Science.gov

Sample records for bi-modal network resources

  1. The Bi-Modal Organization: Balancing Autopoiesis and Fluid Social Networks for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assist an organization to restructure as a bi-modal organization in order to achieve sustainability in today's highly complex business world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and is based on relevant literature and the authors' research and practice. Findings: Although fluid…

  2. The Bi-Modal Organization: Balancing Autopoiesis and Fluid Social Networks for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assist an organization to restructure as a bi-modal organization in order to achieve sustainability in today's highly complex business world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and is based on relevant literature and the authors' research and practice. Findings: Although fluid…

  3. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  4. Networked Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    The LISTSERV program on the BITNET computer network started as a simple mailing list program for electronic group communication. A revised version of LISTSERV now offers sophisticated new functions and help for users, including file-server functions. Problems with the revised version are noted, and computer commands are provided. (six references)…

  5. Networked Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use and applications of the communications program Telenet for remote log-in, a basic interactive resource sharing service that enables users to connect to any machine on the Internet and conduct a session. The Virtual Terminal--the central component of Telenet--is also described, as well as problems with terminals, services…

  6. Nonlinear Pattern Selection in Bi-Modal Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picardo, Jason; Narayanan, Ranga

    2016-11-01

    We study the evolution of two interacting unstable interfaces, with the aim of understanding the role of non-linearity in pattern selection. Specifically, we consider two superposed thin films on a heated surface, that are susceptible to thermocapillary and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Due to the presence of two unstable interfaces, the dispersion curve (linear growth rate plotted as a function of the perturbation wavelength) exhibits two peaks. If these peaks have equal heights, then the two corresponding disturbance patterns will grow with the same linear growth rate. Therefore, any selection between the two must occur via nonlinear effects. The two-interface problem under consideration provides a variety of such bi-modal situations, in which the role of nonlinearity in pattern selection is unveiled. We use a combination of long wave asymptotics, numerical simulations and amplitude expansions to understand the subtle nonlinear interactions between the two peak modes. Our results offer a counter-example to Rayleigh's principle of pattern formation, that the fastest growing linear mode will dominate the final pattern. Far from being governed by any such general dogma, the final selected pattern varies considerably from case to case. The authors acknowledge funding from NSF (0968313) and the Fulbright-Nehru fellowship.

  7. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  8. Bi-modal water transport behavior across a simple Nafion membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziheng; Promislow, Keith; Martin, Jonathan; Wang, Haijiang; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2011-10-01

    The development of predictive mathematical models for water management in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells requires detailed understanding of water distribution and water transport across the Nafion layer. The anisotropic microstructure of Nafion suggests the measurement of water content and mass transport should be along the fuel cell functional direction, i.e. across the membrane. Non-invasive, high resolution, microscopy measurements of this type are very challenging. We report here the calibration of a minimal mathematical model for diffusive water transport in Nafion against data from high-resolution water content maps determined with a new magnetic resonance imaging methodology developed for this purpose. A mock fuel cell was designed to permit well-controlled wetting and drying boundary conditions. With no chemical potential driving force involved, we assume the water transport behavior will be dominated by diffusion. Moreover we show that, in this context, our model is mathematically equivalent to the traditional permeation models based upon saturation dependent pressure gradients via a capillary pressure ansatz. The non-linear equilibrium water distribution across the Nafion membrane measured in this work suggests a bi-modal diffusivity. The model constructed associates distinct transport behaviors to water contents above and below a critical threshold, consistent with a rearrangement of a micro-structural pore network. The experimental observation and the model prediction agree with the primary features of Weber's model of Nafion, which predicts distinct modes of transport for hydration fronts traversing the through-plane direction of the membrane.

  9. Self-Injurious Behavior: A Bi-Modal Treatment Approach to Working with Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Judy A.; Sias, Shari M.

    2003-01-01

    The topic of self-injurious behavior (SIB), particularly among female adolescents, has been gaining widespread attention in mainstream culture. However, limited research has been generated examining effective treatment modalities. Given the lack of information concerning treatment models, this article presents a bi-modal treatment approach with a…

  10. Computational Aeroelastic Analysis of Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Bi-Modal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Steven J.; Chwalowski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    A Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes analysis, with and without dynamic aeroelastic effects, is presented for the Ares I-X launch vehicle at transonic Mach numbers and flight Reynolds numbers for two grid resolutions and two angles of attack. The purpose of the study is to quantify the force and moment increment imparted by the sudden transition from fully separated flow around the crew module - service module junction to that of the bi-modal flow state in which only part of the flow reattaches. The bi-modal flow phenomenon is of interest to the guidance, navigation and control community because it causes a discontinuous jump in forces and moments. Computations with a rigid structure at zero zero angle of attack indicate significant increases in normal force and pitching moment. Dynamic aeroelastic computations indicate the bi-modal flow state is insensitive to vehicle flexibility due to the resulting deflections imparting only very small changes in local angle of attack. At an angle of attack of 2.5deg, the magnitude of the pitching moment increment resulting from the bi-modal state nearly triples, while occurring at a slightly lower Mach number. Significant grid induced variations between the solutions indicate that further grid refinement is warranted.

  11. MITEE-B: A Compact Ultra Lightweight Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine for Robotic Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources.

  12. Florida Information Resource Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Francis C.

    1986-01-01

    The Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN) is an effort by the Florida education community and the Florida Legislature to provide an electronic link among all agencies, institutions, and schools in the public education system. The communications link, perhaps one of the most advanced in the nation, has three purposes: (1) to provide equal…

  13. Analysis of the bi-modal nature of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Horton, W.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that the optimal linear prediction filter relating the solar wind electric field and the geomagnetic activity, as measured by the AL index, is both bi-modal and dependent on the level of activity in the magnetosphere. Further studies truncated the prediction filter to a five parameter model containing two low-pass filtered delta functions of arbitrary amplitude and delay time. The present study elaborates on the nature of the bi-modal response by using the five parameter model to quantify the effects of the level of geomagnetic activity on each of the modes of the filter individually. The authors find that at all levels of activity, the second mode, occurring at approximately one hour, is relatively unchanged. The first mode, however, has a one parameter dependence on the level of activity in the magnetosphere. The amplitude of the first mode is shown to have a significant increase with respect to activity.

  14. Novel "bi-modal" H2dedpa derivatives for radio- and fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Ramogida, Caterina F; Murphy, Lisa; Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Ross, James D; Adam, Michael J; Orvig, Chris

    2016-09-01

    A novel pyridyl functionalized analog of the promising hexadentate (68)Ga(3+) chelate H2dedpa (N4O2, 1,2-[[6-carboxy-pyridin-2-yl]-methylamine]ethane) was successfully synthesized and characterized. This new bifunctional chelate (BFC) was used to prepare the first proof-of-principle bi-modal H2dedpa derivative for fluorescence and nuclear imaging. Two bi-modal H2dedpa derivatives were prepared: H2dedpa-propylpyr-FITC and H2dedpa-propylpyr-FITC-(N,N'-propyl-2-NI) (FITC=fluorescein, pyr=pyridyl functionalized, NI=nitroimidazole). The ligands possess the strong gallium-coordinating atoms contained within dedpa(2-) that are ideal for radiolabeling with (68)Ga(3+) for positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging, and two fluorophores for optical imaging. In addition, one analog contains two NI moieties for specific entrapment of the tracer in hypoxic cells. These new bi-modal analogs were compared to the native unfunctionalized H2dedpa scaffold to determine the extent to which the addition of pyridyl functionalization would affect metal coordination, and complex stability. The non-radioactive gallium complexes were tested in a 3D tumor spheroid model. The novel pyridyl bis-functionalized H2dedpa ligand, H2dedpa-propylpyr-NH2, was quantitatively radiolabeled with (67)Ga (RCY>99%) under reaction conditions commensurate with unfunctionalized H2dedpa (10min at room temperature) at ligand concentrations as low as 10(-5)M. The resultant (67)Ga-complex withstood transchelation to the in vivo metal-binding competitor apo-transferrin (2h at 37°C, 93% intact), signifying that [Ga(dedpa-propylpyr-NH2)](+) is a kinetically inert complex suitable for in vivo use, but exhibited slightly reduced stability compared to the native [(67)Ga(dedpa)] scaffold (>99% intact). Finally, bi-model fluorescent Ga-dedpa compounds were successfully imaged in a 3D tumor spheroid model. The Ga-dedpa-FITC-NI derivative was specifically localized in the central hypoxic core of the spheroid.

  15. Assessment of an SP-100 Bi-Modal Propulsion and Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buksa, John J.; Demuth, Scott; Huber, Todd

    1994-07-01

    The attractiveness of using the SP-100 space nuclear power system for both electric power production and direct thermal propulsion is discussed. A conceptual modification to the SP-100 generic flight system that uses its hot, primary coolant to directly heat hydrogen propellant is presented. An analytical model of the system and its orbital-mechanical behavior is presented and used to assess the benefits of a number of orbital transfer missions. Both a 500 kW and a 2.4 MW system are assessed. Preliminary results indicate that for LEO-to-GEO transfers, the SP-100 bi-modal system offers a 100 % increase in payload over conventional chemical-only propulsion systems with transfer times on the order of days.

  16. Biodegradable microparticles with surface dimples as a bi-modal imaging contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ri; Lim, Yong Taik; Cho, Kuk Young

    2013-03-12

    Fabrication of physically engineered colloids and their application to the biological fields is emerging importance because of their potential to provide an enhanced performance without altering the chemical properties of biomaterials used. A facile approach is reported to fabricate sub-10-μm-sized PLGA microparticle with small dimples covering the surface by droplet imprinting. Optical and magnetic resonance bioimaging agents are easily co-encapsulated inside the microparticles to obtain a bi-modal imaging agent. Cell internalization efficacy of dimpled particles in DC 2.4 cell is enhanced compared with conventional smooth round-shaped colloids. Our result indicates that morphology-controlled microparticles show promise as a cell labeling with improved cell interaction.

  17. Bi-modal nanoheteroepitaxy of GaAs on Si by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Ivan; Kozak, Roksolana; Skibitzki, Oliver; Rossell, Marta D.; Zaumseil, Peter; Capellini, Giovanni; Gini, Emilio; Kunze, Karsten; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Erni, Rolf; Schroeder, Thomas; von Känel, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Nano-heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on Si(001) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was investigated to study emerging materials phenomena on the nano-scale of III-V/Si interaction. Arrays of Si nano-tips (NTs) embedded in a SiO2 matrix were used as substrates. The NTs had top Si openings of 50-90 nm serving as seeds for the selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs). The structural and morphological properties were investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The GaAs growth led to epitaxial NCs featuring a bi-modal distribution of size and morphology. NCs of small size exhibited high structural quality and well-defined {111}-{100} faceting. Larger clusters had less regular shapes and contained twins. The present work shows that the growth of high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs is feasible and can provide an alternate way to the integration of compound semiconductors with Si micro- and opto-electronics technology.

  18. Bi-modal hetero-aggregation rate response to particle dosage.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Aaron; Franks, George; Biggs, Simon; Jameson, Graeme J

    2005-11-22

    The rate of flocculation of cationic polystyrene latex (PSL) particles by smaller, anionic PSL particles has been measured using a low-angle static light scattering technique. The rate of aggregate growth has been investigated as a function of particle size ratio and relative concentration of each particle species (for a constant dose of cationic particles). Contrary to many previous reports, two peaks in the flocculation rate were observed as a function of dose. It is speculated that the peak observed at the lower particle concentration coincides with the dose yielding maximum constant collision efficiency in the steady-state regime, a condition which is attained only after complete adsorption of the smaller particles onto the larger particle species. The peak at the higher particle concentration is believed to be related to the maximum collision rate constant upon reaching the steady-state regime, the value of which corresponds to maximum degree of aggregation and therefore the maximum mean collision efficiency prior to reaching this condition. From classical collision kinetics, the rate of aggregate growth may be represented as being proportional to the product of the collision rate constant and collision efficiency at any given time. Given then that the maximum value of these two variables coincides with different particle concentrations, the product of the response of each to particle dosage can in some cases yield a net bi-modal aggregation rate response to particle dosage.

  19. Bi-modal nanoheteroepitaxy of GaAs on Si by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ivan; Kozak, Roksolana; Skibitzki, Oliver; Rossell, Marta D; Zaumseil, Peter; Capellini, Giovanni; Gini, Emilio; Kunze, Karsten; Rojas Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo; Erni, Rolf; Schroeder, Thomas; Känel, Hans von

    2017-03-01

    Nano-heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on Si(001) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was investigated to study emerging materials phenomena on the nano-scale of III-V/Si interaction. Arrays of Si nano-tips (NTs) embedded in a SiO2 matrix were used as substrates. The NTs had top Si openings of 50-90 nm serving as seeds for the selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs). The structural and morphological properties were investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The GaAs growth led to epitaxial NCs featuring a bi-modal distribution of size and morphology. NCs of small size exhibited high structural quality and well-defined {111}-{100} faceting. Larger clusters had less regular shapes and contained twins. The present work shows that the growth of high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs is feasible and can provide an alternate way to the integration of compound semiconductors with Si micro- and opto-electronics technology.

  20. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy.

    PubMed

    Unnewehr, Markus; Stich, August

    2015-11-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea.

  1. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Stich, August

    2015-01-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea. PMID:26539001

  2. Network resources for astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andernach, H.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Murtagh, F.

    1994-11-01

    The amount of data produced by large observational facilities and space missions has led to the archiving and on-line accessibility of much of these data, available to the entire astronomical community. This allows a much wider multifrequency approach to astronomical research than previously possible. Here we provide an overview of these services, and give a basic description of their contents and possibilities for accessing them. Apart from services providing observational data, many of those providing general information, e.g., on addresses, bibliographies, software, etc., are also described. The field is rapidly growing with improved network technology, and out attempt to keep the report as complete and up-to-date as possible will inevitably be outdated shortly. We will endeavor to maintain an updated version of this document on-line.

  3. Comparing perceived auditory width to the visual image of a performing ensemble in contrasting bi-modal environmentsa)

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Daniel L.; Braasch, Jonas; Myrbeck, Shane A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating auditory spatial impressions in rooms, few have addressed the impact of simultaneous visual cues on localization and the perception of spaciousness. The current research presents an immersive audiovisual environment in which participants were instructed to make auditory width judgments in dynamic bi-modal settings. The results of these psychophysical tests suggest the importance of congruent audio visual presentation to the ecological interpretation of an auditory scene. Supporting data were accumulated in five rooms of ascending volumes and varying reverberation times. Participants were given an audiovisual matching test in which they were instructed to pan the auditory width of a performing ensemble to a varying set of audio and visual cues in rooms. Results show that both auditory and visual factors affect the collected responses and that the two sensory modalities coincide in distinct interactions. The greatest differences between the panned audio stimuli given a fixed visual width were found in the physical space with the largest volume and the greatest source distance. These results suggest, in this specific instance, a predominance of auditory cues in the spatial analysis of the bi-modal scene. PMID:22280585

  4. Comparison of empirical, semi-empirical and physically based models of soil hydraulic functions derived for bi-modal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutílek, M.; Jendele, L.; Krejča, M.

    2009-02-01

    The accelerated flow in soil pores is responsible for a rapid transport of pollutants from the soil surface to deeper layers up to groundwater. The term preferential flow is used for this type of transport. Our study was aimed at the preferential flow realized in the structural porous domain in bi-modal soils. We compared equations describing the soil water retention function h( θ) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K( h), eventually K( θ) modified for bi-modal soils, where θ is the soil water content and h is the pressure head. The analytical description of a curve passing experimental data sets of the soil hydraulic function is typical for the empirical equation characterized by fitting parameters only. If the measured data are described by the equation derived by the physical model without using fitting parameters, we speak about a physically based model. There exist several transitional subtypes between empirical and physically based models. They are denoted as semi-empirical, or semi-physical. We tested 3 models of soil water retention function and 3 models of unsaturated conductivity using experimental data sets of sand, silt, silt loam and loam. All used soils are typical by their bi-modality of the soil porous system. The model efficiency was estimated by RMSE (Root mean square error) and by RSE (Relative square error). The semi-empirical equation of the soil water retention function had the lowest values of RMSE and RSE and was qualified as "optimal" for the formal description of the shape of the water retention function. With this equation, the fit of the modelled data to experiments was the closest one. The fitting parameters smoothed the difference between the model and the physical reality of the soil porous media. The physical equation based upon the model of the pore size distribution did not allow exact fitting of the modelled data to the experimental data due to the rigidity and simplicity of the physical model when compared to the real soil

  5. Asian Network of Research Resource Centers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Nam, Seungjoo; Jung, Paul E; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2016-10-01

    With the enactment of the Nagoya Protocol, biological resources are now increasingly considered as assets of an individual country, instead of as the common property of mankind. As worldwide interest for securing biological resources intensifies, research resource centers (RRCs), which collect, preserve, and provide resources and their information to academia and industries, are gathering more attention. The Asian Network of Research Resource Centers (ANRRC) strives for conservation and effective use of bioresources and their data by connecting resource centers of Asia, a continent with the greatest diversity of life. Since its foundation in 2009, the Network has significantly expanded to encompass 103 RRCs of 14 countries. Through the Network, member countries discuss opportunities for resource exchange and research collaboration and share biobanking information and regulations of different countries for international harmonization of resource management. ANRRC also contributes to developing of International Standards of biobanks and biological resources as a liaison to the International Organization for Standardization technical committee 276 Biotechnology.

  6. Data Mining of Chemogenomics Data Using Bi-Modal PLS Methods and Chemical Interpretation for Molecular Design.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Chemogenomics is a new strategy in drug discovery for interrogating all molecules capable of interacting with all biological targets. Because of the almost infinite number of drug-like organic molecules, bench-based experimental chemogenomics methods are not generally feasible. Several in silico chemogenomics models have therefore been developed for high-throughput screening of large numbers of drug candidate compounds and target proteins. In previous studies, we described two novel bi-modal PLS approaches. These methods provide a significant advantage in that they enable direct connections to be made between biological activities and ligand and protein descriptors. In this special issue, we review these two PLS-based approaches using two different chemogenomics datasets for illustration. We then compare the predictive and interpretive performance of the two methods using the same congeneric data set.

  7. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  8. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  9. Computer Network Resources for Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michael P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the use of computer networks provides an important and effective resource for geography instruction. Describes the use of the Internet network in physical geography instruction. Provides an example of the use of Internet resources in a climatology/meteorology course. (CFR)

  10. Computer Network Resources for Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michael P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the use of computer networks provides an important and effective resource for geography instruction. Describes the use of the Internet network in physical geography instruction. Provides an example of the use of Internet resources in a climatology/meteorology course. (CFR)

  11. Social Network Resources and Management of Hypertension*

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Erin York; Waite, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among older adults, but rates of blood pressure control are low. In this paper, we explore the role of social network ties and network-based resources (e.g., information and support) in hypertension diagnosis and management. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) to identify older adults with undiagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension. We find that network characteristics and emotional support are associated with hypertension diagnosis and control. Importantly, the risks of undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension are lower among those with larger social networks -- if they discuss health issues with their network members. When these lines of communication are closed, network size is associated with greater risk of undiagnosed and uncontrolled hypertension. Health care utilization partially mediates associations with diagnosis, but the benefits of network resources for hypertension control do not seem to stem from health-related behaviors. PMID:22660826

  12. Integration of Networked Learning Resources in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nigel; Fankhauser, Rae; Turner, Margaret

    In 1998, the EdNA/CESCEO Schools Advisory Group (SAG) formed the Networked Learning Resources Working Group to investigate issues surrounding the provision, optimum integration and management of Australian digital learning resources. The Working Group contracted DSTC Pty Ltd, in conjunction with the services of an independent specialist in schools…

  13. Integration of Networked Learning Resources in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nigel; Fankhauser, Rae; Turner, Margaret

    In 1998, the EdNA/CESCEO Schools Advisory Group (SAG) formed the Networked Learning Resources Working Group to investigate issues surrounding the provision, optimum integration and management of Australian digital learning resources. The Working Group contracted DSTC Pty Ltd, in conjunction with the services of an independent specialist in schools…

  14. Economic Aspects of a Resource Discovery Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Leah; Oppenheim, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Explores economic aspects of a resource discovery network (RDN) in the United Kingdom consisting of a center and eight sub-based hubs using Ithink Analyst, a modeling software package. Results suggest that with a combination of sponsorship and subscription income a RDN could succeed without grant funding within 10 years of its launch. (Author/LRW)

  15. Resource Management in Tactical Military Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    FGAN FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FÜR KOMMUNIKATION, INFORMATIONSVERARBEITUNG UND ERGONOMIE KIEKOMMUNIKATION Resource Management in Tactical Military Networks...Martin Lies, Peter Sevenich, Christoph Karg, Christoph Barz Nr: 2 FGAN FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FÜR KOMMUNIKATION, INFORMATIONSVERARBEITUNG UND ERGONOMIE ...Communication with IPSec in Tunnelmode Nr: 3 FGAN FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FÜR KOMMUNIKATION, INFORMATIONSVERARBEITUNG UND ERGONOMIE KIEKOMMUNIKATION IPSec in

  16. Economic Aspects of a Resource Discovery Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Leah; Oppenheim, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Explores economic aspects of a resource discovery network (RDN) in the United Kingdom consisting of a center and eight sub-based hubs using Ithink Analyst, a modeling software package. Results suggest that with a combination of sponsorship and subscription income a RDN could succeed without grant funding within 10 years of its launch. (Author/LRW)

  17. Networked Information Resources. SPEC Kit 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiler, Richard, Comp.; Plum, Terry, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This SPEC Kit, published six times per year, examines how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries have structured themselves to identify networked information resources in the market, to evaluate them for purchase, to make purchasing decisions, to publicize them, and to assess their continued utility. In the summer of 1999, the survey…

  18. Networked Information Resources. SPEC Kit 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiler, Richard, Comp.; Plum, Terry, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This SPEC Kit, published six times per year, examines how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries have structured themselves to identify networked information resources in the market, to evaluate them for purchase, to make purchasing decisions, to publicize them, and to assess their continued utility. In the summer of 1999, the survey…

  19. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  20. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  1. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  2. Improving resource utilization in hierarchy network by optimizing topological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. L.; Peng, H. P.; Li, L. X.; Sun, F.; Yang, Y. X.

    2012-02-01

    We study the performance of peer-to-peer (P2P) network built on the top of hierarchy topological structure of local area networks (LAN). We find that the topological structure of the underlying physical network has significant impacts on the resource utilization of the P2P overlay network. The larger size of the physical network is, the lower resource utilization of the overlay network is. Through optimizing the topological structure of physical network, we propose two novel schemes to improve the resource utilization. The experimental results show that in any case the resource utilization of P2P network can always achieve 100% by these two schemes.

  3. Ultra-high strength Mg-9Gd-4Y-0.5Zr alloy with bi-modal structure processed by traditional extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Shah, S. S. A.; Wu, D.; Chen, R. S.; Du, X. H.; Hu, N. T.; Zhang, Y. F.

    2016-11-01

    It is usual to observe that multi-scale structures can lead to combined strength and ductility both in aluminum alloys and steels, but related research has been seldom reported yet in magnesium alloys. In this study, applying traditional one step extrusion, we have successfully obtained a bimodal (Mg-9Gd-4Y-0.5Zr) alloy capable of ultra-high strength. The characterized sample reveal a bi-modal microstructure with two constitutions, i.e. stretched coarse-grain region with strong basal fiber texture and recrystallization fine-grain region. The bi-modal structured sample exhibit excellent mechanical properties with an ultimate strength 508 MPa and elongation 8% via 400 °C extrusion and subsequently 200 °C-60 h peak aging process. Ultra-high strength can be attributed to its strong extrusion texture in stretched coarse grains and dispersed nano-scale precipitates. This unique bimodal structure could be produced easily by one step extrusion, which is quite reliable and low costs in industrial applications of magnesium alloys with ultra-high strength as well as ideal ductility.

  4. Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D.; Shah, R. V.; Kerstman, E. L.; Reyes, D.; Mulcahy, R.; Antonsen, E.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the space medical system. Beyond the traditional limitations in mass, power, and volume, consideration must be given to other factors such as the inability to evacuate to Earth, communication delays, and limitations in clinical skillsets. As NASA develops the medical system for an exploration mission, it must have an ability to evaluate the trade space of what resources will be most important. The Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources (MONSTR) was developed over the past year for this reason, and is now a system for managing data pertaining to medical resources and their relative importance when addressing medical conditions. METHODS: The MONSTR web application with a Microsoft SQL database backend was developed and made accessible to Tableau v9.3 for analysis and visualization. The database was initially populated with a list of medical conditions of concern for an exploration mission taken from the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), a probabilistic model designed to quantify in-flight medical risk. A team of physicians working within the Exploration Medical Capability Element of NASA's Human Research Program compiled a list diagnostic and treatment medical resources required to address best- and worst-case scenarios of each medical condition using a terrestrial standard of care and entered this data into the system. This list included both tangible resources (e.g. medical equipment, medications) and intangible resources (e.g. clinical skills required to perform a procedure). The physician team then assigned criticality values to each instance of a resource, representing the importance of that resource to diagnosing or treating its associated condition(s). Medical condition probabilities of occurrence during a Mars mission were pulled from the IMM and imported into the MONSTR database for use within a resource criticality-weighting algorithm. DISCUSSION

  5. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  6. Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. V.; Mulcahy, R.; Rubin, D.; Antonsen, E. L.; Kerstman, E. L.; Reyes, D.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the space medical system such as the inability to evacuate to Earth, communication delays, and limitations in clinical skillsets. NASA recognizes the need to improve capabilities for autonomous care on such missions. As the medical system is developed, it is important to have an ability to evaluate the trade space of what resources will be most important. The Medical Optimization Network for Space Telemedicine Resources was developed for this reason, and is now a system to gauge the relative importance of medical resources in addressing medical conditions. METHODS: A list of medical conditions of potential concern for an exploration mission was referenced from the Integrated Medical Model, a probabilistic model designed to quantify in-flight medical risk. The diagnostic and treatment modalities required to address best and worst-case scenarios of each medical condition, at the terrestrial standard of care, were entered into a database. This list included tangible assets (e.g. medications) and intangible assets (e.g. clinical skills to perform a procedure). A team of physicians working within the Exploration Medical Capability Element of NASA's Human Research Program ranked each of the items listed according to its criticality. Data was then obtained from the IMM for the probability of occurrence of the medical conditions, including a breakdown of best case and worst case, during a Mars reference mission. The probability of occurrence information and criticality for each resource were taken into account during analytics performed using Tableau software. RESULTS: A database and weighting system to evaluate all the diagnostic and treatment modalities was created by combining the probability of condition occurrence data with the criticalities assigned by the physician team. DISCUSSION: Exploration Medical Capabilities research at NASA is focused on providing a medical system to

  7. Development and implementation of a PACS network and resource manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Taira, Ricky K.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III; Huang, H. K.

    1992-07-01

    Clinical acceptance of PACS is predicated upon maximum uptime. Upon component failure, detection, diagnosis, reconfiguration and repair must occur immediately. Our current PACS network is large, heterogeneous, complex and wide-spread geographically. The overwhelming number of network devices, computers and software processes involved in a departmental or inter-institutional PACS makes development of tools for network and resource management critical. The authors have developed and implemented a comprehensive solution (PACS Network-Resource Manager) using the OSI Network Management Framework with network element agents that respond to queries and commands for network management stations. Managed resources include: communication protocol layers for Ethernet, FDDI and UltraNet; network devices; computer and operating system resources; and application, database and network services. The Network-Resource Manager is currently being used for warning, fault, security violation and configuration modification event notification. Analysis, automation and control applications have been added so that PACS resources can be dynamically reconfigured and so that users are notified when active involvement is required. Custom data and error logging have been implemented that allow statistics for each PACS subsystem to be charted for performance data. The Network-Resource Manager allows our departmental PACS system to be monitored continuously and thoroughly, with a minimal amount of personal involvement and time.

  8. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  9. Investigating the Cosmological and Theoretical Implications of the Swift Discovery of Bi-modality in the UV-Optical Colors of Normal Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Peter

    Obtaining observations as a secondary science goal of the GRB mission Swift, the 30cm UVOT camera has discovered a bi-modality in NUV-optical emission from the normal type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) used as cosmological distance indicators. The bi-modality, with NUV-red (NUVR) and NUV-blue (NUVB) SNe, was apparent because UVOT has increased by two orders of magnitude the number of UV observations of this type of SN. As a follow-up to the UVOT discovery, this bi-modality has also been seen in the low-z, mid-z and high-z SN survey data obtained with HST, Keck, VLT and Gemini. The bi-modality was confirmed, but with a reversal of dominance from NUVR events in the local universe to NUVB at high-z. This means that the local SNeIa that train distance-determination routines differ from the far-away SNe Ia whose distances are estimated with the routines. Further, the group that dominates at high redshift is also slightly bluer in the optical wavelength range, meaning that extinction estimates are likely systematically low for the SNe Ia at cosmological distances. If the extinction estimates are truly under-estimated, the acceleration of the universe's expansion would be lower than currently thought leading to a lower amount of dark energy. The potential impacts of this discovery upon both SN cosmology and SN theory demand a concentrated effort to explore its full ramifications. This proposal seeks support both to dramatically increase the UVOT sample of NUVR and NUVB SNe beyond the sample in Milne et al. 2013 (from 23 to 150 SNe), and to enhance the sample with observations made in other wavelengths to better understand the differences in the SN emission,the explosion physics and explosion progenitors. For cosmology, we will determine the absolute magnitudes of the SNe in the UVOT sample, utilizing existing Cepheid or SBF distances for very nearby SNe, and utilizing Hubble Flow distances for slightly further SNe. Determining whether NUVR and NUVB SNe Ia differ in absolute

  10. South Dakota Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN)

    DOE Data Explorer

    WRAN is a network of instrument stations sited throughout South Dakota. As of 2010, there are eleven stations, and some have been collecting data since 2001. The purpose of the WRAN:

    There are several reasons why the WRAN was built. One of the most obvious is that it will allow verification of the existing resource assessments of our state. South Dakota has tremendous potential as an exporter of wind-generated electricity. There has recently been a great deal of publicity over a Pacific Northwest National Laboratories study conducted in the early 1990s that ranked the contiguous 48 states in terms of their potential to produce windpower. (Click here for the results of this study as given by the American Wind Energy Association.) South Dakota ranked fourth in that study. Also, more recently, detailed maps of the wind resource in South Dakota were produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Unfortunately, both of these studies had to rely heavily on computer-generated models and very sparse measured data, because very little appropriate measured data exists. The WRAN will provide valuable data that we anticipate will validate the NREL maps, and perhaps suggest minor adjustments.

    There are many other benefits the WRAN will provide. The data it will measure will be at heights above ground that are more appropriate for predicting the performance of large modern wind turbines, as opposed to data collected at National Weather Service stations whose anemometers are usually only about 9 m (30 feet) above ground. Also, we will collect some different types of data than most wind measurement networks, which will allow a series of important studies of the potential impact and value of South Dakota's windpower. In addition, all of the WRAN data will be made available to the public via this WWWeb site. This will hopefully enable extensive informed discussion among all South Dakotans on such important topics as rural economic development and

  11. Extended resource allocation index for link prediction of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuxin; Ji, Xinsheng; Liu, Caixia; Bai, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Recently, a number of similarity-based methods have been proposed to predict the missing links in complex network. Among these indices, the resource allocation index performs very well with lower time complexity. However, it ignores potential resources transferred by local paths between two endpoints. Motivated by the resource exchange taking places between endpoints, an extended resource allocation index is proposed. Empirical study on twelve real networks and three synthetic dynamic networks has shown that the index we proposed can achieve a good performance, compared with eight mainstream baselines.

  12. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  13. A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm for heterogenous network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yan; Huang, Zailu

    2007-11-01

    A utility oriented radio resource management algorithm is proposed for broadband nongeostationary satellite network which works in the heterogeneous network environment and provides access services for various customers on the ground. Based on the game theory, the problem for optimizing the network's performance is turned into the problem for maximizing the network's long term utility in the proposed algorithm. With evaluation to the traffic condition and dimensions of Qos for the network at the moment while the access service requirements changing, the influence of this service requirement to the long term utility of the satellite network is audited and then the resource assignment decision can be made according to the rule for maximizing the satellite network's long term utility. The process directed by game theory guaranteed both that the benefit of the network and the requirements of the customers could be considered synthetically. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Bi-modal imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: Automated method for co-registration between fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Bec, Julien; Ma, Dinglong; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Bishop, John W.; Qi, Jinyi; Marcu, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The risk of atherosclerosis plaque rupture cannot be assessed by the current imaging systems and thus new multi-modal technologies are under investigation. This includes combining a new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) technique, which is sensitive to plaque biochemical features, with conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which provides information on plaque morphology. In this study we present an automated method allowing for the co-registration of imaging data acquired based on these two techniques. Intraluminal studies were conducted in ex-vivo segments of human coronaries with a multimodal catheter integrating a commercial IVUS (40 MHz) and a rotational side-viewing fiber based multispectral FLIm system (355 nm excitation, 390+/-20, 452+/-22 and 542+/-25 nm acquisition wavelengths). The proposed method relies on the lumen/intima boundary extraction from the IVUS polar images. Image restoration is applied for the noise reduction and edge enhancement, while gray-scale peak tracing over the A-lines of the IVUS polar images is applied for the lumen boundary extraction. The detection of the guide-wire artifact is used for the angular registration between FLIm and IVUS data, after which the lifetime values can be mapped onto the segmented lumen/intima interface. The segmentation accuracy has been assessed against manual tracings, providing 0.120+/-0.054 mm mean Hausdorff distance. This method makes the bi-modal FLIm and IVUS approach feasible for comprehensive intravascular diagnostic by providing co-registered biochemical and morphological information about atherosclerotic plaques.

  15. Resource Optimization Scheme for Multimedia-Enabled Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md. Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. PMID:25111241

  16. Resource optimization scheme for multimedia-enabled wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-08-08

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment.

  17. A Case for Customizable Resource Management in Networks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    00C Ca~aegie ej=)n ’C= 4P -jý A Case for Customizable Resource Management in Networks Peter Steenkiste Allan Fisher Hui Zhang October 21, 1998 CMU-CS-98...167 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract We envision the deployment of an electronic services market ...that will deliver a wide range of electronic ser- vices over networks. This market will allow applications to combine resources at endpoints with

  18. Network resource and applications management at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Logg, C.A.; Cottrell, R.L.A.

    1996-02-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has a heterogeneous networked computing environment with a variety of transmission media, protocols, equipment from multiple vendors, Local Areas Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) connections, workstations, servers, legacy mainframes, operating systems, network services and applications, and users of various skill levels. New technologies are continually being deployed as they become available. All of these components work together (most of the time) but result in a complex distributed computing environment (henceforth referred to as the system) which requires automated monitoring and management for the maintenance of high quality performance with limited personnel and budgets. There is no Network Management Station (NMS) product which comes close to doing the job of monitoring and managing the LAN and WAN for SLAC. However, by making use of Ping, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and its Management Information Bases (MIBs), as well as network applications (trace-route, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs), Remote Shell (rsh), et.al.), an NMS (Netview for AIX), and the accounting and monitoring facilities provided by the server operating systems, the challenge is surmountable.

  19. Bayesian belief networks: applications in ecology and natural resource management.

    Treesearch

    R.K. McCann; B.G. Marcot; R. Ellis

    2006-01-01

    We review the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) in natural resource management and ecology. We suggest that BBNs are useful tools for representing expert knowledge of a system, evaluating potential effects of alternative management decisions, and communicating to nonexperts about resource decision issues. BBNs can be used effectively to represent uncertainty in...

  20. The voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ (CaV1.2) channel C-terminus fragment is a bi-modal vasodilator.

    PubMed

    Bannister, John P; Leo, Marie Dennis; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Nair, Anitha; Evanson, Kirk W; Pachuau, Judith; Gabrick, Kyle S; Boop, Frederick A; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2013-06-15

    Voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (CaV1.2) are the primary Ca(2+) entry pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (myocytes). CaV1.2 channels control systemic blood pressure and organ blood flow and are pathologically altered in vascular diseases, which modifies vessel contractility. The CaV1.2 distal C-terminus is susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, which yields a truncated CaV1.2 subunit and a cleaved C-terminal fragment (CCt). Previous studies in cardiac myocytes and neurons have identified CCt as both a transcription factor and CaV1.2 channel inhibitor, with different signalling mechanisms proposed to underlie some of these effects. CCt existence and physiological functions in arterial myocytes are unclear, but important to study given the functional significance of CaV1.2 channels. Here, we show that CCt exists in myocytes of both rat and human resistance-size cerebral arteries, where it locates to both the nucleus and plasma membrane. Recombinant CCt expression in arterial myocytes inhibited CaV1.2 transcription and reduced CaV1.2 protein. CCt induced a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of both CaV1.2 current activation and inactivation, and reduced non-inactivating current in myocytes. Recombinant truncated CCt lacking a putative nuclear localization sequence (92CCt) did not locate to the nucleus and had no effect on arterial CaV1.2 transcription or protein. However, 92CCt shifted the voltage dependence of CaV1.2 activation and inactivation similarly to CCt. CCt and 92CCt both inhibited pressure- and depolarization-induced vasoconstriction, although CCt was a far more effective vasodilator. These data demonstrate that endogenous CCt exists and reduces both CaV1.2 channel expression and voltage sensitivity in arterial myocytes. Thus, CCt is a bi-modal vasodilator.

  1. Research and application of knowledge resources network for product innovation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  2. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2009-03-01

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction.

  3. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method. PMID:25884031

  4. Living in a network of scaling cities and finite resources.

    PubMed

    Qubbaj, Murad R; Shutters, Shade T; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2015-02-01

    Many urban phenomena exhibit remarkable regularity in the form of nonlinear scaling behaviors, but their implications on a system of networked cities has never been investigated. Such knowledge is crucial for our ability to harness the complexity of urban processes to further sustainability science. In this paper, we develop a dynamical modeling framework that embeds population-resource dynamics-a generalized Lotka-Volterra system with modifications to incorporate the urban scaling behaviors-in complex networks in which cities may be linked to the resources of other cities and people may migrate in pursuit of higher welfare. We find that isolated cities (i.e., no migration) are susceptible to collapse if they do not have access to adequate resources. Links to other cities may help cities that would otherwise collapse due to insufficient resources. The effects of inter-city links, however, can vary due to the interplay between the nonlinear scaling behaviors and network structure. The long-term population level of a city is, in many settings, largely a function of the city's access to resources over which the city has little or no competition. Nonetheless, careful investigation of dynamics is required to gain mechanistic understanding of a particular city-resource network because cities and resources may collapse and the scaling behaviors may influence the effects of inter-city links, thereby distorting what topological metrics really measure.

  5. Ongoing Processes in a Fitness Network Model under Restricted Resources

    PubMed Central

    Niizato, Takayuki; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2015-01-01

    In real networks, the resources that make up the nodes and edges are finite. This constraint poses a serious problem for network modeling, namely, the compatibility between robustness and efficiency. However, these concepts are generally in conflict with each other. In this study, we propose a new fitness-driven network model for finite resources. In our model, each individual has its own fitness, which it tries to increase. The main assumption in fitness-driven networks is that incomplete estimation of fitness results in a dynamical growing network. By taking into account these internal dynamics, nodes and edges emerge as a result of exchanges between finite resources. We show that our network model exhibits exponential distributions in the in- and out-degree distributions and a power law distribution of edge weights. Furthermore, our network model resolves the trade-off relationship between robustness and efficiency. Our result suggests that growing and anti-growing networks are the result of resolving the trade-off problem itself. PMID:25985301

  6. A Network-Individual-Resource Model for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Blair T.; Redding, Colleen A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Mustanski, Brian S.; Dodge, Brian M.; Sheeran, Paschal; Warren, Michelle R.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Fisher, William A.; Conner, Mark T.; Carey, Michael P.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Stall, Ronald D.; Fishbein, Martin

    2014-01-01

    HIV is transmitted through dyadic exchanges of individuals linked in transitory or permanent networks of varying sizes. To optimize prevention efficacy, a complementary theoretical perspective that bridges key individual level elements with important network elements can be a foundation for developing and implementing HIV interventions with outcomes that are more sustainable over time and have greater dissemination potential. Toward that end, we introduce a Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) model for HIV prevention that recognizes how exchanges of resources between individuals and their networks underlies and sustains HIV-risk behaviors. Individual behavior change for HIV prevention, then, may be dependent on increasing the supportiveness of that individual's relevant networks for such change. Among other implications, an NIR model predicts that the success of prevention efforts depends on whether the prevention efforts (1) prompt behavior changes that can be sustained by the resources the individual or their networks possess; (2) meet individual and network needs and are consistent with the individual's current situation/developmental stage; (3) are trusted and valued; and (4) target high HIV-prevalence networks. PMID:20862606

  7. Resource Discovery within the Networked "Hybrid" Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Sally-Anne

    This paper focuses on the development, adoption, and integration of resource discovery, knowledge management, and/or knowledge sharing interfaces such as interactive portals, and the use of the library's World Wide Web presence to increase the availability and usability of information services. The introduction addresses changes in library…

  8. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Hybrid Access Femtocell Network

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2014-01-01

    Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA) for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP) owners' satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners' satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network. PMID:24782662

  9. Resource Contrained Network Design and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-03

    the creation and maintenance of a local area network (LAN). Computers are utilized for everything from electronic correspondence via e - mail , to...The actual program or service ( SMTP , SSH, POP3 , IMAP, MySQL, HTTP, DNS, etc) Transport Transmission Controlled Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram...Access Lists which can filter based upon source and destination IP addresses, port addresses, and even upper-layer protocols such as HTTP, POP3 , DNS, etc

  10. Social networks for mental health clients: resources and solution.

    PubMed

    Kogstad, Ragnfrid Eline; Mönness, Erik; Sörensen, Tom

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have illustrated the importance of social support and social networks for persons with mental health problems. Social networks may mean a reduced need for professional services, but also help to facilitate access to professional help. The interplay between social networks and professional services is complicated and invites further investigation. Compare aspects of clients' experiences with social networks to experiences with professional services and learn about the relationship between network resources and help from the public health service system. Quantitative analyses of a sample of 850 informants. Supportive networks exist for a majority of the informants and can also be a substitute for public/professional services in many respects. Regarding help to recover, social networks may offer qualities equal to those of professional services. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between trust in a social network and trust in public professional services. Trust in a social network also increases the probability of achieving positive experiences with professional services. Our finding simply that more network qualities should be included in professional services, and also that professionals should assist vulnerable groups in building networks.

  11. Space Network Control Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the Space Network Control (SNC) Conference. In the late 1990s, when the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is operational, Space Network communication services will be supported and controlled by the SNC. The goals of the conference were to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches, to identify solutions applicable to the Space Network, and to identify avenues of study in support of the SNC development. The conference was divided into three sessions: (1) Concepts for Space Network Allocation; (2) SNC and User Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) Human-Computer Interface Concepts; and (3) Resource Allocation Tools, Technology, and Algorithms. Key recommendations addressed approaches to achieving higher levels of automation in the scheduling process.

  12. Connecting our resources: Louisiana's approach to community health network development.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Marsha; Blackwell, Robyn; Caillouet, L Philip; Nichols, Kristy Holloway; Shipman, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Louisiana's rural community health systems are in crisis because of pressures fueled by the rising costs of health care, sustained poor health status, state budget shortfalls and changes in priorities, and a sliding rural economy. The development of community health networks is providing new infrastructure and capacity for communities to reprioritize, formulate innovative partnerships, and leverage new resources. Successful elements of Louisiana's network development experience include community commitment to engage in study and action; the availability of capable and motivated technical assistance; an approach that involves open-engagement, community-driven decision-making; and data-driven problem definition, prioritization, and solutions. Louisiana's experiences illustrate the benefits of developing networks along with, or as a result of, a community health plan. When a community owns its health improvement plan, it is more likely to support the new network as a structure for implementation. Broad-scale participation is also a principle of success. When social service agencies are included along with health agencies, more comprehensive strategies result, and they bring additional resources, resulting in more holistic solutions. The cases of 2 networks are presented as illustrations. One involves the facilitation of a community planning process for an existing network. The plan helped to expand the network's community connections and support and provided the content for a successful application for a Health Resources and Services Administration Community Access Program grant. In the second case, a new network was developed, and it leveraged federal funds from the federal Office of Rural Health Policy's Network Development Grant Program.

  13. Deep space network resource scheduling approach and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggemeyer, William C.; Bowling, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) resource scheduling is the process of distributing ground-based facilities to track multiple spacecraft. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has carried out extensive research to find ways of automating this process in an effort to reduce time and manpower costs. This paper presents a resource-scheduling system entitled PLAN-IT with a description of its design philosophy. The PLAN-IT's current on-line usage and limitations in scheduling the resources of the DSN are discussed, along with potential enhancements for DSN application.

  14. Resource redistribution in polydomous ant nest networks: local or global?

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Daniel W.; Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2014-01-01

    An important problem facing organisms in a heterogeneous environment is how to redistribute resources to where they are required. This is particularly complex in social insect societies as resources have to be moved both from the environment into the nest and between individuals within the nest. Polydomous ant colonies are split between multiple spatially separated, but socially connected, nests. Whether, and how, resources are redistributed between nests in polydomous colonies is unknown. We analyzed the nest networks of the facultatively polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris. Our results indicate that resource redistribution in polydomous F. lugubris colonies is organized at the local level between neighboring nests and not at the colony level. We found that internest trails connecting nests that differed more in their amount of foraging were stronger than trails between nests with more equal foraging activity. This indicates that resources are being exchanged directly from nests with a foraging excess to nests that require resources. In contrast, we found no significant relationships between nest properties, such as size and amount of foraging, and network measures such as centrality and connectedness. This indicates an absence of a colony-level resource exchange. This is a clear example of a complex behavior emerging as a result of local interactions between parts of a system. PMID:25214755

  15. Pricing resources in LTE networks through multiobjective optimization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid "user churn," which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  16. Resource Management in QoS-Aware Wireless Cellular Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Emerging broadband wireless networks that support high speed packet data with heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) requirements demand more flexible and efficient use of the scarce spectral resource. Opportunistic scheduling exploits the time-varying, location-dependent channel conditions to achieve multiuser diversity. In this work, we study…

  17. The CREATE Network (Computer Resource Educational Access in Tennessee Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Fletcher F.

    The CREATE Network (Computer Resource Educational Access in Tennessee Education) brought together library professionals from Tennessee's seven historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) for purposes of training and implementation of library applications of computer-based information technology. Annual training seminars were held at…

  18. Resource Management in QoS-Aware Wireless Cellular Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Emerging broadband wireless networks that support high speed packet data with heterogeneous quality of service (QoS) requirements demand more flexible and efficient use of the scarce spectral resource. Opportunistic scheduling exploits the time-varying, location-dependent channel conditions to achieve multiuser diversity. In this work, we study…

  19. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-09-15

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis.

  20. Butterfly Encryption Scheme for Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sampangi, Raghav V.; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Resource-constrained wireless networks are emerging networks such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) that might have restrictions on the available resources and the computations that can be performed. These emerging technologies are increasing in popularity, particularly in defence, anti-counterfeiting, logistics and medical applications, and in consumer applications with growing popularity of the Internet of Things. With communication over wireless channels, it is essential to focus attention on securing data. In this paper, we present an encryption scheme called Butterfly encryption scheme. We first discuss a seed update mechanism for pseudorandom number generators (PRNG), and employ this technique to generate keys and authentication parameters for resource-constrained wireless networks. Our scheme is lightweight, as in it requires less resource when implemented and offers high security through increased unpredictability, owing to continuously changing parameters. Our work focuses on accomplishing high security through simplicity and reuse. We evaluate our encryption scheme using simulation, key similarity assessment, key sequence randomness assessment, protocol analysis and security analysis. PMID:26389899

  1. Improving land resource evaluation using fuzzy neural network ensembles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xue, Yue-Ju; HU, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-G.; YANG, J.-F.; CHEN, Q.-C.; BAO, S.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Land evaluation factors often contain continuous-, discrete- and nominal-valued attributes. In traditional land evaluation, these different attributes are usually graded into categorical indexes by land resource experts, and the evaluation results rely heavily on experts' experiences. In order to overcome the shortcoming, we presented a fuzzy neural network ensemble method that did not require grading the evaluation factors into categorical indexes and could evaluate land resources by using the three kinds of attribute values directly. A fuzzy back propagation neural network (BPNN), a fuzzy radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), a fuzzy BPNN ensemble, and a fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were used to evaluate the land resources in Guangdong Province. The evaluation results by using the fuzzy BPNN ensemble and the fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were much better than those by using the single fuzzy BPNN and the single fuzzy RBFNN, and the error rate of the single fuzzy RBFNN or fuzzy RBFNN ensemble was lower than that of the single fuzzy BPNN or fuzzy BPNN ensemble, respectively. By using the fuzzy neural network ensembles, the validity of land resource evaluation was improved and reliance on land evaluators' experiences was considerably reduced. ?? 2007 Soil Science Society of China.

  2. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  3. An open repositories network development for medical teaching resources.

    PubMed

    Soula, Gérard; Darmoni, Stefan; Le Beux, Pierre; Renard, Jean-Marie; Dahamna, Badisse; Fieschi, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The lack of interoperability between repositories of heterogeneous and geographically widespread data is an obstacle to the diffusion, sharing and reutilization of those data. We present the development of an open repositories network taking into account both the syntactic and semantic interoperability of the different repositories and based on international standards in this field. The network is used by the medical community in France for the diffusion and sharing of digital teaching resources. The syntactic interoperability of the repositories is managed using the OAI-PMH protocol for the exchange of metadata describing the resources. Semantic interoperability is based, on one hand, on the LOM standard for the description of resources and on MESH for the indexing of the latter and, on the other hand, on semantic interoperability management designed to optimize compliance with standards and the quality of the metadata.

  4. Fair sharing of resources in a supply network with constraints.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Just, Wolfram; Helbing, Dirk; Arrowsmith, David K

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of network topology on the fair allocation of network resources among a set of agents, an all-important issue for the efficiency of transportation networks all around us. We analyze a generic mechanism that distributes network capacity fairly among existing flow demands. The problem can be solved by semianalytical methods on a nearest-neighbor graph with one source and sink pair, when transport occurs over shortest paths. For this setup, we uncover a broad range of patterns of intersecting shortest paths as a function of the distance between the source and the sink. When the number of intersections is the maximum and the distance between the source and the sink is large, we find that a fair allocation implies a decrease of at least 50% from the maximum throughput. We also find that the histogram of the flow allocations assigned to the agents decays as a power law with exponent -1. Our semianalytical framework suggests possible explanations for the well-known reduction of the throughput in fair allocations. It also suggests that the combination of network topology and routing rules can lead to highly uneven (but fair) distributions of resources, a remark of caution to network designers.

  5. Intent-based resource deployment in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Sullivan, Paul; Grueneberg, Keith; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Information derived from sensor networks plays a crucial role in the success of many critical tasks such as surveillance, and border monitoring. In order to derive the correct information at the right time, sensor data must be captured at desired locations with respect to the operational tasks in concern. Therefore, it is important that at the planning stage of a mission, sensing resources are best placed in the field to capture the required data. For example, consider a mission goal identify snipers, in an operational area before troops are deployed - two acoustic arrays and a day-night video camera are needed to successfully achieve this goal. This is because, if the resources are placed in correct locations, two acoustic arrays could provide direction of the shooter and a possible location by triangulating acoustic data whereas the day-night camera could produce an affirmative image of the perpetrators. In order to deploy the sensing resources intelligently to support the user decisions, in this paper we propose a Semantic Web based knowledge layer to identify the required resources in a sensor network and deploy the needed resources through a sensor infrastructure. The knowledge layer captures crucial information such as resources configurations, their intended use (e.g., two acoustic arrays deployed in a particular formation with day-night camera are needed to identify perpetrators in a possible sniper attack). The underlying sensor infrastructure will assists the process by exposing the information about deployed resources, resources in theatre, and location information about tasks, resources and so on.

  6. Scheduled Controller Design of Congestion Control Considering Network Resource Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Takehito; Fujita, Masayuki

    In this paper, we consider a dynamical model of computer networks and derive a synthesis method for congestion control. First, we show a model of TCP/AQM (Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) as a dynamical model of computer networks. The dynamical model of TCP/AQM networks consists of models of TCP window size, queue length and AQM mechanisms. Second, we propose to describe the dynamical model of TCP/AQM networks as linear systems with self-scheduling parameters, which also depend on information delay. Here we focus on the constraints on the maximum queue length and TCP window-size, which are the network resources in TCP/AQM networks. We derive TCP/AQM networks as the LPV system (linear parameter varying system) with information delay and self-scheduling parameter. We design a memoryless state feedback controller of the LPV system based on a gain-scheduling method. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by using MATLAB and the well-known ns-2 (Network Simulator Ver.2) simulator.

  7. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  8. Reinforcement learning techniques for controlling resources in power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowli, Anupama Sunil

    As power grids transition towards increased reliance on renewable generation, energy storage and demand response resources, an effective control architecture is required to harness the full functionalities of these resources. There is a critical need for control techniques that recognize the unique characteristics of the different resources and exploit the flexibility afforded by them to provide ancillary services to the grid. The work presented in this dissertation addresses these needs. Specifically, new algorithms are proposed, which allow control synthesis in settings wherein the precise distribution of the uncertainty and its temporal statistics are not known. These algorithms are based on recent developments in Markov decision theory, approximate dynamic programming and reinforcement learning. They impose minimal assumptions on the system model and allow the control to be "learned" based on the actual dynamics of the system. Furthermore, they can accommodate complex constraints such as capacity and ramping limits on generation resources, state-of-charge constraints on storage resources, comfort-related limitations on demand response resources and power flow limits on transmission lines. Numerical studies demonstrating applications of these algorithms to practical control problems in power systems are discussed. Results demonstrate how the proposed control algorithms can be used to improve the performance and reduce the computational complexity of the economic dispatch mechanism in a power network. We argue that the proposed algorithms are eminently suitable to develop operational decision-making tools for large power grids with many resources and many sources of uncertainty.

  9. Resource constrained design of artificial neural networks using comparator neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Karnik, Tanay S.

    1992-01-01

    We present a systematic design method executed under resource constraints for automating the design of artificial neural networks using the back error propagation algorithm. Our system aims at finding the best possible configuration for solving the given application with proper tradeoff between the training time and the network complexity. The design of such a system is hampered by three related problems. First, there are infinitely many possible network configurations, each may take an exceedingly long time to train; hence, it is impossible to enumerate and train all of them to completion within fixed time, space, and resource constraints. Second, expert knowledge on predicting good network configurations is heuristic in nature and is application dependent, rendering it difficult to characterize fully in the design process. A learning procedure that refines this knowledge based on examples on training neural networks for various applications is, therefore, essential. Third, the objective of the network to be designed is ill-defined, as it is based on a subjective tradeoff between the training time and the network cost. A design process that proposes alternate configurations under different cost-performance tradeoff is important. We have developed a Design System which schedules the available time, divided into quanta, for testing alternative network configurations. Its goal is to select/generate and test alternative network configurations in each quantum, and find the best network when time is expended. Since time is limited, a dynamic schedule that determines the network configuration to be tested in each quantum is developed. The schedule is based on relative comparison of predicted training times of alternative network configurations using comparator network paradigm. The comparator network has been trained to compare training times for a large variety of traces of TSSE-versus-time collected during back-propagation learning of various applications.

  10. Packet discarding inside a SIMA network: a waste of network resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkki, Kalevi; Strandberg, Ove; Ruutu, Jussi P. O.

    1998-12-01

    Simple Integrated Media Access (SIMA) is a network service based on drop preference bits in every packet. A key characteristic of SIMA is that the packet discarding decision are made locally without any knowledge about the load condition in other parts of the network. A possible problem of SIMA is that some packets could be lost in the last node after they have gone through the whole network. This seems to be a waste of network resource,s as some other packets could be transmitted in the network instead of the packets discarded in the last node. The question addressed in the paper is how much a network may profit by using perfect information about the network load condition in a way that the goodput in maximized by discarding packets only in the first node. A network with 5 nodes has been evaluated with a large number of different load conditions. The results show that the average benefit is less than 2 percent of the network capacity if the overall packet loss ratio is at most 20 percent. Only if the average packet los ratio is very high, could the benefit be significant.

  11. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  12. Resource allocation in circuit-switched all-optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Douglas; Barry, Richard A.; Finn, Steven G.; Parikh, Salil A.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston area, and research surrounding the allocation of optical resources -- frequencies and time slots -- within the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes tea support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Of particular interest for this work is the 'B-service,' which simultaneously hops frequency and time slots on each optical terminal to allow frequency sharing within the AON. B-service provides 1.244 Gbps per optical terminal, with bandwidth for individual connections divided in increments as small as 10 Mbps. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. The packet switches provide FDDI (datacomm), T3 (telecomm), and ATM/SONET switching at backplane rates of over 3 Gbps. We show results on network applications that dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users. Bandwidth allocation granularity is proportional to B-Service slots (10-1244 Mbps), and switching times are on the order of one second. We have also studied the effects of wavelength changers upon the network capacity and blocking probabilities in wide area all-optical networks. Wavelength changers allow a change in the carrier frequency (within the network) without disturbing the data modulation. The study includes both a theoretical model of blocking probabilities based on network design parameters, and a computer simulation of blocking in networks with and

  13. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.

  14. Social networks and community-based natural resource management.

    PubMed

    Lauber, T Bruce; Decker, Daniel J; Knuth, Barbara A

    2008-10-01

    We conducted case studies of three successful examples of collaborative, community-based natural resource conservation and development. Our purpose was to: (1) identify the functions served by interactions within the social networks of involved stakeholders; (2) describe key structural properties of these social networks; and (3) determine how these structural properties varied when the networks were serving different functions. The case studies relied on semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 8 to 11 key stakeholders at each site who had played a significant role in the collaborative projects. Interview questions focused on the roles played by key stakeholders and the functions of interactions between them. Interactions allowed the exchange of ideas, provided access to funding, and enabled some stakeholders to influence others. The exchange of ideas involved the largest number of stakeholders, the highest percentage of local stakeholders, and the highest density of interactions. Our findings demonstrated the value of tailoring strategies for involving stakeholders to meet different needs during a collaborative, community-based natural resource management project. Widespread involvement of local stakeholders may be most appropriate when ideas for a project are being developed. During efforts to exert influence to secure project approvals or funding, however, involving specific individuals with political connections or influence on possible sources of funds may be critical. Our findings are consistent with past work that has postulated that social networks may require specific characteristics to meet different needs in community-based environmental management.

  15. Social Networks and Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, T. Bruce; Decker, Daniel J.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2008-10-01

    We conducted case studies of three successful examples of collaborative, community-based natural resource conservation and development. Our purpose was to: (1) identify the functions served by interactions within the social networks of involved stakeholders; (2) describe key structural properties of these social networks; and (3) determine how these structural properties varied when the networks were serving different functions. The case studies relied on semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 8 to 11 key stakeholders at each site who had played a significant role in the collaborative projects. Interview questions focused on the roles played by key stakeholders and the functions of interactions between them. Interactions allowed the exchange of ideas, provided access to funding, and enabled some stakeholders to influence others. The exchange of ideas involved the largest number of stakeholders, the highest percentage of local stakeholders, and the highest density of interactions. Our findings demonstrated the value of tailoring strategies for involving stakeholders to meet different needs during a collaborative, community-based natural resource management project. Widespread involvement of local stakeholders may be most appropriate when ideas for a project are being developed. During efforts to exert influence to secure project approvals or funding, however, involving specific individuals with political connections or influence on possible sources of funds may be critical. Our findings are consistent with past work that has postulated that social networks may require specific characteristics to meet different needs in community-based environmental management.

  16. 77 FR 33229 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; National Resource Network.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: National Resource Network. OMB... Resource Network. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2012 (Pub. L...

  17. Wireless Visual Sensor Network Resource Allocation using Cross-Layer Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    channel coding. 2. RESOURCE ALLOCATION USING CROSS - LAYER OPTIMIZATION This work considers a wireless visual sensor network that...SUBJECT TERMS Cross - layer , visual sensor network , Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), resource allocation, H.265, spread spectrum, joint source- channel ...DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2008 – August 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE WIRELESS VISUAL SENSOR NETWORK RESOURCE ALLOCATION USING CROSS -

  18. The Nature and Implications of a Resource Network as a Support System for Linking Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisinger, Carol

    A resource network can serve as a strategy for personnel-multiplying by performing many activities and functions that the linking agent would otherwise have to perform; e.g., such a network can provide an organized method for identifying and collecting resources, as well surveying the kinds of resources available. The Illinois Resource and…

  19. Effect of resource constraints on intersimilar coupled networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shai, S.; Dobson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Most real-world networks do not live in isolation but are often coupled together within a larger system. Recent studies have shown that intersimilarity between coupled networks increases the connectivity of the overall system. However, unlike connected nodes in a single network, coupled nodes often share resources, like time, energy, and memory, which can impede flow processes through contention when intersimilarly coupled. We study a model of a constrained susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) process on a system consisting of two random networks sharing the same set of nodes, where nodes are limited to interact with (and therefore infect) a maximum number of neighbors at each epidemic time step. We obtain that, in agreement with previous studies, when no limit exists (regular SIR model), positively correlated (intersimilar) coupling results in a lower epidemic threshold than negatively correlated (interdissimilar) coupling. However, in the case of the constrained SIR model, the obtained epidemic threshold is lower with negatively correlated coupling. The latter finding differentiates our work from previous studies and provides another step towards revealing the qualitative differences between single and coupled networks.

  20. Dynamic optical resource allocation for mobile core networks with software defined elastic optical networking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xinbo

    2016-07-25

    Driven by the forthcoming of 5G mobile communications, the all-IP architecture of mobile core networks, i.e. evolved packet core (EPC) proposed by 3GPP, has been greatly challenged by the users' demands for higher data rate and more reliable end-to-end connection, as well as operators' demands for low operational cost. These challenges can be potentially met by software defined optical networking (SDON), which enables dynamic resource allocation according to the users' requirement. In this article, a novel network architecture for mobile core network is proposed based on SDON. A software defined network (SDN) controller is designed to realize the coordinated control over different entities in EPC networks. We analyze the requirement of EPC-lightpath (EPCL) in data plane and propose an optical switch load balancing (OSLB) algorithm for resource allocation in optical layer. The procedure of establishment and adjustment of EPCLs is demonstrated on a SDON-based EPC testbed with extended OpenFlow protocol. We also evaluate the OSLB algorithm through simulation in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, traffic load distribution, and resource utilization ratio compared with link-based load balancing (LLB) and MinHops algorithms.

  1. Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  2. HUBNET: Wide Area Network utilization of Local Area Network medical reference and communication resources.

    PubMed Central

    Loonsk, J. W.; Schweigel, J. E.; Carr, D.

    1994-01-01

    The State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and its associated teaching sites have developed and partially implemented a regional Wide Area Network (WAN) in Buffalo and Western New York. The school wishes to use this WAN to deliver reference and communication resources to students, residents and faculty. The richest pool of easy to use reference and communication resources are PC software programs that are intended for individual workstations or at best, client-server, Local Area Network (LAN) implementation. HUBNET (Hospitals and University at Buffalo Library Resource Network), a project of the School of Medicine and the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo offers integrated presentation of many such LAN resources over this regional WAN. The system crosses many institutional boundaries and reaches physically remote sites in a complex mix of information systems environments with few issues related to performance. The system design provides a level of ease of use that has brought many new users into active computer use while addressing integration into diverse information systems settings and networking environments. PMID:7949959

  3. Distributed communications resource management for tracking and surveillance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Edwin K. P.; Brewington, Brian

    2005-09-01

    We present a market-like method for distributed communications resource management in the context of networked tracking and surveillance systems. This method divides communication resources according to the expected utility provided by information of particular types. By formulating the problem as an optimization of the joint utility of information flow rates, the dual of the problem can be understood to provide a price for particular routes. Distributed rate control can be accomplished using primal-dual iteration in combination with communication of these route prices. We extend the previous work on the subject in a few important ways. First, we consider utility functions that are jointly-dependent on flow rates, to properly account for geometric synergy that can occur in sensor fusion problems. Second, we do not require that the rate-update algorithms have explicit knowledge of utility functions. Instead, our update algorithms involve transmitting marginal utility values. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

  4. Integrating In Silico Resources to Map a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanqing; Beck, Tim N.; Golemis, Erica A.; Serebriiskii, Ilya G.

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of publicly available life science databases offer a wealth of information that can support interpretation of experimentally derived data and greatly enhance hypothesis generation. Protein interaction and functional networks are not simply new renditions of existing data: they provide the opportunity to gain insights into the specific physical and functional role a protein plays as part of the biological system. In this chapter, we describe different in silico tools that can quickly and conveniently retrieve data from existing data repositories and discuss how the available tools are best utilized for different purposes. While emphasizing protein-protein interaction databases (e.g., BioGrid and IntAct), we also introduce metasearch platforms such as STRING and GeneMANIA, pathway databases (e.g., BioCarta and Pathway Commons), text mining approaches (e.g., PubMed and Chilibot), and resources for drug-protein interactions, genetic information for model organisms and gene expression information based on microarray data mining. Furthermore, we provide a simple step-by-step protocol to building customized protein-protein interaction networks in Cytoscape, a powerful network assembly and visualization program, integrating data retrieved from these various databases. As we illustrate, generation of composite interaction networks enables investigators to extract significantly more information about a given biological system than utilization of a single database or sole reliance on primary literature. PMID:24233784

  5. Autonomous self-organizing resource manager for multiple networked platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III

    2002-08-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system for resource management has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar autonomous naval platforms defending their group against attackers. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper provides an overview of the resource manager including the four fuzzy decision trees that make up the resource manager; the fuzzy EA model; genetic algorithm based optimization; co-evolutionary data mining through gaming; and mathematical, computational and hardware based validation. Methods of automatically designing new multi-platform EA techniques are considered. The expert system runs on each defending platform rendering it an autonomous system requiring no human intervention. There is no commanding platform. Instead the platforms work cooperatively as a function of battlespace geometry; sensor data such as range, bearing, ID, uncertainty measures for sensor output; intelligence reports; etc. Computational experiments will show the defending networked platform's ability to self- organize. The platforms' ability to self-organize is illustrated through the output of the scenario generator, a software package that automates the underlying data mining problem and creates a computer movie of the platforms' interaction for evaluation.

  6. Iterative resource allocation for ranking spreaders in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Zeng, An; Chen, Duan-Bing; Liao, Hao; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Ranking the spreading influence of nodes in networks is a very important issue with wide applications in many different fields. Various topology-based centrality measures have been proposed to identify influential spreaders. However, the spreading influence of a node is usually not only determined by its own centrality but also largely influenced by the centrality of neighbors. To incorporate the centrality information of neighbors in ranking spreaders, we design an iterative resource allocation (IRA) process in which the resource of nodes distributes to their neighbors according to neighbors' centrality. After iterations, the resource amount on each node will be stable and the final resources of nodes are used to rank their spreading influence. The iterative process can be applied to many traditional centrality measures including degree, K-shell, closeness, and betweenness. The validation of our method is based on the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) spreading in four representative real datasets. The results show that the ranking accuracy of the traditional centrality measures is remarkably enhanced by IRA.

  7. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  8. Maintaining Vegetarian Diets Personal Factors, Social Networks and Environmental Resources.

    PubMed

    Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M.; Sobal, Jeffery

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate factors influencing the maintenance of a vegetarian diet. An interpretivist approach and qualitative research methods were used in the study design. Nineteen vegetarians from a metropolitan area in Western New York State were purposefully recruited using snowball sampling to participate in in-depth interviews. Respondents varied in age, gender and type and duration of vegetarian diet, although the sample was predominantly middle-aged, middle-class and female and had ties to community groups. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. The maintenance of vegetarian diets was supported by personal factors, social networks and environmental resources. Personal factors included: internal beliefs, skills and habits and physical feedback. Social networks included: organized vegetarian groups as well as animal rights, environmental, or health groups supporting vegetarianism and vegetarian friends. Environmental resources, such as the availability of new vegetarian foods in supermarkets and restaurants, facilitated maintenance of vegetarian diets. Respondents perceived that society viewed vegetarianism as increasingly "mainstream," although diet-centred family conflicts were still common. These findings can assist dietitians in developing strategies for working with vegetarian clients by providing better understanding of personal, social and environmental supports for vegetarians' dietary behaviours.

  9. Networking Cyberinfrastructure Resources to Support Global, Cross-disciplinary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Ramamurthy, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    Geosciences are globally connected by nature and the grand challenge problems like climate change, ocean circulations, seasonal predictions, impact of volcanic eruptions, etc. all transcend both disciplinary and geographic boundaries, requiring cross-disciplinary and international partnerships. Cross-disciplinary and international collaborations are also needed to unleash the power of cyber- (or e-) infrastructure (CI) by networking globally distributed, multi-disciplinary data, software, and computing resources to accelerate new scientific insights and discoveries. While the promises of a global and cross-disciplinary CI are exhilarating and real, a range of technical, organizational, and social challenges needs to be overcome in order to achieve alignment and linking of operational data systems, software tools, and computing facilities. New modes of collaboration require agreement on and governance of technical standards and best practices, and funding for necessary modifications. This presentation will contribute the perspective of domain-specific data facilities to the discussion of cross-disciplinary and international collaboration in CI development and deployment, in particular those of IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance) serving the solid Earth sciences and Unidata serving atmospheric sciences. Both facilities are closely involved with the US NSF EarthCube program that aims to network and augment existing Geoscience CI capabilities "to make disciplinary boundaries permeable, nurture and facilitate knowledge sharing, …, and enhance collaborative pursuit of cross-disciplinary research" (EarthCube Strategic Vision), while also collaborating internationally to network domain-specific and cross-disciplinary CI resources. These collaborations are driven by the substantial benefits to the science community, but create challenges, when operational and funding constraints need to be balanced with adjustments to new joint data curation practices and

  10. Software for Allocating Resources in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester; Zendejas, Silvino; Baldwin, John

    2003-01-01

    TIGRAS 2.0 is a computer program designed to satisfy a need for improved means for analyzing the tracking demands of interplanetary space-flight missions upon the set of ground antenna resources of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and for allocating those resources. Written in Microsoft Visual C++, TIGRAS 2.0 provides a single rich graphical analysis environment for use by diverse DSN personnel, by connecting to various data sources (relational databases or files) based on the stages of the analyses being performed. Notable among the algorithms implemented by TIGRAS 2.0 are a DSN antenna-load-forecasting algorithm and a conflict-aware DSN schedule-generating algorithm. Computers running TIGRAS 2.0 can also be connected using SOAP/XML to a Web services server that provides analysis services via the World Wide Web. TIGRAS 2.0 supports multiple windows and multiple panes in each window for users to view and use information, all in the same environment, to eliminate repeated switching among various application programs and Web pages. TIGRAS 2.0 enables the use of multiple windows for various requirements, trajectory-based time intervals during which spacecraft are viewable, ground resources, forecasts, and schedules. Each window includes a time navigation pane, a selection pane, a graphical display pane, a list pane, and a statistics pane.

  11. A peer-to-peer resource scheduling approach for photonic grid network based on OBGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Runze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we present a resource scheduling mechanism for providing dynamic lightpaths to photonic grid network and point out that grid enabled by optical network has huge potential effect on pushing the next optical network applications. Furthermore we investigate photonic grid architecture and control plane based on peer-to-peer is also provided to control optical network communication resources dynamically. We also certificate the idea of extending BGP towards optical network, which is called Optical Border Gateway Protocol used to provide IP-based protocols to control optical network, and gives a dynamic lightpath scheduling approach over multi-wavelength optical network as a new grid service based on OBGP.

  12. Network Resources and Training Site at Elizabeth City State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Linda Bailey

    1996-01-01

    The format of the annual report follows the same format as the quarterly report. In the annual report Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) has included responses to the items listed in the 'Critique of Quarterly Report Summary, and the 'Technical Recommendations for Consideration to NRTS/ECSU'. A budget for FY96-97 is included requesting $500,000.00 to cover the operating expenses of the Network Resources Training Site (NRTS) and its current partners as outlined in the original grant. The final attachment is a proposal to expand the partnerships and services of the NRTS at ECSU. This proposal would increase the number of predominantly minority attended secondary schools that this NRTS services and to support participation of these secondary schools in the GLOBE, ATLAS and Skymath projects. The proposal would also make Bennett College a full partner in the NRTS and it would increase the networking funds available to Virginia State University (HBCU/MI partner). Funds to increase the NRTS staff size to support the new partners and extended services is included in the extension budget. The NRTS Office Staff provides training and technical expertise to all its partners. In the appendix of the report, you will find technical soundness questionnaires and campus LAN Diagrams for the HBCU/MI Partners.

  13. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  14. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  15. 76 FR 12983 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Tenant Resource Network Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Tenant Resource Network... information: Title of Proposal: Tenant Resource Network Program. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-new...

  16. 76 FR 39417 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Tenant Resource Network Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Tenant Resource Network... following information: Title of Proposal: Tenant Resource Network Program. OMB Approval Number: 2502-Pending...

  17. The construction of multimedia teaching resource base based on campus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Multimedia teaching is the important embodiment of modern education, is an important approach to improve the quality of teaching. In the current environment, campus network construction and application of multimedia teaching resource must be combined with school practice, explore the resources integration of multimedia technology in the campus network environment, in order to realize the long-term development of higher education.

  18. Ohio Resource Network: Mobilizing Colleges and Universities to Benefit Business & Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    The Ohio Resource Network's potential usefulness to Ohio's businesses and industries are discussed. The network provides Ohio executives and managers the resources of 62 state-assisted colleges and universities. Faculty can assist business/industry in five types of applications: using the latest technology, increasing productivity, financial…

  19. Creating a specialist protein resource network: a meeting report for the protein bioinformatics and community resources retreat

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Patricia C.; Bagos, Pantelis G.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Chen, Mark Jinan; Craik, David J.; Finn, Robert D.; Gloriam, David; Haft, Daniel H.; Henrissat, Bernard; Holliday, Gemma L.; Isberg, Vignir; Kaas, Quentin; Landsman, David; Lenfant, Nicolas; Manning, Gerard; Nagano, Nozomi; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; O’Donovan, Claire; Pruitt, Kim D.; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Rawlings, Neil D.; Saier, Milton H.; Sharman, Joanna L.; Spedding, Michael; Tsirigos, Konstantinos D.; Vastermark, Ake; Vriend, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    During 11–12 August 2014, a Protein Bioinformatics and Community Resources Retreat was held at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus in Hinxton, UK. This meeting brought together the principal investigators of several specialized protein resources (such as CAZy, TCDB and MEROPS) as well as those from protein databases from the large Bioinformatics centres (including UniProt and RefSeq). The retreat was divided into five sessions: (1) key challenges, (2) the databases represented, (3) best practices for maintenance and curation, (4) information flow to and from large data centers and (5) communication and funding. An important outcome of this meeting was the creation of a Specialist Protein Resource Network that we believe will improve coordination of the activities of its member resources. We invite further protein database resources to join the network and continue the dialogue. PMID:26284514

  20. Creating a specialist protein resource network: a meeting report for the protein bioinformatics and community resources retreat.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Patricia C; Bagos, Pantelis G; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Chatonnet, Arnaud; Chen, Mark Jinan; Craik, David J; Finn, Robert D; Gloriam, David; Haft, Daniel H; Henrissat, Bernard; Holliday, Gemma L; Isberg, Vignir; Kaas, Quentin; Landsman, David; Lenfant, Nicolas; Manning, Gerard; Nagano, Nozomi; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; O'Donovan, Claire; Pruitt, Kim D; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Rawlings, Neil D; Saier, Milton H; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Tsirigos, Konstantinos D; Vastermark, Ake; Vriend, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    During 11-12 August 2014, a Protein Bioinformatics and Community Resources Retreat was held at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus in Hinxton, UK. This meeting brought together the principal investigators of several specialized protein resources (such as CAZy, TCDB and MEROPS) as well as those from protein databases from the large Bioinformatics centres (including UniProt and RefSeq). The retreat was divided into five sessions: (1) key challenges, (2) the databases represented, (3) best practices for maintenance and curation, (4) information flow to and from large data centers and (5) communication and funding. An important outcome of this meeting was the creation of a Specialist Protein Resource Network that we believe will improve coordination of the activities of its member resources. We invite further protein database resources to join the network and continue the dialogue.

  1. From struggles to resource gains in interprofessional service networks: Key findings from a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Kira, Mari

    2017-07-01

    In interprofessional service networks, employees cross professional boundaries to collaborate with colleagues and clients with expertise and values different from their own. It can be a struggle to adopt shared work practices and deal with "multivoicedness." At the same time, networks allow members to engage in meaningful service provision, gain a broader understanding of the service provided, and obtain social support. Intertwined network struggles and resource gains have received limited attention in the interprofessional care literature to date. The aim of the study was to investigate the learning potential of the co-existing struggles and resource gains. This article reports findings from two interprofessional networks. Interviews were conducted with 19 employees and thematically analysed. Three types of struggles and six types of resource gains of networking were identified. The struggles relate, first, to the assumptions of networking following similar practices to those in a home organisation; second, to the challenges of dealing with the multivoicedness of networking; and, third, to the experienced gap between the networking ideals and the reality of cooperation. At the same time, the network members experience gains in emotional resources (e.g., stronger sense of meaningfulness at work), cognitive resources (e.g., understanding the customer needs from alternative perspectives), and social resources (e.g., being able to rely on other professionals' competence). Learning potential emerged from the dynamics between coexisting struggles and resource gains.

  2. Nucleation and crystal growth in a suspension of charged colloidal silica spheres with bi-modal size distribution studied by time-resolved ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Hornfeck, Wolfgang; Menke, Dirk; Forthaus, Martin; Subatzus, Sebastian; Franke, Markus; Schöpe, Hans-Joachim; Palberg, Thomas; Perlich, Jan; Herlach, Dieter

    2014-12-07

    A suspension of charged colloidal silica spheres exhibiting a bi-modal size distribution of particles, thereby mimicking a binary mixture, was studied using time-resolved ultra-small-angle synchrotron X-ray scattering (USAXS). The sample, consisting of particles of diameters d(A) = (104.7 ± 9.0) nm and d(B) = (88.1 ± 7.8) nm (d(A)/d(B) ≈ 1.2), and with an estimated composition A(0.6(1))B(0.4(1)), was studied with respect to its phase behaviour in dependance of particle number density and interaction, of which the latter was modulated by varying amounts of added base (NaOH). Moreover, its short-range order in the fluid state and its eventual solidification into a long-range ordered colloidal crystal were observed in situ, allowing the measurement of the associated kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth. Key parameters of the nucleation kinetics such as crystallinity, crystallite number density, and nucleation rate density were extracted from the time-resolved scattering curves. By this means an estimate on the interfacial energy for the interface between the icosahedral short-range ordered fluid and a body-centered cubic colloidal crystal was obtained, comparable to previously determined values for single-component colloidal systems.

  3. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources Hearing or speech impairment - resources Heart disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - ...

  4. A Bi-Modal Distribution of ALHA77307 Matrix Olivine: Evidence for Fine-Grained Mixing from Multiple Reservoirs in the CO Formation Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Brearley, A.; Le, L.

    2011-01-01

    The CO 3.0 chondrite ALHA77307 is thought to be the least metamorphosed of all the CO chondrites [1]. As such, the fine-grained (<30 m) olivine found in its matrix is a valuable resource for investigating the CO formation environment since its compositions should be primary. In the CO matrix, we indeed find a wide range of major element compositions (Fa(0.5-71)). However, more importantly, we find that the olivines make up two compositionally distinct populations (Fa(0.5-5) and Fa(21-71)). Grains from both populations are found within an extremely close proximity and we see no obvious evidence of two distinct lithologies within our samples. Therefore, we conclude that the olivine grains found in the ALHA77307 matrix must have crystallized within two unique formation conditions and were later mixed at a very fine scale during the accretion epoch. Here, we propose a possible explanation based on Cr and Mn concentrations in the olivine.

  5. Protecting core networks with dual-homing: A study on enhanced network availability, resource efficiency, and energy-savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Furdek, Marija; Monti, Paolo; Wosinska, Lena; Wong, Elaine

    2016-12-01

    Core network survivability affects the reliability performance of telecommunication networks and remains one of the most important network design considerations. This paper critically examines the benefits arising from utilizing dual-homing in the optical access networks to provide resource-efficient protection against link and node failures in the optical core segment. Four novel, heuristic-based RWA algorithms that provide dedicated path protection in networks with dual-homing are proposed and studied. These algorithms protect against different failure scenarios (i.e. single link or node failures) and are implemented with different optimization objectives (i.e., minimization of wavelength usage and path length). Results obtained through simulations and comparison with baseline architectures indicate that exploiting dual-homed architecture in the access segment can bring significant improvements in terms of core network resource usage, connection availability, and power consumption.

  6. Sustainable use of renewable resources in a stylized social-ecological network model under heterogeneous resource distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, Wolfram; Donges, Jonathan F.; Wiedermann, Marc; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Human societies depend on the resources ecosystems provide. Particularly since the last century, human activities have transformed the relationship between nature and society at a global scale. We study this coevolutionary relationship by utilizing a stylized model of private resource use and social learning on an adaptive network. The latter process is based on two social key dynamics beyond economic paradigms: boundedly rational imitation of resource use strategies and homophily in the formation of social network ties. The private and logistically growing resources are harvested with either a sustainable (small) or non-sustainable (large) effort. We show that these social processes can have a profound influence on the environmental state, such as determining whether the private renewable resources collapse from overuse or not. Additionally, we demonstrate that heterogeneously distributed regional resource capacities shift the critical social parameters where this resource extraction system collapses. We make these points to argue that, in more advanced coevolutionary models of the planetary social-ecological system, such socio-cultural phenomena as well as regional resource heterogeneities should receive attention in addition to the processes represented in established Earth system and integrated assessment models.

  7. AGI's Earth Science Week and Education Resources Network: Connecting Teachers to Geoscience Organizations and Classroom Resources that Support NGSS Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience

  8. Networked Resource Sharing of CD-ROM Information Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gey, Fredric C.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes an infrastructure to provide organizationwide access in a large university to government statistical databases issued on CD-ROM. Topics addressed include characteristics of government numeric data on CD-ROM, networked options, desired characteristics of networked CD-ROM access, hardware and network configurations, a prototype system, and…

  9. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-13

    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.

  10. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  11. Network analysis: a new tool for resource managers

    Treesearch

    Ruth H. Allen

    1980-01-01

    Resource managers manipulate ecosystems for direct or indirect human uses. Examples of relatively well studied resource management issues include familiar biological products such as: forests, ranges, fish and wildlife; or physical products such as air, water and soil. Until very recently, urban environments received much less scholarly attention. However, as Spurr (...

  12. Self-organized Balanced Resources in Random Networks with Transportation Bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. We derive algorithms which searches the optimal solution without the need of a global optimizer. For networks with uniformly high connectivity, the resource shortage of a node becomes a well-defined function of its capacity. An efficient profile of the allocated resources is found, with clusters of node interconnected by an extensive fraction of unsaturated links, enabling the resource shortages among the nodes to remain balanced. The capacity-shortage relation exhibits features similar to the Maxwell’s construction. For scale-free networks, such an efficient profile is observed even for nodes of low connectivity.

  13. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-11-24

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  14. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them. PMID:26610512

  15. DELPHI--An Information Resource in a Multivendor Multiprotocol Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedayao, Jeff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes DELPHI, a networked information resource for Intel Corporation that provides a bulletin board, databases, technical memos, hazardous material handling information, and stock quotes. Topics addressed include the diverse network environments at Intel, connecting the services to these environments, experiences with DELPHI, and future plans.…

  16. DELPHI--An Information Resource in a Multivendor Multiprotocol Network Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedayao, Jeff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes DELPHI, a networked information resource for Intel Corporation that provides a bulletin board, databases, technical memos, hazardous material handling information, and stock quotes. Topics addressed include the diverse network environments at Intel, connecting the services to these environments, experiences with DELPHI, and future plans.…

  17. Enhancing Teaching and Learning Wi-Fi Networking Using Limited Resources to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Nurul I.

    2013-01-01

    Motivating students to learn Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) wireless networking to undergraduate students is often difficult because many students find the subject rather technical and abstract when presented in traditional lecture format. This paper focuses on the teaching and learning aspects of Wi-Fi networking using limited hardware resources. It…

  18. Enhancing Teaching and Learning Wi-Fi Networking Using Limited Resources to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Nurul I.

    2013-01-01

    Motivating students to learn Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) wireless networking to undergraduate students is often difficult because many students find the subject rather technical and abstract when presented in traditional lecture format. This paper focuses on the teaching and learning aspects of Wi-Fi networking using limited hardware resources. It…

  19. Resource and Referral Service: A Report on Electronic Networks for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruth; Smink, Jay

    This report describes the activities of the Resource and Referral Service (RRS), which was established in 1977 as a member of a nationwide dissemination network called the Research and Development Exchange (RDx), in using electronic networks as part of its dissemination effort. Discussed first are the history and objectives of RRS. The next…

  20. Decision Support System in the Management of Resource-Sharing Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubey, Yogendra P.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on emergence of decision support system (DSS) as a practical approach for applying computers and information to problems facing management. Information processing and decision making in organizations, simulation-model-based DSS in management of library resource sharing networks, and a resource-sharing simulation system are highlighted.…

  1. Resource Management In Peer-To-Peer Networks: A Nadse Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. B.; Garg, Vishal

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a common solution to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network problems and distributed computing with the help of "Neighbor Assisted Distributed and Scalable Environment" (NADSE). NADSE supports both device and code mobility. In this article mainly we focus on the NADSE based resource management technique. How information dissemination and searching is speedup when using the NADSE service provider node in large network. Results show that performance of the NADSE network is better in comparison to Gnutella, and Freenet.

  2. Space Network Control (SNC) Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In session 1 of the conference, Concepts for space network resource allocation was the main topic. In session 2, Space Network Control and user payload operations and control center human-computer interface, was the topic of discussion. The topic of session 3 was Resource allocation tools, technology, and algorithms. Some of the stated goals for the conference are as follows: to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches; to identify solutions applicable to the SN problem; to identify fruitful avenues of study in support of SNC development; and to capture knowledge in proceedings and make available to bidders on the SNC concept definition procurement.

  3. Efficient Allocation of Resources for Defense of Spatially Distributed Networks Using Agent-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kroshl, William M; Sarkani, Shahram; Mazzuchi, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This article presents ongoing research that focuses on efficient allocation of defense resources to minimize the damage inflicted on a spatially distributed physical network such as a pipeline, water system, or power distribution system from an attack by an active adversary, recognizing the fundamental difference between preparing for natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or even accidental systems failures and the problem of allocating resources to defend against an opponent who is aware of, and anticipating, the defender's efforts to mitigate the threat. Our approach is to utilize a combination of integer programming and agent-based modeling to allocate the defensive resources. We conceptualize the problem as a Stackelberg "leader follower" game where the defender first places his assets to defend key areas of the network, and the attacker then seeks to inflict the maximum damage possible within the constraints of resources and network structure. The criticality of arcs in the network is estimated by a deterministic network interdiction formulation, which then informs an evolutionary agent-based simulation. The evolutionary agent-based simulation is used to determine the allocation of resources for attackers and defenders that results in evolutionary stable strategies, where actions by either side alone cannot increase its share of victories. We demonstrate these techniques on an example network, comparing the evolutionary agent-based results to a more traditional, probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) approach. Our results show that the agent-based approach results in a greater percentage of defender victories than does the PRA-based approach.

  4. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nobles, Patricia L.; ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) network of 223 real-time monitoring stations, the 'Georgia HydroWatch,' provides real-time water-stage data, with streamflow computed at 198 locations, and rainfall recorded at 187 stations. These sites continuously record data on 15-minute intervals and transmit the data via satellite to be incorporated into the USGS National Water Information System database. These data are automatically posted to the USGS Web site for public dissemination (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/nwis). The real-time capability of this network provides information to help emergency-management officials protect human life and property during floods, and mitigate the effects of prolonged drought. The map at right shows the USGS streamflow monitoring network for Georgia and major watersheds. Streamflow is monitored at 198 sites statewide, more than 80 percent of which include precipitation gages. Various Federal, State, and local agencies fund these streamflow monitoring stations.

  5. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  6. Research on spectral resource optimization and self-healing technology of hybrid optical fiber sensing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Sang, Mei; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanghui; Liu, Tiegen

    2015-08-01

    We propose an optical-fiber-sensing-network (OFSN) to allow hybrid fiber sensors working in the same network and it achieves self-healing function. The discrete and distributed optical fiber sensors can be connected in sub-layers of the network. WDM-OTDM technique is introduced to convert multi-wavelengths of light source into a specific arranged wavelength in each sub-layer. Thus every sub-layer can share the system spectrum resources, and sensing signals of each sub-layer are transmitted together in the backbone network. To achieve self-healing function, double-ring structure is adopted in the backbone network. Node microprocessor program is designed to make switching to the protect fiber when working fiber is broken. The experimental backbone setup of the network demonstrates the practical reliability and intelligence of the optical sensing network.

  7. The Promised LAN: Networking Resources in the Media Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Becky R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the planning and installation of a high school local area network. Highlights include suggestions for: defining goals, applying for funding, coordinating installation, teacher training, developing district technology plans, plans for growth, choosing locations, maintenance plans, system security, system backup, and use studies. (JKP)

  8. Resource Allocation in MIMO-Based Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Multiple - Input Multiple - Output ( MIMO ...Hoc Networks Peng Wang∗, John Matyjas† and Michael Medley† †Air Force Research Lab, Rome, NY Abstract— Multiple - Input Multiple - Output ( MIMO ) commu... input multiple - output systems, capacity optimization, joint routing, scheduling and power control. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  9. Library Resource-Sharing in the Network-Centric World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob

    This paper discusses changes in services, technology, and organization as libraries prepare to enter the "network-centric library world." Part 1 addresses the transition from the analog era to the digital age, and the convergence of libraries and education, including opportunities for library leadership in Internet access, digital…

  10. Water resources: Research network to track alpine water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The water cycle in alpine environments worldwide supplies fresh water to vast downstream areas inhabited by more than half of humanity. The International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (INARCH) was launched this year by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project of the World Clim...

  11. Learning Resource Networks in Postsecondary Education: An Impossible Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, E.

    A new level of learning resources is surfacing in many postsecondary institutions, taking one of three principal forms: an independent study model of one-on-one learning, computer communications via e-mail between teachers and learners, or online database searching to facilitate access to information and the use of libraries. The use of these…

  12. Coordinated Radar Resource Management for Networked Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development Canada Ottawa, Canada K1A 0Z4 Email: Peter.Moo@drdc-rddc.gc.ca Abstract A phased array radar has the ability to rapidly and...search and Development Canada (DRDC) Ottawa to analyse the performance of radar resource management techniques for naval radars operating in a littoral

  13. Network-centric fuzzy resource manager: structure and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James F., III; Firth, Zachary

    2003-07-01

    A fuzzy logic expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack resources on different platforms in real-time. This resource manager is made up of four trees, the isolated platform tree, the multi-platform tree that allows an individual platform to respond to a threat. The multi-platform tree allows a group of platforms to respond to a threat in a collaborative fashion. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the resource manager. A genetic program is used to evolve optimal fuzzy decision tree topology. The non-uniqueness of the tree structure is considered. The superiority of a genetic program evolved tree compared to a tree written down exclusively based on expertise is discussed. Fuzzy membership functions related to four fuzzy concepts are given. Experiments designed to test these concepts in the expert system are discussed, as well as the resource manager's ability to: allow multiple platforms to self-organize without the benefit of a commander; to tolerate errors made by other systems; and to deal with multiple distinct enemy strategies.

  14. Guaranteed Access to Campus Network Resources: Policies and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Ardoth A.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a options and issues discussion at a December 1997 Orlando (Florida) meeting of CAUSE97 on providing access to campus technology resources. Options discussed included departmentally and/or university-owned modems, third-party provider contracts, and using wireless access. Issues included providing authentication, assuring network…

  15. Learning Resource Networks in Postsecondary Education: An Impossible Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, E.

    A new level of learning resources is surfacing in many postsecondary institutions, taking one of three principal forms: an independent study model of one-on-one learning, computer communications via e-mail between teachers and learners, or online database searching to facilitate access to information and the use of libraries. The use of these…

  16. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  17. Yoga Lessons for Consciousness Research: A Paralimbic Network Balancing Brain Resource Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Hans C.; Joensson, Morten; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2011-01-01

    Consciousness has been proposed to play a key role in shaping flexible learning and as such is thought to confer an evolutionary advantage. Attention and awareness are the perhaps most important underlying processes, yet their precise relationship is presently unclear. Both of these processes must, however, serve the evolutionary imperatives of survival and procreation. They are thus intimately bound by reward and emotion to help to prioritize efficient brain resource allocation in order to predict and optimize behavior. Here we show how this process is served by a paralimbic network consisting primarily of regions located on the midline of the human brain. Using many different techniques, experiments have demonstrated that this network is effective and specific for self-awareness and contributes to the sense of unity of consciousness by acting as a common neural path for a wide variety of conscious experiences. Interestingly, hemodynamic activity in the network decreases with focusing on external stimuli, which has led to the idea of a default mode network. This network is one of many networks that wax and vane as resources are allocated to accommodate the different cyclical needs of the organism primarily related to the fundamental pleasures afforded by evolution: food, sex, and conspecifics. Here we hypothesize, however, that the paralimbic network serves a crucial role in balancing and regulating brain resource allocation, and discuss how it can be thought of as a link between current theories of so-called “default mode,” “resting state networks,” and “global workspace.” We show how major developmental disorders of self-awareness and self-control can arise from problems in the paralimbic network as demonstrated here by the example of Asperger syndrome. We conclude that attention, awareness, and emotion are integrated by a paralimbic network that helps to efficiently allocate brain resources to optimize behavior and help survival. PMID:22203808

  18. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  19. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  20. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  1. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion

    PubMed Central

    BurnSilver, Shauna B.; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S.; Kofinas, Gary P.

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social–ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources. PMID:27856752

  2. Resource constrained flux balance analysis predicts selective pressure on the global structure of metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Abedpour, Nima; Kollmann, Markus

    2015-11-23

    A universal feature of metabolic networks is their hourglass or bow-tie structure on cellular level. This architecture reflects the conversion of multiple input nutrients into multiple biomass components via a small set of precursor metabolites. However, it is yet unclear to what extent this structural feature is the result of natural selection. We extend flux balance analysis to account for limited cellular resources. Using this model, optimal structure of metabolic networks can be calculated for different environmental conditions. We observe a significant structural reshaping of metabolic networks for a toy-network and E. coli core metabolism if we increase the share of invested resources for switching between different nutrient conditions. Here, hub nodes emerge and the optimal network structure becomes bow-tie-like as a consequence of limited cellular resource constraint. We confirm this theoretical finding by comparing the reconstructed metabolic networks of bacterial species with respect to their lifestyle. We show that bow-tie structure can give a system-level fitness advantage to organisms that live in highly competitive and fluctuating environments. Here, limitation of cellular resources can lead to an efficiency-flexibility tradeoff where it pays off for the organism to shorten catabolic pathways if they are frequently activated and deactivated. As a consequence, generalists that shuttle between diverse environmental conditions should have a more predominant bow-tie structure than specialists that visit just a few isomorphic habitats during their life cycle.

  3. Competition for Catalytic Resources Alters Biological Network Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondelez, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    Genetic regulation networks orchestrate many complex cellular behaviors. Dynamic operations that take place within cells are thus dependent on the gene expression machinery, enabled by powerful enzymes such as polymerases, ribosomes, or nucleases. These generalist enzymes typically process many different substrates, potentially leading to competitive situations: by saturating the common enzyme, one substrate may down-regulate its competitors. However, most theoretical or experimental models simply omit these effects, focusing on the pattern of genetic regulatory interactions as the main determinant of network function. We show here that competition effects have important outcomes, which can be spotted within the global dynamics of experimental systems. Further we demonstrate that enzyme saturation creates a layer of cross couplings that may foster, but also hamper, the expected behavior of synthetic biology constructs.

  4. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  5. Resource Management in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-21

    Communications Review, 27(5), 1996. Read from http://www.ece.orst.edu/s̃ingh/papers.html. [8] M. Scott Corson and Anthony Ephremides. A Distributed Routing...France, October 1997. [32] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson . A Highly Adaptive Distributed Routing Algorithm for Mobile Wireless Networks. In...Proceedings of INFOCOM’97, pages 1405–1413, April 1997. [33] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson . A Performance Comparison of TORA and Ideal Link State

  6. Radar coordination and resource management in a distributed sensor network using emergent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, B. S.; Sokol, T. M.

    2009-05-01

    As the list of anti-air warfare and ballistic missile defense missions grows, there is an increasing need to coordinate and optimize usage of radar resources across the netted force. Early attempts at this optimization involved top-down control mechanisms whereby sensors accept resource tasking orders from networked tracking elements. These approaches rely heavily on uncertain knowledge of sensor constraints and capabilities. Furthermore, advanced sensor systems may support self-defense missions of the host platform and are therefore unable to relinquish control to an external function. To surmount these issues, the use of bottom-up emergent control techniques is proposed. The information necessary to make quality, network-wide resource allocations is readily available to sensor nodes with access to a netted track picture. By assessing resource priorities relative to the network (versus local) track picture, sensors can understand the contribution of their resources to the netted force. This allows the sensors to apply resources where most needed and remove waste. Furthermore, simple local rules for resource usage, when properly constructed, allow sensors to obtain a globally optimal resource allocation without direct coordination (emergence). These results are robust to partial implementation (i.e., not all nodes upgraded at once) and failures on individual nodes (whether from casualty or reallocation to other sensor missions), and they leave resource control decisions in the hands of the sensor systems instead of an external function. This paper presents independent research and development work on emergent control of sensor resources and the impact to resource allocation and tracking performance.

  7. The temporal dynamics of resource use by frugivorous birds: a network approach.

    PubMed

    Carnicer, Jofre; Jordano, Pedro; Melián, Carlos J

    2009-07-01

    Ecological network patterns are influenced by diverse processes that operate at different temporal rates. Here we analyzed whether the coupled effect of local abundance variation, seasonally phenotypic plastic responses, and species evolutionary adaptations might act in concert to shape network patterns. We studied the temporal variation in three interaction properties of bird species (number of interactions per species, interaction strength, and interaction asymmetry) in a temporal sequence of 28 plant-frugivore interaction networks spanning two years in a Mediterranean shrubland community. Three main hypotheses dealing with the temporal variation of network properties were tested, examining the effects of abundance, switching behavior between alternative food resources, and morphological traits in determining consumer interaction patterns. Our results demonstrate that temporal variation in consumer interaction patterns is explained by short-term variation in resource and bird abundances and seasonal dietary switches between alternative resources (fleshy fruits and insects). Moreover, differences in beak morphology are associated with differences in switching behavior between resources, suggesting an important role of foraging adaptations in determining network patterns. We argue that beak shape adaptations might determine generalist and specialist feeding behaviors and thus the positions of consumer species within the network. Finally, we provide a preliminary framework to interpret phylogenetic signal in plant-animal networks. Indeed, we show that the strength of the phylogenetic signal in networks depends on the relative importance of abundance, behavioral, and morphological variables. We show that these variables strongly differ in their phylogenetic signal. Consequently, we suggest that moderate and significant phylogenetic effects should be commonly observed in networks of species interactions.

  8. Choose wisely: Network, ontology and annotation resources for the analysis of Staphylococcus aureus omics data.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J A; Sampson, D L; Broszczak, D A; Upton, Z; Huygens, F

    2015-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a prominent human and livestock pathogen investigated widely using omic technologies. Critically, due to availability, low visibility or scattered resources, robust network and statistical contextualisation of the resulting data is generally under-represented. Here, we present novel meta-analyses of freely-accessible molecular network and gene ontology annotation information resources for S. aureus omics data interpretation. Furthermore, through the application of the gene ontology annotation resources we demonstrate their value and ability (or lack-there-of) to summarise and statistically interpret the emergent properties of gene expression and protein abundance changes using publically available data. This analysis provides simple metrics for network selection and demonstrates the availability and impact that gene ontology annotation selection can have on the contextualisation of bacterial omics data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The designing and implementation of PE teaching information resource database based on broadband network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In order to change traditional PE teaching mode and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources, a distance PE teaching platform based on broadband network is designed and PE teaching information resource database is set up. The designing of PE teaching information resource database takes Windows NT 4/2000Server as operating system platform, Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 as RDBMS, and takes NAS technology for data storage and flow technology for video service. The analysis of system designing and implementation shows that the dynamic PE teaching information resource sharing platform based on Web Service can realize loose coupling collaboration, realize dynamic integration and active integration and has good integration, openness and encapsulation. The distance PE teaching platform based on Web Service and the design scheme of PE teaching information resource database can effectively solve and realize the interconnection, interworking and sharing of PE teaching resources and adapt to the informatization development demands of PE teaching.

  10. Optimal radio resource management using hybrid handoffs in cellular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huan; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2002-07-01

    The optimal radio resource management (RRM) design is formulated as a Semi-Markov Decision Process optimization problem in this research. The stationary optimal call admission control policy, which adopts a hybrid handoff scheme, is determined by solving a set of linear programming equations under users' QoS constraints. The call admission control policy can choose actions of hard- or soft-handoff or simply rejecting the request, depending on the traffic conditions and QoS metrics. The performance is analyzed via simulation and compared with those of the non-controlled scheme and the fixed RRM scheme. Simulations are conducted by OPNET to study the performance under different traffic conditions.

  11. A network approach to outpatient service delivery systems: resources flow and system influence.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, A L; Montgomery, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study tests a path model for the effects on organizational influence of an organization's centrality in four resource exchange networks in order to gain insight into the network relations that may affect coordination and effectiveness of outpatient health and mental health service systems. DATA SOURCES: Primary data are used from face-to-face interviews with the directors of every organization in the predefined service systems in three urbanized counties in Oregon. Each system consisted of 19 to 20 organizations. Data were collected during 1986 and 1987. STUDY DESIGN: The path model contains five variables: the major dependent variable is attributed organizational influence; the independent variables are three sets of primary resource exchanges: funds allocation, client referrals, and client inflow. An intervening variable of general network contacts, as an informational resource, is modeled as an outcome of the three primary resource exchanges, as well as one of the predictors of influence. DATA COLLECTION: Organizations were identified as system members through a modified snowball sampling procedure. Measures of organizational influence and centrality in each of the exchange networks were derived from interviews with all directors about their interactions with each organization in the system. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the path model. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The most important resource in predicting centrality in a general contact network is centrality in a client referral network, while contacts and funds allocation centrality are significant predictors of organizational influence. CONCLUSIONS: The organization with the greatest influence within the system (because of its ability to allocate funds) may not be the organization that takes the largest role in terms of coordinating routine contacts (because of its ability to refer clients). This disjuncture may signal a weakness in the coordination network and system effectiveness

  12. Reinforcement learning for resource allocation in LEO satellite networks.

    PubMed

    Usaha, Wipawee; Barria, Javier A

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we develop and assess online decision-making algorithms for call admission and routing for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks. It has been shown in a recent paper that, in a LEO satellite system, a semi-Markov decision process formulation of the call admission and routing problem can achieve better performance in terms of an average revenue function than existing routing methods. However, the conventional dynamic programming (DP) numerical solution becomes prohibited as the problem size increases. In this paper, two solution methods based on reinforcement learning (RL) are proposed in order to circumvent the computational burden of DP. The first method is based on an actor-critic method with temporal-difference (TD) learning. The second method is based on a critic-only method, called optimistic TD learning. The algorithms enhance performance in terms of requirements in storage, computational complexity and computational time, and in terms of an overall long-term average revenue function that penalizes blocked calls. Numerical studies are carried out, and the results obtained show that the RL framework can achieve up to 56% higher average revenue over existing routing methods used in LEO satellite networks with reasonable storage and computational requirements.

  13. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nobles, Patricia L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ground-water network for Georgia currently consists of 170 wells in which ground-water levels are continuously monitored. Most of the wells are locatedin the Coastal Plain in the southern part of the State where ground-water pumping stress is high. In particular, there are large concentrations of wells in coastal and southwestern Georgia areas, where there are issues related to ground-water pumping, saltwater intrusion along the coast, and diminished streamflow in southwestern Georgia due to irrigation pumping. The map at right shows the USGS ground-water monitoring network for Georgia. Ground-water levels are monitored in 170 wells statewide, of which 19 transmit data in real time via satellite and posted on the World Wide Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/current/?type=gw . A greater concentration of wells occurs in the Coastal Plain where there are several layers of aquifers and in coastal and southwestern Georgia areas, which are areas with specific ground-water issues.

  14. Multimode dynamics in a network with resource mediated coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnov, D. E.; Sosnovtseva, O. V.; Scherbakov, P.; Mosekilde, E.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the special forms of multimode dynamics that one can observe in systems with resource-mediated coupling, i.e., systems of self-sustained oscillators in which the coupling takes place via the distribution of primary resources that controls the oscillatory state of the individual unit. With this coupling, a spatially inhomogenous state with mixed high and low-amplitude oscillations in the individual units can arise. To examine generic phenomena associated with this type of interaction we consider a chain of resistively coupled electronic oscillators connected to a common power supply. The two-oscillator system displays antiphase synchronization, and it is interesting to note that two-mode oscillations continue to exist outside of the parameter range in which oscillations occur for the individual unit. At low coupling strengths, the multi-oscillator system shows high dimensional quasiperiodicity with little tendency for synchronization. At higher coupling strengths, one typically observes spatial clustering involving a few oscillating units. We describe three different scenarios according to which the cluster can slide along the chain as the bias voltage changes.

  15. Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) use adaptable transportation networks to track changes in resource quality.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya; Holmes, Michael J; Makinson, James C; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-02-15

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails. In the present study, we examined the response of Argentine ant colonies and their trail networks to variable environments where resources differ in quality and change unexpectedly. We found that Argentine ant colonies effectively tracked changes in food quality such that colonies allocated the highest proportion of foragers to the most rewarding feeder. Ant colonies maximised access to high concentration feeders by building additional trails and routes connecting the nest to the feeder. Trail networks appeared to form via a pruning process in which lower traffic trails were gradually removed from the network. At the same time, we observed several instances where new trails appear to have been built to accommodate a surge in demand. The combination of trail building when traffic demand is high and trail pruning when traffic demand is low results in a demand-driven network formation system that allows ants to monopolise multiple dynamic resources.

  16. A network theory for resource exchange between rivers and their watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, John L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.

    2012-04-01

    Watersheds are drained by river networks, which route materials and energy from headwaters to terminal water bodies. River networks likewise perfuse the terrestrial portion of watershed ecosystems and reroute some of these materials upslope via material exchange between rivers and land. Here we develop a model of resource exchange between rivers and watersheds to predict the spatial extent of material and nutrient fluxes from aquatic portions of watershed ecosystems. The model is based on a geomorphic template that includes river network structure, topography, and channel sinuosity as well as important biological attributes (productivity and dispersal ability). Analysis of this model suggests that the geomorphic template strongly influences the spatial extent of resource flows in watershed ecosystems. The geomorphic template also predicts the location of areas of concentrated resource exchange, typically at ridge crests, in meander bends, and tributary junctions. We contend that these areas represent hotspots of foraging activity for terrestrial consumers, especially those at the reach scale (meander bends). More generally, our model suggests that the spatial extent of aquatic resource flow equal in magnitude to 20% or greater of terrestrial production may encompass as much as 20%-50% of terrestrial portions of watersheds. Resource flow from rivers to terrestrial ecosystems is not merely an edge effect. Instead, the river network may reroute a substantial flux of materials into watershed ecosystems.

  17. On Tradeoffs between Trust Accuracy and Resource Consumption in Communications and Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-11

    On Tradeoffs between Trust Accuracy and Resource Consumption in Communications and Social Networks Jin-Hee Cho, Kevin Chan, Ananthram Swami, Brian...Our goal is to develop a general trust management framework that minimizes resource consumption (e.g., communication overhead for trust formation...length, the use of indirect information to establish trust values, and the impact of misbehaving nodes on both communication overhead and the

  18. BioSCAN: a network sharable computational resource for searching biosequence databases.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Hoffman, D L; Tell, S G; White, C T

    1996-06-01

    We describe a network sharable, interactive computational tool for rapid and sensitive search and analysis of biomolecular sequence databases such as GenBank, GenPept, Protein Identification Resource, and SWISS-PROT. The resource is accessible via the World Wide Web using popular client software such as Mosaic and Netscape. The client software is freely available on a number of computing platforms including Macintosh, IBM-PC, and Unix workstations.

  19. Structure-Property Relationships for Polycyanurate Networks Derived from Renewable Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The recent synthesis of a wide variety of cyanate ester monomers that may be derived from renewable resources has created a newly available set of...relationships for dicyanate esters and their polymerized networks. Specific structure-property relationships for monomer melting point, glass...methods. Specific predictions for the properties of two as-yet unsynthesized dicyanate ester monomers derived from renewable resources are also presented

  20. Co-scheduling of network resource provisioning and host-to-host bandwidth reservation on high-performance network and storage systems

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Dantong; Katramatos, Dimitrios; Sim, Alexander; Shoshani, Arie

    2014-04-22

    A cross-domain network resource reservation scheduler configured to schedule a path from at least one end-site includes a management plane device configured to monitor and provide information representing at least one of functionality, performance, faults, and fault recovery associated with a network resource; a control plane device configured to at least one of schedule the network resource, provision local area network quality of service, provision local area network bandwidth, and provision wide area network bandwidth; and a service plane device configured to interface with the control plane device to reserve the network resource based on a reservation request and the information from the management plane device. Corresponding methods and computer-readable medium are also disclosed.

  1. Immiscible Fe- and Si-rich silicate melts in plagioclase from the Baima mafic intrusion (SW China): Implications for the origin of bi-modal igneous suites in large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Christina Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    -scale Si-rich melts at least started from the lower part of the Upper Zone. We thus infer that the Baima high-Ti basaltic magmas evolved into the field of immiscible Fe-rich and Si-rich melts. Prolonged fractional crystallization of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene from the Fe-rich melts formed gabbro and olivine gabbro in the UZa, before the melts became saturated in Fe-Ti oxides and apatite and formed apatite-rich Fe-Ti oxide ores in the UZb. Immiscible Si-rich melts migrated upwards and coalesced to form fayalite syenite around the Baima intrusion. Silicate liquid immiscibility may have played an important role in the petrogenesis of Fe-Ti oxide-rich layered mafic intrusions and syenitic rocks in the ELIP and elsewhere. This mechanism may be common and may explain the traditionally thought bi-modal assemblages of large igneous provinces in intra-continental extensional settings.

  2. Distributed Multi-Cell Resource Allocation with Price Based ICI Coordination in Downlink OFDMA Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Gangming; Zhu, Shihua; Hui, Hui

    Multi-cell resource allocation under minimum rate request for each user in OFDMA networks is addressed in this paper. Based on Lagrange dual decomposition theory, the joint multi-cell resource allocation problem is decomposed and modeled as a limited-cooperative game, and a distributed multi-cell resource allocation algorithm is thus proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that, compared with non-cooperative iterative water-filling algorithm, the proposed algorithm can remarkably reduce the ICI level and improve overall system performances.

  3. Bioinformatics Training Network (BTN): a community resource for bioinformatics trainers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria V; Walter, Peter; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Watson, James; Brazas, Michelle D; Rother, Kristian; Budd, Aidan; Via, Allegra; van Gelder, Celia W G; Jacob, Joachim; Fernandes, Pedro; Nyrönen, Tommi H; De Las Rivas, Javier; Blicher, Thomas; Jimenez, Rafael C; Loveland, Jane; McDowall, Jennifer; Jones, Phil; Vaughan, Brendan W; Lopez, Rodrigo; Attwood, Teresa K; Brooksbank, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Funding bodies are increasingly recognizing the need to provide graduates and researchers with access to short intensive courses in a variety of disciplines, in order both to improve the general skills base and to provide solid foundations on which researchers may build their careers. In response to the development of 'high-throughput biology', the need for training in the field of bioinformatics, in particular, is seeing a resurgence: it has been defined as a key priority by many Institutions and research programmes and is now an important component of many grant proposals. Nevertheless, when it comes to planning and preparing to meet such training needs, tension arises between the reward structures that predominate in the scientific community which compel individuals to publish or perish, and the time that must be devoted to the design, delivery and maintenance of high-quality training materials. Conversely, there is much relevant teaching material and training expertise available worldwide that, were it properly organized, could be exploited by anyone who needs to provide training or needs to set up a new course. To do this, however, the materials would have to be centralized in a database and clearly tagged in relation to target audiences, learning objectives, etc. Ideally, they would also be peer reviewed, and easily and efficiently accessible for downloading. Here, we present the Bioinformatics Training Network (BTN), a new enterprise that has been initiated to address these needs and review it, respectively, to similar initiatives and collections.

  4. Underground resource allocation between individual networks of mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Bolette L; Rosendahl, Søren; Jakobsen, Iver

    2008-01-01

    Fusions between individual mycelia of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been observed in two-dimensional systems but never in soil systems. Here, phosphorus ((32)P) labelling was used to demonstrate nutrient transfer between individual mycelia and to investigate the possible role of anastomosis. Trifolium subterraneum colonized by Glomus mosseae were grown in root-retaining mesh bags, which were placed 20 cm apart. The mycelium of one plant, the donor, had access to (32)P-labelled soil placed adjacent to the mesh bag. Transfer of (32)P from the donor mycelium to the receiver plant was measured at three harvests. In a second-harvest control treatment the receiver was colonized by Glomus caledonium in order to determine whether transfer occurred by other means than hyphal fusions. Significant amounts of P were transferred to the receiver plant at the last harvests when the two mycelia of G. mosseae overlapped. The transfer probably occurred via anastomoses between the mycelia as no transfer of (32)P was detected between the mycelia of different fungi at the second harvest. The indicated ability of AM fungal mycelia to anastomose in soil has implications for the formation of large plant-interlinking functional networks, long-distance nutrient transport and retention of nutrients in readily plant-available pools.

  5. A Report to the Florida Legislature on Developing a Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    In response to a legislative proviso, this project report presents an introductory development plan for the Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN), which is designed to connect Florida's public schools, school districts, Department of Education (DOE), and Legislature as part of a statewide online interactive educational data retrieval and…

  6. A Report to the Florida Legislature on Developing a Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This second-year project report describes the current status and future planned development of the Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN), an evolving statewide system which will make possible the electronic movement of educational data between Florida's public schools, school districts, colleges, universities, the Department of Education…

  7. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  8. Resource Sharing or Cost Shifting?--The Unequal Burden of Cooperative Cataloging and ILL in Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the dilemmas of participation in resource sharing library networks and proposes solutions based on shifting inducements toward contribution by remunerating the contributing library for the unit cost of original cataloging. A "contribution pricing" model recently announced by OCLC is also evaluated as a possible solution. (21…

  9. Social Networking Web Sites and Human Resource Personnel: Suggestions for Job Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherry J.; Roach, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Social Networking Web sites (SNWs) are now being used as reference checks by human resource personnel. For this reason, SNW users, particularly university students and other soon-to-be job applicants, should ask the following questions: Am I loading information that I want the world to see? Is this really a picture that shows me in the best light?…

  10. Adolescents, Health Education, and Computers: The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a computer-based system designed as a confidential, nonjudgmental source of health information for adolescents. Topics include alcohol and other drugs, diet and activity, family communication, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management; programs are available for high school and middle school…

  11. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  12. OSU Extension, Ohio Aging Network Join Forces: Creating Resources for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer

    2010-01-01

    Ohio State University Extension and Ohio's Aging Network professionals have worked together for more than a decade to address issues of importance to Ohio's older adult population. The team's mission is to provide education, training, and resources to empower older Ohioans to achieve an optimal level of well-being. The Senior Series team initially…

  13. Exploiting LCSH, LCC, and DDC To Retrieve Networked Resources: Issues and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lois Mai

    This paper examines how the nature of the World Wide Web and characteristics of networked resources affect subject access and analyzes the requirements of effective indexing and retrieval tools. The current and potential uses of existing tools and possible courses of future development are explored in the context of recent research. The first…

  14. Adolescents, Health Education, and Computers: The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a computer-based system designed as a confidential, nonjudgmental source of health information for adolescents. Topics include alcohol and other drugs, diet and activity, family communication, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management; programs are available for high school and middle school…

  15. OSU Extension, Ohio Aging Network Join Forces: Creating Resources for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer

    2010-01-01

    Ohio State University Extension and Ohio's Aging Network professionals have worked together for more than a decade to address issues of importance to Ohio's older adult population. The team's mission is to provide education, training, and resources to empower older Ohioans to achieve an optimal level of well-being. The Senior Series team initially…

  16. Program Excellence Network of the Academy of Human Resource Development: Its Purpose and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2009-01-01

    This article features the Program Excellence Network (PEN) of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) which was established in September 2006 in response to a proposal brought forward by the author. The mission of PEN is to strengthen HRD academic programs and promote excellence in teaching HRD. PEN provides a forum for its members to…

  17. Oklahoma Library Technology Network (OLTN) Electronic Resources for Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol, Comp.

    This document describes Oklahoma Library Technology Network electronic resources for elementary age children. The first section provides a history of Oklahoma statewide shared databases. Oklahoma statewide information database contacts are listed in the second section. The third section presents information on InfoTrac Kid's Edition Online…

  18. Structure analysis and core community detection of embodied resources networks among regional industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xijun; Dong, Yanbo; Wu, Yuying; Wei, Guodan; Xing, Lizhi; Yan, Jia

    2017-08-01

    To address the double pressure of scarce resources and regional industrial isomorphism, this paper applied the concepts of exergy and embodied resources based on economic input-output (I-O) data. We constructed the embodied resources networks among the regional industries of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (also known as Jing-Jin-Ji) in China. We analyzed the rules of embodied resources consumption in the area's industries, identified the core community structures, and studied the characteristics of industrial homogeneity through regional comparisons. The results showed that the dependence on scarce resources of industrial operations in Beijing was less than in Jin-Ji, while the dependence on finance, technology, information, and other service resources in Beijing was higher than in Jin-Ji. The I-O efficiency of embodied resources among industries and the agglomeration of correlation relationships in industries with large embodied resources were higher than in Jin-Ji. The industrial coincidence degree in the ;bridge; industries and in the core community in Jin-Ji was higher than in Jing-Jin and Jing-Ji, which means the industrial homogeneous competition of Jin-Ji was higher, too. This study makes a significant contribution toward promoting the dislocation development of regional industries, accelerating the coordination of resources, and reducing homogeneity competition.

  19. The maintenance of cooperation in multiplex networks with limited and partible resources of agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Shen, Bi; Jiang, Yichuan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we try to explain the maintenance of cooperation in multiplex networks with limited and partible resources of agents: defection brings larger short-term benefit and cooperative agents may become defective because of the unaffordable costs of cooperative behaviors that are performed in multiple layers simultaneously. Recent studies have identified the positive effects of multiple layers on evolutionary cooperation but generally overlook the maximum costs of agents in these synchronous games. By utilizing network effects and designing evolutionary mechanisms, cooperative behaviors become prevailing in public goods games, and agents can allocate personal resources across multiple layers. First, we generalize degree diversity into multiplex networks to improve the prospect for cooperation. Second, to prevent agents allocating all the resources into one layer, a greedy-first mechanism is proposed, in which agents prefer to add additional investments in the higher-payoff layer. It is found that greedy-first agents can perform cooperative behaviors in multiplex networks when one layer is scale-free network and degree differences between conjoint nodes increase. Our work may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of individual reputation and punishment mechanisms.

  20. Queue Resource Reallocation Strategy for Traffic Systems in Scale-Free Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Man-Gui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Hui-Jia

    2013-03-01

    In real communication systems, each node has a finite queue length to store packets due to physical constraints. In this paper, we propose a queue resource allocation strategy for traffic dynamics in scale-free networks. With a finite resource of queue, the allocation of queue length on node i is based on Bi, where Bi is the generalized betweenness centrality of node i. The overall traffic capacity of a network system can be evaluated by the critical packet generating rate (Rc). Through the use of the proposed queue allocation scheme for the shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol, our strategy performs better than the uniform queue length allocation strategy, which is demonstrated by a larger value of the critical generating rate. We also give a method to estimate the network traffic capacity theoretically.

  1. Efficient Pricing Technique for Resource Allocation Problem in Downlink OFDM Cognitive Radio Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulghafoor, O. B.; Shaat, M. M. R.; Ismail, M.; Nordin, R.; Yuwono, T.; Alwahedy, O. N. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of resource allocation in OFDM-based downlink cognitive radio (CR) networks has been proposed. The purpose of this research is to decrease the computational complexity of the resource allocation algorithm for downlink CR network while concerning the interference constraint of primary network. The objective has been secured by adopting pricing scheme to develop power allocation algorithm with the following concerns: (i) reducing the complexity of the proposed algorithm and (ii) providing firm power control to the interference introduced to primary users (PUs). The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested for OFDM- CRNs. The simulation results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm approached the performance of the optimal algorithm at a lower computational complexity, i.e., O(NlogN), which makes the proposed algorithm suitable for more practical applications.

  2. End-to-End Network QoS via Scheduling of Flexible Resource Reservation Requests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Katramatos, D.; Yu, D.

    2011-11-14

    Modern data-intensive applications move vast amounts of data between multiple locations around the world. To enable predictable and reliable data transfer, next generation networks allow such applications to reserve network resources for exclusive use. In this paper, we solve an important problem (called SMR3) to accommodate multiple and concurrent network reservation requests between a pair of end-sites. Given the varying availability of bandwidth within the network, our goal is to accommodate as many reservation requests as possible while minimizing the total time needed to complete the data transfers. We first prove that SMR3 is an NP-hard problem. Then we solve it by developing a polynomial-time heuristic, called RRA. The RRA algorithm hinges on an efficient mechanism to accommodate large number of requests by minimizing the bandwidth wastage. Finally, via numerical results, we show that RRA constructs schedules that accommodate significantly larger number of requests compared to other, seemingly efficient, heuristics.

  3. A network-centric robust resource allocation strategy for unmanned systems: stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyoucef, K.; Khorasani, K.

    2007-04-01

    It is widely understood that communication is a critical technological factor in designing autonomous unmanned networks consisting of a large number of heterogeneous nodes that may be configured in ad-hoc fashions and incorporating intricate architectures. In fact, one of the challenges in this field is to recognize the entire network as a heterogenous collection of physical and information systems with complicated interconnections and interactions. Using high data rates that are essential for real-time interactive command and control systems, these networks require utilization of optimal integration of local feedback loops into a scheduling and resource allocation systems. This integration becomes particularly problematic in presence of latencies and delays. Given that dynamics of a network of unmanned systems could easily become unstable depending on interconnections among nodes, in this paper stability of the resulting time-delayed controlled network based on configuration changes is studied. We also formally investigate sufficient conditions for our proposed robust resource allocation strategies to be able to cope with these interconnections and time-delays in an optimal fashion. Our time-delayed dependent network consists of three nodes that can be configured into different architectures. To model our traffic and network we use a fluid flow model that is of low order and simpler than a detailed Markovian queueing probabilistic model. Using sliding mode-based variable structure control (SM-VSC) techniques that enjoy robustness capabilities, we design on the basis of an inaccurate/uncertain model our proposed robust nonlinear feedback-based control approaches. The results presented are analyzed analytically to guarantee stability of known/unknown time-delayed dependent network of unmanned systems for different configurations.

  4. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  5. Joint Resource Optimization for Cognitive Sensor Networks with SWIPT-Enabled Relay

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong; Nan, Tian; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Energy-constrained wireless networks, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are usually powered by fixed energy supplies (e.g., batteries), which limits the operation time of networks. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is a promising technique to prolong the lifetime of energy-constrained wireless networks. This paper investigates the performance of an underlay cognitive sensor network (CSN) with SWIPT-enabled relay node. In the CSN, the amplify-and-forward (AF) relay sensor node harvests energy from the ambient radio-frequency (RF) signals using power splitting-based relaying (PSR) protocol. Then, it helps forward the signal of source sensor node (SSN) to the destination sensor node (DSN) by using the harvested energy. We study the joint resource optimization including the transmit power and power splitting ratio to maximize CSN’s achievable rate with the constraint that the interference caused by the CSN to the primary users (PUs) is within the permissible threshold. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed joint resource optimization can be significantly improved. PMID:28902143

  6. A sequential learning algorithm for complex-valued self-regulating resource allocation network-CSRAN.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sundaram; Savitha, Ramasamy; Sundararajan, Narasimhan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a sequential learning algorithm for a complex-valued resource allocation network with a self-regulating scheme, referred to as complex-valued self-regulating resource allocation network (CSRAN). The self-regulating scheme in CSRAN decides what to learn, when to learn, and how to learn based on the information present in the training samples. CSRAN is a complex-valued radial basis function network with a sech activation function in the hidden layer. The network parameters are updated using a complex-valued extended Kalman filter algorithm. CSRAN starts with no hidden neuron and builds up an appropriate number of hidden neurons, resulting in a compact structure. Performance of the CSRAN is evaluated using a synthetic complex-valued function approximation problem, two real-world applications consisting of a complex quadrature amplitude modulation channel equalization, and an adaptive beam-forming problem. Since complex-valued neural networks are good decision makers, the decision-making ability of the CSRAN is compared with other complex-valued classifiers and the best performing real-valued classifier using two benchmark unbalanced classification problems from UCI machine learning repository. The approximation and classification results show that the CSRAN outperforms other existing complex-valued learning algorithms available in the literature.

  7. Critical phenomena in communication/computation networks with various topologies and suboptimal to optimal resource allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.

  8. Joint Resource Optimization for Cognitive Sensor Networks with SWIPT-Enabled Relay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidang; Lin, Yuanrong; Peng, Hong; Nan, Tian; Liu, Xin

    2017-09-13

    Energy-constrained wireless networks, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are usually powered by fixed energy supplies (e.g., batteries), which limits the operation time of networks. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is a promising technique to prolong the lifetime of energy-constrained wireless networks. This paper investigates the performance of an underlay cognitive sensor network (CSN) with SWIPT-enabled relay node. In the CSN, the amplify-and-forward (AF) relay sensor node harvests energy from the ambient radio-frequency (RF) signals using power splitting-based relaying (PSR) protocol. Then, it helps forward the signal of source sensor node (SSN) to the destination sensor node (DSN) by using the harvested energy. We study the joint resource optimization including the transmit power and power splitting ratio to maximize CSN's achievable rate with the constraint that the interference caused by the CSN to the primary users (PUs) is within the permissible threshold. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed joint resource optimization can be significantly improved.

  9. Fast packet switching algorithms for dynamic resource control over ATM networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, R.P.; Keattihananant, P.; Chang, T.; Heieh, J.; Du, D.

    1996-12-01

    Real-time continuous media traffic, such as digital video and audio, is expected to comprise a large percentage of the network load on future high speed packet switch networks such as ATM. A major feature which distinguishes high speed networks from traditional slower speed networks is the large amount of data the network must process very quickly. For efficient network usage, traffic control mechanisms are essential. Currently, most mechanisms for traffic control (such as flow control) have centered on the support of Available Bit Rate (ABR), i.e., non real-time, traffic. With regard to ATM, for ABR traffic, two major types of schemes which have been proposed are rate- control and credit-control schemes. Neither of these schemes are directly applicable to Real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic such as continuous media traffic. Traffic control for continuous media traffic is an inherently difficult problem due to the time- sensitive nature of the traffic and its unpredictable burstiness. In this study, we present a scheme which controls traffic by dynamically allocating/de- allocating resources among competing VCs based upon their real-time requirements. This scheme incorporates a form of rate- control, real-time burst-level scheduling and link-link flow control. We show analytically potential performance improvements of our rate- control scheme and present a scheme for buffer dimensioning. We also present simulation results of our schemes and discuss the tradeoffs inherent in maintaining high network utilization and statistically guaranteeing many users` Quality of Service.

  10. Teaching resources. Introduction: Overview of pathways and networks and GPCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Ravi

    2005-02-08

    This Teaching Resource provides the overview to the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students" and lays out the general principles that can be deduced from the current understanding of the organization of cell signaling pathways and networks and how information flows through these pathways and networks. In addition, the lecture provides an overview of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. A description of the lecture, along with a set of slides (http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sigtrans;2005/270/tr4/DC1) used to present this information, is provided.

  11. Networked Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Explains File Transfer Protocol (FTP), an application software program that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another. The benefit of the rapid operating speed of FTP is discussed, the use of FTP on microcomputers, minicomputers, and workstations is described, and FTP problems are considered. (four references) (LRW)

  12. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  13. Cross stratum resources protection in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks for 5G services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shaoyong; Shao, Sujie; Wang, Yao; Yang, Hui

    2017-09-01

    In order to meet the requirement of internet of things (IoT) and 5G, the cloud radio access network is a paradigm which converges all base stations computational resources into a cloud baseband unit (BBU) pool, while the distributed radio frequency signals are collected by remote radio head (RRH). A precondition for centralized processing in the BBU pool is an interconnection fronthaul network with high capacity and low delay. However, it has become more complex and frequent in the interaction between RRH and BBU and resource scheduling among BBUs in cloud. Cloud radio over fiber network has been proposed in our previous work already. In order to overcome the complexity and latency, in this paper, we first present a novel cross stratum resources protection (CSRP) architecture in fog-computing-based radio over fiber networks (F-RoFN) for 5G services. Additionally, a cross stratum protection (CSP) scheme considering the network survivability is introduced in the proposed architecture. The CSRP with CSP scheme can effectively pull the remote processing resource locally to implement the cooperative radio resource management, enhance the responsiveness and resilience to the dynamic end-to-end 5G service demands, and globally optimize optical network, wireless and fog resources. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture with CSP scheme are verified on our software defined networking testbed in terms of service latency, transmission success rate, resource occupation rate and blocking probability.

  14. A minimum resource neural network framework for solving multiconstraint shortest path problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junying; Zhao, Xiaoxue; He, Xiaotao

    2014-08-01

    Characterized by using minimum hard (structural) and soft (computational) resources, a novel parameter-free minimal resource neural network (MRNN) framework is proposed for solving a wide range of single-source shortest path (SP) problems for various graph types. The problems are the k-shortest time path problems with any combination of three constraints: time, hop, and label constraints, and the graphs can be directed, undirected, or bidirected with symmetric and/or asymmetric traversal time, which can be real and time dependent. Isomorphic to the graph where the SP is to be sought, the network is activated by generating autowave at source neuron and the autowave travels automatically along the paths with the speed of a hop in an iteration. Properties of the network are studied, algorithms are presented, and computation complexity is analyzed. The framework guarantees globally optimal solutions of a series of problems during the iteration process of the network, which provides insight into why even the SP is still too long to be satisfied. The network facilitates very large scale integrated circuit implementation and adapt to very large scale problems due to its massively parallel processing and minimum resource utilization. When implemented in a sequentially processing computer, experiments on synthetic graphs, road maps of cities of the USA, and vehicle routing with time windows indicate that the MRNN is especially efficient for large scale sparse graphs and even dense graphs with some constraints, e.g., the CPU time taken and the iteration number used for the road maps of cities of the USA is even less than  ∼ 2% and 0.5% that of the Dijkstra's algorithm.

  15. Fair resource allocation and stability for communication networks with multipath routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyong; Sun, Wei; Hua, Changchun

    2014-11-01

    Multipath networks allow that each source-destination pair can have several different paths for data transmission, thus they improve the performance of increasingly bandwidth-hungry applications and well cater for traffic load balancing and bandwidth usage efficiency. This paper investigates fair resource allocation for users in multipath networks and formulates it as a multipath network utility maximisation problem with several fairness concepts. By applying the Lagrangian method, sub-problems for users and paths are derived from the resource allocation model and interpreted from an economic point of view. In order to solve the model, a novel rate-based flow control algorithm is proposed for achieving optimal resource allocation, which depends only on local information. In the presence of round-trip delays, sufficient conditions are obtained for local stability of the delayed algorithm. As for the end-to-end implementation in Internet, a window-based flow control mechanism is presented since it is more convenient to implement than rate-based flow control.

  16. Dynamic resource allocation for target tracking in sensor and robot networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiaoning; Tan, Jindong

    2005-05-01

    Sensor network is generally composed of a set of sensors with limited computation capability and power supply. Thus, a well-defined allocation scheme is essential for maintaining the whole sensor network. This paper investigates the dynamic resource allocation problem in a sensor and robot networks for mobile target tracking tasks. Most of sensors will be in sleep mode except for the ones that can contribute for tracking. The sensor network resource allocation is achieved by a hierarchical structure--clustering. Upon detecting an interested event, a set of sensors form a cluster. Only cluster members will be activated during the tracking task. The cluster headship and membership will be updated based on the target's movement properties. In this paper, the clustering algorithm considers sensing area with communication holes and a routing tree is set up within the cluster. For a cluster with communication and/or sensing holes, mobile sensors will be deployed to enhance the sensing and communication capability in the clustering area. Simulations have been used to verify the proposed algorithm.

  17. On the Relationship between Multicast/Broadcast Throughput and Resource Utilizations in Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of multicast/broadcast throughput in multi-channel multi-radio wireless mesh networks that suffer from the resource constraints. We provide a formulation to capture the utilization of the network resources and derive analytical relationships for the network's throughput in terms of the node utilization, the channel utilization, and the number of transmissions. Our model relies on the on-demand quality of service multicast/broadcast sessions, where each admitted session creates a unique tree with a specific bandwidth. As an advantage, the derived relationships are independent of the type of tree built for each session and can be used for different protocols. The proposed formulation considers the channel assignment strategy and reflects both the wireless broadcast advantage and the interference constraint. We also offer a comprehensive discussion to evaluate the effects of load-balancing and number of transmissions on the network's throughput. Numerical results confirm the accuracy of the presented analysis. PMID:24348188

  18. Market Model for Resource Allocation in Emerging Sensor Networks with Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Song, Bin; Zhang, Ying; Du, Xiaojiang; Guizani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Emerging sensor networks (ESNs) are an inevitable trend with the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), and intend to connect almost every intelligent device. Therefore, it is critical to study resource allocation in such an environment, due to the concern of efficiency, especially when resources are limited. By viewing ESNs as multi-agent environments, we model them with an agent-based modelling (ABM) method and deal with resource allocation problems with market models, after describing users’ patterns. Reinforcement learning methods are introduced to estimate users’ patterns and verify the outcomes in our market models. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods, which are also capable of guiding topology management. PMID:27916841

  19. Market Model for Resource Allocation in Emerging Sensor Networks with Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Song, Bin; Zhang, Ying; Du, Xiaojiang; Guizani, Mohsen

    2016-11-29

    Emerging sensor networks (ESNs) are an inevitable trend with the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), and intend to connect almost every intelligent device. Therefore, it is critical to study resource allocation in such an environment, due to the concern of efficiency, especially when resources are limited. By viewing ESNs as multi-agent environments, we model them with an agent-based modelling (ABM) method and deal with resource allocation problems with market models, after describing users' patterns. Reinforcement learning methods are introduced to estimate users' patterns and verify the outcomes in our market models. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods, which are also capable of guiding topology management.

  20. Resource allocation for downlink multiuser video transmission over wireless lossy networks.

    PubMed

    Maani, Ehsan; Pahalawatta, Peshala V; Berry, Randall; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2008-09-01

    Demand for multimedia services, such as video streaming over wireless networks, has grown dramatically in recent years. The downlink transmission of multiple video sequences to multiple users over a shared resource-limited wireless channel, however, is a daunting task. Among the many challenges in this area are the time-varying channel conditions, limited available resources, such as bandwidth and power, and the different transmission requirements of different video content. This work takes into account the time-varying nature of the wireless channels, as well as the importance of individual video packets, to develop a cross-layer resource allocation and packet scheduling scheme for multiuser video streaming over lossy wireless packet access networks. Assuming that accurate channel feedback is not available at the scheduler, random channel losses combined with complex error concealment at the receiver make it impossible for the scheduler to determine the actual distortion of the sequence at the receiver. Therefore, the objective of the optimization is to minimize the expected distortion of the received sequence, where the expectation is calculated at the scheduler with respect to the packet loss probability in the channel. The expected distortion is used to order the packets in the transmission queue of each user, and then gradients of the expected distortion are used to efficiently allocate resources across users. Simulations show that the proposed scheme performs significantly better than a conventional content-independent scheme for video transmission.

  1. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-07-20

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  2. Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Shana Cecile

    In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided

  3. Service-aware resources integrated resilience for software defined data center networking based on IP over Flexi-Grid optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Jialin; Ji, Yuefeng; Han, Jianrui; Lin, Yi; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Due to the performance guarantee of low delay, huge bandwidth and high reliability at a low cost, IP over Flexi-Grid optical network is a very promising networking architecture applied to the interconnection of geographically distributed data centers. It can enable efficient resource utilization and support heterogeneous bandwidth demands in cost-effective, highly-available and energy-effective manner. In case of edge Flexi-Grid optical network node failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In this paper, we propose a novel service-aware resources integrated resilience (SA-RIR) scheme for data center services in software defined data center networking architecture based on IP over Flexi-Grid optical networks. Different from previous works which restore the services just exploiting the optical stratum, the proposed scheme provides the resilience using the multiple stratums resources in case of the edge optical node failure. We quantitatively evaluate the feasibility and performances through the simulation under heavy traffic load scenario in terms of path blocking probability, path resilience latency and resource occupation rate with different failure rates. Simulation results show that, the SA-RIR scheme can enable joint optimization of IP network, Flexi-Grid optical network and data center application stratum resources, and enhance the data center service resilience responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end demands.

  4. Draft Proposal for the Development of an Australian Bibliographic Network. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    As part of its responsibility for the development of bibliographic services in Australia, the Australian National Library presents this draft proposal for a national online shared cataloging facility to be known as the Australian Bibliographic Network or ABN. A preface describes ABN's historical background and relationship to BIBDATA, a previously…

  5. Self-organizing feature maps for dynamic control of radio resources in CDMA microcellular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    1998-03-01

    The application of artificial neural networks to the channel assignment problem for cellular code-division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks has previously been investigated. CDMA takes advantage of voice activity and spatial isolation because its capacity is only interference limited, unlike time-division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) where capacities are bandwidth-limited. Any reduction in interference in CDMA translates linearly into increased capacity. To satisfy the high demands for new services and improved connectivity for mobile communications, microcellular and picocellular systems are being introduced. For these systems, there is a need to develop robust and efficient management procedures for the allocation of power and spectrum to maximize radio capacity. Topology-conserving mappings play an important role in the biological processing of sensory inputs. The same principles underlying Kohonen's self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) are applied to the adaptive control of radio resources to minimize interference, hence, maximize capacity in direct-sequence (DS) CDMA networks. The approach based on SOFMs is applied to some published examples of both theoretical and empirical models of DS/CDMA microcellular networks in metropolitan areas. The results of the approach for these examples are informally compared to the performance of algorithms, based on Hopfield- Tank neural networks and on genetic algorithms, for the channel assignment problem.

  6. NetProphet 2.0: Mapping Transcription Factor Networks by Exploiting Scalable Data Resources.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yiming; Liow, Hien-Haw; Maier, Ezekiel J; Brent, Michael R

    2017-09-12

    Cells process information, in part, through transcription factor (TF) networks, which control the rates at which individual genes produce their products. A TF network map is a graph that indicates which TFs bind and directly regulate each gene. Previous work has described network mapping algorithms that rely exclusively on gene expression data and "integrative" algorithms that exploit a wide range of data sources including chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) of many TFs, genome-wide chromatin marks, and binding specificities for many TFs determined in vitro . However, such resources are available only for a few major model systems and cannot be easily replicated for new organisms or cell types. We present NetProphet 2.0, a "data light" algorithm for TF network mapping, and show that it is more accurate at identifying direct targets of TFs than other, similarly data light algorithms. In particular, it improves on the accuracy of NetProphet 1.0, which used only gene expression data, by exploiting three principles. First, combining multiple approaches to network mapping from expression data can improve accuracy relative to the constituent approaches. Second, TFs with similar DNA binding domains bind similar sets of target genes. Third, even a noisy, preliminary network map can be used to infer DNA binding specificities from promoter sequences and these inferred specificities can be used to further improve the accuracy of the network map. Source code and comprehensive documentation are freely available at https://github.com/yiming-kang/NetProphet_2.0 . brent@wustl.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Green Cooperative Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Pareek, Udit; Lee, Daniel C.; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN), the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN). The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP), which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results. PMID:23584119

  8. Mexican Network for the evaluation of Solar Resources in the country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, M.; Bonifaz, R.; Estevez, H.

    2014-12-01

    Information on Global Solar Radiation provides only the first approximation for the evaluation of solar energy that is necessary for locating potential exploitation sites. Depending on what technology is used, more specific components of the solar radiation (Direct. Diffuse, Global, inclined planes), as well as, certain physical characteristics of the atmosphere (atmospheric aerosol) are required for evaluating solar resources. In order to measure these radiation components in a large country such as Mexico, where there are many abrupt changes in topography and differences in climatic conditions even over small distances, it would be necessary to have a network with several hundred stations. In this situation, the use of models is a more viable solution that has been proven with a high degree of certainty, considering it is based on reliable control points for the adjustment. Here we present the network that was developed on a regional classification based on climatic elements, geology, land use, vegetation and albedo. Solar stations from different universities and research institutes in Mexico also form part of this network for the evaluation of the solar resources in Mexico and its components.

  9. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  10. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: Leveraging Regional and National Resources to Improve Clinical Research Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Parke, Courtney; Cook, Julia; Carton, Thomas; Rao, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping of the human genome and technological advancements allowing storage and rapid retrieval of healthcare data have heralded a new phase in clinical medicine and have served as a catalyst for the advent of personalized medicine. The use of health information databases provides a unique opportunity to investigate questions of great complexity and real-world application in a way that is most useful in providing high quality, safe, and cost-effective clinical care to patients. Methods The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) aims to streamline the workflow of multiinstitutional clinical studies and to dramatically expand the clinical research resources available to local investigators. The LACDRN contains health information for more than 1 million patients in Southeast Louisiana and is a rich resource for researchers to conduct retrospective or observational trials and to recruit patients for prospective studies. Results The LACDRN is part of a large-scale initiative by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to create a national electronic health record network that enables the timely initiation and completion of comparative effectiveness research in a coordinated effort. For the first time, network research will be guided in part by input from patients and caregivers, increasing their engagement in the research process. Conclusion The establishment of the LACDRN is a unique opportunity for clinicians to take part in an innovative national initiative designed to offer new clinical research options for patients and to carry out cutting-edge translational, clinical, and health services research. PMID:25598739

  11. Fairness issues in resource allocation schemes for wireless visual sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2013-02-01

    This work addresses the problem of fairness and efficiency evaluation of various resource allocation schemes for wireless visual sensor networks (VSNs). These schemes are used to optimally allocate the source coding rates, channel coding rates, and power levels among the nodes of a wireless direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) VSN. All of the considered schemes optimize a function of the video qualities of the nodes. However, there is no single scheme that maximizes the video quality of each node simultaneously. In fact, all presented schemes are able to provide a Pareto-optimal solution, meaning that there is no other solution that is simultaneously preferred by all nodes. Thus, it is not clear which scheme results in the best resource allocation for the whole network. To handle the resulting tradeoffs, in this study we examine four metrics that investigate fairness and efficiency under different perspectives. Specifically, we apply a metric that considers both fairness and performance issues, and another metric that measures the "equality" of a resource allocation (equal utilities for the nodes). The third metric computes the total system utility, while the last metric computes the total power consumption of the nodes. Ideally, a desirable scheme would achieve high total utility while being equally fair to all nodes and requiring low amounts of power.

  12. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives. PMID:27077865

  13. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-04-12

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives.

  14. Auction-Based Resource Allocation for Cooperative Video Transmission Protocols over Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhu; Su, Guan-Ming; Wang, Haohong; Ci, Song; Su, Weifeng

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative transmission has been proposed as a novel transmission strategy that takes advantage of broadcast nature of wireless networks, forms virtual MIMO system, and provides diversity gains. In this paper, wireless video transmission protocols are proposed, in which the spectrum resources are first allocated for the source side to broadcast video packets to the relay and destination, and then for the relay side to transmit side information generated from the received packets. The proposed protocols are optimized to minimize the end-to-end expected distortion via choosing bandwidth/power allocation, configuration of side information, subject to bandwidth and power constraints. For multiuser cases, most of current resource allocation approaches cannot be naturally extended and applied to the networks with relay nodes for video transmission. This paper extends the share auction approach into the cooperative video communication scenarios and provides a near-optimal solution for resource allocation. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach has significant advantage of up to 4 dB gain in single user case and 1.3 dB gain in multiuser case over the reference systems in terms of peak-to-signal-noise ratio. In addition, it reduces the formidable computational complexity of the optimal solution to linear complexity with performance degradation of less than 0.3 dB.

  15. Primary health-care network monitoring: a hierarchical resource allocation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Pur, Aleksander; Bohanec, Marko; Lavrac, Nada; Cestnik, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Management of a primary health-care network (PHCN) is a difficult task in every country. A suitable monitoring system can provide useful information for PHCN management, especially given a large quantity of health-care data that is produced daily in the network. This paper proposes a methodology for structured development of monitoring systems and a PHCN resource allocation monitoring model based on this methodology. The purpose of the monitoring model is to improve the allocation of health-care resources. The proposed methodology is based on modules that are organized into a hierarchy, where each module monitors a particular aspect of the system. This methodology was used to design a PHCN monitoring model for Slovenia. Specific aspects of the Slovenian PHCN were taken into account such as varying needs of patients from different municipalities, existence of small municipalities having less than 1000 residents, the fact that many patients visit physicians in other municipalities, and that physicians may work at more than one location or organization. The main modules in the model are focused on the overall assessment of the PHCN, monitoring of patients visits to health-care providers (HCPs), physical accessibility of health services, segment of patients in municipalities who have not selected a personal physician, assessment of the availability of HCPs for patients, physicians working on more than one location, and available human resources in the PHCN. Most of the model's components are general and can be adapted for other national health-care systems.

  16. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-01-01

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes. PMID:27465296

  17. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-07-28

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  18. Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; He, Yongqi; Lee, Young

    2016-07-01

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) becomes a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing in 5G area. However, the radio network, optical network and processing unit cloud have been decoupled from each other, so that their resources are controlled independently. Traditional architecture cannot implement the resource optimization and scheduling for the high-level service guarantee due to the communication obstacle among them with the growing number of mobile internet users. In this paper, we report a study on multi-dimensional resources integration (MDRI) for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN). A resources integrated provisioning (RIP) scheme using an auxiliary graph is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MDRI can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical network and processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility of the proposed architecture is experimentally verified on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of RIP scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal based on MDRI architecture in terms of resource utilization, path blocking probability, network cost and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  19. Effects on Learners' Performance of Using Selected and Open Network Resources in a Problem-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the popularity of computers and computer networks, fostering the web-based problem-solving ability of students has become an important educational objective in recent years. This study attempted to compare the effects of using selected and open network resources on students' intentions with regard to their information system usage by…

  20. Effects on Learners' Performance of Using Selected and Open Network Resources in a Problem-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuang, Chien-Wen; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the popularity of computers and computer networks, fostering the web-based problem-solving ability of students has become an important educational objective in recent years. This study attempted to compare the effects of using selected and open network resources on students' intentions with regard to their information system usage by…

  1. The science, technology and research network (STARNET) a searchable thematic compilation of web resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blados, W.R.; Cotter, G.A.; Hermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    International alliances in space efforts have resulted in a more rapid diffusion of space technology. This, in turn, increases pressure on organizations to push forward with technological developments and to take steps to maximize their inclusion into the research and development (R&D) process and the overall advancement and enhancement of space technology. To cope with this vast and rapidly growing amount of data and information that is vital to the success of the innovation, the Information Management Committee (IMC) of the Research Technology Agency (RTA) developed the science, technology and research network (STARNET). The purpose of this network is to facilitate access to worldwide information elements in terms of science, technology and overall research. It provides a virtual library with special emphasis on international security; a "one stop" information resource for policy makers, program managers, scientists, engineers, researchers and others. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  2. Improving Power Quality in Low-Voltage Networks Containing Distributed Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sumit; Ghosh, Arindam; Zare, Firuz

    2013-05-01

    Severe power quality problems can arise when a large number of single-phase distributed energy resources (DERs) are connected to a low-voltage power distribution system. Due to the random location and size of DERs, it may so happen that a particular phase generates excess power than its load demand. In such an event, the excess power will be fed back to the distribution substation and will eventually find its way to the transmission network, causing undesirable voltage-current unbalance. As a solution to this problem, the article proposes the use of a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which regulates voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), thereby ensuring balanced current flow from and to the distribution substation. Additionally, this device can also support the distribution network in the absence of the utility connection, making the distribution system work as a microgrid. The proposals are validated through extensive digital computer simulation studies using PSCADTM.

  3. Software cost/resource modeling: Deep space network software cost estimation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric software cost estimation model prepared for JPL deep space network (DSN) data systems implementation tasks is presented. The resource estimation model incorporates principles and data from a number of existing models, such as those of the General Research Corporation, Doty Associates, IBM (Walston-Felix), Rome Air Force Development Center, University of Maryland, and Rayleigh-Norden-Putnam. The model calibrates task magnitude and difficulty, development environment, and software technology effects through prompted responses to a set of approximately 50 questions. Parameters in the model are adjusted to fit JPL software lifecycle statistics. The estimation model output scales a standard DSN work breakdown structure skeleton, which is then input to a PERT/CPM system, producing a detailed schedule and resource budget for the project being planned.

  4. Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini

    2016-11-01

    The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.

  5. QoS-oriented high dynamic resource allocation in vehicular communication networks.

    PubMed

    Bejaoui, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as new research area and attracting an increasing attention from both industry and research communities. In this context, a dynamic resource allocation policy that maximizes the use of available resources and meets the quality of service (QoS) requirement of constraining applications is proposed. It is a combination of a fair packet scheduling policy and a new adaptive QoS oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme based on the vehicle density variation. This scheme decides whether the connection request is to be admitted into the system, while providing fair access and guaranteeing the desired throughput. The proposed algorithm showed good performance in testing in real world environment.

  6. QoS-Oriented High Dynamic Resource Allocation in Vehicular Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as new research area and attracting an increasing attention from both industry and research communities. In this context, a dynamic resource allocation policy that maximizes the use of available resources and meets the quality of service (QoS) requirement of constraining applications is proposed. It is a combination of a fair packet scheduling policy and a new adaptive QoS oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme based on the vehicle density variation. This scheme decides whether the connection request is to be admitted into the system, while providing fair access and guaranteeing the desired throughput. The proposed algorithm showed good performance in testing in real world environment. PMID:24616639

  7. The Preventing Suicide Network: Delivering online tailored resources to those who help others.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, Victoria; Schlachta-Fairchild, Loretta; Szczur, Martha; Chang, Hua Florence; Young-Weeden, Elizabeth; Rocca, Mitra

    2006-01-01

    Concerned over the growing epidemic of death by suicide in the United States, the National Institute of Mental Health of the U.S. National Institutes of Health funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects using innovative web-based approaches to provide resources to professionals and the general public about suicide prevention. The Preventing Suicide Network (PSN) was funded (SBIR Contract #N44MH22044) and developed over a three and a half year period (2001-2005) as part of this initiative. The PSN provides intermediaries (those who participate in activities to prevent suicide) with an online community dedicated to timely access to authoritative and problem-specific tailored information.

  8. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  9. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent’s limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent’s cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent’s view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved. PMID:26727504

  10. Application of Bayesian Decision Networks for sustainable groundwater resources management in semi-arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajerani, Hadis; Casper, Markus; Kholghi, Majid; Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Farmani, Raziyeh; Saadoddin, Amir; Meftah Halaghi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents management of groundwater resource using a Bayesian Decision Network (BDN). The Kordkooy region in North East of Iran has been selected as study area. The region has been divided to three parts based on Transmissivity (T) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) values. The BDN parameters (prior probabilities and Conditional Probability Tables (CPTs) have been identified for each of the three zones. Three groups of management scenarios have been developed based on the two decision variables including "Crop pattern" and "Domestic water demand" across the three zones of the study area: 1) status quo management for all three zones representing current conditions. 2) the effect of change in cropping pattern on management endpoints and 3) the effect of increasing domestic water demand on management endpoints in the future. The outcomes arising from implementing each scenario have been predicted using the BDN for each of the zones. Results reveal that probability of drawdown in groundwater levels of southern areas is relatively high compared with other zones. Groundwater withdrawal from northern and northwestern areas of the study area should be limited due to the groundwater quality problems associated with shallow groundwater of these two zones. The ability of the Bayesian Decision Network to take into account key uncertainties in natural resources and performing a meaningful analysis in cases where there is not vast amount of information and observed data available -even based partly on expert opinion- emphasizes the advantage of this approach in groundwater resources management process, as limited data availability was a serious problem faced by groundwater resources of the study area.

  11. Research on the tourism resource development from the perspective of network capability-Taking Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yanli; Hua, Hefeng

    2017-03-01

    Network capability is the enterprise's capability to set up, manage, maintain and use a variety of relations between enterprises, and to obtain resources for improving competitiveness. Tourism in China is in a transformation period from sightseeing to leisure and vacation. Scenic spots as well as tourist enterprises can learn from some other enterprises in the process of resource development, and build up its own network relations in order to get resources for their survival and development. Through the effective management of network relations, the performance of resource development will be improved. By analyzing literature on network capability and the case analysis of Wuxi Huishan Ancient Town, the role of network capacity in the tourism resource development is explored and resource development path is built from the perspective of network capability. Finally, the tourism resource development process model based on network capacity is proposed. This model mainly includes setting up network vision, resource identification, resource acquisition, resource utilization and tourism project development. In these steps, network construction, network management and improving network center status are key points.

  12. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-04-28

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme.

  13. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-01-01

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme. PMID:27136550

  14. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; He, Yongqi; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Wei; Lee, Young

    2016-04-18

    Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has become a promising scenario to accommodate high-performance services with ubiquitous user coverage and real-time cloud computing using cloud BBUs. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate the services in optical networks. In view of this, this study extends to consider the multiple dimensional resources optimization of radio, optical and BBU processing in 5G age. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources optimization (MSRO) architecture with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) using software defined control. A global evaluation scheme (GES) for MSRO in C-RoFN is introduced based on the proposed architecture. The MSRO can enhance the responsiveness to dynamic end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical and BBU resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed architecture are experimentally demonstrated on OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of GES under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRO architecture in terms of resource occupation rate and path provisioning latency, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  15. Few Ant Species Play a Central Role Linking Different Plant Resources in a Network in Rupestrian Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Guerra, Tadeu J.; Muylaert, Renata L.; Leite, Alice C.; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Ant-plant associations are an outstanding model to study the entangled ecological interactions that structure communities. However, most studies of plant-animal networks focus on only one type of resource that mediates these interactions (e.g, nectar or fruits), leading to a biased understanding of community structure. New approaches, however, have made possible to study several interaction types simultaneously through multilayer networks models. Here, we use this approach to ask whether the structural patterns described to date for ant-plant networks hold when multiple interactions with plant-derived food rewards are considered. We tested whether networks characterized by different resource types differ in specialization and resource partitioning among ants, and whether the identity of the core ant species is similar among resource types. We monitored ant interactions with extrafloral nectaries, flowers, and fruits, as well as trophobiont hemipterans feeding on plants, for one year, in seven rupestrian grassland (campo rupestre) sites in southeastern Brazil. We found a highly tangled ant-plant network in which plants offering different resource types are connected by a few central ant species. The multilayer network had low modularity and specialization, but ant specialization and niche overlap differed according to the type of resource used. Beyond detecting structural differences across networks, our study demonstrates empirically that the core of most central ant species is similar across them. We suggest that foraging strategies of ant species, such as massive recruitment, may determine specialization and resource partitioning in ant-plant interactions. As this core of ant species is involved in multiple ecosystem functions, it may drive the diversity and evolution of the entire campo rupestre community. PMID:27911919

  16. Few Ant Species Play a Central Role Linking Different Plant Resources in a Network in Rupestrian Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fernanda V; Mello, Marco A R; Bronstein, Judith L; Guerra, Tadeu J; Muylaert, Renata L; Leite, Alice C; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-01-01

    Ant-plant associations are an outstanding model to study the entangled ecological interactions that structure communities. However, most studies of plant-animal networks focus on only one type of resource that mediates these interactions (e.g, nectar or fruits), leading to a biased understanding of community structure. New approaches, however, have made possible to study several interaction types simultaneously through multilayer networks models. Here, we use this approach to ask whether the structural patterns described to date for ant-plant networks hold when multiple interactions with plant-derived food rewards are considered. We tested whether networks characterized by different resource types differ in specialization and resource partitioning among ants, and whether the identity of the core ant species is similar among resource types. We monitored ant interactions with extrafloral nectaries, flowers, and fruits, as well as trophobiont hemipterans feeding on plants, for one year, in seven rupestrian grassland (campo rupestre) sites in southeastern Brazil. We found a highly tangled ant-plant network in which plants offering different resource types are connected by a few central ant species. The multilayer network had low modularity and specialization, but ant specialization and niche overlap differed according to the type of resource used. Beyond detecting structural differences across networks, our study demonstrates empirically that the core of most central ant species is similar across them. We suggest that foraging strategies of ant species, such as massive recruitment, may determine specialization and resource partitioning in ant-plant interactions. As this core of ant species is involved in multiple ecosystem functions, it may drive the diversity and evolution of the entire campo rupestre community.

  17. Insect-Flower Interaction Network Structure Is Resilient to a Temporary Pulse of Floral Resources from Invasive Rhododendron ponticum

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Stout, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering), yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H’2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure is robust to

  18. The Global Network Neonatal Cause of Death algorithm for low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Garces, Ana L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pérez, Wilton; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F; Figueroa, Lester; Bose, Carl L; Carlo, Waldemar A; Tenge, Constance; Esamai, Fabian; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Saleem, Sarah; Patel, Archana B; Chiwila, Melody; Chomba, Elwyn; Tshefu, Antoinette; Derman, Richard J; Hibberd, Patricia L; Bucher, Sherri; Liechty, Edward A; Bauserman, Melissa; Moore, Janet L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Miodovnik, Menachem; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    This study estimated the causes of neonatal death using an algorithm for low-resource areas, where 98% of the world's neonatal deaths occur. We enrolled women in India, Pakistan, Guatemala, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Zambia from 2014 to 2016 and tracked their delivery and newborn outcomes for up to 28 days. Antenatal care and delivery symptoms were collected using a structured questionnaire, clinical observation and/or a physical examination. The Global Network Cause of Death algorithm was used to assign the cause of neonatal death, analysed by country and day of death. One-third (33.1%) of the 3068 neonatal deaths were due to suspected infection, 30.8% to prematurity, 21.2% to asphyxia, 9.5% to congenital anomalies and 5.4% did not have a cause of death assigned. Prematurity and asphyxia-related deaths were more common on the first day of life (46.7% and 52.9%, respectively), while most deaths due to infection occurred after the first day of life (86.9%). The distribution of causes was similar to global data reported by other major studies. The Global Network algorithm provided a reliable cause of neonatal death in low-resource settings and can be used to inform public health strategies to reduce mortality. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  20. White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations.

    PubMed

    Kelder, Thomas; Summer, Georg; Caspers, Martien; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap; Duivenvoorde, Loes; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Bohnert, Laura; Pico, Catalina; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Arola, Lluis; van Erk, Marjan; van Ommen, Ben; Radonjic, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a

  1. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  2. Resources and population served: a description of the Ontario Paediatric Diabetes Network

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Rayzel; Miller, Fiona A.; Stukel, Therese A.; Daneman, Denis; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Network of Ontario Pediatric Diabetes Programs was established in 2001 to provide access to specialized pediatric diabetes care. Universal funding for pediatric insulin pump therapy has been available in Ontario since 2006. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of patients, resources and insulin pump use across centres within the network, now called the Ontario Paediatric Diabetes Network. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2012 of the 35 pediatric diabetes centres in Ontario to measure centre characteristics, patient volume and available clinical and social resources. We used health administrative data from the provincial Assistive Devices Program to describe patients aged 18 years or less using insulin pumps by centre as a measure of technology uptake. Results: All 35 centres participated, reporting a total of 6676 children with type 1 diabetes and 368 with type 2 diabetes. Most (> 80%) children with type 1 diabetes were followed at tertiary (n = 5) or large community (n = 14) centres. Nursing patient load was similar between centre types, but there was a large range across centres within any type. Overall, percent insulin pump use was 38.1% and varied widely across centres (5.3%-66.7%). Funded 24-hour support for pump users was available at 5 (36%) small community centres, 3 (19%) large community centres and 2 (40%) tertiary centres. Interpretation: Our study showed differences in access to specialized and after-hours care for children with diabetes in Ontario. Pump use varied widely across centres. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these observed differences on quality of care and outcomes. PMID:27398356

  3. [Research resource network and Parkinson disease brain bank donor registration program in Japan].

    PubMed

    Arima, Kunimasa

    2010-10-01

    In spite of the increasing need for brain tissue in biomedical research, overall brain banking activities in Japan has been lagging behind. On the initiative of the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 2 projects have been carried out; the Research Resource Network (RRN) and the Parkinson's Disease Brain Bank (PDBB) donor registration program. RRN is a nation-wide network that links 15 brain repositories, and 1,463 autopsy brains have been registered in this network as of December 2009. The brain donor registration program for PDBB was established in 2006. A donor without cognitive impairment can enroll in this PDBB donor registration program. When the donor dies, the next-of-kin will contact the PDBB coordinators for subsequent autopsy services and brain retention. On obtaining the next-of-kin's consent at the time of donor's death, autopsy will be performed at PDBB collaborating hospitals of National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Juntendo University Hospital, and Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital. In order to arouse public interest, lecture meetings for citizens have been held on a regular basis. Fifty individuals have registered in the PDBB donor registration program including 27 patients with PD, 4 patient with Parkinson syndrome, 1 patient with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 18 individuals without PD or related disorders as of December 2009. Autopsies have been performed for 2 of these donors. To promote brain banking activities,it is necessary to establish legal and ethical guidelines for the use of autopsied materials in biomedical research.

  4. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors.

  5. Coordinating Resource Usage through Adaptive Service Provisioning in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Chien-Liang; Roman, Gruia-Catalin; Lu, Chenyang

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) exhibit high levels of network dynamics and consist of devices with limited energy. This results in the need to coordinate applications not only at the functional level, as is traditionally done, but also in terms of resource utilization. In this paper, we present a middleware that does this using adaptive service provisioning. Novel service binding strategies automatically adapt application behavior when opportunities for energy savings surface, and switch providers when the network topology changes. The former is accomplished by providing limited information about the energy consumption associated with using various services, systematically exploiting opportunities for sharing service invocations, and exploiting the broadcast nature of wireless communication in WSNs. The middleware has been implemented and evaluated on two disparate WSN platforms, the TelosB and Imote2. Empirical results show that adaptive service provisioning can enable energy-aware service binding decisions that result in increased energy efficiency and significantly increase service availability, while imposing minimal additional burden on the application, service, and device developers. Two applications, medical patient monitoring and structural health monitoring, demonstrate the middleware's efficacy.

  6. Interconnected Nanoflake Network Derived from a Natural Resource for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2016-10-06

    Numerous natural resources have a highly interconnected network with developed porous structure, so enabling directional and fast matrix transport. Such structures are appealing for the design of efficient anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, although they can be challenging to prepare. Inspired by nature, a novel synthesis route from biomass is proposed by using readily available auricularia as retractable support and carbon coating precursor to soak up metal salt solution. Using the swelling properties of the auricularia with the complexation of metal ions, a nitrogen-containing MnO@C nanoflake network has been easily synthesized with fast electrochemical reaction dynamics and a superior lithium storage performance. A subsequent carbonization results in the in situ synthesis of MnO nanoparticles throughout the porous carbon flake network. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, an excellent reversible capacity is achieved of 868 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1) over 300 cycles and 668 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) over 500 cycles, indicating a high tolerance to the volume expansion. The approach investigated opens up new avenues for the design of high performance electrodes with highly cross-linked nanoflake structures, which may have great application prospects.

  7. Supporting crop pollinators with floral resources: network-based phenological matching

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Laura; DeBarros, Nelson; Yang, Suann; Shea, Katriona; Mortensen, David

    2013-01-01

    The production of diverse and affordable agricultural crop species depends on pollination services provided by bees. Indeed, the proportion of pollinator-dependent crops is increasing globally. Agriculture relies heavily on the domesticated honeybee; the services provided by this single species are under threat and becoming increasingly costly. Importantly, the free pollination services provided by diverse wild bee communities have been shown to be sufficient for high agricultural yields in some systems. However, stable, functional wild bee communities require floral resources, such as pollen and nectar, throughout their active season, not just when crop species are in flower. To target floral provisioning efforts to conserve and support native and managed bee species, we apply network theoretical methods incorporating plant and pollinator phenologies. Using a two-year dataset comprising interactions between bees (superfamily Apoidea, Anthophila) and 25 native perennial plant species in floral provisioning habitat, we identify plant and bee species that provide a key and central role to the stability of the structure of this community. We also examine three specific case studies: how provisioning habitat can provide temporally continuous support for honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus impatiens), and how resource supplementation strategies might be designed for a single genus of important orchard pollinators (Osmia). This framework could be used to provide native bee communities with additional, well-targeted floral resources to ensure that they not only survive, but also thrive. PMID:24101999

  8. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  9. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  10. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  11. Study on the potential for delay tolerant networks by health workers in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Lee, Peisan; Jian, Wen-Shan; Liou, Der-Ming; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2012-09-01

    Medical Informatics Systems (MIS) have been suggested as having great potential to improve health care delivery in low resource settings. One of the major barriers for adopting MIS in this context is a lack of adequate network/communication infrastructure. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an approach for establishing network connectivity in situations where it is possible to support physical transport of the digital information. To date most DTN research has been technically oriented, and very few services have been implemented to support healthcare systems using the technology. It is thus unclear about the potential that DTN may have for supporting MIS systems in low resource settings. The goals of the paper are twofold, first, to gain an initial estimate of interest in different services that can be supported by DTN. Second, to find out the necessary frequency associated with each service for supporting health work in low resource settings. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to attendants at the International Conference on Global Health that had acknowledged having health work experience in a poor connectivity context. The respondents were using a 5-point Likert scale regarding if 9 different potential DTN services "would be useful". They also were asked how often data delivery would be necessary for these services to be useful. The Chi square was calculated to measure acceptance. 37 responses were received, aggregating the response rate of 74%. The respondents represented having work experience from 8 months to 15 years from 35 resource poor countries. The Chi square test showed very high statistical significance for "strongly agree and agree" for the potential usefulness of the proposed DTN services, with a p-value less than 0.001. The frequency of data delivery that would be necessary for services to be useful varied considerably. This study provides evidence of potential for DTN to support useful services that support health work in low resource settings

  12. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  13. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    PubMed

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood.

  14. Optimal Voltage Regulation for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Considering Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output in a three phase unbalanced distribution system is developed. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DERs). To avoid the oscillation of solution when it is close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size. Numerical simulations on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders show the efficiency of the proposed model. Compared to the results solved by heuristic search (harmony algorithm), the proposed model converges quickly to the global optimum.

  15. Performance evaluation of data center service localization based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic optical network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tan, Yuanlong; Lin, Yi; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-09-07

    Data center interconnection with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented cross stratum optimization of optical network and application stratums resources that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends the data center resources to user side to enhance the end-to-end quality of service. We propose a novel data center service localization (DCSL) architecture based on virtual resource migration in software defined elastic data center optical network. A migration evaluation scheme (MES) is introduced for DCSL based on the proposed architecture. The DCSL can enhance the responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end data center demands, and effectively reduce the blocking probability to globally optimize optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of our OpenFlow-based enhanced SDN testbed. The performance of MES scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on DCSL architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning scheme.

  16. Enhancement of environment and resources engineering studies through an international cooperation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Tuneski, A.

    2012-12-01

    , following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The new second cycle degree courses are going to be activated in the academic year 2012/2012. Both the first and second cycle curricula, developed through the co-operation, exchange of know-how and expertise between partners, are based on the European Credit Transfer System and are in accordance with the Bologna Process. In DEREL a second objective is to implement a sustainable regional network aimed to offer lifelong learning seminars for environment and resources engineering education and training of interested stakeholders and organize workshops focused on strengthening the links in the knowledge triangle: environment education-innovation-research, with participation of postgraduate students, public services, enterprises and NGO's. Also, the good collaborative environment created, since 2005, with the project partners can be surely mentioned as an additional valuable objective of the two TEMPUS projects, enabling implementation of a sustainable international network for environment and resources engineering studies enhancement and development.

  17. Power-efficient distributed resource allocation under goodput QoS constraints for heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, Riccardo; Del Fiorentino, Paolo; Giannetti, Filippo; Lottici, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    This work proposes a distributed resource allocation (RA) algorithm for packet bit-interleaved coded OFDM transmissions in the uplink of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), characterized by small cells deployed over a macrocell area and sharing the same band. Every user allocates its transmission resources, i.e., bits per active subcarrier, coding rate, and power per subcarrier, to minimize the power consumption while both guaranteeing a target quality of service (QoS) and accounting for the interference inflicted by other users transmitting over the same band. The QoS consists of the number of information bits delivered in error-free packets per unit of time, or goodput (GP), estimated at the transmitter by resorting to an efficient effective SNR mapping technique. First, the RA problem is solved in the point-to-point case, thus deriving an approximate yet accurate closed-form expression for the power allocation (PA). Then, the interference-limited HetNet case is examined, where the RA problem is described as a non-cooperative game, providing a solution in terms of generalized Nash equilibrium. Thanks to the closed-form of the PA, the solution analysis is based on the best response concept. Hence, sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of the solution are analytically derived, along with a distributed algorithm capable of reaching the game equilibrium.

  18. Bayesian model selection applied to artificial neural networks used for water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, Greer B.; Maier, Holger R.; Lambert, Martin F.

    2008-04-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have proven to be extremely valuable tools in the field of water resources engineering. However, one of the most difficult tasks in developing an ANN is determining the optimum level of complexity required to model a given problem, as there is no formal systematic model selection method. This paper presents a Bayesian model selection (BMS) method for ANNs that provides an objective approach for comparing models of varying complexity in order to select the most appropriate ANN structure. The approach uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo posterior simulations to estimate the evidence in favor of competing models and, in this study, three known methods for doing this are compared in terms of their suitability for being incorporated into the proposed BMS framework for ANNs. However, it is acknowledged that it can be particularly difficult to accurately estimate the evidence of ANN models. Therefore, the proposed BMS approach for ANNs incorporates a further check of the evidence results by inspecting the marginal posterior distributions of the hidden-to-output layer weights, which unambiguously indicate any redundancies in the hidden layer nodes. The fact that this check is available is one of the greatest advantages of the proposed approach over conventional model selection methods, which do not provide such a test and instead rely on the modeler's subjective choice of selection criterion. The advantages of a total Bayesian approach to ANN development, including training and model selection, are demonstrated on two synthetic and one real world water resources case study.

  19. Properties of water and steam: Network, open, and interactive IT-resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Orlov, K. A.; Aleksandrov, A. A.; Ochkov, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    New tendencies in publishing data on the thermophysical properties of substances are considered taking as an example water and steam, substances used as the main working fluid in thermal and nuclear power engineering. The advantages and shortcomings of both the traditional approach to publishing data on the properties of substances in hard printed form and the modern one, according to which the data are published in electronic form on Internet websites, are pointed out. The important requirements for publishing data in electronic form are described: the data must be presented in the form of network open and interactive calculations with examples of using them. A critical analysis of the relevant Internet resources is given. Some aspects of the work conducted by the International Association on the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) are described. Particular examples of possible ways in which modern IT-resources on calculating the properties of substances can be set up are given: a hard printed handbook, a calculation program for being installed on a computer, calculation documents for downloading from a website, and using server calculations based on the technologies Mathcad Calculation Server on the website of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University and SMath on the website of the Elsevier electronic publishing house.

  20. Innovative Resources for Seismology at School with the French Educational Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, J. L.; Courboulex, F.; Balestra, J.; Nolet, G.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The original and innovative aspect of this programme stems from giving students the opportunity to install a seismometer in their school. The recorded signals, reflecting regional or global seismic activity, feed into an on-line database, a genuine seismic resource centre and a springboard for educational and scientific activities. The network 'EduSismo' (numbering some hundred stations installed in metropolitan France, the overseas departments and territories and a few French high schools abroad) is the outgrowth of an experiment conducted some twenty years back. Since then, the programme implemented has gone beyond simply acquiring seismic signals, which could have been procured by research and monitoring centres. By appropriating a scientific measurement, the student becomes personally involved and masters complex concepts about geophysics and geosciences. The development of simple devices and the design of concrete experiments associated with an investigative approach make it possible to instil the students with a high-quality scientific culture and an education about risks. Today, this programme is expanding with new tools providing by new research projects. Since last year, students can investigate ocean sound recorded by 'Mermaid' buoys and downloaded directly the data in the schools. Geosciences at school are opening new activities with seismic data from the ocean but also study of oceanographic currents or atmospheric events. We are also preparing actively the French E&O plan for SEIS-InSight (the future mission on Mars). InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigation, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that would place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. This program will provide to the schools a lot of innovative tools related to scientific culture to bring more geosciences into the classroom. As in the past, the French educational network will get the benefit of these new research

  1. Multi-agent modelling framework for water, energy and other resource networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Meier, P.; Harou, J. J.; Yoon, J.; Lachaut, T.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Avisse, N.; Mohamed, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Khadem, M.; Tilmant, A.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bespoke modelling tools are often needed when planning future engineered interventions in the context of various climate, socio-economic and geopolitical futures. Such tools can help improve system operating policies or assess infrastructure upgrades and their risks. A frequently used approach is to simulate and/or optimise the impact of interventions in engineered systems. Modelling complex infrastructure systems can involve incorporating multiple aspects into a single model, for example physical, economic and political. This presents the challenge of combining research from diverse areas into a single system effectively. We present the Pynsim 'Python Network Simulator' framework, a library for building simulation models capable of representing, the physical, institutional and economic aspects of an engineered resources system. Pynsim is an open source, object oriented code aiming to promote integration of different modelling processes through a single code library. We present two case studies that demonstrate important features of Pynsim's design. The first is a large interdisciplinary project of a national water system in the Middle East with modellers from fields including water resources, economics, hydrology and geography each considering different facets of a multi agent system. It includes: modelling water supply and demand for households and farms; a water tanker market with transfer of water between farms and households, and policy decisions made by government institutions at district, national and international level. This study demonstrates that a well-structured library of code can provide a hub for development and act as a catalyst for integrating models. The second focuses on optimising the location of new run-of-river hydropower plants. Using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, this study analyses different network configurations to identify the optimal placement of new power plants within a river network. This demonstrates that Pynsim can be

  2. Competitive allocation of resources on a network: an agent-based model of air companies competing for the best routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtner, Gérald; Valori, Luca; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    We present a stylized model of the allocation of resources on a network. By considering as a concrete example the network of sectors of the airspace, where each node is a sector characterized by a maximal number of simultaneously present aircraft, we consider the problem of air companies competing for the allocation of the airspace. Each company is characterized by a cost function, weighting differently punctuality and length of the flight. We consider the model in the presence of pure and mixed populations of types of airline companies and we study how the equilibria depends on the characteristics of the network.

  3. CI-KNOW: Cyberinfrastructure Knowledge Networks on the Web. A Social Network Enabled Recommender System for Locating Resources in Cyberinfrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. D.; Contractor, N. S.; Yao, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A knowledge network is a multi-dimensional network created from the interactions and interconnections among the scientists, documents, data, analytic tools, and interactive collaboration spaces (like forums and wikis) associated with a collaborative environment. CI-KNOW is a suite of software tools that leverages automated data collection, social network theories, analysis techniques and algorithms to infer an individual's interests and expertise based on their interactions and activities within a knowledge network. The CI-KNOW recommender system mines the knowledge network associated with a scientific community's use of cyberinfrastructure tools and uses relational metadata to record connections among entities in the knowledge network. Recent developments in social network theories and methods provide the backbone for a modular system that creates recommendations from relational metadata. A network navigation portlet allows users to locate colleagues, documents, data or analytic tools in the knowledge network and to explore their networks through a visual, step-wise process. An internal auditing portlet offers administrators diagnostics to assess the growth and health of the entire knowledge network. The first instantiation of the prototype CI-KNOW system is part of the Environmental Cyberinfrastructure Demonstration project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, which supports the activities of hydrologic and environmental science communities (CLEANER and CUAHSI) under the umbrella of the WATERS network environmental observatory planning activities (http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). This poster summarizes the key aspects of the CI-KNOW system, highlighting the key inputs, calculation mechanisms, and output modalities.

  4. Facilitating Professional Development in Women Pharmacy Faculty: Role-Models, Mentors and Networks as Resources for Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Victoria F.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanisms to foster and develop leadership skills among pharmacy's fastest growing demographic segment, women, must be cultivated now. Role-modeling, mentoring, and networking have worked well for men and lend themselves to women's sharing style of leadership. Formalized systems must be built and women faculty's access to resources assured. (MSE)

  5. Analysis of a summary network of co-infection in humans reveals that parasites interact most via shared resources.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Emily C; Pedersen, Amy B; Fenton, Andy; Petchey, Owen L

    2014-05-07

    Simultaneous infection by multiple parasite species (viruses, bacteria, helminths, protozoa or fungi) is commonplace. Most reports show co-infected humans to have worse health than those with single infections. However, we have little understanding of how co-infecting parasites interact within human hosts. We used data from over 300 published studies to construct a network that offers the first broad indications of how groups of co-infecting parasites tend to interact. The network had three levels comprising parasites, the resources they consume and the immune responses they elicit, connected by potential, observed and experimentally proved links. Pairs of parasite species had most potential to interact indirectly through shared resources, rather than through immune responses or other parasites. In addition, the network comprised 10 tightly knit groups, eight of which were associated with particular body parts, and seven of which were dominated by parasite-resource links. Reported co-infection in humans is therefore structured by physical location within the body, with bottom-up, resource-mediated processes most often influencing how, where and which co-infecting parasites interact. The many indirect interactions show how treating an infection could affect other infections in co-infected patients, but the compartmentalized structure of the network will limit how far these indirect effects are likely to spread.

  6. An On-Line Information Management System for Resources for Staff Development for the Professional Development Center Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing

    The Professional Development Center Network (PDC), a consortium of twenty public school districts, parochial schools, and Western Kentucky University, seeks to identify and secure resources to assist in the design and delivery of activities appropriate to the educational development of individual staff members through the online Information…

  7. Feedback control stabilization of critical dynamics via resource transport on multilayer networks: How glia enable learning dynamics in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Yogesh S.; Shew, Woodrow L.; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Learning and memory are acquired through long-lasting changes in synapses. In the simplest models, such synaptic potentiation typically leads to runaway excitation, but in reality there must exist processes that robustly preserve overall stability of the neural system dynamics. How is this accomplished? Various approaches to this basic question have been considered. Here we propose a particularly compelling and natural mechanism for preserving stability of learning neural systems. This mechanism is based on the global processes by which metabolic resources are distributed to the neurons by glial cells. Specifically, we introduce and study a model composed of two interacting networks: a model neural network interconnected by synapses that undergo spike-timing-dependent plasticity; and a model glial network interconnected by gap junctions that diffusively transport metabolic resources among the glia and, ultimately, to neural synapses where they are consumed. Our main result is that the biophysical constraints imposed by diffusive transport of metabolic resources through the glial network can prevent runaway growth of synaptic strength, both during ongoing activity and during learning. Our findings suggest a previously unappreciated role for glial transport of metabolites in the feedback control stabilization of neural network dynamics during learning.

  8. A generalized network flow model for the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Miawjane; Yan, Shangyao; Wang, Sin-Siang; Liu, Chiu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    An effective project schedule is essential for enterprises to increase their efficiency of project execution, to maximize profit, and to minimize wastage of resources. Heuristic algorithms have been developed to efficiently solve the complicated multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows (MRCPSPDCF) that characterize real problems. However, the solutions obtained in past studies have been approximate and are difficult to evaluate in terms of optimality. In this study, a generalized network flow model, embedded in a time-precedence network, is proposed to formulate the MRCPSPDCF with the payment at activity completion times. Mathematically, the model is formulated as an integer network flow problem with side constraints, which can be efficiently solved for optimality, using existing mathematical programming software. To evaluate the model performance, numerical tests are performed. The test results indicate that the model could be a useful planning tool for project scheduling in the real world.

  9. Self-Adaptive Prediction of Cloud Resource Demands Using Ensemble Model and Subtractive-Fuzzy Clustering Based Fuzzy Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuanchang; Di, Yanqiang; Feng, Shaochong

    2015-01-01

    In IaaS (infrastructure as a service) cloud environment, users are provisioned with virtual machines (VMs). To allocate resources for users dynamically and effectively, accurate resource demands predicting is essential. For this purpose, this paper proposes a self-adaptive prediction method using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network (ESFCFNN). We analyze the characters of user preferences and demands. Then the architecture of the prediction model is constructed. We adopt some base predictors to compose the ensemble model. Then the structure and learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network is researched. To obtain the number of fuzzy rules and the initial value of the premise and consequent parameters, this paper proposes the fuzzy c-means combined with subtractive clustering algorithm, that is, the subtractive-fuzzy clustering. Finally, we adopt different criteria to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the method is accurate and effective in predicting the resource demands. PMID:25691896

  10. Self-adaptive prediction of cloud resource demands using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuanchang; Di, Yanqiang; Feng, Shaochong

    2015-01-01

    In IaaS (infrastructure as a service) cloud environment, users are provisioned with virtual machines (VMs). To allocate resources for users dynamically and effectively, accurate resource demands predicting is essential. For this purpose, this paper proposes a self-adaptive prediction method using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network (ESFCFNN). We analyze the characters of user preferences and demands. Then the architecture of the prediction model is constructed. We adopt some base predictors to compose the ensemble model. Then the structure and learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network is researched. To obtain the number of fuzzy rules and the initial value of the premise and consequent parameters, this paper proposes the fuzzy c-means combined with subtractive clustering algorithm, that is, the subtractive-fuzzy clustering. Finally, we adopt different criteria to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the method is accurate and effective in predicting the resource demands.

  11. Sustainability and collapse in a coevolutionary model of local resource stocks and behavioral patterns on a social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    When investigating the causes and consequences of global change, the collective behavior of human beings is considered as having a considerable impact on natural systems. In our work, we propose a conceptual coevolutionary model simulating the dynamics of local renewable resources in interaction with simplistic societal agents exploiting those resources. The society is represented by a social network on which social traits may be transmitted between agents. These traits themselves induce a certain rate of exploitation of the resource, leading either to its depletion or sustainable existence. Traits are exchanged probabilistically according to their instantaneous individual payoff, and hence this process depends on the status of the natural resource. At the same time agents may adaptively restructure their set of acquaintances. Connections with agents having a different trait may be broken while new connections with agents of the same trait are established. We investigate which choices of social parameters, like the frequency of social interaction, rationality and rate of social network adaptation, cause the system to end in a sustainable state and, hence, what can be done to avoid a collapse of the entire system. The importance and influence of the social network structure is analyzed by the variation of link-densities in the underlying network topology and shows significant influence on the expected outcome of the model. For a static network with no adaptation we find a robust phase transition between the two different regimes, sustainable and non-sustainable, which co-exist in parameter space. High connectivity within the social network, e.g., high link-densities, in combination with a fast rate of social learning lead to a likely collapse of the entire co-evolutionary system, whereas slow learning and small network connectivity very likely result in the sustainable existence of the natural resources. Collapse may be avoided by an intelligent rewiring, e

  12. Scale-free structures emerging from co-evolution of a network and the distribution of a diffusive resource on it.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takaaki; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2012-11-16

    Co-evolution exhibited by a network system, involving the intricate interplay between the dynamics of the network itself and the subsystems connected by it, is a key concept for understanding the self-organized, flexible nature of real-world network systems. We propose a simple model of such coevolving network dynamics, in which the diffusion of a resource over a weighted network and the resource-driven evolution of the link weights occur simultaneously. We demonstrate that, under feasible conditions, the network robustly acquires scale-free characteristics in the asymptotic state. Interestingly, in the case that the system includes dissipation, it asymptotically realizes a dynamical phase characterized by an organized scale-free network, in which the ranking of each node with respect to the quantity of the resource possessed thereby changes ceaselessly. Our model offers a unified framework for understanding some real-world diffusion-driven network systems of diverse types.

  13. The shortest path is not the one you know: application of biological network resources in precision oncology research.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, Inna; Grieco, Luca; Cohen, David P A; Thieffry, Denis; Zinovyev, Andrei; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    Several decades of molecular biology research have delivered a wealth of detailed descriptions of molecular interactions in normal and tumour cells. This knowledge has been functionally organised and assembled into dedicated biological pathway resources that serve as an invaluable tool, not only for structuring the information about molecular interactions but also for making it available for biological, clinical and computational studies. With the advent of high-throughput molecular profiling of tumours, close to complete molecular catalogues of mutations, gene expression and epigenetic modifications are available and require adequate interpretation. Taking into account the information about biological signalling machinery in cells may help to better interpret molecular profiles of tumours. Making sense out of these descriptions requires biological pathway resources for functional interpretation of the data. In this review, we describe the available biological pathway resources, their characteristics in terms of construction mode, focus, aims and paradigms of biological knowledge representation. We present a new resource that is focused on cancer-related signalling, the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Networks. We briefly discuss current approaches for data integration, visualisation and analysis, using biological networks, such as pathway scoring, guilt-by-association and network propagation. Finally, we illustrate with several examples the added value of data interpretation in the context of biological networks and demonstrate that it may help in analysis of high-throughput data like mutation, gene expression or small interfering RNA screening and can guide in patients stratification. Finally, we discuss perspectives for improving precision medicine using biological network resources and tools. Taking into account the information about biological signalling machinery in cells may help to better interpret molecular patterns of tumours and enable to put precision

  14. Distributive Computer Networking: Making It Work on a Regional Basis: Effective sharing through a network requires new management and resource distribution techniques.

    PubMed

    Cornew, R W; Morse, P M

    1975-08-15

    -indicate that such networks are best structured in a hierarchical form. This suggests that national networking should be based in part on the more than 30 existing state and regional networks (15). With the groundwork now laid, we expect to see links among existing regional networks to complement development efforts now occurring at the national level. With Greenberger and others, we believe that one or more networking organizations devoted to the management issues discussed in this article will be required to facilitate resource sharing on a national scale. Because of their experience with these problems and their ability to provide service in many areas of the country through existing facilities, regional networks have a major role to play.

  15. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database Is a Resource Ripe for Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of July 2011, over 200,000 observation records encompassing three years of plant phenology observations and two years of animal phenology observations have been contributed by participants in Nature's Notebook, the online phenology observation program developed by the National Coordinating Office of the USA-NPN, and are available for download and analysis (www.usanpn.org/results/data). Participants in Nature's Notebook follow protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring, rather than "event" monitoring. On each visit to their site, the observer indicates the status of each phenophase for an individual plant or an animal species with a 'yes' if the phenophase is occurring and 'no' if it is not. This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring, enabling researchers to move beyond a focus on first events (e.g., calculation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and duration, flexibility of definitions for phenological metrics, adaptability for animal monitoring). These strengths will ultimately improve our understanding of changes in the timing of seasonal events. We will describe event monitoring and ways this rich form of data can be intepreted in detail in this presentation. Patterns in the data collected by Nature's Notebook participants are beginning to emerge, even at this early stage, demonstrating the value of this data resource. In addition to year to year variability in the dates of onset and commencement of various phenophases, the observations show

  16. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-06-09

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability.

  17. The SOL Genomics Network. A Comparative Resource for Solanaceae Biology and Beyond1

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Lukas A.; Solow, Teri H.; Taylor, Nicolas; Skwarecki, Beth; Buels, Robert; Binns, John; Lin, Chenwei; Wright, Mark H.; Ahrens, Robert; Wang, Ying; Herbst, Evan V.; Keyder, Emil R.; Menda, Naama; Zamir, Dani; Tanksley, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    The SOL Genomics Network (SGN; http://sgn.cornell.edu) is a rapidly evolving comparative resource for the plants of the Solanaceae family, which includes important crop and model plants such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The aim of SGN is to relate these species to one another using a comparative genomics approach and to tie them to the other dicots through the fully sequenced genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). SGN currently houses map and marker data for Solanaceae species, a large expressed sequence tag collection with computationally derived unigene sets, an extensive database of phenotypic information for a mutagenized tomato population, and associated tools such as real-time quantitative trait loci. Recently, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL) was formed as an umbrella organization for Solanaceae research in over 30 countries to address important questions in plant biology. The first cornerstone of the SOL project is the sequencing of the entire euchromatic portion of the tomato genome. SGN is collaborating with other bioinformatics centers in building the bioinformatics infrastructure for the tomato sequencing project and implementing the bioinformatics strategy of the larger SOL project. The overarching goal of SGN is to make information available in an intuitive comparative format, thereby facilitating a systems approach to investigations into the basis of adaptation and phenotypic diversity in the Solanaceae family, other species in the Asterid clade such as coffee (Coffea arabica), Rubiaciae, and beyond. PMID:16010005

  18. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A.; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A.

    2016-01-01

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol’s semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery. PMID:27338411

  19. Policy Gradient SMDP for Resource Allocation and Routing in Integrated Services Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, Ngo Anh; Viet, Nguyen Hoang; Lee, Seunggwan; Chung, Taechoong

    In this paper, we solve the call admission control (CAC) and routing problem in an integrated network that handles several classes of calls of different values and with different resource requirements. The problem of maximizing the average reward (or cost) of admitted calls per unit time is naturally formulated as a semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) problem, but is too complex to allow for an exact solution. Thus in this paper, a policy gradient algorithm, together with a decomposition approach, is proposed to find the dynamic (state-dependent) optimal CAC and routing policy among a parameterized policy space. To implement that gradient algorithm, we approximate the gradient of the average reward. Then, we present a simulation-based algorithm to estimate the approximate gradient of the average reward (called GSMDP algorithm), using only a single sample path of the underlying Markov chain for the SMDP of CAC and routing problem. The algorithm enhances performance in terms of convergence speed, rejection probability, robustness to the changing arrival statistics and an overall received average revenue. The experimental simulations will compare our method's performance with other existing methods and show the robustness of our method.

  20. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A

    2016-06-22

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol's semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery.

  1. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability. PMID:26056817

  2. Synthesizing community wisdom: A model for sharing cancer-related resources through social networking and collaborative partnerships.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jacob B; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2008-11-06

    Despite the availability of community-based support services, cancer patients and survivors are not aware of many of these resources. Without access to community programs, cancer survivors are at risk for lower quality of care and lower quality of life. At the same time, non-profit community organizations lack access to advanced consumer informatics applications to effectively promote awareness of their services. In addition to the current models of print and online resource guides, new community-driven informatics approaches are needed to achieve the goal of comprehensive care for cancer survivors. We present the formulation of a novel model for synthesizing a local communitys collective wisdom of cancer-related resources through a combination of online social networking technologies and real-world collaborative partnerships. This approach can improve awareness of essential, but underutilized community resources.

  3. Social networks, work and network-based resources for the management of long-term conditions: a framework and study protocol for developing self-care support.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Susan; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Kennedy, Anne; Protheroe, Joanne; Bower, Peter; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David; Kapadia, Dharmi; Brooks, Helen; Fullwood, Catherine; Richardson, Gerry

    2011-05-29

    Increasing the effective targeting and promotion of self-care support for long-term conditions requires more of a focus on patient contexts and networks. The aim of this paper is to describe how within a programme of research and implementation, social networks are viewed as being centrally involved in the mobilisation and deployment of resources in the management of a chronic condition. This forms the basis of a novel approach to understanding, designing, and implementing new forms of self-management support. Drawing on evidence syntheses about social networks and capital and the role of information in self-management, we build on four conceptual approaches to inform the design of our research on the implementation of self-care support for people with long-term conditions. Our approach takes into consideration the form and content of social networks, notions of chronic illness work, normalisation process theory (NPT), and the whole systems informing self-management engagement (WISE) approach to self-care support. The translation and implementation of a self-care agenda in contemporary health and social context needs to acknowledge and incorporate the resources and networks operating in patients' domestic and social environments and everyday lives. The latter compliments the focus on healthcare settings for developing and delivering self-care support by viewing communities and networks, as well as people suffering from long-term conditions, as a key means of support for managing long-term conditions. By focusing on patient work and social-network provision, our aim is to open up a second frontier in implementation research, to translate knowledge into better chronic illness management, and to shift the emphasis towards support that takes place outside formal health services.

  4. From distributed resources to limited slots in multiple-item working memory: a spiking network model with normalization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ziqiang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Da-Hui

    2012-08-15

    Recent behavioral studies have given rise to two contrasting models for limited working memory capacity: a "discrete-slot" model in which memory items are stored in a limited number of slots, and a "shared-resource" model in which the neural representation of items is distributed across a limited pool of resources. To elucidate the underlying neural processes, we investigated a continuous network model for working memory of an analog feature. Our model network fundamentally operates with a shared resource mechanism, and stimuli in cue arrays are encoded by a distributed neural population. On the other hand, the network dynamics and performance are also consistent with the discrete-slot model, because multiple objects are maintained by distinct localized population persistent activity patterns (bump attractors). We identified two phenomena of recurrent circuit dynamics that give rise to limited working memory capacity. As the working memory load increases, a localized persistent activity bump may either fade out (so the memory of the corresponding item is lost) or merge with another nearby bump (hence the resolution of mnemonic representation for the merged items becomes blurred). We identified specific dependences of these two phenomena on the strength and tuning of recurrent synaptic excitation, as well as network normalization: the overall population activity is invariant to set size and delay duration; therefore, a constant neural resource is shared by and dynamically allocated to the memorized items. We demonstrate that the model reproduces salient observations predicted by both discrete-slot and shared-resource models, and propose testable predictions of the merging phenomenon.

  5. Do extrafloral nectar resources, species abundances, and body sizes contribute to the structure of ant-plant mutualistic networks?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Scott A; Kilpatrick, Jeffrey R; Holland, J Nathaniel

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has shown that many mutualistic communities display non-random structures. While our understanding of the structural properties of mutualistic communities continues to improve, we know little of the biological variables resulting in them. Mutualistic communities include those formed between ants and extrafloral (EF) nectar-bearing plants. In this study, we examined the contributions of plant and ant abundance, plant and ant size, and plant EF nectar resources to the network structures of nestedness and interaction frequency of ant-plant networks across five sites within one geographic locality in the Sonoran Desert. Interactions between ant and plant species were largely symmetric. That is, ant and plant species exerted nearly equivalent quantitative interaction effects on one another, as measured by their frequency of interaction. The mutualistic ant-plant networks also showed nested patterns of structure, in which there was a central core of generalist ant and plant species interacting with one another and few specialist-specialist interactions. Abundance and plant size and ant body size were the best predictors of symmetric interactions between plants and ants, as well as nestedness. Despite interactions in these communities being ultimately mediated by EF nectar resources, the number of EF nectaries had a relatively weak ability to explain variation in symmetric interactions and nestedness. These results suggest that different mechanisms may contribute to structure of bipartite networks. Moreover, our results for ant-plant mutualistic networks support the general importance of species abundances for the structure of species interactions within biological communities.

  6. NDEx: A Community Resource for Sharing and Publishing of Biological Networks.

    PubMed

    Pillich, Rudolf T; Chen, Jing; Rynkov, Vladimir; Welker, David; Pratt, Dexter

    2017-01-01

    Networks are a powerful and flexible paradigm that facilitate communication and computation about interactions of any type, whether social, economic, or biological. NDEx, the Network Data Exchange, is an online commons to enable new modes of collaboration and publication using biological networks. NDEx creates an access point and interface to a broad range of networks, whether they express molecular interactions, curated relationships from literature, or the outputs of systematic analysis of big data. Research organizations can use NDEx as a distribution channel for networks they generate or curate. Developers of bioinformatic applications can store and query NDEx networks via a common programmatic interface. NDEx can also facilitate the integration of networks as data in electronic publications, thus making a step toward an ecosystem in which networks bearing data, hypotheses, and findings flow seamlessly between scientists.

  7. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing i...

  8. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing in...

  9. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing i...

  10. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing in...

  11. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility Network: A Globally Distributed Resource for the Planetary Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Schultz, P. H.; Williams, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    Between now and 2050 the RPIFN will serve as a resource for helping users to locate, access, and exploit increasingly complex and voluminous data sets. New initiatives in data visualization will also make valuable resources increasingly accessible.

  12. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Network of Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres: Treatnet.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Rosselló, Juana; Rawson, Richard A; Zarza, Maria J; Bellows, Anne; Busse, Anja; Saenz, Elizabeth; Freese, Thomas; Shawkey, Mansour; Carise, Deni; Ali, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Key to the dissemination of evidence-based addiction treatments is the exchange of experiences and mutual support among treatment practitioners, as well as the availability of accurate addiction training materials and effective trainers. To address the shortage of such resources, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) created Treatnet, a network of 20 drug dependence treatment resource centers around the world. Treatnet's primary goal is to promote the use of effective addiction treatment practices. Phase I of this project included (1) selecting and establishing a network of geographically distributed centers; (2) conducting a capacity-building program consisting of a training needs assessment, development of training packages, and the training of 2 trainers per center in 1 content area each; and (3) creating good-practice documents. Data on the training activities conducted by the trainers during their first 6 months in the field are presented. Plans for Phase II of the Treatnet project are also discussed.

  13. Use of artificial neural networks in applying methodology for allocating health resources.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Marina Araújo; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Duarte-Neto, Paulo José

    2013-02-01

    To describe the construction of a factor of allocation of financial resources, based on the population's health needs. Quantitative study with data collected from public databases referring to the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2010. Variables which reflected epidemiological, demographic, socio-economic and educational processes were selected in order to create a factor of allocation which highlighted the health needs of the population. The data sources were: SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) Department of Computer Science, Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), Information System on Public Health Budgets, National Treasury and data from the Pernambuco Health Secretariat between 2000 and 2010. Pearson's coefficient was used to assess linear correlation and the factor of allocation was calculated using analysis by artificial neural networks. The quartiles of the municipalities were defined according to their health needs. The distribution shown here highlights that all the coastal region, a good part of the Mata Norte and Mata Sul regions and the Agreste Setentrional and Agreste Central regions are in Quartile 1, that which has the largest number of municipalities. The Agreste Meridional region had municipalities in all of the quartiles. In the Pajeú/Moxotó region, many of the municipalities were in Quartile 1. Similar distribution was verified in the Sertão Central region. In the Araripe region, the majority of the municipalities were in Quartiles 3 or 4 and the São Francisco region was divided between Quartiles 1, 2 and 3. The factor of allocation grouped together municipalities of Pernambuco according to variables related to public health needs and separated those with extreme needs, requiring greater financial support, from those with lesser needs.

  14. Cascaded neural networks for sequenced propagation estimation, multiuser detection, and adaptive radio resource control of third-generation wireless networks for multimedia services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    1999-03-01

    A hybrid neural network approach is presented to estimate radio propagation characteristics and multiuser interference and to evaluate their combined impact on throughput, latency and information loss in third-generation (3G) wireless networks. The latter three performance parameters influence the quality of service (QoS) for multimedia services under consideration for 3G networks. These networks, based on a hierarchical architecture of overlaying macrocells on top of micro- and picocells, are planned to operate in mobile urban and indoor environments with service demands emanating from circuit-switched, packet-switched and satellite-based traffic sources. Candidate radio interfaces for these networks employ a form of wideband CDMA in 5-MHz and wider-bandwidth channels, with possible asynchronous operation of the mobile subscribers. The proposed neural network (NN) architecture allocates network resources to optimize QoS metrics. Parameters of the radio propagation channel are estimated, followed by control of an adaptive antenna array at the base station to minimize interference, and then joint multiuser detection is performed at the base station receiver. These adaptive processing stages are implemented as a sequence of NN techniques that provide their estimates as inputs to a final- stage Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM). The SOFM optimizes the allocation of available network resources to satisfy QoS requirements for variable-rate voice, data and video services. As the first stage of the sequence, a modified feed-forward multilayer perceptron NN is trained on the pilot signals of the mobile subscribers to estimate the parameters of shadowing, multipath fading and delays on the uplinks. A recurrent NN (RNN) forms the second stage to control base stations' adaptive antenna arrays to minimize intra-cell interference. The third stage is based on a Hopfield NN (HNN), modified to detect multiple users on the uplink radio channels to mitigate multiaccess

  15. Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integration based on network function virtualization in software defined elastic data center optical interconnect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Yuefeng; Tian, Rui; Han, Jianrui; Lee, Young

    2015-11-30

    Data center interconnect with elastic optical network is a promising scenario to meet the high burstiness and high-bandwidth requirements of data center services. In our previous work, we implemented multi-stratum resilience between IP and elastic optical networks that allows to accommodate data center services. In view of this, this study extends to consider the resource integration by breaking the limit of network device, which can enhance the resource utilization. We propose a novel multi-stratum resources integration (MSRI) architecture based on network function virtualization in software defined elastic data center optical interconnect. A resource integrated mapping (RIM) scheme for MSRI is introduced in the proposed architecture. The MSRI can accommodate the data center services with resources integration when the single function or resource is relatively scarce to provision the services, and enhance globally integrated optimization of optical network and application resources. The overall feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture are experimentally verified on the control plane of OpenFlow-based enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) testbed. The performance of RIM scheme under heavy traffic load scenario is also quantitatively evaluated based on MSRI architecture in terms of path blocking probability, provisioning latency and resource utilization, compared with other provisioning schemes.

  16. Analysis and Simulation of Traffic Control for Resource Management in DVB-Based Broadband Satellite Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impemba, Ernesto; Inzerilli, Tiziano

    2003-07-01

    Integration of satellite access networks with the Internet is seen as a strategic goal to achieve in order to provide ubiquitous broadband access to Internet services in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). One of the main interworking aspects which has been most studied is an efficient management of satellite resources, i.e. bandwidth and buffer space, in order to satisfy most demanding application requirements as to delay control and bandwidth assurance. In this context, resource management in DVB-S/DVB-RCS satellite technologies, emerging technologies for broadband satellite access and transport of IP applications, is a research issue largely investigated as a means to provide efficient bi-directional communications across satellites. This is in particular one of the principal goals of the SATIP6 project, sponsored within the 5th EU Research Programme Framework, i.e. IST. In this paper we present a possible approach to efficiently exploit bandwidth, the most critical resource in a broadband satellite access network, while pursuing satisfaction of delay and bandwidth requirements for applications with guaranteed QoS through a traffic control architecture to be implemented in ground terminals. Performance of this approach is assessed in terms of efficient exploitation of the uplink bandwidth and differentiation and minimization of queuing delays for most demanding applications over a time-varying capacity. Opnet simulations is used as analysis tool.

  17. A Bi-Modality Approach to Language Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsothorn, Achara

    1988-01-01

    A summer intensive English language course is described that is offered by the Chulalongkorn University Language Institute (CULI) in Thailand to university instructors and government officials. A writing program, which constitutes one-fourth of the entire course, consists of 10 units incorporating main functions and topics of English use found in…

  18. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  19. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland J.; Markstrom, Steve L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function - unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  20. Reformulated Neural Network (ReNN): a New Alternative for Data-driven Modelling in Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.; Burn, D.; Seglenieks, F.

    2012-04-01

    Reformulated Neural Network (ReNN) has been recently developed as an efficient and more effective alternative to feedforward multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks [Razavi, S., and Tolson, B. A. (2011). "A new formulation for feedforward neural networks." IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 22(10), 1588-1598, DOI: 1510.1109/TNN.2011.2163169]. This presentation initially aims to introduce the ReNN to the water resources community and then demonstrates ReNN applications to water resources related problems. ReNN is essentially equivalent to a single-hidden-layer MLP neural network but defined on a new set of network variables which is more effective than the traditional set of network weights and biases. The main features of the new network variables are that they are geometrically interpretable and each variable has a distinct role in forming the network response. ReNN is more efficiently trained as it has a less complex error response surface. In addition to the ReNN training efficiency, the interpretability of the ReNN variables enables the users to monitor and understand the internal behaviour of the network while training. Regularization in the ReNN response can be also directly measured and controlled. This feature improves the generalization ability of the network. The appeal of the ReNN is demonstrated with two ReNN applications to water resources engineering problems. In the first application, the ReNN is used to model the rainfall-runoff relationships in multiple watersheds in the Great Lakes basin located in northeastern North America. Modelling inflows to the Great Lakes are of great importance to the management of the Great Lakes system. Due to the lack of some detailed physical data about existing control structures in many subwatersheds of this huge basin, the data-driven approach to modelling such as the ReNN are required to replace predictions from a physically-based rainfall runoff model. Unlike traditional MLPs, the ReNN does not necessarily

  1. A Queueing Approach to Optimal Resource Replication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-29

    return stale data. For example, consider a WSN that must detect intru- sions within an area monitored by the network . This application has inherent...need to both advertise and request information within the network to meet the requirements of the application . It is well known that the energy...level, α∗ i . Let κi denote the maximum acceptable proportion of type i query failures as defined by the network application . Then this variation, α

  2. The Regional Resource Center (RRC) Network Accountability Report Executive Summary: The First RRC Network Performance Measurement Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Resource Center for Special Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Resource Center (RRC) program mission is to strengthen the capacity of state systems of education and early intervention to improve results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities and their families. It is one of the longest and most successful technical assistance projects of the Office of Special Education…

  3. A water-resources data-network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 3, Northern Salinas River drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Schluter, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report evaluates existing data collection networks and possible additional data collection to monitor quantity and quality of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the northern Salinas River drainage basin, California. Of the 34 precipitation stations identified, 20 were active and are concentrated in the northwestern part of the study area. No precipitation quality networks were identified, but possible data collection efforts include monitoring for acid rain and pesticides. Six of ten stream-gaging stations are active. Two surface water quality sites are sampled for suspended sediment, specific conductance, and chloride; one U.S. Geological Survey NASOAN site and one site operated by California Department of Water Resources make up the four active sampling locations; reactivation of 45 inactive surface water quality sites might help to achieve objectives described in the report. Three local networks measure water levels in 318 wells monthly, during peak irrigation, and at the end of the irrigation season. Water quality conditions are monitored in 379 wells; samples are collected in summer to monitor saltwater intrusion near Castroville and are also collected annually throughout the study area for analysis of chloride, specific conductance, and nitrate. An ideal baseline network would be an evenly spaced grid of index wells with a density of one per section. When baseline conditions are established, representative wells within the network could be monitored periodically according to specific data needs. (USGS)

  4. Opportunistic Capacity-Based Resource Allocation for Chunk-Based Multi-Carrier Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Zeng, Xiaoping; Jian, Xin; Tan, Xiaoheng; Zhang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum allocation for cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs) has received considerable research attention under the assumption that the spectrum environment is static. However, in practice, the spectrum environment varies over time due to primary user/secondary user (PU/SU) activity and mobility, resulting in time-varied spectrum resources. This paper studies resource allocation for chunk-based multi-carrier CRSNs with time-varied spectrum resources. We present a novel opportunistic capacity model through a continuous time semi-Markov chain (CTSMC) to describe the time-varied spectrum resources of chunks and, based on this, a joint power and chunk allocation model by considering the opportunistically available capacity of chunks is proposed. To reduce the computational complexity, we split this model into two sub-problems and solve them via the Lagrangian dual method. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed opportunistic capacity-based resource allocation algorithm can achieve better performance compared with traditional algorithms when the spectrum environment is time-varied. PMID:28106803

  5. Network-Based Leadership Development: A Guiding Framework and Resources for Management Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen-Lester, Kristin L.; Woehler, Meredith L.; Willburn, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Management education and leadership development has traditionally focused on improving human capital (i.e., knowledge, skills, and abilities). Social capital, networks, and networking skills have received less attention. When this content has been incorporated into learning and development experiences, it has often been more ad hoc and has…

  6. All We Do Is Chat Chat: Social Networking for the Electronic Resources Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Social networking tools have been getting quite a bit of press in libraryland for the past couple of years. It is considered to be one of the key aspects of a library joining what is referred to as the Library 2.0 movement. In this context, social networking is seen as a library service or library outreach mechanism that utilizes popular social…

  7. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreakie, B. J.; Hychka, K. C.; Belaire, J. A.; Minor, E.; Walker, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago ( n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.

  8. Realizing the Potential of Information Resources: Information, Technology, and Services. Track 6: Networking and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Six papers and two abstracts of papers are presented from the 1995 CAUSE conference track on networking and telecommunications issues faced by managers of information technology at colleges and universities. The papers include: (1) "Looking to the Year 2000: Alternatives in Campus Data Networking" (Noam H. Artz and Daniel A. Updegrove),…

  9. Informal Networks in Youth Transitions in West Germany: Biographical Resource or Reproduction of Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Andreas; Stauber, Barbara; Pohl, Axel

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with informal networks and their role in young people's strategies of coping with the uncertainties of transitions to work. The underlying hypothesis is that informal networks have a high potential in this regard that, however, is strongly differentiated according to class and education. Drawing on West German data from the…

  10. Network-Based Leadership Development: A Guiding Framework and Resources for Management Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen-Lester, Kristin L.; Woehler, Meredith L.; Willburn, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Management education and leadership development has traditionally focused on improving human capital (i.e., knowledge, skills, and abilities). Social capital, networks, and networking skills have received less attention. When this content has been incorporated into learning and development experiences, it has often been more ad hoc and has…

  11. All We Do Is Chat Chat: Social Networking for the Electronic Resources Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Social networking tools have been getting quite a bit of press in libraryland for the past couple of years. It is considered to be one of the key aspects of a library joining what is referred to as the Library 2.0 movement. In this context, social networking is seen as a library service or library outreach mechanism that utilizes popular social…

  12. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, B J; Hychka, K C; Belaire, J A; Minor, E; Walker, H A

    2016-02-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago (n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.

  13. From Static Content to Dynamic Communities: The Evolution of Networked Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Neil; Huxley, Lesly

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Web-based educational resources in the United Kingdom, focusing on current challenges of linking content with community and static information with dynamic news. Describes the evolution of three social sciences resources and examines sustainability, the need for collaboration, and data protection and privacy concerns. (Author/LRW)

  14. Expansion of the USDA-ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database to accommodate molecular data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) provides both germplasm and data on genetic resources to researchers and breeders world wide. New tables and codes that hold data relating to molecular markers and multi-locus genotypes have been added to the Germplasm Resources Information Networ...

  15. A Scalable QoS-Aware VoD Resource Sharing Scheme for Next Generation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chenn-Jung; Luo, Yun-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Hua; Hu, Kai-Wen

    In network-aware concept, applications are aware of network conditions and are adaptable to the varying environment to achieve acceptable and predictable performance. In this work, a solution for video on demand service that integrates wireless and wired networks by using the network aware concepts is proposed to reduce the blocking probability and dropping probability of mobile requests. Fuzzy logic inference system is employed to select appropriate cache relay nodes to cache published video streams and distribute them to different peers through service oriented architecture (SOA). SIP-based control protocol and IMS standard are adopted to ensure the possibility of heterogeneous communication and provide a framework for delivering real-time multimedia services over an IP-based network to ensure interoperability, roaming, and end-to-end session management. The experimental results demonstrate that effectiveness and practicability of the proposed work.

  16. Mantra 2.0: an online collaborative resource for drug mode of action and repurposing by network analysis.

    PubMed

    Carrella, Diego; Napolitano, Francesco; Rispoli, Rossella; Miglietta, Mario; Carissimo, Annamaria; Cutillo, Luisa; Sirci, Francesco; Gregoretti, Francesco; Di Bernardo, Diego

    2014-06-15

    Elucidation of molecular targets of a compound [mode of action (MoA)] and its off-targets is a crucial step in drug development. We developed an online collaborative resource (MANTRA 2.0) that supports this process by exploiting similarities between drug-induced transcriptional profiles. Drugs are organized in a network of nodes (drugs) and edges (similarities) highlighting 'communities' of drugs sharing a similar MoA. A user can upload gene expression profiles before and after drug treatment in one or multiple cell types. An automated processing pipeline transforms the gene expression profiles into a unique drug 'node' embedded in the drug-network. Visual inspection of the neighbouring drugs and communities helps in revealing its MoA and to suggest new applications of known drugs (drug repurposing). MANTRA 2.0 allows storing and sharing user-generated network nodes, thus making MANTRA 2.0 a collaborative ever-growing resource. The web tool is freely available for academic use at http://mantra.tigem.it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  18. First field demonstration of cloud datacenter workflow automation employing dynamic optical transport network resources under OpenStack and OpenFlow orchestration.

    PubMed

    Szyrkowiec, Thomas; Autenrieth, Achim; Gunning, Paul; Wright, Paul; Lord, Andrew; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lumb, Alan

    2014-02-10

    For the first time, we demonstrate the orchestration of elastic datacenter and inter-datacenter transport network resources using a combination of OpenStack and OpenFlow. Programmatic control allows a datacenter operator to dynamically request optical lightpaths from a transport network operator to accommodate rapid changes of inter-datacenter workflows.

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Association of Research Libraries' E-Metrics Participant Feedback about the Evolution of Measures for Networked Electronic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha; Giersch, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) E-Metrics Project is an ongoing effort to develop new measures that describe and measure networked electronic resources and also to underscore the need for measuring the value of such resources. This article presents results from an ongoing iterative qualitative study with the following goals: (a) to…

  20. Joint Mode Selection and Resource Allocation for Cellular Controlled Short-Range Communication in OFDMA Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hui; Tao, Xiaoming; Ge, Ning; Lu, Jianhua

    This letter studies cellular controlled short-range communication in OFDMA networks. The network needs to decide when to allow direct communication between a closely located device-to-device (D2D) pair instead of conveying data from one device to the other via the base station and when not to, in addition to subchannel and power allocation. Our goal is to maximize the total network throughput while guaranteeing the rate requirements of all users. For that purpose, we formulate an optimization problem subject to subchannel and power constraints. A scheme which combines a joint mode selection and subchannel allocation algorithm based on equal power allocation with a power reallocation scheme is proposed. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme can improve the network throughput and outage probability compared with other schemes.

  1. Resource-constrained Data Collection and Fusion for Identifying Weak Distributed Patterns in Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-15

    Artifical Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS), 2013. [8] ——, “Near-optimal anomaly detection in graphs using Lovász Extended Scan Statistic,” in Neural ...patterns in networks ,” in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2010. [14] R. J. Tibshirani and J. Taylor, “The solution path of the...Singh, “Identifying graph-structured activation patterns in networks ,” in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2010, oral presentation. 8

  2. The “Picardie en Forme” Network: Federating Regional Health-enhancing Sports Resources

    PubMed

    Weissland, Thierry; Passavant, Éric; Allal, Aziz; Amiard, Valérie; Antczak, Boris; Manzo, Julie

    2016-06-08

    Initiated by the Regional Olympic and Sports Committee and the Regional Directorate of Youth, Sports and Social Cohesion, the “Picardie en Forme” network has been working since 2011 in favour of adults of all ages, with chronic noncommunicable or similar diseases, to encourage a gradual return to reassuring and perennial regular physical activity,. A first step consisted of organizing a care pathway based on two principles: inform general practitioners so that they can encourage their patients to be physically active by referring them to the network, develop a range of local sports by accrediting certain clubs with sports instructors who have been trained in the management of this specific population. In 2013, 121 users entered the network at the request of 61 doctors. 48 sports instructors were trained and 20 associations obtained the Picardie en Forme label. Comparison of the results of tests performed on entry in the network and then eight months later shows a general physical reconditioning of users, increasing their motivation and perceived physical value. However, despite these encouraging results, the network has difficulty retaining users, and maintaining the involvement of general practitioners and certain local partners. This article discusses the relevance of initial approaches and describes the changes made to sustain this regional network, which, for the first time, links sport, health and users.

  3. Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs

    PubMed Central

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network). PMID:23467581

  4. Simulator Network project report: a tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs.

    PubMed

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network).

  5. Large-scale reduction of the Bacillus subtilis genome: consequences for the transcriptional network, resource allocation, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Reuß, Daniel R; Altenbuchner, Josef; Mäder, Ulrike; Rath, Hermann; Ischebeck, Till; Sappa, Praveen Kumar; Thürmer, Andrea; Guérin, Cyprien; Nicolas, Pierre; Steil, Leif; Zhu, Bingyao; Feussner, Ivo; Klumpp, Stefan; Daniel, Rolf; Commichau, Fabian M; Völker, Uwe; Stülke, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Understanding cellular life requires a comprehensive knowledge of the essential cellular functions, the components involved, and their interactions. Minimized genomes are an important tool to gain this knowledge. We have constructed strains of the model bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, whose genomes have been reduced by ∼36%. These strains are fully viable, and their growth rates in complex medium are comparable to those of wild type strains. An in-depth multi-omics analysis of the genome reduced strains revealed how the deletions affect the transcription regulatory network of the cell, translation resource allocation, and metabolism. A comparison of gene counts and resource allocation demonstrates drastic differences in the two parameters, with 50% of the genes using as little as 10% of translation capacity, whereas the 6% essential genes require 57% of the translation resources. Taken together, the results are a valuable resource on gene dispensability in B. subtilis, and they suggest the roads to further genome reduction to approach the final aim of a minimal cell in which all functions are understood.

  6. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability.

  7. North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet): A real-time water quality sensor network to study impacts of climate variability for Delaware, Rhode Island and Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A.; Schroth, A. W.; Inamdar, S. P.; Addy, K.; Bowden, W. B.; Andres, S.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Andrew, V.; Leathers, D. J.; Garfield, M.; Chace, J.; Jerram, A.; Vaughan, M.; Shanley, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the development of a new generation of optical biogeochemical sensors coupled with increasingly widespread and relatively inexpensive data storage and transmission technology, has enabled watershed scientists to collect high-frequency water quality data that can be transmitted to researchers, managers and stakeholders in quasi real-time. However, the application of this technology to address regional water quality challenges across different types of land-use/cover is just being explored. Here we present the development of new regional water quality monitoring network in the northeastern United States (DE, RI,VT) - the North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet). NEWRnet is used as a case study in the process associated with development and implementation of a regional, cross-state collaborative network for monitoring water quality; one of the first, we believe, of its kind. . Two fundamental questions that we address are: 1) What is the impact of climate variability and other disturbances on water quality for watersheds with different land uses extending across the north-south gradient (VT to DE)? 2) Do high-frequency water quality data provide valuable information and insights to stakeholders and thus lead to better and time efficient decision making? Our network consists of a suite of sites across each state with similar basic land covers (forested, agricultural and urban). Each site within the network is currently equipped with an s::can spectrolyser and YSI EXO2 sonde, as well as pressure transducers for estimating discharge and ISCO automated sampling systems. All sensor data is telemetered on an hourly basis from the monitoring site to a regional database housed at the University of Delaware, which is accessible to the entire research team In addition to university scientists and researchers, we also partner with local/state drinking water utilities (DWUs) to assess how this real-time water quality data can assist with their day

  8. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model’s objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior. PMID:26226109

  9. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    PubMed

    He, Yunyue; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Jianmai; Wang, Yishan; Zhang, Jiaming; Liu, Jinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  10. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p < .001). This association was partially mediated by lower perceived support and more negative social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  11. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  12. The interactive use of networking multimedia--innovative education resource for professionals and patients.

    PubMed

    Matthies, H K; Walter, G F; Brandis, A; Stan, A C; Ammann, A; von Jan, U; Porth, A J

    1999-01-01

    The combination of new and rapidly developing interactive multimedia computers and applications with electronic networks will require a restructuring of our traditional approach to strategic planning and organizational structure. Worldwide telecommunication networks (using satellites, cable) are now facilitating the global pooling of healthcare information and medical knowledge independent of location. The development of multimedia information and communication systems demands cooperative working teams of authors, who are able to master several areas of medical knowledge as well as the presentation of these in different multimedia forms. The assemblage of telematics and services offers a base for multimedia applications, for example teleteaching, telelearning, telepublishing, teleconsulting, teleconferencing, telemedicine etc. The expansion of the internet will also lead to the formation of interdisciplinary "Global Education Networks". The theory and practice of education are undergoing dramatic changes. Lifelong learning and adaptation of medical practice to new knowledge and new techniques will be even more important in the future.

  13. Optimization strategies with resource scarcity: From immunization of networks to the traveling salesman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Agliari, Elena; Cassi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    The best strategy to immunize a complex network is usually evaluated in terms of the percolation threshold, i.e. the number of vaccine doses which make the largest connected cluster (LCC) vanish. The strategy inducing the minimum percolation threshold represents the optimal way to immunize the network. Here we show that the efficacy of the immunization strategies can change during the immunization process. This means that, if the number of doses is limited, the best strategy is not necessarily the one leading to the smallest percolation threshold. This outcome should warn about the adoption of global measures in order to evaluate the best immunization strategy.

  14. Research resource: interactome of human embryo implantation: identification of gene expression pathways, regulation, and integrated regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Altmäe, Signe; Reimand, Jüri; Hovatta, Outi; Zhang, Pu; Kere, Juha; Laisk, Triin; Saare, Merli; Peters, Maire; Vilo, Jaak; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Salumets, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for successful embryo implantation is adequate preparation of receptive endometrium and the establishment and maintenance of a viable embryo. The success of implantation further relies upon a two-way dialogue between the embryo and uterus. However, molecular bases of these preimplantation and implantation processes in humans are not well known. We performed genome expression analyses of human embryos (n = 128) and human endometria (n = 8). We integrated these data with protein-protein interactions in order to identify molecular networks within the endometrium and the embryo, and potential embryo-endometrium interactions at the time of implantation. For that, we applied a novel network profiling algorithm HyperModules, which combines topological module identification and functional enrichment analysis. We found a major wave of transcriptional down-regulation in preimplantation embryos. In receptive-stage endometrium, several genes and signaling pathways were identified, including JAK-STAT signaling and inflammatory pathways. The main curated embryo-endometrium interaction network highlighted the importance of cell adhesion molecules in the implantation process. We also identified cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions involved in implantation, where osteopontin (SPP1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and leptin (LEP) pathways were intertwining. Further, we identified a number of novel players in human embryo-endometrium interactions, such as apolipoprotein D (APOD), endothelin 1 (END1), fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7), gastrin (GAST), kringle containing trnasmembrane protein 1 (KREMEN1), neuropilin 1 (NRP1), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 3 (SERPINA3), versican (VCAN), and others. Our findings provide a fundamental resource for better understanding of the genetic network that leads to successful embryo implantation. We demonstrate the first systems biology approach into the complex molecular network of the implantation process in humans.

  15. mizuRoute version 1: a river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Sampson, K.; Nijssen, B.; Mao, Y.; McMillan, H.; Viger, R. J.; Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L. E.; Woods, R.; Arnold, J. R.; Brekke, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute, which post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data, which includes river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. The first is hillslope routing, which uses a gamma distribution to construct a unit-hydrograph that represents the transport of runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function-unit hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute system also includes tools to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities with spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) dataset, which contains over 54 000 river segments across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  16. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms in Resource-Limited Wireless Multi-Hop Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    provid- ing fully distributed schemes for channel access. Protocols such as MACA [26] and MACAW [27] were based on Request-to-Send (RTS), Clear-to-Send...Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference, Septem- ber 1990. [27] V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang. Macaw : A media access

  17. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…

  18. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  19. Evaluating Internet Resources: Identity, Affiliation, and Cognitive Authority in a Networked World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritch, John W.; Cromwell, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Traditional methods of authority present in a print environment are lacking on the Internet, and, even when occasionally present, are of questionable veracity. A formal model and evaluative criteria are suggested and explained to provide a means for accurately ascribing cognitive authority in a networked environment; the model is unique in its…

  20. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…

  1. Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN) - 2017 NASA Water Resources PI Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on the Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CYAN) and how is supports the environmental management and public use of the U.S. lakes and estuaries by providing a capability of detecting and quantifying algal blooms and related water quality using satellite data records.

  2. Library Technology Grants Awarded To Support Networking and Resource-Sharing Activities, Fiscal Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Library Programs.

    This report provides an annotated listing of 30 institutions receiving grants from the U.S. Department of Education under the College Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program during 1992 in the following four categories: (1) networking grants; (2) combinations grants; (3) services to institutions; and (4) research and demonstration. These…

  3. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  4. Knowledge as a Resource--Networks Do Matter: A Study of SME Firms in Rural Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solymossy, Emeric

    2000-01-01

    Networks among people and businesses facilitate the capture and diffusion of technical and organizational knowledge and can be classified by type of knowledge being exchanged. Types include buyer-supplier information, technical problem-solving information, and informal community information. A survey of 141 small and medium-sized enterprises…

  5. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  6. Worldwide Crisis Alerting Network, Phase II. Task 4. Estimation of Interface Development Resources,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    repre- sentatives have indicated interest in the review and approval of procedures by the Telecommunications Committee of the American Petroleum Institute (API...4-1 F4 APPENDIX A LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AFTN Airline Fixed Telecommunications Network API American Petroleum Institute ARINC

  7. Algorithms for Image Compression, Distributed Communication Networks and Distributed Resource Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    together give rise to a HMM which is equivalent to a non-linear filtering problem. This problem is solved by a new iterative algorith based on Monte...Combined Simulation Model and Neural Network," Proceedings of the IEEE Globecom󈨦 Conference, Session 116.7, Genetic Algorithms, pp. 116.7.1 - 116.7.5

  8. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  9. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  10. Developing Online Learning Resources: Big Data, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing to Support Pervasive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing online learning resources (OLR) from multi channels in learning activities promise extended benefits from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred that emphasises pervasive learning anywhere and anytime. While compiling big data, cloud computing, and semantic web into OLR offer a broader spectrum of…

  11. Networking Resources, Owning Productivity: A Post-Development Alternative in Mindanao?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Lindsey K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the practices of one small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Mindanao working innovatively to challenge power and interests by linking resources to local communities who control their productivity. While this may seem like social capital, I suggest that the agency over production, and the deeply political and ideological…

  12. Developing Online Learning Resources: Big Data, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing to Support Pervasive Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing online learning resources (OLR) from multi channels in learning activities promise extended benefits from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred that emphasises pervasive learning anywhere and anytime. While compiling big data, cloud computing, and semantic web into OLR offer a broader spectrum of…

  13. Networking Resources, Owning Productivity: A Post-Development Alternative in Mindanao?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Lindsey K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the practices of one small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Mindanao working innovatively to challenge power and interests by linking resources to local communities who control their productivity. While this may seem like social capital, I suggest that the agency over production, and the deeply political and ideological…

  14. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  15. Recommendations for protecting National Library of Medicine Computing and Networking Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, R.

    1994-11-01

    Protecting Information Technology (IT) involves a number of interrelated factors. These include mission, available resources, technologies, existing policies and procedures, internal culture, contemporary threats, and strategic enterprise direction. In the face of this formidable list, a structured approach provides cost effective actions that allow the organization to manage its risks. We face fundamental challenges that will persist for at least the next several years. It is difficult if not impossible to precisely quantify risk. IT threats and vulnerabilities change rapidly and continually. Limited organizational resources combined with mission restraints-such as availability and connectivity requirements-will insure that most systems will not be absolutely secure (if such security were even possible). In short, there is no technical (or administrative) {open_quotes}silver bullet.{close_quotes} Protection is employing a stratified series of recommendations, matching protection levels against information sensitivities. Adaptive and flexible risk management is the key to effective protection of IT resources. The cost of the protection must be kept less than the expected loss, and one must take into account that an adversary will not expend more to attack a resource than the value of its compromise to that adversary. Notwithstanding the difficulty if not impossibility to precisely quantify risk, the aforementioned allows us to avoid the trap of choosing a course of action simply because {open_quotes}it`s safer{close_quotes} or ignoring an area because no one had explored its potential risk. Recommendations for protecting IT resources begins with discussing contemporary threats and vulnerabilities, and then procedures from general to specific preventive measures. From a risk management perspective, it is imperative to understand that today, the vast majority of threats are against UNIX hosts connected to the Internet.

  16. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of water- resources data-collection networks in the northern and coastal areas of Monterey County, California. This evaluation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District to evaluate precipitation, surface water, and ground water monitoring networks. This report describes existing monitoring networks in the study areas and areas where possible additional data-collection is needed. During this study, 106 precipitation-quantity gages were identified, of which 84 were active; however, no precipitation-quality gages were identified in the study areas. The precipitaion-quantity gages were concentrated in the Monterey Peninsula and the northern part of the county. If the number of gages in these areas were reduced, coverage would still be adequate to meet most objectives; however, additional gages could improve coverage in the Tularcitos Creek basin and in the coastal areas south of Carmel to the county boundary. If collection of precipitation data were expanded to include monitoring precipitation quality, this expanded monitoring also could include monitoring precipitation for acid rain and pesticides. Eleven continuous streamflow-gaging stations were identified during this study, of which seven were active. To meet the objectives of the streamflow networks outlined in this report, the seven active stations would need to be continued, four stations would need to be reactivated, and an additional six streamflow-gaging stations would need to be added. Eleven stations that routinely were sampled for chemical constituents were identified in the study areas. Surface water in the lower Big Sur River basin was sampled annually for total coli- form and fecal coliform bacteria, and the Big Sur River was sampled monthly at 16 stations for these bacteria. Routine sampling for chemical constituents also was done in the Big Sur River basin. The Monterey County Flood

  17. Optimization-based Approach to Cross-layer Resource Management in Wireless Networked Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    equivalent . Environmental disturbances can lead to system instability and cause uncertainty in system behavior. Intuitively, the larger the sampling...its continuous equivalent . We show that this utility function is a strictly concave function of the sampling rate, when random white noise is considered...over the network. The inner product equivalent sampling 57 72 (IPES) and zero order hold (ZOH) blocks on both the plant and control sides are used to

  18. A Global Network of Small Telescopes as a Resource for Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.; Craine, Erik

    There has been a good deal of discussion in recent meetings about the advantages of new generation small telescopes, ones using modern CCD imaging detectors and taking full advantage of computer control and communications networking. Such new generation aspects hold as much for relatively small telescopes as for the largest ones. However, the relative cost of the largest telescopes to that of the smaller telescopes is a very large ratio. Small telescopes have always been powerful tools for astronomical photometry, and the new generation aspects will only amplify this value. It means that the networked use of such telescopes could provide many more quality observing hours to the astronomical community, allow a number of special programs to be done which are quite difficult or impossible now, and also improve greatly the precision and accuracy of standard photometric systems. Imagine, for example, a global network of many such small telescopes doing regular CCD photometry, with well chosen filter sets, at six or more worldwide, high quality observing sites. Clearly, great improvements in systems and in standards would result, if the system was managed with care. Such are the goals of GNAT, as a catalyst for such activities.

  19. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-01-01

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless ‘geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  20. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps.

    PubMed

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-07-20

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless 'geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  1. RegPhos 2.0: an updated resource to explore protein kinase-substrate phosphorylation networks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-Yao; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Su, Min-Gang; Hsieh, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Lin, Kuo-I; Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by kinases plays crucial roles in regulating a variety of intracellular processes. Owing to an increasing number of in vivo phosphorylation sites that have been identified by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, the RegPhos, available online at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/RegPhos2/, was developed to explore protein phosphorylation networks in human. In this update, we not only enhance the data content in human but also investigate kinase-substrate phosphorylation networks in mouse and rat. The experimentally validated phosphorylation sites as well as their catalytic kinases were extracted from public resources, and MS/MS phosphopeptides were manually curated from research articles. RegPhos 2.0 aims to provide a more comprehensive view of intracellular signaling networks by integrating the information of metabolic pathways and protein-protein interactions. A case study shows that analyzing the phosphoproteome profile of time-dependent cell activation obtained from Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, the RegPhos deciphered not only the consistent scheme in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway but also novel regulatory molecules that may involve in it. With an attempt to help users efficiently identify the candidate biomarkers in cancers, 30 microarray experiments, including 39 cancerous versus normal cells, were analyzed for detecting cancer-specific expressed genes coding for kinases and their substrates. Furthermore, this update features an improved web interface to facilitate convenient access to the exploration of phosphorylation networks for a group of genes/proteins. Database URL: http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/RegPhos2/

  2. RegPhos 2.0: an updated resource to explore protein kinase–substrate phosphorylation networks in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kai-Yao; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Su, Min-Gang; Hsieh, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Lin, Kuo-I; Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by kinases plays crucial roles in regulating a variety of intracellular processes. Owing to an increasing number of in vivo phosphorylation sites that have been identified by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics, the RegPhos, available online at http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/RegPhos2/, was developed to explore protein phosphorylation networks in human. In this update, we not only enhance the data content in human but also investigate kinase–substrate phosphorylation networks in mouse and rat. The experimentally validated phosphorylation sites as well as their catalytic kinases were extracted from public resources, and MS/MS phosphopeptides were manually curated from research articles. RegPhos 2.0 aims to provide a more comprehensive view of intracellular signaling networks by integrating the information of metabolic pathways and protein–protein interactions. A case study shows that analyzing the phosphoproteome profile of time-dependent cell activation obtained from Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, the RegPhos deciphered not only the consistent scheme in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway but also novel regulatory molecules that may involve in it. With an attempt to help users efficiently identify the candidate biomarkers in cancers, 30 microarray experiments, including 39 cancerous versus normal cells, were analyzed for detecting cancer-specific expressed genes coding for kinases and their substrates. Furthermore, this update features an improved web interface to facilitate convenient access to the exploration of phosphorylation networks for a group of genes/proteins. Database URL: http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/RegPhos2/ PMID:24771658

  3. Application of the EVEX resource to event extraction and network construction: Shared Task entry and result analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Modern methods for mining biomolecular interactions from literature typically make predictions based solely on the immediate textual context, in effect a single sentence. No prior work has been published on extending this context to the information automatically gathered from the whole biomedical literature. Thus, our motivation for this study is to explore whether mutually supporting evidence, aggregated across several documents can be utilized to improve the performance of the state-of-the-art event extraction systems. In this paper, we describe our participation in the latest BioNLP Shared Task using the large-scale text mining resource EVEX. We participated in the Genia Event Extraction (GE) and Gene Regulation Network (GRN) tasks with two separate systems. In the GE task, we implemented a re-ranking approach to improve the precision of an existing event extraction system, incorporating features from the EVEX resource. In the GRN task, our system relied solely on the EVEX resource and utilized a rule-based conversion algorithm between the EVEX and GRN formats. Results In the GE task, our re-ranking approach led to a modest performance increase and resulted in the first rank of the official Shared Task results with 50.97% F-score. Additionally, in this paper we explore and evaluate the usage of distributed vector representations for this challenge. In the GRN task, we ranked fifth in the official results with a strict/relaxed SER score of 0.92/0.81 respectively. To try and improve upon these results, we have implemented a novel machine learning based conversion system and benchmarked its performance against the original rule-based system. Conclusions For the GRN task, we were able to produce a gene regulatory network from the EVEX data, warranting the use of such generic large-scale text mining data in network biology settings. A detailed performance and error analysis provides more insight into the relatively low recall rates. In the GE task we

  4. The healthy aging research network: resources for building capacity for public health and aging practice.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Altpeter, Mary; Anderson, Lynda A; Belza, Basia; Bryant, Lucinda; Jones, Dina L; Leith, Katherine H; Phelan, Elizabeth A; Satariano, William A

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to translate science into practice and help enhance the capacity of professionals to deliver evidence-based programming. We describe contributions of the Healthy Aging Research Network in building professional capacity through online modules, issue briefs, monographs, and tools focused on health promotion practice, physical activity, mental health, and environment and policy. We also describe practice partnerships and research activities that helped inform product development and ways these products have been incorporated into real-world practice to illustrate possibilities for future applications. Our work aims to bridge the research-to-practice gap to meet the demands of an aging population.

  5. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-10-20

    This document sets forth improvements to the final rule governing the operation of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), published in 1998. It reflects the advice of a panel convened by the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine, as called for in the Department's appropriation act for 1999. It also reflects comments on the 1998 rule and consultation with representatives of the organ transplantation community, as recommended in the same legislation; and it summarizes new transplant data developed in the period since enactment of the appropriations act.

  6. Eliminating Critical Incident Tracking Network Patient Safety Events at a Veterans Affairs Institution Through Crew Resource Management Training.

    PubMed

    Kuy, SreyRam; Romero, Ramon A L

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rates of Critical Incident Tracking Network (CITN) patient safety adverse events change after implementation of crew resource management (CRM) training at a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. CRM training was conducted for all surgical staff at a VA hospital. Compliance with briefing and debriefing checklists was assessed for all operating room procedures. Tracking of adverse patient safety events utilizing the VA CITN events was performed. There was 100% adherence to performance of briefings and debriefings after initiation of CRM training. There were 3 CITN events in the year prior to implementation of CRM training; following CRM training, there have been zero CITN events. Following CRM training, CITN events were eliminated, and this has been sustained for 2.5 years. This is the first study to demonstrate the impact of CRM training on CITN events, specifically, in a VA medical center.

  7. SeaBase: a multispecies transcriptomic resource and platform for gene network inference.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Antje H L; Mozzherin, Dmitry; Eren, A Murat; Lans, Kristen D; Wilson, Nathan; Cosentino, Carlo; Smith, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Marine and aquatic animals are extraordinarily useful as models for identifying mechanisms of development and evolution, regeneration, resistance to cancer, longevity and symbiosis, among many other areas of research. This is due to the great diversity of these organisms and their wide-ranging capabilities. Genomics tools are essential for taking advantage of these "free lessons" of nature. However, genomics and transcriptomics are challenging in emerging model systems. Here, we present SeaBase, a tool for helping to meet these needs. Specifically, SeaBase provides a platform for sharing and searching transcriptome data. More importantly, SeaBase will support a growing number of tools for inferring gene network mechanisms. The first dataset available on SeaBase is a developmental transcriptomic profile of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria). Additional datasets are currently being prepared and we are aiming to expand SeaBase to include user-supplied data for any number of marine and aquatic organisms, thereby supporting many potentially new models for gene network studies. SeaBase can be accessed online at: http://seabase.core.cli.mbl.edu.

  8. A data integration and visualization resource for the metabolic network of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Maarleveld, Timo R; Boele, Joost; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas

    2014-03-01

    Data integration is a central activity in systems biology. The integration of genomic, transcript, protein, metabolite, flux, and computational data yields unprecedented information about the system level functioning of organisms. Often, data integration is done purely computationally, leaving the user with little insight in addition to statistical information. In this article, we present a visualization tool for the metabolic network of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, an important model cyanobacterium for sustainable biofuel production. We illustrate how this metabolic map can be used to integrate experimental and computational data for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 systems biology and metabolic engineering studies. Additionally, we discuss how this map, and the software infrastructure that we supply with it, can be used in the development of other organism-specific metabolic network visualizations. In addition to the Python console package VoNDA (http://vonda.sf.net), we provide a working demonstration of the interactive metabolic map and the associated Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 genome-scale stoichiometric model, as well as various ready-to-visualize microarray data sets, at http://f-a-m-e.org/synechocytis.

  9. A Splay Tree-Based Approach for Efficient Resource Location in P2P Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Zilong; Yao, Shaowen; Wang, Shipu

    2014-01-01

    Resource location in structured P2P system has a critical influence on the system performance. Existing analytical studies of Chord protocol have shown some potential improvements in performance. In this paper a splay tree-based new Chord structure called SChord is proposed to improve the efficiency of locating resources. We consider a novel implementation of the Chord finger table (routing table) based on the splay tree. This approach extends the Chord finger table with additional routing entries. Adaptive routing algorithm is proposed for implementation, and it can be shown that hop count is significantly minimized without introducing any other protocol overheads. We analyze the hop count of the adaptive routing algorithm, as compared to Chord variants, and demonstrate sharp upper and lower bounds for both worst-case and average case settings. In addition, we theoretically analyze the hop reducing in SChord and derive the fact that SChord can significantly reduce the routing hops as compared to Chord. Several simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the algorithm and support our analytical findings. The simulation results show the efficiency of SChord. PMID:24778602

  10. UbiNet: an online resource for exploring the functional associations and regulatory networks of protein ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Nui; Huang, Kai-Yao; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Lai, K. Robert; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitylation catalyzed by E3 ubiquitin ligases are crucial in the regulation of many cellular processes. Owing to the high throughput of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, a number of methods have been developed for the experimental determination of ubiquitylation sites, leading to a large collection of ubiquitylation data. However, there exist no resources for the exploration of E3-ligase-associated regulatory networks of for ubiquitylated proteins in humans. Therefore, the UbiNet database was developed to provide a full investigation of protein ubiquitylation networks by incorporating experimentally verified E3 ligases, ubiquitylated substrates and protein–protein interactions (PPIs). To date, UbiNet has accumulated 43 948 experimentally verified ubiquitylation sites from 14 692 ubiquitylated proteins of humans. Additionally, we have manually curated 499 E3 ligases as well as two E1 activating and 46 E2 conjugating enzymes. To delineate the regulatory networks among E3 ligases and ubiquitylated proteins, a total of 430 530 PPIs were integrated into UbiNet for the exploration of ubiquitylation networks with an interactive network viewer. A case study demonstrated that UbiNet was able to decipher a scheme for the ubiquitylation of tumor proteins p63 and p73 that is consistent with their functions. Although the essential role of Mdm2 in p53 regulation is well studied, UbiNet revealed that Mdm2 and additional E3 ligases might be implicated in the regulation of other tumor proteins by protein ubiquitylation. Moreover, UbiNet could identify potential substrates for a specific E3 ligase based on PPIs and substrate motifs. With limited knowledge about the mechanisms through which ubiquitylated proteins are regulated by E3 ligases, UbiNet offers users an effective means for conducting preliminary analyses of protein ubiquitylation. The UbiNet database is now freely accessible via http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/UbiNet/. The content is regularly updated with the

  11. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  12. Partnerships in mental healthcare service delivery in low-resource settings: developing an innovative network in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Bibhav; Maru, Duncan; Schwarz, Ryan; Citrin, David; Tenpa, Jasmine; Hirachan, Soniya; Basnet, Madhur; Thapa, Poshan; Swar, Sikhar; Halliday, Scott; Kohrt, Brandon; Luitel, Nagendra P; Hung, Erick; Gauchan, Bikash; Pokharel, Rajeev; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-13

    Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation. We describe our partnerships network as a case example that addresses challenges in delivering mental healthcare and which can serve as a model for similar settings. Our perspectives are informed from integrating mental healthcare services within a rural public hospital in Nepal. Our approach includes training and supervising generalist health workers by off-site psychiatrists. This is made possible by complementing the strengths and weaknesses of the various groups involved: the public sector, a non-profit organization that provides general healthcare services and one that specializes in mental health, a community advisory board, academic centers in high- and low-income countries, and bicultural professionals from the diaspora community. We propose a partnerships model to assist implementation of promising programs to expand access to mental healthcare in low- resource settings. We describe the success and limitations of our current partners in a mental health program in rural Nepal.

  13. Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution for optimal resource allocation over wireless DS-CDMA visual sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandremmenou, Katerina; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance applications usually require high levels of video quality, resulting in high power consumption. The existence of a well-behaved scheme to balance video quality and power consumption is crucial for the system's performance. In the present work, we adopt the game-theoretic approach of Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) to deal with the problem of optimal resource allocation in a multi-node wireless visual sensor network (VSN). In our setting, the Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) method is used for channel access, while a cross-layer optimization design, which employs a central processing server, accounts for the overall system efficacy through all network layers. The task assigned to the central server is the communication with the nodes and the joint determination of their transmission parameters. The KSBS is applied to non-convex utility spaces, efficiently distributing the source coding rate, channel coding rate and transmission powers among the nodes. In the underlying model, the transmission powers assume continuous values, whereas the source and channel coding rates can take only discrete values. Experimental results are reported and discussed to demonstrate the merits of KSBS over competing policies.

  14. Joint Resource Allocation of Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in an Energy-Harvesting-Based Cognitive Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Lu, Weidang; Ye, Liang; Li, Feng; Zou, Deyue

    2017-03-16

    The cognitive sensor (CS) can transmit data to the control center in the same spectrum that is licensed to the primary user (PU) when the absence of the PU is detected by spectrum sensing. However, the battery energy of the CS is limited due to its small size, deployment in atrocious environments and long-term working. In this paper, an energy-harvesting-based CS is described, which senses the PU together with collecting the radio frequency energy to supply data transmission. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CS, we have proposed the joint resource allocation of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting in the cases of a single energy-harvesting-based CS and an energy-harvesting-based cognitive sensor network (CSN), respectively. Based on the proposed frame structure, we have formulated the resource allocation as a class of joint optimization problems, which seek to maximize the transmission rate of the CS by jointly optimizing sensing time, harvesting time and the numbers of sensing nodes and harvesting nodes. Using the half searching method and the alternating direction optimization, we have achieved the sub-optimal solution by converting the joint optimization problem into several convex sub-optimization problems. The simulation results have indicated the predominance of the proposed energy-harvesting-based CS and CSN models.

  15. Integrating indigenous ecological and scientific hydro-geological knowledge using a Bayesian Network in the context of water resource development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedloff, A. C.; Woodward, E. L.; Harrington, G. A.; Jackson, S.

    2013-08-01

    The contributions indigenous ecological knowledge can make to better inform water management decisions are currently undervalued leading to an underrepresentation of indigenous values in water planning and policy. This paper outlines a novel approach in which indigenous ecological knowledge informs cause and effect relationships between species and aquatic habitats to promote broader ecosystem understanding. A Bayesian Network was developed to synthesise the seasonal aquatic knowledge of a group of Gooniyandi Aboriginal language speakers, including fish species’ availability, condition and required habitat, and integrate it with hydrogeological understanding obtained from research undertaken in a stretch of the Fitzroy River, Western Australia. This river system, like most in northern Australia, is highly seasonal and entirely dependent upon groundwater for maintaining flow during prolonged dry seasons. We found that potential changes in river flow rates caused by future water resource development, such as groundwater extraction and surface water diversion, may have detrimental effects on the ability to catch the high value aquatic food species such as Barramundi and Sawfish, but also that species such as Black Bream may benefit. These findings result from changes in availability of habitats at times when Gooniyandi understanding shows they are important for providing aquatic resources in good condition. This study raises awareness of the potential outcomes of future water management and stimulates communication between indigenous people, the scientific community and water managers by developing a model of indigenous understanding from which to predict eco-hydrological change.

  16. Social networks, market transactions, and reputation as a central resource. The Mercado del Mar, a fish market in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Hernández, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region.

  17. Joint Resource Allocation of Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in an Energy-Harvesting-Based Cognitive Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Lu, Weidang; Ye, Liang; Li, Feng; Zou, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive sensor (CS) can transmit data to the control center in the same spectrum that is licensed to the primary user (PU) when the absence of the PU is detected by spectrum sensing. However, the battery energy of the CS is limited due to its small size, deployment in atrocious environments and long-term working. In this paper, an energy-harvesting-based CS is described, which senses the PU together with collecting the radio frequency energy to supply data transmission. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CS, we have proposed the joint resource allocation of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting in the cases of a single energy-harvesting-based CS and an energy-harvesting-based cognitive sensor network (CSN), respectively. Based on the proposed frame structure, we have formulated the resource allocation as a class of joint optimization problems, which seek to maximize the transmission rate of the CS by jointly optimizing sensing time, harvesting time and the numbers of sensing nodes and harvesting nodes. Using the half searching method and the alternating direction optimization, we have achieved the sub-optimal solution by converting the joint optimization problem into several convex sub-optimization problems. The simulation results have indicated the predominance of the proposed energy-harvesting-based CS and CSN models. PMID:28300763

  18. Visual analysis of network traffic for resource planning, interactive monitoring, and interpretation of security threats.

    PubMed

    Mansmann, Florian; Keim, Daniel A; North, Stephen C; Rexroad, Brian; Sheleheda, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The Internet has become a wild place: malicious code is spread on personal computers across the world, deploying botnets ready to attack the network infrastructure. The vast number of security incidents and other anomalies overwhelms attempts at manual analysis, especially when monitoring service provider backbone links. We present an approach to interactive visualization with a case study indicating that interactive visualization can be applied to gain more insight into these large data sets. We superimpose a hierarchy on IP address space, and study the suitability of Treemap variants for each hierarchy level. Because viewing the whole IP hierarchy at once is not practical for most tasks, we evaluate layout stability when eliding large parts of the hierarchy, while maintaining the visibility and ordering of the data of interest.

  19. Computational Prediction of Protein–Protein Interaction Networks: Algo-rithms and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri, Javad; Bozorgmehr, Joseph Hannon; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Protein interactions play an important role in the discovery of protein functions and pathways in biological processes. This is especially true in case of the diseases caused by the loss of specific protein-protein interactions in the organism. The accuracy of experimental results in finding protein-protein interactions, however, is rather dubious and high throughput experimental results have shown both high false positive beside false negative information for protein interaction. Computational methods have attracted tremendous attention among biologists because of the ability to predict protein-protein interactions and validate the obtained experimental results. In this study, we have reviewed several computational methods for protein-protein interaction prediction as well as describing major databases, which store both predicted and detected protein-protein interactions, and the tools used for analyzing protein interaction networks and improving protein-protein interaction reliability. PMID:24396273

  20. Community care workers, poor referral networks and consumption of personal resources in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.

  1. Community Care Workers, Poor Referral Networks and Consumption of Personal Resources in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data – CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers. PMID:24781696

  2. Optimization of multisource information fusion for resource management with remote sensing imagery: an aggregate regularization method with neural network implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkvarko, Yuriy, IV; Butenko, Sergiy

    2006-05-01

    We address a new approach to the problem of improvement of the quality of multi-grade spatial-spectral images provided by several remote sensing (RS) systems as required for environmental resource management with the use of multisource RS data. The problem of multi-spectral reconstructive imaging with multisource information fusion is stated and treated as an aggregated ill-conditioned inverse problem of reconstruction of a high-resolution image from the data provided by several sensor systems that employ the same or different image formation methods. The proposed fusionoptimization technique aggregates the experiment design regularization paradigm with neural-network-based implementation of the multisource information fusion method. The maximum entropy (ME) requirement and projection regularization constraints are posed as prior knowledge for fused reconstruction and the experiment-design regularization methodology is applied to perform the optimization of multisource information fusion. Computationally, the reconstruction and fusion are accomplished via minimization of the energy function of the proposed modified multistate Hopfield-type neural network (NN) that integrates the model parameters of all systems incorporating a priori information, aggregate multisource measurements and calibration data. The developed theory proves that the designed maximum entropy neural network (MENN) is able to solve the multisource fusion tasks without substantial complication of its computational structure independent on the number of systems to be fused. For each particular case, only the proper adjustment of the MENN's parameters (i.e. interconnection strengths and bias inputs) should be accomplished. Simulation examples are presented to illustrate the good overall performance of the fused reconstruction achieved with the developed MENN algorithm applied to the real-world multi-spectral environmental imagery.

  3. Autophagy Regulatory Network — A systems-level bioinformatics resource for studying the mechanism and regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Türei, Dénes; Földvári-Nagy, László; Fazekas, Dávid; Módos, Dezső; Kubisch, János; Kadlecsik, Tamás; Demeter, Amanda; Lenti, Katalin; Csermely, Péter; Vellai, Tibor; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a complex cellular process having multiple roles, depending on tissue, physiological, or pathological conditions. Major post-translational regulators of autophagy are well known, however, they have not yet been collected comprehensively. The precise and context-dependent regulation of autophagy necessitates additional regulators, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional components that are listed in various datasets. Prompted by the lack of systems-level autophagy-related information, we manually collected the literature and integrated external resources to gain a high coverage autophagy database. We developed an online resource, Autophagy Regulatory Network (ARN; http://autophagy-regulation.org), to provide an integrated and systems-level database for autophagy research. ARN contains manually curated, imported, and predicted interactions of autophagy components (1,485 proteins with 4,013 interactions) in humans. We listed 413 transcription factors and 386 miRNAs that could regulate autophagy components or their protein regulators. We also connected the above-mentioned autophagy components and regulators with signaling pathways from the SignaLink 2 resource. The user-friendly website of ARN allows researchers without computational background to search, browse, and download the database. The database can be downloaded in SQL, CSV, BioPAX, SBML, PSI-MI, and in a Cytoscape CYS file formats. ARN has the potential to facilitate the experimental validation of novel autophagy components and regulators. In addition, ARN helps the investigation of transcription factors, miRNAs and signaling pathways implicated in the control of the autophagic pathway. The list of such known and predicted regulators could be important in pharmacological attempts against cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25635527

  4. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  5. Research resource: dkCOIN, the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) consortium interconnectivity network: a pilot program to aggregate research resources generated by multiple research consortia.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Neil J; Howard, Christopher L; Aufiero, Michael; Easton-Marks, Jeremy; Steffen, David L; Becnel, Lauren B; Magnuson, Mark A; McIndoe, Richard A; Cartailler, Jean-Philippe

    2012-10-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) supports multiple basic science consortia that generate high-content datasets, reagent resources, and methodologies, in the fields of kidney, urology, hematology, digestive, and endocrine diseases, as well as metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. These currently include the Beta Cell Biology Consortium, the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas, the Diabetic Complications Consortium, and the Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers. Recognizing the synergy that would accrue from aggregating information generated and curated by these initiatives in a contiguous informatics network, we created the NIDDK Consortium Interconnectivity Network (dkCOIN; www.dkcoin.org). The goal of this pilot project, organized by the NIDDK, was to establish a single point of access to a toolkit of interconnected resources (datasets, reagents, and protocols) generated from individual consortia that could be readily accessed by biologists of diverse backgrounds and research interests. During the pilot phase of this activity dkCOIN collected nearly 2000 consortium-curated resources, including datasets (functional genomics) and reagents (mouse strains, antibodies, and adenoviral constructs) and built nearly 3000 resource-to-resource connections, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of further extending this database in the future. Thus, dkCOIN promises to be a useful informatics solution for rapidly identifying useful resources generated by participating research consortia.

  6. Research performance of centers of expertise for rare diseases--the influence of network integration, internal resource access and operational experience.

    PubMed

    Hannemann-Weber, Henrike; Kessel, Maura; Schultz, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Centers of expertise (CoE) are vital to the care and treatment of patients with rare diseases and play a central role in generating medical and scientific knowledge. This study explores the relationship between a CoEs internal resource availability, operational experience and functional network integration and its research performance. Hypotheses were tested based on a sample of 64 CoEs in Europe and North America that specialize in 6 rare diseases. We collected questionnaire data related to strategic and structural antecedents and subsequently examined bibliometric data in the ISI Web of Science database to determine (1) research output by publication counts and (2) research impact by the number of citations. A CoEs research performance is greatly determined by available experiences and internal resources as well as by the nature of networks. While research output increases with the number of treated patients, the amount of resources and access to R&D networks, the impact of the identified publications is not related to a CoEs availability of internal resources or to the size of its R&D network. Nevertheless, a CoEs focus on care-oriented networks increases its research impact. Under the guidance of different national efforts, this study aims to support a nationwide establishment of specialized CoEs for rare diseases. It emphasizes the relevance of CoEs for the generation of medical knowledge for rare diseases as well as their need for essential support through internal and external resources. The findings further show the necessity for CoEs not only to concentrate on R&D collaborations to generate completely new knowledge and opportunities but also to establish networks with operational care partners such as general practitioners, local therapists, rehabilitation centers or other hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving colorectal cancer screening in family medicine: an Oklahoma Physicians Resource/Research Network (OKPRN) study.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Dewey C; Hamm, Robert M; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H; Mold, James W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) practices across a variety of primary care clinics and identify the methods used by primary care physicians (PCPs) with higher rates of CRCS ("exemplars"). Physician questionnaires, structured interviews, medical record abstractions, and practice observations were conducted for 48 PCPs in 25 practices within a regional practice-based research network followed by secondary in-depth interviews to further investigate the practices of PCPs in the top quartile of CRCS rates ("exemplars"). We abstracted 3596 medical records (mean of 75 records per PCP). Overall, exemplars had higher CRCS rates (median, 57.2% vs. 27.6%; P < .001). Patients of exemplars had higher screening rates for fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy but not for flexible sigmoidoscopy or double-contrast barium enemas. Exemplars adopted few of the system-based innovations proposed by researchers to improve CRCS. Colonoscopy was promoted as the preferred CRCS method. FOBT was recommended for patients who could not afford or did not want colonoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy or barium enemas were rarely recommended. Exemplars used brief CRCS promotion scripts that informally paralleled theory-driven counseling techniques. Experienced PCPs use brief CRCS promotion scripts including counseling techniques that improve CRCS performance. Future research should be directed toward whether these techniques can be used to create an intervention aimed at PCPs to improve CRCS.

  8. Water resources and data-network assessment of the Manasota Basin, Manatee and Sarasota Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, David P.

    1982-01-01

    The average annual rainfall in the Manasota Basin is 53.7 inches , and annual evapotranspiration is about 39 inches. Annual runoff from gaged parts of the Basin ranges from about 13 to 17 inches per year. Streamflow in the upland areas diminishes rapidly following the end of the rainy season and approaches zero during extended dry periods. Generally, surface water is of good quality except in tidally affected, coastal areas. Its quality varies seasonally, generally becoming more mineralized during the dry season. The principal hydrogeologic units are the surficial aquifer, the upper confining beds and minor artesian aquifers, the Floridan acquifer, and the lower confining bed. The quality of ground water is generally good except in the western and southern parts where saltwater intrusion or incomplete flushing of residual seawater has occurred. Land-use changes and stream impoundments and diversions require reassessment of the type and use of data collected by the surface-water network. Such changes may require modification of existing sites and establishment of new ones. Development and completion of the monitoring plan could provide most of the data necessary to define the groundwater system. (USGS)

  9. The Childhood Solid Tumor Network: A new resource for the developmental biology and oncology research communities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara; Karlstrom, Asa; Shelat, Anang; Sablauer, Andras; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2016-03-15

    Significant advances have been made over the past 25 years in our understanding of the most common adult solid tumors such as breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. Much less is known about childhood solid tumors because they are rare and because they originate in developing organs during fetal development, childhood and adolescence. It can be very difficult to study the cellular origins of pediatric solid tumors in developing organs characterized by rapid proliferative expansion, growth factor signaling, developmental angiogenesis, programmed cell death, tissue reorganization and cell migration. Not only has the etiology of pediatric cancer remained elusive because of their developmental origins, but it also makes it more difficult to treat. Molecular targeted therapeutics that alter developmental pathway signaling may have devastating effects on normal organ development. Therefore, basic research focused on the mechanisms of development provides an essential foundation for pediatric solid tumor translational research. In this article, we describe new resources available for the developmental biology and oncology research communities. In a companion paper, we present the detailed characterization of an orthotopic xenograft of a pediatric solid tumor derived from sympathoadrenal lineage during development.

  10. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  11. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, to a...

  12. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  13. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and USDI Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a broad and coordinated research program to develop wind ...

  14. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  15. DISTRIBUTED STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXICITY (DSSTOX) DATABASE NETWORK: MAKING PUBLIC TOXICITY DATA RESOURCES MORE ACCESSIBLE AND USABLE FOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network: Making Public Toxicity Data Resources More Accessible and U sable for Data Exploration and SAR Development

    Many sources of public toxicity data are not currently linked to chemical structure, are not ...

  16. DISTRIBUTED STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXICITY (DSSTOX) DATABASE NETWORK: MAKING PUBLIC TOXICITY DATA RESOURCES MORE ACCESSIBLE AND USABLE FOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network: Making Public Toxicity Data Resources More Accessible and U sable for Data Exploration and SAR Development

    Many sources of public toxicity data are not currently linked to chemical structure, are not ...

  17. The effects of initial distribution on the formation and structure of conducting paths in a physical example of a resource transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joseph; Hubler, Alfred

    2004-03-01

    The geometrical properties of resource transportation networks have proven to be of key importance in understanding the scaling properties of organisms across many taxa.[1,2] Yet, little is known about the formation of such networks. We study a physical example of a "resource" collection network: the formation of conducting paths in a two material mixture system of conducting particles and dielectric medium when influenced by an electric field. The experimental setup is analogous to biological systems where optimal resource collection is important, such as root and tree formation and foraging trails of ant colonies; here charge can be viewed as resource. Under suitable conditions the conducting paths form quasi 2-dimensional fractal networks strikingly similar to those found in biological systems. We present experimental results on the effects of the initial distribution of conducting particles on the final static pattern. We find qualitative differences in the pattern when the particles are initially distributed compactly or when they are initially distributed randomly [1] G. West, J.H. Brown and B.J. Enquist, Science, 276, 122. [2] J. Jun, J.F. Gillooly, J.W. Pepper, V.M. Savage, and J.H. Brown, Evol. Ecol. Res., 5, 297.

  18. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  19. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  20. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-09-21

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  1. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  2. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars; Ellis, Abraham; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery operated data acquisition system. The Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network is comprised of 24 LI-COR{reg_sign} irradiance sensors (silicon pyranometers) polled by 19 RF Radios. The system was implemented with commercially available hardware and custom developed LabVIEW applications. The network of solar irradiance sensors was installed in January 2010 around the periphery and within the 1.2 MW ac La Ola PV plant on the island of Lanai, Hawaii. Data acquired at 1 second intervals is transmitted over wireless links to be time-stamped and recorded on SunPower data servers at the site for later analysis. The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The irradiance data sets recorded will be used to study the shape, size and velocity of cloud shadows. This data, along with time-correlated PV array output data, will support the development and validation of a PV performance model that can predict the short-term output characteristics (ramp rates) of PV systems of different sizes and designs. This analysis could also be used by the La Ola system operator to predict power ramp events and support the function of the future battery system. This experience could be used to validate short-term output forecasting methodologies.

  3. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  4. NRF2-ome: an integrated web resource to discover protein interaction and regulatory networks of NRF2.

    PubMed

    Türei, Dénes; Papp, Diána; Fazekas, Dávid; Földvári-Nagy, László; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    NRF2 is the master transcriptional regulator of oxidative and xenobiotic stress responses. NRF2 has important roles in carcinogenesis, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. We developed an online resource, NRF2-ome, to provide an integrated and systems-level database for NRF2. The database contains manually curated and predicted interactions of NRF2 as well as data from external interaction databases. We integrated NRF2 interactome with NRF2 target genes, NRF2 regulating TFs, and miRNAs. We connected NRF2-ome to signaling pathways to allow mapping upstream NRF2 regulatory components that could directly or indirectly influence NRF2 activity totaling 35,967 protein-protein and signaling interactions. The user-friendly website allows researchers without computational background to search, browse, and download the database. The database can be downloaded in SQL, CSV, BioPAX, SBML, PSI-MI, and in a Cytoscape CYS file formats. We illustrated the applicability of the website by suggesting a posttranscriptional negative feedback of NRF2 by MAFG protein and raised the possibility of a connection between NRF2 and the JAK/STAT pathway through STAT1 and STAT3. NRF2-ome can also be used as an evaluation tool to help researchers and drug developers to understand the hidden regulatory mechanisms in the complex network of NRF2.

  5. Proceedings from the Turner Resource Network symposium: the crossroads of health care research and health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bondy, Carolyn; Chernausek, Steven D; Cernich, Joseph T; Cole, David A; Fasciano, Laura P; Foodim, Joan; Hawley, Scott; Hong, David S; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Kruszka, Paul; Lin, Angela E; Lippe, Barbara M; Lorigan, Gary A; Maslen, Cheryl L; Mauras, Nelly; Page, David C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Prakash, Siddharth K; Quigley, Charmian A; Ranallo, Kelly C; Reiss, Allan L; Sandberg, David E; Scurlock, Cindy; Silberbach, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects ∼1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. There has been substantial effort by numerous clinical and genetic research groups to delineate the clinical, pathophysiological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of this multisystem condition. Questions about the molecular-genetic and biological basis of many of the clinical features remain unanswered, and health care providers and families seek improved care for affected individuals. The inaugural "Turner Resource Network (TRN) Symposium" brought together individuals with Turner syndrome and their families, advocacy group leaders, clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, trainees and other stakeholders with interest in the well-being of individuals and families living with the condition. The goal of this symposium was to establish a structure for a TRN that will be a patient-powered organization involving those living with Turner syndrome, their families, clinicians, and scientists. The TRN will identify basic and clinical questions that might be answered with registries, clinical trials, or through bench research to promote and advocate for best practices and improved care for individuals with Turner syndrome. The symposium concluded with the consensus that two rationales justify the creation of a TRN: inadequate attention has been paid to the health and psychosocial issues facing girls and women who live with Turner syndrome; investigations into the susceptibility to common disorders such as cardiovascular or autoimmune diseases caused by sex chromosome deficiencies will increase understanding of disease susceptibilities in the general population.

  6. Research on Hot Compressive Deformation of TiBw/TA15 Composite Cylindrical Billet with Network-Distributed Reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, DongJun; Yuan, ShiJian

    2017-08-01

    A TA15 matrix composite reinforced by 3.5 vol.% TiB whiskers with a network microstructure was fabricated by the reaction hot pressing method. After sintering, the composite developed a net-like microstructure. To improve the mechanical properties, a cylindrical billet of the as-sintered TiBw/TA15 composite was subjected to upsetting and swaging operations with intermediate heating at 1000°C. The original equiaxed network units were stretched slightly, and the matrix had a microstructure evolution from a basket structure to a bi-modal structure after hot forging. The results of tensile tests at room temperature showed that the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the composite increased by 8.2% and 130%, respectively, while the yield strength appeared to remain constant. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the as-forged composite also improved at an elevated temperature.

  7. Research on Hot Compressive Deformation of TiBw/TA15 Composite Cylindrical Billet with Network-Distributed Reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, DongJun; Yuan, ShiJian

    2017-10-01

    A TA15 matrix composite reinforced by 3.5 vol.% TiB whiskers with a network microstructure was fabricated by the reaction hot pressing method. After sintering, the composite developed a net-like microstructure. To improve the mechanical properties, a cylindrical billet of the as-sintered TiBw/TA15 composite was subjected to upsetting and swaging operations with intermediate heating at 1000°C. The original equiaxed network units were stretched slightly, and the matrix had a microstructure evolution from a basket structure to a bi-modal structure after hot forging. The results of tensile tests at room temperature showed that the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the composite increased by 8.2% and 130%, respectively, while the yield strength appeared to remain constant. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the as-forged composite also improved at an elevated temperature.

  8. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  9. An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kun; Chenine, Moustafa; Nordström, Lars; Holmström, Sture; Ericsson, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort made to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distribution with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal distribution based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

  10. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: role of individuals and collaborative networks in mobilizing/coordinating societal and professional resources for major disasters.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Kenneth L

    2006-02-01

    The medical support for the coordinated effort for Harris County Texas (Houston) to rescue evacuees from New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina was part of an integrated collaborative network. Both public health and operational health care was structured to custom meet the needs of the evacuees and to create an exit strategy for the clinic and shelter. Integrating local hospital and physician resources into the Joint Incident Command was essential. Outside assistance, including federal and national resources must be coordinated through the local incident command.

  11. Proceedings From the Turner Resource Network Symposium: The Crossroads of Health Care Research and Health Care Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Backeljauw, Philippe F.; Bondy, Carolyn; Chernausek, Steven D.; Cernich, Joseph T.; Cole, David A.; Fasciano, Laura P.; Foodim, Joan; Hawley, Scott; Hong, David S.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.; Kruszka, Paul; Lin, Angela E.; Lippe, Barbara M.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Mauras, Nelly; Page, David C.; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Quigley, Charmian A.; Ranallo, Kelly C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Sandberg, David E.; Scurlock, Cindy; Silberbach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome, a congenital condition that affects ∼1/2,500 births, results from absence or structural alteration of the second sex chromosome. There has been substantial effort by numerous clinical and genetic research groups to delineate the clinical, pathophysiological, cytogenetic, and molecular features of this multisystem condition. Questions about the molecular-genetic and biological basis of many of the clinical features remain unanswered, and health care providers and families seek improved care for affected individuals. The inaugural “Turner Resource Network (TRN) Symposium” brought together individuals with Turner syndrome and their families, advocacy group leaders, clinicians, basic scientists, physician-scientists, trainees and other stakeholders with interest in the well-being of individuals and families living with the condition. The goal of this symposium was to establish a structure for a TRN that will be a patient-powered organization involving those living with Turner syndrome, their families, clinicians, and scientists. The TRN will identify basic and clinical questions that might be answered with registries, clinical trials, or through bench research to promote and advocate for best practices and improved care for individuals with Turner syndrome. The symposium concluded with the consensus that two rationales justify the creation of a TRN: inadequate attention has been paid to the health and psychosocial issues facing girls and women who live with Turner syndrome;investigations into the susceptibility to common disorders such as cardiovascular or autoimmune diseases caused by sex chromosome deficiencies will increase understanding of disease susceptibilities in the general population. PMID:25920614

  12. The U.S culture collection network lays the foundation for progress in preservation of valuable microbial resources

    Treesearch

    K. McCluskey; A. Alvarez; R. Bennett; D. Bokati; K. Boundy-Mills; D. D. Brown; C. T. Bull; M. Coffey; T. Dreaden; C. Duke; G. Dye; E. Ehmke; K. Eversole; K. Fenstermacher; D. Geiser; Jessie A. Glaeser; S. Greene; L. Gribble; M. P. Griffith; K. Hanser; R. Humber; B. W. Johnson; A. Kermode; M. Krichevsky; M. Laudon; J. Leach; J. Leslie; M. May; U. Melcher; D. Nobles; N. R. Fonseca; S. Robinson; M. Ryan; J. Scott; C. Silflow; A. Vidaver; K. M. Webb; J. E. Wertz; S. Yentsch; S. Zehr

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among...

  13. Secure NFV Orchestration Over an SDN-Controlled Optical Network With Time-Shared Quantum Key Distribution Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, Alejandro; Hugues-Salas, Emilio; Haigh, Paul Anthony; Marhuenda, Jaume; Price, Alasdair B.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Erven, Chris; Rarity, John G.; Thompson, Mark Gerard; Lord, Andrew; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, a secure optical network architecture that combines NFV orchestration and SDN control with quantum key distribution (QKD) technology. A novel time-shared QKD network design is presented as a cost-effective solution for practical networks.

  14. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W.; Courtright, Ericha M.; Hugenholtz, Christopher H.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Billings, Benjamin J.; Boyd, Robert; Clingan, Scott D.; Cooper, Brad F.; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A.; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A.; Metz, Loretta J.; Nearing, Mark A.; Norfleet, M. Lee; Pierson, Frederick B.; Sanderson, Matt A.; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Steiner, Jean L.; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H.; Toledo, David; Unnasch, Robert S.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-09-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US.

  15. Passive vibration tuning with neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiDomenico, Eric D.

    1994-05-01

    Neural network control of flexible structures demonstrates better settling time and energy dissipation than linear design methods. Optimal tuning of passive vibration absorbers for reduced order control is examined using linear and non-linear cases. Quasi-Newton (BFGS) and simplex optimization methods improved the Den Hartog parameters where unsupervised LMS or backpropagation techniques were unstable. Lessons on unsupervised training for dynamic system control are illustrated by examining convergence to the solution in `error space' (parameters vs. cost). Spring stiffness and passive damping of a reaction mass actuator (RMA) are `tuned' for best disturbance rejection using total energy as a cost function. A single neuron using two weights (one for damping and the other for the spring coefficient) improved beam energy over the Den Hartog parameters for the linear bi-modal case. The non-linear case demonstrates even better performance. A multiple layer network is then demonstrated for both the linear and non-linear cases. Optimization techniques improved linear system parameters when initiated at the linear solutions. Lab data for the linear single neuron case validates model fidelity.

  16. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  17. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network -- www.allergyasthmanetwork.org American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology -- www. ...

  18. Network Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    1992-01-01

    Explains how users can find and access information resources available on the Internet. Highlights include network information centers (NICs); lists, both formal and informal; computer networking protocols, including international standards; electronic mail; remote log-in; and file transfer. (LRW)

  19. Network Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    1992-01-01

    Explains how users can find and access information resources available on the Internet. Highlights include network information centers (NICs); lists, both formal and informal; computer networking protocols, including international standards; electronic mail; remote log-in; and file transfer. (LRW)

  20. Microbial interaction networks in soil and in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetsigian, Kalin

    2012-02-01

    Soil harbors a huge number of microbial species interacting through secretion of antibiotics and other chemicals. What patterns of species interactions allow for this astonishing biodiversity to be sustained, and how do these interactions evolve? I used a combined experimental-theoretical approach to tackle these questions. Focusing on bacteria from the genus Steptomyces, known for their diverse secondary metabolism, I isolated 64 natural strains from several individual grains of soil and systematically measured all pairwise interactions among them. Quantitative measurements on such scale were enabled by a novel experimental platform based on robotic handling, a custom scanner array and automatic image analysis. This unique platform allowed the simultaneous capturing of ˜15,000 time-lapse movies of growing colonies of each isolate on media conditioned by each of the other isolates. The data revealed a rich network of strong negative (inhibitory) and positive (stimulating) interactions. Analysis of this network and the phylogeny of the isolates, together with mathematical modeling of microbial communities, revealed that: 1) The network of interactions has three special properties: ``balance'', ``bi- modality'' and ``reciprocity''; 2) The interaction network is fast evolving; 3) Mathematical modeling explains how rapid evolution can give rise to the three special properties through an interplay between ecology and evolution. These properties are not a result of stable co-existence, but rather of continuous evolutionary turnover of strains with different production and resistance capabilities.

  1. Concept for a Wireless Sensor Network to support GIS based water and land resource management in the Aksu-Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doluschitz, Reiner; Feike, Til

    2013-04-01

    Farmers in the oases along the Aksu-Tarim River suffer from severe seasonal water shortage caused by high fluctuations of river run-off. The uncertainty of water availability makes the planning of crop production and related investments extremely difficult. As a consequence farm management is often sub-optimal, manifesting in low input efficiencies, and the value generated in the agricultural sector being way below its potential. The "Tarim Basin Water Resource Bureau" (TBWRB) was founded in the 1990s. Its major task is to implement a basin wide water resources management plan, which involves fair allocation of water resources among the farmers in the different administrative units along the river. Among others, the lack of reliable and timely information on water quantities and qualities within the major water bodies of the basin hinders the implementation of an effective water management plan. Therefore we introduce the concept of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that provides reliable instantaneous information on the status of all important water resources within the basin. In the first step a GIS including all vital geospatial data, like river courses, channel and reservoir network and capacities, soil and land use map, is built. In the second step a WSN that monitors all important parameters at essential positions throughout the basin needs to be established. Measured parameters comprise meteorological data, river run-off, water levels of reservoirs, groundwater levels, and salinity levels of water resources. All data is centrally collected and processed by the TBWRB. Apart from generating a prompt and complete picture of currently available water resources, the TBWRB can use the system to record actual water allocation, and develop an early warning system for upcoming droughts or floods. Finally an integrated water and land management scheme can be established that allocates resources maximizing the benefits at basin level. Financed by public funding, the data

  2. Improved One-Way Hash Chain and Revocation Polynomial-Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Schemes in Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked. PMID:25529204

  3. Two-dimensional paper network format that enables simple multistep assays for use in low-resource settings in the context of malaria antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Elain; Liang, Tinny; Spicar-Mihalic, Paolo; Houghtaling, Jared; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Yager, Paul

    2012-05-15

    The lateral flow test has become the standard bioassay format in low-resource settings because it is rapid, easy to use, and low in cost, uses reagents stored in dry form, and is equipment-free. However, lateral flow tests are often limited to a single chemical delivery step and not capable of the multistep processing characteristic of high performance laboratory-based assays. To address this limitation, we are developing a paper network platform that extends the conventional lateral flow test to two dimensions; this allows incorporation of multistep chemical processing, while still retaining the advantages of conventional lateral flow tests. Here, we demonstrate this format for an easy-to-use, signal-amplified sandwich format immunoassay for the malaria protein PfHRP2. The card contains reagents stored in dry form such that the user need only add sample and water. The multiple flows in the device are activated in a single user step of folding the card closed; the configuration of the paper network automatically delivers the appropriate volumes of (i) sample plus antibody conjugated to a gold particle label, (ii) a rinse buffer, and (iii) a signal amplification reagent to the capture region. These results highlight the potential of the paper network platform to enhance access to high-quality diagnostic capabilities in low-resource settings in the developed and developing worlds.

  4. Improved one-way hash chain and revocation polynomial-based self-healing group key distribution schemes in resource-constrained wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei

    2014-12-18

    Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked.

  5. The Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Data Warehouse: a Resource for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research and Quality Improvement in Underserved, Safety Net Populations

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Reesa; Gillespie, Suzanne; Puro, Jon; Van Rompaey, Stephan; Quach, Thu; Carroll, Joseph; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crawford, Phil; Grasso, Chris; Kaleba, Erin; McBurnie, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Community Health Applied Research Network, funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, is a research network comprising 18 Community Health Centers organized into four Research Nodes (each including an academic partner) and a data coordinating center. The network represents more than 500,000 diverse safety net patients across 11 states. Objective: The primary objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation process of the CHARN data warehouse. Methods: The methods involved regulatory and governance development and approval, development of content and structure of the warehouse and processes for extracting the data locally, performing validation, and finally submitting data to the data coordinating center. Progress to Date: Version 1 of the warehouse has been developed. Tables have been added, the population and the years of electronic health records (EHR) have been expanded for Version 2. Conclusions: It is feasible to create a national, centralized data warehouse with multiple Community Health Center partners using different EHR systems. It is essential to allow sufficient time: (1) to develop collaborative, trusting relationships among new partners with varied technology, backgrounds, expertise, and interests; (2) to complete institutional, business, and regulatory review processes; (3) to identify and address technical challenges associated with diverse data environments, practices, and resources; and (4) to provide continuing data quality assessments to ensure data accuracy. PMID:25848623

  6. The Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Data Warehouse: a Resource for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research and Quality Improvement in Underserved, Safety Net Populations.

    PubMed

    Laws, Reesa; Gillespie, Suzanne; Puro, Jon; Van Rompaey, Stephan; Quach, Thu; Carroll, Joseph; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crawford, Phil; Grasso, Chris; Kaleba, Erin; McBurnie, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Community Health Applied Research Network, funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, is a research network comprising 18 Community Health Centers organized into four Research Nodes (each including an academic partner) and a data coordinating center. The network represents more than 500,000 diverse safety net patients across 11 states. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation process of the CHARN data warehouse. The methods involved regulatory and governance development and approval, development of content and structure of the warehouse and processes for extracting the data locally, performing validation, and finally submitting data to the data coordinating center. Version 1 of the warehouse has been developed. Tables have been added, the population and the years of electronic health records (EHR) have been expanded for Version 2. It is feasible to create a national, centralized data warehouse with multiple Community Health Center partners using different EHR systems. It is essential to allow sufficient time: (1) to develop collaborative, trusting relationships among new partners with varied technology, backgrounds, expertise, and interests; (2) to complete institutional, business, and regulatory review processes; (3) to identify and address technical challenges associated with diverse data environments, practices, and resources; and (4) to provide continuing data quality assessments to ensure data accuracy.

  7. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  8. The pooling of manpower and resources through the establishment of European reference networks and rare disease patient registries is a necessary area of collaboration for rare renal disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to provide guidance on emerging concepts and policy related to European reference networks (ERNs) for rare diseases (RDs) and the development and management of RD patient registries. A major problem facing many RDs including rare renal disorders is that patients do not have a specialist centre that they can attend where clinicians, working as a multidisciplinary team, are experts in the particular disease. Furthermore, for most RDs, no single centre, and in many cases no single country, has sufficient numbers of patients and resources to fully understand the natural history or to conduct clinical and translational research. Therefore, the pooling of manpower and resources through the establishment of ERN and RD patient registries is a common and necessary area of collaboration. The concept of European networks for RDs dates back to the early 2000s and the Commission launch of a call for European pilot reference networks for RDs. These networks of expert centres have been brought together through the desire for further knowledge and innovation in RD areas. Networks demand a holistic approach and long-term vision with close collaboration between clinicians, diagnostic laboratories, scientists, patients and their families. The development of legal measures for ERNs is in progress at the Commission and these networks will be a shared responsibility of the Commission and member states. In the context of ERNs, an essential activity is the patient registries. Patient registries are organized databases where patient information, including demographic, medical and family history, are collected, stored and available for retrieval via standardized and secure methods. Patient registries are increasingly recognized as crucial tools for RD research for which international collaboration is absolutely essential to understand the pathogenesis of rare genotypes, achieve a unified collection of phenotypic data, foster natural history studies providing the foundation

  9. Time, place, and people: composition of the EPIET Alumni Network and its contribution to the European public health resource in 2013.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, L; Keramarou, M; Ladbury, G; Jaramillo-Gutierrez, G; Williams, C J; Le Menach, A

    2015-09-01

    The EPIET Alumni Network (EAN) is an association of professionals who have completed field epidemiology or public health microbiology training programmes in the European Union. In 2013, we conducted a survey of EAN members to investigate this network's role within European public health. We distributed an online questionnaire to members registered at the time, collecting data on demographics, professional background, and attitudes towards EAN. Out of 362 registered members, 189 (52%) responded; 97% were from Europe; 65% were female. Their mean age was 39 years. The highest academic qualification was PhD for 44% and Master's degree for 55%. The majority (60%) worked in public health institutes. They were especially satisfied with having access to job offers and professional networking via EAN, but requested more learning opportunities and knowledge-sharing between members. EAN is a unique platform where highly skilled professionals can connect to control infectious diseases locally and internationally. Having a network of professionals that know each other, speak the same 'language', and can easily access each other's expertise, represents an important resource for European and global public health, which should be nurtured by encouraging more collaborations devoted to professional development.

  10. International Conference of Directors of National Libraries on Resource Sharing in Asia and Oceanic [Proceedings] (Canberra, Australia, May 14-18, 1979). Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Networks Study No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    The proceedings of this 1979 conference on library cooperation begin with proposals for the promotion of resource sharing among the national libraries of Asia and Oceania, the text of a policy statement on the role of national and international systems as approved at a 1976 meeting of directors of national libraries held in Lausanne, and a summary…

  11. Impact of Alien Plant Invaders on Pollination Networks in Two Archipelagos

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Benigno; Traveset, Anna; Biedenweg, Tine; Díaz, Diana; Nogales, Manuel; Olesen, Jens M.

    2009-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions between plants and animals promote integration of invasive species into native communities. In turn, the integrated invaders may alter existing patterns of mutualistic interactions. Here we simultaneously map in detail effects of invaders on parameters describing the topology of both plant-pollinator (bi-modal) and plant-plant (uni-modal) networks. We focus on the invader Opuntia spp., a cosmopolitan alien cactus. We compare two island systems: Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Menorca (Balearic Islands). Opuntia was found to modify the number of links between plants and pollinators, and was integrated into the new communities via the most generalist pollinators, but did not affect the general network pattern. The plant uni-modal networks showed disassortative linkage, i.e. species with many links tended to connect to species with few links. Thus, by linking to generalist natives, Opuntia remained peripheral to network topology, and this is probably why native network properties were not affected at least in one of the islands. We conclude that the network analytical approach is indeed a valuable tool to evaluate the effect of invaders on native communities. PMID:19609437

  12. Dynamic Spectrum Access to the Combined Resource of Commercial and Public Safety Bands Based on a WCDMA Shared Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hyoungsuk; Im, Sooyeol; Kim, Youmin; Kim, Seunghee; Kim, Jinup; Lee, Hyuckjae

    The public safety spectrum is generally under-utilized due to the unique traffic characteristics of bursty and mission critical. This letter considers the application of dynamic spectrum access (DSA) to the combined spectrum of public safety (PS) and commercial (CMR) users in a common shared network that can provide both PS and CMR services. Our scenario includes the 700MHz Public/Private Partnership which was recently issued by the Federal Communications Commission. We first propose an efficient DSA mechanism to coordinate the combined spectrum, and then establish a call admission control that reflects the proposed DSA in a wideband code division multiple access based network. The essentials of our proposed DSA are opportunistic access to the public safety spectrum and priority access to the commercial spectrum. Simulation results show that these schemes are well harmonized in various network environments.

  13. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Electromyography Data: A Resource for the Classification of Movements for Prosthetic Hands.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Manfredo; Cognolato, Matteo; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Natural control methods based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications, and commercial prostheses are capable of offering natural control for only a few movements. In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its methods for natural control of robotic hands via sEMG using a large number of intact subjects and amputees. We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 transradial amputees. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets. The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods, but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accurate results comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters) can be fundamental for the analysis of sEMG data. Larger networks can achieve higher accuracy on computer vision and object recognition tasks. This fact suggests that it may be interesting to evaluate if larger networks can increase sEMG classification accuracy too.

  14. Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Electromyography Data: A Resource for the Classification of Movements for Prosthetic Hands

    PubMed Central

    Atzori, Manfredo; Cognolato, Matteo; Müller, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Natural control methods based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and pattern recognition are promising for hand prosthetics. However, the control robustness offered by scientific research is still not sufficient for many real life applications, and commercial prostheses are capable of offering natural control for only a few movements. In recent years deep learning revolutionized several fields of machine learning, including computer vision and speech recognition. Our objective is to test its methods for natural control of robotic hands via sEMG using a large number of intact subjects and amputees. We tested convolutional networks for the classification of an average of 50 hand movements in 67 intact subjects and 11 transradial amputees. The simple architecture of the neural network allowed to make several tests in order to evaluate the effect of pre-processing, layer architecture, data augmentation and optimization. The classification results are compared with a set of classical classification methods applied on the same datasets. The classification accuracy obtained with convolutional neural networks using the proposed architecture is higher than the average results obtained with the classical classification methods, but lower than the results obtained with the best reference methods in our tests. The results show that convolutional neural networks with a very simple architecture can produce accurate results comparable to the average classical classification methods. They show that several factors (including pre-processing, the architecture of the net and the optimization parameters) can be fundamental for the analysis of sEMG data. Larger networks can achieve higher accuracy on computer vision and object recognition tasks. This fact suggests that it may be interesting to evaluate if larger networks can increase sEMG classification accuracy too. PMID:27656140

  15. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    PubMed

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Evaluating the evolution of the Heihe River basin using the ecological network analysis: Efficiency, resilience, and implications for water resource management policy.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, Ali; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Yu, Yadong; Li, Jia

    2016-12-01

    One of the most critical challenges in the anthropocentric age is the sustainable management of the planet's increasingly strained water resources. In this avenue, there is a need to advance holistic approaches and objective tools which allow policy makers to better evaluate system-level properties and trade-offs of water resources. This research contributes to the expanding literature in this area by examining the changes to system-level network configurations of the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin from 2000 to 2009. Specifically, through the ecological network analysis (ENA) approach, this research examines changes to the system-level properties of efficiency, redundancy, and evaluates the trade-offs to the resiliency of ecosystem water services of the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin. Our results indicate that while the efficiency of the middle reaches has increased from 2000 to 2009 by 6% and 78% more water is released to the lower reaches, the redundancy of the system has also decreased by 6%. The lower level of redundancy, particularly due to the changes in the groundwater body levels, has critical long-term consequences for the resilience of the water ecosystem services of the middle reaches. In consideration of these holistic trade-offs, two hypothetical alternative scenarios, based on water recycling and saving strategies, are developed to improve the long-term health and resilience of the water system.

  17. Are Business-Oriented Social Networking Web Sites Useful Resources for Locating Passive Jobseekers? Results of a Recent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKay, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that members of business-oriented social networking Web sites are passive jobseekers has never been validated. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of this assumption. The study concludes that this claim is questionable and that the majority of members registered at one major site, and possibly others, are currently…

  18. Experimental resource pulses influence social-network dynamics and the potential for information flow in tool-using crows

    PubMed Central

    St Clair, James J. H.; Burns, Zackory T.; Bettaney, Elaine M.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Otis, Brian; Ryder, Thomas B.; Fleischer, Robert C.; James, Richard; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Social-network dynamics have profound consequences for biological processes such as information flow, but are notoriously difficult to measure in the wild. We used novel transceiver technology to chart association patterns across 19 days in a wild population of the New Caledonian crow—a tool-using species that may socially learn, and culturally accumulate, tool-related information. To examine the causes and consequences of changing network topology, we manipulated the environmental availability of the crows' preferred tool-extracted prey, and simulated, in silico, the diffusion of information across field-recorded time-ordered networks. Here we show that network structure responds quickly to environmental change and that novel information can potentially spread rapidly within multi-family communities, especially when tool-use opportunities are plentiful. At the same time, we report surprisingly limited social contact between neighbouring crow communities. Such scale dependence in information-flow dynamics is likely to influence the evolution and maintenance of material cultures. PMID:26529116

  19. Experimental resource pulses influence social-network dynamics and the potential for information flow in tool-using crows.

    PubMed

    St Clair, James J H; Burns, Zackory T; Bettaney, Elaine M; Morrissey, Michael B; Otis, Brian; Ryder, Thomas B; Fleischer, Robert C; James, Richard; Rutz, Christian

    2015-11-03

    Social-network dynamics have profound consequences for biological processes such as information flow, but are notoriously difficult to measure in the wild. We used novel transceiver technology to chart association patterns across 19 days in a wild population of the New Caledonian crow--a tool-using species that may socially learn, and culturally accumulate, tool-related information. To examine the causes and consequences of changing network topology, we manipulated the environmental availability of the crows' preferred tool-extracted prey, and simulated, in silico, the diffusion of information across field-recorded time-ordered networks. Here we show that network structure responds quickly to environmental change and that novel information can potentially spread rapidly within multi-family communities, especially when tool-use opportunities are plentiful. At the same time, we report surprisingly limited social contact between neighbouring crow communities. Such scale dependence in information-flow dynamics is likely to influence the evolution and maintenance of material cultures.

  20. The Mall, the Library and the Church: Inquiring into the Resourcing of Early Learning through New Spaces and Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Rainbird, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Early learning has increasingly been the focus of social policy and programmes with a proliferation of public, community and commercial entities entering the field of production. Understanding this phenomenon requires educational researchers to conceptualise early learning both within a globalised network of circulating commodities and within…

  1. Energy-efficient Search for Finite-lifetime Resources in Sensor Networks with Time-constrained Queries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    wasteful in terms of the to- tal energy expended by the network [4]. To decrease reliance on flooding and reduce the total energy ex- penditure required...publication in Perfor- mance Evaluation. [10] R. Melamed, I. Keidar and Y. Barel, “ Octopus : A fault-tolerant and efficient ad-hoc routing pro- tocol,” in

  2. Network Update--USENET as a Foreign Language Resource; MINITEL Update; CTLINK; EUDORA and the Electronic Post Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avots, Juliette; Grodberg, Miriam

    1993-01-01

    Brief reviews and descriptions cover USENET (for those interested in exploring language and culture on-line); expansion of MINITEL service through interconnection with services in Spain, England, Holland, Germany, and Italy; CTLINK, which allows access to many networks; and EUDORA, an Internet-compatible mail program for MacIntosh computers. (CNP)

  3. Library Resources for the Blind & Physically Handicapped. A Directory of DBPH Network Libraries and Machine-Lending Agencies. 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This directory list 56 regional and 96 subregional network libraries in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands which circulate Library of Congress braille and recorded books and magazines for the blind and handicapped. Entries appear alphabetically by state. Within each state there are listings for regional libraries, subregional…

  4. Are Business-Oriented Social Networking Web Sites Useful Resources for Locating Passive Jobseekers? Results of a Recent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKay, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that members of business-oriented social networking Web sites are passive jobseekers has never been validated. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of this assumption. The study concludes that this claim is questionable and that the majority of members registered at one major site, and possibly others, are currently…

  5. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Network of Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres: Treatnet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas-Rossello, Juana; Rawson, Richard A.; Zarza, Maria J.; Bellows, Anne; Busse, Anja; Saenz, Elizabeth; Freese, Thomas; Shawkey, Mansour; Carise, Deni; Ali, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Key to the dissemination of evidence-based addiction treatments is the exchange of experiences and mutual support among treatment practitioners, as well as the availability of accurate addiction training materials and effective trainers. To address the shortage of such resources, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) created…

  6. Pursuing Financial Stability: A Resource Dependence Perspective on Interactions between Pro-Vice Chancellors in a Network of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In resource-constrained environments universities increasingly must interact collaboratively and competitively to ensure financial stability. Such interactions are supported by the actions of senior university managers. This study investigated the extent and purpose of the interconnections between members of two groups of pro-vice chancellors…

  7. wolfPAC: building a high-performance distributed computing network for phylogenetic analysis using 'obsolete' computational resources.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick A; Friedman, Philip H; Richards, Christopher M

    2005-01-01

    wolfPAC is an AppleScript-based software package that facilitates the use of numerous, remotely located Macintosh computers to perform computationally-intensive phylogenetic analyses using the popular application PAUP* (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony). It has been designed to utilise readily available, inexpensive processors and to encourage sharing of computational resources within the worldwide phylogenetics community.

  8. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Network of Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres: Treatnet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas-Rossello, Juana; Rawson, Richard A.; Zarza, Maria J.; Bellows, Anne; Busse, Anja; Saenz, Elizabeth; Freese, Thomas; Shawkey, Mansour; Carise, Deni; Ali, Robert; Ling, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Key to the dissemination of evidence-based addiction treatments is the exchange of experiences and mutual support among treatment practitioners, as well as the availability of accurate addiction training materials and effective trainers. To address the shortage of such resources, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) created…

  9. Resources, Not Capital: A Case Study of the Gendered Distribution and Productivity of Social Network Ties in Rural Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkelsson, Asa

    2007-01-01

    Poor people make use of a variety of contextually relevant resources to pursue their livelihood strategies, and there is wide empirical evidence that opportunities and constraints for accessing these may vary considerably for women and men, particularly in the rural areas of developing countries. In this article, micro-evidence from a case study…

  10. Pursuing Financial Stability: A Resource Dependence Perspective on Interactions between Pro-Vice Chancellors in a Network of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilbeam, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In resource-constrained environments universities increasingly must interact collaboratively and competitively to ensure financial stability. Such interactions are supported by the actions of senior university managers. This study investigated the extent and purpose of the interconnections between members of two groups of pro-vice chancellors…

  11. Why Is Organizing Human Resource Development so Problematic? Perspectives from the Learning-Network Theory (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poell, Rob F.; van der Krogt, Ferd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human resource development (HRD) is an important field within management. Developing employees is often regarded as an instrument to improve the internal labor market and support organizational change. Organizing HRD to these ends, however, is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of training effectiveness, participant motivation and…

  12. Resources, Not Capital: A Case Study of the Gendered Distribution and Productivity of Social Network Ties in Rural Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkelsson, Asa

    2007-01-01

    Poor people make use of a variety of contextually relevant resources to pursue their livelihood strategies, and there is wide empirical evidence that opportunities and constraints for accessing these may vary considerably for women and men, particularly in the rural areas of developing countries. In this article, micro-evidence from a case study…

  13. The Healthy Brain Network Serial Scanning Initiative: a resource for evaluating inter-individual differences and their reliabilities across scan conditions and sessions

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, David; Potler, Natan Vega; Kovacs, Meagan; Xu, Ting; Ai, Lei; Pellman, John; Vanderwal, Tamara; Parra, Lucas C.; Cohen, Samantha; Ghosh, Satrajit; Escalera, Jasmine; Grant-Villegas, Natalie; Osman, Yael; Bui, Anastasia; Craddock, R. Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established. This resource provides data for evaluating test-retest reliability for full-brain connectivity patterns detected during each of four scan conditions that differ with respect to level of engagement (rest, abstract animations, movie clips, flanker task). Data are provided for 13 participants, each scanned in 12 sessions with 10 minutes for each scan of the four conditions. Diffusion kurtosis imaging data was also obtained at each session. Findings: Technical validation and demonstrative reliability analyses were carried out at the connection-level using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and at network-level representations of the data using the Image Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Variation in intrinsic functional connectivity across sessions was generally found to be greater than that attributable to scan condition. Between-condition reliability was generally high, particularly for the frontoparietal and default networks. Between-session reliabilities obtained separately for the different scan conditions were comparable, though notably lower than between-condition reliabilities. Conclusions: This resource provides a test-bed for quantifying the reliability of connectivity indices across subjects, conditions and time. The resource can be used to compare and optimize different frameworks for measuring connectivity and data collection parameters such as scan length. Additionally, investigators can explore the unique

  14. The Healthy Brain Network Serial Scanning Initiative: a resource for evaluating inter-individual differences and their reliabilities across scan conditions and sessions.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David; Potler, Natan Vega; Kovacs, Meagan; Xu, Ting; Ai, Lei; Pellman, John; Vanderwal, Tamara; Parra, Lucas C; Cohen, Samantha; Ghosh, Satrajit; Escalera, Jasmine; Grant-Villegas, Natalie; Osman, Yael; Bui, Anastasia; Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Although typically measured during the resting state, a growing literature is illustrating the ability to map intrinsic connectivity with functional MRI during task and naturalistic viewing conditions. These paradigms are drawing excitement due to their greater tolerability in clinical and developing populations and because they enable a wider range of analyses (e.g., inter-subject correlations). To be clinically useful, the test-retest reliability of connectivity measured during these paradigms needs to be established. This resource provides data for evaluating test-retest reliability for full-brain connectivity patterns detected during each of four scan conditions that differ with respect to level of engagement (rest, abstract animations, movie clips, flanker task). Data are provided for 13 participants, each scanned in 12 sessions with 10 minutes for each scan of the four conditions. Diffusion kurtosis imaging data was also obtained at each session. Technical validation and demonstrative reliability analyses were carried out at the connection-level using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and at network-level representations of the data using the Image Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Variation in intrinsic functional connectivity across sessions was generally found to be greater than that attributable to scan condition. Between-condition reliability was generally high, particularly for the frontoparietal and default networks. Between-session reliabilities obtained separately for the different scan conditions were comparable, though notably lower than between-condition reliabilities. This resource provides a test-bed for quantifying the reliability of connectivity indices across subjects, conditions and time. The resource can be used to compare and optimize different frameworks for measuring connectivity and data collection parameters such as scan length. Additionally, investigators can explore the unique perspectives of the brain's functional

  15. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  16. Hydrologic investigations and data-collection network in strippable coal-resource areas in northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic investigations and data collections conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the strippable coal areas of northwestern New Mexico. Streamflow, ground-water, and quality-of-water data were collected to provide information about baseline or prevailing hydrologic conditions. A network of hydrologic data-collection sites in the strippable coal areas of the Fruitland Formation was designed to meet the need of detailed investigations, including site-specific studies, and to provide hydrologic data in support of the expanding mining activity. The network consists of 34 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (32 included water-quality sampling), 20 miscellaneous water quality of streamflow stations, 12 annual maximum discharge stations, 27 observation wells completed in strata associated with the strippable coal seams, and 24 observation wells completed in channel alluvium downstream from strippable coal areas. (USGS)

  17. A network of networks.

    PubMed

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  18. Monitoring Ecological Resources within U.S. National Parks: Developing "Vital Signs" of Ecological Integrity for the Northeast Temperate Network

    Treesearch

    Don Faber-Langendoen; Geraldine Tierney; James Gibbs; Greg Shriver; Fred Dieffenbach; Pam Lombard

    2006-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) initiated a new “Vital Signs” program in 1998 to develop comprehensive, long-term monitoring of ecological resources within U.S. national parks. Vital signs (VS) are indicators, and are defined as key elements, processes or features of the environment that can be measured or estimated and that indicate the ecological integrity of an...

  19. The North American Electric Grid as an Exchange Network: An Approach for Evaluating Energy Resource Composition and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Evan; Sheldon, Seth; Dolen, Ryan; Zik, Ory

    2015-11-17

    Using a complex network framework, the North American electric grid is modeled as a dynamic, equilibrium-based supply chain of more than 100 interconnected power control areas (PCAs) in the contiguous United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Monthly generation and yearly inter-PCA exchange data reported by PCAs are used to estimate a directed network topology. Variables including electricity, as well as primary fuels, technologies, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with power generation can be traced through the network, providing energy source composition statistics for power consumers at a given location. Results show opportunities for more precise measurement by consumers of emissions occurring on their behalf at power plants. Specifically, we show a larger range of possible factors (∼0 to 1.3 kgCO2/kWh) as compared to the range provided by the EPA's eGRID analysis (∼0.4 to 1 kgCO2/kWh). We also show that 66-73% of the variance in PCA-level estimated emissions savings is the result of PCA-to-PCA differences that are not captured by the larger eGRID subregions. The increased precision could bolster development of effective greenhouse gas reporting and mitigation policies. This study also highlights the need for improvements in the consistency and spatiotemporal resolution of PCA-level generation and exchange data reporting.

  20. Pediatric HIV clinical care resources and management practices in Asia: a regional survey of the TREAT Asia pediatric network.

    PubMed

    Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Bowen, Asha C; Pang, Joselyn; Hesp, Cees; Kariminia, Azar; Sohn, Annette H

    2010-02-01

    Characterizing intraregional differences in current pediatric HIV care and treatment in Asia can guide the development of clinical practice guidelines and improve the understanding of local resource availability. The Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) Pediatric Program is a collaboration of clinics and referral hospitals studying pediatric HIV outcomes in the region. A Web-based survey to characterize clinical management practices and monitoring resources was developed and distributed to 20 sites in January 2008. Seventeen (85%) sites from 6 countries responded through April 2008; 14 (82%) were hospital-based and 16 (94%) were public facilities. Of 4050 HIV-infected children under care, 3606 (89%) were on antiretroviral treatment; 80% were on their first mono-, dual-, or triple-drug regimen and 74% were on nevirapine- or efavirenz-based regimens. Fifteen (88%) sites had consistent access to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for infant diagnosis. All sites had access to CD4 testing, with 13 (76%) routinely monitoring patients every 3-6 months; 7 (41%) sites monitored viral load at 6- to 12-month intervals. Although there is some variation in clinical practices, high levels of treatment and monitoring resources were available at these sites. The availability of PCR for early infant diagnosis positions them to implement recent WHO recommendations to treat HIV-infected children younger than 1 year of age. This information will be used to develop future research and programs to support children with HIV in Asia.

  1. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  2. Reverse Engineering of Oxygen Transport in the Lung: Adaptation to Changing Demands and Resources through Space-Filling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen; Gheorghiu, Stefan; Huxley, Virginia H.; Pfeifer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The space-filling fractal network in the human lung creates a remarkable distribution system for gas exchange. Landmark studies have illuminated how the fractal network guarantees minimum energy dissipation, slows air down with minimum hardware, maximizes the gas- exchange surface area, and creates respiratory flexibility between rest and exercise. In this paper, we investigate how the fractal architecture affects oxygen transport and exchange under varying physiological conditions, with respect to performance metrics not previously studied. We present a renormalization treatment of the diffusion-reaction equation which describes how oxygen concentrations drop in the airways as oxygen crosses the alveolar membrane system. The treatment predicts oxygen currents across the lung at different levels of exercise which agree with measured values within a few percent. The results exhibit wide-ranging adaptation to changing process parameters, including maximum oxygen uptake rate at minimum alveolar membrane permeability, the ability to rapidly switch from a low oxygen uptake rate at rest to high rates at exercise, and the ability to maintain a constant oxygen uptake rate in the event of a change in permeability or surface area. We show that alternative, less than space-filling architectures perform sub-optimally and that optimal performance of the space-filling architecture results from a competition between underexploration and overexploration of the surface by oxygen molecules. PMID:20865052

  3. A subcarrier-pair based resource allocation scheme using proportional fairness for cooperative OFDM-based cognitive radio networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua

    2013-08-09

    The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  4. A Subcarrier-Pair Based Resource Allocation Scheme Using Proportional Fairness for Cooperative OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongtao; Zhou, Liuji; Liu, Kaihua

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a joint subcarrier-pair based resource allocation algorithm in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of cooperative multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems. A communication model where one source node communicates with one destination node assisted by one half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay is considered in the paper. An interference-limited environment is considered, with the constraint of transmitted sum-power over all channels and aggregate average interference towards multiple primary users (PUs). The proposed resource allocation algorithm is capable of maximizing both the system transmission efficiency and fairness among secondary users (SUs). Besides, the proposed algorithm can also keep the interference introduced to the PU bands below a threshold. A proportional fairness constraint is used to assure that each SU can achieve a required data rate, with quality of service guarantees. Moreover, we extend the analysis to the scenario where each cooperative SU has no channel state information (CSI) about non-adjacent links. We analyzed the throughput and fairness tradeoff in CR system. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results. PMID:23939586

  5. Sequencing-based gene network analysis provides a core set of gene resource for understanding thermal adaptation in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Fu, X; Sun, Y; Wang, J; Xing, Q; Zou, J; Li, R; Wang, Z; Wang, S; Hu, X; Zhang, L; Bao, Z

    2014-01-01

    Marine organisms are commonly exposed to variable environmental conditions, and many of them are under threat from increased sea temperatures caused by global climate change. Generating transcriptomic resources under different stress conditions are crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation. In this study, we conducted transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling of the scallop Chlamys farreri challenged by acute and chronic heat stress. Of the 13 953 unique tags, more than 850 were significantly differentially expressed at each time point after acute heat stress, which was more than the number of tags differentially expressed (320-350) under chronic heat stress. To obtain a systemic view of gene expression alterations during thermal stress, a weighted gene coexpression network was constructed. Six modules were identified as acute heat stress-responsive modules. Among them, four modules involved in apoptosis regulation, mRNA binding, mitochondrial envelope formation and oxidation reduction were downregulated. The remaining two modules were upregulated. One was enriched with chaperone and the other with microsatellite sequences, whose coexpression may originate from a transcription factor binding site. These results indicated that C. farreri triggered several cellular processes to acclimate to elevated temperature. No modules responded to chronic heat stress, suggesting that the scallops might have acclimated to elevated temperature within 3 days. This study represents the first sequencing-based gene network analysis in a nonmodel aquatic species and provides valuable gene resources for the study of thermal adaptation, which should assist in the development of heat-tolerant scallop lines for aquaculture.

  6. modPDZpep: a web resource for structure based analysis of human PDZ-mediated interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Sain, Neetu; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2016-09-21

    PDZ domains recognize short sequence stretches usually present in C-terminal of their interaction partners. Because of the involvement of PDZ domains in many important biological processes, several attempts have been made for developing bioinformatics tools for genome-wide identification of PDZ interaction networks. Currently available tools for prediction of interaction partners of PDZ domains utilize machine learning approach. Since, they have been trained using experimental substrate specificity data for specific PDZ families, their applicability is limited to PDZ families closely related to the training set. These tools also do not allow analysis of PDZ-peptide interaction interfaces. We have used a structure based approach to develop modPDZpep, a program to predict the interaction partners of human PDZ domains and analyze structural details of PDZ interaction interfaces. modPDZpep predicts interaction partners by using structural models of PDZ-peptide complexes and evaluating binding energy scores using residue based statistical pair potentials. Since, it does not require training using experimental data on peptide binding affinity, it can predict substrates for diverse PDZ families. Because of the use of simple scoring function for binding energy, it is also fast enough for genome scale structure based analysis of PDZ interaction networks. Benchmarking using artificial as well as real negative datasets indicates good predictive power with ROC-AUC values in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 for a large number of human PDZ domains. Another novel feature of modPDZpep is its ability to map novel PDZ mediated interactions in human protein-protein interaction networks, either by utilizing available experimental phage display data or by structure based predictions. In summary, we have developed modPDZpep, a web-server for structure based analysis of human PDZ domains. It is freely available at http://www.nii.ac.in/modPDZpep.html or http://202.54.226.235/modPDZpep.html . This

  7. Informatics in radiology: integration of the medical imaging resource center into a teaching hospital network to allow single sign-on access.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ryan Roobian Ramin

    2009-01-01

    The RSNA Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) software is an open-source program that allows users to identify, index, and retrieve images, teaching files, and other radiologic data that share a common underlying structure. The software is being continually improved as new challenges and different needs become apparent. Although version T30 is easily installed on a stand-alone computer, its implementation at healthcare enterprises with complex network architecture may be challenging with respect to security because users cannot log on by using a standard enterprise-wide authentication protocol. Instead, authentication takes place through the local MIRC database, creating security concerns and potential organizational problems. In this setting, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) can be used to provide a single sign-on environment and increase authentication security. A commercial directory service using LDAP has been successfully integrated with MIRC in a large multifacility enterprise to provide single sign-on capability compatible with the institutional networking policies for password security.

  8. The Integrated Oncology Program of the Italian Ministry of Health. Analytical and clinical validation of new biomarkers for early diagnosis: network, resources, methodology, quality control, and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Angelo; Mangia, Anita; Orlando, Claudio; Verderio, Paolo; Belfiglio, Maurizio; Marchetti, Antonio; Bertario, Lucio; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Gion, Massimo; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Podo, Franca; Vocaturo, Amina; Silvestrini, Rosella; Romani, Massimo; Belloni, Elena; Cavallo, Delia; Ulivi, Paola; Tommasi, Stefania; Steffan, Agostino; Russo, Antonio; Alessio, Massimo; Calistri, Daniele; Zancan, Matelda; Parrela, Paola; Broggini, Massimo; Giuseppe, Antonio; Buttitta, Fiamma; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mazzocco, Katia; Veronesi, Giulia; Landuzzi, Lorena; Benevolo, Maria; Mariani, Luciano; De Marco, Federico; Venuti, Aldo; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Quaranta, Michele; Trojano, Vito

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, an Italian cancer research group proposed a specific concerted action aimed at the "analytical and clinica validation of new biomarkers for early diagnosis: Network, resources, methodology, quality control, and data analysis." The proposal united 37 national operative units involved in different biomarker studies and it created a strong coordinative body with the necessary expertise in methodologies, statistical analysis, quality control, and biological resources to perform ad hoc validation studies for new biomarkers of early cancer diagnosis. The action, financed by the Italian Ministry of Health within the Integrated Oncology Program (PIO) coordinated by NCI-Istituto Tumori Bari, started in 2007 and activated 7 projects, each of which focused on disease-specific biomarker studies. Overall, the 37 participating units proposed studies on 50 biomarkers, including analytical and clinical validation procedures. Clusters of units were specifically involved in research of early-detection biomarkers for cancers of the lung, digestive tract, prostate/bladder, and nervous system, as well as female cancers. Furthermore, a cluster involved in biomarkers for bioimaging and infection-related cancers was created. The first investigators' meeting, "Analytical and clinical validation of new biomarkers for early diagnosis," was held on 9 September 2008 in Bari. During this meeting, methodological aspects, scientific programs and preliminary results were presented and discussed.

  9. How Can the USA National Phenology Network's Data Resource Benefit You? Recent Applications of the Phenology Data and Information Housed in the National Phenology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. Since 2009, over 5,500 participants in Nature's Notebook, the national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program coordinated by the USA-NPN, have contributed nearly 6 million observation records of plants and animals. The phenology data curated by the USA-NPN are being used in a rapidly growing number of applications for science, conservation and resource management. Data and data products generated by the USA-NPN have been used in 17 peer-reviewed publications to date. Additionally, phenology data collected via Nature's Notebook is actively informing decisions ranging from efficiently scheduling street-sweeping activities to keep dropped leaves from entering inland lakes, to timing the spread of herbicide or other restoration activities to maximize their efficacy. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing system and the resultant data, and highlight several ongoing local- to national-scale projects as well as some recently published studies. Additional data-mining and exploration by interested researchers and resource managers will undoubtedly continue to demonstrate the value of these data.

  10. The Biomaterialbank of the German Competence Network of Heart Failure (CNHF) is a valuable resource for biomedical and genetic research.

    PubMed

    Posch, Maximilian G; Gelbrich, Götz; Pieske, Burkert; Lehmkuhl, Elke; Angermann, Christiane E; Störk, Stefan; Neumann, Till; Düngen, Hans-Dirk; Scheffold, Thomas; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Maisch, Bernhard; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Dietz, Rainer; Ozcelik, Cemil

    2009-07-24

    Genetic research on heart failure (HF) requires large cohorts of well-phenotyped patients. The German Competence Network of Heart Failure (CNHF) organized a biobank in 2004 to supply the necessary infrastructure and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for a centralized collection of blood specimen. We centralized data and collected serum, plasma and DNA of well characterized HF subjects all over Germany. Different pseudonyms were created automatically to address data safety and other concerns about privacy. Thus far, we have collected 85,000 sample specimen from 9,500 prospectively evaluated patients with HF. Detailed medical data were prospectively acquired together with corresponding blood samples. In 2008 clinician-scientists can apply for access to the material. Our biobank represents a major facet of the CNHF and has already documented research and clinical utility.

  11. SE Asian freshwater fish population and networks: the impacts of climatic and environmental change on a vital resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rita; Parsons, Daniel; Cowx, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The Mekong River is the 10th largest freshwater river in the world, with the second highest biodiversity wealth, behind the much larger Amazon basin. The fisheries activity in the Lower Mekong countries counts for 2.7 million tons of fish per year, with an estimated value worth up to US 7 billion. For the 60 million people living in the basin, fish represent their primary source of economic income and protein intake, with an average per capita consumption estimated at 45.4 Kg. The proposed hydropower development in the basin is threatening its sustainability and resilience. Such developments affect fish migration patterns, hydrograph flood duration and magnitudes and sediment flux. Climate change is also likely to impact the basin, exacerbating the issues created by development. As a monsoonal system, the Mekong River's pronounced annual flood pulse cycle is important in creating variable habitat for fish productivity. Moreover, the annual flood also triggers fish migration and provides vital nutrients carried by the sediment flux. This paper examines the interactions between both dam development and climate change scenarios on fish habitat and habitat connectivity, with the aim of predicting how these will affect fish species composition and fisheries catch. The project will also employ Environmental DNA (eDNA) to quantify and understand the species composition of this complex and large freshwater system. By applying molecular analysis, it is possible to trace species abundance and migration patterns of fish and evaluate the ecological networks establish between an inland system. The aim of this work is to estimate, using process-informed models, the impacts of the proposed dam development and climate change scenarios on the hydrological and hydraulic conditions of habitat availability for fish. Furthermore, it will evaluate the connectivity along the Mekong and its tributaries, and the importance of maintaining these migration pathways, used by a great diversity

  12. Identifying clinical and support service resources and network practices for cancer patients and survivors in southern Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eida M; Jiménez, Julio C; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24 % of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61 % of the responses were for medical specialists, 43 % were for mental health services, and 37 % were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both a referral and information. Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization.

  13. Identifying clinical and support-service resources and network practices for cancer patients and survivors in southern Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eida M.; Jiménez, Julio C.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. Methods From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. Results The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24% of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61% of the responses were for medical specialists, 43% were for mental health services, and 37% were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both an referral and information. Conclusion Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization. PMID:25249352

  14. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  15. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Michael J.; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R.; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M.; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in <1.5% of brains, including copy number gains of PRPH that were overrepresented in AD. Clinical, pathological, and genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. PMID:28003435

  16. Improving mammography screening using best practices and practice enhancement assistants: an Oklahoma Physicians Resource/Research Network (OKPRN) study.

    PubMed

    Aspy, Cheryl B; Enright, Margaret; Halstead, Lawanna; Mold, James W

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 only 68% of women in Oklahoma over the age of 40 reported having a mammogram in the past 2 years, compared with 75% nationally. Strategies to improve mammography rates have been numerous but have generally included single strategies, such as physician education, practice audit and feedback, and reminders; flow sheets and results have been mixed. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the impact of a practice facilitator and "best practice" interventions on mammography rates in a practice-based research network. A total of 16 practices participated; 8 were assigned to intervention and 8 to usual care. Pre- and post-audits of mammography rates were conducted. Intervention practices received feedback with benchmarking, academic detailing, and the assistance of a practice enhancement assistant to help with practice redesign over a 9-month period. The groups differed significantly for both the proportion of mammograms offered to eligible patients (P = .043) and for the proportion of patients with current mammograms (P < .015). For the control group, 38% of eligible women were offered a mammogram and 202 (35% of those eligible) actually did have documentation that a mammogram had been performed. Fifty-three percent of the eligible patients in the intervention group were offered a mammogram and 52% of those eligible (n = 332) did have documentation in the chart that the mammogram had been completed. The results suggest that these interventions can improve mammography rates in a range of practice settings. These findings are consistent with other studies that have tested multicomponent interventions.

  17. dbSNO 2.0: a resource for exploring structural environment, functional and disease association and regulatory network of protein S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Ching, Wei-Chieh; Yang, Hsiao-Hsiang; Liao, Yen-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ju; Lee, Tzong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing number of proteins reported to be regulated by S-nitrosylation (SNO), it is considered to act, in a manner analogous to phosphorylation, as a pleiotropic regulator that elicits dual effects to regulate diverse pathophysiological processes by altering protein function, stability, and conformation change in various cancers and human disorders. Due to its importance in regulating protein functions and cell signaling, dbSNO (http://dbSNO.mbc.nctu.edu.tw) is extended as a resource for exploring structural environment of SNO substrate sites and regulatory networks of S-nitrosylated proteins. An increasing interest in the structural environment of PTM substrate sites motivated us to map all manually curated SNO peptides (4165 SNO sites within 2277 proteins) to PDB protein entries by sequence identity, which provides the information of spatial amino acid composition, solvent-accessible surface area, spatially neighboring amino acids, and side chain orientation for 298 substrate cysteine residues. Additionally, the annotations of protein molecular functions, biological processes, functional domains and human diseases are integrated to explore the functional and disease associations for S-nitrosoproteome. In this update, users are allowed to search a group of interested proteins/genes and the system reconstructs the SNO regulatory network based on the information of metabolic pathways and protein-protein interactions. Most importantly, an endogenous yet pathophysiological S-nitrosoproteomic dataset from colorectal cancer patients was adopted to demonstrate that dbSNO could discover potential SNO proteins involving in the regulation of NO signaling for cancer pathways. PMID:25399423

  18. The PlaNet Consortium: A Network of European Plant Databases Connecting Plant Genome Data in an Integrated Biological Knowledge Resource

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, R.; Mayer, K. F. X.

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the Arabidopsis genome and the large collections of other plant sequences generated in recent years have sparked extensive functional genomics efforts. However, the utilization of this data is inefficient, as data sources are distributed and heterogeneous and efforts at data integration are lagging behind. PlaNet aims to overcome the limitations of individual efforts as well as the limitations of heterogeneous, independent data collections. PlaNet is a distributed effort among European bioinformatics groups and plant molecular biologists to establish a comprehensive integrated database in a collaborative network. Objectives are the implementation of infrastructure and data sources to capture plant genomic information into a comprehensive, integrated platform. This will facilitate the systematic exploration of Arabidopsis and other plants. New methods for data exchange, database integration and access are being developed to create a highly integrated, federated data resource for research. The connection between the individual resources is realized with BioMOBY. BioMOBY provides an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services. While knowledge is centralized, data is maintained at its primary source without a need for warehousing. To standardize nomenclature and data representation, ontologies and generic data models are defined in interaction with the relevant communities.Minimal data models should make it simple to allow broad integration, while inheritance allows detail and depth to be added to more complex data objects without losing integration. To allow expert annotation and keep databases curated, local and remote annotation interfaces are provided. Easy and direct access to all data is key to the project. PMID:18629059

  19. The PlaNet Consortium: a network of European plant databases connecting plant genome data in an integrated biological knowledge resource.

    PubMed

    Schoof, H; Ernst, R; Mayer, K F X

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the Arabidopsis genome and the large collections of other plant sequences generated in recent years have sparked extensive functional genomics efforts. However, the utilization of this data is inefficient, as data sources are distributed and heterogeneous and efforts at data integration are lagging behind. PlaNet aims to overcome the limitations of individual efforts as well as the limitations of heterogeneous, independent data collections. PlaNet is a distributed effort among European bioinformatics groups and plant molecular biologists to establish a comprehensive integrated database in a collaborative network. Objectives are the implementation of infrastructure and data sources to capture plant genomic information into a comprehensive, integrated platform. This will facilitate the systematic exploration of Arabidopsis and other plants. New methods for data exchange, database integration and access are being developed to create a highly integrated, federated data resource for research. The connection between the individual resources is realized with BioMOBY. BioMOBY provides an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services. While knowledge is centralized, data is maintained at its primary source without a need for warehousing. To standardize nomenclature and data representation, ontologies and generic data models are defined in interaction with the relevant communities.Minimal data models should make it simple to allow broad integration, while inheritance allows detail and depth to be added to more complex data objects without losing integration. To allow expert annotation and keep databases curated, local and remote annotation interfaces are provided. Easy and direct access to all data is key to the project.

  20. Resources of Texas Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.; Hendricks, Donald D.

    This study of library resources was undertaken as a part of a statewide plan for higher education in Texas. The document includes descriptions of library facilities and resources at the University of Texas at Austin, other universities, and public and private junior and senior colleges. The public library network, health science libraries, law…