult because many students find the subject rather technical and abstract when presented in traditional lecture format. This paper focuses on the teaching and learning aspects of Wi-Fi networking using limited hardware resources. It…

  12. Decision Support System in the Management of Resource-Sharing Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubey, Yogendra P.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on emergence of decision support system (DSS) as a practical approach for applying computers and information to problems facing management. Information processing and decision making in organizations, simulation-model-based DSS in management of library resource sharing networks, and a resource-sharing simulation system are highlighted.…

  13. Opportunistic Resource Scheduling with Effective QoS Support in Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hanjin; Lee, Jihoon

    This letter suggests an opportunistic resource scheduling scheme for supporting users with variety of services in wireless network. This scheme is designed to increase resource utilization while meeting diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements. It can be achieved by considering the channel status and the urgency for QoS support synthetically.

  14. Resource Management In Peer-To-Peer Networks: A Nadse Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. B.; Garg, Vishal

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a common solution to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network problems and distributed computing with the help of "Neighbor Assisted Distributed and Scalable Environment" (NADSE). NADSE supports both device and code mobility. In this article mainly we focus on the NADSE based resource management technique. How information dissemination and searching is speedup when using the NADSE service provider node in large network. Results show that performance of the NADSE network is better in comparison to Gnutella, and Freenet.

  15. Space Network Control (SNC) Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In session 1 of the conference, Concepts for space network resource allocation was the main topic. In session 2, Space Network Control and user payload operations and control center human-computer interface, was the topic of discussion. The topic of session 3 was Resource allocation tools, technology, and algorithms. Some of the stated goals for the conference are as follows: to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches; to identify solutions applicable to the SN problem; to identify fruitful avenues of study in support of SNC development; and to capture knowledge in proceedings and make available to bidders on the SNC concept definition procurement.

  16. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach.

  17. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach. PMID:25683347

  18. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nobles, Patricia L.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) network of 223 real-time monitoring stations, the 'Georgia HydroWatch,' provides real-time water-stage data, with streamflow computed at 198 locations, and rainfall recorded at 187 stations. These sites continuously record data on 15-minute intervals and transmit the data via satellite to be incorporated into the USGS National Water Information System database. These data are automatically posted to the USGS Web site for public dissemination (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/nwis). The real-time capability of this network provides information to help emergency-management officials protect human life and property during floods, and mitigate the effects of prolonged drought. The map at right shows the USGS streamflow monitoring network for Georgia and major watersheds. Streamflow is monitored at 198 sites statewide, more than 80 percent of which include precipitation gages. Various Federal, State, and local agencies fund these streamflow monitoring stations.

  19. Research on spectral resource optimization and self-healing technology of hybrid optical fiber sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Sang, Mei; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanghui; Liu, Tiegen

    2015-08-01

    We propose an optical-fiber-sensing-network (OFSN) to allow hybrid fiber sensors working in the same network and it achieves self-healing function. The discrete and distributed optical fiber sensors can be connected in sub-layers of the network. WDM-OTDM technique is introduced to convert multi-wavelengths of light source into a specific arranged wavelength in each sub-layer. Thus every sub-layer can share the system spectrum resources, and sensing signals of each sub-layer are transmitted together in the backbone network. To achieve self-healing function, double-ring structure is adopted in the backbone network. Node microprocessor program is designed to make switching to the protect fiber when working fiber is broken. The experimental backbone setup of the network demonstrates the practical reliability and intelligence of the optical sensing network.

  20. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  1. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  2. Water resources: Research network to track alpine water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water cycle in alpine environments worldwide supplies fresh water to vast downstream areas inhabited by more than half of humanity. The International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (INARCH) was launched this year by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project of the World Clim...

  3. Library Resource-Sharing in the Network-Centric World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob

    This paper discusses changes in services, technology, and organization as libraries prepare to enter the "network-centric library world." Part 1 addresses the transition from the analog era to the digital age, and the convergence of libraries and education, including opportunities for library leadership in Internet access, digital literacy, and…

  4. Student Responses to Network Resources: Formative Evaluation of Two Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruberg, Laurie F.; Taylor, C. David

    This study provides detailed descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of student interactions and participation that occurred in computer-mediated interactive writing activities in two different college classroom network situations. A freshman composition class focused on the teaching of writing through assigned exercises and incorporated…

  5. Effects of friend-making resources/costs and remembering on acquaintance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Yu-Shiuan

    2010-02-01

    We consider two overlooked yet important factors that affect acquaintance network evolution and formation- friend-making resources and remembering-and propose a bottom-up, network-oriented simulation model based on three rules representing human social interactions. Our proposed model reproduces many topological features of real-world acquaintance networks, including a small-world phenomenon and a sharply peaked connectivity distribution feature that mixes power-law and exponential distribution types. We believe that this is an improvement over fieldwork sampling methods that fail to capture acquaintance network node connectivity distributions. Our model may produce valuable results for sociologists working with social opinion formation and epidemiologists studying epidemic dynamics.

  6. Guaranteed Access to Campus Network Resources: Policies and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Ardoth A.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a options and issues discussion at a December 1997 Orlando (Florida) meeting of CAUSE97 on providing access to campus technology resources. Options discussed included departmentally and/or university-owned modems, third-party provider contracts, and using wireless access. Issues included providing authentication, assuring network…

  7. Competition for Catalytic Resources Alters Biological Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondelez, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    Genetic regulation networks orchestrate many complex cellular behaviors. Dynamic operations that take place within cells are thus dependent on the gene expression machinery, enabled by powerful enzymes such as polymerases, ribosomes, or nucleases. These generalist enzymes typically process many different substrates, potentially leading to competitive situations: by saturating the common enzyme, one substrate may down-regulate its competitors. However, most theoretical or experimental models simply omit these effects, focusing on the pattern of genetic regulatory interactions as the main determinant of network function. We show here that competition effects have important outcomes, which can be spotted within the global dynamics of experimental systems. Further we demonstrate that enzyme saturation creates a layer of cross couplings that may foster, but also hamper, the expected behavior of synthetic biology constructs.

  8. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  9. A cross-domain communication resource scheduling method for grid-enabled communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiangquan; Wen, Xiang; Zhang, Yongding

    2011-10-01

    To support a wide range of different grid applications in environments where various heterogeneous communication networks coexist, it is important to enable advanced capabilities in on-demand and dynamical integration and efficient co-share with cross-domain heterogeneous communication resource, thus providing communication services which are impossible for single communication resource to afford. Based on plug-and-play co-share and soft integration with communication resource, Grid-enabled communication network is flexibly built up to provide on-demand communication services for gird applications with various requirements on quality of service. Based on the analysis of joint job and communication resource scheduling in grid-enabled communication networks (GECN), this paper presents a cross multi-domain communication resource cooperatively scheduling method and describes the main processes such as traffic requirement resolution for communication services, cross multi-domain negotiation on communication resource, on-demand communication resource scheduling, and so on. The presented method is to afford communication service capability to cross-domain traffic delivery in GECNs. Further research work towards validation and implement of the presented method is pointed out at last.

  10. Co-scheduling of network resource provisioning and host-to-host bandwidth reservation on high-performance network and storage systems

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Dantong; Katramatos, Dimitrios; Sim, Alexander; Shoshani, Arie

    2014-04-22

    A cross-domain network resource reservation scheduler configured to schedule a path from at least one end-site includes a management plane device configured to monitor and provide information representing at least one of functionality, performance, faults, and fault recovery associated with a network resource; a control plane device configured to at least one of schedule the network resource, provision local area network quality of service, provision local area network bandwidth, and provision wide area network bandwidth; and a service plane device configured to interface with the control plane device to reserve the network resource based on a reservation request and the information from the management plane device. Corresponding methods and computer-readable medium are also disclosed.

  11. Agile radio resource management for proactive wireless networking (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. Reggie; MacMullan, Samuel J.; Brown, Kevin L.; DeBardelaben, James A.

    2005-05-01

    Current military operational effectiveness can degrade rapidly with increasing communications stresses such as heavy throughput and QoS demands from disadvantaged users exposed to severe channel impairments and communications threats. This paper proposes a distributed and agile radio resource management (RRM) system to maintain mission effectiveness even under significant communications stress. Agile RRM includes a well-coordinated cross-layer design with the introduction of new OSI layer features and interactions as well as methods to incorporate communications constraints and requirements in systems controlling mission planning and execution.

  12. Reinforcement learning for resource allocation in LEO satellite networks.

    PubMed

    Usaha, Wipawee; Barria, Javier A

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we develop and assess online decision-making algorithms for call admission and routing for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks. It has been shown in a recent paper that, in a LEO satellite system, a semi-Markov decision process formulation of the call admission and routing problem can achieve better performance in terms of an average revenue function than existing routing methods. However, the conventional dynamic programming (DP) numerical solution becomes prohibited as the problem size increases. In this paper, two solution methods based on reinforcement learning (RL) are proposed in order to circumvent the computational burden of DP. The first method is based on an actor-critic method with temporal-difference (TD) learning. The second method is based on a critic-only method, called optimistic TD learning. The algorithms enhance performance in terms of requirements in storage, computational complexity and computational time, and in terms of an overall long-term average revenue function that penalizes blocked calls. Numerical studies are carried out, and the results obtained show that the RL framework can achieve up to 56% higher average revenue over existing routing methods used in LEO satellite networks with reasonable storage and computational requirements.

  13. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nobles, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water network for Georgia currently consists of 170 wells in which ground-water levels are continuously monitored. Most of the wells are locatedin the Coastal Plain in the southern part of the State where ground-water pumping stress is high. In particular, there are large concentrations of wells in coastal and southwestern Georgia areas, where there are issues related to ground-water pumping, saltwater intrusion along the coast, and diminished streamflow in southwestern Georgia due to irrigation pumping. The map at right shows the USGS ground-water monitoring network for Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored in 170 wells statewide, of which 19 transmit data in real time via satellite and posted on the World Wide Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/current/?type=gw . A greater concentration of wells occurs in the Coastal Plain where there are several layers of aquifers and in coastal and southwestern Georgia areas, which are areas with specific ground-water issues.

  14. Reinforcement learning for resource allocation in LEO satellite networks.

    PubMed

    Usaha, Wipawee; Barria, Javier A

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we develop and assess online decision-making algorithms for call admission and routing for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks. It has been shown in a recent paper that, in a LEO satellite system, a semi-Markov decision process formulation of the call admission and routing problem can achieve better performance in terms of an average revenue function than existing routing methods. However, the conventional dynamic programming (DP) numerical solution becomes prohibited as the problem size increases. In this paper, two solution methods based on reinforcement learning (RL) are proposed in order to circumvent the computational burden of DP. The first method is based on an actor-critic method with temporal-difference (TD) learning. The second method is based on a critic-only method, called optimistic TD learning. The algorithms enhance performance in terms of requirements in storage, computational complexity and computational time, and in terms of an overall long-term average revenue function that penalizes blocked calls. Numerical studies are carried out, and the results obtained show that the RL framework can achieve up to 56% higher average revenue over existing routing methods used in LEO satellite networks with reasonable storage and computational requirements. PMID:17550108

  15. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  16. Resource allocation in neural networks for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, J.; Cummins, J.; Gunnoe, J.; Tollefson, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Ohira, T.

    2006-03-01

    Multiplicative noise plays an important part of a non-predictive control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. However, intentionally-directed movements are also used in stick balancing, particularly by beginners. The interplay between intentional and non-predictive control mechanisms for stick balancing was assessed using two dual task paradigms: the subject was asked to either move one of their legs rhythmically or to imagine moving their leg while balancing a stick (55.4 cm, 35 g) at their fingertip. Performance was measured by determining the stick survival function, i.e. the fraction of trials (total >=25) for which the stick remained balanced at time t as a function of t. Performance was increased by concurrent rhythmic leg movements (50% survival time shifted from 8-9s to 15s in a typical subject). Imagined movements resulted in a similar improvement (50% survival time of 20s for the above subject) suggesting that this enhancement is not simply related to mechanical vibrations of the fingertip induced by leg movement. These observations emphasize the importance of the development of mathematical models for neural control of skilled motor movements that take into resource allocation of limited resources, such as intention.

  17. A heuristic method for consumable resource allocation in multi-class dynamic PERT networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoubi, Saeed; Noori, Siamak; Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi

    2013-06-01

    This investigation presents a heuristic method for consumable resource allocation problem in multi-class dynamic Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) networks, where new projects from different classes (types) arrive to system according to independent Poisson processes with different arrival rates. Each activity of any project is operated at a devoted service station located in a node of the network with exponential distribution according to its class. Indeed, each project arrives to the first service station and continues its routing according to precedence network of its class. Such system can be represented as a queuing network, while the discipline of queues is first come, first served. On the basis of presented method, a multi-class system is decomposed into several single-class dynamic PERT networks, whereas each class is considered separately as a minisystem. In modeling of single-class dynamic PERT network, we use Markov process and a multi-objective model investigated by Azaron and Tavakkoli-Moghaddam in 2007. Then, after obtaining the resources allocated to service stations in every minisystem, the final resources allocated to activities are calculated by the proposed method.

  18. Australasian Diabetes Data Network: Building a Collaborative Resource.

    PubMed

    Clapin, Helen; Phelan, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Sinnott, Richard; Colman, Peter; Craig, Maria; Jones, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes. The initial phase of this collaboration, known as the Australasian Diabetes Data Network or ADDN, was led by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) and thus included only children and adolescents. The next phase, commenced in 2016, will see adult sites added through collaboration with the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS). As most of the initial centers had longitudinal data collection in place the model employed was to establish the transfer and collation of data already collected into a central database. This required the definition of a common data dictionary, ethics and governance procedures and the employment of technology to enable efficient and accurate information transfer and accessibility. The ADDN project received widespread support from the diabetes research community with study investigators representing 20 pediatric centers across the region. The first phase focused on the 5 largest centers and at the end of 2015 these centers were uploading patient data to the ADDN database on a quarterly basis resulting in 5271 patients with 83 506 diabetes visits.

  19. Australasian Diabetes Data Network: Building a Collaborative Resource.

    PubMed

    Clapin, Helen; Phelan, Helen; Bruns, Loren; Sinnott, Richard; Colman, Peter; Craig, Maria; Jones, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes. The initial phase of this collaboration, known as the Australasian Diabetes Data Network or ADDN, was led by the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) and thus included only children and adolescents. The next phase, commenced in 2016, will see adult sites added through collaboration with the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS). As most of the initial centers had longitudinal data collection in place the model employed was to establish the transfer and collation of data already collected into a central database. This required the definition of a common data dictionary, ethics and governance procedures and the employment of technology to enable efficient and accurate information transfer and accessibility. The ADDN project received widespread support from the diabetes research community with study investigators representing 20 pediatric centers across the region. The first phase focused on the 5 largest centers and at the end of 2015 these centers were uploading patient data to the ADDN database on a quarterly basis resulting in 5271 patients with 83 506 diabetes visits. PMID:27257171

  20. Resource Allocation and Power Management Schemes in an LTE-Advanced Femtocell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Bog; Yu, Jae-Hak; Lee, In-Hwan; Pyo, Cheol-Sig; Kim, Se-Jin

    In this letter, we introduce two different resource allocation and Tx power management schemes, called resource control and fixed power (RCFP) and fixed resource and power control (FRPC), in an LTE-Advanced femtocell network. We analyze and compare the two schemes in terms of the system throughput for downlink and energy consumption of home evolved NodeB (HeNB) Tx power according to the number of HeNBs and home user equipment (HUE)'s user traffic density (C). The simulation results show that the FRPC scheme has better performance in terms of system throughput for macro user equipments (MUEs) and energy consumption in low C.

  1. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  2. Social Networking Web Sites and Human Resource Personnel: Suggestions for Job Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherry J.; Roach, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Social Networking Web sites (SNWs) are now being used as reference checks by human resource personnel. For this reason, SNW users, particularly university students and other soon-to-be job applicants, should ask the following questions: Am I loading information that I want the world to see? Is this really a picture that shows me in the best light?…

  3. Adolescents, Health Education, and Computers: The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a computer-based system designed as a confidential, nonjudgmental source of health information for adolescents. Topics include alcohol and other drugs, diet and activity, family communication, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management; programs are available for high school and middle school…

  4. OSU Extension, Ohio Aging Network Join Forces: Creating Resources for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer

    2010-01-01

    Ohio State University Extension and Ohio's Aging Network professionals have worked together for more than a decade to address issues of importance to Ohio's older adult population. The team's mission is to provide education, training, and resources to empower older Ohioans to achieve an optimal level of well-being. The Senior Series team initially…

  5. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  6. Oklahoma Library Technology Network (OLTN) Electronic Resources for Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol, Comp.

    This document describes Oklahoma Library Technology Network electronic resources for elementary age children. The first section provides a history of Oklahoma statewide shared databases. Oklahoma statewide information database contacts are listed in the second section. The third section presents information on InfoTrac Kid's Edition Online…

  7. Program Excellence Network of the Academy of Human Resource Development: Its Purpose and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2009-01-01

    This article features the Program Excellence Network (PEN) of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) which was established in September 2006 in response to a proposal brought forward by the author. The mission of PEN is to strengthen HRD academic programs and promote excellence in teaching HRD. PEN provides a forum for its members to…

  8. Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.

    PubMed

    Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  9. StorNet: Integrated Dynamic Storage and Network Resource Provisioning and Management for Automated Data Transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Junmin; Katramatos, Dimitrios; Liu, Xin; Natarajan, Vijaya; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Yu, Dantong; Bradley, Scott; McKee, Shawn

    2011-12-01

    StorNet is a joint project of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to research, design, and develop an integrated end-to-end resource provisioning and management framework for high-performance data transfers. The StorNet framework leverages heterogeneous network protocols and storage types in a federated computing environment to provide the capability of predictable, efficient delivery of high-bandwidth data transfers for data intensive applications. The framework incorporates functional modules to perform such data transfers through storage and network bandwidth co-scheduling, storage and network resource provisioning, and performance monitoring, and is based on LBNL's BeStMan/SRM, BNL's TeraPaths, and ESNet's OSCARS systems.

  10. Human Services and Resource Networks: Rationale, Possibilities, and Public Policy. The Jossey-Bass Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; And Others

    This book is a description of a three-year project to develop and sustain a network of very diverse people who could mutually contribute to each other's resource needs through ideas and resource exchange. People from schools, colleges, and universities, and public and private agencies joined together to form the Essex Network for two major…

  11. Complex-valued minimal resource allocation network for nonlinear signal processing.

    PubMed

    Jianping, D; Sundararajan, N; Saratchandran, P

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a sequential learning algorithm and evaluates its performance on complex valued signal processing problems. The algorithm is referred to as Complex Minimal Resource Allocation Network (CMRAN) algorithm and it is an extension of the MRAN algorithm originally developed for online learning in real valued RBF networks. CMRAN has the ability to grow and prune the (complex) RBF network's hidden neurons to ensure a parsimonious network structure. The performance of the learning algorithm is illustrated using two applications from signal processing of communication systems. The first application considers identification of a nonlinear complex channel. The second application considers the use of CMRAN to QAM digital channel equalization problems. Simulation results presented clearly show that CMRAN is very effective in modeling and equalization with performance achieved often being superior to that of some of the well known methods.

  12. End-to-End Network QoS via Scheduling of Flexible Resource Reservation Requests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Katramatos, D.; Yu, D.

    2011-11-14

    Modern data-intensive applications move vast amounts of data between multiple locations around the world. To enable predictable and reliable data transfer, next generation networks allow such applications to reserve network resources for exclusive use. In this paper, we solve an important problem (called SMR3) to accommodate multiple and concurrent network reservation requests between a pair of end-sites. Given the varying availability of bandwidth within the network, our goal is to accommodate as many reservation requests as possible while minimizing the total time needed to complete the data transfers. We first prove that SMR3 is an NP-hard problem. Then we solve it by developing a polynomial-time heuristic, called RRA. The RRA algorithm hinges on an efficient mechanism to accommodate large number of requests by minimizing the bandwidth wastage. Finally, via numerical results, we show that RRA constructs schedules that accommodate significantly larger number of requests compared to other, seemingly efficient, heuristics.

  13. On the use of clustering for resource allocation in wireless visual sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsenou, Angeliki V.; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is focused on the problem of quality-driven cross-layer optimization of Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). We consider a centralized topology where each sensor transmits directly to a Centralized Control Unit (CCU), which manages the network resources. In real environments, the visual sensors view and transmit scenes with varying amount of motion. Thus, each recorded video has its individual motion characteristics. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each WVSN node under certain quality- driven criteria and constant chip rate. We consider two approaches for the cross-layer optimization scheme. In the first, the optimal set of network resources is assigned to each node according to its individual motion characteristics. In the second approach, the nodes are partitioned into clusters according to the amount of motion in the recorded scenes. Then, all nodes within a cluster are assigned identical network resources. Both approaches result in mixed-integer optimization problems, which are solved with the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the quality/complexity trade-off for the two approaches.

  14. Service-oriented reasoning architecture for resource-task assignment in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mel, Geeth; Bergamaschi, Flavio; Pham, Tien; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim

    2011-06-01

    The net-centric ISR/ISTAR networks are expected to play a crucial role in the success of critical tasks such as base perimeter protection, border patrol and so on. To accomplish these tasks in an effective and expedient manner, it is important that these networks have the embedded capabilities to discover, delegate, and gather relevant information in a timely and robust manner. In this paper, we present a system architecture and an implementation that combines a service based reasoning mechanism with a sensor middleware infrastructure so that tasks can be executed efficiently and effectively. A knowledge base, utilising the Semantic Web technologies, provides the foundation for reasoning mechanism that assists users to discover, identify and allocate resources that are made available through the middleware, in order to satisfy the needs of tasks. Once resources are allocated to any given task, they can be accessed, controlled, shared, and their data feeds consumed through the Fabric middleware. We use the semantic descriptions from the knowledge base to annotate the resources (types, capabilities, etc.) in the sensor middleware so that they can be retrieved for reasoning during the discovery and identification phases. The reasoner is implemented as a HTTP web service, with the following characteristics: 1. Computational intensive operations are off-loaded to dedicated nodes, preserving the resources in the ISR/ISTAR networks. 2. HTTP services are accessible through a standard set of APIs irrespective of the reasoner technology used. 3. Support for seamless integration of different reasoners into the system.

  15. Fast packet switching algorithms for dynamic resource control over ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, R.P.; Keattihananant, P.; Chang, T.; Heieh, J.; Du, D.

    1996-12-01

    Real-time continuous media traffic, such as digital video and audio, is expected to comprise a large percentage of the network load on future high speed packet switch networks such as ATM. A major feature which distinguishes high speed networks from traditional slower speed networks is the large amount of data the network must process very quickly. For efficient network usage, traffic control mechanisms are essential. Currently, most mechanisms for traffic control (such as flow control) have centered on the support of Available Bit Rate (ABR), i.e., non real-time, traffic. With regard to ATM, for ABR traffic, two major types of schemes which have been proposed are rate- control and credit-control schemes. Neither of these schemes are directly applicable to Real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic such as continuous media traffic. Traffic control for continuous media traffic is an inherently difficult problem due to the time- sensitive nature of the traffic and its unpredictable burstiness. In this study, we present a scheme which controls traffic by dynamically allocating/de- allocating resources among competing VCs based upon their real-time requirements. This scheme incorporates a form of rate- control, real-time burst-level scheduling and link-link flow control. We show analytically potential performance improvements of our rate- control scheme and present a scheme for buffer dimensioning. We also present simulation results of our schemes and discuss the tradeoffs inherent in maintaining high network utilization and statistically guaranteeing many users` Quality of Service.

  16. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  17. Critical phenomena in communication/computation networks with various topologies and suboptimal to optimal resource allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.

  18. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  19. OBS/GMPLS Interworking Network with Scalable Resource Discovery for Global Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Liu, L.; Hong, X. B.; Lin, J. T.

    In recent years, Grid computing is more common in the industry and research community and will open to the consumer market in the future. The final objective is the achievement of global Grid computing, which means that the computing and networks are flexibly integrated across the world and a scalable resource discovery scheme is implemented. In this paper, a promising architecture, i.e., optical burst switching (OBS)/generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) interworking network with Peer-to-Peer (P2P)-based scheme for resource discovery is investigated to realize a highly scalable and flexible platform for Grids. Experimental results show that this architecture is suitable and efficient for future global Grid computing.

  20. Resource allocation in metabolic networks: kinetic optimization and approximations by FBA.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Steuer, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Based on recent theoretical results on optimal flux distributions in kinetic metabolic networks, we explore the congruences and differences between solutions of kinetic optimization problems and results obtained by constraint-based methods. We demonstrate that, for a certain resource allocation problem, kinetic optimization and standard flux balance analysis (FBA) give rise to qualitatively different results. Furthermore, we introduce a variant of FBA, called satFBA, whose predictions are in qualitative agreement with kinetic optimization.

  1. Evolutionary Computation with Spatial Receding Horizon Control to Minimize Network Coding Resources

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The minimization of network coding resources, such as coding nodes and links, is a challenging task, not only because it is a NP-hard problem, but also because the problem scale is huge; for example, networks in real world may have thousands or even millions of nodes and links. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have a good potential of resolving NP-hard problems like the network coding problem (NCP), but as a population-based algorithm, serious scalability and applicability problems are often confronted when GAs are applied to large- or huge-scale systems. Inspired by the temporal receding horizon control in control engineering, this paper proposes a novel spatial receding horizon control (SRHC) strategy as a network partitioning technology, and then designs an efficient GA to tackle the NCP. Traditional network partitioning methods can be viewed as a special case of the proposed SRHC, that is, one-step-wide SRHC, whilst the method in this paper is a generalized N-step-wide SRHC, which can make a better use of global information of network topologies. Besides the SRHC strategy, some useful designs are also reported in this paper. The advantages of the proposed SRHC and GA for the NCP are illustrated by extensive experiments, and they have a good potential of being extended to other large-scale complex problems. PMID:24883371

  2. Fair resource allocation and stability for communication networks with multipath routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyong; Sun, Wei; Hua, Changchun

    2014-11-01

    Multipath networks allow that each source-destination pair can have several different paths for data transmission, thus they improve the performance of increasingly bandwidth-hungry applications and well cater for traffic load balancing and bandwidth usage efficiency. This paper investigates fair resource allocation for users in multipath networks and formulates it as a multipath network utility maximisation problem with several fairness concepts. By applying the Lagrangian method, sub-problems for users and paths are derived from the resource allocation model and interpreted from an economic point of view. In order to solve the model, a novel rate-based flow control algorithm is proposed for achieving optimal resource allocation, which depends only on local information. In the presence of round-trip delays, sufficient conditions are obtained for local stability of the delayed algorithm. As for the end-to-end implementation in Internet, a window-based flow control mechanism is presented since it is more convenient to implement than rate-based flow control.

  3. Informal HIV caregiving in a vulnerable population: toward a network resource framework.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Amy R

    2003-03-01

    For the impoverished and often stigmatized communities most affected by HIV/AIDS, needs for informal caregiving present tremendous demands on already limited resources. Traditional theoretical frameworks emphasize care needs as driving informal caregiving. The proposed theoretical framework emphasizes microsocial processes that may affect informal caregiving among economically disadvantaged populations. The study examined: (1) network structural factors (homophily) that may affect availability of ties and local sociocultural expression of ties (social roles, behavioral norms) and (2) the role of financial resources in enabling informal caregiving. Low income, African American injection drug using persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) and their primary HIV supporters were interviewed. Supporters were predominantly female (71%), consanguineal kin (59%) and partners or friends (41%). Compared to the general US population, supporters were disproportionately HIV-infected, drug using, African Americans of poor health and low socioeconomic status. Supporters who perceived their PLHA tie needed informal care, compared to those who perceived no care need, were more than twice as likely to report a history of drug use, functional limitation (IADLs), higher income, and PLHA's financial reliance. Supporters' reported care provision was associated with their financial resources, but not PLHAs' health status. PLHAs' reported care receipt was associated only with their health status.HIV supporters' reported care provision was affected by financial factors, consistent with the proposed theoretical framework, while PLHAs' perceptions of care receipt conformed to traditional "needs"-based frameworks of caregiving. Results suggest that programs are needed to bolster network financial resources of disadvantaged populations affected by HIV to promote and sustain their informal HIV caregiving. Findings may aid in the understanding of informal caregiving as a social process. Network

  4. Dynamic resource allocation for target tracking in sensor and robot networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiaoning; Tan, Jindong

    2005-05-01

    Sensor network is generally composed of a set of sensors with limited computation capability and power supply. Thus, a well-defined allocation scheme is essential for maintaining the whole sensor network. This paper investigates the dynamic resource allocation problem in a sensor and robot networks for mobile target tracking tasks. Most of sensors will be in sleep mode except for the ones that can contribute for tracking. The sensor network resource allocation is achieved by a hierarchical structure--clustering. Upon detecting an interested event, a set of sensors form a cluster. Only cluster members will be activated during the tracking task. The cluster headship and membership will be updated based on the target's movement properties. In this paper, the clustering algorithm considers sensing area with communication holes and a routing tree is set up within the cluster. For a cluster with communication and/or sensing holes, mobile sensors will be deployed to enhance the sensing and communication capability in the clustering area. Simulations have been used to verify the proposed algorithm.

  5. On the Relationship between Multicast/Broadcast Throughput and Resource Utilizations in Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of multicast/broadcast throughput in multi-channel multi-radio wireless mesh networks that suffer from the resource constraints. We provide a formulation to capture the utilization of the network resources and derive analytical relationships for the network's throughput in terms of the node utilization, the channel utilization, and the number of transmissions. Our model relies on the on-demand quality of service multicast/broadcast sessions, where each admitted session creates a unique tree with a specific bandwidth. As an advantage, the derived relationships are independent of the type of tree built for each session and can be used for different protocols. The proposed formulation considers the channel assignment strategy and reflects both the wireless broadcast advantage and the interference constraint. We also offer a comprehensive discussion to evaluate the effects of load-balancing and number of transmissions on the network's throughput. Numerical results confirm the accuracy of the presented analysis. PMID:24348188

  6. Draft Proposal for the Development of an Australian Bibliographic Network. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    As part of its responsibility for the development of bibliographic services in Australia, the Australian National Library presents this draft proposal for a national online shared cataloging facility to be known as the Australian Bibliographic Network or ABN. A preface describes ABN's historical background and relationship to BIBDATA, a previously…

  7. Service-aware resources integrated resilience for software defined data center networking based on IP over Flexi-Grid optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Jialin; Ji, Yuefeng; Han, Jianrui; Lin, Yi; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Due to the performance guarantee of low delay, huge bandwidth and high reliability at a low cost, IP over Flexi-Grid optical network is a very promising networking architecture applied to the interconnection of geographically distributed data centers. It can enable efficient resource utilization and support heterogeneous bandwidth demands in cost-effective, highly-available and energy-effective manner. In case of edge Flexi-Grid optical network node failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In this paper, we propose a novel service-aware resources integrated resilience (SA-RIR) scheme for data center services in software defined data center networking architecture based on IP over Flexi-Grid optical networks. Different from previous works which restore the services just exploiting the optical stratum, the proposed scheme provides the resilience using the multiple stratums resources in case of the edge optical node failure. We quantitatively evaluate the feasibility and performances through the simulation under heavy traffic load scenario in terms of path blocking probability, path resilience latency and resource occupation rate with different failure rates. Simulation results show that, the SA-RIR scheme can enable joint optimization of IP network, Flexi-Grid optical network and data center application stratum resources, and enhance the data center service resilience responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end demands.

  8. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, VR

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  9. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  10. Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Shana Cecile

    In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided

  11. Mexican Network for the evaluation of Solar Resources in the country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, M.; Bonifaz, R.; Estevez, H.

    2014-12-01

    Information on Global Solar Radiation provides only the first approximation for the evaluation of solar energy that is necessary for locating potential exploitation sites. Depending on what technology is used, more specific components of the solar radiation (Direct. Diffuse, Global, inclined planes), as well as, certain physical characteristics of the atmosphere (atmospheric aerosol) are required for evaluating solar resources. In order to measure these radiation components in a large country such as Mexico, where there are many abrupt changes in topography and differences in climatic conditions even over small distances, it would be necessary to have a network with several hundred stations. In this situation, the use of models is a more viable solution that has been proven with a high degree of certainty, considering it is based on reliable control points for the adjustment. Here we present the network that was developed on a regional classification based on climatic elements, geology, land use, vegetation and albedo. Solar stations from different universities and research institutes in Mexico also form part of this network for the evaluation of the solar resources in Mexico and its components.

  12. Estimation of distribution algorithm for resource allocation in green cooperative cognitive radio sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Muhammad; Pareek, Udit; Lee, Daniel C; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN), the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN). The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP), which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results. PMID:23584119

  13. Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Green Cooperative Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Pareek, Udit; Lee, Daniel C.; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN), the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN). The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP), which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results. PMID:23584119

  14. Estimation of distribution algorithm for resource allocation in green cooperative cognitive radio sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Muhammad; Pareek, Udit; Lee, Daniel C; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2013-04-12

    Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN), the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN). The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP), which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  15. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  16. Primary health-care network monitoring: a hierarchical resource allocation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Pur, Aleksander; Bohanec, Marko; Lavrac, Nada; Cestnik, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Management of a primary health-care network (PHCN) is a difficult task in every country. A suitable monitoring system can provide useful information for PHCN management, especially given a large quantity of health-care data that is produced daily in the network. This paper proposes a methodology for structured development of monitoring systems and a PHCN resource allocation monitoring model based on this methodology. The purpose of the monitoring model is to improve the allocation of health-care resources. The proposed methodology is based on modules that are organized into a hierarchy, where each module monitors a particular aspect of the system. This methodology was used to design a PHCN monitoring model for Slovenia. Specific aspects of the Slovenian PHCN were taken into account such as varying needs of patients from different municipalities, existence of small municipalities having less than 1000 residents, the fact that many patients visit physicians in other municipalities, and that physicians may work at more than one location or organization. The main modules in the model are focused on the overall assessment of the PHCN, monitoring of patients visits to health-care providers (HCPs), physical accessibility of health services, segment of patients in municipalities who have not selected a personal physician, assessment of the availability of HCPs for patients, physicians working on more than one location, and available human resources in the PHCN. Most of the model's components are general and can be adapted for other national health-care systems.

  17. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-04-12

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives.

  18. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives. PMID:27077865

  19. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives. PMID:27077865

  20. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-01-01

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes. PMID:27465296

  1. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-07-01

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  2. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-01-01

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes. PMID:27465296

  3. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-07-28

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  4. Effects on Learners' Performance of Using Selected and Open Network Resources in a Problem-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the popularity of computers and computer networks, fostering the web-based problem-solving ability of students has become an important educational objective in recent years. This study attempted to compare the effects of using selected and open network resources on students' intentions with regard to their information system usage by…

  5. The science, technology and research network (STARNET) a searchable thematic compilation of web resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blados, W.R.; Cotter, G.A.; Hermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    International alliances in space efforts have resulted in a more rapid diffusion of space technology. This, in turn, increases pressure on organizations to push forward with technological developments and to take steps to maximize their inclusion into the research and development (R&D) process and the overall advancement and enhancement of space technology. To cope with this vast and rapidly growing amount of data and information that is vital to the success of the innovation, the Information Management Committee (IMC) of the Research Technology Agency (RTA) developed the science, technology and research network (STARNET). The purpose of this network is to facilitate access to worldwide information elements in terms of science, technology and overall research. It provides a virtual library with special emphasis on international security; a "one stop" information resource for policy makers, program managers, scientists, engineers, researchers and others. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  6. Improving Power Quality in Low-Voltage Networks Containing Distributed Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sumit; Ghosh, Arindam; Zare, Firuz

    2013-05-01

    Severe power quality problems can arise when a large number of single-phase distributed energy resources (DERs) are connected to a low-voltage power distribution system. Due to the random location and size of DERs, it may so happen that a particular phase generates excess power than its load demand. In such an event, the excess power will be fed back to the distribution substation and will eventually find its way to the transmission network, causing undesirable voltage-current unbalance. As a solution to this problem, the article proposes the use of a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which regulates voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), thereby ensuring balanced current flow from and to the distribution substation. Additionally, this device can also support the distribution network in the absence of the utility connection, making the distribution system work as a microgrid. The proposals are validated through extensive digital computer simulation studies using PSCADTM.

  7. A mathematical model for a distributed attack on targeted resources in a computer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Kaushik; Mishra, Bimal Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to analyze the spread of a distributed attack on critical targeted resources in a network. The model provides an epidemic framework with two sub-frameworks to consider the difference between the overall behavior of the attacking hosts and the targeted resources. The analysis focuses on obtaining threshold conditions that determine the success or failure of such attacks. Considering the criticality of the systems involved and the strength of the defence mechanism involved, a measure has been suggested that highlights the level of success that has been achieved by the attacker. To understand the overall dynamics of the system in the long run, its equilibrium points have been obtained and their stability has been analyzed, and conditions for their stability have been outlined.

  8. Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini

    2016-11-01

    The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.

  9. Resource parallel provisioning scheme for collaborating service in optical grid network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Runze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2008-11-01

    Divisible loads can be divided into any number independent sub-tasks, and map them on different platform to be processed in parallel jobs. Divisible load theory is introduced into parallel and distributed computing system to obtain available resources distributing on different locations for reaching processing efficiency, which can be extended to distributing multimedia and application system based grid. Light path scheduling algorithm based on DLT is proposed to realize optical resource scheduling on demand in optical grid under the requirement of intensive data applications, especially facing to parallel and distributed system. The proposed algorithm introduces the Divisible Load Theory as load distributing method and is extended for the distributed algorithm of divisible load scheduling to match multichannel application requirement of optical grid network. The proposed method deploys multiple wavelengths for original node, and builds parallel lightpaths to transmit independent divisible loads to collaborating nodes for a big task.

  10. QoS-Oriented High Dynamic Resource Allocation in Vehicular Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as new research area and attracting an increasing attention from both industry and research communities. In this context, a dynamic resource allocation policy that maximizes the use of available resources and meets the quality of service (QoS) requirement of constraining applications is proposed. It is a combination of a fair packet scheduling policy and a new adaptive QoS oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme based on the vehicle density variation. This scheme decides whether the connection request is to be admitted into the system, while providing fair access and guaranteeing the desired throughput. The proposed algorithm showed good performance in testing in real world environment. PMID:24616639

  11. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved. PMID:26727504

  12. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent’s limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent’s cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent’s view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved. PMID:26727504

  13. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  14. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; He, Yongqi; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Wei; Lee, Young

    2016-04-18

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing using cloud BBUs. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate the services in optical networks. In view of this, this study extends to consider the multiple dimensional resources optimization of radio, optical and BBU processing in 5G age. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources optimization (MSRO) architecture with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) using software defined control. A global evaluation scheme (GES) for MSRO in C-RoFN is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRO can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical and BBU resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed architecture are experimentally demonstrated on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of GES under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRO architecture in terms of resource occupation rate and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  15. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; He, Yongqi; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Wei; Lee, Young

    2016-04-18

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing using cloud BBUs. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate the services in optical networks. In view of this, this study extends to consider the multiple dimensional resources optimization of radio, optical and BBU processing in 5G age. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources optimization (MSRO) architecture with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) using software defined control. A global evaluation scheme (GES) for MSRO in C-RoFN is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRO can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical and BBU resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed architecture are experimentally demonstrated on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of GES under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRO architecture in terms of resource occupation rate and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning scheme. PMID:27137302

  16. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-01-01

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme. PMID:27136550

  17. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-04-28

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme.

  18. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-01-01

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme. PMID:27136550

  19. Insect-Flower Interaction Network Structure Is Resilient to a Temporary Pulse of Floral Resources from Invasive Rhododendron ponticum

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Stout, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering), yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H’2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure is robust to

  20. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  1. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  2. Resources and population served: a description of the Ontario Paediatric Diabetes Network

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Rayzel; Miller, Fiona A.; Stukel, Therese A.; Daneman, Denis; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Network of Ontario Pediatric Diabetes Programs was established in 2001 to provide access to specialized pediatric diabetes care. Universal funding for pediatric insulin pump therapy has been available in Ontario since 2006. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of patients, resources and insulin pump use across centres within the network, now called the Ontario Paediatric Diabetes Network. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2012 of the 35 pediatric diabetes centres in Ontario to measure centre characteristics, patient volume and available clinical and social resources. We used health administrative data from the provincial Assistive Devices Program to describe patients aged 18 years or less using insulin pumps by centre as a measure of technology uptake. Results: All 35 centres participated, reporting a total of 6676 children with type 1 diabetes and 368 with type 2 diabetes. Most (> 80%) children with type 1 diabetes were followed at tertiary (n = 5) or large community (n = 14) centres. Nursing patient load was similar between centre types, but there was a large range across centres within any type. Overall, percent insulin pump use was 38.1% and varied widely across centres (5.3%-66.7%). Funded 24-hour support for pump users was available at 5 (36%) small community centres, 3 (19%) large community centres and 2 (40%) tertiary centres. Interpretation: Our study showed differences in access to specialized and after-hours care for children with diabetes in Ontario. Pump use varied widely across centres. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these observed differences on quality of care and outcomes. PMID:27398356

  3. Coordinating Resource Usage through Adaptive Service Provisioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Chien-Liang; Roman, Gruia-Catalin; Lu, Chenyang

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) exhibit high levels of network dynamics and consist of devices with limited energy. This results in the need to coordinate applications not only at the functional level, as is traditionally done, but also in terms of resource utilization. In this paper, we present a middleware that does this using adaptive service provisioning. Novel service binding strategies automatically adapt application behavior when opportunities for energy savings surface, and switch providers when the network topology changes. The former is accomplished by providing limited information about the energy consumption associated with using various services, systematically exploiting opportunities for sharing service invocations, and exploiting the broadcast nature of wireless communication in WSNs. The middleware has been implemented and evaluated on two disparate WSN platforms, the TelosB and Imote2. Empirical results show that adaptive service provisioning can enable energy-aware service binding decisions that result in increased energy efficiency and significantly increase service availability, while imposing minimal additional burden on the application, service, and device developers. Two applications, medical patient monitoring and structural health monitoring, demonstrate the middleware's efficacy.

  4. Supporting crop pollinators with floral resources: network-based phenological matching.

    PubMed

    Russo, Laura; Debarros, Nelson; Yang, Suann; Shea, Katriona; Mortensen, David

    2013-09-01

    The production of diverse and affordable agricultural crop species depends on pollination services provided by bees. Indeed, the proportion of pollinator-dependent crops is increasing globally. Agriculture relies heavily on the domesticated honeybee; the services provided by this single species are under threat and becoming increasingly costly. Importantly, the free pollination services provided by diverse wild bee communities have been shown to be sufficient for high agricultural yields in some systems. However, stable, functional wild bee communities require floral resources, such as pollen and nectar, throughout their active season, not just when crop species are in flower. To target floral provisioning efforts to conserve and support native and managed bee species, we apply network theoretical methods incorporating plant and pollinator phenologies. Using a two-year dataset comprising interactions between bees (superfamily Apoidea, Anthophila) and 25 native perennial plant species in floral provisioning habitat, we identify plant and bee species that provide a key and central role to the stability of the structure of this community. We also examine three specific case studies: how provisioning habitat can provide temporally continuous support for honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus impatiens), and how resource supplementation strategies might be designed for a single genus of important orchard pollinators (Osmia). This framework could be used to provide native bee communities with additional, well-targeted floral resources to ensure that they not only survive, but also thrive.

  5. Supporting crop pollinators with floral resources: network-based phenological matching

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Laura; DeBarros, Nelson; Yang, Suann; Shea, Katriona; Mortensen, David

    2013-01-01

    The production of diverse and affordable agricultural crop species depends on pollination services provided by bees. Indeed, the proportion of pollinator-dependent crops is increasing globally. Agriculture relies heavily on the domesticated honeybee; the services provided by this single species are under threat and becoming increasingly costly. Importantly, the free pollination services provided by diverse wild bee communities have been shown to be sufficient for high agricultural yields in some systems. However, stable, functional wild bee communities require floral resources, such as pollen and nectar, throughout their active season, not just when crop species are in flower. To target floral provisioning efforts to conserve and support native and managed bee species, we apply network theoretical methods incorporating plant and pollinator phenologies. Using a two-year dataset comprising interactions between bees (superfamily Apoidea, Anthophila) and 25 native perennial plant species in floral provisioning habitat, we identify plant and bee species that provide a key and central role to the stability of the structure of this community. We also examine three specific case studies: how provisioning habitat can provide temporally continuous support for honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus impatiens), and how resource supplementation strategies might be designed for a single genus of important orchard pollinators (Osmia). This framework could be used to provide native bee communities with additional, well-targeted floral resources to ensure that they not only survive, but also thrive. PMID:24101999

  6. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  7. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    PubMed

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood.

  8. A collaborative outcome resource network (ACORN): Tools for increasing the value of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, George S Jeb; Simon, Ashley; Cameron, Joanne; Minami, Takuya

    2015-12-01

    The authors describe a collaborative outcomes resource network (ACORN) and the suite of measurement and decision support tools (ACORN Toolkit) that have emerged from this collaboration for the purpose of providing clinical feedback to therapists. The ACORN Toolkit is most accurately described as a comprehensive clinical information system designed to increase the value of mental health services across large systems of care. It was built to integrate large datasets from multiple sources including outcome data, client demographics and diagnostic data, therapist credentialing information, pharmacy data, and service claims data. For the limited purposes of this article, the authors focus on the ACORN Toolkit for measuring and how it has contributed to improving outcomes in psychotherapy. Implications to current practice and future training are provided.

  9. The Preventing Suicide Network: Delivering online tailored resources to those who help others.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, Victoria; Schlachta-Fairchild, Loretta; Szczur, Martha; Chang, Hua Florence; Young-Weeden, Elizabeth; Rocca, Mitra

    2006-01-01

    Concerned over the growing epidemic of death by suicide in the United States, the National Institute of Mental Health of the U.S. National Institutes of Health funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects using innovative web-based approaches to provide resources to professionals and the general public about suicide prevention. The Preventing Suicide Network (PSN) was funded (SBIR Contract #N44MH22044) and developed over a three and a half year period (2001-2005) as part of this initiative. The PSN provides intermediaries (those who participate in activities to prevent suicide) with an online community dedicated to timely access to authoritative and problem-specific tailored information. PMID:17102511

  10. Optimal Voltage Regulation for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Considering Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output in a three phase unbalanced distribution system is developed. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DERs). To avoid the oscillation of solution when it is close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size. Numerical simulations on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders show the efficiency of the proposed model. Compared to the results solved by heuristic search (harmony algorithm), the proposed model converges quickly to the global optimum.

  11. Performance evaluation of data center service localization based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic optical network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tan, Yuanlong; Lin, Yi; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-09-01

    Data center interconnection with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends the data center resources to user side to enhance the end-to-end quality of service. We propose a novel data center service localization (DCSL) architecture based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic data center optical network. A migration evaluation scheme (MES) is introduced for DCSL based on the proposed architecture. The DCSL can enhance the responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end data center demands, and effectively reduce the blocking probability to globally optimize optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of our OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of MES scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on DCSL architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  12. Small low mass advanced PBR's for bi-modal operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Powell, J. R.

    1993-10-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of a low mass bimodal reactor for use as a propulsion unit and as a heat source for generating electricity. This reactor is based on the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. It will be able to generate both thrust and electricity simultaneously. This assessment indicates that the reactor can generate approximately 6.8 (4) N of thrust using hydrogen as a coolant and 100 KWe using a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion system. Two cooling paths pass through the reactor allowing a simultaneous operation of both modes. The development of all the components for this reactor are within the experience base of the NTP project.

  13. A Bi-Modality Approach to Language Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsothorn, Achara

    1988-01-01

    A summer intensive English language course is described that is offered by the Chulalongkorn University Language Institute (CULI) in Thailand to university instructors and government officials. A writing program, which constitutes one-fourth of the entire course, consists of 10 units incorporating main functions and topics of English use found in…

  14. Establishing a feminist culture: the experience of Zimbabwe Women's Resource Centre and Network.

    PubMed

    Chigudu, H

    1997-02-01

    The Zimbabwe Women's Resource Center and Network (ZWRCN) was established in 1990 to strengthen interorganizational networking activities for the exchange of experience and information on gender and development issues. ZWRCN has collected over 4000 documents on gender issues and operates a rural libraries program. Its efforts to create a feminist organizational culture fostering staff empowerment, lack of hierarchy, and participatory leadership have been more problematic, however. Most of the 15 staff recruited since ZWRCN's inception previously worked in male-dominated government agencies and are ambivalent about feminism. Struggles over power and control emerged between these employees, who regarded themselves as professionals in a bureaucratic sense, and junior staff with less expertise but a strong commitment to feminism. Also controversial were expectations that staff members would socialize outside of work and stay at work as long as needed to complete a task. In 1994, ZWRCN was forced to adopt a staff code of conduct and regulations in order to qualify for donor support. ZWRCN has been forced to abandon its original goal of creating a feminist culture and aim for a culture of participation less threatening to gender relations in the wider society. More awareness at the time of inception on the part of ZWRCN founders about ways feminist management styles would conflict with the socialization of future staff members might have averted some of this tension.

  15. Bayesian model selection applied to artificial neural networks used for water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, Greer B.; Maier, Holger R.; Lambert, Martin F.

    2008-04-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have proven to be extremely valuable tools in the field of water resources engineering. However, one of the most difficult tasks in developing an ANN is determining the optimum level of complexity required to model a given problem, as there is no formal systematic model selection method. This paper presents a Bayesian model selection (BMS) method for ANNs that provides an objective approach for comparing models of varying complexity in order to select the most appropriate ANN structure. The approach uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo posterior simulations to estimate the evidence in favor of competing models and, in this study, three known methods for doing this are compared in terms of their suitability for being incorporated into the proposed BMS framework for ANNs. However, it is acknowledged that it can be particularly difficult to accurately estimate the evidence of ANN models. Therefore, the proposed BMS approach for ANNs incorporates a further check of the evidence results by inspecting the marginal posterior distributions of the hidden-to-output layer weights, which unambiguously indicate any redundancies in the hidden layer nodes. The fact that this check is available is one of the greatest advantages of the proposed approach over conventional model selection methods, which do not provide such a test and instead rely on the modeler's subjective choice of selection criterion. The advantages of a total Bayesian approach to ANN development, including training and model selection, are demonstrated on two synthetic and one real world water resources case study.

  16. Properties of water and steam: Network, open, and interactive IT-resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Aleksandrov, A. A.; Ochkov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    New tendencies in publishing data on the thermophysical properties of substances are considered taking as an example water and steam, substances used as the main working fluid in thermal and nuclear power engineering. The advantages and shortcomings of both the traditional approach to publishing data on the properties of substances in hard printed form and the modern one, according to which the data are published in electronic form on Internet websites, are pointed out. The important requirements for publishing data in electronic form are described: the data must be presented in the form of network open and interactive calculations with examples of using them. A critical analysis of the relevant Internet resources is given. Some aspects of the work conducted by the International Association on the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) are described. Particular examples of possible ways in which modern IT-resources on calculating the properties of substances can be set up are given: a hard printed handbook, a calculation program for being installed on a computer, calculation documents for downloading from a website, and using server calculations based on the technologies Mathcad Calculation Server on the website of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University and SMath on the website of the Elsevier electronic publishing house.

  17. Innovative Resources for Seismology at School with the French Educational Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, J. L.; Courboulex, F.; Balestra, J.; Nolet, G.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The original and innovative aspect of this programme stems from giving students the opportunity to install a seismometer in their school. The recorded signals, reflecting regional or global seismic activity, feed into an on-line database, a genuine seismic resource centre and a springboard for educational and scientific activities. The network 'EduSismo' (numbering some hundred stations installed in metropolitan France, the overseas departments and territories and a few French high schools abroad) is the outgrowth of an experiment conducted some twenty years back. Since then, the programme implemented has gone beyond simply acquiring seismic signals, which could have been procured by research and monitoring centres. By appropriating a scientific measurement, the student becomes personally involved and masters complex concepts about geophysics and geosciences. The development of simple devices and the design of concrete experiments associated with an investigative approach make it possible to instil the students with a high-quality scientific culture and an education about risks. Today, this programme is expanding with new tools providing by new research projects. Since last year, students can investigate ocean sound recorded by 'Mermaid' buoys and downloaded directly the data in the schools. Geosciences at school are opening new activities with seismic data from the ocean but also study of oceanographic currents or atmospheric events. We are also preparing actively the French E&O plan for SEIS-InSight (the future mission on Mars). InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigation, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that would place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. This program will provide to the schools a lot of innovative tools related to scientific culture to bring more geosciences into the classroom. As in the past, the French educational network will get the benefit of these new research

  18. Enhancement of environment and resources engineering studies through an international cooperation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Tuneski, A.

    2012-12-01

    , following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The new second cycle degree courses are going to be activated in the academic year 2012/2012. Both the first and second cycle curricula, developed through the co-operation, exchange of know-how and expertise between partners, are based on the European Credit Transfer System and are in accordance with the Bologna Process. In DEREL a second objective is to implement a sustainable regional network aimed to offer lifelong learning seminars for environment and resources engineering education and training of interested stakeholders and organize workshops focused on strengthening the links in the knowledge triangle: environment education-innovation-research, with participation of postgraduate students, public services, enterprises and NGO's. Also, the good collaborative environment created, since 2005, with the project partners can be surely mentioned as an additional valuable objective of the two TEMPUS projects, enabling implementation of a sustainable international network for environment and resources engineering studies enhancement and development.

  19. Multi-agent modelling framework for water, energy and other resource networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Meier, P.; Harou, J. J.; Yoon, J.; Lachaut, T.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Avisse, N.; Mohamed, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Khadem, M.; Tilmant, A.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bespoke modelling tools are often needed when planning future engineered interventions in the context of various climate, socio-economic and geopolitical futures. Such tools can help improve system operating policies or assess infrastructure upgrades and their risks. A frequently used approach is to simulate and/or optimise the impact of interventions in engineered systems. Modelling complex infrastructure systems can involve incorporating multiple aspects into a single model, for example physical, economic and political. This presents the challenge of combining research from diverse areas into a single system effectively. We present the Pynsim 'Python Network Simulator' framework, a library for building simulation models capable of representing, the physical, institutional and economic aspects of an engineered resources system. Pynsim is an open source, object oriented code aiming to promote integration of different modelling processes through a single code library. We present two case studies that demonstrate important features of Pynsim's design. The first is a large interdisciplinary project of a national water system in the Middle East with modellers from fields including water resources, economics, hydrology and geography each considering different facets of a multi agent system. It includes: modelling water supply and demand for households and farms; a water tanker market with transfer of water between farms and households, and policy decisions made by government institutions at district, national and international level. This study demonstrates that a well-structured library of code can provide a hub for development and act as a catalyst for integrating models. The second focuses on optimising the location of new run-of-river hydropower plants. Using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, this study analyses different network configurations to identify the optimal placement of new power plants within a river network. This demonstrates that Pynsim can be

  20. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network.

  1. CI-KNOW: Cyberinfrastructure Knowledge Networks on the Web. A Social Network Enabled Recommender System for Locating Resources in Cyberinfrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. D.; Contractor, N. S.; Yao, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A knowledge network is a multi-dimensional network created from the interactions and interconnections among the scientists, documents, data, analytic tools, and interactive collaboration spaces (like forums and wikis) associated with a collaborative environment. CI-KNOW is a suite of software tools that leverages automated data collection, social network theories, analysis techniques and algorithms to infer an individual's interests and expertise based on their interactions and activities within a knowledge network. The CI-KNOW recommender system mines the knowledge network associated with a scientific community's use of cyberinfrastructure tools and uses relational metadata to record connections among entities in the knowledge network. Recent developments in social network theories and methods provide the backbone for a modular system that creates recommendations from relational metadata. A network navigation portlet allows users to locate colleagues, documents, data or analytic tools in the knowledge network and to explore their networks through a visual, step-wise process. An internal auditing portlet offers administrators diagnostics to assess the growth and health of the entire knowledge network. The first instantiation of the prototype CI-KNOW system is part of the Environmental Cyberinfrastructure Demonstration project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, which supports the activities of hydrologic and environmental science communities (CLEANER and CUAHSI) under the umbrella of the WATERS network environmental observatory planning activities (http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). This poster summarizes the key aspects of the CI-KNOW system, highlighting the key inputs, calculation mechanisms, and output modalities.

  2. Analysis of a summary network of co-infection in humans reveals that parasites interact most via shared resources.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Emily C; Pedersen, Amy B; Fenton, Andy; Petchey, Owen L

    2014-05-01

    Simultaneous infection by multiple parasite species (viruses, bacteria, helminths, protozoa or fungi) is commonplace. Most reports show co-infected humans to have worse health than those with single infections. However, we have little understanding of how co-infecting parasites interact within human hosts. We used data from over 300 published studies to construct a network that offers the first broad indications of how groups of co-infecting parasites tend to interact. The network had three levels comprising parasites, the resources they consume and the immune responses they elicit, connected by potential, observed and experimentally proved links. Pairs of parasite species had most potential to interact indirectly through shared resources, rather than through immune responses or other parasites. In addition, the network comprised 10 tightly knit groups, eight of which were associated with particular body parts, and seven of which were dominated by parasite-resource links. Reported co-infection in humans is therefore structured by physical location within the body, with bottom-up, resource-mediated processes most often influencing how, where and which co-infecting parasites interact. The many indirect interactions show how treating an infection could affect other infections in co-infected patients, but the compartmentalized structure of the network will limit how far these indirect effects are likely to spread.

  3. An On-Line Information Management System for Resources for Staff Development for the Professional Development Center Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing

    The Professional Development Center Network (PDC), a consortium of twenty public school districts, parochial schools, and Western Kentucky University, seeks to identify and secure resources to assist in the design and delivery of activities appropriate to the educational development of individual staff members through the online Information…

  4. Sustainability and collapse in a coevolutionary model of local resource stocks and behavioral patterns on a social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    When investigating the causes and consequences of global change, the collective behavior of human beings is considered as having a considerable impact on natural systems. In our work, we propose a conceptual coevolutionary model simulating the dynamics of local renewable resources in interaction with simplistic societal agents exploiting those resources. The society is represented by a social network on which social traits may be transmitted between agents. These traits themselves induce a certain rate of exploitation of the resource, leading either to its depletion or sustainable existence. Traits are exchanged probabilistically according to their instantaneous individual payoff, and hence this process depends on the status of the natural resource. At the same time agents may adaptively restructure their set of acquaintances. Connections with agents having a different trait may be broken while new connections with agents of the same trait are established. We investigate which choices of social parameters, like the frequency of social interaction, rationality and rate of social network adaptation, cause the system to end in a sustainable state and, hence, what can be done to avoid a collapse of the entire system. The importance and influence of the social network structure is analyzed by the variation of link-densities in the underlying network topology and shows significant influence on the expected outcome of the model. For a static network with no adaptation we find a robust phase transition between the two different regimes, sustainable and non-sustainable, which co-exist in parameter space. High connectivity within the social network, e.g., high link-densities, in combination with a fast rate of social learning lead to a likely collapse of the entire co-evolutionary system, whereas slow learning and small network connectivity very likely result in the sustainable existence of the natural resources. Collapse may be avoided by an intelligent rewiring, e

  5. Distributive Computer Networking: Making It Work on a Regional Basis: Effective sharing through a network requires new management and resource distribution techniques.

    PubMed

    Cornew, R W; Morse, P M

    1975-08-15

    -indicate that such networks are best structured in a hierarchical form. This suggests that national networking should be based in part on the more than 30 existing state and regional networks (15). With the groundwork now laid, we expect to see links among existing regional networks to complement development efforts now occurring at the national level. With Greenberger and others, we believe that one or more networking organizations devoted to the management issues discussed in this article will be required to facilitate resource sharing on a national scale. Because of their experience with these problems and their ability to provide service in many areas of the country through existing facilities, regional networks have a major role to play. PMID:17798292

  6. Self-Adaptive Prediction of Cloud Resource Demands Using Ensemble Model and Subtractive-Fuzzy Clustering Based Fuzzy Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuanchang; Di, Yanqiang; Feng, Shaochong

    2015-01-01

    In IaaS (infrastructure as a service) cloud environment, users are provisioned with virtual machines (VMs). To allocate resources for users dynamically and effectively, accurate resource demands predicting is essential. For this purpose, this paper proposes a self-adaptive prediction method using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network (ESFCFNN). We analyze the characters of user preferences and demands. Then the architecture of the prediction model is constructed. We adopt some base predictors to compose the ensemble model. Then the structure and learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network is researched. To obtain the number of fuzzy rules and the initial value of the premise and consequent parameters, this paper proposes the fuzzy c-means combined with subtractive clustering algorithm, that is, the subtractive-fuzzy clustering. Finally, we adopt different criteria to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the method is accurate and effective in predicting the resource demands. PMID:25691896

  7. Self-adaptive prediction of cloud resource demands using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuanchang; Di, Yanqiang; Feng, Shaochong

    2015-01-01

    In IaaS (infrastructure as a service) cloud environment, users are provisioned with virtual machines (VMs). To allocate resources for users dynamically and effectively, accurate resource demands predicting is essential. For this purpose, this paper proposes a self-adaptive prediction method using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network (ESFCFNN). We analyze the characters of user preferences and demands. Then the architecture of the prediction model is constructed. We adopt some base predictors to compose the ensemble model. Then the structure and learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network is researched. To obtain the number of fuzzy rules and the initial value of the premise and consequent parameters, this paper proposes the fuzzy c-means combined with subtractive clustering algorithm, that is, the subtractive-fuzzy clustering. Finally, we adopt different criteria to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the method is accurate and effective in predicting the resource demands. PMID:25691896

  8. PainNetworks: a web-based resource for the visualisation of pain-related genes in the context of their network associations.

    PubMed

    Perkins, James R; Lees, Jonathan; Antunes-Martins, Ana; Diboun, Ilhem; McMahon, Stephen B; Bennett, David L H; Orengo, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Hundreds of genes are proposed to contribute to nociception and pain perception. Historically, most studies of pain-related genes have examined them in isolation or alongside a handful of other genes. More recently the use of systems biology techniques has enabled us to study genes in the context of the biological pathways and networks in which they operate. Here we describe a Web-based resource, available at http://www.PainNetworks.org. It integrates interaction data from various public databases with information on known pain genes taken from several sources (eg, The Pain Genes Database) and allows the user to examine a gene (or set of genes) of interest alongside known interaction partners. This information is displayed by the resource in the form of a network. The user can enrich these networks by using data from pain-focused gene expression studies to highlight genes that change expression in a given experiment or pairs of genes showing correlated expression patterns across different experiments. Genes in the networks are annotated in several ways including biological function and drug binding. The Web site can be used to find out more about a gene of interest by looking at the function of its interaction partners. It can also be used to interpret the results of a functional genomics experiment by revealing putative novel pain-related genes that have similar expression patterns to known pain-related genes and by ranking genes according to their network connections with known pain genes. We expect this resource to grow over time and become a valuable asset to the pain community.

  9. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database Is a Resource Ripe for Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of July 2011, over 200,000 observation records encompassing three years of plant phenology observations and two years of animal phenology observations have been contributed by participants in Nature's Notebook, the online phenology observation program developed by the National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN, and are available for download and analysis (www.usanpn.org/results/data). Participants in Nature's Notebook follow protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring, rather than "event" monitoring. On each visit to their site, the observer indicates the status of each phenophase for an individual plant or an animal species with a 'yes' if the phenophase is occurring and 'no' if it is not. This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring, enabling researchers to move beyond a focus on first events (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). These strengths will ultimately improve our understanding of changes in the timing of seasonal events. We will describe event monitoring and ways this rich form of data can be intepreted in detail in this presentation. Patterns in the data collected by Nature's Notebook participants are beginning to emerge, even at this early stage, demonstrating the value of this data resource. In addition to year to year variability in the dates of onset and commencement of various phenophases, the observations show

  10. Reaction Networks as Systems for Resource Allocation: A Variational Principle for Their Non-Equilibrium Steady States

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Andrea; De Martino, Daniele; Mulet, Roberto; Uguzzoni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Within a fully microscopic setting, we derive a variational principle for the non-equilibrium steady states of chemical reaction networks, valid for time-scales over which chemical potentials can be taken to be slowly varying: at stationarity the system minimizes a global function of the reaction fluxes with the form of a Hopfield Hamiltonian with Hebbian couplings, that is explicitly seen to correspond to the rate of decay of entropy production over time. Guided by this analogy, we show that reaction networks can be formally re-cast as systems of interacting reactions that optimize the use of the available compounds by competing for substrates, akin to agents competing for a limited resource in an optimal allocation problem. As an illustration, we analyze the scenario that emerges in two simple cases: that of toy (random) reaction networks and that of a metabolic network model of the human red blood cell. PMID:22815715

  11. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A

    2016-01-01

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol's semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery. PMID:27338411

  12. The SOL Genomics Network: a comparative resource for Solanaceae biology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Lukas A; Solow, Teri H; Taylor, Nicolas; Skwarecki, Beth; Buels, Robert; Binns, John; Lin, Chenwei; Wright, Mark H; Ahrens, Robert; Wang, Ying; Herbst, Evan V; Keyder, Emil R; Menda, Naama; Zamir, Dani; Tanksley, Steven D

    2005-07-01

    The SOL Genomics Network (SGN; http://sgn.cornell.edu) is a rapidly evolving comparative resource for the plants of the Solanaceae family, which includes important crop and model plants such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The aim of SGN is to relate these species to one another using a comparative genomics approach and to tie them to the other dicots through the fully sequenced genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). SGN currently houses map and marker data for Solanaceae species, a large expressed sequence tag collection with computationally derived unigene sets, an extensive database of phenotypic information for a mutagenized tomato population, and associated tools such as real-time quantitative trait loci. Recently, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL) was formed as an umbrella organization for Solanaceae research in over 30 countries to address important questions in plant biology. The first cornerstone of the SOL project is the sequencing of the entire euchromatic portion of the tomato genome. SGN is collaborating with other bioinformatics centers in building the bioinformatics infrastructure for the tomato sequencing project and implementing the bioinformatics strategy of the larger SOL project. The overarching goal of SGN is to make information available in an intuitive comparative format, thereby facilitating a systems approach to investigations into the basis of adaptation and phenotypic diversity in the Solanaceae family, other species in the Asterid clade such as coffee (Coffea arabica), Rubiaciae, and beyond.

  13. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability. PMID:26056817

  14. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A.; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A.

    2016-01-01

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol’s semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery. PMID:27338411

  15. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A

    2016-06-22

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol's semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery.

  16. The SOL Genomics Network. A Comparative Resource for Solanaceae Biology and Beyond1

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Lukas A.; Solow, Teri H.; Taylor, Nicolas; Skwarecki, Beth; Buels, Robert; Binns, John; Lin, Chenwei; Wright, Mark H.; Ahrens, Robert; Wang, Ying; Herbst, Evan V.; Keyder, Emil R.; Menda, Naama; Zamir, Dani; Tanksley, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    The SOL Genomics Network (SGN; http://sgn.cornell.edu) is a rapidly evolving comparative resource for the plants of the Solanaceae family, which includes important crop and model plants such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The aim of SGN is to relate these species to one another using a comparative genomics approach and to tie them to the other dicots through the fully sequenced genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). SGN currently houses map and marker data for Solanaceae species, a large expressed sequence tag collection with computationally derived unigene sets, an extensive database of phenotypic information for a mutagenized tomato population, and associated tools such as real-time quantitative trait loci. Recently, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL) was formed as an umbrella organization for Solanaceae research in over 30 countries to address important questions in plant biology. The first cornerstone of the SOL project is the sequencing of the entire euchromatic portion of the tomato genome. SGN is collaborating with other bioinformatics centers in building the bioinformatics infrastructure for the tomato sequencing project and implementing the bioinformatics strategy of the larger SOL project. The overarching goal of SGN is to make information available in an intuitive comparative format, thereby facilitating a systems approach to investigations into the basis of adaptation and phenotypic diversity in the Solanaceae family, other species in the Asterid clade such as coffee (Coffea arabica), Rubiaciae, and beyond. PMID:16010005

  17. Cascaded neural networks for sequenced propagation estimation, multiuser detection, and adaptive radio resource control of third-generation wireless networks for multimedia services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    1999-03-01

    A hybrid neural network approach is presented to estimate radio propagation characteristics and multiuser interference and to evaluate their combined impact on throughput, latency and information loss in third-generation (3G) wireless networks. The latter three performance parameters influence the quality of service (QoS) for multimedia services under consideration for 3G networks. These networks, based on a hierarchical architecture of overlaying macrocells on top of micro- and picocells, are planned to operate in mobile urban and indoor environments with service demands emanating from circuit-switched, packet-switched and satellite-based traffic sources. Candidate radio interfaces for these networks employ a form of wideband CDMA in 5-MHz and wider-bandwidth channels, with possible asynchronous operation of the mobile subscribers. The proposed neural network (NN) architecture allocates network resources to optimize QoS metrics. Parameters of the radio propagation channel are estimated, followed by control of an adaptive antenna array at the base station to minimize interference, and then joint multiuser detection is performed at the base station receiver. These adaptive processing stages are implemented as a sequence of NN techniques that provide their estimates as inputs to a final- stage Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM). The SOFM optimizes the allocation of available network resources to satisfy QoS requirements for variable-rate voice, data and video services. As the first stage of the sequence, a modified feed-forward multilayer perceptron NN is trained on the pilot signals of the mobile subscribers to estimate the parameters of shadowing, multipath fading and delays on the uplinks. A recurrent NN (RNN) forms the second stage to control base stations' adaptive antenna arrays to minimize intra-cell interference. The third stage is based on a Hopfield NN (HNN), modified to detect multiple users on the uplink radio channels to mitigate multiaccess

  18. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing in...

  19. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing i...

  20. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Network of Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres: Treatnet.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Rosselló, Juana; Rawson, Richard A; Zarza, Maria J; Bellows, Anne; Busse, Anja; Saenz, Elizabeth; Freese, Thomas; Shawkey, Mansour; Carise, Deni; Ali, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Key to the dissemination of evidence-based addiction treatments is the exchange of experiences and mutual support among treatment practitioners, as well as the availability of accurate addiction training materials and effective trainers. To address the shortage of such resources, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) created Treatnet, a network of 20 drug dependence treatment resource centers around the world. Treatnet's primary goal is to promote the use of effective addiction treatment practices. Phase I of this project included (1) selecting and establishing a network of geographically distributed centers; (2) conducting a capacity-building program consisting of a training needs assessment, development of training packages, and the training of 2 trainers per center in 1 content area each; and (3) creating good-practice documents. Data on the training activities conducted by the trainers during their first 6 months in the field are presented. Plans for Phase II of the Treatnet project are also discussed.

  1. Wyoming Academic Libraries Resource Project: Developing a Statewide Ariel Document Delivery Network. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Karen

    The Wyoming Academic Libraries Resource Project was initiated to improve cooperation and resource sharing by developing an interconnected information access and delivery system among Wyoming's academic libraries and the State Library. The goal was to formalize communication, cooperation, and resource sharing by developing an Ariel document…

  2. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland J.; Markstrom, Steve L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function - unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  3. Reformulated Neural Network (ReNN): a New Alternative for Data-driven Modelling in Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.; Burn, D.; Seglenieks, F.

    2012-04-01

    Reformulated Neural Network (ReNN) has been recently developed as an efficient and more effective alternative to feedforward multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks [Razavi, S., and Tolson, B. A. (2011). "A new formulation for feedforward neural networks." IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 22(10), 1588-1598, DOI: 1510.1109/TNN.2011.2163169]. This presentation initially aims to introduce the ReNN to the water resources community and then demonstrates ReNN applications to water resources related problems. ReNN is essentially equivalent to a single-hidden-layer MLP neural network but defined on a new set of network variables which is more effective than the traditional set of network weights and biases. The main features of the new network variables are that they are geometrically interpretable and each variable has a distinct role in forming the network response. ReNN is more efficiently trained as it has a less complex error response surface. In addition to the ReNN training efficiency, the interpretability of the ReNN variables enables the users to monitor and understand the internal behaviour of the network while training. Regularization in the ReNN response can be also directly measured and controlled. This feature improves the generalization ability of the network. The appeal of the ReNN is demonstrated with two ReNN applications to water resources engineering problems. In the first application, the ReNN is used to model the rainfall-runoff relationships in multiple watersheds in the Great Lakes basin located in northeastern North America. Modelling inflows to the Great Lakes are of great importance to the management of the Great Lakes system. Due to the lack of some detailed physical data about existing control structures in many subwatersheds of this huge basin, the data-driven approach to modelling such as the ReNN are required to replace predictions from a physically-based rainfall runoff model. Unlike traditional MLPs, the ReNN does not necessarily

  4. The Regional Resource Center (RRC) Network Accountability Report Executive Summary: The First RRC Network Performance Measurement Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Resource Center for Special Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Resource Center (RRC) program mission is to strengthen the capacity of state systems of education and early intervention to improve results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities and their families. It is one of the longest and most successful technical assistance projects of the Office of Special Education…

  5. A water-resources data-network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 3, Northern Salinas River drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Schluter, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report evaluates existing data collection networks and possible additional data collection to monitor quantity and quality of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the northern Salinas River drainage basin, California. Of the 34 precipitation stations identified, 20 were active and are concentrated in the northwestern part of the study area. No precipitation quality networks were identified, but possible data collection efforts include monitoring for acid rain and pesticides. Six of ten stream-gaging stations are active. Two surface water quality sites are sampled for suspended sediment, specific conductance, and chloride; one U.S. Geological Survey NASOAN site and one site operated by California Department of Water Resources make up the four active sampling locations; reactivation of 45 inactive surface water quality sites might help to achieve objectives described in the report. Three local networks measure water levels in 318 wells monthly, during peak irrigation, and at the end of the irrigation season. Water quality conditions are monitored in 379 wells; samples are collected in summer to monitor saltwater intrusion near Castroville and are also collected annually throughout the study area for analysis of chloride, specific conductance, and nitrate. An ideal baseline network would be an evenly spaced grid of index wells with a density of one per section. When baseline conditions are established, representative wells within the network could be monitored periodically according to specific data needs. (USGS)

  6. All We Do Is Chat Chat: Social Networking for the Electronic Resources Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Social networking tools have been getting quite a bit of press in libraryland for the past couple of years. It is considered to be one of the key aspects of a library joining what is referred to as the Library 2.0 movement. In this context, social networking is seen as a library service or library outreach mechanism that utilizes popular social…

  7. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  8. Informal Networks in Youth Transitions in West Germany: Biographical Resource or Reproduction of Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Andreas; Stauber, Barbara; Pohl, Axel

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with informal networks and their role in young people's strategies of coping with the uncertainties of transitions to work. The underlying hypothesis is that informal networks have a high potential in this regard that, however, is strongly differentiated according to class and education. Drawing on West German data from the…

  9. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, B J; Hychka, K C; Belaire, J A; Minor, E; Walker, H A

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago (n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.

  10. Network-Based Leadership Development: A Guiding Framework and Resources for Management Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen-Lester, Kristin L.; Woehler, Meredith L.; Willburn, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Management education and leadership development has traditionally focused on improving human capital (i.e., knowledge, skills, and abilities). Social capital, networks, and networking skills have received less attention. When this content has been incorporated into learning and development experiences, it has often been more ad hoc and has…

  11. Realizing the Potential of Information Resources: Information, Technology, and Services. Track 6: Networking and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Six papers and two abstracts of papers are presented from the 1995 CAUSE conference track on networking and telecommunications issues faced by managers of information technology at colleges and universities. The papers include: (1) "Looking to the Year 2000: Alternatives in Campus Data Networking" (Noam H. Artz and Daniel A. Updegrove), which…

  12. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, B J; Hychka, K C; Belaire, J A; Minor, E; Walker, H A

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago (n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined. PMID:26503113

  13. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreakie, B. J.; Hychka, K. C.; Belaire, J. A.; Minor, E.; Walker, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago ( n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.

  14. From Static Content to Dynamic Communities: The Evolution of Networked Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Neil; Huxley, Lesly

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web-based educational resources in the United Kingdom, focusing on current challenges of linking content with community and static information with dynamic news. Describes the evolution of three social sciences resources and examines sustainability, the need for collaboration, and data protection and privacy concerns. (Author/LRW)

  15. Some Emphases and Resources for the A.I.D. Education Sector. Network Series: EHR-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Office of Education and Human Resources.

    This paper elaborates on the Agency for International Development's (AID) new strategies for educational assistance to developing nations, with special reference to available, centrally funded technical assistance resources and the means for procuring them. Section one provides a brief introduction and lists the kinds of resources available and…

  16. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  17. PoplarGene: poplar gene network and resource for mining functional information for genes from woody plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Ding, Changjun; Chu, Yanguang; Chen, Jiafei; Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Su, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Poplar is not only an important resource for the production of paper, timber and other wood-based products, but it has also emerged as an ideal model system for studying woody plants. To better understand the biological processes underlying various traits in poplar, e.g., wood development, a comprehensive functional gene interaction network is highly needed. Here, we constructed a genome-wide functional gene network for poplar (covering ~70% of the 41,335 poplar genes) and created the network web service PoplarGene, offering comprehensive functional interactions and extensive poplar gene functional annotations. PoplarGene incorporates two network-based gene prioritization algorithms, neighborhood-based prioritization and context-based prioritization, which can be used to perform gene prioritization in a complementary manner. Furthermore, the co-functional information in PoplarGene can be applied to other woody plant proteomes with high efficiency via orthology transfer. In addition to poplar gene sequences, the webserver also accepts Arabidopsis reference gene as input to guide the search for novel candidate functional genes in PoplarGene. We believe that PoplarGene (http://bioinformatics.caf.ac.cn/PoplarGene and http://124.127.201.25/PoplarGene) will greatly benefit the research community, facilitating studies of poplar and other woody plants. PMID:27515999

  18. PoplarGene: poplar gene network and resource for mining functional information for genes from woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Ding, Changjun; Chu, Yanguang; Chen, Jiafei; Zhang, Weixi; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Su, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Poplar is not only an important resource for the production of paper, timber and other wood-based products, but it has also emerged as an ideal model system for studying woody plants. To better understand the biological processes underlying various traits in poplar, e.g., wood development, a comprehensive functional gene interaction network is highly needed. Here, we constructed a genome-wide functional gene network for poplar (covering ~70% of the 41,335 poplar genes) and created the network web service PoplarGene, offering comprehensive functional interactions and extensive poplar gene functional annotations. PoplarGene incorporates two network-based gene prioritization algorithms, neighborhood-based prioritization and context-based prioritization, which can be used to perform gene prioritization in a complementary manner. Furthermore, the co-functional information in PoplarGene can be applied to other woody plant proteomes with high efficiency via orthology transfer. In addition to poplar gene sequences, the webserver also accepts Arabidopsis reference gene as input to guide the search for novel candidate functional genes in PoplarGene. We believe that PoplarGene (http://bioinformatics.caf.ac.cn/PoplarGene and http://124.127.201.25/PoplarGene) will greatly benefit the research community, facilitating studies of poplar and other woody plants. PMID:27515999

  19. Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs

    PubMed Central

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network). PMID:23467581

  20. Simulator Network project report: a tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs.

    PubMed

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network).

  1. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability.

  2. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability. PMID:26976729

  3. North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet): A real-time water quality sensor network to study impacts of climate variability for Delaware, Rhode Island and Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A.; Schroth, A. W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Addy, K.; Bowden, W. B.; Andres, S.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Andrew, V.; Leathers, D. J.; Garfield, M.; Chace, J.; Jerram, A.; Vaughan, M.; Shanley, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the development of a new generation of optical biogeochemical sensors coupled with increasingly widespread and relatively inexpensive data storage and transmission technology, has enabled watershed scientists to collect high-frequency water quality data that can be transmitted to researchers, managers and stakeholders in quasi real-time. However, the application of this technology to address regional water quality challenges across different types of land-use/cover is just being explored. Here we present the development of new regional water quality monitoring network in the northeastern United States (DE, RI,VT) - the North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet). NEWRnet is used as a case study in the process associated with development and implementation of a regional, cross-state collaborative network for monitoring water quality; one of the first, we believe, of its kind. . Two fundamental questions that we address are: 1) What is the impact of climate variability and other disturbances on water quality for watersheds with different land uses extending across the north-south gradient (VT to DE)? 2) Do high-frequency water quality data provide valuable information and insights to stakeholders and thus lead to better and time efficient decision making? Our network consists of a suite of sites across each state with similar basic land covers (forested, agricultural and urban). Each site within the network is currently equipped with an s::can spectrolyser and YSI EXO2 sonde, as well as pressure transducers for estimating discharge and ISCO automated sampling systems. All sensor data is telemetered on an hourly basis from the monitoring site to a regional database housed at the University of Delaware, which is accessible to the entire research team In addition to university scientists and researchers, we also partner with local/state drinking water utilities (DWUs) to assess how this real-time water quality data can assist with their day

  4. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p < .001). This association was partially mediated by lower perceived support and more negative social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  5. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  6. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model’s objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior. PMID:26226109

  7. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    PubMed

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  8. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    PubMed

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior. PMID:26226109

  9. Capturing exponential variance using polynomial resources: applying tensor networks to nonequilibrium stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T H; Elliott, T J; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D

    2015-03-01

    Estimating the expected value of an observable appearing in a nonequilibrium stochastic process usually involves sampling. If the observable's variance is high, many samples are required. In contrast, we show that performing the same task without sampling, using tensor network compression, efficiently captures high variances in systems of various geometries and dimensions. We provide examples for which matching the accuracy of our efficient method would require a sample size scaling exponentially with system size. In particular, the high-variance observable e^{-βW}, motivated by Jarzynski's equality, with W the work done quenching from equilibrium at inverse temperature β, is exactly and efficiently captured by tensor networks.

  10. Optimization strategies with resource scarcity: From immunization of networks to the traveling salesman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Agliari, Elena; Cassi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    The best strategy to immunize a complex network is usually evaluated in terms of the percolation threshold, i.e. the number of vaccine doses which make the largest connected cluster (LCC) vanish. The strategy inducing the minimum percolation threshold represents the optimal way to immunize the network. Here we show that the efficacy of the immunization strategies can change during the immunization process. This means that, if the number of doses is limited, the best strategy is not necessarily the one leading to the smallest percolation threshold. This outcome should warn about the adoption of global measures in order to evaluate the best immunization strategy.

  11. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  12. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  13. Meeting Needs with Scarce Resources: Community Network Building for Low-Incidence Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Judith A.; Larson, Georgianna

    In October 1983 Pathfinder, an organization in Minneapolis, Minnesota, was awarded a federal grant to develop a community network model serving children with chronic health conditions and their families. This document describes the model, demonstrated at four sites in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The model is based on four key assumptions: (1)…

  14. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…

  15. School Leaders and Networks: Understanding Principal Peer Dialogue as a Resource for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farag-Davis, S. Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    Because their role is highly complex, school principals require ongoing professional learning to lead effectively and respond to the challenges inherent to school leadership. Networking among principals is frequently identified as a valuable source of professional learning for school leaders. Nevertheless, existing literature applies the term to a…

  16. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  17. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  18. Networking Resources, Owning Productivity: A Post-Development Alternative in Mindanao?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Lindsey K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the practices of one small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Mindanao working innovatively to challenge power and interests by linking resources to local communities who control their productivity. While this may seem like social capital, I suggest that the agency over production, and the deeply political and ideological…

  19. Developing Online Learning Resources: Big Data, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing to Support Pervasive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing online learning resources (OLR) from multi channels in learning activities promise extended benefits from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred that emphasises pervasive learning anywhere and anytime. While compiling big data, cloud computing, and semantic web into OLR offer a broader spectrum of…

  20. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of water- resources data-collection networks in the northern and coastal areas of Monterey County, California. This evaluation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District to evaluate precipitation, surface water, and ground water monitoring networks. This report describes existing monitoring networks in the study areas and areas where possible additional data-collection is needed. During this study, 106 precipitation-quantity gages were identified, of which 84 were active; however, no precipitation-quality gages were identified in the study areas. The precipitaion-quantity gages were concentrated in the Monterey Peninsula and the northern part of the county. If the number of gages in these areas were reduced, coverage would still be adequate to meet most objectives; however, additional gages could improve coverage in the Tularcitos Creek basin and in the coastal areas south of Carmel to the county boundary. If collection of precipitation data were expanded to include monitoring precipitation quality, this expanded monitoring also could include monitoring precipitation for acid rain and pesticides. Eleven continuous streamflow-gaging stations were identified during this study, of which seven were active. To meet the objectives of the streamflow networks outlined in this report, the seven active stations would need to be continued, four stations would need to be reactivated, and an additional six streamflow-gaging stations would need to be added. Eleven stations that routinely were sampled for chemical constituents were identified in the study areas. Surface water in the lower Big Sur River basin was sampled annually for total coli- form and fecal coliform bacteria, and the Big Sur River was sampled monthly at 16 stations for these bacteria. Routine sampling for chemical constituents also was done in the Big Sur River basin. The Monterey County Flood

  1. Recommendations for protecting National Library of Medicine Computing and Networking Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, R.

    1994-11-01

    Protecting Information Technology (IT) involves a number of interrelated factors. These include mission, available resources, technologies, existing policies and procedures, internal culture, contemporary threats, and strategic enterprise direction. In the face of this formidable list, a structured approach provides cost effective actions that allow the organization to manage its risks. We face fundamental challenges that will persist for at least the next several years. It is difficult if not impossible to precisely quantify risk. IT threats and vulnerabilities change rapidly and continually. Limited organizational resources combined with mission restraints-such as availability and connectivity requirements-will insure that most systems will not be absolutely secure (if such security were even possible). In short, there is no technical (or administrative) {open_quotes}silver bullet.{close_quotes} Protection is employing a stratified series of recommendations, matching protection levels against information sensitivities. Adaptive and flexible risk management is the key to effective protection of IT resources. The cost of the protection must be kept less than the expected loss, and one must take into account that an adversary will not expend more to attack a resource than the value of its compromise to that adversary. Notwithstanding the difficulty if not impossibility to precisely quantify risk, the aforementioned allows us to avoid the trap of choosing a course of action simply because {open_quotes}it`s safer{close_quotes} or ignoring an area because no one had explored its potential risk. Recommendations for protecting IT resources begins with discussing contemporary threats and vulnerabilities, and then procedures from general to specific preventive measures. From a risk management perspective, it is imperative to understand that today, the vast majority of threats are against UNIX hosts connected to the Internet.

  2. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-01-01

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless ‘geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  3. RegPhos 2.0: an updated resource to explore protein kinase-substrate phosphorylation networks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-Yao; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Su, Min-Gang; Hsieh, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Lin, Kuo-I; Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by kinases plays crucial roles in regulating a variety of intracellular processes. Owing to an increasing number of in vivo phosphorylation sites that have been identified by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, the RegPhos, available online at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/RegPhos2/, was developed to explore protein phosphorylation networks in human. In this update, we not only enhance the data content in human but also investigate kinase-substrate phosphorylation networks in mouse and rat. The experimentally validated phosphorylation sites as well as their catalytic kinases were extracted from public resources, and MS/MS phosphopeptides were manually curated from research articles. RegPhos 2.0 aims to provide a more comprehensive view of intracellular signaling networks by integrating the information of metabolic pathways and protein-protein interactions. A case study shows that analyzing the phosphoproteome profile of time-dependent cell activation obtained from Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, the RegPhos deciphered not only the consistent scheme in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway but also novel regulatory molecules that may involve in it. With an attempt to help users efficiently identify the candidate biomarkers in cancers, 30 microarray experiments, including 39 cancerous versus normal cells, were analyzed for detecting cancer-specific expressed genes coding for kinases and their substrates. Furthermore, this update features an improved web interface to facilitate convenient access to the exploration of phosphorylation networks for a group of genes/proteins. Database URL: http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/RegPhos2/

  4. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-01-01

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless 'geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  5. Study on resource management algorithm based on infinitesimal perturbation analysis for communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Ning

    2009-12-01

    To solve the buffer management problem in communication networks, based on the IPA (Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis) method, a new algorithm was proposed. The algorithm regarded the buffer management problem as one minimization of the performance function with the decision variable (specially, the buffer threshold) describing the nod with SFM(Stochastic Fluid Model). IPA technique was used to derive sensitivity estimators for the performance function, thus provided SA(Stochastic Approximation) algorithms capable to optimally minimize the performance cost based on IPA gradient. The algorithm can be evaluated based on data observed from the sample path of the real system without any pre-knowledge of the inflow.

  6. SeaBase: a multispecies transcriptomic resource and platform for gene network inference.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Antje H L; Mozzherin, Dmitry; Eren, A Murat; Lans, Kristen D; Wilson, Nathan; Cosentino, Carlo; Smith, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Marine and aquatic animals are extraordinarily useful as models for identifying mechanisms of development and evolution, regeneration, resistance to cancer, longevity and symbiosis, among many other areas of research. This is due to the great diversity of these organisms and their wide-ranging capabilities. Genomics tools are essential for taking advantage of these "free lessons" of nature. However, genomics and transcriptomics are challenging in emerging model systems. Here, we present SeaBase, a tool for helping to meet these needs. Specifically, SeaBase provides a platform for sharing and searching transcriptome data. More importantly, SeaBase will support a growing number of tools for inferring gene network mechanisms. The first dataset available on SeaBase is a developmental transcriptomic profile of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria). Additional datasets are currently being prepared and we are aiming to expand SeaBase to include user-supplied data for any number of marine and aquatic organisms, thereby supporting many potentially new models for gene network studies. SeaBase can be accessed online at: http://seabase.core.cli.mbl.edu. PMID:24907201

  7. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  8. UbiNet: an online resource for exploring the functional associations and regulatory networks of protein ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Nui; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Lai, K. Robert; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitylation catalyzed by E3 ubiquitin ligases are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Owing to the high throughput of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, a number of methods have been developed for the experimental determination of ubiquitylation sites, leading to a large collection of ubiquitylation data. However, there exist no resources for the exploration of E3-ligase-associated regulatory networks of for ubiquitylated proteins in humans. Therefore, the UbiNet database was developed to provide a full investigation of protein ubiquitylation networks by incorporating experimentally verified E3 ligases, ubiquitylated substrates and protein–protein interactions (PPIs). To date, UbiNet has accumulated 43 948 experimentally verified ubiquitylation sites from 14 692 ubiquitylated proteins of humans. Additionally, we have manually curated 499 E3 ligases as well as two E1 activating and 46 E2 conjugating enzymes. To delineate the regulatory networks among E3 ligases and ubiquitylated proteins, a total of 430 530 PPIs were integrated into UbiNet for the exploration of ubiquitylation networks with an interactive network viewer. A case study demonstrated that UbiNet was able to decipher a scheme for the ubiquitylation of tumor proteins p63 and p73 that is consistent with their functions. Although the essential role of Mdm2 in p53 regulation is well studied, UbiNet revealed that Mdm2 and additional E3 ligases might be implicated in the regulation of other tumor proteins by protein ubiquitylation. Moreover, UbiNet could identify potential substrates for a specific E3 ligase based on PPIs and substrate motifs. With limited knowledge about the mechanisms through which ubiquitylated proteins are regulated by E3 ligases, UbiNet offers users an effective means for conducting preliminary analyses of protein ubiquitylation. The UbiNet database is now freely accessible via http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/UbiNet/. The content is regularly updated with the

  9. UbiNet: an online resource for exploring the functional associations and regulatory networks of protein ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Nui; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Lai, K Robert; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitylation catalyzed by E3 ubiquitin ligases are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Owing to the high throughput of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, a number of methods have been developed for the experimental determination of ubiquitylation sites, leading to a large collection of ubiquitylation data. However, there exist no resources for the exploration of E3-ligase-associated regulatory networks of for ubiquitylated proteins in humans. Therefore, the UbiNet database was developed to provide a full investigation of protein ubiquitylation networks by incorporating experimentally verified E3 ligases, ubiquitylated substrates and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). To date, UbiNet has accumulated 43 948 experimentally verified ubiquitylation sites from 14 692 ubiquitylated proteins of humans. Additionally, we have manually curated 499 E3 ligases as well as two E1 activating and 46 E2 conjugating enzymes. To delineate the regulatory networks among E3 ligases and ubiquitylated proteins, a total of 430 530 PPIs were integrated into UbiNet for the exploration of ubiquitylation networks with an interactive network viewer. A case study demonstrated that UbiNet was able to decipher a scheme for the ubiquitylation of tumor proteins p63 and p73 that is consistent with their functions. Although the essential role of Mdm2 in p53 regulation is well studied, UbiNet revealed that Mdm2 and additional E3 ligases might be implicated in the regulation of other tumor proteins by protein ubiquitylation. Moreover, UbiNet could identify potential substrates for a specific E3 ligase based on PPIs and substrate motifs. With limited knowledge about the mechanisms through which ubiquitylated proteins are regulated by E3 ligases, UbiNet offers users an effective means for conducting preliminary analyses of protein ubiquitylation. The UbiNet database is now freely accessible via http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/UbiNet/ The content is regularly updated with the

  10. Integrating indigenous ecological and scientific hydro-geological knowledge using a Bayesian Network in the context of water resource development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedloff, A. C.; Woodward, E. L.; Harrington, G. A.; Jackson, S.

    2013-08-01

    The contributions indigenous ecological knowledge can make to better inform water management decisions are currently undervalued leading to an underrepresentation of indigenous values in water planning and policy. This paper outlines a novel approach in which indigenous ecological knowledge informs cause and effect relationships between species and aquatic habitats to promote broader ecosystem understanding. A Bayesian Network was developed to synthesise the seasonal aquatic knowledge of a group of Gooniyandi Aboriginal language speakers, including fish species’ availability, condition and required habitat, and integrate it with hydrogeological understanding obtained from research undertaken in a stretch of the Fitzroy River, Western Australia. This river system, like most in northern Australia, is highly seasonal and entirely dependent upon groundwater for maintaining flow during prolonged dry seasons. We found that potential changes in river flow rates caused by future water resource development, such as groundwater extraction and surface water diversion, may have detrimental effects on the ability to catch the high value aquatic food species such as Barramundi and Sawfish, but also that species such as Black Bream may benefit. These findings result from changes in availability of habitats at times when Gooniyandi understanding shows they are important for providing aquatic resources in good condition. This study raises awareness of the potential outcomes of future water management and stimulates communication between indigenous people, the scientific community and water managers by developing a model of indigenous understanding from which to predict eco-hydrological change.

  11. LncReg: a reference resource for lncRNA-associated regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong; Shen, Yi; Khan, Muhammad Riaz; Li, Ao

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical in the regulation of various biological processes. In recent years, plethora of lncRNAs have been identified in mammalian genomes through different approaches, and the researchers are constantly reporting the regulatory roles of these lncRNAs, which leads to complexity of literature about particular lncRNAs. Therefore, for the convenience of the researchers, we collected regulatory relationships of the lncRNAs and built a database called ‘LncReg’. This database is developed by collecting 1081 validated lncRNA-associated regulatory entries, including 258 non-redundant lncRNAs and 571 non-redundant genes. With regulatory relationships information, LncReg can provide overall perspectives of regulatory networks of lncRNAs and comprehensive data for bioinformatics research, which is useful for understanding the functional roles of lncRNAs. Database URL: http://bioinformatics.ustc.edu.cn/lncreg/ PMID:26363021

  12. Computational Prediction of Protein–Protein Interaction Networks: Algo-rithms and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri, Javad; Bozorgmehr, Joseph Hannon; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Protein interactions play an important role in the discovery of protein functions and pathways in biological processes. This is especially true in case of the diseases caused by the loss of specific protein-protein interactions in the organism. The accuracy of experimental results in finding protein-protein interactions, however, is rather dubious and high throughput experimental results have shown both high false positive beside false negative information for protein interaction. Computational methods have attracted tremendous attention among biologists because of the ability to predict protein-protein interactions and validate the obtained experimental results. In this study, we have reviewed several computational methods for protein-protein interaction prediction as well as describing major databases, which store both predicted and detected protein-protein interactions, and the tools used for analyzing protein interaction networks and improving protein-protein interaction reliability. PMID:24396273

  13. Autophagy Regulatory Network - a systems-level bioinformatics resource for studying the mechanism and regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Türei, Dénes; Földvári-Nagy, László; Fazekas, Dávid; Módos, Dezső; Kubisch, János; Kadlecsik, Tamás; Demeter, Amanda; Lenti, Katalin; Csermely, Péter; Vellai, Tibor; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a complex cellular process having multiple roles, depending on tissue, physiological, or pathological conditions. Major post-translational regulators of autophagy are well known, however, they have not yet been collected comprehensively. The precise and context-dependent regulation of autophagy necessitates additional regulators, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional components that are listed in various datasets. Prompted by the lack of systems-level autophagy-related information, we manually collected the literature and integrated external resources to gain a high coverage autophagy database. We developed an online resource, Autophagy Regulatory Network (ARN; http://autophagy-regulation.org), to provide an integrated and systems-level database for autophagy research. ARN contains manually curated, imported, and predicted interactions of autophagy components (1,485 proteins with 4,013 interactions) in humans. We listed 413 transcription factors and 386 miRNAs that could regulate autophagy components or their protein regulators. We also connected the above-mentioned autophagy components and regulators with signaling pathways from the SignaLink 2 resource. The user-friendly website of ARN allows researchers without computational background to search, browse, and download the database. The database can be downloaded in SQL, CSV, BioPAX, SBML, PSI-MI, and in a Cytoscape CYS file formats. ARN has the potential to facilitate the experimental validation of novel autophagy components and regulators. In addition, ARN helps the investigation of transcription factors, miRNAs and signaling pathways implicated in the control of the autophagic pathway. The list of such known and predicted regulators could be important in pharmacological attempts against cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Autophagy Regulatory Network - a systems-level bioinformatics resource for studying the mechanism and regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Türei, Dénes; Földvári-Nagy, László; Fazekas, Dávid; Módos, Dezső; Kubisch, János; Kadlecsik, Tamás; Demeter, Amanda; Lenti, Katalin; Csermely, Péter; Vellai, Tibor; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a complex cellular process having multiple roles, depending on tissue, physiological, or pathological conditions. Major post-translational regulators of autophagy are well known, however, they have not yet been collected comprehensively. The precise and context-dependent regulation of autophagy necessitates additional regulators, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional components that are listed in various datasets. Prompted by the lack of systems-level autophagy-related information, we manually collected the literature and integrated external resources to gain a high coverage autophagy database. We developed an online resource, Autophagy Regulatory Network (ARN; http://autophagy-regulation.org), to provide an integrated and systems-level database for autophagy research. ARN contains manually curated, imported, and predicted interactions of autophagy components (1,485 proteins with 4,013 interactions) in humans. We listed 413 transcription factors and 386 miRNAs that could regulate autophagy components or their protein regulators. We also connected the above-mentioned autophagy components and regulators with signaling pathways from the SignaLink 2 resource. The user-friendly website of ARN allows researchers without computational background to search, browse, and download the database. The database can be downloaded in SQL, CSV, BioPAX, SBML, PSI-MI, and in a Cytoscape CYS file formats. ARN has the potential to facilitate the experimental validation of novel autophagy components and regulators. In addition, ARN helps the investigation of transcription factors, miRNAs and signaling pathways implicated in the control of the autophagic pathway. The list of such known and predicted regulators could be important in pharmacological attempts against cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25635527

  15. Community Care Workers, Poor Referral Networks and Consumption of Personal Resources in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data – CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers. PMID:24781696

  16. Community care workers, poor referral networks and consumption of personal resources in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.

  17. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  18. Research Resource: dkCOIN, the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Consortium Interconnectivity Network: A Pilot Program to Aggregate Research Resources Generated by Multiple Research Consortia

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Neil J.; Howard, Christopher L.; Aufiero, Michael; Easton-Marks, Jeremy; Steffen, David L.; Becnel, Lauren B.; Magnuson, Mark A.; McIndoe, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) supports multiple basic science consortia that generate high-content datasets, reagent resources, and methodologies, in the fields of kidney, urology, hematology, digestive, and endocrine diseases, as well as metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. These currently include the Beta Cell Biology Consortium, the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas, the Diabetic Complications Consortium, and the Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers. Recognizing the synergy that would accrue from aggregating information generated and curated by these initiatives in a contiguous informatics network, we created the NIDDK Consortium Interconnectivity Network (dkCOIN; www.dkcoin.org). The goal of this pilot project, organized by the NIDDK, was to establish a single point of access to a toolkit of interconnected resources (datasets, reagents, and protocols) generated from individual consortia that could be readily accessed by biologists of diverse backgrounds and research interests. During the pilot phase of this activity dkCOIN collected nearly 2000 consortium-curated resources, including datasets (functional genomics) and reagents (mouse strains, antibodies, and adenoviral constructs) and built nearly 3000 resource-to-resource connections, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of further extending this database in the future. Thus, dkCOIN promises to be a useful informatics solution for rapidly identifying useful resources generated by participating research consortia. PMID:22734043

  19. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development. PMID:26068307

  20. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development.

  1. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  2. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  3. DISTRIBUTED STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXICITY (DSSTOX) DATABASE NETWORK: MAKING PUBLIC TOXICITY DATA RESOURCES MORE ACCESSIBLE AND USABLE FOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network: Making Public Toxicity Data Resources More Accessible and U sable for Data Exploration and SAR Development

    Many sources of public toxicity data are not currently linked to chemical structure, are not ...

  4. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a broad and coordinated research program to develop wind ...

  5. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, to a...

  6. The effects of initial distribution on the formation and structure of conducting paths in a physical example of a resource transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joseph; Hubler, Alfred

    2004-03-01

    The geometrical properties of resource transportation networks have proven to be of key importance in understanding the scaling properties of organisms across many taxa.[1,2] Yet, little is known about the formation of such networks. We study a physical example of a "resource" collection network: the formation of conducting paths in a two material mixture system of conducting particles and dielectric medium when influenced by an electric field. The experimental setup is analogous to biological systems where optimal resource collection is important, such as root and tree formation and foraging trails of ant colonies; here charge can be viewed as resource. Under suitable conditions the conducting paths form quasi 2-dimensional fractal networks strikingly similar to those found in biological systems. We present experimental results on the effects of the initial distribution of conducting particles on the final static pattern. We find qualitative differences in the pattern when the particles are initially distributed compactly or when they are initially distributed randomly [1] G. West, J.H. Brown and B.J. Enquist, Science, 276, 122. [2] J. Jun, J.F. Gillooly, J.W. Pepper, V.M. Savage, and J.H. Brown, Evol. Ecol. Res., 5, 297.

  7. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  8. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  9. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  10. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  11. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars; Ellis, Abraham; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery operated data acquisition system. The Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network is comprised of 24 LI-COR{reg_sign} irradiance sensors (silicon pyranometers) polled by 19 RF Radios. The system was implemented with commercially available hardware and custom developed LabVIEW applications. The network of solar irradiance sensors was installed in January 2010 around the periphery and within the 1.2 MW ac La Ola PV plant on the island of Lanai, Hawaii. Data acquired at 1 second intervals is transmitted over wireless links to be time-stamped and recorded on SunPower data servers at the site for later analysis. The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The irradiance data sets recorded will be used to study the shape, size and velocity of cloud shadows. This data, along with time-correlated PV array output data, will support the development and validation of a PV performance model that can predict the short-term output characteristics (ramp rates) of PV systems of different sizes and designs. This analysis could also be used by the La Ola system operator to predict power ramp events and support the function of the future battery system. This experience could be used to validate short-term output forecasting methodologies.

  12. Proceedings from the Turner Resource Network symposium: the crossroads of health care research and health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bondy, Carolyn; Chernausek, Steven D; Cernich, Joseph T; Cole, David A; Fasciano, Laura P; Foodim, Joan; Hawley, Scott; Hong, David S; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Kruszka, Paul; Lin, Angela E; Lippe, Barbara M; Lorigan, Gary A; Maslen, Cheryl L; Mauras, Nelly; Page, David C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Prakash, Siddharth K; Quigley, Charmian A; Ranallo, Kelly C; Reiss, Allan L; Sandberg, David E; Scurlock, Cindy; Silberbach, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects ∼1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. There has been substantial effort by numerous clinical and genetic research groups to delineate the clinical, pathophysiological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of this multisystem condition. Questions about the molecular-genetic and biological basis of many of the clinical features remain unanswered, and health care providers and families seek improved care for affected individuals. The inaugural "Turner Resource Network (TRN) Symposium" brought together individuals with Turner syndrome and their families, advocacy group leaders, clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, trainees and other stakeholders with interest in the well-being of individuals and families living with the condition. The goal of this symposium was to establish a structure for a TRN that will be a patient-powered organization involving those living with Turner syndrome, their families, clinicians, and scientists. The TRN will identify basic and clinical questions that might be answered with registries, clinical trials, or through bench research to promote and advocate for best practices and improved care for individuals with Turner syndrome. The symposium concluded with the consensus that two rationales justify the creation of a TRN: inadequate attention has been paid to the health and psychosocial issues facing girls and women who live with Turner syndrome; investigations into the susceptibility to common disorders such as cardiovascular or autoimmune diseases caused by sex chromosome deficiencies will increase understanding of disease susceptibilities in the general population.

  13. Proceedings from the Turner Resource Network symposium: the crossroads of health care research and health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bondy, Carolyn; Chernausek, Steven D; Cernich, Joseph T; Cole, David A; Fasciano, Laura P; Foodim, Joan; Hawley, Scott; Hong, David S; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Kruszka, Paul; Lin, Angela E; Lippe, Barbara M; Lorigan, Gary A; Maslen, Cheryl L; Mauras, Nelly; Page, David C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Prakash, Siddharth K; Quigley, Charmian A; Ranallo, Kelly C; Reiss, Allan L; Sandberg, David E; Scurlock, Cindy; Silberbach, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects ∼1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. There has been substantial effort by numerous clinical and genetic research groups to delineate the clinical, pathophysiological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of this multisystem condition. Questions about the molecular-genetic and biological basis of many of the clinical features remain unanswered, and health care providers and families seek improved care for affected individuals. The inaugural "Turner Resource Network (TRN) Symposium" brought together individuals with Turner syndrome and their families, advocacy group leaders, clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, trainees and other stakeholders with interest in the well-being of individuals and families living with the condition. The goal of this symposium was to establish a structure for a TRN that will be a patient-powered organization involving those living with Turner syndrome, their families, clinicians, and scientists. The TRN will identify basic and clinical questions that might be answered with registries, clinical trials, or through bench research to promote and advocate for best practices and improved care for individuals with Turner syndrome. The symposium concluded with the consensus that two rationales justify the creation of a TRN: inadequate attention has been paid to the health and psychosocial issues facing girls and women who live with Turner syndrome; investigations into the susceptibility to common disorders such as cardiovascular or autoimmune diseases caused by sex chromosome deficiencies will increase understanding of disease susceptibilities in the general population. PMID:25920614

  14. Microbial interaction networks in soil and in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetsigian, Kalin

    2012-02-01

    Soil harbors a huge number of microbial species interacting through secretion of antibiotics and other chemicals. What patterns of species interactions allow for this astonishing biodiversity to be sustained, and how do these interactions evolve? I used a combined experimental-theoretical approach to tackle these questions. Focusing on bacteria from the genus Steptomyces, known for their diverse secondary metabolism, I isolated 64 natural strains from several individual grains of soil and systematically measured all pairwise interactions among them. Quantitative measurements on such scale were enabled by a novel experimental platform based on robotic handling, a custom scanner array and automatic image analysis. This unique platform allowed the simultaneous capturing of ˜15,000 time-lapse movies of growing colonies of each isolate on media conditioned by each of the other isolates. The data revealed a rich network of strong negative (inhibitory) and positive (stimulating) interactions. Analysis of this network and the phylogeny of the isolates, together with mathematical modeling of microbial communities, revealed that: 1) The network of interactions has three special properties: ``balance'', ``bi- modality'' and ``reciprocity''; 2) The interaction network is fast evolving; 3) Mathematical modeling explains how rapid evolution can give rise to the three special properties through an interplay between ecology and evolution. These properties are not a result of stable co-existence, but rather of continuous evolutionary turnover of strains with different production and resistance capabilities.

  15. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: role of individuals and collaborative networks in mobilizing/coordinating societal and professional resources for major disasters.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Kenneth L

    2006-02-01

    The medical support for the coordinated effort for Harris County Texas (Houston) to rescue evacuees from New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina was part of an integrated collaborative network. Both public health and operational health care was structured to custom meet the needs of the evacuees and to create an exit strategy for the clinic and shelter. Integrating local hospital and physician resources into the Joint Incident Command was essential. Outside assistance, including federal and national resources must be coordinated through the local incident command.

  16. Proceedings From the Turner Resource Network Symposium: The Crossroads of Health Care Research and Health Care Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Backeljauw, Philippe F.; Bondy, Carolyn; Chernausek, Steven D.; Cernich, Joseph T.; Cole, David A.; Fasciano, Laura P.; Foodim, Joan; Hawley, Scott; Hong, David S.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Kruszka, Paul; Lin, Angela E.; Lippe, Barbara M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Mauras, Nelly; Page, David C.; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Quigley, Charmian A.; Ranallo, Kelly C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Sandberg, David E.; Scurlock, Cindy; Silberbach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects ∼1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. There has been substantial effort by numerous clinical and genetic research groups to delineate the clinical, pathophysiological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of this multisystem condition. Questions about the molecular-genetic and biological basis of many of the clinical features remain unanswered, and health care providers and families seek improved care for affected individuals. The inaugural “Turner Resource Network (TRN) Symposium” brought together individuals with Turner syndrome and their families, advocacy group leaders, clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, trainees and other stakeholders with interest in the well-being of individuals and families living with the condition. The goal of this symposium was to establish a structure for a TRN that will be a patient-powered organization involving those living with Turner syndrome, their families, clinicians, and scientists. The TRN will identify basic and clinical questions that might be answered with registries, clinical trials, or through bench research to promote and advocate for best practices and improved care for individuals with Turner syndrome. The symposium concluded with the consensus that two rationales justify the creation of a TRN: inadequate attention has been paid to the health and psychosocial issues facing girls and women who live with Turner syndrome;investigations into the susceptibility to common disorders such as cardiovascular or autoimmune diseases caused by sex chromosome deficiencies will increase understanding of disease susceptibilities in the general population. PMID:25920614

  17. Network Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    1992-01-01

    Explains how users can find and access information resources available on the Internet. Highlights include network information centers (NICs); lists, both formal and informal; computer networking protocols, including international standards; electronic mail; remote log-in; and file transfer. (LRW)

  18. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W.; Courtright, Ericha M.; Hugenholtz, Christopher H.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Billings, Benjamin J.; Boyd, Robert; Clingan, Scott D.; Cooper, Brad F.; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A.; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A.; Metz, Loretta J.; Nearing, Mark A.; Norfleet, M. Lee; Pierson, Frederick B.; Sanderson, Matt A.; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Steiner, Jean L.; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H.; Toledo, David; Unnasch, Robert S.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-09-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US.

  19. Impact of Alien Plant Invaders on Pollination Networks in Two Archipelagos

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Benigno; Traveset, Anna; Biedenweg, Tine; Díaz, Diana; Nogales, Manuel; Olesen, Jens M.

    2009-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions between plants and animals promote integration of invasive species into native communities. In turn, the integrated invaders may alter existing patterns of mutualistic interactions. Here we simultaneously map in detail effects of invaders on parameters describing the topology of both plant-pollinator (bi-modal) and plant-plant (uni-modal) networks. We focus on the invader Opuntia spp., a cosmopolitan alien cactus. We compare two island systems: Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Menorca (Balearic Islands). Opuntia was found to modify the number of links between plants and pollinators, and was integrated into the new communities via the most generalist pollinators, but did not affect the general network pattern. The plant uni-modal networks showed disassortative linkage, i.e. species with many links tended to connect to species with few links. Thus, by linking to generalist natives, Opuntia remained peripheral to network topology, and this is probably why native network properties were not affected at least in one of the islands. We conclude that the network analytical approach is indeed a valuable tool to evaluate the effect of invaders on native communities. PMID:19609437

  20. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerf, Vinton G.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the networks transporting the information and knowledge generated by the increased diversity and sophistication of computational machinery are described. What is needed to support this increased flow, the structures already in place, and what must be built are topics of discussion. (KR)

  1. Improved One-Way Hash Chain and Revocation Polynomial-Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Schemes in Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked. PMID:25529204

  2. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  3. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  4. The pooling of manpower and resources through the establishment of European reference networks and rare disease patient registries is a necessary area of collaboration for rare renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to provide guidance on emerging concepts and policy related to European reference networks (ERNs) for rare diseases (RDs) and the development and management of RD patient registries. A major problem facing many RDs including rare renal disorders is that patients do not have a specialist centre that they can attend where clinicians, working as a multidisciplinary team, are experts in the particular disease. Furthermore, for most RDs, no single centre, and in many cases no single country, has sufficient numbers of patients and resources to fully understand the natural history or to conduct clinical and translational research. Therefore, the pooling of manpower and resources through the establishment of ERN and RD patient registries is a common and necessary area of collaboration. The concept of European networks for RDs dates back to the early 2000s and the Commission launch of a call for European pilot reference networks for RDs. These networks of expert centres have been brought together through the desire for further knowledge and innovation in RD areas. Networks demand a holistic approach and long-term vision with close collaboration between clinicians, diagnostic laboratories, scientists, patients and their families. The development of legal measures for ERNs is in progress at the Commission and these networks will be a shared responsibility of the Commission and member states. In the context of ERNs, an essential activity is the patient registries. Patient registries are organized databases where patient information, including demographic, medical and family history, are collected, stored and available for retrieval via standardized and secure methods. Patient registries are increasingly recognized as crucial tools for RD research for which international collaboration is absolutely essential to understand the pathogenesis of rare genotypes, achieve a unified collection of phenotypic data, foster natural history studies providing the foundation

  5. Time, place, and people: composition of the EPIET Alumni Network and its contribution to the European public health resource in 2013.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, L; Keramarou, M; Ladbury, G; Jaramillo-Gutierrez, G; Williams, C J; Le Menach, A

    2015-09-01

    The EPIET Alumni Network (EAN) is an association of professionals who have completed field epidemiology or public health microbiology training programmes in the European Union. In 2013, we conducted a survey of EAN members to investigate this network's role within European public health. We distributed an online questionnaire to members registered at the time, collecting data on demographics, professional background, and attitudes towards EAN. Out of 362 registered members, 189 (52%) responded; 97% were from Europe; 65% were female. Their mean age was 39 years. The highest academic qualification was PhD for 44% and Master's degree for 55%. The majority (60%) worked in public health institutes. They were especially satisfied with having access to job offers and professional networking via EAN, but requested more learning opportunities and knowledge-sharing between members. EAN is a unique platform where highly skilled professionals can connect to control infectious diseases locally and internationally. Having a network of professionals that know each other, speak the same 'language', and can easily access each other's expertise, represents an important resource for European and global public health, which should be nurtured by encouraging more collaborations devoted to professional development. PMID:25521307

  6. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceanic [Proceedings] (Canberra, Australia, May 14-18, 1979). Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    The proceedings of this 1979 conference on library cooperation begin with proposals for the promotion of resource sharing among the national libraries of Asia and Oceania, the text of a policy statement on the role of national and international systems as approved at a 1976 meeting of directors of national libraries held in Lausanne, and a summary…

  7. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Electromyography Data: A Resource for the Classification of Movements for Prosthetic Hands

    PubMed Central

    Atzori, Manfredo; Cognolato, Matteo; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Natural control methods based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications, and commercial prostheses are capable of offering natural control for only a few movements. In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its methods for natural control of robotic hands via sEMG using a large number of intact subjects and amputees. We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 transradial amputees. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets. The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods, but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accurate results comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters) can be fundamental for the analysis of sEMG data. Larger networks can achieve higher accuracy on computer vision and object recognition tasks. This fact suggests that it may be interesting to evaluate if larger networks can increase sEMG classification accuracy too. PMID:27656140

  8. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Electromyography Data: A Resource for the Classification of Movements for Prosthetic Hands.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Manfredo; Cognolato, Matteo; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Natural control methods based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications, and commercial prostheses are capable of offering natural control for only a few movements. In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its methods for natural control of robotic hands via sEMG using a large number of intact subjects and amputees. We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 transradial amputees. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets. The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods, but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accurate results comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters) can be fundamental for the analysis of sEMG data. Larger networks can achieve higher accuracy on computer vision and object recognition tasks. This fact suggests that it may be interesting to evaluate if larger networks can increase sEMG classification accuracy too.

  9. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Electromyography Data: A Resource for the Classification of Movements for Prosthetic Hands.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Manfredo; Cognolato, Matteo; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Natural control methods based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications, and commercial prostheses are capable of offering natural control for only a few movements. In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its methods for natural control of robotic hands via sEMG using a large number of intact subjects and amputees. We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 transradial amputees. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets. The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods, but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accurate results comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters) can be fundamental for the analysis of sEMG data. Larger networks can achieve higher accuracy on computer vision and object recognition tasks. This fact suggests that it may be interesting to evaluate if larger networks can increase sEMG classification accuracy too. PMID:27656140

  10. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Electromyography Data: A Resource for the Classification of Movements for Prosthetic Hands

    PubMed Central

    Atzori, Manfredo; Cognolato, Matteo; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Natural control methods based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications, and commercial prostheses are capable of offering natural control for only a few movements. In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its methods for natural control of robotic hands via sEMG using a large number of intact subjects and amputees. We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 transradial amputees. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets. The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods, but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accurate results comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters) can be fundamental for the analysis of sEMG data. Larger networks can achieve higher accuracy on computer vision and object recognition tasks. This fact suggests that it may be interesting to evaluate if larger networks can increase sEMG classification accuracy too.

  11. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    PubMed

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Experimental resource pulses influence social-network dynamics and the potential for information flow in tool-using crows

    PubMed Central

    St Clair, James J. H.; Burns, Zackory T.; Bettaney, Elaine M.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Otis, Brian; Ryder, Thomas B.; Fleischer, Robert C.; James, Richard; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Social-network dynamics have profound consequences for biological processes such as information flow, but are notoriously difficult to measure in the wild. We used novel transceiver technology to chart association patterns across 19 days in a wild population of the New Caledonian crow—a tool-using species that may socially learn, and culturally accumulate, tool-related information. To examine the causes and consequences of changing network topology, we manipulated the environmental availability of the crows' preferred tool-extracted prey, and simulated, in silico, the diffusion of information across field-recorded time-ordered networks. Here we show that network structure responds quickly to environmental change and that novel information can potentially spread rapidly within multi-family communities, especially when tool-use opportunities are plentiful. At the same time, we report surprisingly limited social contact between neighbouring crow communities. Such scale dependence in information-flow dynamics is likely to influence the evolution and maintenance of material cultures. PMID:26529116

  13. Are Business-Oriented Social Networking Web Sites Useful Resources for Locating Passive Jobseekers? Results of a Recent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKay, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that members of business-oriented social networking Web sites are passive jobseekers has never been validated. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of this assumption. The study concludes that this claim is questionable and that the majority of members registered at one major site, and possibly others, are currently…

  14. Network Update--USENET as a Foreign Language Resource; MINITEL Update; CTLINK; EUDORA and the Electronic Post Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avots, Juliette; Grodberg, Miriam

    1993-01-01

    Brief reviews and descriptions cover USENET (for those interested in exploring language and culture on-line); expansion of MINITEL service through interconnection with services in Spain, England, Holland, Germany, and Italy; CTLINK, which allows access to many networks; and EUDORA, an Internet-compatible mail program for MacIntosh computers. (CNP)

  15. Experimental resource pulses influence social-network dynamics and the potential for information flow in tool-using crows.

    PubMed

    St Clair, James J H; Burns, Zackory T; Bettaney, Elaine M; Morrissey, Michael B; Otis, Brian; Ryder, Thomas B; Fleischer, Robert C; James, Richard; Rutz, Christian

    2015-11-03

    Social-network dynamics have profound consequences for biological processes such as information flow, but are notoriously difficult to measure in the wild. We used novel transceiver technology to chart association patterns across 19 days in a wild population of the New Caledonian crow--a tool-using species that may socially learn, and culturally accumulate, tool-related information. To examine the causes and consequences of changing network topology, we manipulated the environmental availability of the crows' preferred tool-extracted prey, and simulated, in silico, the diffusion of information across field-recorded time-ordered networks. Here we show that network structure responds quickly to environmental change and that novel information can potentially spread rapidly within multi-family communities, especially when tool-use opportunities are plentiful. At the same time, we report surprisingly limited social contact between neighbouring crow communities. Such scale dependence in information-flow dynamics is likely to influence the evolution and maintenance of material cultures.

  16. The Mall, the Library and the Church: Inquiring into the Resourcing of Early Learning through New Spaces and Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Rainbird, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Early learning has increasingly been the focus of social policy and programmes with a proliferation of public, community and commercial entities entering the field of production. Understanding this phenomenon requires educational researchers to conceptualise early learning both within a globalised network of circulating commodities and within…

  17. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  18. Resources, Not Capital: A Case Study of the Gendered Distribution and Productivity of Social Network Ties in Rural Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkelsson, Asa

    2007-01-01

    Poor people make use of a variety of contextually relevant resources to pursue their livelihood strategies, and there is wide empirical evidence that opportunities and constraints for accessing these may vary considerably for women and men, particularly in the rural areas of developing countries. In this article, micro-evidence from a case study…

  19. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Network of Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres: Treatnet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas-Rossello, Juana; Rawson, Richard A.; Zarza, Maria J.; Bellows, Anne; Busse, Anja; Saenz, Elizabeth; Freese, Thomas; Shawkey, Mansour; Carise, Deni; Ali, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Key to the dissemination of evidence-based addiction treatments is the exchange of experiences and mutual support among treatment practitioners, as well as the availability of accurate addiction training materials and effective trainers. To address the shortage of such resources, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) created…

  20. Pursuing Financial Stability: A Resource Dependence Perspective on Interactions between Pro-Vice Chancellors in a Network of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In resource-constrained environments universities increasingly must interact collaboratively and competitively to ensure financial stability. Such interactions are supported by the actions of senior university managers. This study investigated the extent and purpose of the interconnections between members of two groups of pro-vice chancellors…

  1. Guided Imagery as a Bi-Modal Approach to Preparation for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, June S.

    Each hemisphere of the brain has several primary functions that are interesting to explore in terms of all areas of creative endeavor, particularly those involving both speech/language and imagery. Therefore in preparing students to interpret and share the artisitc expression of the poet, the writer, the storyteller, or the dramatist, the teacher…

  2. O(+) and He(+) restricted and extended (bi-modal) ion conic distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Collin, H. L.; Doherty, M. F.; Bjorklund, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    An automated procedure using standard image processing techniques has been developed that finds and characterizes energetic ion conic events in the data acquired by the Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer on DE-1 in the altitude range 8000 to 24000 km. The algorithm discriminates between the two types of ion conic distribution, those restricted to a narrow angular range and those extended in angle. Extended (bimodal) ion conic distributions also have a significant flux of field-aligned energetic ions. Extended ion conics constitute more than one third of the ion conics found. The two types of ion conic distribution have different altitude dependences. The average properties of energetic conic distributions suggest that conic formation by localized, explosive, transverse energization is not the dominant mechanism responsible for producing energetic conic distributions above 8000 km.

  3. Advances in bi-modal optical and ultrasound detection of prostate cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, Jerome; Guyon, Laurent; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Vray, Didier; Rizo, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer diagnosis is based on PSA dosage and digital rectal examination. In case of positive test, a biopsy is conducted and guided by ultrasound imaging. Today, however, as ultrasound imaging is not able to precisely detect tumors, some biopsies have to be performed in the prostate and the only way to improve detection is to increase the number of those uncomfortable biopsies. In order to decrease this number and to improve the patient wellness, we are studying a way to couple ultrasound and fluorescence optical imaging on an endorectal probe. The ultrasounds are used to get morphological information on the prostate and the optical system to detect and to localize fluorophore marked tumors. To support the development of such a system, we have carried out a new tissue-mimicking phantom which represents the three different kind of tissue concerned during prostate endorectal examination: prostate, rectum, surrounding tissues. It was imaged by ultrasound and by fluorescence diffuse optical imaging. We have proved that the optical system is able to detect and to localize a fluorescing inclusion at different depth inside the phantom which has then been superimposed to the morphological image provided by the ultrasounds.

  4. The Bi-Modal Pattern of the Summer Circulation Over South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herdies, Dirceu Luis; daSilva, Arlindo; SilvaDias, Maria A. F.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Submonthly variations in warm-season (January-February) precipitation over South America, in special over the Amazon basin, central southwest Brazil, north Argentina, and Paraguay are shown to be strongly linked to variations in the moisture entering the continent from the Atlantic ocean. Two distinct regimes of lower tropospheric winds (westerlies and easterlies) were observed in Rondonia during the Wet Season Atmospheric Mesoscale Campaign (WETAMC) component of the Large Scale Atmosphere-Biosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) field campaign. The westerly (easterly) winds were associated with the strong (weak) convective activity over the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). The whole period of this study (January-February) was divided into SACZ and NSACZ (No SACZ) events. The vertically integrated moisture fluxes over the Amazon and Prata basin from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Data Assimilation Office (NASA/DAO) assimilation show that during SACZ (NSACZ) event strong (weak) convergence occurred over the Amazon basin with divergence (convergence) over the Prata basin. Submonthly variations in the SACZ also can be linked to extreme climate anomalies such as droughts or flooding conditions over the Amazon and Prata basin.

  5. Modality and Task Switching Interactions using Bi-Modal and Bivalent Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of concurrent task and modality switching effects have to date been studied under conditions of uni-modal stimulus presentation. As such, it is difficult to directly compare resultant task and modality switching effects, as the stimuli afford both tasks on each trial, but only one modality. The current study investigated task and…

  6. A bi-modal approach against cancer: magnetic alginate nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni; Riggio, Cristina; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2009-07-01

    The use of polymeric carriers containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline particles has attracted considerable interest in the medical field. In this paper, we propose an innovative nanotechnological platform for cancer therapy, based on highly magnetized, biodegradable, and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles. Alginate magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by our group by an efficient emulsion/reticulation technique and tested as drug delivery system. Here, we present a potential application that combines, in a single nanovector, efficient targeting, overcoming of bio-barriers, drug delivery, and physical disruption of tumor tissues.

  7. Hydrologic investigations and data-collection network in strippable coal-resource areas in northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic investigations and data collections conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the strippable coal areas of northwestern New Mexico. Streamflow, ground-water, and quality-of-water data were collected to provide information about baseline or prevailing hydrologic conditions. A network of hydrologic data-collection sites in the strippable coal areas of the Fruitland Formation was designed to meet the need of detailed investigations, including site-specific studies, and to provide hydrologic data in support of the expanding mining activity. The network consists of 34 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (32 included water-quality sampling), 20 miscellaneous water quality of streamflow stations, 12 annual maximum discharge stations, 27 observation wells completed in strata associated with the strippable coal seams, and 24 observation wells completed in channel alluvium downstream from strippable coal areas. (USGS)

  8. The North American Electric Grid as an Exchange Network: An Approach for Evaluating Energy Resource Composition and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Evan; Sheldon, Seth; Dolen, Ryan; Zik, Ory

    2015-11-17

    Using a complex network framework, the North American electric grid is modeled as a dynamic, equilibrium-based supply chain of more than 100 interconnected power control areas (PCAs) in the contiguous United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Monthly generation and yearly inter-PCA exchange data reported by PCAs are used to estimate a directed network topology. Variables including electricity, as well as primary fuels, technologies, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with power generation can be traced through the network, providing energy source composition statistics for power consumers at a given location. Results show opportunities for more precise measurement by consumers of emissions occurring on their behalf at power plants. Specifically, we show a larger range of possible factors (∼0 to 1.3 kgCO2/kWh) as compared to the range provided by the EPA's eGRID analysis (∼0.4 to 1 kgCO2/kWh). We also show that 66-73% of the variance in PCA-level estimated emissions savings is the result of PCA-to-PCA differences that are not captured by the larger eGRID subregions. The increased precision could bolster development of effective greenhouse gas reporting and mitigation policies. This study also highlights the need for improvements in the consistency and spatiotemporal resolution of PCA-level generation and exchange data reporting.

  9. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  10. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network during 1988. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    See, R.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1978 as a national monitoring network to investigate acid deposition. The National Trends Network (NTN) was established in 1982 to expand the NADP effort into areas not previously sampled. Most sites in the NADP were incorporated into the NTN operation. Data collected as part of the NADP/NTN programs are used to monitor spatial and temporal trends in the chemical composition of natural wet deposition and to provide accurate data to individual scientists or agencies involved in research on the effects of acid deposition. The report describes the results of the external quality-assurance programs operated by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1988. These programs: (1) Assess the precision and accuracy of onsite determinations of pH and specific conductance; (2) evaluate the effects of onsite and laboratory protocols on the bias and precision of NADP/NTN analyte determinations; (3) determine the comparability, bias, and precision of analytical results obtained by separate laboratories when portions of a common sample were analyzed; and (4) estimate the precision of the entire sampling system.

  11. Sequencing-based gene network analysis provides a core set of gene resource for understanding thermal adaptation in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Fu, X; Sun, Y; Wang, J; Xing, Q; Zou, J; Li, R; Wang, Z; Wang, S; Hu, X; Zhang, L; Bao, Z

    2014-01-01

    Marine organisms are commonly exposed to variable environmental conditions, and many of them are under threat from increased sea temperatures caused by global climate change. Generating transcriptomic resources under different stress conditions are crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation. In this study, we conducted transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling of the scallop Chlamys farreri challenged by acute and chronic heat stress. Of the 13 953 unique tags, more than 850 were significantly differentially expressed at each time point after acute heat stress, which was more than the number of tags differentially expressed (320-350) under chronic heat stress. To obtain a systemic view of gene expression alterations during thermal stress, a weighted gene coexpression network was constructed. Six modules were identified as acute heat stress-responsive modules. Among them, four modules involved in apoptosis regulation, mRNA binding, mitochondrial envelope formation and oxidation reduction were downregulated. The remaining two modules were upregulated. One was enriched with chaperone and the other with microsatellite sequences, whose coexpression may originate from a transcription factor binding site. These results indicated that C. farreri triggered several cellular processes to acclimate to elevated temperature. No modules responded to chronic heat stress, suggesting that the scallops might have acclimated to elevated temperature within 3 days. This study represents the first sequencing-based gene network analysis in a nonmodel aquatic species and provides valuable gene resources for the study of thermal adaptation, which should assist in the development of heat-tolerant scallop lines for aquaculture.

  12. A subcarrier-pair based resource allocation scheme using proportional fairness for cooperative OFDM-based cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua

    2013-08-09

    The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  13. Informatics in radiology: integration of the medical imaging resource center into a teaching hospital network to allow single sign-on access.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ryan Roobian Ramin

    2009-01-01

    The RSNA Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) software is an open-source program that allows users to identify, index, and retrieve images, teaching files, and other radiologic data that share a common underlying structure. The software is being continually improved as new challenges and different needs become apparent. Although version T30 is easily installed on a stand-alone computer, its implementation at healthcare enterprises with complex network architecture may be challenging with respect to security because users cannot log on by using a standard enterprise-wide authentication protocol. Instead, authentication takes place through the local MIRC database, creating security concerns and potential organizational problems. In this setting, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) can be used to provide a single sign-on environment and increase authentication security. A commercial directory service using LDAP has been successfully integrated with MIRC in a large multifacility enterprise to provide single sign-on capability compatible with the institutional networking policies for password security.

  14. ncRDeathDB: A comprehensive bioinformatics resource for deciphering network organization of the ncRNA-mediated cell death system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deng; Huang, Yan; Kang, Juanjuan; Li, Kongning; Bi, Xiaoman; Zhang, Ting; Jin, Nana; Hu, Yongfei; Tan, Puwen; Zhang, Lu; Yi, Ying; Shen, Wenjun; Huang, Jian; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a critical biological process involved in many important processes, and defects in PCD have been linked with numerous human diseases. In recent years, the protein architecture in different PCD subroutines has been explored, but our understanding of the global network organization of the noncoding RNA (ncRNA)-mediated cell death system is limited and ambiguous. Hence, we developed the comprehensive bioinformatics resource (ncRDeathDB, www.rna-society.org/ncrdeathdb ) to archive ncRNA-associated cell death interactions. The current version of ncRDeathDB documents a total of more than 4600 ncRNA-mediated PCD entries in 12 species. ncRDeathDB provides a user-friendly interface to query, browse and manipulate these ncRNA-associated cell death interactions. Furthermore, this resource will help to visualize and navigate current knowledge of the noncoding RNA component of cell death and autophagy, to uncover the generic organizing principles of ncRNA-associated cell death systems, and to generate valuable biological hypotheses. PMID:26431463

  15. How Can the USA National Phenology Network's Data Resource Benefit You? Recent Applications of the Phenology Data and Information Housed in the National Phenology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. Since 2009, over 5,500 participants in Nature's Notebook, the national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program coordinated by the USA-NPN, have contributed nearly 6 million observation records of plants and animals. The phenology data curated by the USA-NPN are being used in a rapidly growing number of applications for science, conservation and resource management. Data and data products generated by the USA-NPN have been used in 17 peer-reviewed publications to date. Additionally, phenology data collected via Nature's Notebook is actively informing decisions ranging from efficiently scheduling street-sweeping activities to keep dropped leaves from entering inland lakes, to timing the spread of herbicide or other restoration activities to maximize their efficacy. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing system and the resultant data, and highlight several ongoing local- to national-scale projects as well as some recently published studies. Additional data-mining and exploration by interested researchers and resource managers will undoubtedly continue to demonstrate the value of these data.

  16. SE Asian freshwater fish population and networks: the impacts of climatic and environmental change on a vital resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rita; Parsons, Daniel; Cowx, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The Mekong River is the 10th largest freshwater river in the world, with the second highest biodiversity wealth, behind the much larger Amazon basin. The fisheries activity in the Lower Mekong countries counts for 2.7 million tons of fish per year, with an estimated value worth up to US 7 billion. For the 60 million people living in the basin, fish represent their primary source of economic income and protein intake, with an average per capita consumption estimated at 45.4 Kg. The proposed hydropower development in the basin is threatening its sustainability and resilience. Such developments affect fish migration patterns, hydrograph flood duration and magnitudes and sediment flux. Climate change is also likely to impact the basin, exacerbating the issues created by development. As a monsoonal system, the Mekong River's pronounced annual flood pulse cycle is important in creating variable habitat for fish productivity. Moreover, the annual flood also triggers fish migration and provides vital nutrients carried by the sediment flux. This paper examines the interactions between both dam development and climate change scenarios on fish habitat and habitat connectivity, with the aim of predicting how these will affect fish species composition and fisheries catch. The project will also employ Environmental DNA (eDNA) to quantify and understand the species composition of this complex and large freshwater system. By applying molecular analysis, it is possible to trace species abundance and migration patterns of fish and evaluate the ecological networks establish between an inland system. The aim of this work is to estimate, using process-informed models, the impacts of the proposed dam development and climate change scenarios on the hydrological and hydraulic conditions of habitat availability for fish. Furthermore, it will evaluate the connectivity along the Mekong and its tributaries, and the importance of maintaining these migration pathways, used by a great diversity

  17. Diabetes network.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes UK has launched a network of information and support for commissioning and improvement in diabetes care. The network is free to join and offers monthly updates on good practice from around the UK, a forum for sharing ideas and learning, and access to Diabetes UK resources. PMID:27369708

  18. Identifying clinical and support-service resources and network practices for cancer patients and survivors in southern Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eida M.; Jiménez, Julio C.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. Methods From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. Results The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24% of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61% of the responses were for medical specialists, 43% were for mental health services, and 37% were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both an referral and information. Conclusion Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization. PMID:25249352

  19. Gene3D: a domain-based resource for comparative genomics, functional annotation and protein network analysis.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jonathan; Yeats, Corin; Perkins, James; Sillitoe, Ian; Rentzsch, Robert; Dessailly, Benoit H; Orengo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Gene3D http://gene3d.biochem.ucl.ac.uk is a comprehensive database of protein domain assignments for sequences from the major sequence databases. Domains are directly mapped from structures in the CATH database or predicted using a library of representative profile HMMs derived from CATH superfamilies. As previously described, Gene3D integrates many other protein family and function databases. These facilitate complex associations of molecular function, structure and evolution. Gene3D now includes a domain functional family (FunFam) level below the homologous superfamily level assignments. Additions have also been made to the interaction data. More significantly, to help with the visualization and interpretation of multi-genome scale data sets, we have developed a new, revamped website. Searching has been simplified with more sophisticated filtering of results, along with new tools based on Cytoscape Web, for visualizing protein-protein interaction networks, differences in domain composition between genomes and the taxonomic distribution of individual superfamilies.

  20. dbSNO 2.0: a resource for exploring structural environment, functional and disease association and regulatory network of protein S-nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Ching, Wei-Chieh; Yang, Hsiao-Hsiang; Liao, Yen-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing number of proteins reported to be regulated by S-nitrosylation (SNO), it is considered to act, in a manner analogous to phosphorylation, as a pleiotropic regulator that elicits dual effects to regulate diverse pathophysiological processes by altering protein function, stability, and conformation change in various cancers and human disorders. Due to its importance in regulating protein functions and cell signaling, dbSNO (http://dbSNO.mbc.nctu.edu.tw) is extended as a resource for exploring structural environment of SNO substrate sites and regulatory networks of S-nitrosylated proteins. An increasing interest in the structural environment of PTM substrate sites motivated us to map all manually curated SNO peptides (4165 SNO sites within 2277 proteins) to PDB protein entries by sequence identity, which provides the information of spatial amino acid composition, solvent-accessible surface area, spatially neighboring amino acids, and side chain orientation for 298 substrate cysteine residues. Additionally, the annotations of protein molecular functions, biological processes, functional domains and human diseases are integrated to explore the functional and disease associations for S-nitrosoproteome. In this update, users are allowed to search a group of interested proteins/genes and the system reconstructs the SNO regulatory network based on the information of metabolic pathways and protein-protein interactions. Most importantly, an endogenous yet pathophysiological S-nitrosoproteomic dataset from colorectal cancer patients was adopted to demonstrate that dbSNO could discover potential SNO proteins involving in the regulation of NO signaling for cancer pathways. PMID:25399423

  1. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  2. The PlaNet Consortium: A Network of European Plant Databases Connecting Plant Genome Data in an Integrated Biological Knowledge Resource

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, R.; Mayer, K. F. X.

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the Arabidopsis genome and the large collections of other plant sequences generated in recent years have sparked extensive functional genomics efforts. However, the utilization of this data is inefficient, as data sources are distributed and heterogeneous and efforts at data integration are lagging behind. PlaNet aims to overcome the limitations of individual efforts as well as the limitations of heterogeneous, independent data collections. PlaNet is a distributed effort among European bioinformatics groups and plant molecular biologists to establish a comprehensive integrated database in a collaborative network. Objectives are the implementation of infrastructure and data sources to capture plant genomic information into a comprehensive, integrated platform. This will facilitate the systematic exploration of Arabidopsis and other plants. New methods for data exchange, database integration and access are being developed to create a highly integrated, federated data resource for research. The connection between the individual resources is realized with BioMOBY. BioMOBY provides an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services. While knowledge is centralized, data is maintained at its primary source without a need for warehousing. To standardize nomenclature and data representation, ontologies and generic data models are defined in interaction with the relevant communities.Minimal data models should make it simple to allow broad integration, while inheritance allows detail and depth to be added to more complex data objects without losing integration. To allow expert annotation and keep databases curated, local and remote annotation interfaces are provided. Easy and direct access to all data is key to the project. PMID:18629059

  3. Networking and Institutional Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the impact of networks and shared library resources on the library planning process. Environmental scanning techniques, the need for cooperative planning, and the formulation of strategies to achieve networking goals are discussed. (CLB)

  4. Engineering technology for networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Arthur S.; Benjamin, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Space Network (SN) modeling and evaluation are presented. The following tasks are included: Network Modeling (developing measures and metrics for SN, modeling of the Network Control Center (NCC), using knowledge acquired from the NCC to model the SNC, and modeling the SN); and Space Network Resource scheduling.

  5. "Hot moments" of carbon and nitrogen in streams: Key insights from in-situ, high-frequency optical sensors from the North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, S. P.; Vaughan, M.; Rowland, R. D.; Winters, C. G.; Addy, K.; Schroth, A. W.; Gold, A.; Bowden, W. B.; Vermilyea, A.; Parr, T. B.; Andres, S.; Levia, D. F., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Sharp or unexpected changes in stream water solute concentrations and fluxes can often provide important insights into potential sources, supply versus transport controls, and threshold behavior in watersheds. Identifying these "hot moments" is critical for furthering our understanding of biogeochemical processes and for developing accurate mechanistic models to manage water quality. Use of in-situ, high-frequency optical sensors, while in its infancy, has shown considerable promise in capturing fine resolution time series data on solute concentrations. Here, we highlight key lessons from the North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet), a regional water quality network (Delaware, Rhode Island and Vermont) instrumented with optical sensors on a suite of stream sites (forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds in each state). Sensor data is coupled with traditional hydrologic and water chemistry sampling for baseflow and storms, laboratory-based UV and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) to characterize organic matter composition, and stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes to identify solute sources. Both dissolved and particulate forms of C and N are being studied. Sampling is performed throughout the year with special attention to large storm events, droughts, diel variations, and key seasonal transitions including snowmelt and autumn leaf fall. We leverage these complimentary data to reveal both - process controls on C and N as well as methodological constraints and challenges with the sensors. Particulate and dissolved concentrations of C and N are compared for large storm events to disentangle supply and transport controls. Simultaneously, the accuracy of sensors is evaluated for interferences from varying particle size classes. Coupled changes in C and N concentrations and shifts in C composition during autumn leaf fall and snowmelt are investigated to identify biogeochemical/ecological controls. However, we also investigate how variability

  6. Resource Centers for Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Linda R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Shared Information Services is a state-operated network of four resource centers for gifted education in Indiana. The network provides support in the areas of program development, teacher education, classroom teaching resources, and program evaluation. A variety of library and technical assistance services is provided to teachers and others by…

  7. Role of the SEAMEO TROPMED Network in health human resources development. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization. Tropical Medicine and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T; Salazar, N

    1998-06-01

    The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) is a chartered international organization for the promotion of regional cooperation in education, science, technology and culture. The Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (TROPMED) operates through four specialized Centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, with a coordinating unit, the TROPMED Central Office in Bangkok, Thailand. In line with the overall mission of SEAMEO, the role of TROPMED is to promote health and to prevent or control disease, thus improving the quality of life of people in the Asia-Pacific Region. Toward this end, SEAMEO TROPMED serves to facilitate the strengthening of national and institutional capabilities in research and training through postgraduate academic programs; short-term training courses; scientific fora; publications and information dissemination and as such, has been in the mainstream of health human resources development since its inception in 1967. To date, a total of 3,353 TROPMED alumni have benefited from training in 26 regular course offerings; of these, 1,596 were females and 1,757, males. From 1991 to 1995, a total of 434 key health personnel have attended short-term training courses, with increasing attendance from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. TROPMED's effectiveness comes from the collective strength of and the spirit of cooperation among its host institutions and partners. Faced with a health scenario of both developing and developed economies, SEAMEO TROPMED aims to further its role as an international forum for health development thus, addressing the need for effective strategies for health sector reform and advocacy of relevant health, environmental and development policies through its various programs and activities. PMID:9886117

  8. Role of the SEAMEO TROPMED Network in health human resources development. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization. Tropical Medicine and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T; Salazar, N

    1998-06-01

    The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) is a chartered international organization for the promotion of regional cooperation in education, science, technology and culture. The Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (TROPMED) operates through four specialized Centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, with a coordinating unit, the TROPMED Central Office in Bangkok, Thailand. In line with the overall mission of SEAMEO, the role of TROPMED is to promote health and to prevent or control disease, thus improving the quality of life of people in the Asia-Pacific Region. Toward this end, SEAMEO TROPMED serves to facilitate the strengthening of national and institutional capabilities in research and training through postgraduate academic programs; short-term training courses; scientific fora; publications and information dissemination and as such, has been in the mainstream of health human resources development since its inception in 1967. To date, a total of 3,353 TROPMED alumni have benefited from training in 26 regular course offerings; of these, 1,596 were females and 1,757, males. From 1991 to 1995, a total of 434 key health personnel have attended short-term training courses, with increasing attendance from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. TROPMED's effectiveness comes from the collective strength of and the spirit of cooperation among its host institutions and partners. Faced with a health scenario of both developing and developed economies, SEAMEO TROPMED aims to further its role as an international forum for health development thus, addressing the need for effective strategies for health sector reform and advocacy of relevant health, environmental and development policies through its various programs and activities.

  9. Virtualized Network Control (VNC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, Thomas; Guok, Chin; Ghani, Nasir

    2013-01-31

    The focus of this project was on the development of a "Network Service Plane" as an abstraction model for the control and provisioning of multi-layer networks. The primary motivation for this work were the requirements of next generation networked applications which will need to access advanced networking as a first class resource at the same level as compute and storage resources. A new class of "Intelligent Network Services" were defined in order to facilitate the integration of advanced network services into application specific workflows. This new class of network services are intended to enable real-time interaction between the application co-scheduling algorithms and the network for the purposes of workflow planning, real-time resource availability identification, scheduling, and provisioning actions.

  10. Gateways among Academic Computer Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCredie, John W.

    National intercampus computer networks are discussed, along with six illustrative networks. Attention is focused on computer networks with significant academic usage through which special software is available to manage resources in the network. It is noted that computer networks have widespread use among academics for communication in the form of…

  11. Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anil

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

  12. A National Bibliographic/Resource Sharing Network for Canadian Academic Libraries. Proceedings of the Conference (Ste-Foy, Quebec, October 24-25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of Research Libraries, Montreal (Quebec).

    These papers discuss various options for a computerized national bibliographic network and highlight the problems and potential of developing such a database. Following a brief explanation of the conference purpose and organization, 10 primary papers are presented: (1) "A Brief Overview of Computerized Library Networking in Canada," by Peter…

  13. Publications and Resources on Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR). Compiled for the Research Network for New Approaches to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanstone, Sue, Comp.

    This bibliography provides a thorough and representative sample of the different types of available Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) publications and resources. These publications and resources are grouped under nine categories: (1) PLAR Policy (Canada, Europe, Africa, Australia, United States of America, New Zealand, Asia and the…

  14. Information technology resources assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  15. The Network Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the role of new computer communications technologies in education focuses on modern networking systems, including fiber distributed data interface and Integrated Services Digital Network; strategies for implementing networked-based communication; and public online information resources for the classroom, including Bitnet, Internet,…

  16. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  17. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  18. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  19. Hydrogen permeation resistant heat pipe for bi-modal reactors. Final report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    North, M.T.; Anderson, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this program was to demonstrate technology that will make a sodium heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation for a bimodal space reactor application. Special focus was placed on techniques which enhance the permeation of hydrogen out of the heat pipe. Specific objectives include: define the detailed requirements for the bimodal reactor application; design and fabricate a prototype heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation; and test the prototype heat pipe and demonstrate that hydrogen which permeates into the heat pipe is removed or reduced to acceptable levels. The results of the program were fully successful. Analyses were performed on two different heat pipe designs and an experimental heat pipe was fabricated and tested. A model of the experimental heat pipe was developed to predict the enhancement in the hydrogen permeation rate out of the heat pipe. A significant improvement in the rate at which hydrogen permeates out of a heat pipe was predicted for the use of the special condenser geometry developed here. Agreement between the model and the experimental results was qualitatively good. Inclusion of the additional effects of fluid flow in the heat pipe are recommended for future work.

  20. Bi-modal dose-dependent cardiac response to tetrahydrobiopterin in pressure-overload induced hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Moens, An L; Ketner, Elizabeth A; Takimoto, Eiki; Schmidt, Tim S; O'Neill, Charles A; Wolin, Michael S; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M; Kass, David A

    2011-10-01

    The exogenous administration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been shown to reduce left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction in mice with pre-established heart disease induced by pressure-overload. In this setting, BH4 re-coupled endothelial NOS (eNOS), with subsequent reduction of NOS-dependent oxidative stress and reversal of maladaptive remodeling. However, recent studies suggest the effective BH4 dosing may be narrower than previously thought, potentially due to its oxidation upon oral consumption. Accordingly, we assessed the dose response of daily oral synthetic sapropterin dihydrochloride (6-R-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin, 6R-BH4) on pre-established pressure-overload cardiac disease. Mice (n=64) were administered 0-400mg/kg/d BH4 by ingesting small pre-made pellets (consumed over 15-30 min). In a dose range of 36-200mg/kg/d, 6R-BH4 suppressed cardiac chamber remodeling, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and oxidative stress with pressure-overload. However, at both lower and higher doses, BH4 had less or no ameliorative effects. The effective doses correlated with a higher myocardial BH4/BH2 ratio. However, BH2 rose linearly with dose, and at the 400mg/kg/d, this lowered the BH4/BH2 ratio back toward control. These results expose a potential limitation for the clinical use of BH4, as variability of cellular redox and perhaps heart disease could produce a variable therapeutic window among individuals. This article is part of a special issue entitled ''Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.'' PMID:21645517

  1. Toward the bi-modal camber morphing of large aircraft wing flaps: the CleanSky experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Magnifico, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Green Regional Aircraft (GRA), one of the six CleanSky platforms, represents the largest European effort toward the greening of next generation air transportation through the implementation of advanced aircraft technologies. In this framework researches were carried out to develop an innovative wing flap enabling airfoil morphing according to two different modes depending on aircraft flight condition and flap setting: - Camber morphing mode. Morphing of the flap camber to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); - Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed and consequent optimization of aerodynamic efficiency. A true-scale flap segment of a reference aircraft (EASA CS25 category) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation issues especially with reference to the tapered geometrical layout and 3D aerodynamic loads distributions. The investigation domain covered the flap region spanning 3.6 m from the wing kink and resulted characterized by a taper ratio equal to 0.75 with a root chord of 1.2 m. High TRL solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control system were duly analyzed and integrated while assuring overall device compliance with industrial standards and applicable airworthiness requirements.

  2. Measurement of dynamic patterns of an elastic membrane at bi-modal vibration using high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciado, Jorge Sanchez; Lopez, Carlos Perez; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2014-05-01

    Implementing a hybrid arrangement of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and high speed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) we were able to measure the dynamic patterns of a flat rectangular elastic membrane clamped at its edges stimulated with the sum of two resonance frequencies. ESPI is a versatile technique to analyze in real-time the deformation of a membrane since its low computational cost and easy implementation of the optical setup. Elastic membranes present nonlinear behaviors when stimulated with low amplitude signals. The elastic membrane under test, with several non rational related vibrating modals below the 200 Hz, was stimulated with two consecutives resonant frequencies. The ESPI patterns, acquired at high speed rates, shown a similar behavior for the dual frequency stimulation as in the case of patterns formed with the entrainment frequency. We think this may be related to the effects observed in the application of dual frequency stimulation in ultrasound.

  3. Texture Evaluation of a Bi-Modal Structure During Static Recrystallization of Hot-Deformed Mg-Al-Sn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Abu Syed Humaun; Su, Jing; Yue, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Mg-Al-Sn alloy was hot compressed at 523 K (250 °C) and annealed at 623 K (350 °C) for various times. The initial as-deformed microstructure was partially dynamic recrystallized with strain-induced precipitates on the recrystallized grain boundaries. After annealing at 623 K (350 °C), static recrystallization (SRX) of the bimodal microstructure took place where, at this temperature, no static precipitates formed. The goal of this work was to study the effect of dynamic precipitation on the texture evolution during the SRX process. Progressive texture evolution was studied during annealing by electron backscattered diffraction technique through a microstructure-tracking process. It was found that the grain-coarsening mechanism during the early stage of annealing is not totally controlled by the basal-oriented grains. Also, it was found that the dynamic precipitates may have significant influence in the early texture weakening during annealing of a bimodal structure.

  4. Structural changes of block copolymers with bi-modal orientation under fast cyclical stretching as observed by synchrotron SAXS

    PubMed Central

    Brubert, J.; Serrani, M.; Talhat, A.; De Gaetano, F.; Costantino, M. L.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Load-bearing tissues are composite materials that depend strongly on anisotropic fibre arrangement to maximise performance. One such tissue is the heart valve, with orthogonally arranged fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Their function is to maintain mechanical stress while being resilient. It is postulated that while one layer bears the applied stress, the orthogonal layer helps to regenerate the microstructure when the load is released. The present paper describes changes in the microstructure of a block copolymer with cylindrical morphology, having a bio-inspired microstructure of anisotropic orthogonally oriented layers, under uniaxial strain. To allow structural observations during fast deformation, equivalent to the real heart valve operation, we used a synchrotron X-ray source and recorded 2D SAXS patterns in only 1 ms per frame. The deformation behaviour of the composite microstructure has been reported for two arrangements of the cylinders in skin and core layers. The behaviour is very different to that observed either for uniaxially oriented or isotropic samples. Deformation is far from being affine. Cylinders aligned in the direction of stretch show fragmentation, but complete recovery of the spacing between cylinders on removal of the load. Those oriented perpendicular to the direction of stretch incline at an angle of approximately 25° to their original direction during load. PMID:25781560

  5. Measurement of dynamic patterns of an elastic membrane at bi-modal vibration using high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Preciado, Jorge Sanchez; Lopez, Carlos Perez; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2014-05-27

    Implementing a hybrid arrangement of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and high speed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) we were able to measure the dynamic patterns of a flat rectangular elastic membrane clamped at its edges stimulated with the sum of two resonance frequencies. ESPI is a versatile technique to analyze in real-time the deformation of a membrane since its low computational cost and easy implementation of the optical setup. Elastic membranes present nonlinear behaviors when stimulated with low amplitude signals. The elastic membrane under test, with several non rational related vibrating modals below the 200 Hz, was stimulated with two consecutives resonant frequencies. The ESPI patterns, acquired at high speed rates, shown a similar behavior for the dual frequency stimulation as in the case of patterns formed with the entrainment frequency. We think this may be related to the effects observed in the application of dual frequency stimulation in ultrasound.

  6. Technology Programs That Work. A National Diffusion Network Resource of Exemplary Programs Approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel, Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Larry, Ed.

    This report presents brief descriptions of exemplary programs validated by the National Diffusion Network (NDN) and approved for national dissemination by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel, which focus specifically on the effective use of technology in education. As exemplary projects called Developer Demonstrators, 12 of the programs described…

  7. Asian Resources for a Population Library Information Network; Report of a Working Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973). Asian Population Studies Series No. 19/A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A working meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973, was called to consider three main topics: (1) the current status of exchange of information on population and family planning; (2) the feasibility of establishing national and regional networks for collection and dissemination of information on population and family planning; and (3)…

  8. One Family's Journey: Medical Home and the Network of Supports It Offers Children and Youth with Special Healthcare Needs--Community Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Margie; Gretz, Sharon; Gatto, Molly; Walker, Deborah; MacDonald, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the fourth part in the 12 installment series that presents the experiences of a fictitious couple, Amita and Samir, as they learn to adapt to the reality of having a premature baby with special needs. It describes the services provided by various community resources to children and youth with special healthcare needs and…

  9. Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium: Confronting the Challenges of Networked Resources and the Web (Washington, DC, November 15-17, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Cataloging Directorate.

    The goals of this conference, sponsored by the Library of Congress Cataloging Directorate, were to develop an overall strategy to address the challenges of improved access to World Wide Web resources through library catalogs and applications of metadata and to identify attainable actions for achieving the objectives of the overall strategy. This…

  10. Technological Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  11. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  12. Conceptual Design and Resources for a General-Purpose Safety and Performance Verification and Validation Toolkit (V2T) for Life-Critical Wireless Medical Device Networks (WMDN).

    PubMed

    Sloane, Elliot; Schrenker, Rick

    2005-01-01

    Wireless Medical Device Network (WMDN) deployment is occurring to facilitate ambulatory patient care, increase safer and more intelligent diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, and improve flexible patient bed configuration that matches census requirements. Patient safety risks exist from delayed or lost WMDN alarm and data streams, however, and non-proprietary Verification and Validation (V2) techniques do not exist. Single-vendor and heterogeneous multi-vendor deployment must be considered, as well as safe and reliable coexistence with other IS technologies sharing similar network components. V2 of even a homogeneous single vendor, single device WMDNS is very complex for several reasons including: absence of industry standards or regulations, unconstrained mobility of patients and devices, and rapid changes in the underlying wireless network modalities. This project will evaluate and recommend appropriate best V2 practices from fields like software and systems engineering to improve a hospitals ability to properly implement and manage the emerging WMDN opportunities and to prevent patient injuries or other serious problems. PMID:17282140

  13. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology. PMID:26666122

  14. 76 FR 28118 - Order of Suspension of Trading; American Resource Technologies, Inc., Apollo Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; American Resource Technologies, Inc., Apollo Resources International, Inc., Bloodhound Search Technologies, Inc., BlueStar Health, Inc., Columbus Networks...

  15. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  16. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  17. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  18. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.efa.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  19. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  20. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  1. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  2. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  3. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  4. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  5. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute -- www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  6. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  7. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  8. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  9. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  10. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  11. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments-screening and www.fascrs.org/ ...

  12. Cognitive Wireless Communications - A paradigm shift in dealing with radio resources as a prerequisite for the wireless network of the future - An overview on the topic of cognitive wireless technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, Thomas; Stanczak, Slawomir; Wolisz, Adam; Jondral, Friedrich; Schotten, Hans; Kraemer, Rolf; Mück, Markus; Mennenga, Horst; Bender, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Wireless radio communications systems form the basis for mobile network connections in the digital society. A limited amount of radio spectrum and a spatially densified use of wireless communications systems require a resource-efficient use of the spectrum. Mechanisms of cognitive radio may hold the key to a more efficient use of the available spectrum under consideration of quality of service requirements. These mechanisms take advantage of location-specific knowledge of the wireless channel occupation in the dimensions of frequency, time, location and direction in space and therefore enable co-existent and reliable wireless communication. The authors give an introduction to the status of cognitive wireless communication technology, which represents the starting point of a series of research projects promoted by BMBF during 2012-2014.

  13. Neural-Network Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    F77NNS (FORTRAN 77 Neural Network Simulator) computer program simulates popular back-error-propagation neural network. Designed to take advantage of vectorization when used on computers having this capability, also used on any computer equipped with ANSI-77 FORTRAN Compiler. Problems involving matching of patterns or mathematical modeling of systems fit class of problems F77NNS designed to solve. Program has restart capability so neural network solved in stages suitable to user's resources and desires. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network. Size of neural network F77NNS applied to limited only by amount of random-access memory available to user.

  14. Community engagement and pediatric disaster readiness in a large urban disaster resource hospital network: the case of "The Great California ShakeOut".

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Darshi; Iverson, Ellen; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-06-01

    We examined the response of 11 Los Angeles County (LAC) hospitals designated as Disaster Resource Centers (DRCs) to a statewide, earthquake preparedness drill, LAC's most comprehensive earthquake disaster drill to date. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the coordinators of 11 of the 14 LAC DRCs within 3 weeks of the drill. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was supported by analytical software (Atlas.ti). Except for one pediatric specialty DRC, most DRCs did little to fully test their institutions' capacity to manage pediatric patients. Few DRCs included children as mock victims. Little or no attention was focused on pediatric triage and other pediatric clinical, psychosocial, and resource issues. Respondents maintained that community readiness is hampered by compartmentalizing the preparedness planning, training, and drilling. Without a mandate to coordinate with other agencies, few DRCs reported coordination with other community entities. Those that did were in smaller submunicipalities within LAC. Community coordination is critical to effective response to disasters, yet disaster preparedness planning and drills are most often uncoordinated and compartmentalized. Drills and training need to be transdisciplinary and coordinated with other community entities likely to play a role in pediatric disaster management.

  15. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  16. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  17. Tissue-specific regulatory network extractor (TS-REX): a database and software resource for the tissue and cell type-specific investigation of transcription factor-gene networks.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Federico; Kottwitz, Denise; Wagner, Mandy; Pfenninger, Cosima V; Thiel, Gerald; Tamm, Ingo; Peterson, Carsten; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2009-06-01

    The prediction of transcription factor binding sites in genomic sequences is in principle very useful to identify upstream regulatory factors. However, when applying this concept to genomes of multicellular organisms such as mammals, one has to deal with a large number of false positive predictions since many transcription factor genes are only expressed in specific tissues or cell types. We developed TS-REX, a database/software system that supports the analysis of tissue and cell type-specific transcription factor-gene networks based on expressed sequence tag abundance of transcription factor-encoding genes in UniGene EST libraries. The use of expression levels of transcription factor-encoding genes according to hierarchical anatomical classifications covering different tissues and cell types makes it possible to filter out irrelevant binding site predictions and to identify candidates of potential functional importance for further experimental testing. TS-REX covers ESTs from H. sapiens and M. musculus, and allows the characterization of both presence and specificity of transcription factors in user-specified tissues or cell types. The software allows users to interactively visualize transcription factor-gene networks, as well as to export data for further processing. TS-REX was applied to predict regulators of Polycomb group genes in six human tumor tissues and in human embryonic stem cells.

  18. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  19. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  20. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Resource Information Network - Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin, 1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Duane A.; Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Woodard, Bob

    1996-04-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data types and sources into a single comprehensive report on the status of anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin and the environmental conditions that may affect that status. Brief summaries are provided to identify the type and scope of available information. This synopsis is intended to complement other more detailed reports to which readers are referred for comprehensive treatment of specific subjects. This first report focuses mainly on anadromous salmon and steelhead (primarily through 1994) but the authors intend to expand the scope of future issues to include resident species. This is the first of what the authors intend to be an annual report. They welcome constructive suggestions for improvements. This report is a product of the StreamNet (formerly Coordinated Information System and Northwest Environmental Data Base) project which is a part of the Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The project is called for in the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The project`s objective is to promote exchange and dissemination of information in a standardized electronic format throughout the basin. This project is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission with active participation by tribal, state, and federal fish and wildlife agencies.

  1. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  2. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  3. New value added to network services through software-defined optical core networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akiko; Nakatsugawa, Keiichi; Yamashita, Shinji; Soumiya, Toshio

    2016-02-01

    If an optical core network can be handled flexibly, it can be used not only as network infrastructure but also as a temporary broadband resource when customers have to transfer a large volume of data quickly, which will in turn lead to new WAN services. We propose "software-defined optical core networking", which achieves flexible optical network control, meaning it virtualizes optical transport network/wavelength-division multiplexing resources and controls them with resources from other layers, such as Ether/MPLS. We developed a testbed system and verified that users could request broadband resources easily, and our controller could quickly set up an optical channel data unit path for the request.

  4. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  5. 78 FR 17418 - Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Information Technology Network... award under the Rural Health Information Technology Network Development Grant (RHITND) to Grace... relinquishing its fiduciary responsibilities for the Rural Health Information Technology Network...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury Model System Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... the UAB-SCIMS More The UAB-SCIMS Information Network The University of Alabama at Birmingham Spinal Cord Injury Model System (UAB-SCIMS) maintains this Information Network as a resource to promote knowledge in the ...

  7. Scalable Virtual Network Mapping Algorithm for Internet-Scale Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiang; Wu, Chunming; Zhang, Min

    The proper allocation of network resources from a common physical substrate to a set of virtual networks (VNs) is one of the key technical challenges of network virtualization. While a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms have been proposed in an attempt to address this issue from different facets, the challenge still remains in the context of large-scale networks as the existing solutions mainly perform in a centralized manner which requires maintaining the overall and up-to-date information of the underlying substrate network. This implies the restricted scalability and computational efficiency when the network scale becomes large. This paper tackles the virtual network mapping problem and proposes a novel hierarchical algorithm in conjunction with a substrate network decomposition approach. By appropriately transforming the underlying substrate network into a collection of sub-networks, the hierarchical virtual network mapping algorithm can be carried out through a global virtual network mapping algorithm (GVNMA) and a local virtual network mapping algorithm (LVNMA) operated in the network central server and within individual sub-networks respectively with their cooperation and coordination as necessary. The proposed algorithm is assessed against the centralized approaches through a set of numerical simulation experiments for a range of network scenarios. The results show that the proposed hierarchical approach can be about 5-20 times faster for VN mapping tasks than conventional centralized approaches with acceptable communication overhead between GVNCA and LVNCA for all examined networks, whilst performs almost as well as the centralized solutions.

  8. Networking at NASA. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garman, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs on computer networks at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are given. Topics covered include information resource management (IRM) at JSC, the IRM budget by NASA center, networks evolution, networking as a strategic tool, the Information Services Directorate charter, and SSC network requirements, challenges, and status.

  9. Support Networks of Dual Career Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Sally A.; And Others

    Although social networks play an important role in supporting families under stress, there is some evidence that families living a stressful dual career life style may have limited network resources. To describe support networks of dual career couples and to examine the relationship between the supportiveness of the network and satisfaction with…

  10. Local Area Networks in the School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluhm, Harry P.

    1986-01-01

    Defines local area networks (LANs); describes basic components and configurations of LANs; and discusses LANs benefits (reduced costs, better management of computer resources, enhanced communications) and pitfalls (hidden costs, time delays, network maintenance, lack of standardization, network security breaches, lack of network compatible…

  11. Hemophilia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  12. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  13. Depression - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  14. Arthritis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  15. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Cancer.gov

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  16. Mars resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-05-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  17. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  18. Management of optical virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Savoie, Michel; Campbell, Scott; Zhang, Hanzi; Figuerola, Sergi

    2007-11-01

    The Layer 1 Virtual Private Network (L1VPN) technology supports multiple user networks over a common carrier transport network. We present an L1VPN management architecture where network providers manage physical network infrastructures, service providers manage L1VPN services by composing individual network resources into L1VPNs, end users invoke L1VPN management services to configure operational L1VPNs. Using a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services (WS), we implemented an L1VPN management tool, called User Controlled Light Paths (UCLP). Network providers use the tool to partition resources at the L1VPN level by assigning resources, together with the WS based management services for the resources, to service providers. Service providers use the tool to receive resource partitions from multiple network providers and partner service providers. Further resource partitioning or re-grouping can be conducted on the received resources, and leasing or trading resources with partner service providers is supported. After the service providers compose the use scenarios of resources, and make the use scenarios available to the L1VPN end users as WS, the end users reconfigure the L1VPN without intervention of either network or service providers.

  19. Network planning under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2008-11-01

    One of the main focuses for network planning is on the optimization of network resources required to build a network under certain traffic demand projection. Traditionally, the inputs to this type of network planning problems are treated as deterministic. In reality, the varying traffic requirements and fluctuations in network resources can cause uncertainties in the decision models. The failure to include the uncertainties in the network design process can severely affect the feasibility and economics of the network. Therefore, it is essential to find a solution that can be insensitive to the uncertain conditions during the network planning process. As early as in the 1960's, a network planning problem with varying traffic requirements over time had been studied. Up to now, this kind of network planning problems is still being active researched, especially for the VPN network design. Another kind of network planning problems under uncertainties that has been studied actively in the past decade addresses the fluctuations in network resources. One such hotly pursued research topic is survivable network planning. It considers the design of a network under uncertainties brought by the fluctuations in topology to meet the requirement that the network remains intact up to a certain number of faults occurring anywhere in the network. Recently, the authors proposed a new planning methodology called Generalized Survivable Network that tackles the network design problem under both varying traffic requirements and fluctuations of topology. Although all the above network planning problems handle various kinds of uncertainties, it is hard to find a generic framework under more general uncertainty conditions that allows a more systematic way to solve the problems. With a unified framework, the seemingly diverse models and algorithms can be intimately related and possibly more insights and improvements can be brought out for solving the problem. This motivates us to seek a

  20. Global Social Media Directory: A Resource Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Piatt, Andrew W.

    2014-10-23

    The Global Social Media Directory is a resource guide providing information on social networking services around the globe. This information changes rapidly, therefore, this document will be updated on a regular basis and as funding permits.

  1. Violence against Women: Resources by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... state in this list, please contact the National Domestic Violence Hotline (NDVH) for assistance in locating programs in ... Wisconsin | Wyoming State Resources Alabama Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence Montgomery, AL Alaska Alaska Network On Domestic Violence ...

  2. Visual Resources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaber, William E.; Hou, Feng

    With the development of the Internet technology and proliferation of the network application, visual materials have been digitized and archived on many publicly accessible computer servers. However, these visual resources can be beneficial to educators only when they know what they are, what they look like, in what format they are created, and how…

  3. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  4. Network Information Management Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatburn, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is implementing a distributed data base management system in which the data are shared among several applications and the host machines are not totally dedicated to a particular application. Since the data and resources are to be shared, the equipment must be operated carefully so that the resources are shared equitably. The current status of the project is discussed and policies, roles, and guidelines are recommended for the organizations involved in the project.

  5. A network security monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Urban Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for urban adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to urban Americans. The following topics are covered in the guide: linkage strategies (the meaning of the term linkages, community…

  7. Resource Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stennett, R. G.

    A research allocation formula employed in London, Ontario elementary schools, as well as supporting data on the method, are provided in this report. Attempts to improve on the traditional methods of resource allocation in London's schools were based on two principles: (1) that need for a particular service could and should be determined…

  8. Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

  9. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  10. United States Atlas of Renewable Resources

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atlas is an interactive application of the renewable energy resources in the contiguous United States, Alaska and Hawaii. It illustrates the geographic distribution of wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass resources, as well as other pertinent information such as transportation network and administrative boundaries.[Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/maps.html

  11. Microform Resources on the Internet Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichhorn, Sara J.; Yonezawa, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes information that will be used to describe microform sets on the University of California, Irvine's World Wide Web site for microform resources, including title, publisher, price, contents, index/bibliography, reviewed in, location/holdings, and Webpac site. Discusses staff/network resources, HTML/UNIX editors, and indexing/search…

  12. Back to School Resources for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As the school year begins, staff at the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) would like to offer all school personnel (including educators, administrators, counselors and support staff) the opportunity to use their many resources for schools! Their resources were created to highlight issues related to trauma, to explain how trauma can…

  13. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  14. Enhancing Services to the Handicapped Through Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Bettye; Walden, John

    Participation by agencies in a network can provide access to a wider range of services and resources for the handicapped and can enable additional agencies to take advantage of information regarding specialized resources and services to the benefit of unlimited others. The major obstacle to effective networking is the fear that participation in a…

  15. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  16. Resource Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Summit Envirosolutions of Minneapolis, Minnesota, used remote sensing images as a source for groundwater resource management. Summit is a full-service environmental consulting service specializing in hydrogeologic, environmental management, engineering and remediation services. CRSP collected, processed and analyzed multispectral/thermal imagery and aerial photography to compare remote sensing and Geographic Information System approaches to more traditional methods of environmental impact assessments and monitoring.

  17. A Report on Library Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Donald D.

    A true library network is the interfacing of more than one kind of system (i.e., public and academic) rather than cooperation between libraries of the same type. Networks may take many forms, such as: cooperative development of resources, with assignment of subject areas to separate facilities; a cooperative storage system, with the libraries…

  18. Delaware: Library Automation and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Describes automation and networking activities among Delaware libraries, including integrated library systems for public libraries, the Delaware Technical and Community College telecommunications network, Delaware Public Library Internet access planning, digital resources, a computer/technology training center, and the Delaware Center for…

  19. Information Networking in Population Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The rapidly increasing body of knowledge in population education has created the need for systematic and effective information services. Information networking entails sharing resources so that the information needs of all network participants are met. The goals of this manual are to: (1) instill in population education specialists a more…

  20. Heterogeneous broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Lars

    1995-11-01

    Although the vision for the future Integrated Broadband Communication Network (IBCN) is an all optical network, it is certain that for a long period to come, the network will remain very heterogeneous, with a mixture of different physical media (fiber, coax and twisted pair), transmission systems (PDH, SDH, ADSL) and transport protocols (TCP/IP, AAL/ATM, frame relay). In the current work towards the IBCN, the ATM concept is considered the generic network protocol for both public and private network, with the ability to use different underlying transmission protocols and, through adaptation protocols, provide the appropriate services (old as well as new) to the customer. One of the major difficulties of heterogeneous network is the restriction that is usually given by the lowest common denominator, e.g. in terms of single channel capacity. A possible way to overcome these limitations is by extending the ATM concept with a multilink capability, that allows us to use separate resources as one common. The improved flexibility obtained by this protocol extension further allows a real time optimization of network and call configuration, without any impact on the quality of service seen from the user. This paper describes an example of an ATM based multilink protocol that has been experimentally implemented within the RACE project 'STRATOSPHERIC'. The paper outlines the complexity of introducing an extra network functionality compared with the added value, such as an improved ability to recover an error due to a malfunctioning network component.

  1. Celestial data routing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordetsky, Alex

    2000-11-01

    Imagine that information processing human-machine network is threatened in a particular part of the world. Suppose that an anticipated threat of physical attacks could lead to disruption of telecommunications network management infrastructure and access capabilities for small geographically distributed groups engaged in collaborative operations. Suppose that small group of astronauts are exploring the solar planet and need to quickly configure orbital information network to support their collaborative work and local communications. The critical need in both scenarios would be a set of low-cost means of small team celestial networking. To the geographically distributed mobile collaborating groups such means would allow to maintain collaborative multipoint work, set up orbital local area network, and provide orbital intranet communications. This would be accomplished by dynamically assembling the network enabling infrastructure of the small satellite based router, satellite based Codec, and set of satellite based intelligent management agents. Cooperating single function pico satellites, acting as agents and personal switching devices together would represent self-organizing intelligent orbital network of cooperating mobile management nodes. Cooperative behavior of the pico satellite based agents would be achieved by comprising a small orbital artificial neural network capable of learning and restructing the networking resources in response to the anticipated threat.

  2. NASA Engineering Network (NEN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria; Trevarthen, Ellie; Yew, Manson

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Engineering Network (NEN). NEN is designed to search documents over multiple repositories, submit and browse NASA Lessons Learned, collaborate and share ideas with other engineers via communities of practice, access resources from one portal, and find subject matter experts via the People, Organizations, Projects, Skills (POPS) locator.

  3. The network queueing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Brent K.

    1986-01-01

    Described is the implementation of a networked, UNIX based queueing system developed on contract for NASA. The system discussed supports both batch and device requests, and provides the facilities of remote queueing, request routing, remote status, queue access controls, batch request resource quota limits, and remote output return.

  4. Earth resources*

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Brian J.

    1979-01-01

    Reliable supplies of metals have historically been the keys to industrial and technological development. But many metals are subject to the possible exhaustion of traditional kinds of deposits. A continued supply of such metals, which include tin, tungsten, silver, lead, zinc, and many others, will require their recovery from common rocks, in which they are found in solid solution in common silicate minerals. Recovery from unconventional sources will be so energy intensive that we may eventually have to stop mining such metals. The greatest challenge facing the U.S. Geological Survey in its second century will be the problem of resource limitations. PMID:16592706

  5. Developable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, it has become the conventional wisdom that all developable conventional hydropower resources have been exhausted. Studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies find differently. The root of disagreement may lie in the definition of what is developable. Environmental special interest groups now define developable hydropower sites as those having zero effect on the environment. As a result they conclude there are no additional developable hydropower sites. By contrast, the definition used by DOE and others is broader as it balances economic, technical, and environmental factors in accordance with the Federal Power Act.

  6. Plasticity: Resource justification and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    Physics education research is fundamentally concerned with understanding the processes of student learning and facilitating the development of student understanding. A better understanding of learning processes and outcomes is integral to improving said learning. In this thesis, I detail and expand upon Resource Theory, allowing it to account for the development of resources and connecting the activation and use of resources to experimental data. Resource Theory is a general knowledge-in-pieces schema theory. It bridges cognitive science and education research to describe the phenomenology of problem solving. Resources are small, reusable pieces of thought that make up concepts and arguments. The physical context and cognitive state of the user determine which resources are available to be activated; different people have different resources about different things. Over time, resources may develop, acquiring new meanings as they activate in different situations. In this thesis, I introduce "plasticity," a continuum for describing the development of resources. The plasticity continuum blends elements of Process/Object and Cognitive Science with Resource Theory. The name evokes brain plasticity and myelination (markers of learning power and reasoning speed, respectively) and materials plasticity and solidity (with their attendant properties, deformability and stability). In the plasticity continuum, the two directions are more plastic and more solid. More solid resources are more durable and more connected to other resources. Users tend to be more committed to them because reasoning with them has been fruitful in the past. Similarly, users tend not to perform consistency checks on them any more. In contrast, more plastic resources need to be tested against the existing network more often, as users forge links between them and other resources. To explore these expansions and their application, I present several extended examples drawn from an Intermediate Mechanics

  7. Network Event Recording Device: An automated system for Network anomaly detection, and notification. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.G.; Wilkins, R.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the Network Event Recording Device (NERD) is to provide a flexible autonomous system for network logging and notification when significant network anomalies occur. The NERD is also charged with increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of currently implemented network security procedures. While it has always been possible for network and security managers to review log files for evidence of network irregularities, the NERD provides real-time display of network activity, as well as constant monitoring and notification services for managers. Similarly, real-time display and notification of possible security breaches will provide improved effectiveness in combating resource infiltration from both inside and outside the immediate network environment.

  8. Sustaining a Mature Teacher Inquiry Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Sarah Bea

    2014-01-01

    This research consisted of a case study of an active network for teacher inquiry. Specifically, I investigated how an organization dedicated to teacher inquiry had provided the structure, leadership, and resources to sustain, maintain, and expand the network. The group studied was the Mid-Ohio Writing Project, a teacher inquiry network affiliated…

  9. LINCS: Livermore's network architecture. [Octopus computing network

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Octopus, a local computing network that has been evolving at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for over fifteen years, is currently undergoing a major revision. The primary purpose of the revision is to consolidate and redefine the variety of conventions and formats, which have grown up over the years, into a single standard family of protocols, the Livermore Interactive Network Communication Standard (LINCS). This standard treats the entire network as a single distributed operating system such that access to a computing resource is obtained in a single way, whether that resource is local (on the same computer as the accessing process) or remote (on another computer). LINCS encompasses not only communication but also such issues as the relationship of customer to server processes and the structure, naming, and protection of resources. The discussion includes: an overview of the Livermore user community and computing hardware, the functions and structure of each of the seven layers of LINCS protocol, the reasons why we have designed our own protocols and why we are dissatisfied by the directions that current protocol standards are taking.

  10. Resources that Make You Generous: Effects of Social and Human Resources on Charitable Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiepking, Pamala; Maas, Ineke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine whether and why human and social resources increase charitable giving. Using the Giving in The Netherlands Panel Study 2003, we find that people with more extended networks and higher education are more generous. However, these effects can be completely explained by financial resources, church attendance, requests for…

  11. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  12. Information resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    A wide variety of entities across North America are involved in wildlife disease investigations; however, the formal assembly of multidimensional programs that primarily address disease for the benefit of free-ranging wildlife is rather limited. The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS), the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), and the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) are selected examples. These programs are highlighted because of the scope of their capabilities and long-term involvement in assisting State and Federal natural resource agencies combat wildlife disease. A variety of other sources for possible assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues exists throughout North America and globally. It is prudent for wildlife conservation field biologists, managers, and administrators to be aware of such local resources. Ideally, awareness and knowledge of the types of assistance those programs can provide should be obtained prior to disease crisis events since appropriate, timely intervention often is required to minimize wildlife losses from disease and prevent the establishment of new infectious diseases within wildlife populations and geographic areas. Increasing recognition of the substantial number of infectious diseases being transferred between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has led to increased collaborative investigations between wildlife, domestic, and human health programs. That collaboration has led to a heightened focus on wildlife disease within some public health and agriculture agencies. For purposes of this Chapter, wildlife disease is narrowly defined as those diseases (infectious and noninfectious) causing morbidity and mortality in free-ranging wildlife populations. Therefore, there is no focus on the numerous fish disease or environmental contaminant programs that exist on behalf of North American fauna.

  13. Evolution of document networks.

    PubMed

    Menczer, Filippo

    2004-04-01

    How does a network of documents grow without centralized control? This question is becoming crucial as we try to explain the emergent scale-free topology of the World Wide Web and use link analysis to identify important information resources. Existing models of growing information networks have focused on the structure of links but neglected the content of nodes. Here I show that the current models fail to reproduce a critical characteristic of information networks, namely the distribution of textual similarity among linked documents. I propose a more realistic model that generates links by using both popularity and content. This model yields remarkably accurate predictions of both degree and similarity distributions in networks of web pages and scientific literature.

  14. Network Cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  15. Network cosmology.

    PubMed

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  16. Asteroid resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John S.

    1992-01-01

    There are three types of possible asteroidal materials that appear to be attractive for exploitation: (1) volatiles, (2) free metals, and (3) bulk dirt. Because some of the near-Earth asteroids are energetically more accessible than the Moon (require a round-trip total change in velocity less than 9 km/sec, though the trip time would be measured in years not days), such an asteroid might be chosen as the source of any useful material, even if that material was also available on the Moon. Provided that the asteroid was minable, it might therefore be chosen as the source of bulk dirt needed for shielding in low Earth orbit (LEO) or elsewhere in near-Earth space. And the near-Earth asteroids may offer materials that are rare or absent on the surface of the Moon. The relationship between asteroids and meteorites is discussed. A brief overview of the entire range of meteorite compositions, with emphasis on the occurrence of interesting resources is presented. Focus is on materials useful in space, especially volatiles, metals, and raw dirt. Those few materials that may have sufficiently high market value to be worth returning to Earth will be mentioned.

  17. A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Guok, Chin; Robertson, David; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Thompson, Mary; Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The requirements for network predictability are becoming increasingly critical to the DoE science community where resources are widely distributed and collaborations are world-wide. To accommodate these emerging requirements, the Energy Sciences Network has established a Science Data Network to provide user driven guaranteed bandwidth allocations. In this paper we outline the design, implementation, and secure coordinated use of such a network, as well as some lessons learned.

  18. Computing the Envelope for Stepwise-Constant Resource Allocations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Computing tight resource-level bounds is a fundamental problem in the construction of flexible plans with resource utilization. In this paper we describe an efficient algorithm that builds a resource envelope, the tightest possible such bound. The algorithm is based on transforming the temporal network of resource consuming and producing events into a flow network with nodes equal to the events and edges equal to the necessary predecessor links between events. A staged maximum flow problem on the network is then used to compute the time of occurrence and the height of each step of the resource envelope profile. Each stage has the same computational complexity of solving a maximum flow problem on the entire flow network. This makes this method computationally feasible and promising for use in the inner loop of flexible-time scheduling algorithms.

  19. Computing the Envelope for Stepwise Constant Resource Allocations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Estimating tight resource level is a fundamental problem in the construction of flexible plans with resource utilization. In this paper we describe an efficient algorithm that builds a resource envelope, the tightest possible such bound. The algorithm is based on transforming the temporal network of resource consuming and producing events into a flow network with noises equal to the events and edges equal to the necessary predecessor links between events. The incremental solution of a staged maximum flow problem on the network is then used to compute the time of occurrence and the height of each step of the resource envelope profile. The staged algorithm has the same computational complexity of solving a maximum flow problem on the entire flow network. This makes this method computationally feasible for use in the inner loop of search-based scheduling algorithms.

  20. A quantum access network.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Dynes, James F; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology. PMID:24005413

  1. Multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, P. O.; Granichin, O. N.; Budaev, D. S.; Laryukhin, V. B.; Mayorov, I. V.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks is considered. This system is designed for distribution simulation and tasks implementation on computational resources including network dynamic characteristics and topology.

  2. The Tribal Telecommunications Network: Economic Growth through Satellite Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderman, Tracy

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Tribal Telecommunications Network, a non-profit Native American organization promoted by the Hopland Band of the Pomo Indians. Outlines network uses and objectives: identifying and locating economic and information resources, creating jobs, and teleconferencing tribal meetings. (SV)

  3. Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietzke, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This special section explains the latest developments in networking technologies, profiles school districts benefiting from successful implementations, and reviews new products for building networks. Highlights include ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cable modems, networking switches, Internet screening software, file servers, network management…

  4. Energy Sciences Network

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    ESnet is a high-speed network serving thousands of Department of Energy scientists at over 40 institutions, as well as connecting to more than 100 other networks. ESnet is a pioneer in providing high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link researchers at national laboratories, universities and other research institutions, enabling them to collaborate on some of the world's most important scientific research challenges including energy, climate science, and the origins of the universe. Funded by the DOE Office of Science, and managed and operated by the ESnet team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides scientists access to unique DOE research facilities and computing resources.

  5. Hybrid network intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    We report on a machine learning classifier that can be used to discover the patterns hidden within large networking data flows. It utilizes an existing intrusion detection system (IDS) as an oracle to learn a faster, less resource intensive normalcy classifier as a front-end to a hybrid network IDS. This system has the capability to recognize new attacks that are similar to known attack signatures. It is also more highly scalable and distributable than the signature-based IDS. The new hybrid design also allows distributed updates and retraining of the normalcy classifier to stay up-to-date with current threats.

  6. Research on the model of home networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  7. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  8. Mobile infostation network technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajappan, Gowri; Acharya, Joydeep; Liu, Hongbo; Mandayam, Narayan; Seskar, Ivan; Yates, Roy

    2006-05-01

    Inefficient use of network resources on the battlefield is a serious liability: if an asset communicates with the network command for data-a terrain map, for instance-it ties up the end-to-end network resources. When many such assets contend for data simultaneously, traffic is limited by the slowest link along the path from the network command to the asset. A better approach is for a local server, known as an infostation, to download data on an anticipated-need basis when the network load is low. The infostation can then dump data when needed to the assets over a high-speed wireless connection. The infostation serves the local assets over an OFDM-based wireless data link that has MIMO enhancements for high data rate and robustness. We aim for data rate in excess of 100 Mbps, spectral efficiency in excess of 5 bits/sec/Hz, and robustness to poor channel conditions and jammers. We propose an adaptive physical layer that determines power levels, modulation schemes, and the MIMO enhancements to use based on the channel state and the level of interference in the system. We also incorporate the idea of superuser: a user who is allowed preferential use of the high data rate link. We propose a MAC that allows for this priority-based bandwidth allocation scheme. The proposed infostation MAC is integrated tightly with the physical layer through a cross-layer design. We call the proposed infostation PHY, MAC, and network technology, collectively, as the Mobile Infostation Network Technology (MINT).

  9. Orchestrating Distributed Resource Ensembles for Petascale Science

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, Ilya; Mandal, Anirban; Ruth, Paul; Yufeng, Xin

    2014-04-24

    Distributed, data-intensive computational science applications of interest to DOE scientific com- munities move large amounts of data for experiment data management, distributed analysis steps, remote visualization, and accessing scientific instruments. These applications need to orchestrate ensembles of resources from multiple resource pools and interconnect them with high-capacity multi- layered networks across multiple domains. It is highly desirable that mechanisms are designed that provide this type of resource provisioning capability to a broad class of applications. It is also important to have coherent monitoring capabilities for such complex distributed environments. In this project, we addressed these problems by designing an abstract API, enabled by novel semantic resource descriptions, for provisioning complex and heterogeneous resources from multiple providers using their native provisioning mechanisms and control planes: computational, storage, and multi-layered high-speed network domains. We used an extensible resource representation based on semantic web technologies to afford maximum flexibility to applications in specifying their needs. We evaluated the effectiveness of provisioning using representative data-intensive ap- plications. We also developed mechanisms for providing feedback about resource performance to the application, to enable closed-loop feedback control and dynamic adjustments to resource allo- cations (elasticity). This was enabled through development of a novel persistent query framework that consumes disparate sources of monitoring data, including perfSONAR, and provides scalable distribution of asynchronous notifications.

  10. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  11. Successful strategies for competing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, J.; Papo, D.; Buldú, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Competitive interactions represent one of the driving forces behind evolution and natural selection in biological and sociological systems. For example, animals in an ecosystem may vie for food or mates; in a market economy, firms may compete over the same group of customers; sensory stimuli may compete for limited neural resources to enter the focus of attention. Here, we derive rules based on the spectral properties of the network governing the competitive interactions between groups of agents organized in networks. In the scenario studied here the winner of the competition, and the time needed to prevail, essentially depend on the way a given network connects to its competitors and on its internal structure. Our results allow assessment of the extent to which real networks optimize the outcome of their interaction, but also provide strategies through which competing networks can improve on their situation. The proposed approach is applicable to a wide range of systems that can be modelled as networks.

  12. A bi-modal function of Wnt signalling directs an FGF activity gradient to spatially regulate neuronal differentiation in the midbrain.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Carlene; Blanc, Eric; Hanisch, Anja; Roehl, Henry; Otto, Georg W; Yu, Tian; Basson, M A; Knight, Robert

    2014-01-01

    FGFs and Wnts are important morphogens during midbrain development, but their importance and potential interactions during neurogenesis are poorly understood. We have employed a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish to show that during neurogenesis FGF activity occurs as a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the dorsal midbrain and directs spatially dynamic expression of the Hairy gene her5. As FGF activity diminishes during development, Her5 is lost and differentiation of neuronal progenitors occurs in an anterior-posterior manner. We generated mathematical models to explain how Wnt and FGFs direct the spatial differentiation of neurons in the midbrain through Wnt regulation of FGF signalling. These models suggested that a negative-feedback loop controlled by Wnt is crucial for regulating FGF activity. We tested Sprouty genes as mediators of this regulatory loop using conditional mouse knockouts and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish. These reveal that Sprouty genes direct the positioning of early midbrain neurons and are Wnt responsive in the midbrain. We propose a model in which Wnt regulates FGF activity at the isthmus by driving both FGF and Sprouty gene expression. This controls a dynamic, posteriorly retracting expression of her5 that directs neuronal differentiation in a precise spatiotemporal manner in the midbrain.

  13. “When You Got Friends in Low Places, You Stay Low:” Social Networks and Access to Resources for Female Methamphetamine Users in Low-Income Suburban Communities

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, Denise; Boeri, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    To examine access to needed resources among low-income methamphetamine-using females, we conducted interviews with 30 women living in poor suburban communities of a large southeastern metropolis. As an invisible population in the suburbs, underserved by social services, the women remain geographically and socially anchored to their poor suburban enclaves as transit, treatment and education remain out of reach. The longitudinal study included three interviews over a two-year period. Resources needed by the women were identified in the first interview and a list of available services was provided to them. In subsequent interviews we asked how they accessed the services or barriers encountered and discussed these further in focus groups. Using a social capital framework in our qualitative analysis, we identified three processes for accessing needed resources: formal, informal and mediated. Implications for policymakers and social service providers are suggested, and models for future development proposed. PMID:25346549

  14. Structure and formation of ant transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Latty, Tanya; Ramsch, Kai; Ito, Kentaro; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Sumpter, David J. T.; Middendorf, Martin; Beekman, Madeleine

    2011-01-01

    Many biological systems use extensive networks for the transport of resources and information. Ants are no exception. How do biological systems achieve efficient transportation networks in the absence of centralized control and without global knowledge of the environment? Here, we address this question by studying the formation and properties of inter-nest transportation networks in the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). We find that the formation of inter-nest networks depends on the number of ants involved in the construction process. When the number of ants is sufficient and networks do form, they tend to have short total length but a low level of robustness. These networks are topologically similar to either minimum spanning trees or Steiner networks. The process of network formation involves an initial construction of multiple links followed by a pruning process that reduces the number of trails. Our study thus illuminates the conditions under and the process by which minimal biological transport networks can be constructed. PMID:21288958

  15. Fermionic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    We study the structure of fermionic networks, i.e. a model of networks based on the behavior of fermionic gases, and we analyze dynamical processes over them. In this model, particle dynamics have been mapped to the domain of networks, hence a parameter representing the temperature controls the evolution of the system. In doing so, it is possible to generate adaptive networks, i.e. networks whose structure varies over time. As shown in previous works, networks generated by quantum statistics can undergo critical phenomena as phase transitions and, moreover, they can be considered as thermodynamic systems. In this study, we analyze fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems. Results highlight that a strong relation holds between the gas temperature and the structure of the achieved networks. Notably, both the degree distribution and the assortativity vary as the temperature varies, hence we can state that fermionic networks behave as adaptive networks. On the other hand, it is worth to highlight that we did not finding relation between outcomes of opinion dynamics processes and the gas temperature. Therefore, although the latter plays a fundamental role in gas dynamics, on the network domain, its importance is related only to structural properties of fermionic networks.

  16. Network acceleration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  17. Worldwide standardized seismograph network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.

    1977-01-01

    A global network of seismographs is as indispensable to seismologists as telescopes are to astronomers. The network is used to catalog the thousands of earthquakes that occur each year and to provide the data needed for detailed studies of earthquake mechanisms, deep Earth structure, and tectonic processes. Like astronomy, seismology is an observational science, and most of the scientific advances have been preceded by improvements in instrument technology. To be useful for seismic studies, new technology must be applied on a global scale. During the past two decades, there has been notable success in meeting this objective. The network that exists today (fig. 1) is a vital scientific resource. Continued innovations and improvements are needed to insure that its keeps pace with the data needs of the seismological community. 

  18. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  19. Master`s Network

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.E.; Riley, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    A state-wide network for Mathematics And Science Teaching Excellence Through Resources, Renewal, and Services, MASTER{sup 3}S Network is a grant-supported project designed to provide a comprehensive teacher support system for enhancing MST industry representatives, and MST professional system for enhancing MST industry representatives, and MST professional societies, a unique feature in the broad alliance of organizations involved. Made up of three inter-related projects, MASTER{sup 3}S facilitates the provision of resources, services, and opportunities for renewal for the instructional expert. Project One provides support through expert assistance as a cadre of scientists and engineers volunteer to serve as assistants in the classroom. Project Two provides support in the form of math/science summer courses, plus forums throughout the school year to offer ongoing collegial support. Project Three will soon provide support through information with the development of TROL (Teaching Resources on Line), our catalog database of locally available MST resources. The guiding principle of MASTER3S is the belief that by empowering, supporting and serving the teacher, we can most effectively impact student attitudes toward and achievement in MST subjects.

  20. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  1. Chemical dependence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd.org National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov ...

  2. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  3. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  4. Network science.

    PubMed

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-03-28

    Professor Barabási's talk described how the tools of network science can help understand the Web's structure, development and weaknesses. The Web is an information network, in which the nodes are documents (at the time of writing over one trillion of them), connected by links. Other well-known network structures include the Internet, a physical network where the nodes are routers and the links are physical connections, and organizations, where the nodes are people and the links represent communications.

  5. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile

    PubMed Central

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers' tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host–parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems. PMID:27511722

  6. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile.

    PubMed

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers' tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host-parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems. PMID:27511722

  7. Environmental change makes robust ecological networks fragile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex ecological networks appear robust to primary extinctions, possibly due to consumers’ tendency to specialize on dependable (available and persistent) resources. However, modifications to the conditions under which the network has evolved might alter resource dependability. Here, we ask whether adaptation to historical conditions can increase community robustness, and whether such robustness can protect communities from collapse when conditions change. Using artificial life simulations, we first evolved digital consumer-resource networks that we subsequently subjected to rapid environmental change. We then investigated how empirical host–parasite networks would respond to historical, random and expected extinction sequences. In both the cases, networks were far more robust to historical conditions than new ones, suggesting that new environmental challenges, as expected under global change, might collapse otherwise robust natural ecosystems.

  8. Resource data bases-Resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Office of Resource Analysis is developing computer methods for the handling of mineral-resources data in order to provide improved means for addressing and manipulating data. These methods include: computerized data files and predictive resource models. Data files contain the raw or disaggregated information on mineral deposits and commodities. One operational data file is CRIB (Computerized Resources Information Bank) which is a general purpose inventory and reference file on metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits. A computer file on resources should contain detailed information on the following main categories: record identification, name and location, description of deposit, analytical data, and production/reserves. A resource model employs postulates and inferences in conjunction with the data to make predictions about resources-as key variables concerning a mineral commodity are changed. The objective is to estimate the availability of minerals including: geological availability (occurrence models), technological availability (exploration and beneficiation models), and economic availability (economics models). ?? 1976.

  9. The network management expert system prototype for Sun Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Networking has become one of the fastest growing areas in the computer industry. The emergence of distributed workstations make networking more popular because they need to have connectivity between themselves as well as with other computer systems to share information and system resources. Making the networks more efficient and expandable by selecting network services and devices that fit to one's need is vital to achieve reliability and fast throughput. Networks are dynamically changing and growing at a rate that outpaces the available human resources. Therefore, there is a need to multiply the expertise rapidly rather than employing more network managers. In addition, setting up and maintaining networks by following the manuals can be tedious and cumbersome even for an experienced network manager. This prototype expert system was developed to experiment on Sun Workstations to assist system and network managers in selecting and configurating network services.

  10. Gastrointestinal disorders - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Digestive disease - resources; Resources - gastrointestinal disorders ... org American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- digestive.niddk.nih.gov

  11. Directory of Resources for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Adult Learning and Literacy Clearinghouse.

    This directory was developed to provide information that will help foster a closer collaboration among individuals and networks that serve elderly persons in the United States. The directory describes selected resources available in 7 federal agencies and 31 national and local organizations that deal with the special needs and interests of older…

  12. Southeast Asian Family Day Care Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union of Pan Asian Communities, San Diego, CA.

    A companion publication to California's Family Day Care Training Curriculum, this resource manual is designed to help others replicate the child care provider training project and establish a child care network. The manual consists of seven sections. The first section provides an introduction. The second summarizes experiences of the agency that…

  13. Network Bandwidth Utilization Forecast Model on High Bandwidth Network

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Wucherl; Sim, Alex

    2014-07-07

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2percent. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  14. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  15. Interrogation Methods and Terror Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccara, Mariagiovanna; Bar-Isaac, Heski

    We examine how the structure of terror networks varies with legal limits on interrogation and the ability of authorities to extract information from detainees. We assume that terrorist networks are designed to respond optimally to a tradeoff caused by information exchange: Diffusing information widely leads to greater internal efficiency, but it leaves the organization more vulnerable to law enforcement. The extent of this vulnerability depends on the law enforcement authority’s resources, strategy and interrogation methods. Recognizing that the structure of a terrorist network responds to the policies of law enforcement authorities allows us to begin to explore the most effective policies from the authorities’ point of view.

  16. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

  17. Superelastic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Obukhov, S.P.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R.H.

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses the elastic modulus, swelling, and deswelling behavior of networks as a function of their concentration and the preparation state. Based on these results, the authors expect that networks prepared by crosslinking long chains at low concentration, followed by removal of solvent, will have superelastic properties - the deswollen networks will have low modulus and will be capable of stretching by enormous amounts without breaking. This is because deswelling introduces only temporary entanglements. These temporary entanglements change the static configuration of the network strands. The authors discuss the non-Gaussian nature of these strands and the linear viscoelastic response of the superelastic networks.

  18. Advection, diffusion, and delivery over a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Luke L. M.; López, Eduardo; Maini, Philip K.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-08-01

    Many biological, geophysical, and technological systems involve the transport of a resource over a network. In this paper, we present an efficient method for calculating the exact quantity of the resource in each part of an arbitrary network, where the resource is lost or delivered out of the network at a given rate, while being subject to advection and diffusion. The key conceptual step is to partition the resource into material that does or does not reach a node over a given time step. As an example application, we consider resource allocation within fungal networks, and analyze the spatial distribution of the resource that emerges as such networks grow over time. Fungal growth involves the expansion of fluid filled vessels, and such growth necessarily involves the movement of fluid. We develop a model of delivery in growing fungal networks, and find good empirical agreement between our model and experimental data gathered using radio-labeled tracers. Our results lead us to suggest that in foraging fungi, growth-induced mass flow is sufficient to account for long-distance transport, if the system is well insulated. We conclude that active transport mechanisms may only be required at the very end of the transport pathway, near the growing tips.

  19. The ASCI Network for SC 2000: Gigabyte Per Second Networking

    SciTech Connect

    PRATT, THOMAS J.; NAEGLE, JOHN H.; MARTINEZ JR., LUIS G.; HU, TAN CHANG; MILLER, MARC M.; BARNABY, MARTY L.; ADAMS, ROGER L.; KLAUS, EDWARD J.

    2001-11-01

    This document highlights the Discom's Distance computing and communication team activities at the 2000 Supercomputing conference in Dallas Texas. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia's participation in the conference has now spanned a decade, for the last five years Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives, Program rubric to demonstrate ASCI's emerging capabilities in computational science and our combined expertise in high performance computer science and communication networking developments within the program. At SC 2000, DISCOM demonstrated an infrastructure. DISCOM2 uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and pre-standard implementation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the first gigabyte per second data IP network transfer application, and VPN technology that enabled a remote Distributed Resource Management tools demonstration. Additionally a national OC48 POS network was constructed to support applications running between the show floor and home facilities. This network created the opportunity to test PSE's Parallel File Transfer Protocol (PFTP) across a network that had similar speed and distances as the then proposed DISCOM WAN. The SCINET SC2000 showcased wireless networking and the networking team had the opportunity to explore this emerging technology while on the booth. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their convention exhibit floor. We also supported the production networking needs of the implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports DISCOM overall strategies in high performance computing networking.

  20. Networking computers.

    PubMed

    McBride, D C

    1997-03-01

    This decade the role of the personal computer has shifted dramatically from a desktop device designed to increase individual productivity and efficiency to an instrument of communication linking people and machines in different places with one another. A computer in one city can communicate with another that may be thousands of miles away. Networking is how this is accomplished. Just like the voice network used by the telephone, computer networks transmit data and other information via modems over these same telephone lines. A network can be created over both short and long distances. Networks can be established within a hospital or medical building or over many hospitals or buildings covering many geographic areas. Those confined to one location are called LANs, local area networks. Those that link computers in one building to those at other locations are known as WANs, or wide area networks. The ultimate wide area network is the one we've all been hearing so much about these days--the Internet, and its World Wide Web. Setting up a network is a process that requires careful planning and commitment. To avoid potential pitfalls and to make certain the network you establish meets your needs today and several years down the road, several steps need to be followed. This article reviews the initial steps involved in getting ready to network.