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Sample records for bias tunable quantum

  1. Bias-tunable IR photodetector based on asymmetrically doped GaAs/AlGaAs double-quantum-well nanomaterial for remote temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Mitin, Vladimir; Choi, Jae Kyu; Sablon, Kimberly; Sergeev, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized multi-color IR photodetectors with asymmetrical doping of GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (DQW). We measured and analyzed spectral and noise characteristics to evaluate feasibility of these photodetectors for remote temperature sensing at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The bias voltage controls the charge distribution between the two wells in a DQW unit and provides effective tuning of IR induced electron transitions. We have found that the responsivity of our devices is symmetrical and weakly dependent on the bias voltage because the doping asymmetry compensates the effect of dopant migration in the growth direction. At the same time, the asymmetrical doping strongly enhances the selectivity and tunability of spectral characteristics by bias voltage. Multicolor detection of our QWIP is realized by varying the bias voltage. Maximum detection wavelength moves from 7.5 μm to 11.1 μm by switching applied bias from -5 V to 4 V. Modeling shows significant dependence of the photocurrent ratio on the object temperature regardless of its emissivity and geometrical factors. We also experimentally investigated the feasibility of our devices for remote temperature sensing by measuring the photocurrent as a response to blackbody radiation with the temperature from 300°C to 1000°C in the range of bias voltages from -5 V to 5 V. The agreement between modelling and experimental results demonstrates that our QWIP based on asymmetrically doped GaAs/AlGaAs DQW nanomaterial is capable of remote temperature sensing. By optimizing the physical design and varying the doping level of quantum wells, we can generalize this approach to higher temperature measurements. In addition, continuous variation of bias voltage provides fast collection of large amounts of photocurrent data at various biases and improves the accuracy of remote temperature measurements via appropriate algorithm of signal processing.

  2. Tunable photonic cavity coupled to a voltage-biased double quantum dot system: Diagrammatic nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Kulkarni, Manas; Mukamel, Shaul; Segal, Dvira

    2016-07-01

    We investigate gain in microwave photonic cavities coupled to voltage-biased double quantum dot systems with an arbitrarily strong dot-lead coupling and with a Holstein-like light-matter interaction, by employing the diagrammatic Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. We compute out-of-equilibrium properties of the cavity: its transmission, phase response, mean photon number, power spectrum, and spectral function. We show that by the careful engineering of these hybrid light-matter systems, one can achieve a significant amplification of the optical signal with the voltage-biased electronic system serving as a gain medium. We also study the steady-state current across the device, identifying elastic and inelastic tunneling processes which involve the cavity mode. Our results show how recent advances in quantum electronics can be exploited to build hybrid light-matter systems that behave as microwave amplifiers and photon source devices. The diagrammatic Keldysh approach is primarily discussed for a cavity-coupled double quantum dot architecture, but it is generalizable to other hybrid light-matter systems.

  3. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  4. Spin-polarization and spin-flip in a triple-quantum-dot ring by using tunable lateral bias voltage and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molavi, Mohamad; Faizabadi, Edris

    2017-04-01

    By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter.

  5. Electrically Tunable Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Soidel, Alexander; Mansour, Kamjou

    2006-01-01

    Improved quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are being developed as electrically tunable sources of radiation in the far infrared spectral region, especially in the frequency range of 2 to 5 THz. The structures of QCLs and the processes used to fabricate them have much in common with those of multiple- quantum-well infrared photodetectors.

  6. Tunable bands in biased multilayer epitaxial graphene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael D; Samarakoon, Duminda K; Hess, Dennis W; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2012-04-28

    We have studied the electronic characteristics of multilayer epitaxial graphene under a perpendicularly applied electric bias. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that there is notable variation of the electronic density-of-states in valence bands near the Fermi level. Evolution of the electronic structure of graphite and rotational-stacked multilayer epitaxial graphene as a function of the applied electric bias is investigated using first-principles density-functional theory including interlayer van der Waals interactions. The experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that the tailoring of electronic band structure correlates with the interlayer coupling tuned by the applied bias. The implications of controllable electronic structure of rotationally fault-stacked epitaxial graphene grown on the C-face of SiC for future device applications are discussed.

  7. Monolithic widely tunable quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascola, Kevin M.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Bruno, John D.; Bradshaw, John L.; Pham, John T.; Towner, Frederick J.

    2012-06-01

    Maxion Technologies has designed a monolithic, widely tunable Quantum Cascade (QC) laser for use in chemical sensing applications. This multi-section QC laser is a monolithically tunable device, similar to those demonstrated in the near IR for telecommunications. Wideband tuning is achieved through grating assisted coupling of the optical mode between lateral waveguides, allowing ~10 times the tuning range normally achieved by distributed feedback lasers without incorporation of external optical elements. Compared to implementations in the near IR, the use of lateral waveguides (rather than vertically stacked waveguides) allows the optical mode to maintain the high overlap with the active region necessary for room temperature lasing in the mid-IR. Due to its monolithic design, this laser is expected to be rapidly tunable and usable in field environments due to its insensitivity to shock and vibration, while the wide tuning range of the device will allow for an enhanced ability to discriminate against background chemicals.

  8. Quantum Superinductor with Tunable Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. T.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Ioffe, L. B.; Kitaev, A. Yu.; Gershenson, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the realization of a superinductor, a dissipationless element whose microwave impedance greatly exceeds the resistance quantum RQ. The design of the superinductor, implemented as a ladder of nanoscale Josephson junctions, enables tuning of the inductance and its nonlinearity by a weak magnetic field. The Rabi decay time of the superinductor-based qubit exceeds 1μs. The high kinetic inductance and strong nonlinearity offer new types of functionality, including the development of qubits protected from both flux and charge noises, fault tolerant quantum computing, and high-impedance isolation for electrical current standards based on Bloch oscillations.

  9. Tunable RF Cavities Using Orthogonally Biased Ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Alsharo'a, M.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Entchevitch, I.; Griffin, J.E.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tomlin, R.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Originally conceived as a solution for FFAG applications, a new compact RF cavity design that tunes rapidly over various frequency ranges can be used to upgrade existing machines. The design being developed uses orthogonally biased garnet cores for fast frequency tuning and liquid dielectric to adjust the frequency range and to control the core temperature. We describe measurements of candidate ferrite and dielectric materials. The first use of the new cavity concept will be for improvements to the 8 GeV Fermilab Booster synchrotron.

  10. Tunable-Quantum-Well Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Proposed detector of infrared photons based on photon-assisted, resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling between adjacent energy wells in its semiconductor structure. Wavelength adjusted by changing applied voltage. Device contains alternating layers of different seminconductors which form double-quantum-well electron-energy structure. Tunable-quantum-well detectors made on single chip constitutes line imager. Many such devices stacked to form two-dimensional imaging device. Signal-processing circuitry integrated into chip at its lower end. Potential barriers and wells produced by alternating layers of different semiconductor materials. Steepness of slope proportional to applied electric field. Electric field and thicknesses and heights of barriers selected to favor photon-assisted, resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling at chosen photon frequency.

  11. Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson

    2015-03-04

    The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.

  12. Tunable electromagnetic environment for superconducting quantum bits

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. J.; Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Salmilehto, J.; Tan, K. Y.; Möttönen, M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a setup which realises a tunable engineered environment for experiments in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We illustrate this concept with the specific example of a quantum bit, qubit, in a high-quality-factor cavity which is capacitively coupled to another cavity including a resistor. The temperature of the resistor, which acts as the dissipative environment, can be controlled in a well defined manner in order to provide a hot or cold environment for the qubit, as desired. Furthermore, introducing superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) into the cavity containing the resistor, provides control of the coupling strength between this artificial environment and the qubit. We demonstrate that our scheme allows us to couple strongly to the environment enabling rapid initialization of the system, and by subsequent tuning of the magnetic flux of the SQUIDs we may greatly reduce the resistor-qubit coupling, allowing the qubit to evolve unhindered. PMID:23759710

  13. Fibonacci optical lattices for tunable quantum quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Saha, K.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Weld, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a quasiperiodic optical lattice, created by a physical realization of the abstract cut-and-project construction underlying all quasicrystals. The resulting potential is a generalization of the Fibonacci tiling. Calculation of the energies and wave functions of ultracold atoms loaded into such a lattice demonstrate a multifractal energy spectrum, a singular continuous momentum-space structure, and the existence of controllable edge states. These results open the door to cold atom quantum simulation experiments in tunable or dynamic quasicrystalline potentials, including topological pumping of edge states and phasonic spectroscopy.

  14. Type II InAs/GaAsSb quantum dots: Highly tunable exciton geometry and topology

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, J. M.; Wewior, L.; Cardozo de Oliveira, E. R.; Alén, B.; Ulloa, J. M.; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzmán, A.; Hierro, A.

    2015-11-02

    External control over the electron and hole wavefunctions geometry and topology is investigated in a p-i-n diode embedding a dot-in-a-well InAs/GaAsSb quantum structure with type II band alignment. We find highly tunable exciton dipole moments and largely decoupled exciton recombination and ionization dynamics. We also predicted a bias regime where the hole wavefunction topology changes continuously from quantum dot-like to quantum ring-like as a function of the external bias. All these properties have great potential in advanced electro-optical applications and in the investigation of fundamental spin-orbit phenomena.

  15. A triangular triple quantum dot with tunable tunnel couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiri, A.; Kawasaki, K.; Otsuka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Yoneda, J.; Amaha, S.; Delbecq, M. R.; Takeda, K.; Allison, G.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Tarucha, S.

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional arrangement of quantum dots (QDs) with finite inter-dot tunnel coupling provides a promising platform for studying complicated spin correlations as well as for constructing large-scale quantum computers. Here, we fabricate a tunnel-coupled triangular triple QD with a novel gate geometry in which three dots are defined by positively biasing the surface gates. At the same time, the small area in the center of the triangle is depleted by negatively biasing the top gate placed above the surface gates. The size of the small center depleted area is estimated from the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation measured for the triangular channel but incorporating no gate-defined dots, with a value consistent with the design. With this approach, we can bring the neighboring gate-defined dots close enough to one another to maintain a finite inter-dot tunnel coupling. We finally confirm the presence of the inter-dot tunnel couplings in the triple QD from the measurement of tunneling current through the dots in the stability diagram. We also show that the charge occupancy of each dot and that the inter-dot tunnel couplings are tunable with gate voltages.

  16. Electrically driven and electrically tunable quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. P.; Murray, E.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Dangel, C.; Farrer, I.; Spencer, P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots in the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.

  17. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  18. Tunable Broadband Transparency of Macroscopic Quantum Superconducting Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-10-01

    Narrow-band invisibility in an otherwise opaque medium has been achieved by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems. The quantum EIT behavior can be classically mimicked by specially engineered metamaterials via carefully controlled interference with a "dark mode." However, the narrow transparency window limits the potential applications that require a tunable wideband transparent performance. Here, we present a macroscopic quantum superconducting metamaterial with manipulative self-induced broadband transparency due to a qualitatively novel nonlinear mechanism that is different from conventional EIT or its classical analogs. A near-complete disappearance of resonant absorption under a range of applied rf flux is observed experimentally and explained theoretically. The transparency comes from the intrinsic bistability of the meta-atoms and can be tuned on and off easily by altering rf and dc magnetic fields, temperature, and history. Hysteretic in situ 100% tunability of transparency paves the way for autocloaking metamaterials, intensity-dependent filters, and fast-tunable power limiters.

  19. Peptide-Decorated Tunable-Fluorescence Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Bedanga; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Liang, Wentao; Champion, Paul; Wanunu, Meni

    2017-03-22

    We report here the synthesis of graphene quantum dots with tunable size, surface chemistry, and fluorescence properties. In the size regime 15-35 nm, these quantum dots maintain strong visible light fluorescence (mean quantum yield of 0.64) and a high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (6500 Göppert-Mayer units). Furthermore, through noncovalent tailoring of the chemistry of these quantum dots, we obtain water-stable quantum dots. For example, quantum dots with lysine groups bind strongly to DNA in solution and inhibit polymerase-based DNA strand synthesis. Finally, by virtue of their mesoscopic size, the quantum dots exhibit good cell permeability into living epithelial cells, but they do not enter the cell nucleus.

  20. Voltage Tunable Multicolor GaAs/AlGaAs Coupled Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Kyu; Eason, David; Strasser, Gottfried; Vagidov, Nizami; Mitin, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    Tunable quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) has attracted attention because of the mature growth technique of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells and their diverse applications such as remote temperature sensing, chemical analysis, military applications, and so on. We have designed, grown, and characterized a voltage tunable multicolor QWIP for the long wavelength infrared detection (7.5 -- 12.4 μ m). The QWIP structure was grown by MBE, and the device is designed to have bound to bound and bound to quasi-continuum transitions in an asymmetrically doped double quantum well. At zero bias we observed several distinctive spectral lines in photoresponse. The device demonstrates strong dependence on a magnitude and a polarity of the bias that is confirmed by the shift of energy levels in the electric field calculated by nextnano 3 software. In particular, switching bias from +3V to -5V we change the photoresponse of our detector from 8.39 μ m to 10.21 μ m.

  1. Quantum Error Correction with Biased Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter

    Quantum computing offers powerful new techniques for speeding up the calculation of many classically intractable problems. Quantum algorithms can allow for the efficient simulation of physical systems, with applications to basic research, chemical modeling, and drug discovery; other algorithms have important implications for cryptography and internet security. At the same time, building a quantum computer is a daunting task, requiring the coherent manipulation of systems with many quantum degrees of freedom while preventing environmental noise from interacting too strongly with the system. Fortunately, we know that, under reasonable assumptions, we can use the techniques of quantum error correction and fault tolerance to achieve an arbitrary reduction in the noise level. In this thesis, we look at how additional information about the structure of noise, or "noise bias," can improve or alter the performance of techniques in quantum error correction and fault tolerance. In Chapter 2, we explore the possibility of designing certain quantum gates to be extremely robust with respect to errors in their operation. This naturally leads to structured noise where certain gates can be implemented in a protected manner, allowing the user to focus their protection on the noisier unprotected operations. In Chapter 3, we examine how to tailor error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant quantum circuits in the presence of dephasing biased noise, where dephasing errors are far more common than bit-flip errors. By using an appropriately asymmetric code, we demonstrate the ability to improve the amount of error reduction and decrease the physical resources required for error correction. In Chapter 4, we analyze a variety of protocols for distilling magic states, which enable universal quantum computation, in the presence of faulty Clifford operations. Here again there is a hierarchy of noise levels, with a fixed error rate for faulty gates, and a second rate for errors in the distilled

  2. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L. G.; Withford, Michael J.; Steel, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements. PMID:25915830

  3. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  4. Tunable electronic properties of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias

    SciTech Connect

    Nduwimana, Alexis; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2014-07-15

    The electronic structure characteristics of silicon nanowires under strain and electric bias are studied using first-principles density functional theory. The unique wire-like structure leads to distinct spatial distribution of carriers, which can be tailored by applying tensile and compressive strains, as well as by an electric bias. Our results indicate that the combined effect of strain and electric bias leads to tunable electronic structures that can be used for piezo-electric devices.

  5. Laterally-biased quantum dot infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardimona, D. A.; Morath, C. P.; Guidry, D. H.; Cowan, V. M.

    2013-07-01

    At the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, we are interested in improving the performance of or modifying the capabilities of infrared detectors in order to locate and identify dim and/or distant objects in space. One characteristic we are very interested in is multicolor detection. To this end, we have turned to a novel detector design that we have come to call a Lateral Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (LQDIP). In this design, InAs quantum dots are buried in a GaAs quantum well, which in turn is tunnel-coupled to another GaAs quantum well. Photoexcited electrons from the quantum dots tunnel over to the second well and are then swept out via a lateral (perpendicular to the growth direction) bias voltage. This architecture should exhibit the ability to tune to select infrared frequencies with reduced dark current and unity gain. The lateral photocurrent is directed by a vertical (parallel to the growth direction) gate voltage. We will discuss this detector architecture and the LQDIP operating principles and conditions, and we will present some preliminary results of current-voltage, photocurrent, differential conductance, and spectral measurements.

  6. Synergistic Tunability of Fluorescence Using Coupled Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Sucheta; Acharya, Somobrata

    2011-07-01

    Size and shape controlled semiconductor quantum dots have been widely adopted in tailoring nanomaterials properties, which basically utilize band edge engineering extending the band gap to larger values than the bulk. However, the long range electronic transition tunability is difficult to achieve using size or shape controlled quantum dots. Alternatively, chemically coupled quantum dots offer a novel route for tuning long range electronic transitions of semiconductors via band offset engineering at the material interface. We report on a simple route of tailoring visible emissions over long range by chemically designing coupled dots comprising of ZnSe and CdS quantum dots. Long range tunability of visible emissions originated from strong interdot dispersion, which can not be realized from individual quantum dots. A variation of component size or extend of coupling led to the tuning of visible emission wavelengths, the intensity of which can be controlled by temperature. The first principles electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory reveals the type-II nature of chemical bonding at CdS/ZnSe interface which plays a crucial role in tailoring the long range emissions. Such novel class of asymmetric coupled structures may offer a basis for diverse set of building blocks for optoelectronic devices, ultrahigh density memories and quantum information processing.

  7. Intense and tunable second-harmonic generation in biased bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Søren J.; Pedersen, Thomas G.

    2015-05-01

    The centrosymmetric two-dimensional material bilayer graphene (BLG) does not show dipole-allowed second-harmonic generation (SHG) in its pristine form. However, the symmetry can be broken by applying an electric field perpendicular to the layer. Here, we present a theoretical study of SHG from biased BLG. We show that the sheet second-harmonic susceptibility reaches very large values of several hundred nm2/V in the midinfrared region. The SHG is tunable depending on the strength of the electric field. Furthermore, a strong, tunable double resonance appears in the spectrum. We believe that this study could spark interest in the nonlinear optical properties of biased BLG.

  8. High power, electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared laser sources (3-14 μm wavelengths) which have wide spectral coverage and high output power are attractive for many applications. This spectral range contains unique absorption fingerprints of most molecules, including toxins, explosives, and nerve agents. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to detect important biomarkers, which can be used for medical diagnostics by means of breath analysis. The challenge is to produce a broadband midinfrared source which is small, lightweight, robust, and inexpensive. We are currently investigating monolithic solutions using quantum cascade lasers. A wide gain bandwidth is not sufficient to make an ideal spectroscopy source. Single mode output with rapid tuning is desirable. For dynamic wavelength selection, our group is developing multi-section laser geometries with wide electrical tuning (hundreds of cm-1). These devices are roughly the same size as a traditional quantum cascade lasers, but tuning is accomplished without any external optical components. When combined with suitable amplifiers, these lasers are capable of multi-Watt single mode output powers. This manuscript will describe our current research efforts and the potential for high performance, broadband electrical tuning with the quantum cascade laser.

  9. Tunable graphene dc superconducting quantum interference device.

    PubMed

    Girit, Caglar; Bouchiat, V; Naaman, O; Zhang, Y; Crommie, M F; Zettl, A; Siddiqi, I

    2009-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique electrical properties on account of its reduced dimensionality and "relativistic" band structure. When contacted with two superconducting electrodes, graphene can support Cooper pair transport, resulting in the well-known Josephson effect. We report here the fabrication and operation of a two junction dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) formed by a single graphene sheet contacted with aluminum/palladium electrodes in the geometry of a loop. The supercurrent in this device can be modulated not only via an electrostatic gate but also by an applied magnetic fielda potentially powerful probe of electronic transport in graphene and an ultrasensitive platform for nanomagnetometry.

  10. Tunable Few-Electron Quantum Dots as Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzerman, Jeroen; Hanson, Ronald; Greidanus, Jacob; Willems van Beveren, Laurens; de Franceschi, Silvano; Vandersypen, Lieven; Tarucha, Seigo; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Recently it was proposed to make a quantum bit using the spin of an electron in a quantum dot. We present the first experimental steps towards realizing a system of two coupled qubits. The Zeeman splitting between the two spin states defining the qubit is measured for a one-electron dot in a parallel magnetic field. For a two-electron dot, we control the spin singlet-triplet energy difference with a perpendicular magnetic field, and we induce a transition from singlet to triplet ground state. We find relaxation from triplet to singlet to be extremely slow (> 1 mus), which is promising for quantum computing. We couple two few-electron dots, creating the first fully tunable few-electron double dot. Its charge configuration can be read out with a nearby QPC acting as an integrated charge detector.

  11. Broadband all-electronically tunable MEMS terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningren; de Geofroy, Alexander; Burghoff, David P; Chan, Chun Wang I; Lee, Alan Wei Min; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2014-06-15

    In this work, we demonstrate all-electronically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs) with MEMS tuner structures. A two-stage MEMS tuner device is fabricated by a commercial open-foundry process performed by the company MEMSCAP. This provides an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable approach for MEMS tuner fabrication for THz QCLs with a high-precision alignment scheme. In order to electronically actuate the MEMS tuner device, an open-loop cryogenic piezo nanopositioning stage is integrated with the device chip. Our experimental result shows that at least 240 GHz of single-mode continuous electronic tuning can be achieved in cryogenic environments (∼4  K) without mode hopping. This provides an important step toward realizing turn-key bench-top tunable THz coherent sources for spectroscopic and coherent tomography applications.

  12. Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Tao, Jin; Quan Zeng, Yong; Wu, Sheng; Jie Wang, Qi

    2014-05-19

    We report experimental demonstration of tunable, monolithic, single-mode quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at ∼10 μm with a two-section etched slot structure. A single-mode tuning range of 77 cm{sup −1} (785 nm), corresponding to ∼7.8% of the relative tuning range, was realized with a ∼20 dB side mode suppression ratio within the whole tuning range. Compared with integrated distributed feedback QCLs, our devices have the advantages of easy fabrication and a broader tuning range. Further theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that it is possible to achieve a broad continuous tuning range by optimizing the slot structures. The proposed slot-waveguide design could provide an alternative but simple approach to the existing tuning schemes for realizing broadly continuous tunable single-mode QCLs.

  13. Externally mode-matched cavity quantum electrodynamics with charge-tunable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Rakher, M T; Stoltz, N G; Coldren, L A; Petroff, P M; Bouwmeester, D

    2009-03-06

    We present coherent reflection spectroscopy on a charge and dc Stark tunable quantum dot embedded in a high-quality and externally mode-matched microcavity. The addition of an exciton to a single-electron-charged quantum dot forms a trion that interacts with the microcavity just below the strong-coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Such an integrated, monolithic system is a crucial step towards the implementation of scalable hybrid quantum-information schemes that are based on an efficient interaction between a single photon and a confined electron spin.

  14. Multicolor voltage-tunable quantum-well infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.C.; Thompson, J.R.; Wasilewski, Z.R.; Buchanan, M. . Inst. for Microstructural Sciences); Li, J.; Simmons, J.G. . Centre for Electrophotonic Materials and Devices)

    1993-12-01

    A novel concept of a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) with its spectral response peak tunable by an external voltage is described and tested experimentally. This multicolor detector structure is made by stacking conventional (one-color) QWIP's, separated by thin, heavily doped layers ([approximately]90 nm in the test structure). The most important feature is that external applied dc voltage is distributed among the different one-color QWIP's according to their dc resistances. Each one-color QWIP therefore turns on sequentially in the order determined by its resistance.

  15. Quantum Annealing and Tunable Magnetic Domain Wall Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Thomas F.

    2001-03-01

    Traditional simulated annealing utilizes thermal fluctuations for convergence in optimization problems. Quantum tunneling provides a different mechanism for moving between states, with the potential for reduced time scales. We compare thermal and quantum annealing in a model Ising ferromagnet composed of holmium dipoles in a lithium tetrafluoride matrix. The effects of quantum mechanics can be tuned in the laboratory by varying a magnetic field applied transverse to the Ising axis. This new knob permits us to: (1) tune the crossover between a classical Arrhenius response at high temperatures and an athermal response below 100 mK; (2) quantify the tunneling of magnetic domain walls through potential energy barriers in terms of an effective mass [1]; and (3) hasten convergence to the optimal state [2]. [1] "Tunable Quantum Tunneling of Magnetic Domain Walls," J. Brooke, T.F. Rosenbaum and G. Aeppli, preprint (2000). [2] "Quantum Annealing of a Disordered Magnet," J. Brooke, D. Bitko, T.F. Rosenbaum and G. Aeppli, Science 284, 779 (1999).

  16. Tunable quantum entanglement of three qubits in a nonstationary cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, Mirko; Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the tunable quantum entanglement and the probabilities of excitations in a system of three qubits in a nonstationary cavity due to the dynamical Lamb effect, caused by nonadiabatic fast change of the boundary conditions of the cavity. The transition amplitudes and the probabilities of excitation of qubits due to the dynamical Lamb effect have been evaluated. The conditional concurrence and the conditional residual tangle for each fixed amount of created photons are introduced and calculated as measures of the pairwise or three-way dynamical quantum entanglement of the qubits. We also give a prescription on how to increase the values of those quantities by controlling the frequency of the cavity photons. A physical realization of the system with three superconducting qubits, coupled to a coplanar waveguide entangled due to the nonadiabatic fast change of boundary conditions of the cavity is proposed.

  17. Voltage-tunable IR photodetector based on asymmetrically doped coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae Kyu; Vagidov, Nizami; Sergeev, Andrei; Strasser, Gottfried; Vasko, Fedir; Mitin, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    We report on the mid-IR two-color photodetector with spectral photoresponse tunable by biased voltage. The device is based on GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetrically doped coupled quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A single unit of the detector is composed of 6.5 nm-thick GaAs layer doped with Si up to 5x10^11 cm-2 and 6.5 nm-thick undoped GaAs separated by 3.1 nm-thick Al0.2Ga0.8As. Units are separated by 50 nm-thick Al0.2Ga0.8As barriers. Our devices consist of 25 identical units. We demonstrated that in temperature range 20 - 70 K the peak detection wavelengths can be switched from 7.5 μm to 11.1 μm by varying bias from -5 V to +5 V. Our modeling shows that spectral tunability is basically determined by three factors. First, electron energy levels are shifted due to Stark effect. Second, electric field leads to the charge redistribution in the coupled wells and electron energy levels are shifted by electron-electron interaction. Third, tunneling processes from photoexcited quasi-localized electron states in wells to conducting states are enhanced in the electric field due to Fowler-Nordheim effect. The modeling results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. The proposed detectors are promising candidates for adaptive tunable sensing in the IR range.

  18. Investigating bias in maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, G. B.; Glancy, S.; Vasconcelos, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    Maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography yields estimators that are consistent, provided that the likelihood model is correct, but the maximum-likelihood estimators may have bias for any finite data set. The bias of an estimator is the difference between the expected value of the estimate and the true value of the parameter being estimated. This paper investigates bias in the widely used maximum-likelihood quantum-state tomography. Our goal is to understand how the amount of bias depends on factors such as the purity of the true state, the number of measurements performed, and the number of different bases in which the system is measured. For this, we perform numerical experiments that simulate optical homodyne tomography of squeezed thermal states under various conditions, perform tomography, and estimate bias in the purity of the estimated state. We find that estimates of higher purity states exhibit considerable bias, such that the estimates have lower purities than the true states.

  19. Dual-frequency imaging using an electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Dean, Paul; Saat, Nor Kamila; Khanna, Suraj P; Salih, Mohammed; Burnett, Andrew; Cunningham, John; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles

    2009-11-09

    We report dual-frequency transmission imaging of polycrystalline materials using an electrically tunable terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL). Using our system we are able to obtain images at both 3.05 THz and 3.24 THz in a single two-dimensional scan of a sample. By taking the difference of the natural logarithms of the transmission coefficients obtained at each frequency, the difference-attenuation coefficient is determined, and evaluated for samples of lactose monohydrate, glucose monohydrate, sucrose, and the high explosive PETN. We also demonstrate difference-intensity imaging at these frequencies by combining amplitude modulation of the QCL bias with lock-in detection. Owing to the specific molecular absorption spectra of these materials in the THz frequency range, the samples can be distinguished using our technique.

  20. Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Anish K.; Kotidis, Petros; Deutsch, Erik R.; Zhu, Ninghui; Norman, Mark; Ye, Jim; Zafiriou, Kostas; Mazurenko, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Widely tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) spanning the long-wave infrared (LWIR) atmospheric transmission window and an HgCdTe detector were incorporated into a transceiver having a 50-mm-diameter transmit/receive aperture. The transceiver was used in combination with a 50-mm-diameter hollow retro-reflector for the open-path detection of chemical clouds. Two rapidly tunable external-cavity QCLs spanned the wavelength range of 7.5 to 12.8 m. Open-path transmission measurements were made over round-trip path-lengths of up to 562 meters. Freon-132a and other gases were sprayed into the beam path and the concentration-length (CL) product was measured as a function of time. The system exhibited a noise-equivalent concentration (NEC) of 3 ppb for Freon-132a given a round-trip path of 310 meters. Algorithms based on correlation methods were used to both identify the gases and determine their CLproducts as a function of time.

  1. Gate-tunable graphene quantum dot and Dirac oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belouad, Abdelhadi; Jellal, Ahmed; Zahidi, Youness

    2016-02-01

    We obtain the solution of the Dirac equation in (2 + 1) dimensions in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane together with a two-dimensional Dirac-oscillator potential coupling. We study the energy spectrum of graphene quantum dot (QD) defined by electrostatic gates. We give discussions of our results based on different physical settings, whether the cyclotron frequency is similar or larger/smaller compared to the oscillator frequency. This defines an effective magnetic field that produces the effective quantized Landau levels. We study analytically such field in gate-tunable graphene QD and show that our structure allows us to control the valley degeneracy. Finally, we compare our results with already published work and also discuss the possible applications of such QD.

  2. Graphene Quantum Capacitors for High Frequency Tunable Analog Applications.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Clara F; Vitale, Wolfgang A; Sharma, Pankaj; Tamagnone, Michele; Mosig, Juan R; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2016-08-10

    Graphene quantum capacitors (GQC) are demonstrated to be enablers of radio-frequency (RF) functions through voltage-tuning of their capacitance. We show that GQC complements MEMS and MOSFETs in terms of performance for high frequency analog applications and tunability. We propose a CMOS compatible fabrication process and report the first experimental assessment of their performance at microwaves frequencies (up to 10 GHz), demonstrating experimental GQCs in the pF range with a tuning ratio of 1.34:1 within 1.25 V, and Q-factors up to 12 at 1 GHz. The figures of merit of graphene variable capacitors are studied in detail from 150 to 350 K. Furthermore, we describe a systematic, graphene specific approach to optimize their performance and predict the figures of merit achieved if such a methodology is applied.

  3. Semiconductor quantum dot: a quantum light source of multicolor photons with tunable statistics.

    PubMed

    Regelman, D V; Mizrahi, U; Gershoni, D; Ehrenfreund, E; Schoenfeld, W V; Petroff, P M

    2001-12-17

    We investigate the intensity correlation properties of single photons emitted from an optically excited single semiconductor quantum dot. The second order temporal coherence function of the photons emitted at various wavelengths is measured as a function of the excitation power. We show experimentally and theoretically that a quantum dot is not only a source of nonclassically correlated monochromatic photons but is also a source of multicolor photons with tunable correlation properties. We found that the emitted photon statistics can be varied by the excitation rate from a sub-Poissonian one, where the photons are temporally antibunched, to super-Poissonian, where they are temporally bunched.

  4. Tunable reverse-biased graphene/silicon heterojunction Schottky diode sensor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amol; Uddin, Ahsan; Sudarshan, Tangali; Koley, Goutam

    2014-04-24

    A new chemical sensor based on reverse-biased graphene/Si heterojunction diode has been developed that exhibits extremely high bias-dependent molecular detection sensitivity and low operating power. The device takes advantage of graphene's atomically thin nature, which enables molecular adsorption on its surface to directly alter graphene/Si interface barrier height, thus affecting the junction current exponentially when operated in reverse bias and resulting in ultrahigh sensitivity. By operating the device in reverse bias, the work function of graphene, and hence the barrier height at the graphene/Si heterointerface, can be controlled by the bias magnitude, leading to a wide tunability of the molecular detection sensitivity. Such sensitivity control is also possible by carefully selecting the graphene/Si heterojunction Schottky barrier height. Compared to a conventional graphene amperometric sensor fabricated on the same chip, the proposed sensor demonstrated 13 times higher sensitivity for NO₂ and 3 times higher for NH₃ in ambient conditions, while consuming ∼500 times less power for same magnitude of applied voltage bias. The sensing mechanism based on heterojunction Schottky barrier height change has been confirmed using capacitance-voltage measurements.

  5. Tunable pseudogaps due to nonlocal coherent transport in voltage-biased three-terminal Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padurariu, C.; Jonckheere, T.; Rech, J.; Martin, T.; Feinberg, D.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the proximity effect in junctions between N =3 superconductors under commensurate voltage bias. The bias is chosen to highlight the role of transport processes that exchange multiple Cooper pairs coherently between more than two superconductors. Such nonlocal processes can be studied in the dc response, where local transport processes do not contribute. We focus on the proximity-induced normal density of states that we investigate in a wide parameter space. We reveal the presence of deep and highly tunable pseudogaps and other rich structures. These are due to a static proximity effect that is absent for N =2 and is sensitive to an emergent superconducting phase associated to nonlocal coherent transport. In comparison with results for N =2 , we find similarities in the signature peaks of multiple Andreev reflections. We discuss the effect of electron-hole decoherence and of various types of junction asymmetries. Our predictions can be investigated experimentally using tunneling spectroscopy.

  6. Reducing the overhead for quantum computation when noise is biased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Poulin, David

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a model for fault-tolerant quantum computation with low overhead suitable for situations where the noise is biased. The basis for this scheme is a gadget for the fault-tolerant preparation of magic states that enable universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using only Clifford gates that preserve the noise bias. We analyze the distillation of |T > -type magic states using this gadget at the physical level, followed by concatenation with the 15-qubit quantum Reed-Muller code, and comparing our results with standard constructions. In the regime where the noise bias (rate of Pauli Z errors relative to other single-qubit errors) is greater than a factor of 10, our scheme has lower overhead across a broad range of relevant noise rates.

  7. Determination and correction of persistent biases in quantum annealers

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O’Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Calibration of quantum computers is essential to the effective utilisation of their quantum resources. Specifically, the performance of quantum annealers is likely to be significantly impaired by noise in their programmable parameters, effectively misspecification of the computational problem to be solved, often resulting in spurious suboptimal solutions. We developed a strategy to determine and correct persistent, systematic biases between the actual values of the programmable parameters and their user-specified values. We applied the recalibration strategy to two D-Wave Two quantum annealers, one at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, and another at D-Wave Systems in Burnaby, Canada. We show that the recalibration procedure not only reduces the magnitudes of the biases in the programmable parameters but also enhances the performance of the device on a set of random benchmark instances. PMID:26783120

  8. Determination and correction of persistent biases in quantum annealers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Calibration of quantum computers is essential to the effective utilisation of their quantum resources. Specifically, the performance of quantum annealers is likely to be significantly impaired by noise in their programmable parameters, effectively misspecification of the computational problem to be solved, often resulting in spurious suboptimal solutions. We developed a strategy to determine and correct persistent, systematic biases between the actual values of the programmable parameters and their user-specified values. We applied the recalibration strategy to two D-Wave Two quantum annealers, one at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, and another at D-Wave Systems in Burnaby, Canada. We show that the recalibration procedure not only reduces the magnitudes of the biases in the programmable parameters but also enhances the performance of the device on a set of random benchmark instances.

  9. A quantum dot spin qubit with thermal bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Cheng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Temperature effect on the spin manipulation and spin injection in a quantum dot is investigated with the help of master equation method. Results show that the magnitude and the direction of the temperature difference between the source and drain leads have great impact on the spin store, writing, and reading processes. In practical devices, the thermal bias is quite general and then our results may be useful in quantum information processing and spintronics.

  10. Tunable many-body effects in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihan; Melnikov, Dmitriy V.; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Exchange energies and charge densities for a few electrons in electrically tunable triangular and collinear triple quantum dot (TQD) systems are investigated by using the variational Monte Carlo method in the presence of magnetic fields. For N=2 electrons we observe a discontinuity in the J derivative with detuning voltage (dJ/dVT) in triangular triple QDs at B=0T as crossing of the eigenenergy levels leads to abrupt spatial symmetry change in the singlet and the triplet densities (density rotation) and relocalization. For B≠0T , the angular momentum provided to the electrons quenches this effect. The density rotation is absent in the collinear TQD for all magnetic fields as the lowest excited state remains the px state and as such, no change in symmetry is possible. By varying the triangular TQD configuration, we show the discontinuity in dJ/dVT persists for the top angle comprised between ˜20° and ˜70° . For three electrons in the symmetric triangular TQD, the monotonicity of the quadruplet-doublet energy difference from B=0 to 4 T remains intact for decoupled QDs but not for coupled QDs. Finally, addition energy for the triangular TQD system is computed for up to N=3 electrons.

  11. High-threshold topological quantum error correction against biased noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ashley M.; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2013-12-01

    Quantum information can be protected from decoherence and other errors, but only if these errors are sufficiently rare. For quantum computation to become a scalable technology, practical schemes for quantum error correction that can tolerate realistically high error rates will be necessary. In some physical systems, errors may exhibit a characteristic structure that can be carefully exploited to improve the efficacy of error correction. Here we describe a scheme for topological quantum error correction to protect quantum information from a dephasing-biased error model, where we combine a repetition code with a topological cluster state. We find that the scheme tolerates error rates of up to 1.37%-1.83% per gate, requiring only short-range interactions in a two-dimensional array.

  12. Design of compensated ferrimagnetic Heusler alloys for giant tunable exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ajaya K.; Nicklas, Michael; Chadov, Stanislav; Khuntia, Panchanana; Shekhar, Chandra; Kalache, Adel; Baenitz, Michael; Skourski, Yurii; Guduru, Veerendra K.; Puri, Alessandro; Zeitler, Uli; Coey, J. M. D.; Felser, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Rational material design can accelerate the discovery of materials with improved functionalities. This approach can be implemented in Heusler compounds with tunable magnetic sublattices to demonstrate unprecedented magnetic properties. Here, we have designed a family of Heusler alloys with a compensated ferrimagnetic state. In the vicinity of the compensation composition in Mn-Pt-Ga, a giant exchange bias (EB) of more than 3 T and a large coercivity are established. The large exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the compensated host and ferrimagnetic clusters that arise from intrinsic anti-site disorder. Our design approach is also demonstrated on a second material with a magnetic transition above room temperature, Mn-Fe-Ga, exemplifying the universality of the concept and the feasibility of room-temperature applications. These findings may lead to the development of magneto-electronic devices and rare-earth-free exchange-biased hard magnets, where the second quadrant magnetization can be stabilized by the exchange bias.

  13. Minimising biases in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Vigor, W A; Spencer, J S; Bearpark, M J; Thom, A J W

    2015-03-14

    We show that Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) is a Markov chain in its present form. We construct the Markov matrix of FCIQMC for a two determinant system and hence compute the stationary distribution. These solutions are used to quantify the dependence of the population dynamics on the parameters defining the Markov chain. Despite the simplicity of a system with only two determinants, it still reveals a population control bias inherent to the FCIQMC algorithm. We investigate the effect of simulation parameters on the population control bias for the neon atom and suggest simulation setups to, in general, minimise the bias. We show a reweight ing scheme to remove the bias caused by population control commonly used in diffusion Monte Carlo [Umrigar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2865 (1993)] is effective and recommend its use as a post processing step.

  14. Color-tunable light emitting diodes based on quantum dot suspension.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenyue; Chen, Haiwei; Liu, Yifan; Xu, Su; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-04-01

    We propose a color-tunable light emitting diode (LED) consisting of a blue LED as the light source and quantum dot (QD) suspension as the color-conversion medium. The LED color temperature can be controlled by varying the liquid volume of each QD suspension with different photoluminescence colors. We simulate and optimize the light efficiency and color quality of the color-tunable LED and also fabricated a prototype to prove concept. The proposed color-tunable LED exhibits several advantages such as excellent color-rendering property, simple structure and driving mechanism, as well as high energy efficiency. Its potential applications include circadian rhythm regulation and healthy lighting.

  15. Tunable optical delay via carrier induced exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Susanta; Guo, Yan; Wang, Hailin

    2006-04-03

    We report the experimental realization of a tunable optical delay by exploiting unique incoherent nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors. The tunable optical delay takes advantage of the strong Coulomb interactions between excitons and free carriers and uses optical injection of free carriers to broaden and bleach an exciton absorption resonance. Fractional delay exceeding 200% has been obtained for an 8 ps optical pulse propagating near the heavy-hole excitonic transition in a GaAs quantum well structure. Tunable optical delay based on optical injection of free carriers avoids strong absorption of the pump beam and is also robust against variations in the frequency of the pump beam.

  16. Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit–TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719

  17. Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-08-10

    Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit-TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system.

  18. Wide single-mode tuning in quantum cascade lasers with asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer type cavities with separately biased arms

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Mei C. Gmachl, Claire F.; Liu, Peter Q.; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Troccoli, Mariano

    2013-11-18

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a widely tunable single mode quantum cascade laser with Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder (AMZ) interferometer type cavities with separately biased arms. Current and, consequently, temperature tuning of the two arms of the AMZ type cavity resulted in a single mode tuning range of 20 cm{sup −1} at 80 K in continuous-wave mode operation, a ten-fold improvement from the lasers under a single bias current. In addition, we also observed a five fold increase in the tuning rate as compared to the AMZ cavities controlled by one bias current.

  19. Control of quantum magnets by atomic exchange bias.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A J; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of discretized states in quantum magnets has a radical impact on their properties. Managing this effect is key for spintronics in the quantum limit. Magnetic fields can modify state mixing and, for example, mitigate destabilizing effects in single-molecule magnets. The exchange bias field has been proposed as a mechanism for localized control of individual nanomagnets. Here, we demonstrate that exchange coupling with the magnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope provides continuous tuning of spin state mixing in an individual nanomagnet. By directly measuring spin relaxation time with electronic pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the exchange interaction acts analogously to a local magnetic field that can be applied to a specific atom. It can be tuned in strength by up to several tesla and cancel external magnetic fields, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of complete control over individual quantum magnets with atomically localized exchange coupling.

  20. Control of quantum magnets by atomic exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of discretized states in quantum magnets has a radical impact on their properties. Managing this effect is key for spintronics in the quantum limit. Magnetic fields can modify state mixing and, for example, mitigate destabilizing effects in single-molecule magnets. The exchange bias field has been proposed as a mechanism for localized control of individual nanomagnets. Here, we demonstrate that exchange coupling with the magnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope provides continuous tuning of spin state mixing in an individual nanomagnet. By directly measuring spin relaxation time with electronic pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the exchange interaction acts analogously to a local magnetic field that can be applied to a specific atom. It can be tuned in strength by up to several tesla and cancel external magnetic fields, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of complete control over individual quantum magnets with atomically localized exchange coupling.

  1. Quantum-Coherence-Assisted Tunable On- and Off-Resonance Tunneling through a Quantum-Dot-Molecule Dielectric Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi; Zeng, Rui Xi

    2017-02-01

    Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates.

  2. Coupling capacitance between double quantum dots tunable by the number of electrons in Si quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Takafumi Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Akira

    2015-02-28

    Tunability of capacitive coupling in the Si double-quantum-dot system is discussed by changing the number of electrons in quantum dots (QDs), in which the QDs are fabricated using pattern-dependent oxidation (PADOX) of a Si nanowire and multi-fine-gate structure. A single QD formed by PADOX is divided into multiple QDs by additional oxidation through the gap between the fine gates. When the number of electrons occupying the QDs is large, the coupling capacitance increases gradually and almost monotonically with the number of electrons. This phenomenon is attributed to the gradual growth in the effective QD size due to the increase in the number of electrons in the QDs. On the other hand, when the number of electrons changes in the few-electron regime, the coupling capacitance irregularly changes. This irregularity can be observed even up to 40 electrons. This behavior is attributable the rough structure of Si nano-dots made by PADOX. This roughness is thought to induce complicated change in the electron wave function when an electron is added to or subtracted from a QD.

  3. A High Power, Frequency Tunable Colloidal Quantum Dot (CdSe/ZnS) Laser

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Saradh; Saleh AlHesseny, Hanan; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Devaraj, Durairaj; Masilamai, Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm. The second (532 nm) and/or third harmonic (355 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 10 Hz) were used together as the pump source. In this study, different sized quantum dots were independently optically pumped to produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with 4 nm to 7 nm of full width at half-maximum (FWHM), when the pump power and focusing were carefully optimized. The beam was directional with a 7 mrad divergence. Subsequently, these quantum dots were combined together, and the solution was placed in a resonator cavity to obtain a laser with a spectral width of 1 nm and tunable from 510 to 630 nm, with a conversion efficiency of about 0.1%. PMID:28336863

  4. A High Power, Frequency Tunable Colloidal Quantum Dot (CdSe/ZnS) Laser.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saradh; AlHesseny, Hanan Saleh; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Devaraj, Durairaj; Masilamai, Vadivel

    2017-01-30

    Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm. The second (532 nm) and/or third harmonic (355 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 10 Hz) were used together as the pump source. In this study, different sized quantum dots were independently optically pumped to produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with 4 nm to 7 nm of full width at half-maximum (FWHM), when the pump power and focusing were carefully optimized. The beam was directional with a 7 mrad divergence. Subsequently, these quantum dots were combined together, and the solution was placed in a resonator cavity to obtain a laser with a spectral width of 1 nm and tunable from 510 to 630 nm, with a conversion efficiency of about 0.1%.

  5. High-power quantum-dot tapered tunable external-cavity lasers based on chirped and unchirped structures.

    PubMed

    Haggett, Stephanie; Krakowski, Michel; Montrosset, Ivo; Cataluna, Maria Ana

    2014-09-22

    A high-power tunable external cavity laser configuration with a tapered quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier at its core is presented, enabling a record output power for a broadly tunable semiconductor laser source in the 1.2 - 1.3 µm spectral region. Two distinct optical amplifiers are investigated, using either chirped or unchirped quantum-dot structures, and their merits are compared, considering the combination of tunability and high output power generation. At 1230 nm, the chirped quantum-dot laser achieved a maximum power of 0.62 W and demonstrated nearly 100-nm tunability. The unchirped laser enabled a tunability range of 32 nm and at 1254 nm generated a maximum power of 0.97 W, representing a 22-fold increase in output power compared with similar narrow-ridge external-cavity lasers at the same current density.

  6. Widely tunable terahertz source based on intra-cavity frequency mixing in quantum cascade laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Jiang, Yifan; Kim, Jae Hyun; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Vijayraghavan, Karun

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate a compact monolithic terahertz source continuously tunable from 1.9 THz to 3.9 THz with the maximum peak power output of 106 μW at 3.46 THz at room temperature. The source consists of an array of 10 electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers with intra-cavity terahertz difference-frequency generation. To increase fabrication yield and achieve high THz peak power output in our devices, a dual-section current pumping scheme is implemented using two electrically isolated grating sections to independently control gain for the two mid-IR pumps.

  7. Wavelength-tunable entangled photons from silicon-integrated III-V quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zopf, Michael; Jung, Kyubong; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-01-27

    Many of the quantum information applications rely on indistinguishable sources of polarization-entangled photons. Semiconductor quantum dots are among the leading candidates for a deterministic entangled photon source; however, due to their random growth nature, it is impossible to find different quantum dots emitting entangled photons with identical wavelengths. The wavelength tunability has therefore become a fundamental requirement for a number of envisioned applications, for example, nesting different dots via the entanglement swapping and interfacing dots with cavities/atoms. Here we report the generation of wavelength-tunable entangled photons from on-chip integrated InAs/GaAs quantum dots. With a novel anisotropic strain engineering technique based on PMN-PT/silicon micro-electromechanical system, we can recover the quantum dot electronic symmetry at different exciton emission wavelengths. Together with a footprint of several hundred microns, our device facilitates the scalable integration of indistinguishable entangled photon sources on-chip, and therefore removes a major stumbling block to the quantum-dot-based solid-state quantum information platforms.

  8. Wavelength-tunable entangled photons from silicon-integrated III-V quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zopf, Michael; Jung, Kyubong; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the quantum information applications rely on indistinguishable sources of polarization-entangled photons. Semiconductor quantum dots are among the leading candidates for a deterministic entangled photon source; however, due to their random growth nature, it is impossible to find different quantum dots emitting entangled photons with identical wavelengths. The wavelength tunability has therefore become a fundamental requirement for a number of envisioned applications, for example, nesting different dots via the entanglement swapping and interfacing dots with cavities/atoms. Here we report the generation of wavelength-tunable entangled photons from on-chip integrated InAs/GaAs quantum dots. With a novel anisotropic strain engineering technique based on PMN-PT/silicon micro-electromechanical system, we can recover the quantum dot electronic symmetry at different exciton emission wavelengths. Together with a footprint of several hundred microns, our device facilitates the scalable integration of indistinguishable entangled photon sources on-chip, and therefore removes a major stumbling block to the quantum-dot-based solid-state quantum information platforms.

  9. Wavelength-tunable entangled photons from silicon-integrated III–V quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zopf, Michael; Jung, Kyubong; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the quantum information applications rely on indistinguishable sources of polarization-entangled photons. Semiconductor quantum dots are among the leading candidates for a deterministic entangled photon source; however, due to their random growth nature, it is impossible to find different quantum dots emitting entangled photons with identical wavelengths. The wavelength tunability has therefore become a fundamental requirement for a number of envisioned applications, for example, nesting different dots via the entanglement swapping and interfacing dots with cavities/atoms. Here we report the generation of wavelength-tunable entangled photons from on-chip integrated InAs/GaAs quantum dots. With a novel anisotropic strain engineering technique based on PMN-PT/silicon micro-electromechanical system, we can recover the quantum dot electronic symmetry at different exciton emission wavelengths. Together with a footprint of several hundred microns, our device facilitates the scalable integration of indistinguishable entangled photon sources on-chip, and therefore removes a major stumbling block to the quantum-dot-based solid-state quantum information platforms. PMID:26813326

  10. Tunable All Electric Spin Polarizer Using A Quantum Point Contact With Two Pairs of In-Plane Side Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Nikhil; Charles, James; Dutta, Maitreya; Das, Partha; Cahay, Marc; Newrock, Richard; Herbert, Steven

    2013-03-01

    We report the first experimental investigation of a device consisting of a quantum point contact (QPC) with four gates - two in-plane side gates in series. The first set of gates (nearest the source contact) is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the channel of the QPC. A symmetric bias is then applied on the second set of side gates (nearest the drain) and varied to tune the location of a conductance anomaly near 0.5 (x2e2/h). The experimental results compare well with simulations of the four-gate QPC devices using a Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism. The device is shown to be a tunable all-electric spin polarizer. The range of common-mode bias on the first set of gates over which maximum spin polarization can be achieved is much broader for the four-gate structure compared with the case of a QPC with a single pair of in-plane side gates. This work is supported by NSF under Award 1028483.

  11. Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Tunable Spin Transport in As-Graphane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Z; Zhai, F; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Cui, B; Huang, Bing; Wang, Zhiming; Lu, J Q; Liu, Feng

    2017-07-12

    Tunable spin transport in nanodevices is highly desirable to spintronics. Here, we predict existence of quantum spin Hall effects and tunable spin transport in As-graphane, based on first-principle density functional theory and tight binding calculations. Monolayer As-graphane is constituted by using As adsorbing on graphane with honeycomb H vacancies. Owing to the surface strain, monolayer As-graphane nanoribbons will self-bend toward the graphane side. The naturally curved As-graphane nanoribbons then exhibit unique spin transport properties, distinctively different from the flat ones, which is a two-dimensional topological insulator. Under external stress, one can realize tunable spin transport in curved As-graphane nanoribon arrays. Such intriguing mechanical bending induced spin flips can offer promising applications in the future nanospintronics devices.

  12. Balancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source-tunable linear optics cloning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Lv, Geli; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-11-01

    We show that the tolerable excess noise can be dynamically balanced in source preparation while inserting a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) for balancing the secret key rate and the maximal transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). The intensities of source noise are sensitive to the tunable LOCM and can be stabilized to the suitable values to eliminate the impact of channel noise and defeat the potential attacks even in the case of the degenerated linear optics amplifier (LOA). The LOCM-additional noise can be elegantly employed by the reference partner of reconciliation to regulate the secret key rate and the transmission distance. Simulation results show that there is a considerable improvement in the secret key rate of the LOCM-based CVQKD while providing a tunable LOCM for source preparation with the specified parameters in suitable ranges.

  13. Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, K. A.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Battle, P. R.; Livshits, D. A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2012-11-01

    Quasi-phase-matching is an important and widely-used technique in nonlinear optics enabling efficient frequency up-conversion. However, since its introduction almost half a century ago, this technique is well developed for near infrared (IR) but is intrinsically limited in spectral tunability in the visible range by the strict conditions set by the spatial modulation which compensates the momentum mismatch imposed by the dispersion. Here, we provide a fundamental generalization of quasi-phase-matching based on the utilization of a significant difference in the effective refractive indices of the high- and low-order modes in multimode waveguides. This concept enables to match the period of poling in a very broad wavelength range and opens up a new avenue for an order-of-magnitude increase in wavelength range for frequency conversion from a single crystal. Using this approach, we demonstrate an all-room-temperature continuous-wave (CW) second harmonic generation (SHG) with over 60 nm tunability from green to red in a periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) waveguide pumped by a single broadly-tunable quantum-dot laser diode.

  14. Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanfeng; Mao, Li; Jones, Aaron M; Yao, Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Xu, Xiaodong

    2012-04-11

    Second order optical nonlinear processes involve the coherent mixing of two electromagnetic waves to generate a new optical frequency, which plays a central role in a variety of applications, such as ultrafast laser systems, rectifiers, modulators, and optical imaging. However, progress is limited in the mid-infrared (MIR) region due to the lack of suitable nonlinear materials. It is desirable to develop a robust system with a strong, electrically tunable second order optical nonlinearity. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that AB-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) can exhibit a giant and tunable second order nonlinear susceptibility χ((2)) once an in-plane electric field is applied. χ((2)) can be electrically tuned from 0 to ~10(5) pm/V, 3 orders of magnitude larger than the widely used nonlinear crystal AgGaSe(2). We show that the unusually large χ((2)) arise from two different quantum enhanced two-photon processes thanks to the unique electronic spectrum of BLG. The tunable electronic bandgap of BLG adds additional tunability on the resonance of χ((2)), which corresponds to a tunable wavelength ranging from ~2.6 to ~3.1 μm for the up-converted photon. Combined with the high electron mobility and optical transparency of the atomically thin BLG, our scheme suggests a new regime of nonlinear photonics based on BLG. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Highly tunable quantum Hall far-infrared photodetector by use of GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As-graphene composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-11-03

    We have developed a highly tunable, narrow band far-infrared (FIR) photodetector which utilizes the characteristic merits of graphene and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As heterostructure in the Quantum Hall states (QHS). The heterostructure surface is covered with chemical vapor-deposited graphene, which functions as a transparent top-gate to vary the electron density of the 2DEG. FIR response observed in the vicinity of integer QH regime can be effectively tuned in a wide range of 27–102 cm{sup −1} with a bias voltage less than −1 V. In addition, we have found that the presence of graphene can genuinely modulate the photoresponse. Our results demonstrate a promising direction for realizing a tunable long-wavelength FIR detector using QHS in GaAs 2DEG/ graphene composite material.

  16. Tunable multi-qubit quantum phase gates with high fidelity based on graphene wrapped particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jun; Zhang, Weixuan; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    A graphene wrapped dielectric particle has been proposed theoretically to realize tunable multi-qubit quantum phase gates (QPGs) with ultrahigh fidelity. By using a first-principles Green's function technique, the interactions between quantum emitters mediated by graphene plasmons have been investigated. We find that the spontaneous decay rates of these emitters can be strongly enhanced and controlled by means of the efficient excitations of eigenmodes in graphene. The collective subradiance and superradiance resulting from the graphene-mediated interactions have been predicted. Based on these phenomena, we propose the tunable multi-qubit QPGs. These phase gates have the advantage of sensitive adjustability by changing the Fermi level or the electrostatic gating in graphene, at the same time they possess very high fidelities due to the small dissipation in the graphene monolayer.

  17. Optically Tunable Long Wavelength Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Operated at Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-09

    dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4774267] Rapidly tunable quantum cascade lasers ( QCLs ) is a key element for the recently proposed long-wavelength infrared (LWIR...is the signal data bandwidth.1,2 QCLs are the only semiconductor lasers that can operate continuous-wave (CW) at room temperature in LWIR. Cur- rently...frequency-tuning of the distributed feedback (DFB) QCLs is typically achieved by temperature control over effective refractive index using pump

  18. Infrared absorption nano-spectroscopy using sample photoexpansion induced by tunable quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Belkin, Mikhail A

    2011-10-10

    We report a simple technique that allows obtaining mid-infrared absorption spectra with nanoscale spatial resolution under low-power illumination from tunable quantum cascade lasers. Light absorption is detected by measuring associated sample thermal expansion with an atomic force microscope. To detect minute thermal expansion we tune the repetition frequency of laser pulses in resonance with the mechanical frequency of the atomic force microscope cantilever. Spatial resolution of better than 50 nm is experimentally demonstrated.

  19. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with biased basis choice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhengchao; Wang, Weilong; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Ming; Ma, Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2013-01-01

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme that combines a biased basis choice with the decoy-state method. In this scheme, Alice sends all signal states in the Z basis and decoy states in the X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and Bob measures received pulses with optimal basis choice. This scheme simplifies the system and reduces the random number consumption. From the simulation result taking into account of statistical fluctuations, we find that in a typical experimental setup, the proposed scheme can increase the key rate by at least 45% comparing to the standard decoy-state scheme. In the postprocessing, we also apply a rigorous method to upper bound the phase error rate of the single-photon components of signal states. PMID:23948999

  20. Multimode analysis of highly tunable, quantum cascade powered, circular graphene spaser

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, Charith Premaratne, Malin; Stockman, Mark I.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2015-11-07

    We carried out a detailed analysis of a circular graphene spaser made of a circular graphene flake and a quantum cascade well structure. Owing to unique properties of graphene and quantum cascade well structure, the proposed design shows high mechanical and thermal stability and low optical losses. Additionally, operation characteristics of the model are analysed and tunability of the device is demonstrated. Some advantages of the proposed design include compact size, lower power operation, and the ability to set the operating wavelength over a wide range from Mid-IR to Near-IR. Thus, it can have wide spread applications including designing of ultracompact and ultrafast devices, nanoscopy and biomedical applications.

  1. A circuit analysis of an in situ tunable radio-frequency quantum point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Choi, T.; Hellmüller, S.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T.; Schön, S.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed analysis of the tunability of a radio-frequency quantum point contact setup using a C - LCR circuit is presented. We calculate how the series capacitance influences resonance frequency and charge-detector resistance for which matching is achieved as well as the voltage and power delivered to the load. Furthermore, we compute the noise contributions in the system and compare our findings with measurements taken with an etched quantum point contact. While our considerations mostly focus on our specific choice of matching circuit, the discussion of the influence of source-to-load power transfer on the signal-to-noise ratio is valid generally.

  2. Monolithic quantum-well-tunable laser based on optical beam steering and area-selective intermixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariya, Abdullah; LiKamWa, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    A monolithic tunable laser on a quantum well (QW) structure is demonstrated by integrating an optical beam-steering section with an area-selectively intermixed QW gain section. Wavelength tuning is achieved by guiding an amplified optical beam over an optical gain medium that consists of three laterally adjacent regions containing a quantum well that has been selectively intermixed to varying extents. The laser light output can be tuned over a total of a 17-nm wavelength range by separately injecting electrical current pulses to each of the two parallel contacts in the steering region and to the optical amplifier contact.

  3. Quantum plasmonics: optical properties and tunability of metallic nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Jorge; Prodan, Emil; Nordlander, Peter

    2010-09-28

    The plasmon resonances in metallic nanorods are investigated using fully quantum mechanical time-dependent density functional theory. The computed optical absorption curves display well-defined longitudinal and transverse plasmon resonances whose energies depend on the aspect ratio of the rods, in excellent agreement with classical electromagnetic modeling. The field enhancements obtained from the quantum mechanical calculations, however, differ significantly from classical predictions for distances shorter than 0.5 nm from the nanoparticle surfaces. These deviations can be understood as arising from the nonlocal screening properties of the conduction electrons at the nanoparticle surface.

  4. Electrically-Pumped Wavelength-Tunable GaAs Quantum Dots Interfaced with Rubidium Atoms

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the first wavelength-tunable electrically pumped source of nonclassical light that can emit photons with wavelength in resonance with the D2 transitions of 87Rb atoms. The device is fabricated by integrating a novel GaAs single-quantum-dot light-emitting diode (LED) onto a piezoelectric actuator. By feeding the emitted photons into a 75 mm long cell containing warm 87Rb vapor, we observe slow-light with a temporal delay of up to 3.4 ns. In view of the possibility of using 87Rb atomic vapors as quantum memories, this work makes an important step toward the realization of hybrid-quantum systems for future quantum networks. PMID:28523285

  5. A voltage biased superconducting quantum interference device bootstrap circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Yongliang; Mück, Michael; Dong, Hui; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2010-06-01

    We present a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit operating in the voltage bias mode and called a SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC). The SBC is an alternative implementation of two existing methods for suppression of room-temperature amplifier noise: additional voltage feedback and current feedback. Two circuit branches are connected in parallel. In the dc SQUID branch, an inductively coupled coil connected in series provides the bias current feedback for enhancing the flux-to-current coefficient. The circuit branch parallel to the dc SQUID branch contains an inductively coupled voltage feedback coil with a shunt resistor in series for suppressing the preamplifier noise current by increasing the dynamic resistance. We show that the SBC effectively reduces the preamplifier noise to below the SQUID intrinsic noise. For a helium-cooled planar SQUID magnetometer with a SQUID inductance of 350 pH, a flux noise of about 3 μΦ0 Hz - 1/2 and a magnetic field resolution of less than 3 fT Hz - 1/2 were obtained. The SBC leads to a convenient direct readout electronics for a dc SQUID with a wider adjustment tolerance than other feedback schemes.

  6. Valley Polarization in Size-Tunable Monolayer Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guohua; Czaplewski, David A.; Jung, Il Woong; Lenferink, Erik J.; Stanev, Teodor K.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    Controlling the size of semiconductor nanostructures allows manipulation of the optical and electrical properties of band carriers. We show that laterally-confined monolayer MoS2 quantum dots can be created through top-down nanopatterning of an atomically-thin two-dimensional semiconductor. Semiconductor-compatible nanofabrication processing allows for these low-dimensional materials to be integrated into complex systems that harness their controllable optical properties. Size-dependent exciton energy shifts and linewidths are observed, demonstrating the influence of quantum confinement. The patterned dots exhibit the same valley polarization characteristics as in a continuous MoS2 sheet, suggesting that monolayer semiconductor quantum dots could have potential for advancing quantum information applications. This work is supported by ISEN, the DOE-BES (DE-SC0012130), the NSF MRSEC program (DMR-1121262), and the Center for Nanoscale Materials, DOE-BES (DE-AC02-06CH11357). N.P.S. is an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.

  7. GIANT DIELECTRIC TUNABLE BEHAVIOR OF Pr-DOPED SrTiO3 AT LOW TEMPERATURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, T.; Song, Q. G.; Zhou, Q. J.; Li, Z. P.; Chen, Y. F.; Qi, X. L.; Guo, S. Q.; Liu, J.-M.

    2012-03-01

    Contrast with conventional dielectric tunable materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST), here, we report one new dielectric tunable behavior for Sr1-xPrxTiO3 system at low temperature. Giant dielectric tunability is confirmed in this system. More importantly, the efficient dielectric tunability can be realized just using small bias field. In addition, critical threshold electric field is also confirmed. This phenomenon may be related with the competition interaction of polar state with quantum fluctuations.

  8. Universal transport signatures in two-electron molecular quantum dots: gate-tunable Hund's rule, underscreened Kondo effect and quantum phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Florens, Serge; Freyn, Axel; Roch, Nicolas; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Balestro, Franck; Roura-Bas, Pablo; Aligia, A A

    2011-06-22

    We review here some universal aspects of the physics of two-electron molecular transistors in the absence of strong spin-orbit effects. Several recent quantum dot experiments have shown that an electrostatic backgate could be used to control the energy dispersion of magnetic levels. We discuss how the generally asymmetric coupling of the metallic contacts to two different molecular orbitals can indeed lead to a gate-tunable Hund's rule in the presence of singlet and triplet states in the quantum dot. For gate voltages such that the singlet constitutes the (non-magnetic) ground state, one generally observes a suppression of low voltage transport, which can yet be restored in the form of enhanced cotunneling features at finite bias. More interestingly, when the gate voltage is controlled to obtain the triplet configuration, spin S = 1 Kondo anomalies appear at zero bias, with non-Fermi liquid features related to the underscreening of a spin larger than 1/2. Finally, the small bare singlet-triplet splitting in our device allows fine-tuning with the gate between these two magnetic configurations, leading to an unscreening quantum phase transition. This transition occurs between the non-magnetic singlet phase, where a two-stage Kondo effect occurs, and the triplet phase, where the partially compensated (underscreened) moment is akin to a magnetically 'ordered' state. These observations are put theoretically into a consistent global picture by using new numerical renormalization group simulations, tailored to capture sharp finite-voltage cotunneling features within the Coulomb diamonds, together with complementary out-of-equilibrium diagrammatic calculations on the two-orbital Anderson model. This work should shed further light on the complicated puzzle still raised by multi-orbital extensions of the classic Kondo problem.

  9. Tunable double quantum dots in InAs nanowires defined by local gate electrodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasth, Carina; Fuhrer, Andreas; Samuelson, Lars

    2006-03-01

    We present low-temperature transport measurements on quantum dots induced in homogeneous InAs quantum wires 50 nm in diameter. Quantum dots are induced by electrical depletion of the wire using local gate electrodes with down to 30 nm electrode spacing. This scheme has permitted the realization of fully gate-defined multiple quantum dots along the nanowire [1]. Tunability in double quantum dots is a prerequisite for the system to be operated as a quantum gate. We demonstrate control over the lead tunnel barrier transparencies and, in the case of double quantum dots, the interdot coupling. Using the local gate electrodes also as plunger gates we measure double dot honeycomb stability diagrams which show the transition from a single large dot to two weakly coupled dots at 4.2K. The induced quantum dots can be tuned into the few-electron regime which is shown from Coulomb blockade measurements. We extract values of orbital energy-level spacings, capacitances and capacitive and tunnel interdot coupling for this system. [1] C. Fasth et al., NanoLett 5, 1487 (2005).

  10. Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Lee, Jiyoul; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Taeho; Lee, Jaichan; Lee, Hangil; Su, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology. PMID:23872608

  11. Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenjia; Bandyopadhyay, Neelanjan; Wu, Donghai; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become important laser sources for accessing the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, achieving watt-level continuous wave operation in a compact package at room temperature. However, up to now, wavelength tuning, which is desirable for most applications, has relied on external cavity feedback or exhibited a limited monolithic tuning range. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable QCL source over the 6.2 to 9.1 μm wavelength range with a single emitting aperture by integrating an eight-laser sampled grating distributed feedback laser array with an on-chip beam combiner. The laser gain medium is based on a five-core heterogeneous QCL wafer. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and produce any desired wavelength within the available spectral range. A rapid, broadband spectral measurement (520 cm−1) of methane using the tunable laser source shows excellent agreement to a measurement made using a standard low-speed infrared spectrometer. This monolithic, widely tunable laser technology is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for MIR spectroscopy and chemical sensing. PMID:27270634

  12. Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjia; Bandyopadhyay, Neelanjan; Wu, Donghai; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-06-08

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become important laser sources for accessing the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, achieving watt-level continuous wave operation in a compact package at room temperature. However, up to now, wavelength tuning, which is desirable for most applications, has relied on external cavity feedback or exhibited a limited monolithic tuning range. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable QCL source over the 6.2 to 9.1 μm wavelength range with a single emitting aperture by integrating an eight-laser sampled grating distributed feedback laser array with an on-chip beam combiner. The laser gain medium is based on a five-core heterogeneous QCL wafer. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and produce any desired wavelength within the available spectral range. A rapid, broadband spectral measurement (520 cm(-1)) of methane using the tunable laser source shows excellent agreement to a measurement made using a standard low-speed infrared spectrometer. This monolithic, widely tunable laser technology is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for MIR spectroscopy and chemical sensing.

  13. Tunable all electric spin polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, J.; Bhandari, N.; Wan, J.; Cahay, M.; Newrock, R. S.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a tunable all-electric spin polarizer made of a quantum point contact (QPC) with four gates—two in-plane side gates in series. The pair of gates near the source is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the QPC channel, the second pair near the drain is symmetrically biased and this bias is varied to maximize the QPC spin polarization. The range of common mode bias on the first set of gates over which maximum spin polarization is achieved is much broader for the four gate structure compared to a QPC with a single pair of gates.

  14. Quantum anomalous Hall effect and tunable topological states in 3d transition metals doped silicene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Lan-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-10-09

    Silicene is an intriguing 2D topological material which is closely analogous to graphene but with stronger spin orbit coupling effect and natural compatibility with current silicon-based electronics industry. Here we demonstrate that silicene decorated with certain 3d transition metals (Vanadium) can sustain a stable quantum anomalous Hall effect using both analytical model and first-principles Wannier interpolation. We also predict the quantum valley Hall effect and electrically tunable topological states could be realized in certain transition metal doped silicene where the energy band inversion occurs. Our findings provide new scheme for the realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect and platform for electrically controllable topological states which are highly desirable for future nanoelectronics and spintronics application.

  15. Analysis for the characteristics of a voltage tunable functional quantum structure optoelectronic integrated device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, E.; Ahmadi, V.; Mirabbaszadeh, K.

    2008-03-01

    A physical model for the analysis of dynamic response of a voltage- tunable optoelectronic integrated device is outlined. The device is composed of an integrated quantum well Heterojunction Phototransistor (HPT) over a strained quantum well Laser Diode. The quantum well structure Hamiltonian is numerically solved by transfer matrix method to obtain the electron and hole subband energy levels taking in to account the valence band mixing effect and strain. In order to calculate the electroabsorption coefficient, the exciton equation is solved numerically in momentum space using the Gaussian quadrature method assuming parabolic band structure. Based on the model the device has two operation modes: amplification for small optical feedback coefficient and switching for higher values.

  16. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect and Tunable Topological States in 3d Transition Metals Doped Silicene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Lan-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Silicene is an intriguing 2D topological material which is closely analogous to graphene but with stronger spin orbit coupling effect and natural compatibility with current silicon-based electronics industry. Here we demonstrate that silicene decorated with certain 3d transition metals (Vanadium) can sustain a stable quantum anomalous Hall effect using both analytical model and first-principles Wannier interpolation. We also predict the quantum valley Hall effect and electrically tunable topological states could be realized in certain transition metal doped silicene where the energy band inversion occurs. Our findings provide new scheme for the realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect and platform for electrically controllable topological states which are highly desirable for future nanoelectronics and spintronics application. PMID:24105063

  17. Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density.

    PubMed

    Lv, X Q; Jin, P; Wang, W Y; Wang, Z G

    2010-04-26

    Broadband grating-coupled external cavity laser, based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots, is achieved. The device has a wavelength tuning range from 1141.6 nm to 1251.7 nm under a low continuous-wave injection current density (458 A/cm(2)). The tunable bandwidth covers consecutively the light emissions from both the ground state and the 1st excited state of quantum dots. The effects of cavity length and antireflection facet coating on device performance are studied. It is shown that antireflection facet coating expands the tuning bandwidth up to ~150 nm, accompanied by an evident increase in threshold current density, which is attributed to the reduced interaction between the light field and the quantum dots in the active region of the device.

  18. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D.

    2014-04-07

    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-μm thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75 μm. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450 ± 80 μJ/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607 nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600 nm to 618 nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  19. Tunability of InGaN/GaN quantum well light emitting diodes through current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Panda, Siddhartha

    2013-07-01

    In the recent years, InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) have gathered much importance through the introduction of white LEDs and dual wavelength LEDs. However, the continuous tunability of InGaN/GaN QW LEDs has not been well addressed or discussed. In this paper, we introduce the tunability of an InGaN/GaN QW LED having a well width of 4 nm and In mole fraction of 0.3. The results, obtained from self-consistent solutions of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations, show that the transition energy of the LED may be continuously tuned by the device current. A prominent nonlinearity of the transition energy with the device current is generated, which should be of interest to the research workers in the field of optoelectronics.

  20. Gate-tunable high mobility remote-doped InSb/In{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}Sb quantum well heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Wei E-mail: MSokolich@hrl.com; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Thorp, Jacob; Noah, Ramsey; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Bui, Steven; Rajavel, Rajesh D.; Hussain, Tahir; Gyure, Mark F.; Sokolich, Marko E-mail: MSokolich@hrl.com; Kratz, Philip; Qian, Qi; Manfra, Michael J.; Pribiag, Vlad S.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Marcus, Charles M.

    2015-04-06

    Gate-tunable high-mobility InSb/In{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}Sb quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaAs substrates are reported. The QW two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel mobility in excess of 200 000 cm{sup 2}/V s is measured at T = 1.8 K. In asymmetrically remote-doped samples with an HfO{sub 2} gate dielectric formed by atomic layer deposition, parallel conduction is eliminated and complete 2DEG channel depletion is reached with minimal hysteresis in gate bias response of the 2DEG electron density. The integer quantum Hall effect with Landau level filling factor down to 1 is observed. A high-transparency non-alloyed Ohmic contact to the 2DEG with contact resistance below 1 Ω·mm is achieved at 1.8 K.

  1. Widely tunable quantum cascade lasers for spectroscopic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Ostendorf, R.; Grahmann, J.; Merten, A.; Hugger, S.; Jarvis, J.-P.; Fuchs, F.; Boskovic, D.; Schenk, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper recent advances in broadband-tuneable mid-infrared (MIR) external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) technology are reported as well as their use in spectroscopic process analysis and imaging stand-off detection of hazardous substances, such as explosive and related precursors. First results are presented on rapid scan EC-QCL, employing a custom-made MOEMS scanning grating in Littrow-configuration as wavelength-selective optical feedback element. This way, a scanning rate of 1 kHz was achieved, which corresponds to 2000 full wavelength scans per second. Furthermore, exemplary case studies of EC-QCL based MIR spectroscopy will be presented. These include timeresolved analysis of catalytic reactions in chemical process control, as well as imaging backscattering spectroscopy for the detection of residues of explosives and related precursors in a relevant environment.

  2. Charge-tunable quantum plasmons in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Alina M; Thakkar, Niket; Gunthardt, Carolyn E; Masiello, David J; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2014-01-28

    Nanomaterials exhibiting plasmonic optical responses are impacting sensing, information processing, catalysis, solar, and photonics technologies. Recent advances have expanded the portfolio of plasmonic nanostructures into doped semiconductor nanocrystals, which allow dynamic manipulation of carrier densities. Once interpreted as intraband single-electron transitions, the infrared absorption of doped semiconductor nanocrystals is now commonly attributed to localized surface plasmon resonances and analyzed using the classical Drude model to determine carrier densities. Here, we show that the experimental plasmon resonance energies of photodoped ZnO nanocrystals with controlled sizes and carrier densities diverge from classical Drude model predictions at small sizes, revealing quantum plasmons in these nanocrystals. A Lorentz oscillator model more adequately describes the data and illustrates a closer link between plasmon resonances and single-electron transitions in semiconductors than in metals, highlighting a fundamental contrast between these two classes of plasmonic materials.

  3. Investigation of Laser Optical Biasing on the Quantum Transport Properties of n-InSb.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    Af-01578 NOTH TEXAS STATE UNIV DENTON DEPT OF PHYSICS FIG 20/12 INVESTIGATION OF LASER OPTICAL BIASING ON THE QUANTUM TRANSPORT -ETC(U) OCT 79 0 6...SEILER NOOO-76-C-0319 NCLASSIFIED NL MEEEEEEE4N VEt IC?) ’ ,~CUAL)SUMMARY E’--. C Ii Investigation of Laser Optical Biasing on the Quantum Transport Properties...the investigation of laser optical biasing ef- fects on the quantum transport properties of n-InSb is given for the period October 1, 1978 - September

  4. Tunable spin and valley dependent magneto-optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fanyao; Dias, A. C.; Fu, Jiyong; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Azevedo, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Photonic quantum computer, quantum communication, quantum metrology and quantum optical technologies rely on the single-photon source (SPS). However, the SPS with valley-polarization remains elusive and the tunability of magneto-optical transition frequency and emission/absorption intensity is restricted, in spite of being highly in demand for valleytronic applications. Here we report a new class of SPSs based on carriers spatially localized in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrate that the photons are absorbed (or emitted) in the QDs with distinct energy but definite valley-polarization. The spin-coupled valley-polarization is invariant under either spatial or magnetic quantum quantization. However, the magneto-optical absorption peaks undergo a blue shift as the quantization is enhanced. Moreover, the absorption spectrum pattern changes considerably with a variation of Fermi energy. This together with the controllability of absorption spectrum by spatial and magnetic quantizations, offers the possibility of tuning the magneto-optical properties at will, subject to the robust spin-coupled valley polarization. PMID:28112197

  5. Tunable spin and valley dependent magneto-optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Fanyao; Dias, A. C.; Fu, Jiyong; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Azevedo, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Photonic quantum computer, quantum communication, quantum metrology and quantum optical technologies rely on the single-photon source (SPS). However, the SPS with valley-polarization remains elusive and the tunability of magneto-optical transition frequency and emission/absorption intensity is restricted, in spite of being highly in demand for valleytronic applications. Here we report a new class of SPSs based on carriers spatially localized in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrate that the photons are absorbed (or emitted) in the QDs with distinct energy but definite valley-polarization. The spin-coupled valley-polarization is invariant under either spatial or magnetic quantum quantization. However, the magneto-optical absorption peaks undergo a blue shift as the quantization is enhanced. Moreover, the absorption spectrum pattern changes considerably with a variation of Fermi energy. This together with the controllability of absorption spectrum by spatial and magnetic quantizations, offers the possibility of tuning the magneto-optical properties at will, subject to the robust spin-coupled valley polarization.

  6. Tunable spin and valley dependent magneto-optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fanyao; Dias, A C; Fu, Jiyong; Villegas-Lelovsky, L; Azevedo, David L

    2017-01-23

    Photonic quantum computer, quantum communication, quantum metrology and quantum optical technologies rely on the single-photon source (SPS). However, the SPS with valley-polarization remains elusive and the tunability of magneto-optical transition frequency and emission/absorption intensity is restricted, in spite of being highly in demand for valleytronic applications. Here we report a new class of SPSs based on carriers spatially localized in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrate that the photons are absorbed (or emitted) in the QDs with distinct energy but definite valley-polarization. The spin-coupled valley-polarization is invariant under either spatial or magnetic quantum quantization. However, the magneto-optical absorption peaks undergo a blue shift as the quantization is enhanced. Moreover, the absorption spectrum pattern changes considerably with a variation of Fermi energy. This together with the controllability of absorption spectrum by spatial and magnetic quantizations, offers the possibility of tuning the magneto-optical properties at will, subject to the robust spin-coupled valley polarization.

  7. Quantum Dot Molecule Polaritons and a Voltage-Tunable Vacuum Rabi Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Patrick; Bracker, Allan; Carter, Samuel; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Economou, Sophia; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    InAs quantum dots (QDs) are a popular system for realizing quantum information protocols and studying cavity-QED. An additional class of optical transitions can be accessed by using quantum dot molecules (QDMs): a pair of tunnel-coupled QDs. Recombination can occur within one of the QDs (intradot) or across the tunnel barrier (interdot). Interdot transitions are typically weaker due to reduced wavefunction overlap. Recently, our team embedded a QDM within a GaAs photonic crystal cavity and demonstrated photonic enhancement of a singlet-triplet qubit. Here, we realize a strongly-coupled cavity-QDM system and demonstrate cavity-QED effects inaccessible in single QDs. These include the first observation of molecular polaritons in InAs QDs and a voltage-tunable vacuum Rabi splitting (2 g) . The tunable vacuum Rabi splitting can only occur in QDMs and provides an advantage as g is typically fixed post-fabrication. This flexibility could be useful for optical signal processing schemes that exploit the anharmonicity of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder.

  8. Tunable THz Generation by the Interaction of a Super-luminous Laser Pulse with Biased Semiconductor Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Zigler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the range between several hundred and a few thousand GHz. It covers the gap between fast-wave electronics (millimeter waves) and optics (infrared). This spectral region offers enormous potential for detection of explosives and chemical/biological agents, non-destructive testing of non-metallic structural materials and coatings of aircraft structures, medical imaging, bio-sensing of DNA stretching modes and high-altitude secure communications. The development of these applications has been hindered by the lack of powerful, tunable THz sources with controlled waveform. The need for such sources is accentuated by the strong, but selective absorption of THz radiation during transmission through air with high vapor content. The majority of the current experimental work relies on time-domain spectroscopy using fast electrically biased photoconductive sources in conjunction with femto-second mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers. These sources known as Large Aperture Photoconductive Antennas (LAPA) have very limited tunability, relatively low upper bound of power and no bandwidth control. The paper presents a novel source of THz radiation known as Miniature Photoconductive Capacitor Array (MPCA). Experiments demonstrated tunability between .1 - 2 THz, control of the relative bandwidth Δf/f between .5-.01, and controlled pulse length and pulse waveform (temporal shape, chirp, pulse-to-pulse modulation etc.). Direct scaling from the current device indicates efficiency in excess of 30% at 1 THz with 1/f2 scaling at higher frequencies, peak power of 100 kW and average power between .1-1 W. The physics underlying the MPCA is the interaction of a super-luminous ionization front generated by the oblique incidence of a Ti:Sapphire laser pulse on a semiconductor crystal (ZnSe) biased with an alternating electrostatic field, similar to that of a frozen wave generator. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the

  9. Tunable emission of Cu (Mn)-doped ZnInS quantum dots via dopant interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiatao; Mei, Shiliang; Yang, Wu; Zhang, Guilin; Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu; Guo, Ruiqian

    2017-11-15

    In this work, transition metal ion- doped zinc-based quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized via a greener controllable method to avoid the toxicity of the traditional cadmium-based QDs and broaden the tunable emission. Herein, the tunable emission of Cu-doped ZnInS/ZnS core-shell QDs (Cu:ZnInS/ZnS) can cover from 500 to 620nm by varying the Cu dopant concentration from 1 to 20% and the maximum quantum yield can reach 49.8%. Based on the single-doped QDs, Cu,Mn co-doped ZnInS/ZnS core-shell QDs (Cu,Mn:ZnInS/ZnS) with a photoluminance (PL) quantum yield of 30.4% are obtained. All the as-synthesized QDs have the zinc blende structure and the average size is about 3.55nm. Besides, the interaction mechanism between the Cu and Mn dopant luminescence centers is proposed in this work, which is rarely investigated in the previous report. Diffusion priority and energy transfer between these two dopants are supposed to play an important role in the co-doped QDs and Cu ions could affect the splitting of Mn d states. Color coordinates of these doped QDs show the line-tunability from (0.200, 0.397) to (0.408, 0.508) on the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromatic diagram, showing a promising potential in high-quality white light output by integration of these QDs with blue chips. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-section tunable laser using impurity free intermixing in InGaAsP multiple quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, JingHua; Dong, Jian R.; Chua, Soo-Jin; Zhou, W.; Foo, B. C.; Kang, X. J.; Thompson, David A.; Robinson, Brad J.; Lee, Alex S.

    2001-10-01

    We report on controlled group V intermixing in a compressively strained In0.76Ga0.24As0.85P0.15/In0.76Ga0.24As0.52P0.48 multi-quantum well laser structure using different encapsulating layers followed by rapid thermal annealing, and the two-section tunable laser made by using this technique. The sample used is a laser structure with emission wavelength at 1.55micrometers . The active region consisting of three In0.76Ga0.24As0.85P0.15 quantum wells with In0.76Ga0.24As0.52P0.48 barriers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. At the same thermal treatment, the blueshift of band gap energy was enhanced most efficiently by capping the sample with an InP layer grown at low temperature and less efficiently by a SiO2 film. While the blueshift was suppressed by a SixNy film with a refractive index of about 2.1. The suppression effect was independent of the SixNy film thickness from 30 nm to 2400 nm. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectra showed that the quantum well intermixing was caused by the interdiffusion of group V atoms between the wells and barriers that have the same group III compositions. A group V interstitial diffusion model was proposed to be responsible for the enhanced intermixing. A 1.55 micrometers two section ridge waveguide laser was fabricated using this technique. The energy transition level of the phase tuning section was tuned to be transparent to the emission wavelength of the active section. A tuning range of about 10 nm can be achieved by simply tuning the bias current for the phase tuning section.

  11. Intracavity widely-tunable quantum cascade laser spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Brownsword, Richard A; Weidmann, Damien

    2013-01-28

    A grating-tuned extended-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) operating around 7.6 µm was assembled to provide a tuning range of ~80 cm⁻¹ with output power of up to 30 mW. The EC-QCL output power was shown to be sensitive to the presence of a broadband absorbing gas mixture contained in a 2-cm cell introduced inside the extended laser cavity. In this arrangement, enhanced absorption relative to single path linear absorption was observed. To describe observations, in the QCL rate-equation model was included the effect of intracavity absorption. The model qualitatively reproduced the absorption behavior observed. In addition, it allowed quantitative measurements of mixing ratio of dimethyl carbonate, which was used as a test broadband absorber. A number of alternative data acquisition and reduction methods were identified. As the intracavity absorber modifies the laser threshold current, phase-sensitive detection of the laser threshold current was found to be the most attractive way to determine the mixing ratio of the absorber. The dimethyl carbonate detection limit was estimated to be 1.4 ppmv for 10 second integration. Limitations and possible ways of improvements were also identified.

  12. Tunable multiwavelength quantum dot external-cavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Chen-Hung; Lin, Gray

    2013-05-01

    The chirped multilayer quantum-dot (QD) gain media are arranged in Fourier-transform external-cavity laser (FT-ECL) configuration. Novel slit designs select 2, 3, and 4 different wavelengths that are diffracted from the grating for optical feedback. Therefore, the dual-, triple- and quadruple-wavelength ECLs are demonstrated in this study. The resulted multi-wavelength lasing emissions are achieved under injected current of 100 mA (or 1.33 kA/cm2) with signal to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) ratio over 20 dB. Around peak-gain wavelength of 12xx-nm range, the adjacent wavelength separation is over 50 nm for dual-wavelength lasing, up to 13 nm for triple-wavelength lasing, and about 4-5 nm for quadruple-wavelength lasing emissions. To further extend the wavelength separation for dual-wavelength lasing emissions, another modified scheme with two separate external mirrors are adopted and the achieved maximum value is about 126 nm in wavelength separation or over 25 THz in frequency difference. The terahertz (THz) generation by photomixing of dual-wavelength ECLs is also discussed in this study.

  13. Ultracold Molecules in Crystals of Light: A Highly Tunable System for Exploring Novel Materials, Quantum Dynamics, and Quantum Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln; Maeda, Kenji; Wall, Michael L.

    2015-03-01

    Ultracold molecules trapped in optical lattices present a new regime of physical chemistry and a new state of matter: complex dipolar matter. Such systems open up the prospect of tunable quantum complexity. We present models for the quantum many-body statics and dynamics of present experiments on polar bi-alkali dimer molecules. We are developing Hamiltonians and simulations for upcoming experiments on dimers beyond the alkali metals, including biologically and chemically important naturally occurring free radicals like the hydroxyl free radical (OH), as well as symmetric top polyatomic molecules like methyl fluoride (CH3F). These systems offer surprising opportunities in modeling and design of new materials. For example, symmetric top polyatomics can be used to study quantum molecular magnets and quantum liquid crystals. We use matrix-product-state (MPS) algorithms, supplemented by exact diagonalization, variational, perturbative, and other approaches. MPS algorithms not only produce experimentally measurable quantum phase diagrams but also explore the dynamical interplay between internal and external degrees of freedom inherent in complex dipolar matter. We maintain open source code (openTEBD and openMPS) available freely and used widely. Funded by NSF and AFOSR.

  14. Gate-tunable superconducting quantum interference devices of PbS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Bum-Kyu; Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Lee, Soon-Gul; Yu, Dong; Doh, Yong-Joo

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and electrical transport properties of gate-tunable superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), made from a semiconducting PbS nanowire contacted with PbIn superconducting electrodes. With a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the nanohybrid SQUID, periodic oscillations of the critical current due to the flux quantization in SQUID are observed up to T = 4.0 K. A nonsinusoidal current-phase relationship is obtained as a function of temperature and gate voltage, which is consistent with a short and diffusive junction model.

  15. Tunable strength saddle-point contacts impact on quantum rings transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. J.; Diago-Cisneros, L.

    2016-09-01

    A particular subject of investigation is the role of several sadle-point contact (QPC) parameters on the scattering properties of an Aharonov-Bohm-Aharonov-Casher quantum ring (QR) under Rashba-type spin orbit interaction. We discuss the interplay of the conductance with the confinement strengths and height of the QPC, which yields new and tunable harmonic and non-harmonics patterns, while one manipulates these constriction parameters. This phenomenology may be of utility to implement a novel way to modulate spin interference effects in semiconducting QRs, providing an appealing test-platform for spintronics applications.

  16. Large and tunable negative refractive index via electromagnetically induced chirality in a semiconductor quantum well nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sh.-C.; Zhang, Sh.-Y.; Xu, Y.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    Large and tunable negative refractive index (NRI) via electromagnetically induced chirality is demonstrated in a semiconductor quantum wells (SQWs) nanostructure by using the reported experimental parameters in J.F. Dynes et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157403 (2005). It is found: the large and controllable NRI with alterable frequency regions is obtained when the coupling laser field and the relative phase are modulated, which will increase the flexibility and possibility of implementing NRI in the SQWs nanostructure. The scheme rooted in the experimental results may lead a new avenue to NRI material in solid-state nanostructure.

  17. Advances in Fabry-Perot and tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2017-05-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming mature infrared emitting devices that convert electrical power directly into optical power and generate laser radiation in the mid wave infrared (MWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) regions. These lasers operate at room temperature in the 3.5 μm to >12.0 μm region. QCLs operate at longer wavelengths into the terahertz region; however, these require some level of cryogenic cooling. Nonetheless, QCLs are the only solid-state sources that convert electrical power into optical power directly in these spectral regions. Three critical advances have contributed to the broad range of applications of QCLs, since their first demonstration in 1994 [1]. The first of these was the utilization of two phonon resonance for deexcitation of electrons from the lower lasing level [2]; the second is the utilization of epi-down mounting with hard solder of QCLs for practical applications [3]; and the third is the invention of nonresonant extraction for deexciting electrons from the lower laser level and simultaneously removing constraints on QCL structure design for extending high power room temperature operation to a broad range of wavelengths [4]. Although QCLs generate CW radiation at room temperature at wavelengths ranging from 3.5 μm to <12.0 μm, two spectral regions are very important for a broad range of applications. These are the first and the second atmospheric transmission windows from 3.5 μm to 5.0 μm and from 8.0 μm to 12.0 μm, respectively. Both of these windows (except for the spectral region near 4.2 μm, which is dominated by the infrared absorption from atmospheric carbon dioxide) are relatively free from atmospheric absorption and have a range of applications that involve long distance propagation.

  18. Effect of tunable dot charging on photoresponse spectra of GaAs p-i-n diode with InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Xiangjun; Yu, Ying; Li, Mifeng; Wang, Lijuan; Zha, Guowei; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Pettersson, Håkan

    2015-12-28

    Quantum dot (QD)-embedded photodiodes have demonstrated great potential for use as detectors. A modulation of QD charging opens intriguing possibilities for adaptive sensing with bias-tunable detector characteristics. Here, we report on a p-i-n GaAs photodiode with InAs QDs whose charging is tunable due to unintentional Be diffusion and trap-assisted tunneling of holes, from bias- and temperature (T)-dependent photocurrent spectroscopy. For the sub-bandgap spectra, the T-dependent relative intensities “QD-s/WL” and “WL/GaAs” (WL: wetting layer) indicate dominant tunneling under −0.9 V (trap-assisted tunneling from the top QDs) and dominant thermal escape under −0.2 ∼ 0.5 V (from the bottom QDs since the top ones are charged and inactive for optical absorption) from the QD s-state, dominant tunneling from WL, and enhanced QD charging at >190 K (related to trap level ionization). For the above-bandgap spectra, the degradation of the spectral profile (especially near the GaAs bandedge) as the bias and T tune (especially under −0.2 ∼ 0.2 V and at >190 K) can be explained well by the enhanced photoelectron capture in QDs with tunable charging. The dominant spectral profile with no degradation under 0.5 V is due to a saturated electron capture in charged QDs (i.e., charging neutralization). QD level simulation and schematic bandstructures can help one understand these effects.

  19. Broadly tunable high-power InAs/GaAs quantum-dot external cavity diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Ksenia A; Cataluna, Maria Ana; Krestnikov, Igor; Livshits, Daniil; Rafailov, Edik U

    2010-08-30

    A record broadly tunable high-power external cavity InAs/GaAs quantum-dot diode laser with a tuning range of 202 nm (1122 nm-1324 nm) is demonstrated. A maximum output power of 480 mW and a side-mode suppression ratio greater than 45 dB are achieved in the central part of the tuning range. We exploit a number of strategies for enhancing the tuning range of external cavity quantum-dot lasers. Different waveguide designs, laser configurations and operation conditions (pump current and temperature) are investigated for optimization of output power and tunability.

  20. Wavelength-tunable photoluminescence of ZnSe quantum dot micelles synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Feng, Guoying; Wang, Shutong; Dai, Jiangyun; Zhang, Yuqin; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2017-09-01

    Aqueous ZnSe quantum dots were synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in microfluidics (FLAM). Hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to form quantum dot micelles which exhibited wavelength-tunable photoluminescence of bright visible light with the variation of pH values. The emission was attributed to the radiative deep levels introduced by the defect states. The emission peak center exhibited a blue shift as much as 25 nm to the shorter band. A possible band gap expansion mechanism for the photoluminescence wavelength tunability was discussed.

  1. Laser absorption spectroscopy using lead salt and quantum cascade tunable lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou-Khales, Khosrow

    A new class of analytic instruments based on the detection of chemical species through their spectroscopic absorption 'fingerprint' is emerging based on the use of tunable semiconductor lasers as the excitation source. Advantages of this approach include compact device size, in-line measurement capability, and large signal-bandwidth product. To realize these advantages will require the marriage of laser devices with broad tunability in the infrared spectral range with sophisticated signal processing techniques. Currently, commercial devices based on short wavelength telecommunications type lasers exist but there is potential for much more versatile instruments based on longer wavelength operation. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part I present a theoretical analysis and experimental characterization of frequency and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using long wavelength infrared tunable lasers. The experimental measurements were carried out using commercially available lead salt lasers and excellent agreement is found between theoretically predicted performance and experimental verification. The lead salt laser has several important drawbacks as a source in practical instrumentation. In the second part of the thesis I report on the use of the quantum cascade (QC) laser for use in sensitive absorption spectroscopy. The QC laser is a new type of tunable device developed at Bell Laboratories. It features broad infrared tunability, single mode distributed feedback operation, and near room temperature lasing. Using the modulation techniques developed originally for the lead salt lasers, the QC laser was used to detect Nsb2O and other small molecules with absorption features near 8 mum wavelength. The noise equivalent absorption for our measurements was 5× 10sp{-5}/sqrt{Hz} which corresponds to a detection limit of ˜0.25 ppm-m/sqrt{Hz} for Nsb2O. The QC laser sensitivity was found to be limited by excess amplitude modulation in the detection

  2. Orbital-specific Tunability of Many-Body Effects in Bilayer Graphene by Gate Bias and Metal Contact

    PubMed Central

    Fukidome, Hirokazu; Kotsugi, Masato; Nagashio, Kosuke; Sato, Ryo; Ohkochi, Takuo; Itoh, Takashi; Toriumi, Akira; Suemitsu, Maki; Kinoshita, Toyohiko

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, a 2D crystal bonded by π and σ orbitals, possesses excellent electronic properties that are promising for next-generation optoelectronic device applications. For these a precise understanding of quasiparticle behaviour near the Dirac point (DP) is indispensable because the vanishing density of states (DOS) near the DP enhances many-body effects, such as excitonic effects and the Anderson orthogonality catastrophe (AOC) which occur through the interactions of many conduction electrons with holes. These effects renormalize band dispersion and DOS, and therefore affect device performance. For this reason, we have studied the impact of the excitonic effects and the AOC on graphene device performance by using X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy on an actual graphene transistor in operation. Our work shows that the excitonic effect and the AOC are tunable by gate bias or metal contacts, both of which alter the Fermi energy, and are orbital-specific. PMID:24429879

  3. Tunable-correlation phenomenon of single photons emitted from a self-assembled quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-02-01

    Deterministic single-photon source plays a key role in the quantum information technology. Thus, research on various properties of such kind of light source becomes a quite necessary task. In this work, we experimentally observe that the second-order correlation properties of single photons can be continuously tuned from pulsed excitation configuration to continuous-wave excitation configuration under the near resonant photoluminescence excitation. By increasing the power of pulsed excitation laser, the effective excitation time of quantum dot can be extended with assistance of the defect states, and more continuous-wave excitation characteristics will gradually appear in the second-order correlation functions. This abnormal power-induced tunable-correlation mechanism can affect the temporal property of the single-photon source but maintain its antibunching property.

  4. Optically injected InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser for tunable photonic microwave generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Raghunathan, Ravi; Schires, Kevin; Chan, Sze-Chun; Lester, Luke F; Grillot, Frédéric

    2016-03-15

    We present an experimental investigation on the period-one dynamics of an optically injected InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser as a photonic microwave source. It is shown that the microwave frequency of the quantum dot laser's period-one oscillation is continuously tunable through the adjustment of the frequency detuning. The microwave power is enhanced by increasing the injection strength providing that the operation is away from the Hopf bifurcation, whereas the second-harmonic distortion of the electrical signal is well reduced by increasing the detuning frequency. Both strong optical injection and high detuning frequency are favorable for obtaining a single sideband optical signal. In addition, particular period-one oscillation points of low sensitivity to the frequency detuning are found close to the Hopf bifurcation line.

  5. Magnetic breakdown and Landau level spectra of a tunable double-quantum-well Fermi surface

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Harff, N.E.; Lyo, S.K.; Klem, J.F.; Boebinger, G.S.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    By measuring longitudinal resistance, the authors map the Landau level spectra of double quantum wells as a function of both parallel (B{sub {parallel}}) and perpendicular (B{sub {perpendicular}}) magnetic fields. In this continuously tunable highly non-parabolic system, the cyclotron masses of the two Fermi surface orbits change in opposite directions with B{sub {parallel}}. This causes the two corresponding ladders of Landau levels formed at finite B{sub {perpendicular}} to exhibit multiple crossings. They also observe a third set of landau levels, independent of B{sub {parallel}}, which arise from magnetic breakdown of the Fermi surface. Both semiclassical and full quantum mechanical calculations show good agreement with the data.

  6. Tunable emission from InAs quantum dots gated with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth; Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Lai, Yiming; Badolato, Antonio; Vamivakas, Nick

    We demonstrate Stark shifted photo-luminescence from InAs quantum dots (QD) using an n-i-Schottky diode where graphene has been used as the Schottky barrier material. This hybrid photonic device is motivated by the need for tunable single photon sources with high flux and storage capabilities. Photonic crystal nanocavities decorated with a single QD provide a rich environment for coupling spins and photons, in addition to accessing cavity quantum electrodynamic physics. Methods currently used for electrically tuning the QD inside the cavity suffer from a loss of the cavity quality factor, or high leakage currents in the diode which impacts the spin-photon coupling of the device. Our measurements are a first step towards using a graphene flake to electrically tune the emission of a strongly coupled QD-cavity system. NSF Grant No. DMR-1309734.

  7. Room-temperature processing of CdSe quantum dots with tunable sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, So-Yeong; Jeong, Da-Woon; Lee, Chan-Gi; Kim, Bum-Sung; Park, Hyun-Su; Kim, Woo-Byoung

    2017-06-01

    In this work, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable sizes have been fabricated via photo-induced chemical etching at room temperature, and the related reaction mechanism was investigated. The surface of QDs was oxidized by the holes generated through photon irradiation of oxygen species, and the obtained oxide layer was dissolved in an aqueous solution of 3-amino-1-propanol (APOL) with an APOL:H2O volume ratio of 5:1. The generated electrons promoted QD surface interactions with amino groups, which ultimately passivated surface defects. The absorption and photoluminescence emission peaks of the produced QDs were clearly blue-shifted about 26 nm with increasing time, and the resulting quantum yield for an 8 h etched sample was increased from 20% to 26%, as compared to the initial sample.

  8. Solvent-Free Mechanosynthesis of Composition-Tunable Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Qi-Qi; Gao, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Lei; Shi, An-Ye; Sun, Chun-Lin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2017-03-24

    A facile and green mechanosynthesis strategy free of solvent and high reaction temperature was developed to fabricate highly emissive cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbX3) quantum dots (QDs). Their composition can be adjusted conveniently simply through mechanically milling/grinding stoichiometric combinations of raw reagents, thereby introducing a broad luminescence tunability of the product with adjustable wavelength, line width, and photoluminescence quantum yield. Desired CsPbX3 QDs "library" can thus be readily constructed in a way like assembling Lego building blocks. Hence, the method offered new avenues in the preparation of multicomponent cocrystals, adding one appealing apparatus to the tool box of perovskite-type QDs synthesis. Intriguingly, photoinduced dynamic study revealed the hole-transfer process of the as-prepared QDs toward electron donors, indicative of their potential in charge-transfer-based applications such as light-harvesting devices and photocatalysis.

  9. Electrically tunable quantum interfaces between photons and spin qubits in carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ze-Song; Hong, Fang-Yu

    2016-11-01

    We present a new scheme for quantum interfaces (QIs) to accomplish the interconversion of photonic qubits and spin qubits based on optomechanical resonators and the spin-orbit-induced interactions in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots (CNTQDs). This interface implements quantum spin transducers and further enables electrical manipulation of local electron spin qubits, which lays the foundation for all-electrical control of state transfer protocols between two distant quantum nodes in a quantum network. We numerically evaluate the state transfer processes and proceed to estimate the effect of each coupling strength on the operation fidelities. The simulation suggests that high operation fidelities are obtainable under realistic experimental conditions.

  10. Tunable Spin-orbit Coupling and Quantum Phase Transition in a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongping; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2013-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC), the intrinsic interaction between a particle spin and its motion, is responsible for various important phenomena, ranging from atomic fine structure to topological condensed matter physics. The recent experimental breakthrough on the realization of SOC for ultra-cold atoms provides a completely new platform for exploring spin-orbit coupled superfluid physics. However, the SOC strength in the experiment is not tunable. In this report, we propose a scheme for tuning the SOC strength through a fast and coherent modulation of the laser intensities. We show that the many-body interaction between atoms, together with the tunable SOC, can drive a quantum phase transition (QPT) from spin-balanced to spin-polarized ground states in a harmonic trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), which resembles the long-sought Dicke QPT. We characterize the QPT using the periods of collective oscillations of the BEC, which show pronounced peaks and damping around the quantum critical point. PMID:23727689

  11. A Tunable Photoluminescent Composite of Cellulose Nanofibrils and CdS Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinwen; Tang, Aimin; Liu, Yuan; Fang, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shiyu

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of fluorescent nanocomposite materials with tunable emission wavelengths by combining cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with inorganic nanoparticles is important for promoting CNFs applications. A CNF/CdS nanocomposite was prepared via in situ compositing at room temperature on oxidized CNFs with CdS quantum dots. By controlling the –COOH/Cd2+ ratio on the CNF, the feeding time of Na2S and the ultrasonic maturing time, the size of the CdS quantum dots on the CNF surface could be adjusted so that to obtain the CNF/CdS nanocomposite material with different fluorescent colors. The results indicated that the CdS particles quantized were evenly distributed on the CNF. The maximum average size of the CdS nanoparticles glowed red under the excitation of UV light was 5.34 nm, which could be obtained with a –COOH/Cd2+ ratio of 1.0, a Na2S feeding time of 20 min, and an ultrasonic maturing time of 60 min. A series of CNF/CdS nanocomposite materials were obtained with CdS nanoparticle sizes varying from 3.44 nm to 5.34 nm, the emission wavelength of which varied from 546 nm to 655 nm, and their fluorescence color changed from green to yellow to red. This is the first time the fluorescence-tunable effect of the CNF/CdS nanocomposite has been realized. PMID:28335292

  12. Characterization and control of tunable quantum cascade laser beam parameters for stand-off spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Christopher A.; Papantonakis, Michael R.; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Infrared active stand-off detection techniques often employ high power tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) for target illumination. Due to the distances involved, any fluctuation of the laser beam direction and/or beam profile is amplified at the sample position. If not accounted for, this leads to diminished performance (both sensitivity and selectivity) of the detection technique as a direct result of uncertainties in laser irradiance at each imaged pixel of the sample. This is especially true for detection approaches which illuminate a relatively small footprint at the target since the laser beam profile spatial fluctuations are often comparable to the (focused) laser spot size. Also, there is often a necessary trade-off between high output QCL power and beam quality. Therefore, precise characterization of the laser beam profile and direction as a function of laser properties (tuning wavelength, current and operating mode: pulsed or CW) is imperative. We present detailed measurements of beam profiles, beam wander and power fluctuations and their reproducibility as function of laser wavelength and stand-off distance for a commercially available tunable quantum cascade laser. We present strategies for improving beam quality by compensating for fluctuations using a motorized mirror and a pair of motorized lenses. We also investigate QCL mode hops and how they affect laser beam properties at the sample. Detailed mode-hop stability maps were measured.

  13. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-12-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (~10-2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.

  14. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2015-12-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10(-2)). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications.

  15. High yield and ultrafast sources of electrically triggered entangled-photon pairs based on strain-tunable quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wildmann, Johannes S.; Ding, Fei; Trotta, Rinaldo; Huo, Yongheng; Zallo, Eugenio; Huber, Daniel; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered sources of entangled photon pairs are key components in most quantum communication protocols. For practical quantum applications, electrical triggering would allow the realization of compact and deterministic sources of entangled photons. Entangled-light-emitting-diodes based on semiconductor quantum dots are among the most promising sources that can potentially address this task. However, entangled-light-emitting-diodes are plagued by a source of randomness, which results in a very low probability of finding quantum dots with sufficiently small fine structure splitting for entangled-photon generation (∼10−2). Here we introduce strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes that exploit piezoelectric-induced strains to tune quantum dots for entangled-photon generation. We demonstrate that up to 30% of the quantum dots in strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emit polarization-entangled photons. An entanglement fidelity as high as 0.83 is achieved with fast temporal post selection. Driven at high speed, that is 400 MHz, strain-tunable entangled-light-emitting-diodes emerge as promising devices for high data-rate quantum applications. PMID:26621073

  16. Fabrication and Operation of Integrated Distributed Bragg Reflector Thermally Tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liwei

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) that emit in the mid-infrared (IR) range between 3 and 10 µm of the electromagnetic spectrum play an important role in optical gas sensing and molecular spectroscopic applications because several important environmental molecules such as CO, CO2, CH 4, and NH3 are known to exhibit strong absorption lines in this mid-IR range. To differentiate such fine absorption features as narrow as a few angstroms, a single-mode QCL with an extremely narrow spectral linewidth, broadly tunable over the molecular absorption fingerprints and operating at sufficient optical power at room temperature, is highly desirable. We present, in this dissertation, two major studies on mid-IR QCLs, one being an improvement in device performance through a buried-heterostructure (BH) regrowth study, and the other being a realization of single-mode, tunable QCLs integrated with a distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) grating and thermal tuning mechanism. Efficient heat dissipation in the QCL active region, which is crucial for high optical-power operation, can be effectively achieved using BH waveguides laterally embedded with InP grown by metal-organic chemical vapor disposition (MOCVD). We have experimentally examined the effects of the structural features of mesas, such as the mesa orientation, geometry, sidewall-etched profile, and the length of oxide overhang, on the BH regrowth. We find that the mesa oriented in the [011¯] direction with smoothly etched sidewalls produces a satisfactory planar growth profile and uniform lateral growth coverage and that a mesa-height-to-overhang-length ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 is effective in reducing anomalous growth in the vicinity of oxide edges. As a result, high-power QCLs capable of producing multi-hundred milliwatts at room temperature at ˜4.6 µm and ˜7.9 µm through reproducible BH regrowth results have been demonstrated. We have also demonstrated single-mode tunable QCLs operating at ˜7.9 µm with an

  17. Emission tunable, cyto/hemocompatible, near-IR-emitting Ag2S quantum dots by aqueous decomposition of DMSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocaoglu, Ibrahim; Demir, Fatma; Birer, Ozgur; Kiraz, Alper; Sevrin, Chantal; Grandfils, Christian; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2014-09-01

    Size tunable aqueous Ag2S quantum dots emitting in the near-infrared region were synthesized through decomposition of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in water. The resulting NIR QDs are highly cyto- and hemocompatible, have quantum yields as high as 6.5% and are effective optical imaging agents based on in vitro evaluation.Size tunable aqueous Ag2S quantum dots emitting in the near-infrared region were synthesized through decomposition of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in water. The resulting NIR QDs are highly cyto- and hemocompatible, have quantum yields as high as 6.5% and are effective optical imaging agents based on in vitro evaluation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02935f

  18. Synthesis of AgInS2 quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence for sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunqi; Zhai, Lanlan; Ma, Yahui; Zou, Chao; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Yun; Huang, Shaoming

    2017-02-01

    Synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) with high photoluminescence is critical for quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). A series of high quality AgInS2 QDs were synthesized under air circumstance by the organometallic high temperature method. Feature of tunable photoluminescence of AgInS2 QDs with long lifetime and quantum yields beyond 40% has been achieved, which was mainly attributed to the donor-acceptor pair recombination, contributed above 91% to the whole emission profiles. After ligand exchange with bifunctional linker, water-soluble AgInS2 QDs were adopted as light harvesters to fabricate QDSCs, achieved best PCE of 2.91% (short-circuit current density of 13.78 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage of 0.47 V, and fill factor of 45%) under one full sun illumination. The improved photovoltaic performance of AgInS2 QDs-based QDSCs is mainly originated from broadened optoelectronic response range up to ∼900 nm, and enhanced photoluminescence with long lifetime and high quantum yield beyond 40%, which provide strong photoresponse ∼40% over the window below 750 nm. The synthetic approach combined with intrinsic defects created by intentionally composition modulation introduces a new approach towards the goal of high performance QDSCs.

  19. Pauli Spin Blockade in a Highly Tunable Silicon Double Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Lai, N. S.; Lim, W. H.; Yang, C. H.; Zwanenburg, F. A.; Coish, W. A.; Qassemi, F.; Morello, A.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Double quantum dots are convenient solid-state platforms to encode quantum information. Two-electron spin states can be detected and manipulated using quantum selection rules based on the Pauli exclusion principle, leading to Pauli spin blockade of electron transport for triplet states. Coherent spin states would be optimally preserved in an environment free of nuclear spins, which is achievable in silicon by isotopic purification. Here we report on a deliberately engineered, gate-defined silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot system. The electron occupancy of each dot and the inter-dot tunnel coupling are independently tunable by electrostatic gates. At weak inter-dot coupling we clearly observe Pauli spin blockade and measure a large intra-dot singlet-triplet splitting > 1 meV. The leakage current in spin blockade has a peculiar magnetic field dependence, unrelated to electron-nuclear effects and consistent with the effect of spin-flip cotunneling processes. The results obtained here provide excellent prospects for realising singlet-triplet qubits. PMID:22355627

  20. Pauli spin blockade in a highly tunable silicon double quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Lai, N S; Lim, W H; Yang, C H; Zwanenburg, F A; Coish, W A; Qassemi, F; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2011-01-01

    Double quantum dots are convenient solid-state platforms to encode quantum information. Two-electron spin states can be detected and manipulated using quantum selection rules based on the Pauli exclusion principle, leading to Pauli spin blockade of electron transport for triplet states. Coherent spin states would be optimally preserved in an environment free of nuclear spins, which is achievable in silicon by isotopic purification. Here we report on a deliberately engineered, gate-defined silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot system. The electron occupancy of each dot and the inter-dot tunnel coupling are independently tunable by electrostatic gates. At weak inter-dot coupling we clearly observe Pauli spin blockade and measure a large intra-dot singlet-triplet splitting > 1 meV. The leakage current in spin blockade has a peculiar magnetic field dependence, unrelated to electron-nuclear effects and consistent with the effect of spin-flip cotunneling processes. The results obtained here provide excellent prospects for realising singlet-triplet qubits.

  1. Gate-tunable superconducting weak link and quantum point contact spectroscopy on a strontium titanate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Williams, James R.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems in gallium arsenide and graphene have enabled ground-breaking discoveries in condensed-matter physics, in part because they are easily modulated by voltages on nanopatterned gate electrodes. Electron systems at oxide interfaces hold a similarly large potential for fundamental studies of correlated electrons and novel device technologies, but typically have carrier densities too large to control by conventional gating techniques. Here we present a quantum transport study of a superconducting strontium titanate (STO) interface, enabled by a combination of electrolyte and metal-oxide gating. Our structure consists of two superconducting STO banks flanking a nanoscale STO weak link, which is tunable at low temperatures from insulating to superconducting behaviour by a local metallic gate. At low gate voltages, our device behaves as a quantum point contact that exhibits a minimum conductance plateau of e2/h in zero applied magnetic field, half the expected value for spin-degenerate electrons, but consistent with predictions and experimental signatures of a magnetically ordered ground state. The quantum point contact mediates tunnelling between normal and superconducting regions, enabling lateral tunnelling spectroscopy of the local superconducting state. Our work provides a generic scheme for quantum transport studies of STO and other surface electron liquids.

  2. Sign reversal of magnetization and tunable exchange bias field in NdCr1-xFexO3 (x=0.05-0.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Tribedi; Ravi, S.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetization reversal and tunable exchange bias behavior are observed in NdCr1-xFexO3 compounds for x=0.05-0.20. The magnetic compensation temperature (Tcomp) is found to increase with increase in Fe concentration and its maximum value is 198 K for x=0.15 sample. The observed magnetization reversal is explained by considering the competition between the weak ferromagnetic component of Cr3+ ions and the paramagnetic moments of Nd3+ and Fe3+ ions under the influence of negative internal magnetic field. The exchange anisotropy between the above two components of magnetic moments give rise to tunable positive and negative exchange bias fields. The sign reversal of exchange bias field also coincides with Tcomp. Bipolar switching of magnetization is demonstrated at T

  3. Optical injection of quantum dash semiconductor lasers at 1550nm for tunable photonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochet, M.; Naderi, N. A.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2011-02-01

    In this manuscript, we will theoretically compute and experimentally investigate the dynamics of an optically injected nanostructure laser as a function of the injection strength and the optical detuning frequency. A model describing the optically-injected semiconductor laser is derived in dimensionless format that accounts for the large nonlinear gain component associated with nanostructure semiconductor lasers through the gain coefficient's derivative with respect to perturbations in the carrier and photon density. The nonlinear gain (carrier) relaxation rate and gain compression coefficient account for the perturbation in the slave laser's photon density, and are theoretically shown to have a strong impact on the level of stability exhibited by the optically-injected laser. The theoretical model is experimentally verified through the optical-injection of a quantum-dash Fabry-Perot laser at an operating wavelength of 1550 nm. The quantum-dash laser's large damping rate and sufficiently small linewidth enhancement factor are observed to inhibit period-doubling and chaotic operation under zero frequency-detuning conditions. Additionally, the optically injected quantum-dash laser is found to exhibit a large period-one operational state as the injection strength and the detuning frequency are varied, resulting in a highly tunable microwave frequency in the coupled system's equilibrium state. The enhanced and undamped relaxation oscillations of the period-one state are discussed as a building block for tunable photonic oscillators in various RF photonics applications. Finally a path towards realizing an optically-injected diode laser with a THz resonance frequency will be reviewed.

  4. Electron Phase Shift at the Zero-Bias Anomaly of Quantum Point Contacts.

    PubMed

    Brun, B; Martins, F; Faniel, S; Hackens, B; Cavanna, A; Ulysse, C; Ouerghi, A; Gennser, U; Mailly, D; Simon, P; Huant, S; Bayot, V; Sanquer, M; Sellier, H

    2016-04-01

    The Kondo effect is the many-body screening of a local spin by a cloud of electrons at very low temperature. It has been proposed as an explanation of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum point contacts where interactions drive a spontaneous charge localization. However, the Kondo origin of this anomaly remains under debate, and additional experimental evidence is necessary. Here we report on the first phase-sensitive measurement of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum point contacts using a scanning gate microscope to create an electronic interferometer. We observe an abrupt shift of the interference fringes by half a period in the bias range of the zero-bias anomaly, a behavior which cannot be reproduced by single-particle models. We instead relate it to the phase shift experienced by electrons scattering off a Kondo system. Our experiment therefore provides new evidence of this many-body effect in quantum point contacts.

  5. Macroscopic quantum tunnelling in a current biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Martinis, J.M.; Devoret, M.H.; Clarke, J.; Urbina, C.

    1984-11-01

    We discuss in this work an attempt to answer experimentally the question: do macroscopic variables obey quantum mechanics. More precisely, this experiment deals with the question of quantum-mechanical tunnelling of a macroscopic variable, a subject related to the famous Schrodinger's cat problem in the theory of measurement.

  6. Observation of resonance conductance in a quantum point contact with a tunable channel potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Chong-Shian; Hsiao, J. H.; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Chen, J. C.; Ueda, T.; Komiyama, S.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the resonance conductance of a quantum point contact (QPC), defined in a two-dimensional electron gas of a high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction. The potential profile of the QPC channel can be locally tuned by separately biasing the split gate and a cross gate, electrically isolated on the top of the QPC. The conductance, evolving with the cross-gate voltages exhibits an oscillatory feature superimposed on the quantized plateau in the positive bias voltages and a suppression of the plateau in negative bias voltages. Our investigation suggests that the oscillations on the conductance result from the longitudinal resonance through the channel. The governing parameters of the resonance are the aspect ratio of the channel and the Fermi wavelength of the incident electrons.

  7. Widely tunable Sampled Grating Distributed Bragg Reflector Quantum Cascade laser for gas spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Abdou Salam

    Since the advent of semiconductor lasers, the development of tunable laser sources has been subject of many efforts in industry and academia arenas. This interest towards broadly tunable lasers is mainly due to the great promise they have in many applications ranging from telecommunication, to environmental science and homeland security, just to name a few. After the first demonstration of quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the early nineties, QCL has experienced a rapid development, so much so that QCLs are now the most reliable and efficient laser source in the Mid-IR range covering between 3 microm to 30 microm region of the electromagnetic spectrum. QCLs have almost all the desirable characteristics of a laser for spectroscopy applications such as narrow spectral linewidth ideal for high selectivity measurement, high power enabling high sensitivity sensing and more importantly they emit in the finger-print region of most of the trace gases and large molecules. The need for widely tunable QCLs is now more pressing than ever before. A single mode quantum cascade laser (QCL) such as a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL, is an ideal light source for gas sensing in the MIR wavelength range. Despite their performance and reliability, DFB QCLs are limited by their relatively narrow wavelength tuning range determined by the thermal rollover of the laser. An external cavity (EC) QCL, on the other hand, is a widely tunable laser source, and so far is the choice mid-infrared single frequency light sources for detecting multiple species/large molecules. However, EC QCLs can be complex, bulky and expensive. In the quest for finding alternative broadly wavelength tunable sources in the mid-infrared, many monolithic tunable QCLs are recently proposed and fabricated, including SG-DBR, DFB-Arrays, Slot-hole etc. and they are all of potentially of interest as a candidate for multi-gas sensing and monitoring applications, due to their large tuning range (>50 cm-1), and potentially low

  8. Observation of tunable exchange bias in Sr2YbRuO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Tomy, C. V.; Grover, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    The double perovskite compound, Sr2YbRuO6, displays reversal in the orientation of magnetic moments along with negative magnetization due to an underlying magnetic compensation phenomenon. The exchange bias (EB) field below the compensation temperature could be the usual negative or the positive depending on the initial cooling field. This EB attribute has the potential of getting tuned in a preselected manner, as the positive EB field is seen to crossover from positive to negative value above Tcomp.

  9. Permanent-Magnet Free Biasing of MR Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Sean; Dasilva, Fabio; Pappas, David

    2007-03-01

    Exchange coupling^1 has been previously observed in a trilayer structure of ferromagnet (FM)/non-magnetic/antiferromagnet (AFM) and the exchange bias was found to be a function of the thickness of the buffer layer.^2,3,4 This unique coupling is used as a stabilizing bias for the sense layer with the additional ability to tailor the magnetic gain of the sensor for various applications. The elimination of permanent magnet bias results in the elimination of one patterning and one deposition step. Ruthenium (Ru) is used as the buffer layer and is self aligned with the FM and AFM layers and the thickness is varied to change the slope of the transfer curve in the linear region. Sensor devices are fabricated with a bipolar output, a medium sensitivity, and a wide field range. The results show that this biasing scheme is well suited for barber pole and soft adjacent layer (SAL) anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) stripes used in magnetic field sensors with a FM layer of Permalloy (NiFe) and an AFM layer of Iridium-Manganese (IrMn). Applications include a 256 channel read head used for magnetic forensics. 1N.J. Gokemeijer, T. Ambrose, C.L. Chien, N. Wang and K.K. Fung, J. Appl. Phys. 81 (8), 4999, 15 April 1997. 2W.H. Meiklejohn and C.P. Bean, Phys. Rev. 102, 1413 1956; 105, 904, 1957. 3L. Thomas, A.J. Kellock and S.S.P. Parkin, J. Appl. Phys. 87 (9), 5061, 1 May 2000. 4D. Wang, J. Daughton, C. Nordman, P. Eames and J. Fink, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 2006.

  10. Tunable WDM sampling pulse streams using a spatial phase modulator in a biased pulse shaper.

    PubMed

    Sinefeld, David; Shayovitz, Dror; Golani, Ori; Marom, Dan M

    2014-02-01

    We generate transform-limited WDM optical sampling pulse bursts by filtering ultrashort pulses from a mode-locked laser. A phase spatial light modulator (SLM) is used in a biased pulse shaper to circumvent the need to modulate with 2π phase wraps, which are known to limit the phase response. The arrangement compresses and retimes user-selectable bandwidths from the optical short pulse source with precise control of pulse bandwidth, pulse stream rates, and duty cycle.

  11. Tunable transmission of quantum Hall edge channels with full degeneracy lifting in split-gated graphene devices.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katrin; Jordan, Anna; Gay, Frédéric; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Han, Zheng; Bouchiat, Vincent; Sellier, Hermann; Sacépé, Benjamin

    2017-04-13

    Charge carriers in the quantum Hall regime propagate via one-dimensional conducting channels that form along the edges of a two-dimensional electron gas. Controlling their transmission through a gate-tunable constriction, also called quantum point contact, is fundamental for many coherent transport experiments. However, in graphene, tailoring a constriction with electrostatic gates remains challenging due to the formation of p-n junctions below gate electrodes along which electron and hole edge channels co-propagate and mix, short circuiting the constriction. Here we show that this electron-hole mixing is drastically reduced in high-mobility graphene van der Waals heterostructures thanks to the full degeneracy lifting of the Landau levels, enabling quantum point contact operation with full channel pinch-off. We demonstrate gate-tunable selective transmission of integer and fractional quantum Hall edge channels through the quantum point contact. This gate control of edge channels opens the door to quantum Hall interferometry and electron quantum optics experiments in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes of graphene.

  12. Strain-tunable topological quantum phase transition in buckled honeycomb lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jia-An Cruz, Mack A. Dela; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Yang, Li

    2015-05-04

    Low-buckled silicene is a prototypical quantum spin Hall insulator with the topological quantum phase transition controlled by an out-of-plane electric field. We show that this field-induced electronic transition can be further tuned by an in-plane biaxial strain ε, owing to the curvature-dependent spin-orbit coupling (SOC): There is a Z{sub 2} = 1 topological insulator phase for biaxial strain |ε| smaller than 0.07, and the band gap can be tuned from 0.7 meV for ε=+0.07 up to 3.0 meV for ε=−0.07. First-principles calculations also show that the critical field strength E{sub c} can be tuned by more than 113%, with the absolute values nearly 10 times stronger than the theoretical predictions based on a tight-binding model. The buckling structure of the honeycomb lattice thus enhances the tunability of both the quantum phase transition and the SOC-induced band gap, which are crucial for the design of topological field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials.

  13. Blue Phosphorene Oxide: Strain-Tunable Quantum Phase Transitions and Novel 2D Emergent Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liyan; Wang, Shan-Shan; Guan, Shan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Guibin; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2016-10-01

    Tunable quantum phase transitions and novel emergent fermions in solid state materials are fascinating subjects of research. Here, we propose a new stable two-dimensional (2D) material, the blue phosphorene oxide (BPO), which exhibits both. Based on first-principles calculations, we show that its equilibrium state is a narrow-bandgap semiconductor with three bands at low energy. Remarkably, a moderate strain can drive a semiconductor-to-semimetal quantum phase transition in BPO. At the critical transition point, the three bands cross at a single point at Fermi level, around which the quasiparticles are a novel type of 2D pseudospin-1 fermions. Going beyond the transition, the system becomes a symmetry-protected semimetal, for which the conduction and valence bands touch quadratically at a single Fermi point that is protected by symmetry, and the low-energy quasiparticles become another novel type of 2D double Weyl fermions. We construct effective models characterizing the phase transition and these novel emergent fermions, and we point out several exotic effects, including super Klein tunneling, supercollimation, and universal optical absorbance. Our result reveals BPO as an intriguing platform for the exploration of fundamental properties of quantum phase transitions and novel emergent fermions, and also suggests its great potential in nanoscale device applications.

  14. Tunable Fabrication of Molybdenum Disulfide Quantum Dots for Intracellular MicroRNA Detection and Multiphoton Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenhao; Dong, Haifeng; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Cao, Yu; Lu, Huiting; Ma, Xinlei; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-09-02

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) quantum dots (QDs) (size <10 nm) possess attractive new properties due to the quantum confinement and edge effects as graphene QDs. However, the synthesis and application of MoS2 QDs has not been investigated in great detail. Here, a facile and efficient approach for synthesis of controllable-size MoS2 QDs with excellent photoluminescence (PL) by using a sulfuric acid-assisted ultrasonic route is developed for this investigation. Various MoS2 structures including monolayer MoS2 flake, nanoporous MoS2 , and MoS2 QDs can be yielded by simply controlling the ultrasonic durations. Comprehensive microscopic and spectroscopic tools demonstrate that the MoS2 QDs have uniform lateral size and possess excellent excitation-independent blue PL. The as-generated MoS2 QDs show high quantum yield of 9.65%, long fluorescence lifetime of 4.66 ns, and good fluorescent stability over broad pH values from 4 to 10. Given the good intrinsic optical properties and large surface area combined with excellent physiological stability and biocompatibility, a MoS2 QDs-based intracellular microRNA imaging analysis system is successfully constructed. Importantly, the MoS2 QDs show good performance as multiphoton bioimaging labeling. The proposed synthesis strategy paves a new way for facile and efficient preparing MoS2 QDs with tunable-size for biomedical imaging and optoelectronic devices application.

  15. Tunable giant exchange bias in the single-phase rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics YM n12 -xF ex with highly homogenous intersublattice exchange coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuanhua; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Yinfeng; Liu, Shunquan; Du, Honglin; Han, Jingzhi; Wang, Changsheng; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Yang, Yingchang; Yang, Jinbo

    2017-08-01

    A tunable giant exchange bias effect is discovered in a family of bulk intermetallic compounds YM n12 -xF ex . Experimental data demonstrate that the exchange bias effect originates from global interactions among ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic sublattices but not the interfacial exchange coupling or inhomogeneous magnetic clusters. A giant exchange bias with a loop shift of up to 6.1 kOe has been observed in YM n4.4F e7.6 compound. In a narrow temperature range, the exchange bias field shows a sudden switching-off whereas the coercivity shows a sudden switching-on with increasing temperature. This unique feature indicates that the intersublattice exchange coupling is highly homogenous. Our theoretical calculations reveal this switching feature, which agrees very well with the experiments and provides insights into the physical underpinnings of the observed exchange bias and coercivity.

  16. External cavity tunable quantum cascade lasers and their applications to trace gas monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gottipaty N; Karpf, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Since the first quantum cascade laser (QCL) was demonstrated approximately 16 years ago, we have witnessed an explosion of interesting developments in QCL technology and QCL-based trace gas sensors. QCLs operate in the mid-IR region (3-24 μm) and can directly access the rotational vibrational bands of most molecular species and, therefore, are ideally suited for trace gas detection with high specificity and sensitivity. These sensors have applications in a wide range of fields, including environmental monitoring, atmospheric chemistry, medical diagnostics, homeland security, detection of explosive compounds, and industrial process control, to name a few. Tunable external cavity (EC)-QCLs in particular offer narrow linewidths, wide ranges of tunability, and stable power outputs, which open up new possibilities for sensor development. These features allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple species and the study of large molecules, free radicals, ions, and reaction kinetics. In this article, we review the current status of EC-QCLs and sensor developments based on them and speculate on possible future developments.

  17. Discrete frequency infrared microspectroscopy and imaging with a tunable quantum cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Matthew R.; Reddy, Rohith K.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Gelber, Matthew K.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared imaging (FT-IR) is a well-established modality but requires the acquisition of a spectrum over a large bandwidth, even in cases where only a few spectral features may be of interest. Discrete frequency infrared (DF-IR) methods are now emerging in which a small number of measurements may provide all the analytical information needed. The DF-IR approach is enabled by the development of new sources integrating frequency selection, in particular of tunable, narrow-bandwidth sources with enough power at each wavelength to successfully make absorption measurements. Here, we describe a DF-IR imaging microscope that uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a source. We present two configurations, one with an uncooled bolometer as a detector and another with a liquid nitrogen cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detector and compare their performance to a commercial FT-IR imaging instrument. We examine the consequences of the coherent properties of the beam with respect to imaging and compare these observations to simulations. Additionally, we demonstrate that the use of a tunable laser source represents a distinct advantage over broadband sources when using a small aperture (narrower than the wavelength of light) to perform high-quality point mapping. The two advances highlight the potential application areas for these emerging sources in IR microscopy and imaging. PMID:23113653

  18. Quantum size confinement in gallium selenide nanosheets: band gap tunability versus stability limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres-Penares, Daniel; Cros, Ana; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.

    2017-04-01

    Gallium selenide is one of the most promising candidates to extend the window of band gap values provided by existing two-dimensional semiconductors deep into the visible potentially reaching the ultraviolet. However, the tunability of its band gap by means of quantum confinement effects is still unknown, probably due to poor nanosheet stability. Here, we demonstrate that the optical band gap band of GaSe nanosheets can be tuned by ∼120 meV from bulk to 8 nm thick. The luminescent response of very thin nanosheets (<8 nm) is strongly quenched due to early oxidation. Oxidation favors the emergence of sharp material nanospikes at the surface attributable to strain relaxation. Simultaneously, incorporated oxygen progressively replaces selenium giving rise to Ga2O3, with a residual presence of Ga2Se3 that tends to desorb. These results are relevant for the development and design of visible/ultraviolet electronics and optoelectronics with tunable functionalities based on atomically thin GaSe.

  19. Discrete frequency infrared microspectroscopy and imaging with a tunable quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Kole, Matthew R; Reddy, Rohith K; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-12-04

    Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging is a well-established modality but requires the acquisition of a spectrum over a large bandwidth, even in cases where only a few spectral features may be of interest. Discrete frequency infrared (DF-IR) methods are now emerging in which a small number of measurements may provide all the analytical information needed. The DF-IR approach is enabled by the development of new sources integrating frequency selection, in particular of tunable, narrow-bandwidth sources with enough power at each wavelength to successfully make absorption measurements. Here, we describe a DF-IR imaging microscope that uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a source. We present two configurations, one with an uncooled bolometer as a detector and another with a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector and compare their performance to a commercial FT-IR imaging instrument. We examine the consequences of the coherent properties of the beam with respect to imaging and compare these observations to simulations. Additionally, we demonstrate that the use of a tunable laser source represents a distinct advantage over broadband sources when using a small aperture (narrower than the wavelength of light) to perform high-quality point mapping. The two advances highlight the potential application areas for these emerging sources in IR microscopy and imaging.

  20. Quantum size confinement in gallium selenide nanosheets: band gap tunability versus stability limitation.

    PubMed

    Andres-Penares, Daniel; Cros, Ana; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F

    2017-04-28

    Gallium selenide is one of the most promising candidates to extend the window of band gap values provided by existing two-dimensional semiconductors deep into the visible potentially reaching the ultraviolet. However, the tunability of its band gap by means of quantum confinement effects is still unknown, probably due to poor nanosheet stability. Here, we demonstrate that the optical band gap band of GaSe nanosheets can be tuned by ∼120 meV from bulk to 8 nm thick. The luminescent response of very thin nanosheets (<8 nm) is strongly quenched due to early oxidation. Oxidation favors the emergence of sharp material nanospikes at the surface attributable to strain relaxation. Simultaneously, incorporated oxygen progressively replaces selenium giving rise to Ga2O3, with a residual presence of Ga2Se3 that tends to desorb. These results are relevant for the development and design of visible/ultraviolet electronics and optoelectronics with tunable functionalities based on atomically thin GaSe.

  1. Injection-induced, tunable all-optical gating in a two-state quantum dot laser.

    PubMed

    Viktorov, E A; Dubinkin, I; Fedorov, N; Erneux, T; Tykalewicz, B; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Goulding, D; Kelleher, B

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a tunable all-optical gating phenomenon in a single-section quantum dot laser. The free-running operation of the device is emission from the excited state. Optical injection into the ground state of the material can induce a switch to emission from the ground state with complete suppression of the excited state. If the master laser is detuned from the ground-state emitting frequency, a periodic train of ground-state dropouts can be obtained. These dropouts act as gates for excited-state pulsations: during the dropout, the gate is opened and gain is made available for the excited state, and the gate is closed again when the dropout ends. Numerical simulations using a rate equation model are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  2. High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Slivken, S.; Sengupta, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-12-21

    Wide electrical tuning and high continuous output power is demonstrated from a single mode quantum cascade laser emitting at a wavelength near 4.8 μm. This is achieved in a space efficient manner by integrating an asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser with an optical amplifier. An initial demonstration of high peak power operation in pulsed mode is demonstrated first, with >5 W output over a 270 nm (113 cm{sup −1}) spectral range. Refinement of the geometry leads to continuous operation with a single mode spectral coverage of 300 nm (120 cm{sup −1}) and a maximum continuous power of 1.25 W. The output beam is shown to be nearly diffraction-limited, even at high amplifier current.

  3. A tunable bistable device based on a coupled quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle nanosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Liang, Shan; He, Meng-Dong; Chen, Li-Qun; Wang, Xin-Jun; Peng, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically propose a scheme of a tunable bistable device based on a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle nanosystem in the simultaneous presence of a strong pump laser and a weak probe laser with different frequencies. The results show that it is easy to turn on or off the optical bistable effect in such system by switching the polarization direction of the pump field, and the bistability thresholds are highly sensitive to the intensity, frequency, polarization direction of the pump field, and the interparticle distance. In addition, the nonlinear absorption in the two stable states exhibits a ratio as high as 104 arising from the three-photon effect, which implies that our nanosystem can also be used as an optical memory cell.

  4. Quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of chemically different atomic species with widely tunable interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jee Woo; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Santiago, Ibon; Tiecke, Tobias; Will, Sebastian; Ahmadi, Peyman; Zwierlein, Martin

    2012-06-01

    We have created a quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of ^23Na and ^40K with widely tunable interactions via broad interspecies Feshbach resonances. Over thirty Feshbach resonances between ^23Na and ^40K were identified, including p-wave multiplet resonances. The large and negative triplet background scattering length between ^23Na and ^40K causes a sharp enhancement of the fermion density in the presence of a Bose condensate. As explained via the asymptotic bound-state model (ABM), this strong background scattering leads to wide Feshbach resonances observed at low magnetic fields. Our work opens up the prospect to create chemically stable, fermionic ground state molecules of ^23Na--^40K where strong, long-range dipolar interactions would set the dominant energy scale.

  5. Quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of chemically different atomic species with widely tunable interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jee Woo; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Santiago, Ibon; Tiecke, Tobias; Ahmadi, Peyman; Zwierlein, Martin

    2012-02-01

    We have created a quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of 23Na and 40K with widely tunable interactions via broad interspecies Feshbach resonances. Twenty Feshbach resonances between 23Na and 40K were identified. The large and negative triplet background scattering length between 23Na and 40K causes a sharp enhancement of the fermion density in the presence of a Bose condensate. As explained via the asymptotic bound-state model (ABM), this strong background scattering leads to a series of wide Feshbach resonances observed at low magnetic fields. Our work opens up the prospect to create chemically stable, fermionic ground state molecules of 23Na-40K where strong, long-range dipolar interactions will set the dominant energy scale.

  6. Tunable amplified spontaneous emission in graphene quantum dots doped cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingxuan; Yang, Siwei; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Ding, Gu; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-03-20

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received great attention owing to their unique structure and novel phenomena of optical absorption/emission. In this letter, we observed the tunable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in GQDs doped cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) for the first time. The GQDs are dispersed in CLC homogeneously with the weight ratio of 0.5 wt%. Under optical excitation, a typical ASE is triggered in the system above a 1.25 mJ/cm2 threshold. In addition, the emission peak at the long wavelength edge of the photonic bandgap shifts from 662 nm to 669 nm with the change of working temperature. Combining the GQDs gain material and the self-assembled CLC resonator has great potential in fabricating ASE source and laser devices with advantages of low cost, simple preparation and photostability, and non-toxicity.

  7. Using a Superconducting Resonator with Frequency-Compensated Tunable Coupling to Transfer a Quantum State Deterministically and Directly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, James; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; O'Malley, P.; Vainsencher, A.; White, T.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neeley, M.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Martinis, John M.

    Deterministic direct quantum state transfer between devices on different chips requires the ability to transfer quantum states between traveling qubits and fixed logic qubits. Reflections must be minimized to avoid energy loss and phase interference; this requires tunable coupling to an inter-chip line while the two devices are at equal frequencies. To achieve this, we use a 6GHz superconducting coplanar resonator with tunable coupling to a 50 Ohm transmission line. We compensate for the resulting shift in resonator frequency by simultaneously tuning a second SQUID. We measure the device coherence and demonstrate the ability to release a single-frequency shaped pulse into the transmission line, efficiently capture a shaped pulse, and deterministically and directly transfer a quantum state.

  8. Tunable transport through a quantum dot chain with side-coupled Majorana bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Cui; Lu, Gang; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2014-09-14

    We investigate the transport properties of a quantum dot (QD) chain side-coupled to a pair of Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that the zero-bias conductance is tightly dependent on the parity of QD number. First, if a Majorana zero mode is introduced to couple to one QD of the odd-numbered QD structure, the zero-bias conductance is equal to (e{sup 2})/(2h) , but the zero-bias conductance will experience a valley-to-peak transition if the Majorana zero mode couples to the different QDs of the even-numbered QD structure. On the other hand, when the inter-MBS coupling is nonzero, the zero-bias conductance spectrum shows a peak in the odd-numbered QD structure, and in the even-numbered QD structure one conductance valley appears at the zero-bias limit. These results show the feasibility to manipulate the current in a multi-QD structure based on the QD-MBS coupling. Also, such a system can be a candidate for detecting the MBSs.

  9. Tunable transport through a quantum dot chain with side-coupled Majorana bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cui; Lu, Gang; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a quantum dot (QD) chain side-coupled to a pair of Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that the zero-bias conductance is tightly dependent on the parity of QD number. First, if a Majorana zero mode is introduced to couple to one QD of the odd-numbered QD structure, the zero-bias conductance is equal to e/22h, but the zero-bias conductance will experience a valley-to-peak transition if the Majorana zero mode couples to the different QDs of the even-numbered QD structure. On the other hand, when the inter-MBS coupling is nonzero, the zero-bias conductance spectrum shows a peak in the odd-numbered QD structure, and in the even-numbered QD structure one conductance valley appears at the zero-bias limit. These results show the feasibility to manipulate the current in a multi-QD structure based on the QD-MBS coupling. Also, such a system can be a candidate for detecting the MBSs.

  10. Tunable electron interactions and robust non-Abelian quantum Hall states in graphene and other Dirac materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanin, Dmitry

    2013-03-01

    Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect inspired a concept of quasiparticles with non-Abelian exchange statistics. However, a major limitation for experimental studies of non-Abelian quasiparticles in traditional GaAs-based 2d systems is their lack of tunability: the effective electron interactions in such systems are fixed at values which make non-Abelian states either absent of very fragile. Therefore it is desirable to find alternative, tunable 2d systems that host robust non-Abelian quantum Hall states. In this talk, we will discuss the phase diagram of fractional quantum Hall states in recently discovered 2d Dirac materials (graphene, bilayer graphene, topological insulators). We will show that the effective interactions in these materials can be naturally tuned in a broad range, in contrast to GaAs. This tunability is achieved by external fields that control the mass gap of Dirac fermions. Alternatively, the effective interactions can be controlled by engineering the dielectric environment of the 2d Dirac electron gas. We will demonstrate that the tunability of interactions in Dirac materials allows one to stabilize non-Abelian states, as well as to drive phase transitions between various correlated phases (quantum Hall states, Fermi-liquid-like states, and states with broken translational symmetry) in a controlled manner. Connecting to experiments, we will argue that a very promising candidate material for tuning interactions and stabilizing non-Abelian states is bilayer graphene, where the gap can be naturally controlled by perpendicular electric field. Our study provides a realistic route towards engineering robust fractional and non-Abelian quantum Hall states in graphene and other Dirac materials. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect inspired a concept of quasiparticles with non-Abelian exchange statistics. However, a major limitation for experimental studies of non

  11. Tunable coupling in circuit quantum electrodynamics using a superconducting charge qubit with a V-shaped energy level diagram.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S J; Hoffman, A J; Gambetta, J M; Houck, A A

    2011-02-25

    We introduce a new type of superconducting charge qubit that has a V-shaped energy spectrum and uses quantum interference to provide independently tunable qubit energy and coherent coupling to a superconducting cavity. Dynamic access to the strong coupling regime is demonstrated by tuning the coupling strength from less than 200 kHz to greater than 40 MHz. This tunable coupling can be used to protect the qubit from cavity-induced relaxation and avoid unwanted qubit-qubit interactions in a multiqubit system. © 2011 American Physical Society

  12. Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-02-04

    A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 μm). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

  13. Tunable Surface Structuration of Silicon by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching with Pt Nanoparticles under Electrochemical Bias.

    PubMed

    Torralba, Encarnación; Le Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphaël; Magnin, Vincent; Harari, Joseph; Halbwax, Mathieu; Vilcot, Jean-Pierre; Cachet-Vivier, Christine; Bastide, Stéphane

    2016-11-16

    An in-depth study of metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of p-type c-Si in HF/H2O2 aqueous solutions using Pt nanoparticles as catalysts is presented. Combination of cyclic voltammetry, open circuit measurements, chronoamperometry, impedance spectroscopy, and 2D band bending modeling of the metal/semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces at the nanoscale and under different etching conditions allows gaining physical insights into this system. Additionally, in an attempt to mimic the etching conditions, the modeling has been performed with a positively biased nanoparticle buried in the Si substrate. Following these findings, the application of an external polarization during etching is introduced as a novel efficient approach for achieving straightforward control of the pore morphology by acting upon the band bending at the Si/electrolyte junction. In this way, nanostructures ranging from straight mesopores to cone-shaped macropores are obtained as the Si sample is biased from negative to positive potentials. Remarkably, macroscopic cone-shaped pores in the 1-5 μm size range with a high aspect ratio (L/W ∼ 1.6) are obtained by this method. This morphology leads to a reduction of the surface reflectance below 5% over the entire VIS-NIR domain, which outperforms macrostructures made by state of the art texturization techniques for Si solar cells.

  14. Quantum spin-quantum anomalous Hall effect with tunable edge states in Sb monolayer-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Jiayong; Xue, Yang; Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Huisheng; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Zhongqin

    2016-12-01

    A novel topological insulator with tunable edge states, called a quantum spin-quantum anomalous Hall (QSQAH) insulator, is predicted in a heterostructure of a hydrogenated Sb (S b2H ) monolayer on a LaFe O3 substrate by using ab initio methods. The substrate induces a drastic staggered exchange field in the S b2H film, which plays an important role to generate the QSQAH effect. A topologically nontrivial band gap (up to 35 meV) is opened by Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which can be enlarged by strain and an electric field. To understand the underlying physical mechanism of the QSQAH effect, a tight-binding model based on px and py orbitals is constructed. With the model, the exotic behaviors of the edge states in the heterostructure are investigated. Dissipationless chiral charge edge states related to one valley are found to emerge along both sides of the sample, whereas low-dissipation spin edge states related to the other valley flow only along one side of the sample. These edge states can be tuned flexibly by polarization-sensitive photoluminescence controls and/or chemical edge modifications. Such flexible manipulations of the charge, spin, and valley degrees of freedom provide a promising route towards applications in electronics, spintronics, and valleytronics.

  15. Quantum light emission of two lateral tunnel-coupled (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots controlled by a tunable static electric field.

    PubMed

    Beirne, G J; Hermannstädter, C; Wang, L; Rastelli, A; Schmidt, O G; Michler, P

    2006-04-07

    Lateral quantum coupling between two self-assembled (In,Ga)As quantum dots has been observed. Photon statistics measurements between the various excitonic and biexcitonic transitions of these lateral quantum dot molecules display strong antibunching confirming the presence of coupling. Furthermore, we observe an anomalous exciton Stark shift with respect to static electric field. A simple model indicates that the lateral coupling is due to electron tunneling between the dots when the ground states are in resonance. The electron probability can then be shifted to either dot and the system can be used to create a wavelength-tunable single-photon emitter by simply applying a voltage.

  16. Determination and Correction of Persistent Biases in Quantum Annealers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-25

    programmable parameters and their user-specified values. We applied the recalibration strategy to two D-Wave Two quantum annealers, one at NASA Ames...The quantum annealers used for this study are of the second generation of D-Wave devices, also called D-Wave Two2: one located at NASA Ames Research...Center in Moffett Field, California, (“ NASA device”), and another located at D-Wave Systems in Burnaby, Canada (“Burnaby device”). These consist of 64

  17. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.113601 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  18. Towards efficient and tunable generation of THz radiation from quantum dot based ultrafast photoconductive antennae (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetsky, Andrei; Fedorova, Ksenia A.; Bazieva, Natalia; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2016-10-01

    We present our recent results on CW and pulsed THz generation in quantum dot(QD) based photoconductive antennae(PCA) pumped by ultrafast and dual wavelength semiconductor lasers. QDPCA substrate incorporates InAs QDs in GaAs matrix, thus keeping semiconductor carrier mobility at higher levels that is typical for SI GaAs, while QDs themselves serve as lifetime shortening centres, allowing to achieve subpicosecond operation as in LT-GaAs. Thus, such substrates combine the advantages and lacking the disadvantages of GaAs and LT-GaAs, which are the most popular materials so far, and thus can be used for both CW and pulsed THz generation. Moreover, by changing QD size and mutual allocation, effective pump wavelengths can be tuned in the range between 0.9-1.3 μm, which is well beyond the GaAs energies, hence compact and relatively cheap ultrafast and narrow line double-wavelength semiconductor and fibre pump lasers can be used for pumping such antennae for both pulsed and CW THz generation. For double wavelength operation of semiconductor lasers, we implement either stacked double volume Bragg gratings, or double-Littrow configuration with two independent diffraction gratings to achieve tunability of the generated THz signal. High thermal tolerance of QD wafers allowed pumping single-gapped antennae with lasers producing up to 250 mW of CW optical power at simultaneous double wavelength operation and up to 1W average optical power in pulsed regime. We show these QD based antennae combined with such pump lasers to generate pulsed and CW THz radiation that is superlinearly proportional to pump power and bias applied to antenna.

  19. A frequency and sensitivity tunable microresonator array for high-speed quantum processor readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, J. D.; Swenson, L. J.; Volkmann, M. H.; Spear, P.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Bumble, B.; Bunyk, P.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Harris, R.; Hilton, J. P.; Hoskinson, E.; Johnson, M. W.; Kleinsasser, A.; Ladizinsky, E.; Lanting, T.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Tolkacheva, E.; Yao, J.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting microresonators have been successfully utilized as detection elements for a wide variety of applications. With multiplexing factors exceeding 1000 detectors per transmission line, they are the most scalable low-temperature detector technology demonstrated to date. For high-throughput applications, fewer detectors can be coupled to a single wire but utilize a larger per-detector bandwidth. For all existing designs, fluctuations in fabrication tolerances result in a non-uniform shift in resonance frequency and sensitivity, which ultimately limits the efficiency of bandwidth utilization. Here, we present the design, implementation, and initial characterization of a superconducting microresonator readout integrating two tunable inductances per detector. We demonstrate that these tuning elements provide independent control of both the detector frequency and sensitivity, allowing us to maximize the transmission line bandwidth utilization. Finally, we discuss the integration of these detectors in a multilayer fabrication stack for high-speed readout of the D-Wave quantum processor, highlighting the use of control and routing circuitry composed of single-flux-quantum loops to minimize the number of control wires at the lowest temperature stage.

  20. A frequency and sensitivity tunable microresonator array for high-speed quantum processor readout

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, J. D. Swenson, L. J.; Volkmann, M. H.; Spear, P.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Bunyk, P.; Harris, R.; Hilton, J. P.; Hoskinson, E.; Johnson, M. W.; Ladizinsky, E.; Lanting, T.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Tolkacheva, E.; Yao, J.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; and others

    2016-01-07

    Superconducting microresonators have been successfully utilized as detection elements for a wide variety of applications. With multiplexing factors exceeding 1000 detectors per transmission line, they are the most scalable low-temperature detector technology demonstrated to date. For high-throughput applications, fewer detectors can be coupled to a single wire but utilize a larger per-detector bandwidth. For all existing designs, fluctuations in fabrication tolerances result in a non-uniform shift in resonance frequency and sensitivity, which ultimately limits the efficiency of bandwidth utilization. Here, we present the design, implementation, and initial characterization of a superconducting microresonator readout integrating two tunable inductances per detector. We demonstrate that these tuning elements provide independent control of both the detector frequency and sensitivity, allowing us to maximize the transmission line bandwidth utilization. Finally, we discuss the integration of these detectors in a multilayer fabrication stack for high-speed readout of the D-Wave quantum processor, highlighting the use of control and routing circuitry composed of single-flux-quantum loops to minimize the number of control wires at the lowest temperature stage.

  1. Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Georg; Farrera, Pau; Albrecht, Boris; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Ho, Melvyn; Chavez, Matias; Teo, Colin; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We report on a single photon source with highly tunable photon shape based on a cold ensemble of Rubidium atoms. We follow the DLCZ scheme to implement an emissive quantum memory, which can be operated as a photon pair source with controllable delay. We find that the temporal wave shape of the emitted read photon can be precisely controlled by changing the shape of the driving read pulse. We generate photons with temporal durations varying over three orders of magnitude up to 10 μs without a significant change of the read-out efficiency. We prove the non-classicality of the emitted photons by measuring their antibunching, showing near single photon behavior at low excitation probabilities. We also show that the photons are emitted in a pure state by measuring unconditional autocorrelation functions. Finally, to demonstrate the usability of the source for realistic applications, we create ultra-long single photons with a rising exponential or doubly peaked time-bin wave shape which are important for several quantum information tasks. ICREA-Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Spain.

  2. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models.

    PubMed

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-30

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  3. Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Ravets, Sylvain; de Léséleuc, Sylvain; Macrì, Tommaso; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    Spin models are the prime example of simplified many-body Hamiltonians used to model complex, strongly correlated real-world materials. However, despite the simplified character of such models, their dynamics often cannot be simulated exactly on classical computers when the number of particles exceeds a few tens. For this reason, quantum simulation of spin Hamiltonians using the tools of atomic and molecular physics has become a very active field over the past years, using ultracold atoms or molecules in optical lattices, or trapped ions. All of these approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Here we report an alternative platform for the study of spin systems, using individual atoms trapped in tunable two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps with arbitrary geometries, where filling fractions range from 60 to 100 per cent. When excited to high-energy Rydberg D states, the atoms undergo strong interactions whose anisotropic character opens the way to simulating exotic matter. We illustrate the versatility of our system by studying the dynamics of a quantum Ising-like spin-1/2 system in a transverse field with up to 30 spins, for a variety of geometries in one and two dimensions, and for a wide range of interaction strengths. For geometries where the anisotropy is expected to have small effects on the dynamics, we find excellent agreement with ab initio simulations of the spin-1/2 system, while for strongly anisotropic situations the multilevel structure of the D states has a measurable influence. Our findings establish arrays of single Rydberg atoms as a versatile platform for the study of quantum magnetism.

  4. Magnetically tunable singlet-triplet spin qubit in a four-electron InGaAs coupled quantum dot

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, K. M.; Miguel-Sanchez, J.; Elzerman, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A pair of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots filled with two electrons can act as a singlet-triplet spin qubit that is robust against nuclear spin fluctuations as well as charge noise. This results in a T2* coherence time two orders of magnitude longer than that of a single electron, provided the qubit is operated at a particular “sweet spot” in gate voltage. However, at this fixed operating point the ground-state splitting can no longer be tuned into resonance with e.g. another qubit, limiting the options for coupling multiple qubits. Here, we propose using a four-electron coupled quantum dot to implement a singlet-triplet qubit that features a magnetically tunable level splitting. As a first step towards full experimental realization of this qubit design, we use optical spectroscopy to demonstrate the tunability of the four-electron singlet-triplet splitting in a moderate magnetic field. PMID:24177037

  5. Magnetically tunable singlet-triplet spin qubit in a four-electron InGaAs coupled quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, K. M.; Miguel-Sanchez, J.; Elzerman, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    A pair of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots filled with two electrons can act as a singlet-triplet spin qubit that is robust against nuclear spin fluctuations as well as charge noise. This results in a T2* coherence time two orders of magnitude longer than that of a single electron, provided the qubit is operated at a particular ``sweet spot'' in gate voltage. However, at this fixed operating point the ground-state splitting can no longer be tuned into resonance with e.g. another qubit, limiting the options for coupling multiple qubits. Here, we propose using a four-electron coupled quantum dot to implement a singlet-triplet qubit that features a magnetically tunable level splitting. As a first step towards full experimental realization of this qubit design, we use optical spectroscopy to demonstrate the tunability of the four-electron singlet-triplet splitting in a moderate magnetic field.

  6. High-Speed Widely-Tunable 90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 8:45am - 9...00am WB2 High-Speed Widely-Tunable >90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes Necmi Biyiklia. Ibrahim Kimukinb. Orhan ...Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. b Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. c Department of Electrical and Computer

  7. High sensitivity detection of NO2 employing cavity ringdown spectroscopy and an external cavity continuously tunable quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gottipaty N; Karpf, Andreas

    2010-09-10

    A trace gas sensor for the detection of nitrogen dioxide based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) and a continuous wave external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature has been designed, and its features and performance characteristics are reported. By measuring the ringdown times of the cavity at different concentrations of NO(2), we report a sensitivity of 1.2 ppb for the detection of NO(2) in Zero Air.

  8. Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, Roberto

    1986-01-01

    Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10.sup.12 protons per cm.sup.3 and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

  9. Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, R.

    1985-07-03

    Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10/sup 12/ protons per cm/sup 3/ and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F/sup +/ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

  10. Internal quantum efficiency and tunable colour temperature in monolithic white InGaN/GaN LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titkov, Ilya E.; Yadav, Amit; Zerova, Vera L.; Zulonas, Modestas; Tsatsulnikov, Andrey F.; Lundin, Wsevolod V.; Sakharov, Alexey V.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2014-03-01

    Internal Quantum Efficiency (IQE) of two-colour monolithic white light emitting diode (LED) was measured by temperature dependant electro-luminescence (TDEL) and analysed with modified rate equation based on ABC model. External, internal and injection efficiencies of blue and green quantum wells were analysed separately. Monolithic white LED contained one green InGaN QW and two blue QWs being separated by GaN barrier. This paper reports also the tunable behaviour of correlated colour temperature (CCT) in pulsed operation mode and effect of self-heating on device performance.

  11. Entanglement-based quantum key distribution with biased basis choice via free space.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Liang, Hao; Yin, Juan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Zhou, Fei; Wu, Yu-Ping; Ren, Ji-Gang; Li, Yu-Huai; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Yang, Tao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-11-04

    We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bob's basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.

  12. Magnetic field dependence of energy levels in biased bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-02-01

    Using the tight-binding approach, we study the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on the energy levels of hexagonal, triangular, and circular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We obtain the energy levels for AB (Bernal)-stacked BLG QDs in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). We find different regions in the spectrum of biased QDs with respect to the crossing point between the lowest-electron and -hole Landau levels of a biased BLG sheet. Those different regions correspond to electron states that are localized at the center, edge, or corner of the BLG QD. Quantum Hall corner states are found to be absent in circular BLG QDs. The spatial symmetry of the carrier density distribution is related to the symmetry of the confinement potential, the position of zigzag edges, and the presence or absence of interlayer inversion symmetry.

  13. Tunable symmetry breaking and helical edge transport in a graphene quantum spin Hall state.

    PubMed

    Young, A F; Sanchez-Yamagishi, J D; Hunt, B; Choi, S H; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Ashoori, R C; Jarillo-Herrero, P

    2014-01-23

    Low-dimensional electronic systems have traditionally been obtained by electrostatically confining electrons, either in heterostructures or in intrinsically nanoscale materials such as single molecules, nanowires and graphene. Recently, a new method has emerged with the recognition that symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases, which occur in systems with an energy gap to quasiparticle excitations (such as insulators or superconductors), can host robust surface states that remain gapless as long as the relevant global symmetry remains unbroken. The nature of the charge carriers in SPT surface states is intimately tied to the symmetry of the bulk, resulting in one- and two-dimensional electronic systems with novel properties. For example, time reversal symmetry endows the massless charge carriers on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator with helicity, fixing the orientation of their spin relative to their momentum. Weakly breaking this symmetry generates a gap on the surface, resulting in charge carriers with finite effective mass and exotic spin textures. Analogous manipulations have yet to be demonstrated in two-dimensional topological insulators, where the primary example of a SPT phase is the quantum spin Hall state. Here we demonstrate experimentally that charge-neutral monolayer graphene has a quantum spin Hall state when it is subjected to a very large magnetic field angled with respect to the graphene plane. In contrast to time-reversal-symmetric systems, this state is protected by a symmetry of planar spin rotations that emerges as electron spins in a half-filled Landau level are polarized by the large magnetic field. The properties of the resulting helical edge states can be modulated by balancing the applied field against an intrinsic antiferromagnetic instability, which tends to spontaneously break the spin-rotation symmetry. In the resulting canted antiferromagnetic state, we observe transport signatures of gapped edge states

  14. Tunable amplified spontaneous emission in graphene quantum dots doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Yang, Siwei; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Che, Yongli; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Ding, Guqiao; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-06-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received much research attention, because of their useful structure and optical absorption/emission. We report the tunable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in GQD-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), which to the best of our knowledge has not been previously observed. The GQDs are uniformly dispersed with a weight ratio of 0.5 wt.% in CLC. Under optical excitation, typical ASE is triggered in the system at pump energies greater than 1.25 mJ cm-2. The emission peak at the long wavelength edge of the photonic bandgap shifts from 662 to 669 nm, as the working temperature is increased from 50 to 90 °C. The preparation of the combined GQDs and CLC is simple and low-cost, and the resulting material is photostable and non-toxic. Combining the GQD gain material with the self-assembled CLC resonator has potential in the fabrication of ASE source and laser devices.

  15. Large Tunable Thermophase in Superconductor – Quantum Dot – Superconductor Josephson Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Kleeorin, Yaakov; Meir, Yigal; Giazotto, Francesco; Dubi, Yonatan

    2016-01-01

    In spite of extended efforts, detecting thermoelectric effects in superconductors has proven to be a challenging task, due to the inherent superconducting particle-hole symmetry. Here we present a theoretical study of an experimentally attainable Superconductor – Quantum Dot – Superconductor (SC-QD-SC) Josephson Junction. Using Keldysh Green’s functions we derive the exact thermo-phase and thermal response of the junction, and demonstrate that such a junction has highly tunable thermoelectric properties and a significant thermal response. The origin of these effects is the QD energy level placed between the SCs, which breaks particle-hole symmetry in a gradual manner, allowing, in the presence of a temperature gradient, for gate controlled appearance of a superconducting thermo-phase. This thermo-phase increases up to a maximal value of ±π/2 after which thermovoltage is expected to develop. Our calculations are performed in realistic parameter regimes, and we suggest an experimental setup which could be used to verify our predictions. PMID:27734919

  16. 3 Watt CW OPO tunable 604nm to 616nm for quantum optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Angus; Halfmann, Thomas; Mieth, Simon

    2012-06-01

    A continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (CW OPO) pumped by a fiber laser has been developed which emits up to 3 Watts of single longitudinal mode radiation tunable in the wavelength range 604nm to 616nm. The device is a modified version of the ``Argos'' Model 2400 commercial product by Lockheed Martin Aculight. A 15 Watt 1064nm fiber laser pumps a CW OPO based upon periodically-poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). A short section of the nonlinear crystal is poled to allow efficient intracavity sum frequency generation (SFG) between the OPO pump and signal wavelengths to generate orange radiation. The device can be coarsely tuned by matching the poling periods and temperature within the nonlinear crystal to phase-match both OPO and SFG processes simultaneously. Fine mode-hop-free tuning of the orange wavelength of up to 100GHz range can be achieved by applying a voltage to a PZT which tunes the pump laser. By similar intracavity conversion schemes, the system offers the potential of providing high power at wavelengths from 600nm to 1400nm in addition to the direct signal and idler wavelength ranges from 1400nm to 4630nm. Such capability comes without the complexity and reliability issues which are inherent in dye and Ti:Sapphire systems. Details of the OPO system performance and its use in quantum optics applications will be provided.

  17. Measurement of Broad Absorption Features Using a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

    2007-09-25

    We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm-1 range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 3-5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm-1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

  18. Broad band tunable quantum cascade lasers for stand-off detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkov, Borislav; Fuchs, Frank; Kaster, Jan M.; Yang, Quankui; Bronner, Wolfgang; Aidam, Rolf; Köhler, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    We present experimental results on a Quantum cascade laser (QC laser) embedded in an external cavity. These results were obtained with a broadly tunable laser exceeding 80 cm-1 covering a characteristic absorption band of trinitrotoluene (TNT). By combining the laser source with a high performance IR imager a stand-off detection setup based on multi- spectral MIR backscattering spectroscopy has been realized. With this technique TNT surface-contaminations of as low as 10 μg/cm2 could be detected on surfaces such as an aluminum-sheet and standard car paint. The contrast of the detection technique depends on the reflectance of the surface. A surface leading to mirror-like reflectance of the IR laser radiation leads to absorbance-like signatures of the TNT contamination, while surfaces showing high absorbance of the laser light may induce a contrast-reversal in the resulting image of the TNT coverage. This effect can be explained by a theoretical model for thin film coated substrates taking into account differences in the reflectance. Limitations and further work needed to explore the full potential of the IR backscattering technique are also discussed.

  19. Ultrasmall near-infrared Ag2Se quantum dots with tunable fluorescence for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-Ping; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2012-01-11

    A strategy is presented that involes coupling Na(2)SeO(3) reduction with the binding of silver ions and alanine in a quasi-biosystem to obtain ultrasmall, near-infrared Ag(2)Se quantum dots (QDs) with tunable fluorescence at 90 °C in aqueous solution. This strategy avoids high temperatures, high pressures, and organic solvents so that water-dispersible sub-3 nm Ag(2)Se QDs can be directly obtained. The photoluminescence of the Ag(2)Se QDs was size-dependent over a wavelength range from 700 to 820 nm, corresponding to sizes from 1.5 ± 0.4 to 2.4 ± 0.5 nm, with good monodispersity. The Ag(2)Se QDs are less cytotoxic than other nanomaterials used for similar applications. Furthermore, the NIR fluorescence of the Ag(2)Se QDs could penetrate through the abdominal cavity of a living nude mouse and could be detected on its back side, demonstrating the potential applications of these less toxic NIR Ag(2)Se QDs in bioimaging.

  20. Quantum anomalous Hall effect with field-tunable Chern number near Z2 topological critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Le Quy; Lin, Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Feng, Yuan Ping

    We study the practicability of achieving quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect with field-tunable Chern number in a magnetically doped, topologically trivial insulating thin film. Specifically in a candidate material, TlBi(S1-δSeδ)2, we demonstrate that the QAH phases with different Chern numbers can be achieved by means of tuning the exchange field strength or the sample thickness near the Z2 topological critical point. Our physics scenario successfully reduces the necessary exchange coupling strength for a targeted Chern number. This QAH mechanism differs from the traditional QAH picture with a magnetic topological insulating thin film, where the ``surface'' states must involve and sometimes complicate the realization issue. Furthermore, we find that a given Chern number can also be tuned by a perpendicular electric field, which naturally occurs when a substrate is present. High-Chern number QAH phase obtained from magnetically doped topological crystalline insulator thin films will also be discussed. Support by the Singapore National Research Foundation under NRF Award No. NRF-NRFF2013-03 is acknowledged.

  1. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  2. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael S.; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The “color” of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  3. Tunability of exchange bias in Ni@NiO core-shell nanoparticles obtained by sequential layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    D'Addato, Sergio; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Luches, Paola; Valeri, Sergio; Grillo, Vincenzo; Rotunno, Enzo; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Capetti, Elena; Ponti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Films of magnetic Ni@NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs, core diameter d ≅ 12 nm, nominal shell thickness variable between 0 and 6.5 nm) obtained with sequential layer deposition were investigated, to gain insight into the relationships between shell thickness/morphology, core-shell interface, and magnetic properties. Different values of NiO shell thickness ts could be obtained while keeping the Ni core size fixed, at variance with conventional oxidation procedures where the oxide shell is grown at the expense of the core. Chemical composition, morphology of the as-produced samples and structural features of the Ni/NiO interface were investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy) techniques, and related with results from magnetic measurements obtained with a superconducting quantum interference device. The effect of the shell thickness on the magnetic properties could be studied. The exchange bias (EB) field Hbias is small and almost constant for ts up to 1.6 nm; then it rapidly grows, with no sign of saturation. This behavior is clearly related to the morphology of the top NiO layer, and is mostly due to the thickness dependence of the NiO anisotropy constant. The ability to tune the EB effect by varying the thickness of the last NiO layer represents a step towards the rational design and synthesis of core–shell NPs with desired magnetic properties.

  4. Absorption and wavelength modulation spectroscopy of NO2 using a tunable, external cavity continuous wave quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2009-01-10

    The absorption spectra and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) of NO(2) using a tunable, external cavity CW quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature in the region of 1625 to 1645 cm(-1) are reported. The external cavity quantum cascade laser enabled us to record continuous absorption spectra of low concentrations of NO(2) over a broad range (approximately 16 cm(-1)), demonstrating the potential for simultaneously recording the complex spectra of multiple species. This capability allows the identification of a particular species of interest with high sensitivity and selectivity. The measured spectra are in excellent agreement with the spectra from the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database [J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005)]. We also conduct WMS for the first time using an external cavity quantum cascade laser, a technique that enhances the sensitivity of detection. By employing WMS, we could detect low-intensity absorption lines, which are not visible in the simple absorption spectra, and demonstrate a minimum detection limit at the 100 ppb level with a short-path absorption cell. Details of the tunable, external cavity quantum cascade laser system and its performance are discussed.

  5. Wavelength-tunable visible to near-infrared photoluminescence of carbon dots: the role of quantum confinement and surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Bidzard, Ashkan Momeni; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) with different size distributions and surface characteristics can exhibit good emission properties in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions, which can be applicable in optoelectronic devices as well as biomedical applications. Optical properties of colloidal C-QDs in distilled water at different concentrations produced using a method of alkali-assisted surfactant-free oxidation of cellulose acetate is presented. The structural and optical properties of colloidal C-QDs at different concentrations were investigated, with the aim of clarifying the main mechanisms of photoluminescence emissions. We observed a wide range of tunable visible to NIR emissions with good stability from the C-QD colloids at different applied excitation wavelengths. The colloids show dual emissions with maxima at ˜420 and 775 nm (blue and NIR emissions) when excited at the wavelength range near the energy gaps of the C-QDs. Moreover, by increasing the excitation wavelength, tunable visible emissions at the spectral range of 475 to 550 nm are observed. A detailed analysis of the results shows that the blue and NIR luminescence of colloidal C-QDs originate from the oxide-related surface effects whereas quantum confinement is the responsible mechanism for tunable visible emissions of the C-QD colloid.

  6. Coherent control in quantum transport: amplification, filtering and switching at finite bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thethi, Rajpal; Emary, Clive

    2017-06-01

    We consider coherent feedback control of quantum transport and focus on the application of simple controllers and the effects of a finite bias voltage. We show that simple single-parameter controllers can give rise to a range of useful effects such as amplification of changes in plant transmission, increased resolution of energy filtration, and the detection of differences between otherwise indistinguishable plants. We explore how these effects are impacted by the phase-averaging effects associated with finite bias and identify important voltage scales for the maintenance of the functionalities achieved through feedback control.

  7. The effect of thermal bias on the spin-state manipulation in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Song

    2014-10-01

    The control of the single electronic state in a quantum dot (QD) by magnetic field in the presence of thermal bias was investigated with a master equation method. Results show that the qubits for information processing can be realized by tuning the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field. In addition, the temperature difference between the source (S) and drain (D) leads, a thermal-spin effect, which is inevitable in practical devices, can also be counteracted with magnetic field. Our results have important implications for quantum information processing.

  8. Tunability of exchange bias in Ni@NiO core-shell nanoparticles obtained by sequential layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    D'Addato, Sergio; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Luches, Paola; ...

    2015-01-01

    Films of magnetic Ni@NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs, core diameter d ≅ 12 nm, nominal shell thickness variable between 0 and 6.5 nm) obtained with sequential layer deposition were investigated, to gain insight into the relationships between shell thickness/morphology, core-shell interface, and magnetic properties. Different values of NiO shell thickness ts could be obtained while keeping the Ni core size fixed, at variance with conventional oxidation procedures where the oxide shell is grown at the expense of the core. Chemical composition, morphology of the as-produced samples and structural features of the Ni/NiO interface were investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopymore » (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy) techniques, and related with results from magnetic measurements obtained with a superconducting quantum interference device. The effect of the shell thickness on the magnetic properties could be studied. The exchange bias (EB) field Hbias is small and almost constant for ts up to 1.6 nm; then it rapidly grows, with no sign of saturation. This behavior is clearly related to the morphology of the top NiO layer, and is mostly due to the thickness dependence of the NiO anisotropy constant. The ability to tune the EB effect by varying the thickness of the last NiO layer represents a step towards the rational design and synthesis of core–shell NPs with desired magnetic properties.« less

  9. Tunable Emission Wavelength Stacked InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots by Chemical Beam Epitaxy for Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ilahi, Bouraoui; Zribi, Jihene; Guillotte, Maxime; Arès, Richard; Aimez, Vincent; Morris, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We report on Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) growth of wavelength tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) based superluminescent diode’s active layer suitable for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The In-flush technique has been employed to fabricate QD with controllable heights, from 5 nm down to 2 nm, allowing a tunable emission band over 160 nm. The emission wavelength blueshift has been ensured by reducing both dots’ height and composition. A structure containing four vertically stacked height-engineered QDs have been fabricated, showing a room temperature broad emission band centered at 1.1 µm. The buried QD layers remain insensitive to the In-flush process of the subsequent layers, testifying the reliability of the process for broadband light sources required for high axial resolution OCT imaging. PMID:28773633

  10. Tunable Emission Wavelength Stacked InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots by Chemical Beam Epitaxy for Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ilahi, Bouraoui; Zribi, Jihene; Guillotte, Maxime; Arès, Richard; Aimez, Vincent; Morris, Denis

    2016-06-24

    We report on Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) growth of wavelength tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) based superluminescent diode's active layer suitable for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The In-flush technique has been employed to fabricate QD with controllable heights, from 5 nm down to 2 nm, allowing a tunable emission band over 160 nm. The emission wavelength blueshift has been ensured by reducing both dots' height and composition. A structure containing four vertically stacked height-engineered QDs have been fabricated, showing a room temperature broad emission band centered at 1.1 µm. The buried QD layers remain insensitive to the In-flush process of the subsequent layers, testifying the reliability of the process for broadband light sources required for high axial resolution OCT imaging.

  11. Zero-bias offsets in I-V characteristics of the staircase type quantum well infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutku, Ferhat; Erol, Ayse; Arikan, M. Cetin; Ergun, Yuksel

    2014-11-01

    In this work, observed zero-bias offsets in I-V characteristics and differences in J-V characteristics of staircase quantum well infrared photodetectors were investigated. Temperature and voltage sweep rate dependence of the zero-bias offsets were studied on mesa structures shaped in different diameters. Furthermore, effect of mesa diameter on J-V characteristics was investigated. The temperature, initial bias voltage and voltage sweep rate dependence of the zero-bias offsets were explained by a qualitative model, which is based on a RC equivalent circuit of the quantum well infrared photodetector.

  12. Detection and quantification of explosives and CWAs using a handheld widely tunable quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Erik R.; Haibach, Frederick G.; Mazurenko, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The requirements for standoff detection of Explosives and CWA/TICs on surfaces in the battlefield are challenging because of the low detection limits. The variety of targets, backgrounds and interferences increase the challenges. Infrared absorption spectroscopy with traditional infrared detection technologies, incandescent sources that offer broad wavelength range but poor spectral intensity, are particularly challenged in standoff applications because most photons are lost to the target, background and the environment. Using a brighter source for active infrared detection e.g. a widely-tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) source, provides sufficient spectral intensity to achieve the needed sensitivity and selectivity for explosives, CWAs, and TICs on surfaces. Specific detection of 1-10 μg/cm2 is achieved within seconds. CWAs, and TICs in vapor and aerosol form present a different challenge. Vapors and aerosols are present at low concentrations, so long pathlengths are required to achieve the desired sensitivity. The collimated output beam from the QCL simplifies multi-reflection cells for vapor detection while also enabling large standoff distances. Results obtained by the QCL system indicate that <1 ppm for vapors can be achieved with specificity in a measurement time of seconds, and the QCL system was successfully able to detect agents in the presence of interferents. QCLs provide additional capabilities for the dismounted warfighter. Given the relatively low power consumption, small package, and instant-on capability of the QCL, a handheld device can provide field teams with early detection of toxic agents and energetic materials in standoff, vapor, or aerosol form using a single technology and device which makes it attractive compared other technologies.

  13. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2015-10-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property—the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of {{q}\\text{e}} f as function of control parameters, where {{q}\\text{e}} is the electron charge and f is the frequency of modulation. In recent years, robust and accurate quantized charge pumps have been developed based on semiconductor quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers. These devices allow modulation of charge exchange rates between the dot and the leads over many orders of magnitude and enable trapping of a precise number of electrons far away from equilibrium with the leads. The corresponding non-adiabatic pumping protocols focus on understanding of separate parts of the pumping cycle associated with charge loading, capture and release. In this report we review realizations, models and metrology applications of quantized charge pumps based on tunable-barrier quantum dots.

  14. Demonstration of a Bias Tunable Quantum Dots-in-a-Well Focal Plane Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    infrared photodetectors ( QWIPs ) with various doping and impurities have produced FPAs capable of detection across much of the infrared spectrum from...mid-wave (4 lm) to very long-wave (24 lm +) [1,6–8]. Previous research in a hybrid between the QWIP and the QDIP, called the dot-in-a-well, or DWELL

  15. Bias-induced photoluminescence quenching of single colloidal quantum dots embedded in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Dorn, August; Nair, Gautham P; Bulović, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate reversible quenching of the photoluminescence from single CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots embedded in thin films of the molecular organic semiconductor N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD) in a layered device structure. Our analysis, based on current and charge carrier density, points toward field ionization as the dominant photoluminescence quenching mechanism. Blinking traces from individual quantum dots reveal that the photoluminescence amplitude decreases continuously as a function of increasing forward bias even at the single quantum dot level. In addition, we show that quantum dot photoluminescence is quenched by aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) in chloroform solutions as well as in thin solid films of Alq3 whereas TPD has little effect. This highlights the importance of chemical compatibility between semiconductor nanocrystals and surrounding organic semiconductors. Our study helps elucidate elementary interactions between quantum dots and organic semiconductors, knowledge needed for designing efficient quantum dot organic optoelectronic devices.

  16. Adaptive quantum well/dot IR photodetector with modulated optical bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Andrei; Sablon, Kimberly

    Low doping of optical nanostructures leads to a weak electron coupling to radiation, because the radiation is absorbed due to electron transitions in nanoblocks (quantum wells and dots). High doping levels strongly enhance the absorption, but lead to high dark current and high noise current. This tradeoff is inevitable in traditional detector design and with conventional operating regimes, because the radiation absorption and dark current are both proportional to the number of electrons in nanoblocks. To overcome limitations related to the tradeoff between IR absorption and dark current, we propose and study the ``nonequilibrium'' IR quantum well or quantum dot photodetectors with modulated optical bias. Here we present design of the detector and results of modelling of key detector characteristics, such as responsivity, operating time, and noise equivalent power.

  17. Self-consistent magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic quantum dot driven by a spin bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu, Z. B.; Jalil, M. B. A.; Tan, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    We present an iterative scheme which combines the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) for evaluating the quantum spin transport in a ferromagnetic quantum dot device and the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equation for modeling the magnetization dynamics of the dot. For a given initial magnetization, the spin polarization of current and the resulting spin torque in the dot are calculated using the NEGF formalism. The torque acts on the magnetic moment of the dot, and the resultant magnetization dynamics is obtained from the LL equation. The new value of the dot's magnetization is then used as an input for the next round of NEGF calculation, and the whole process is repeated iteratively. The spin torque is thus calculated self-consistently with the dynamics of the magnetic moment of the dot. We apply this self-consistent iterative scheme to study the magnetization dynamics in an exemplary quantum dot system with an induced spin bias in the leads under varying damping conditions.

  18. Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Lasers (EC-QCL): an application field for MOEMS based scanning gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahmann, Jan; Merten, André; Ostendorf, Ralf; Fontenot, Michael; Bleh, Daniela; Schenk, Harald; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    In situ process information in the chemical, pharmaceutical or food industry as well as emission monitoring, sensitive trace detection and biological sensing applications would increasingly rely on MIR-spectroscopic anal­ysis in the 3 μm - 12 μm wavelength range. However, cost effective, portable, low power consuming and fast spectrometers with a wide tuning range are not available so far. To provide these MIR-spectrometer properties, the combination of quantum cascade lasers with a MOEMS scanning grating as wavelength selective element in the external cavity is addressed to provide a very compact and fast tunable laser source for spectroscopic analysis.

  19. FILTER-INDUCED BIAS IN Lyα EMITTER SURVEYS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARD AND TUNABLE FILTERS. GRAN TELESCOPIO CANARIAS PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, J. A.; De Leo, M. A.; Cepa, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Verdugo, T.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2013-10-01

    Lyα emitter (LAE) surveys have successfully used the excess in a narrowband filter compared to a nearby broadband image to find candidates. However, the odd spectral energy distribution (SED) of LAEs combined with the instrumental profile has important effects on the properties of the candidate samples extracted from these surveys. We investigate the effect of the bandpass width and the transmission profile of the narrowband filters used for extracting LAE candidates at redshifts z ≅ 6.5 through Monte Carlo simulations, and we present pilot observations to test the performance of tunable filters to find LAEs and other emission-line candidates. We compare the samples obtained using a narrow ideal rectangular filter, the Subaru NB921 narrowband filter, and sweeping across a wavelength range using the ultra-narrow-band tunable filters of the instrument OSIRIS, installed at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We use this instrument for extracting LAE candidates from a small set of real observations. Broadband data from the Subaru, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer databases were used for fitting SEDs to calculate photometric redshifts and to identify interlopers. Narrowband surveys are very efficient in finding LAEs in large sky areas, but the samples obtained are not evenly distributed in redshift along the filter bandpass, and the number of LAEs with equivalent widths <60 Å can be underestimated. These biased results do not appear in samples obtained using ultra-narrow-band tunable filters. However, the field size of tunable filters is restricted because of the variation of the effective wavelength across the image. Thus, narrowband and ultra-narrow-band surveys are complementary strategies to investigate high-redshift LAEs.

  20. Influence of the Biasing Scheme on the Performance of Au/SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Thin Film Conductor/Ferroelectric Tunable Ring Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanKeuls, F. W.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Bohman, D. Y.; Miranda, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of gold/SrTio3 /LaAlO3 conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric side-coupled, tunable ring resonators at K-band frequencies is presented. The tunability of these rings arises from the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant (Er) of SrTiO 3 to changes in temperature and dc electric fields (E). We observed that the change in F-, which takes place by biasing the ring up to 450 V alters the effective dielectric constant (e-eff) of the circuit resulting in a 3k resonant frequency shift of nearly 12 % at 77 K. By applying a separate dc bias between the microstrip line and the ring, one can optimize their coupling to obtain bandstop resonators with unloaded quality factors (Q(sub o)) as high as 12,000. The 31 resonance was tuned from 15.75 to 17.41 GHz while keeping Q. above 768 over this range. The relevance of these results for practical microwave components will be discussed.

  1. Wide tunability and electron transfer in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well photodetector by magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. H.; Zhang, Bo; Luo, X. D.; Lu, Wei; Shen, X. C.

    2017-05-01

    One strategy for terahertz (THz) detection in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well photodetectors under the magnetic field is reported. The THz detection begins to operate after the normally empty hydrogenic donor ground states in the AlGaAs barriers become populated by electrons transferred from the GaAs wells. Through the Landau quantization arising from a perpendicular magnetic field, we achieved the electron transfer from subband Landau levels in the GaAs wells at liquid helium temperature when the magnetic field reaches a certain threshold. One detector based on this strategy exhibited a dramatic range of frequency tunability of 3.20-6.13 THz. Our photothermal ionization spectroscopy measurements show quantitative agreement with the theoretical calculation of intradonor transition energies, verifying the origin of the strongly enhanced frequency tunability from the Zeeman behavior of transferred electrons in the AlGaAs barriers. This finding is useful for exploring magneto-optical effects and realization of wide tunability in THz photodetectors.

  2. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Entanglement in the Middle Using Tunable Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.

  3. Carrier-induced fast wavelength switching in tunable V-cavity laser with quantum well intermixed tuning section.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; He, Jian-Jun; Liu, Neng; Dubowski, Jan J

    2015-10-05

    We report on the fast wavelength switching in V-cavity laser (VCL) with quantum well intermixed tuning section. The laser wavelength can be switched between 32 channels at 100 GHz spacing using a single electrode control. The fabrication process involves a quantum well intermixing (QWI) process using KrF laser irradiation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The tuning current is less than 40 mA, much lower than previously demonstrated tunable VCL based on electro-thermal-optic effect. The wavelength switching is also faster by three orders of magnitude. The dynamic switching characteristics between two channels with different numbers of intermediate channels are investigated. It shows that the switching time is about 1 ns between adjacent channels and increases up to 12 ns with increasing number of intermediate channels.

  4. Tunable localized surface plasmon resonances in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibiao, Zhang; Hong, Zhang; Xinlu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    The graphene/hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) hybrid structure has emerged to extend the performance of graphene-based devices. Here, we investigate the tunable plasmon in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structures. The analysis of optical response and field enhancement demonstrates that these systems exhibit a distinct quantum confinement effect for the collective oscillations. The intensity and frequency of the plasmon can be controlled by the barrier width and electrical doping. Moreover, the electron doping and the hole doping lead to very different results due to the asymmetric energy band. This graphene/h-BN hybrid structure may pave the way for future optoelectronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474207 and 11374217) and the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China (Grant No. 2014PY07).

  5. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Entanglement in the Middle Using Tunable Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.

  6. Tunable photoluminescence of self-assembled GeSi quantum dots by B{sup +} implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Shan; Ma, Yinjie; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin

    2014-06-21

    The layered GeSi quantum dots (QDs) are grown on (001) Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the as-grown GeSi quantum dots has obvious blue shift and enhancement after processed by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing. It is indicated that the blue shift is originated from the interdiffusion of Ge and Si at the interface between QDs and the surrounding matrix. The dependence of PL intensity on the excitation power shows that there are the nonradiative centers of shallow local energy levels from the point defects caused by the ion implantation, but not removed by the rapid thermal annealing. The tunable blue shift of the PL position from the 1300 nm to 1500 nm region may have significant application value in the optical communication.

  7. Bias voltage dependence of the electron spin depolarization in quantum wires in the quantum Hall regime detected by the resistively detected NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Chida, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Hashisaka, M.; Nakamura, S.; Machida, T.

    2013-12-04

    We performed the resistively-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (RDNMR) to study the electron spin polarization in the non-equilibrium quantum Hall regime. By measuring the Knight shift, we derive source-drain bias voltage dependence of the electron spin polarization in quantum wires. The electron spin polarization shows minimum value around the threshold voltage of the dynamic nuclear polarization.

  8. Wavelength tunable distributed Bragg reflector laser integrated with electro-absorption modulator by a combined method of selective area growth and quantum well intermixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lu; Cheng, Yuan-Bing; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Hon-Liang; Zhou, Fan; Bian, Jing; Wang, Bao-Jun; Zhu, Ning-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2008-03-01

    Wavelength tunable electro-absorption modulated distributed Bragg reflector lasers (TEMLs) are promising light source in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber communication system due to high modulation speed, small chirp, low drive voltage, compactness and fast wavelength tuning ability. Thus, increased the transmission capacity, the functionality and the flexibility are provided. Materials with bandgap difference as large as 250nm have been integrated on the same wafer by a combined technique of selective area growth (SAG) and quantum well intermixing (QWI), which supplies a flexible and controllable platform for the need of photonic integrated circuits (PIC). A TEML has been fabricated by this technique for the first time. The component has superior characteristics as following: threshold current of 37mA, output power of 3.5mW at 100mA injection and 0V modulator bias voltage, extinction ratio of more than 20 dB with modulator reverse voltage from 0V to 2V when coupled into a single mode fiber, and wavelength tuning range of 4.4nm covering 6 100-GHz WDM channels. A clearly open eye diagram is observed when the integrated EAM is driven with a 10-Gb/s electrical NRZ signal. A good transmission characteristic is exhibited with power penalties less than 2.2 dB at a bit error ratio (BER) of 10 -10 after 44.4 km standard fiber transmission.

  9. Tunable strong nonlinearity of a micromechanical beam embedded in a dc-superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    Ella, Lior Yuvaraj, D.; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal

    2015-01-07

    We present a study of the controllable nonlinear dynamics of a micromechanical beam coupled to a dc-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). The coupling between these systems places the modes of the beam in a highly nonlinear potential, whose shape can be altered by varying the bias current and applied flux of the SQUID. We detect the position of the beam by placing it in an optical cavity, which sets free the SQUID to be used solely for actuation. This enables us to probe the previously unexplored full parameter space of this device. We measure the frequency response of the beam and find that it displays a Duffing oscillator behavior which is periodic in the applied magnetic flux. To account for this, we develop a model based on the standard theory for SQUID dynamics. In addition, with the aim of understanding if the device can reach nonlinearity at the single phonon level, we use this model to show that the responsivity of the current circulating in the SQUID to the position of the beam can become divergent, with its magnitude limited only by noise. This suggests a direction for the generation of macroscopically distinguishable superposition states of the beam.

  10. Zero-bias anomalies in narrow tunnel junctions in the quantum Hall regime.

    PubMed

    Jiang, P; Chien, C-C; Yang, I; Kang, W; Baldwin, K W; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2010-12-10

    We report on the study of cleaved-edge-overgrown line junctions with a serendipitously created narrow opening in an otherwise thin, precise line barrier. Two sets of zero-bias anomalies are observed with an enhanced conductance for filling factors ν>1 and a strongly suppressed conductance for ν<1. A transition between the two behaviors is found near ν≈1. The zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) line shapes find explanation in Luttinger liquid models of tunneling between quantum Hall edge states. The ZBA for ν<1 occurs from strong backscattering induced by suppression of quasiparticle tunneling between the edge channels for the n=0 Landau levels. The ZBA for ν>1 arises from weak tunneling of quasiparticles between the n=1 edge channels.

  11. Tunable photoluminescence from nc-Si/a-SiNx:H quantum dot thin films prepared by ICP-CVD.

    PubMed

    Sain, Basudeb; Das, Debajyoti

    2013-03-21

    Intense visible photoluminescence (PL) tunable within 1.66-2.47 eV, under UV 325 nm excitation, was obtained from nanocrystalline silicon quantum dots (∼5.72-1.67 nm in diameter) embedded in amorphous silicon-nitride matrix (nc-Si/a-SiN(x):H) prepared in RF-ICPCVD (13.56 MHz) at substrate temperatures between 400 to 150 °C. The dominant component of PL, having a narrow band width of ∼0.16-0.45 eV, originates from quasi-direct band-to-band recombination due to quantum confinement effect (QCE) in the nanocrystalline silicon quantum dots (nc-Si QDs) of appropriate size; however, the contribution of defects arose at lower substrate temperatures leading to asymmetric broadening. Intense atomic hydrogen flux in high-density inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) provides a very high surface coverage, passivates well the nonradiative dangling bonds, and thereby favors the PL intensity. The average size of nc-Si QDs measured by HR-TEM appears consistent with similar estimates from Raman studies. The red shift of the Raman line and corresponding line broadening originates from the confinement of optical phonons within nc-Si QDs. Photoluminescence emerging from nc-Si/a-SiN(x):H quantum dots obtained from the low temperature and single-step plasma processing holds great promise for the fabrication of light-emitting devices and flexible flat panel displays.

  12. Tunable narrow emission in ZnS/CdS/ZnS quantum well structures prepared by aqueous route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Hitanshu; Kumari, Asha; Singh, Ragini Raj

    2017-07-01

    ZnS/CdS/ZnS quantum wells (QWs) with tunable narrow emission due to narrow size distribution were successfully synthesized by wet chemical method. QWs give high luminescence and hence important materials for recent nanotechnology applications such as optoelectronics and bioimaging. In this work we put forward a QW structure with extended potential barrier, where electron and holes are confining in the core of ZnS and ZnS/CdS QDs by creating a ZnS/CdS/ZnS potential well like structure. Multilayers break the continuity of structure, which gives the combined advantages of ZnS, CdS and ZnS/CdS. This well like structure of quantum dots gives highest possibility to confine the electron and holes inside core and enhance the optical properties with suitable shell thickness. Structural, morphological and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Quantum yield of these quantum dot structures was also measured.

  13. Photocurrent spectroscopy analysis of widely tunable negative-chirp quantum-well intermixed laser-modulator transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, G. B.; Raring, J. W.; Skogen, E. J.; Wang, C. S.; Coldren, L. A.

    2005-02-01

    High-speed laser-modulator transmitters fabricated using InGaAsP quantum-well intermixing exhibit negative chirp over a wavelength range of more than 30nm. Photocurrent spectroscopy is used to examine the multiple band edges in these devices. An exciton peak is found in the photocurrent data, and the evolution of the band edge as a function of quantum-well intermixing and applied bias voltage is revealed. The photocurrent data are then exploited to verify and explain the negative chirp characteristics of the wavelength-agile transmitters.

  14. Frequency and sensitivity tunable microresonator array for high-speed quantum processor readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskinson, Emile; Whittaker, J. D.; Swenson, L. J.; Volkmann, M. H.; Spear, P.; Altomare, F.; Berkley, A. J.; Bumble, B.; Bunyk, P.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Harris, R.; Hilton, J. P.; Johnson, M. W.; Kleinsasser, A.; Ladizinsky, E.; Lanting, T.; Oh, T.; Perminov, I.; Tolkacheva, E.; Yao, J.

    Frequency multiplexed arrays of superconducting microresonators have been used as detectors in a variety of applications. The degree of multiplexing achievable is limited by fabrication variation causing non-uniform shifts in resonator frequencies. We have designed, implemented and characterized a superconducting microresonator readout that incorporates two tunable inductances per detector, allowing independent control of each detector frequency and sensitivity. The tunable inductances are adjusted using on-chip programmable digital-to-analog flux converters, which are programmed with a scalable addressing scheme that requires few external lines.

  15. Bias field tunable magnetic configuration and magnetization dynamics in Ni80Fe20 nano-cross structures with varying arm length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, K.; Choudhury, S.; Mandal, R.; Barman, S.; Otani, Y.; Barman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ferromagnetic nano-cross structures promise exotic static magnetic configurations and very rich and tunable magnetization dynamics leading towards potential applications in magnetic logic and communication devices. Here, we report an experimental study of external magnetic field tunable static magnetic configurations and magnetization dynamics in Ni80Fe20 nano-cross structures with varying arm lengths (L). Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed a strong variation in the number of spin-wave (SW) modes and mode frequencies (f) with bias field magnitude (H). Simulated static magnetic configurations and SW mode profiles explain the rich variation of the SW spectra, including mode softening, mode crossover, mode splitting, and mode merging. Such variation of SW spectra is further modified by the size of the nano-cross. Remarkably, with decreasing arm length of nano-cross structures, the onion magnetization ground state becomes more stable. Calculated magnetostatic field distributions support the above observations and revealed the non-collective nature of the dynamics in closely packed nano-cross structures. The latter is useful for their possible applications in magnetic storage and memory devices.

  16. Quantum Spin Dynamics with Pairwise-Tunable, Long-Range Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-05

    contribution. Other Error Sources and Heating Effects. Apart from errors arising from multifrequency driving, there are other common error sources in cold ...scheme by explicit construction for several well- known spin models. nanophotonics | quantum matter | cold atoms | quantum many-body | quantum spin Quantum...disordered interactions can be realized by using multimode cavities (24). Recent demonstrations on coupling cold atoms to guided mode photons in

  17. Widely Tunable Mode-Hop-Free External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocki, Gerard; Curl, Robert F.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2010-01-01

    The external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) system is based on an optical configuration of the Littrow type. It is a room-temperature, continuous wave, widely tunable, mode-hop-free, mid-infrared, EC-QCL spectroscopic source. It has a single-mode tuning range of 155 cm(exp -1) (approximately equal to 8% of the center wavelength) with a maximum power of 11.1 mW and 182 cm(exp -1) (approximately equal to 15% of the center wavelength), and a maximum power of 50 mW as demonstrated for 5.3 micron and 8.4 micron EC-QCLs, respectively. This technology is particularly suitable for high-resolution spectroscopic applications, multi-species tracegas detection, and spectroscopic measurements of broadband absorbers. Wavelength tuning of EC-QCL spectroscopic source can be implemented by varying three independent parameters of the laser: (1) the optical length of the gain medium (which, in this case, is equivalent to QCL injection current modulation), (2) the length of the EC (which can be independently varied in the Rice EC-QCL setup), and (3) the angle of beam incidence at the diffraction grating (frequency tuning related directly to angular dispersion of the grating). All three mechanisms of frequency tuning have been demonstrated and are required to obtain a true mode-hop-free laser frequency tuning. The precise frequency tuning characteristics of the EC-QCL output have been characterized using a variety of diagnostic tools available at Rice University (e.g., a monochromator, FTIR spectrometer, and a Fabry-Perot spectrometer). Spectroscopic results were compared with available databases (such as HITRAN, PNNL, EPA, and NIST). These enable precision verification of complete spectral parameters of the EC-QCL, such as wavelength, tuning range, tuning characteristics, and line width. The output power of the EC-QCL is determined by the performance of the QC laser chip, its operating conditions, and parameters of the QC laser cavity such as mirror reflectivity or intracavity

  18. Remote explosive and chemical agent detection using broadly tunable mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy; Weida, Miles; Pushkarsky, Michael; Day, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Terrorists both with IEDs and suicide bombers are targeting civilian infrastructures such as transportation systems. Although explosive detection technologies exist and are used effectively in aviation, these technologies do not lend themselves well to protecting open architecture soft targets, as they are focused on a checkpoint form factor that limits throughput. However, remote detection of explosives and other chemicals would enable these kinds of targets to be protected without interrupting the flow of commerce. Tunable mid-IR laser technology offers the opportunity to detect explosives and other chemicals remotely and quickly. Most chemical compounds, including explosives, have their fundamental vibrational modes in the mid-infrared region (3 to 15μm). There are a variety of techniques that focus on examining interactions that have proven effective in the laboratory but could never work in the field due to complexity, size, reliability and cost. Daylight Solutions has solved these problems by integrating quantum cascade gain media into external tunable cavities. This has resulted in miniaturized, broadly tunable mid-IR laser sources. The laser sources have a capability to tune to +/- 5% of their center wavelength, which means they can sweep through an entire absorption spectrum to ensure very good detection and false alarm performance compared with fixed wavelength devices. These devices are also highly portable, operate at room temperature, and generate 10's to 100's of mW in optical power, in pulsed and continuous wave configurations. Daylight Solutions is in the process of developing a variety of standoff explosive and chemical weapon detection systems using this technology.

  19. An improved proposal on the practical quantum key distribution with biased basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chen-Chen; Li, Jian; Zhu, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-10-01

    In this manuscript, we propose an improved scheme on the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) under practical experimental conditions with biased basis. Compared with the standard decoy-state method with biased basis (prepare signal pulses in both X and Z basis with certain probabilities, and weak decoy pulses as well), the difference here is, we prepare signal pulses in both X and Z basis, but the weak decoy state in only X basis. In the follow-up, we adopt this scheme to conducting numerical simulations on the QKD with the mostly often used source, i.e., weak coherent source by taking statistical fluctuations into account. Furthermore, we carry out full parameter optimization on it. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that our new scheme can present a higher key generation rate and a longer transmission distance compared with standard three-intensity decoy-state method with biased basis. Moreover, it shows drastically improved performance by conducting full parameter optimization in our new scheme compared with partial optimization.

  20. Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Haizheng; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Xian-gang; Hu, Xiangmin; Huang, Hailong; Han, Junbo; Zou, Bingsuo; Dong, Yuping

    2015-04-28

    Organometal halide perovskites are inexpensive materials with desirable characteristics of color-tunable and narrow-band emissions for lighting and display technology, but they suffer from low photoluminescence quantum yields at low excitation fluencies. Here we developed a ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy to fabricate brightly luminescent and color-tunable colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) quantum dots with absolute quantum yield up to 70% at room temperature and low excitation fluencies. To illustrate the photoluminescence enhancements in these quantum dots, we conducted comprehensive composition and surface characterizations and determined the time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra. Comparisons between small-sized CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots (average diameter 3.3 nm) and corresponding micrometer-sized bulk particles (2-8 μm) suggest that the intense increased photoluminescence quantum yield originates from the increase of exciton binding energy due to size reduction as well as proper chemical passivations of the Br-rich surface. We further demonstrated wide-color gamut white-light-emitting diodes using green emissive CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots and red emissive K2SiF6:Mn(4+) as color converters, providing enhanced color quality for display technology. Moreover, colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 quantum dots are expected to exhibit interesting nanoscale excitonic properties and also have other potential applications in lasers, electroluminescence devices, and optical sensors.

  1. Tunable UV-visible absorption of SnS2 layered quantum dots produced by liquid phase exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao; Ilanchezhiyan, P; Mohan Kumar, G; Cho, Hak Dong; Zhang, Lei; Chan, A Sattar; Lee, Dong J; Panin, Gennady N; Kang, Tae Won

    2017-02-02

    4H-SnS2 layered crystals synthesized by a hydrothermal method were used to obtain via liquid phase exfoliation quantum dots (QDs), consisting of a single layer (SLQDs) or multiple layers (MLQDs). Systematic downshift of the peaks in the Raman spectra of crystals with a decrease in size was observed. The bandgap of layered QDs, estimated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and the tunneling current measurements using graphene probes, increases from 2.25 eV to 3.50 eV with decreasing size. 2-4 nm SLQDs, which are transparent in the visible region, show selective absorption and photosensitivity at wavelengths in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum while larger MLQDs (5-90 nm) exhibit a broad band absorption in the visible spectral region and the photoresponse under white light. The results show that the layered quantum dots obtained by liquid phase exfoliation exhibit well-controlled and regulated bandgap absorption in a wide tunable wavelength range. These novel layered quantum dots prepared using an inexpensive method of exfoliation and deposition from solution onto various substrates at room temperature can be used to create highly efficient visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors and multiple bandgap solar cells.

  2. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of single charge-tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dots emitting at telecom wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapienza, Luca; Al-Khuzheyri, Rima; Dada, Adetunmise; Griffiths, Andrew; Clarke, Edmund; Gerardot, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optical properties of single InAs/GaAs quantum dots emitting near the telecommunication O band, probed via Coulomb blockade and nonresonant photoluminescence spectroscopy, in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields. We extract the physical properties of the electron and hole wave functions, including the confinement energies, interaction energies, wave-function lengths, and g factors. For excitons, we measure the permanent dipole moment, polarizability, diamagnetic coefficient, and Zeeman splitting. The carriers are determined to be in the strong confinement regime. Large range electric field tunability, up to 7 meV, is demonstrated for excitons. We observe a large reduction, up to one order of magnitude, in the diamagnetic coefficient when rotating the magnetic field from Faraday to Voigt geometry due to the unique dot morphology. The complete spectroscopic characterization of the fundamental properties of long-wavelength dot-in-a-well structures provides insight for the applicability of quantum technologies based on quantum dots emitting at telecom wavelengths.

  3. High performance liquid chromatography with mid-infrared detection based on a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Beskers, Timo F; Brandstetter, Markus; Kuligowski, Julia; Quintás, Guillermo; Wilhelm, Manfred; Lendl, Bernhard

    2014-05-07

    This work introduces a tunable mid-infrared (mid-IR) external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) as a new molecular specific detector in liquid chromatography. An EC-QCL with a maximum tunability of 200 cm(-1) (1030-1230 cm(-1)) was coupled to isocratic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the separation of sugars with a cation exchange column (counter ion: Ca(2+)) and distilled water as the mobile phase. Transmission measurements in a 165 μm thick flow cell allowed for on-line coupling and independent quantification of glucose, fructose and sucrose in the concentration range from 5 mg mL(-1) to 100 mg mL(-1) in several beverages. The results obtained with the EC-QCL detector were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using a differential refractive index detector as a reference. The standard deviation of the method for the linear calibration was better than 5 mg mL(-1) for all sugars and reached a minimum of 1.9 mg mL(-1), while the DRI detector reached a minimum of 1 mg mL(-1). Besides the quantification of sugars for which a calibration was performed, also chromatographic peaks of other components could be identified on the basis of their IR absorption spectra. This includes taurine, ethanol, and sorbitol.

  4. Characterization of Wavelength-Tunable Quantum Dot External Cavity Laser for 1.3-µm-Waveband Coherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Sotobayashi, Hideyuki; Yoshioka, Yuki; Takai, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    A sandwiched sub-nano separator (SSNS) growth technique of producing high-density, high-quality InAs/InGaAs quantum dot (QD) structures on GaAs substrates is proposed. The SSNS technique achieved a density of 8.2 ×1010/cm2 by suppressing giant dot formation. The QD structures fabricated by the SSNS technique were used to form a ridge-type waveguide QD optical gain chip for O-band optical gain. With this chip, we successfully demonstrated the generation of a wavelength-tunable fine-tooth optical frequency comb in the O-band from a QD optical frequency comb laser (QD-CML), and synchronized short-optical-pulse generation (˜14 ps) with gigahertz-order repetition from a hybrid mode-locked QD-CML. We also successfully demonstrated a wavelength tunable QD-ECL with a wide wavelength tuning range (1265-1320 nm) and a narrow linewidth (210 kHz) in the O-band. It is expected that these QD coherent light sources will become attractive photonic devices for many scientific applications in the 1.0-1.3 µm waveband.

  5. Broadly continuously tunable slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Zeng, Yong Quan; Liang, Guozhen; Hu, Xiao Nan; Rodriguez, Etienne; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-09-14

    We report our progress in the development of broadly tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design. The electroluminescence spectrum of the continuum-to-continuum active region design has a full width at half maximum of 440 cm{sup −1} at center wavelength ∼10 μm at room temperature (300 K). Devices using the optimized slot waveguide structure and the continuum-to-continuum design can be tuned continuously with a lasing emission over 42 cm{sup −1}, from 9.74 to 10.16 μm, at room temperature by using only current tuning scheme, together with a side mode suppression ratio of above 15 dB within the whole tuning range.

  6. Bias-dependent conductive characteristics of individual GeSi quantum dots studied by conductive atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, R; Zhang, S L; Lin, J H; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2011-03-04

    The bias-dependent electrical characteristics of individual self-assembled GeSi quantum dots (QDs) are investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy. The results reveal that the conductive characteristics of QDs are strongly influenced by the applied bias. At low (-0.5 to - 2.0 V) and high (-2.5 to - 4.0 V) biases, the current distributions of individual GeSi QDs exhibit ring-like and disc-like characteristics respectively. The current of the QD's central part increases more quickly than that of the other parts as the bias magnitude increases. Histograms of the magnitude of the current on a number of QDs exhibit the same single-peak feature at low biases, and double- or three-peak features at high biases, where additional peaks appear at large-current locations. On the other hand, histograms of the magnitude of the current on the wetting layers exhibit the same single-peak feature for all biases. This indicates the conductive mechanism is significantly different for QDs and wetting layers. While the small-current peak of QDs can be attributed to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling model at low biases and the Schottky emission model at high biases respectively, the large-current peak(s) may be attributed to the discrete energy levels of QDs. The results suggest the conductive mechanisms of GeSi QDs can be regulated by the applied bias.

  7. Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter.

    PubMed

    Farahani, J N; Pohl, D W; Eisler, H-J; Hecht, B

    2005-07-01

    The interaction of a single quantum dot with a bowtie antenna is demonstrated for visible light. The antenna is generated at the apex of a Si3N4 atomic force microscopy tip by focused ion beam milling. When scanned over the quantum dot, its photoluminescence is enhanced while its excited-state lifetime is decreased. Our observations demonstrate that the relaxation channels of a single quantum emitter can be controlled by coupling to an efficiently radiating metallic nanoantenna.

  8. Interference Effects in a Tunable Quantum Point Contact Integrated with an Electronic Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chengyu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pepper, Michael; See, Patrick; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Griffiths, Jonathan; Jones, Geraint

    2017-08-01

    We show experimentally how quantum interference can be produced using an integrated quantum system comprising an arch-shaped short quantum wire (or quantum point contact, QPC) of 1D electrons and a reflector forming an electronic cavity. On tuning the coupling between the QPC and the electronic cavity, fine oscillations are observed when the arch QPC is operated in the quasi-1D regime. These oscillations correspond to interference between the 1D states and a state which is similar to the Fabry-Perot state and suppressed by a small transverse magnetic field of ±60 mT . Tuning the reflector, we find a peak in resistance which follows the behavior expected for a Fano resonance. We suggest that this is an interesting example of a Fano resonance in an open system which corresponds to interference at or near the Ohmic contacts due to a directly propagating, reflected discrete path and the continuum states of the cavity corresponding to multiple scattering. Remarkably, the Fano factor shows an oscillatory behavior taking peaks for each fine oscillation, thus, confirming coupling between the discrete and continuum states. The results indicate that such a simple quantum device can be used as building blocks to create more complex integrated quantum circuits for possible applications ranging from quantum-information processing to realizing the fundamentals of complex quantum systems.

  9. Quantum-confinement and Structural Anisotropy result in Electrically-Tunable Dirac Cone in Few-layer Black Phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are well-known to exhibit interesting phenomena due to quantum confinement. Here, we show that quantum confinement, together with structural anisotropy, result in an electric-field-tunable Dirac cone in 2D black phosphorus. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an electric field, E ext, applied normal to a 2D black phosphorus thin film, can reduce the direct band gap of few-layer black phosphorus, resulting in an insulator-to-metal transition at a critical field, Ec. Increasing E ext beyond Ec can induce a Dirac cone in the system, provided the black phosphorus film is sufficiently thin. The electric field strength can tune the position of the Dirac cone and the Dirac-Fermi velocities, the latter being similar in magnitude to that in graphene. We show that the Dirac cone arises from an anisotropic interaction term between the frontier orbitals that are spatially separated due to the applied field, on different halves of the 2D slab. When this interaction term becomes vanishingly small for thicker films, the Dirac cone can no longer be induced. Spin-orbit coupling can gap out the Dirac cone at certain electric fields; however, a further increase in field strength reduces the spin-orbit-induced gap, eventually resulting in a topological-insulator-to-Dirac-semimetal transition.

  10. Color Tunable Gd-Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS Quantum Dots for Dual Modality Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weisheng; Yang, Weitao; Wang, Yu; Sun, Xiaolian; Liu, Zhongyun; Zhang, Bingbo

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles have been introduced into biological systems as useful probes for in vitro diagnosis and in vivo imaging, due to their relatively small size and exceptional physical and chemical properties. A new kind of color tunable Gd-Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS (GZCIS/ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) with stable crystal structure was successfully synthesized and utilized for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence dual modality imaging. This strategy allows successful fabrication of GZCIS/ZnS QDs by incorporating Gd into ZCIS/ZnS QDs to achieve great MR enhancement without compromising the fluorescence properties of the initial ZCIS/ZnS QDs. The as-prepared GZCIS/ZnS QDs show high T1 MR contrast as well as “color-tunable” photoluminescence (PL) in the range of 550–725 nm by adjusting the Zn/Cu feeding ratio with high PL quantum yield (QY). The GZCIS/ZnS QDs were transferred into water via a bovine serum albumin (BSA) coating strategy. The resulting Cd-free GZCIS/ZnS QDs reveal negligible cytotoxicity on both HeLa and A549 cells. Both fluorescence and MR imaging studies were successfully performed in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that GZCIS/ZnS QDs could be a dual-modal contrast agent to simultaneously produce strong MR contrast enhancement as well as fluorescence emission for in vivo imaging. PMID:25485043

  11. Terahertz optical mixing in biased GaAs single quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciulin, V.; Carter, S. G.; Sherwin, M. S.; Huntington, A.; Coldren, L. A.

    2004-09-01

    The nonlinear mixing of near-infrared (NIR) and terahertz (THz) laser beams is investigated experimentally in a square GaAs quantum well structure, where the symmetry of the sample can be controlled by applying an electric field along the growth direction. The mixing produces sidebands, which appear at ωsideband=ωNIR+nωTHz , where n=±1,2,… . For a given THz frequency, the intensity of the n=±1 sidebands displays two main resonances as a function of the NIR frequency. These resonances are separated by the THz frequency. Their intensity is found to depend strongly on the electric bias and on THz frequency. The n=±1 sideband intensity is zero when the sample is unbiased and increases significantly with bias. The sideband is strong when the THz laser frequency is tuned in resonance with an intersubband transition and also at low THz frequencies. The main features of our results are explained qualitatively, except at very high THz intensities, by a perturbative model of the nonlinear susceptibility χ(∣n∣+1) . At high THz intensities, the resonances are observed to red shift and broaden.

  12. Delayed-choice tunable quantum eraser under cavity QED Mach-Zehnder setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Mehwish; Islam, Rameez-ul-; Tariq, Hinna; Ikram, Manzoor

    2017-09-01

    We propose a Delayed-Choice Quantum Eraser (DCQE) operating under Mach-Zehnder setup augmented with the off resonant cavity QED atom-field interactions. The proposed DCQE completely highlights all the counterintuitive ideas of the quantum theory while shedding ample light over the themes of coherence, conception of the time in quantum theory, measurement, information and the entropy. The setup is certainly helpful to clarify some features of the ongoing dialogue about the ontological (epistemological) nature of the state vector. Furthermore, this proposal for the fully deterministic experiment can be easily executed under the prevailing research scenario with good fidelity.

  13. Sequential microfluidic flow synthesis of CePO4 nanorods decorated with emission tunable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Evans, Cameron W; Willis, Glen J; Sherwood, David; Guo, Yanglong; Lu, Guanzhong; Raston, Colin L; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2010-10-07

    CePO(4) nanorods decorated with QDs (QDs@CePO(4)) can be prepared in a sequential, aqueous procedure under continuous flow using a rotating tube processor and a narrow channel reactor. The emission from the QD@CePO(4) is tunable from green to red by simply adjusting the feeding rate, which in turn regulates the particle size of the QDs. The Ce(3+) ions in the QDs@CePO(4) serve as an efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor, effectively enlarging the Stokes shift of the QDs.

  14. Interaction of digestive enzymes with tunable light emitting quantum dots: a thorough Spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Ellappan, Vaishnavi; Kesavan, Manibalan; Ramalingam, Parameshwari; Kulandaivel, Jeganathan; Rajalingam, Renganathan

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we have examined the direct spectroscopic and microscopic evidence of efficient quantum dots-α-chymotrypsin (ChT) interaction. The intrinsic fluorescence of digestive enzyme is reduced in the presence of quantum dots through ground-state complex formation. Based on the fluorescence data, quenching rate constant, binding constant, and number of binding sites are calculated under optimized experimental conditions. Interestingly, fluorescence quenching method clearly illustrated the size dependent interaction of MPA-CdTe quantum dots. Conformational change of ChT was traced using synchronous fluorescence measurements, circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, the AFM results revealed that the individual enzyme molecule dimensions were changed after interacting with quantum dot. Consequently, this result could be helpful for constructing safe and effective utilisation of QDs in biological applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Tunable few-electron double quantum dots with integrated charge read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzerman, J. M.; Hanson, R.; Greidanus, J. S.; Willems van Beveren, L. H.; De Franceschi, S.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Tarucha, S.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the realization of few-electron double quantum dots defined in a two-dimensional electron gas by means of surface gates on top of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Two quantum point contacts (QPCs) are placed in the vicinity of the double quantum dot and serve as charge detectors. These enable determination of the number of conduction electrons on each dot. This number can be reduced to zero, while still allowing transport measurements through the double dot. The coupling between the two dots can be controlled even in the few-electron regime. Microwave radiation is used to pump an electron from one dot to the other by absorption of a single photon. The experiments demonstrate that this quantum dot circuit can serve as a good starting point for a scalable spin-qubit system.

  16. Quantum annealing for the number-partitioning problem using a tunable spin glass of ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graß, Tobias; Raventós, David; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Gogolin, Christian; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Exploiting quantum properties to outperform classical ways of information processing is an outstanding goal of modern physics. A promising route is quantum simulation, which aims at implementing relevant and computationally hard problems in controllable quantum systems. Here we demonstrate that in a trapped ion setup, with present day technology, it is possible to realize a spin model of the Mattis-type that exhibits spin glass phases. Our method produces the glassy behaviour without the need for any disorder potential, just by controlling the detuning of the spin-phonon coupling. Applying a transverse field, the system can be used to benchmark quantum annealing strategies which aim at reaching the ground state of the spin glass starting from the paramagnetic phase. In the vicinity of a phonon resonance, the problem maps onto number partitioning, and instances which are difficult to address classically can be implemented.

  17. Quantum annealing for the number-partitioning problem using a tunable spin glass of ions

    PubMed Central

    Graß, Tobias; Raventós, David; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Gogolin, Christian; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting quantum properties to outperform classical ways of information processing is an outstanding goal of modern physics. A promising route is quantum simulation, which aims at implementing relevant and computationally hard problems in controllable quantum systems. Here we demonstrate that in a trapped ion setup, with present day technology, it is possible to realize a spin model of the Mattis-type that exhibits spin glass phases. Our method produces the glassy behaviour without the need for any disorder potential, just by controlling the detuning of the spin-phonon coupling. Applying a transverse field, the system can be used to benchmark quantum annealing strategies which aim at reaching the ground state of the spin glass starting from the paramagnetic phase. In the vicinity of a phonon resonance, the problem maps onto number partitioning, and instances which are difficult to address classically can be implemented. PMID:27230802

  18. Low-temperature synthesis of K0.5FeF3 with tunable exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiao-Ru; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Yu-Di; Rui, Wenbin; Sheng, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Du, Jun; Xu, Mingxiang; Dong, Shuai; Wu, Di; Xu, Qingyu

    2013-09-01

    Fluorides K0.5FeF3 with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure have been fabricated by solid state reaction at low sintering temperature in the range between 150 °C and 400 °C with the assistance of crystal water during the grinding and sintering processes. Unusual magnetic properties have been observed, including positive exchange bias field (HE) with negative vertical magnetization shift (Mshift), and smaller field cooling (FC) magnetization than the zero field cooling one below 53 K. The results are explained by a core-shell structure consisting of antiferromagnetic core and spin glass (SG) shell with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling between the pinned interface spins and the SG shell spins. The sign of HE and Mshift can be changed by increasing the cooling field in the FC process, which is attributed to the competition between the antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling and the Zeeman energy of magnetization of the SG shell.

  19. Tunable Quantum Dot Solids: Impact of Interparticle Interactions on Bulk Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Fan, Hongyou; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Li, Binsong

    2015-09-01

    QD-solids comprising self-assembled semiconductor nanocrystals such as CdSe are currently under investigation for use in a wide array of applications including light emitting diodes, solar cells, field effect transistors, photodetectors, and biosensors. The goal of this LDRD project was develop a fundamental understanding of the relationship between nanoparticle interactions and the different regimes of charge and energy transport in semiconductor quantum dot (QD) solids. Interparticle spacing was tuned through the application of hydrostatic pressure in a diamond anvil cell, and the impact on interparticle interactions was probed using x-ray scattering and a variety of static and transient optical spectroscopies. During the course of this LDRD, we discovered a new, previously unknown, route to synthesize semiconductor quantum wires using high pressure sintering of self-assembled quantum dot crystals. We believe that this new, pressure driven synthesis approach holds great potential as a new tool for nanomaterials synthesis and engineering.

  20. Solid Solution Quantum Dots with Tunable Dual or Ultrabroadband Emission for LEDs.

    PubMed

    Gugula, Krzysztof; Entrup, Michael; Stegemann, Linda; Seidel, Stefan; Pöttgen, Rainer; Strassert, Cristian A; Bredol, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Quantum dots that efficiently emit white light directly or feature a "candle-like" orange photoluminescence with a high Stokes shift are presented. The key to obtaining these unique emission properties is through controlled annealing of the core Cu-In-Ga-S quantum dots in the presence of zinc ions, thus forming Zn-Cu-In-Ga-S solid solutions with different distributions of the substitution and dopant elements. The as-obtained nanocrystals feature excellent quantum yields of up to 82% with limited or even eliminated reabsorption and a color rendering index of bare particles of up to 88, enabling the production of high-quality white LEDs using a single color converter layer. Furthermore, the color properties can be tuned by changing the experimental conditions as well as by varying the excitation wavelength. The multicomponent luminescence mechanism is discussed in detail based on similar literature reports. White LEDs with unparalleled color quality and competitive luminous efficacies are presented herein.

  1. Tunable pseudogap Kondo effect and quantum phase transitions in Aharonov-Bohm interferometers.

    PubMed

    Dias da Silva, Luis G G V; Sandler, Nancy; Simon, Pascal; Ingersent, Kevin; Ulloa, Sergio E

    2009-04-24

    We study two quantum dots embedded in the arms of an Aharonov-Bohm ring threaded by a magnetic flux. This system can be described by an effective one-impurity Anderson model with an energy- and flux-dependent density of states. For specific values of the flux, this density of states vanishes at the Fermi energy, yielding a controlled realization of the pseudogap Kondo effect. The conductance and transmission phase shifts reflect a nontrivial interplay between wave interference and interactions, providing clear signatures of quantum phase transitions between Kondo and non-Kondo ground states.

  2. Tunable Pseudogap Kondo Effect and Quantum Phase Transitions in Aharonov-Bohm Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Dias Da Silva, Luis G; Sandler, Nancy; Simon, Pascal; Ingersent, Kevin; Ulloa, Sergio E

    2009-01-01

    We study two quantum dots embedded in the arms of an Aharonov-Bohm ring threaded by a magnetic flux. This system can be described by an effective one-impurity Anderson model with an energy- and flux- dependent density of states. For specific values of the flux, this density of states vanishes at the Fermi energy, yielding a controlled realization of the pseudogap Kondo effect. The conductance and trans- mission phase shifts reflect a nontrivial interplay between wave interference and interactions, providing clear signatures of quantum phase transitions between Kondo and non-Kondo ground states.

  3. Ramsey Fringes in an Electric-Field-Tunable Quantum Dot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stufler, S.; Ester, P.; Zrenner, A.; Bichler, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on Ramsey fringes measured in a single InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot two-level system. We are able to control the transition energy of the system by Stark effect tuning. In combination with double pulse excitation this allows for a voltage controlled preparation of the phase and the occupancy of the two-level system. For long pulse delay times we observe extremely narrow fringes with spectral width below the homogeneous linewidth of the system. Implications on quantum information processing are discussed.

  4. Ramsey fringes in an electric-field-tunable quantum dot system.

    PubMed

    Stufler, S; Ester, P; Zrenner, A; Bichler, M

    2006-01-27

    We report on Ramsey fringes measured in a single InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot two-level system. We are able to control the transition energy of the system by Stark effect tuning. In combination with double pulse excitation this allows for a voltage controlled preparation of the phase and the occupancy of the two-level system. For long pulse delay times we observe extremely narrow fringes with spectral width below the homogeneous linewidth of the system. Implications on quantum information processing are discussed.

  5. Aqueous synthesis of high bright and tunable near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongchen; Zhu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-02-01

    Efficient synthetic methods for near-infrared quantum dots with good biophysical properties as bioimaging agents are urgently required. In this work, a simple and fast synthesis of highly luminescent, near-infrared AgInSe2-ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable emissions in aqueous media is reported. This method avoids high temperature and pressure and organic solvents to directly generate water-dispersible AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs. The photoluminescence emission peak of the AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs ranged from 625 to 940nm, with quantum yields up to 31%. The AgInSe2-ZnSe QDs with high quantum yield, near-infrared and low cytotoxic could be used as good cell labels, showing great potential applications in bio-imaging.

  6. Anomalous Sequence of Quantum Hall Liquids Revealing a Tunable Lifshitz Transition in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Anastasia; Bischoff, Dominik; Simonet, Pauline; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Mucha-Kruczyński, Marcin; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2014-09-01

    Bilayer graphene is a unique system where both the Fermi energy and the low-energy electron dispersion can be tuned. This is brought about by an interplay between trigonal warping and the band gap opened by a transverse electric field. Here, we drive the Lifshitz transition in bilayer graphene to experimentally controllable carrier densities by applying a large transverse electric field to a h-BN-encapsulated bilayer graphene structure. We perform magnetotransport measurements and investigate the different degeneracies in the Landau level spectrum. At low magnetic fields, the observation of filling factors -3 and -6 quantum Hall states reflects the existence of three maxima at the top of the valence-band dispersion. At high magnetic fields, all integer quantum Hall states are observed, indicating that deeper in the valence band the constant energy contours are singly connected. The fact that we observe ferromagnetic quantum Hall states at odd-integer filling factors testifies to the high quality of our sample. This enables us to identify several phase transitions between correlated quantum Hall states at intermediate magnetic fields, in agreement with the calculated evolution of the Landau level spectrum. The observed evolution of the degeneracies, therefore, reveals the presence of a Lifshitz transition in our system.

  7. Silanization of plasma-grown silicon quantum dots for production of a tunable, stable, colloidal solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ingrid E.; Shircliff, Rebecca A.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Simonds, Brian; Agarwal, Sumit; Stradins, Paul; Collins, Reuben T.

    2011-09-01

    Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize photovoltaics with the promise of new physics, novel architectures and low cost synthesis. Silicon quantum dots, relative to their II-VI counterparts, are understudied due to the difficulty of solution synthesis and chemical passivation. However, silicon is still an attractive solar cell material, providing an optimal band gap, low toxicity, and a very solid body of physical understanding of bulk silicon to draw from. We have synthesized silicon quantum dots with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and have developed a method for chemical passivation of these silicon quantum dots that can be used on particles created in a variety of ways. This versatile method utilizes oxidation via wet chemical etch and subsequent siloxane bond formation. The attachment of a silane to the SiOx shell leads to stability of the silicon core for over a month in air, and individual particles can be seen with TEM; thus a stable, colloidal suspension is formed. The future for this technique, including increasing quantum yield of the particles by changing the nature of the oxide, will be discussed.

  8. Anomalous sequence of quantum Hall liquids revealing a tunable Lifshitz transition in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Varlet, Anastasia; Bischoff, Dominik; Simonet, Pauline; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ihn, Thomas; Ensslin, Klaus; Mucha-Kruczyński, Marcin; Fal'ko, Vladimir I

    2014-09-12

    Bilayer graphene is a unique system where both the Fermi energy and the low-energy electron dispersion can be tuned. This is brought about by an interplay between trigonal warping and the band gap opened by a transverse electric field. Here, we drive the Lifshitz transition in bilayer graphene to experimentally controllable carrier densities by applying a large transverse electric field to a h-BN-encapsulated bilayer graphene structure. We perform magnetotransport measurements and investigate the different degeneracies in the Landau level spectrum. At low magnetic fields, the observation of filling factors -3 and -6 quantum Hall states reflects the existence of three maxima at the top of the valence-band dispersion. At high magnetic fields, all integer quantum Hall states are observed, indicating that deeper in the valence band the constant energy contours are singly connected. The fact that we observe ferromagnetic quantum Hall states at odd-integer filling factors testifies to the high quality of our sample. This enables us to identify several phase transitions between correlated quantum Hall states at intermediate magnetic fields, in agreement with the calculated evolution of the Landau level spectrum. The observed evolution of the degeneracies, therefore, reveals the presence of a Lifshitz transition in our system.

  9. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device.

    PubMed

    Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Huang, G Y; Larsson, M; Caroff, P; Xu, H Q

    2014-12-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system.

  10. Parity independence of the zero-bias conductance peak in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot hybrid device

    PubMed Central

    Deng, M. T.; Yu, C. L.; Huang, G. Y.; Larsson, M.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. At zero magnetic field, well-defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with Majorana fermion physics in such a hybrid topological system. PMID:25434375

  11. Microwave Imaging Using a Tunable Reflectarray Antenna and Superradiance in Open Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Amin

    Theory, experiment, and computation are the three paradigms for scientific discoveries. This dissertation includes work in all three areas. The first part is dedicated to the practical design and development of a microwave imaging system, a problem mostly experimental and computational in nature. The second part discusses theoretical foundations of possible future advances in quantum signal transmission. In part one, a new active microwave imaging system is proposed. At the heart of this novel system lies an electronically reconfigurable beam-scanning reflectarray antenna. The high tuning capability of the reflectarray provides a broad steering range of +/- 60 degrees in two distinct frequency bands: S and F bands. The array, combined with an external source, dynamically steers the incoming beam across this range in order to generate multi-angle projection data for target detection. The collected data is then used for image reconstruction by means of time reversal signal processing technique. Our design significantly reduces cost and operational complexities compared to traditional imaging systems. In conventional systems, the region of interest is enclosed by a costly array of transceiver antennas which additionally requires a complicated switching circuitry. The inclusion of the beam scanning array and the utilization of a single source, eliminates the need for multiple antennas and the involved circuitry. In addition, unlike conventional setups, this system is not constrained by the dimensions of the object under test. Therefore the inspection of large objects, such as extended laminate structures, composite airplane wings and wind turbine blades becomes possible. Experimental results of detection of various dielectric targets as well as detecting anomalies within them, such as defects and metallic impurities, using the imaging prototype are presented. The second part includes the theoretical consideration of three different problems: quantum transport through

  12. Large scale infrared imaging of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) using a tunable Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) based microscope.

    PubMed

    Bassan, Paul; Weida, Miles J; Rowlette, Jeremy; Gardner, Peter

    2014-08-21

    Chemical imaging in the field of vibrational spectroscopy is developing into a promising tool to complement digital histopathology. Applications include screening of biopsy tissue via automated recognition of tissue/cell type and disease state based on the chemical information from the spectrum. For integration into clinical practice, data acquisition needs to be speeded up to implement a rack based system where specimens are rapidly imaged to compete with current visible scanners where 100's of slides can be scanned overnight. Current Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging with focal plane array (FPA) detectors are currently the state-of-the-art instrumentation for infrared absorption chemical imaging, however recent development in broadly tunable lasers in the mid-IR range is considered the most promising potential candidate for next generation microscopes. In this paper we test a prototype quantum cascade laser (QCL) based spectral imaging microscope with a focus on discrete frequency chemical imaging. We demonstrate how a protein chemical image of the amide I band (1655 cm(-1)) of a 2 × 2.4 cm(2) breast tissue microarray (TMA) containing over 200 cores can be measured in 9 min. This result indicates that applications requiring chemical images from a few key wavelengths would be ideally served by laser-based microscopes.

  13. Nonequilibrium-Plasma-Synthesized ZnO Nanocrystals with Plasmon Resonance Tunable via Al Doping and Quantum Confinement.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Benjamin L; Ganguly, Shreyashi; Held, Jacob T; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Aydil, Eray S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-12-09

    Metal oxide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) tunable within the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by vacancy or impurity doping. Although a variety of these NCs have been produced using colloidal synthesis methods, incorporation and activation of dopants in the liquid phase has often been challenging. Herein, using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) NCs as an example, we demonstrate the potential of nonthermal plasma synthesis as an alternative strategy for the production of doped metal oxide NCs. Exploiting unique, thoroughly nonequilibrium synthesis conditions, we obtain NCs in which dopants are not segregated to the NC surfaces and local doping levels are high near the NC centers. Thus, we achieve overall doping levels as high as 2 × 10(20) cm(-3) in NCs with diameters ranging from 12.6 to 3.6 nm, and for the first time experimentally demonstrate a clear quantum confinement blue shift of the LSPR energy in vacancy- and impurity-doped semiconductor NCs. We propose that doping of central cores and heavy doping of small NCs are achievable via nonthermal plasma synthesis, because chemical potential differences between dopant and host atoms-which hinder dopant incorporation in colloidal synthesis-are irrelevant when NC nucleation and growth proceed via irreversible interactions among highly reactive gas-phase ions and radicals and ligand-free NC surfaces. We explore how the distinctive nucleation and growth kinetics occurring in the plasma influences dopant distribution and activation, defect structure, and impurity phase formation.

  14. N, S co-doped carbon dots with high quantum yield: tunable fluorescence in liquid/solid and extensible applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Meng, Xinlei; Li, Baoyan; Ge, Shusheng; Lu, Yun

    2017-06-01

    A set of the highly fluorescent N, S co-doped carbon dots (NSCDs) were prepared through one-step hydrothermal synthesis at different temperature with citric acid as the carbon source and cysteamine as the N, S source. The NSCDs synthesized at 200 °C show significant quantum yield (81%) due to its optimal structure. The structure of the NSCDs changed with varying degrees of carbonization/aromatization and different content of multifunctional groups of C=O, -NH2, -OH, -SH, and N, S-aromatic heterocycte under different preparation temperatures, thus exhibiting tunable fluorescence. Especially, the obtained NSCDs exhibited a blue fluorescence in solution state and changed from strong blue to yellowish-green in its solid state under UV light as a result of the increase in preparation temperature. The as-prepared NSCDs can be used in selective detection of complex anions such as Cr2O7 2- and Fe(CN)6 3-, cell imaging, and preparation of fluorescent composite films.

  15. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-15

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240°, 260°, 280° and 300° C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  16. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240°, 260°, 280° and 300° C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  17. Spectral purity and tunability of terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation

    PubMed Central

    Consolino, Luigi; Jung, Seungyong; Campa, Annamaria; De Regis, Michele; Pal, Shovon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Fujita, Kazuue; Ito, Akio; Hitaka, Masahiro; Bartalini, Saverio; De Natale, Paolo; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Vitiello, Miriam Serena

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (THz DFG-QCLs) have recently emerged as the first monolithic electrically pumped semiconductor sources capable of operating at room temperature across the 1- to 6-THz range. Despite tremendous progress in power output, which now exceeds 1 mW in pulsed and 10 μW in continuous-wave regimes at room temperature, knowledge of the major figure of merits of these devices for high-precision spectroscopy, such as spectral purity and absolute frequency tunability, is still lacking. By exploiting a metrological grade system comprising a terahertz frequency comb synthesizer, we measure, for the first time, the free-running emission linewidth (LW), the tuning characteristics, and the absolute center frequency of individual emission lines of these sources with an uncertainty of 4 × 10−10. The unveiled emission LW (400 kHz at 1-ms integration time) indicates that DFG-QCLs are well suited to operate as local oscillators and to be used for a variety of metrological, spectroscopic, communication, and imaging applications that require narrow-LW THz sources. PMID:28879235

  18. Quantum and Classical Magnetoresistance in Ambipolar Topological Insulator Transistors with Gate-tunable Bulk and Surface Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jifa; Chang, Cuizu; Cao, Helin; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Yong P.

    2014-01-01

    Weak antilocalization (WAL) and linear magnetoresistance (LMR) are two most commonly observed magnetoresistance (MR) phenomena in topological insulators (TIs) and often attributed to the Dirac topological surface states (TSS). However, ambiguities exist because these phenomena could also come from bulk states (often carrying significant conduction in many TIs) and are observable even in non-TI materials. Here, we demonstrate back-gated ambipolar TI field-effect transistors in (Bi0.04Sb0.96)2Te3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(111), exhibiting a large carrier density tunability (by nearly 2 orders of magnitude) and a metal-insulator transition in the bulk (allowing switching off the bulk conduction). Tuning the Fermi level from bulk band to TSS strongly enhances both the WAL (increasing the number of quantum coherent channels from one to peak around two) and LMR (increasing its slope by up to 10 times). The SS-enhanced LMR is accompanied by a strongly nonlinear Hall effect, suggesting important roles of charge inhomogeneity (and a related classical LMR), although existing models of LMR cannot capture all aspects of our data. Our systematic gate and temperature dependent magnetotransport studies provide deeper insights into the nature of both MR phenomena and reveal differences between bulk and TSS transport in TI related materials. PMID:24810663

  19. Biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Zhang, Hai-long; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) can remove all the side-channel attacks from imperfections in the detection side. However, finite-size resources undoubtedly influence its performance and the achievable finite secret key rates of MDI-QKD are typically lower than that of standard decoy-state QKD. In this paper, we introduce the efficient decoy-state method with biased basis choice into the finite-key analysis and propose a decoy-state protocol for MDI-QKD. By applying vacuum + weak decoy-state method, we analytically derive concise formulas for estimating the lower bound of single-photon yield and the upper bound of phase error rate in the case of finite resources. The simulations show that proper basis choice combined with deliberate intensity choice can substantially enhance the performance of decoy-state MDI-QKD and, without a full optimization program, our protocol can bring a long-distance implementation (168 km on standard optical fiber) of MDI-QKD with a reasonable data size of total transmitting signals (N =1015 ).

  20. Electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers based on a two-sections interdigitated distributed feedback cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Turčinková, Dana; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme; Amanti, Maria Ines

    2015-03-30

    The continuous electrical tuning of a single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser operating at a frequency of 3 THz is demonstrated. The devices are based on a two-section interdigitated third-order distributed feedback cavity. The lasers can be tuned of about 4 GHz at a constant optical output power of 0.7 mW with a good far-field pattern.

  1. Fast Hyperspectral Imaging Using a Mid-Infrared Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-04-23

    An active hyperspectral imaging system using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and a focal plane array acquiring images at 25 Hz from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.3 cm 1 is demonstrated. The chemical imaging of gases is demonstrated in both static and dynamic cases. The system was also used to analyze liquid and solid samples.

  2. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; Ager, Joel W; Toma, Francesca M; Yablonovitch, Eli; Sharp, Ian D; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-13

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells.

  3. Electrically-Tunable Group Delays Using Quantum Wells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Thomas R., Jr.; Loehr, John P.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer; Jones, Darryl K.; Keys, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the fabrication of semiconductor optical group delay lines for the development of phased arrays of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). We present a novel structure incorporating In(x)GA(1-x)As quantum wells in the GaAs quarter-wave layers of a GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Application of an electric field across the quantum wells leads to red shifting and peak broadening of the el-hhl exciton peak via the quantum-confined Stark effect. Resultant changes in the index of refraction thereby provide a means for altering the group delay of an incident laser pulse. We discuss the tradeoffs between the maximum amount of change in group delay versus absorption losses for such a device. We also compare a simple theoretical model to experimental results, and discuss both angle and position tuning of the BDR band edge resonance relative to the exciton absorption peak. The advantages of such monolithically grown devices for phased-array VCSEL applications will be detailed.

  4. Tunable Visible Emission of Ag-Doped CdZnS Alloy Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Highly luminescent Ag-ion-doped Cd1−xZnxS (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) alloy nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a novel wet chemical precipitation method. Influence of dopant concentration and the Zn/Cd stoichiometric variations in doped alloy nanocrystals have been investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) to investigate the size and structure of the as prepared nanocrystals. A shift in LO phonon modes from micro-Raman investigations and the elemental analysis from the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) confirms the stoichiometry of the final product. The average crystallite size was found increasing from 1.0 to 1.4 nm with gradual increase in Ag doping. It was observed that photoluminescence (PL) intensity corresponding to Ag impurity (570 nm), relative to the other two bands 480 and 520 nm that originates due to native defects, enhanced and showed slight red shift with increasing silver doping. In addition, decrease in the band gap energy of the doped nanocrystals indicates that the introduction of dopant ion in the host material influence the particle size of the nanocrystals. The composition dependent bandgap engineering in CdZnS:Ag was achieved to attain the deliberate color tunability and demonstrated successfully, which are potentially important for white light generation. PMID:20652135

  5. Tunable Visible Emission of Ag-Doped CdZnS Alloy Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Ruchi; Kumar, Lokendra; Sharma, Prashant K.; Pandey, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Highly luminescent Ag-ion-doped Cd1-xZnxS (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) alloy nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a novel wet chemical precipitation method. Influence of dopant concentration and the Zn/Cd stoichiometric variations in doped alloy nanocrystals have been investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) to investigate the size and structure of the as prepared nanocrystals. A shift in LO phonon modes from micro-Raman investigations and the elemental analysis from the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) confirms the stoichiometry of the final product. The average crystallite size was found increasing from 1.0 to 1.4 nm with gradual increase in Ag doping. It was observed that photoluminescence (PL) intensity corresponding to Ag impurity (570 nm), relative to the other two bands 480 and 520 nm that originates due to native defects, enhanced and showed slight red shift with increasing silver doping. In addition, decrease in the band gap energy of the doped nanocrystals indicates that the introduction of dopant ion in the host material influence the particle size of the nanocrystals. The composition dependent bandgap engineering in CdZnS:Ag was achieved to attain the deliberate color tunability and demonstrated successfully, which are potentially important for white light generation.

  6. Tunable Visible Emission of Ag-Doped CdZnS Alloy Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ruchi; Kumar, Lokendra; Sharma, Prashant K; Pandey, Ac

    2009-10-13

    Highly luminescent Ag-ion-doped Cd1-xZnxS (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) alloy nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a novel wet chemical precipitation method. Influence of dopant concentration and the Zn/Cd stoichiometric variations in doped alloy nanocrystals have been investigated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) to investigate the size and structure of the as prepared nanocrystals. A shift in LO phonon modes from micro-Raman investigations and the elemental analysis from the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) confirms the stoichiometry of the final product. The average crystallite size was found increasing from 1.0 to 1.4 nm with gradual increase in Ag doping. It was observed that photoluminescence (PL) intensity corresponding to Ag impurity (570 nm), relative to the other two bands 480 and 520 nm that originates due to native defects, enhanced and showed slight red shift with increasing silver doping. In addition, decrease in the band gap energy of the doped nanocrystals indicates that the introduction of dopant ion in the host material influence the particle size of the nanocrystals. The composition dependent bandgap engineering in CdZnS:Ag was achieved to attain the deliberate color tunability and demonstrated successfully, which are potentially important for white light generation.

  7. Tunable Fano quantum-interference dynamics using a topological phase transition in (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Sangwan; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Sung, Ji Ho; Park, Jun; Cha, Soonyoung; Jo, Moon-Ho; Oh, Seongshik; Choi, Hyunyong

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetric Fano resonance arises from quantum interference between discrete and continuum states. The characteristic asymmetry has attracted strong interests in understanding light-induced optoelectronic responses and corresponding applications. In conventional solids, however, the tunability of Fano resonance is generally limited by a material's intrinsic property. Topological insulators are unique states of matter embodying both conducting Dirac surface and underlying bulk. If it is possible to manipulate the two coexisting states, then it should form an ideal laboratory for realizing a tunable topological Fano system. Here, with the recently discovered topological phase transition in (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 , we report tunable Fano interference phenomena. By engineering the spatial overlap between surface Dirac electrons (continuous terahertz transitions) and bulk phonon (discrete mode at ˜2 terahertz), we continuously tune, abruptly switch, and dynamically modulate the Fano resonance. Eliminating the topological surface via decreasing spin-orbit coupling―that is, across topological and nontopological phases, we find that the asymmetric Fano spectra return to the symmetric profile. Laser-excited ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy reveals that the controlled spatial overlap is responsible for the picosecond tunability of the Fano resonance, suggesting potentials toward optically controllable topological Fano systems.

  8. Continuous-flow synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: a size-tunable and scalable approach.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Sadeghpour, Amin; Glatter, Otto; Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-08-26

    In recent years, continuous-flow/microreactor processing for the preparation of colloidal nanocrystals has received considerable attention. The intrinsic advantages of microfluidic reactors have opened new opportunities for the size-controlled synthesis of nanocrystals either in the laboratory or on a large scale. Herein, an experimentally simple protocol for the size-tunable continuous-flow synthesis of rather monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is presented. CdSe QDs are manufactured by using cadmium oleate as cadmium source, selenium dioxide as selenium precursor, and 1-octadecene as solvent. Exploiting selenium dioxide as selenium source and 1-octadecene as solvent allows execution of the complete process in open air without any requirement for air-free manipulations using a glove box or Schlenk line. Continuous-flow processing is performed with a stainless steel coil of 1.0 mm inner diameter pumping the combined precursor solution through the reactor by applying a standard HPLC pump. The effect of different reaction parameters, such as temperature, residence time, and flow rate, on the properties of the resulting CdSe QDs was investigated. A temperature increase from 240 to 260 °C or an extension of the residence time from 2 to 20 min affords larger nanocrystals (range 3-6 nm) whereas the size distribution does not change significantly. Longer reaction times and higher temperatures result in QDs with lower quantum yields (range 11-28 %). The quality of the synthesized CdSe QDs was confirmed by UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the potential of this protocol for large-scale manufacturing was evaluated and by operating the continuous-flow process for 87 min it was possible to produce 167 mg of CdSe QDs (with a mean diameter of 4 nm) with a quantum yield of 28 %.

  9. An ultrafast quantum random number generator with provably bounded output bias based on photon arrival time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Michael; Leifgen, Matthias; Berlin, Michael; Röhlicke, Tino; Rahn, Hans-Jürgen; Benson, Oliver

    2011-04-01

    We report the implementation of a quantum random number generator based on photon arrival times. Due to fast and high resolution timing we are able to generate the highest bitrate of any current generator based on photon arrival times. Bias in the raw data due to the exponential distribution of the arrival times is removed by postprocessing which is directly integrated in the field programmable logic of the timing electronics.

  10. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; Ager, Joel W.; Toma, Francesca M.; Yablonovitch, Eli; Sharp, Ian D.; Javey, Ali

    2015-12-21

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescence quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells. (Figure Presented).

  11. High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in Band Gap Tunable Bromide Containing Mixed Halide Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Li, Yanbo; Amani, Matin; ...

    2015-12-21

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite based semiconductor materials are attractive for use in a wide range of optoelectronic devices because they combine the advantages of suitable optoelectronic attributes and simultaneously low-cost solution processability. Here, we present a two-step low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process to grow high quality homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx perovskite films over the full band gap range of 1.6-2.3 eV. Photoluminescence light-in versus light-out characterization techniques are used to provide new insights into the optoelectronic properties of Br-containing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites as a function of optical carrier injection by employing pump-powers over a 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range. The internal luminescencemore » quantum yield of wide band gap perovskites reaches impressive values up to 30%. This high quantum yield translates into substantial quasi-Fermi level splitting and high "luminescence or optically implied" open-circuit voltage. Most importantly, both attributes, high internal quantum yield and high optically implied open-circuit voltage, are demonstrated over the entire band gap range (1.6 eV ≤ Eg ≤ 2.3 eV). These results establish the versatility of Br-containing perovskite semiconductors for a variety of applications and especially for the use as high-quality top cell in tandem photovoltaic devices in combination with industry dominant Si bottom cells. (Figure Presented).« less

  12. Controlled intermixing of multiple quantum wells for broadly tunable integrated lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariya, Abdullah J.; Bickel, Nathan; LiKamWa, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    A broadly tunable MQW laser utilizing a combined impurity-free vacancy disordering and beam steering techniques is proposed and investigated experimentally. The device consists of a beam-steering section and an optical amplifier section fabricated on a GaAs/AlGaAs MQW p-i-n hetrostructure substrate. The beam steering section forms a reconfigurable single mode waveguide that can be positioned laterally by applying electrical currents to two parallel contact stripes. The active core of the gain section contains a GaAs/AlGaAs MQW that is progressively disordered such that an optical beam steered through the selected region experience a peak in the gain spectrum that is determined by the degree of disordering of the MQWs. Furthermore the MQW in the beam-steering section is disordered to the largest extent to minimize optical beam attenuation. The MQW structure was intermixed using an impurity-free vacancy induced disordering technique. The MQW sample is encapsulated with a SiO2 film grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The beam steering region is coated with a 400nm thick SiO2 film whereas in the gain section, the SiO2 film is selectively etched such that the thickness grades linearly ranging from 0 to 325nm. The disordering of the entire slab region is then induced by a single rapid thermal annealing step at 975°C for a 20s. Experimental results showed a controllable 10 to 60 nm wavelength blue shift of the peak of the photoluminescence spectrum corresponding to the change in SiO2 caps thickness and a lateral beam steering range up to 20 μm over the slab region.

  13. Correlated electrons in optically tunable quantum dots: building an electron dimer molecule.

    PubMed

    Singha, Achintya; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Pinczuk, Aron; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken W; Rontani, Massimo

    2010-06-18

    We observe the low-lying excitations of a molecular dimer formed by two electrons in a GaAs semiconductor quantum dot in which the number of confined electrons is tuned by optical illumination. By employing inelastic light scattering we identify the intershell excitations in the one-electron regime and the distinct spin and charge modes in the interacting few-body configuration. In the case of two electrons, a comparison with configuration-interaction calculations allows us to link the observed excitations with the breathing mode of the molecular dimer and to determine the singlet-triplet energy splitting.

  14. A tunable waveguide-coupled cavity design for scalable interfaces to solid-state quantum emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Sara L.; Englund, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Photonic nanocavities in diamond have emerged as useful structures for interfacing photons and embedded atomic color centers, such as the nitrogen vacancy center. Here, we present a hybrid nanocavity design that enables (i) a loaded quality factor exceeding 50 000 (unloaded Q >106 ) with 75% of the enhanced emission collected into an underlying waveguide circuit, (ii) MEMS-based cavity spectral tuning without straining the diamond, and (iii) the use of a diamond waveguide with straight sidewalls to minimize surface defects and charge traps. This system addresses the need for scalable on-chip photonic interfaces to solid-state quantum emitters.

  15. Magnetically tunable Kondo-Aharonov-Bohm effect in a triangular quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y

    2006-02-03

    The role of discrete orbital symmetry in mesoscopic physics is manifested in a system consisting of three identical quantum dots forming an equilateral triangle. Under a perpendicular magnetic field, this system demonstrates a unique combination of Kondo and Aharonov-Bohm features due to an interplay between continuous [spin-rotation SU(2)] and discrete (permutation C3v) symmetries, as well as U(1) gauge invariance. The conductance as a function of magnetic flux displays sharp enhancement or complete suppression depending on contact setups.

  16. Tunable metamaterials based on voltage controlled strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Alexander Brener, Igal; Montaño, Inès; Klem, John F.

    2013-12-23

    We present the design, fabrication, and realization of an electrically tunable metamaterial operating in the mid-infrared spectral range. Our devices combine intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum-wells with planar metamaterials and operate in the strong light-matter coupling regime. The resonance frequency of the intersubband transition can be controlled by an external bias relative to the fixed metamaterial resonance. This allows us to switch dynamically from an uncoupled to a strongly coupled system and thereby to shift the eigenfrequency of the upper polariton branch by 2.5 THz (corresponding to 8% of the center frequency or one full linewidth) with a bias of 5 V.

  17. Tunable resonant and non-resonant interactions between a phase qubit and LC resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allman, Michael Shane; Whittaker, Jed D.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Defeo, Michael; Lecocq, Florent; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We use a flux-biased radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with an embedded flux-biased direct current (dc) SQUID to generate strong resonant and non-resonant tunable interactions between a phase qubit and a lumped-element resonator. The rf-SQUID creates a tunable magnetic susceptibility between the qubit and resonator providing resonant coupling rates from zero to near the ultra-strong coupling regime. By modulating the magnetic susceptibility, non-resonant parametric coupling achieves rates > 100 MHz . Nonlinearity of the magnetic susceptibility also leads to parametric coupling at subharmonics of the qubit-resonator detuning. Controllable coupling is generically important for constructing coupled-mode systems ubiquitous in physics, useful for both, quantum information architectures and quantum simulators. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  18. Graphene kirigami as a platform for stretchable and tunable quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamon, D. A.; Qi, Zenan; Park, Harold S.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Campbell, David K.

    2016-06-01

    The quantum transport properties of a graphene kirigami similar to those studied in recent experiments are calculated in the regime of elastic, reversible deformations. Our results show that, at low electronic densities, the conductance profile of such structures replicates that of a system of coupled quantum dots, characterized by a sequence of minibands and stopgaps. The conductance and I-V curves have different characteristics in the distinct stages of deformation that characterize the elongation of these structures. Notably, the effective coupling between localized states is strongly reduced in the small elongation stage but revived at large elongations that allow the reestablishment of resonant tunneling across the kirigami. This provides an interesting example of interplay between geometry, strain, spatial confinement, and electronic transport. The alternating miniband and stopgap structure in the transmission leads to I-V characteristics with negative differential conductance in well defined energy/doping ranges. These effects should be stable in a realistic scenario that includes edge roughness and Coulomb interactions, as these are expected to further promote localization of states at low energies in narrow segments of graphene nanostructures.

  19. Enhanced and tunable optical quantum efficiencies from plasmon bandwidth engineering in bimetallic CoAg nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Ehrsam, M.; Goodwin, J.; Garcia, H.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag), its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η), i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.

  20. Hall field-induced resistance oscillations in a tunable-density GaAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zudov, M. A.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Friess, B.; Shi, Q.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J.

    2017-09-01

    We report on Hall field-induced resistance oscillations (HIROs) in a 60-nm-wide GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well with an in situ grown back gate, which allows tuning the carrier density n . At low n , when all electrons are confined to the lowest subband (SB1), the HIRO frequency, proportional to the product of the cyclotron diameter and the Hall field, scales with n-1 /2 as expected. Remarkably, the population of the second subband (SB2) significantly enhances the HIROs, whereas their frequency now scales as n-1. We demonstrate that in this two-subband regime HIROs still originate solely from backscattering of SB1 electrons. The unusual density dependence occurs because the population of SB2 steadily increases, whereas that of SB1 remains essentially unchanged. The enhancement of the HIROs manifests an unexpected steplike increase in the quantum lifetime of SB1 electrons, which reaches a record value of 52 ps in the two-subband regime.

  1. Tunable excitonic transitions in strained GaAs ultra-thin quantum disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Yadri, M.; Aghoutane, N.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous influences of hydrostatic pressure and temperature combined to the size effect on the behaviour of the exciton in 2D AlAs / GaAs / AlAs ultra thin quantum disk are investigated. Our approach is performed in the framework of effective mass theory and adiabatic approximation by using a variational method with a robust trial wave function and by taking into account the dependence of the size, the dielectric constant and the effective masses on the pressure and temperature. Variations of the excitonic binding energy, photoluminescence energy and oscillator strength are determined according to hydrostatic pressure and temperature for different confinement regimes. The results of our numerical calculations show that the applied pressure favours the electron-hole attraction while the temperature tends to decrease the exciton binding energy. Another interesting result is the possibility of transforming a thin quantum disk into a large-gap material by strain effect. The opposing effects caused by temperature and pressure reveal a big practical interest and offer an alternative way to the tuning of the excitonic transition in optoelectronic devices.

  2. Tunable White Fluorescent Copper Gallium Sulfide Quantum Dots Enabled by Mn Doping.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Daekyoung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Chae, Heeyeop; Seo, Hyo Jin; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2016-05-18

    Fluorescence of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can be tuned by engineering the band gap via size and composition control and further doping them with impurity ions. Targeting on highly bright white-emissive I-III-VI -type copper gallium sulfide (Cu-Ga-S, CGS) host QDs with the entire visible spectral coverage of blue to red, herein, Mn(2+) ion doping, through surface adsorption and lattice diffusion is fulfilled. Upon doping a distinct Mn emission from (4)T1-(6)A1 transition successfully appears in white photoluminescence (PL) of undoped CGS/ZnS core/shell QDs and with varying Mn concentration a systematic white spectral evolution of CGS:Mn/ZnS QDs is achievable with high PL quantum yield retained. The origins of white PL of CGS:Mn/ZnS QDs that is well decomposed into three emission bands are appropriately assigned. The resulting single-phased, doped QDs are then employed as near-UV-to-white down converters for the fabrication of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Electroluminescent properties of white QD-LEDs depending on Mn concentration of CGS:Mn/ZnS QDs and forward current are also discussed in detail.

  3. Supramolecular recognition control of polyethylene glycol modified N-doped graphene quantum dots: tunable selectivity for alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwei; Sun, Jing; Zhu, Chong; He, Peng; Peng, Zheng; Ding, Guqiao

    2016-02-07

    The graphene quantum dot based fluorescent probe community needs unambiguous evidence about the control on the ion selectivity. In this paper, polyethylene glycol modified N-doped graphene quantum dots (PN-GQDs) were synthesized by alkylation reaction between graphene quantum dots and organic halides. We demonstrate the tunable selectivity and sensitivity by controlling the supramolecular recognition through the length and the end group size of the polyether chain on PN-GQDs. The relationship formulae between the selectivity/detection limit and polyether chains are experimentally deduced. The polyether chain length determines the interaction between the PN-GQDs and ions with different ratios of charge to radius, which in turn leads to a good selectivity control. Meanwhile the detection limit shows an exponential growth with the size of end groups of the polyether chain. The PN-GQDs can be used as ultrasensitive and selective fluorescent probes for Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), respectively.

  4. Controlled waveguide coupling for photon emission from colloidal PbS quantum dot using tunable microcavity made of optical polymer and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaka, Takahiro; Mukai, Kohki

    2016-04-01

    A tunable microcavity device composed of optical polymer and Si with a colloidal quantum dot (QD) is proposed as a single-photon source for planar optical circuit. Cavity size is controlled by electrostatic micromachine behavior with the air bridge structure to tune timing of photon injection into optical waveguide from QD. Three-dimensional positioning of a QD in the cavity structure is available using a nanohole on Si processed by scanning probe microscope lithography. We fabricated the prototype microcavity with PbS-QD-mixed polymenthyl methacrylate on a SOI (semiconductor-on-insulator) substrate to show the tunability of cavity size as the shift of emission peak wavelength of QD ensemble.

  5. Tunable Anderson metal-insulator transition in quantum spin-Hall insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chui-Zhen; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-feng; Wang, Ziqiang; Xie, X. C.

    2015-06-01

    We numerically study disorder effects in the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (BHZ) model, and we find that the Anderson transition of a quantum spin-Hall insulator (QSHI) is determined by model parameters. The BHZ Hamiltonian is equivalent to two decoupled spin blocks that belong to the unitary class. In contrast to the common belief that a two-dimensional unitary system scales to an insulator except at certain critical points, we find, through calculations scaling properties of the localization length, level statistics, and participation ratio, that a possible exotic metallic phase emerges between the QSHI and normal insulator phases in the InAs/GaSb-type BHZ model. On the other hand, direct transition from a QSHI to a normal insulator is found in the HgTe/CdTe-type BHZ model. Furthermore, we show that the metallic phase originates from the Berry phase and can survive both inside and outside the gap.

  6. Tunable graphene quantum point contact transistor for DNA detection and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Girdhar, Anuj; Sathe, Chaitanya; Schulten, Klaus; Leburton, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    A graphene membrane conductor containing a nanopore in a quantum point contact (QPC) geometry is a promising candidate to sense, and potentially sequence, DNA molecules translocating through the nanopore. Within this geometry, the shape, size, and position of the nanopore as well as the edge configuration influences the membrane conductance caused by the electrostatic interaction between the DNA nucleotides and the nanopore edge. It is shown that the graphene conductance variations resulting from DNA translocation can be enhanced by choosing a particular geometry as well as by modulating the graphene Fermi energy, which demonstrates the ability to detect conformational transformations of a double-stranded DNA, as well as the passage of individual base pairs of a single-stranded DNA molecule through the nanopore. PMID:25765702

  7. Tunable band offset and recombination in ZnO nanowire-CdTe quantum dot heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haiping; Gan, Lu; Sun, Luwei; Ye, Zhizhen

    2017-10-01

    ZnO nanowire (NW)-CdTe quantum dot (QD) type-II heterostructures were constructed using hydrothermally grown ZnO and colloidal CdTe QDs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to investigate the charge transfer and band offset between CdTe QDs and ZnO NWs. The results demonstrated that the PL shows obvious redshift and prolonged lifetime in the heterostructure, indicating that it originates from recombination between electrons localized in ZnO and holes localized in CdTe. The results reveal that the band offset and charge recombination can be tuned by the growth time or size of CdTe QDs. Our results demonstrate that PL can be a useful tool to evaluate the band alignment and charge recombination in type-II semiconductor heterostructures.

  8. Quantum spin dynamics with pairwise-tunable, long-range interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hung, C.-L.; González-Tudela, Alejandro; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kimble, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a platform for the simulation of quantum magnetism with full control of interactions between pairs of spins at arbitrary distances in 1D and 2D lattices. In our scheme, two internal atomic states represent a pseudospin for atoms trapped within a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). With the atomic transition frequency aligned inside a band gap of the PCW, virtual photons mediate coherent spin–spin interactions between lattice sites. To obtain full control of interaction coefficients at arbitrary atom–atom separations, ground-state energy shifts are introduced as a function of distance across the PCW. In conjunction with auxiliary pump fields, spin-exchange versus atom–atom separation can be engineered with arbitrary magnitude and phase, and arranged to introduce nontrivial Berry phases in the spin lattice, thus opening new avenues for realizing topological spin models. We illustrate the broad applicability of our scheme by explicit construction for several well-known spin models. PMID:27496329

  9. Standoff hyperspectral imaging of explosives residues using broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2010-04-01

    We describe experimental results on the detection of explosives residues with active hyperspectral imaging by illumination of the target surface using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) and imaging using an uncooled microbolometer camera. Explosives have rich absorption features in the molecular fingerprint region that spans 1500 to 500 wavenumbers and is easily probed by the wavelength range of quantum cascade lasers (QCL), which can be fabricated to emit from 3300 to 400 wavenumbers. Our laboratory-built ECQCL consists of a Fabry-Pérot laser with anti-reflection coated front facet that is arranged in a Littman-Metcalf configuration. The ECQCL was operated quasi-CW with a 100 kHz repetition rate, 50% duty cycle drive signal and tuning range from 1102.95 to 983.8 wavenumbers. The active hyperspectral imaging technique forms an image hypercube by recording one image for each tuning step of the ECQCL. For the experiments reported here, each wavelength band was 2 wavenumbers wide and 60 bands of image data were acquired in 2 seconds. The resulting hyperspectral image contains the full absorption spectrum produced by the illumination laser at each pixel in the image which can then be used to identify the explosive type and relative quantity using the rich library of spectral identification approaches developed initially in the remote sensing community. These techniques include spectral feature fitting, matched filtering, and mixture tuned matched filtering. Mixtures of materials can be evaluated using linear spectral unmixing approaches and matched filtering or mixture tuned matched filtering. We provide examples of these methods using ENVI, a commercial spectral image processing software package.

  10. Selective and tunable red- or blue-shift emissions of GaAsP quantum well heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Fu; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Huang, Ching-Yi; Liu, Wei-Ting; Wu, Bao-Hsien; Cheng, Yu-Chen; Hsieh, Kuang-Chien

    2015-03-01

    In this work we demonstrate tunable red- or blue-shift emissions of GaAs0.9P0.1 quantum well (QW) heterostructures. The wavelength shift is achieved by ampoule sealed post-growth annealing of QW with different combinations of dielectric encapsulants and in various ambient conditions. For capless bare samples sealed in ampoules with little arsenic overpressure, furnace anneals at 800°C result in red photoluminescence (PL) shifts asymptotically as much as 75 meV with anneal time up to 40 hours. We attribute this redshift to the inter-diffusion of phosphorous and arsenic in QW and the neighboring confinement layers. For samples capped with a bilayer of SrF2 and SiOx, similar temporal red shifts appear suggesting the combined dielectrics either prohibit or slow down the diffusion of column III vacancies during anneals. For samples capped with either SiOx or SiNx alone their PL spectra first shift toward longer wavelength then toward shorter wavelength. The large turn-around blue-shift (up to 165meV for 40hr annealing under 800°C) is attributed to the intermixing of Ga in QW and Al in the confinement layers. Additional complexity arises when As overpressure is replaced with Ga overpressure. For samples similarly capped with either SiOx or SiNx films, the turn-around blue-shift proceeds much faster (up to 281meV for only 5-hr annealing at 800°C). We attribute the slower blue-shift to the generation and diffusion of column III vacancies while the faster blue-shift to the kick-out of Zn-dopants in the heavily doped contact layer.

  11. Measurement of nitrogen dioxide in cigarette smoke using quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, Joanne H.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Parrish, Milton E.; Crawford, Danielle R.; Gee, Diane L.

    2006-04-01

    Although nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) has been previously reported to be present in cigarette smoke, the concentration estimates were derived from kinetic calculations or from measurements of aged smoke, where NO 2 was formed some time after the puff was taken. The objective of this work was to use tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) equipped with a quantum cascade (QC) laser to determine if NO 2 could be detected and quantified in a fresh puff of cigarette smoke. A temporal resolution of ˜0.16 s allowed measurements to be taken directly as the NO 2 was formed during the puff. Sidestream cigarette smoke was sampled to determine if NO 2 could be detected using TILDAS. Experiments were conducted using 2R4F Kentucky Reference cigarettes with and without a Cambridge filter pad. NO 2 was detected only in the lighting puff of whole mainstream smoke (without a Cambridge filter pad), with no NO 2 detected in the subsequent puffs. The measurement precision was ˜1.0 ppbV Hz -1/2, which allows a detection limit of ˜0.2 ng in a 35 ml puff volume. More NO 2 was generated in the lighting puff using a match or blue flame lighter (29 ± 21 ng) than when using an electric lighter (9 ± 3 ng). In the presence of a Cambridge filter pad, NO 2 was observed in the gas phase mainstream smoke for every puff (total of 200 ± 30 ng/cigarette) and is most likely due to smoke chemistry taking place on the Cambridge filter pad during the smoke collection process. Nitrogen dioxide was observed continuously in the sidestream smoke starting with the lighting puff.

  12. Tunable quantum chaos in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model coupled to a thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiming; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Pengfei

    2017-07-01

    The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model describes Majorana fermions with random interaction, which displays many interesting properties such as non-Fermi liquid behavior, quantum chaos, emergent conformal symmetry and holographic duality. Here we consider a SYK model or a chain of SYK models with N Majorana fermion modes coupled to another SYK model with N 2 Majorana fermion modes, in which the latter has many more degrees of freedom and plays the role as a thermal bath. For a single SYK model coupled to the thermal bath, we show that although the Lyapunov exponent is still proportional to temperature, it monotonically decreases from 2 π/β ( β = 1 /( k B T), T is temperature) to zero as the coupling strength to the thermal bath increases. For a chain of SYK models, when they are uniformly coupled to the thermal bath, we show that the butterfly velocity displays a crossover from a √{T} -dependence at relatively high temperature to a linear T-dependence at low temperature, with the crossover temperature also controlled by the coupling strength to the thermal bath. If only the end of the SYK chain is coupled to the thermal bath, the model can introduce a spatial dependence of both the Lyapunov exponent and the butterfly velocity. Our models provide canonical examples for the study of thermalization within chaotic models.

  13. White carbon: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with tunable quantum yield in a reproducible green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Meiling, Till T; Cywiński, Piotr J; Bald, Ilko

    2016-06-23

    In this study, a new reliable, economic, and environmentally-friendly one-step synthesis is established to obtain carbon nanodots (CNDs) with well-defined and reproducible photoluminescence (PL) properties via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of starch and Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer as carbon sources. Three kinds of CNDs are prepared using different sets of above mentioned starting materials. The as-synthesized CNDs: C-CND (starch only), N-CND 1 (starch in TAE) and N-CND 2 (TAE only) exhibit highly homogenous PL and are ready to use without need for further purification. The CNDs are stable over a long period of time (>1 year) either in solution or as freeze-dried powder. Depending on starting material, CNDs with PL quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from less than 1% up to 28% are obtained. The influence of the precursor concentration, reaction time and type of additives on the optical properties (UV-Vis absorption, PL emission spectrum and PLQY) is carefully investigated, providing insight into the chemical processes that occur during CND formation. Remarkably, upon freeze-drying the initially brown CND-solution turns into a non-fluorescent white/slightly brown powder which recovers PL in aqueous solution and can potentially be applied as fluorescent marker in bio-imaging, as a reduction agent or as a photocatalyst.

  14. White carbon: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with tunable quantum yield in a reproducible green synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Meiling, Till T.; Cywiński, Piotr J.; Bald, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new reliable, economic, and environmentally-friendly one-step synthesis is established to obtain carbon nanodots (CNDs) with well-defined and reproducible photoluminescence (PL) properties via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of starch and Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer as carbon sources. Three kinds of CNDs are prepared using different sets of above mentioned starting materials. The as-synthesized CNDs: C-CND (starch only), N-CND 1 (starch in TAE) and N-CND 2 (TAE only) exhibit highly homogenous PL and are ready to use without need for further purification. The CNDs are stable over a long period of time (>1 year) either in solution or as freeze-dried powder. Depending on starting material, CNDs with PL quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from less than 1% up to 28% are obtained. The influence of the precursor concentration, reaction time and type of additives on the optical properties (UV-Vis absorption, PL emission spectrum and PLQY) is carefully investigated, providing insight into the chemical processes that occur during CND formation. Remarkably, upon freeze-drying the initially brown CND-solution turns into a non-fluorescent white/slightly brown powder which recovers PL in aqueous solution and can potentially be applied as fluorescent marker in bio-imaging, as a reduction agent or as a photocatalyst. PMID:27334409

  15. White carbon: Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with tunable quantum yield in a reproducible green synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiling, Till T.; Cywiński, Piotr J.; Bald, Ilko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new reliable, economic, and environmentally-friendly one-step synthesis is established to obtain carbon nanodots (CNDs) with well-defined and reproducible photoluminescence (PL) properties via the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of starch and Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE) buffer as carbon sources. Three kinds of CNDs are prepared using different sets of above mentioned starting materials. The as-synthesized CNDs: C-CND (starch only), N-CND 1 (starch in TAE) and N-CND 2 (TAE only) exhibit highly homogenous PL and are ready to use without need for further purification. The CNDs are stable over a long period of time (>1 year) either in solution or as freeze-dried powder. Depending on starting material, CNDs with PL quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from less than 1% up to 28% are obtained. The influence of the precursor concentration, reaction time and type of additives on the optical properties (UV-Vis absorption, PL emission spectrum and PLQY) is carefully investigated, providing insight into the chemical processes that occur during CND formation. Remarkably, upon freeze-drying the initially brown CND-solution turns into a non-fluorescent white/slightly brown powder which recovers PL in aqueous solution and can potentially be applied as fluorescent marker in bio-imaging, as a reduction agent or as a photocatalyst.

  16. Tunable Broadband Nonlinear Optical Properties of Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots for Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Shuang; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Huang, Fei; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Broadband nonlinear optical properties from 500 to 1550 nm of ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) have been extensively investigated by using the open-aperture Z-scan technique. Our results show that BPQDs exhibit significant nonlinear absorption in the visible range, but saturable absorption in the near-infrared range under femtosecond excitation. The calculated nonlinear absorption coefficients were found to be (7.49 ± 0.23) × 10−3, (1.68 ± 0.078) × 10−3 and (0.81 ± 0.03) × 10−3 cm/GW for 500, 700 and 900 nm, respectively. Femtosecond pump-probe measurements performed on BPQDs revealed that two-photon absorption is responsible for the observed nonlinear absorption. The saturable absorption behaviors observed at 1050, 1350 and 1550 nm are due to ground-state bleaching induced by photo-excitation. Our results suggest that BPQDs have great potential in applications as broadband optical limiters in the visible range or saturable absorbers in the near-infrared range for ultrafast laser pulses. These ultrasmall BPQDs are potentially useful as broadband optical elements in ultrafast photonics devices. PMID:28772566

  17. Size specific emission in peptide capped gold quantum clusters with tunable photoswitching behavior.

    PubMed

    Baral, Abhishek; Basu, Kingshuk; Ghosh, Sirshendu; Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Roy, Subhasish; Datta, Ayan; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-03-16

    Three different types of fluorescent gold clusters (namely blue, green and red emitting) have been prepared from a gold precursor (chloroauric acid) under moderate conditions in aqueous medium. A cysteine containing dipeptide has been used for the formation of these quantum clusters as this peptide molecule contains a thiol group in the side chain to cap these nascently formed clusters and the free amino and carboxylic moieties assist in water solubility. Thus, the clusters are also environmentally friendly as the capped peptide is made up of only naturally occurring protein amino acids. These clusters have been well characterized by using UV-visible, fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and ultrahigh resolution field emission gun-transmission electron microscopy (UHR-FEG-TEM). Arrangements of gold atoms and their interaction with the corresponding ligands in three different fluorescent clusters have been predicted computationally. The excited state behavior of three different clusters has also been studied using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and computational studies suggest intersystem crossing (S1 → T1) in the case of red-emitting Au23 clusters. Interestingly, these gold clusters exhibit semiconducting and photoswitching properties (Ion/Ioff), which are shown to be controlled by varying the size of these clusters. This holds future promise of using these gold cluster based nanomaterials for optoelectronic applications.

  18. Tunable open-access microcavities for on-chip cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, C. A.; Melnyk, A.; Ramp, H.; Bitarafan, M. H.; Vick, D.; LeBlanc, L. J.; Davis, J. P.; DeCorby, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of on-chip microcavities and show their potential as a platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Microcavity arrays were formed by the controlled buckling of SiO2/Ta2O5 Bragg mirrors and exhibit a reflectance-limited finesse of 3500 and mode volumes as small as 35 λ 3 . We show that the cavity resonance can be thermally tuned into alignment with the D2 transition of 87Rb and outline two methods for providing atom access to the cavity. Owing to their small mode volume and high finesse, these cavities exhibit single-atom cooperativities as high as C 1 = 65 . A unique feature of the buckled-dome architecture is that the strong-coupling parameter g 0 / κ is nearly independent of the cavity size. Furthermore, strong coupling should be achievable with only modest improvements in mirror reflectance, suggesting that these monolithic devices could provide a robust and scalable solution to the engineering of light-matter interfaces.

  19. Widely tunable narrow-linewidth 1.5 μm light source based on a monolithically integrated quantum dot laser array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Sichkovskyi, V.; Bjelica, M.; Rippien, A.; Schnabel, F.; Kaiser, M.; Eyal, O.; Witzigmann, B.; Eisenstein, G.; Reithmaier, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    A monolithically integrated widely tunable narrow-linewidth light source was realized on an InP-based quantum dot (QD) gain material. The quasi zero-dimensional nature of QDs and the resulting low linewidth enhancement factor enabled standalone distributed feedback (DFB) lasers with intrinsic linewidths as low as 110 kHz. An integrated device comprising four DFB lasers with on-chip micro-heaters, a 3 dB-coupler network, and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), which covers the entire C+ telecom band, exhibits a linewidth of below 200 kHz independent of the SOA operation current.

  20. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  1. Spin transistor action via tunable Landau-Zener transitions in magnetic semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Spin-transistors, employing spin-orbit interaction like Datta-Das prototypes, principally suffer from low signal levels due to limitations in spin injection efficiency, fast spin relaxation and dephasing processes. Here we present an alternative concept to implement spin transistor action where efficiency is improved by keeping spin transport adiabatic. To this end a helical stray field B, generated by ferromagnetic Dysprosium stripes, is superimposed upon a two-dimensional electron system in (Cd,Mn)Te, containing Mn ions with spin 5/2. Due to the giant spin splitting, occurring at low temperatures and small B in (Cd,Mn)Te quantum wells, the B-helix translates into a spin-helix and the electron spins follow adiabatically the imposed spin texture. Within this approach the transmission of spin-polarized electrons between two contacts is regulated by changing the degree of adiabaticity, i.e. an electron's ability to follow the spin helix. This is done by means of a small applied homogeneous magnetic field while the degree of adiabaticity is monitored by the channel resistance. Our scheme allows spin information to propagate efficiently over typical device distances and provides an alternative route to realize spintronics applications. We note that our concept is not restricted to a particular choice of materials, temperature, methods of spin injection, manipulation as well as detection. Work done in cooperation with Christian Betthausen, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany; Tobias Dollinger, Henri Saarikosi, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany; Valeri Kolkovsky, Grzegorz Karczewski, Tomasz Wojtowicz, Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-02668 Warsaw, Poland; and Klaus Richter, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg. Financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB 689, WE 247618, and FOR 1483 is

  2. Tunable InGaN quantum dot microcavity light emitters with 129 nm tuning range from yellow-green to violet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Xu, Rong-Bin; Weng, Guo-En; Xu, Huan; Ying, Lei-Ying; Zheng, Zhi-Wei; Long, Hao; Zhang, Bao-Ping; Hofmann, Werner; Liu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Jian; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    An electrically pumped wavelength-tunable InGaN quantum dot (QD) based microcavity (MC) lighter emitter with a large tuning range of 129 nm was demonstrated. The multi-mode emission spectrum was tuned by injected current from 564 nm (yellow-green) to 435 nm (violet). The MC light emitter is featured with a double dielectric distributed Bragg reflector structure and a copper substrate fabricated using substrate transfer and laser lift off techniques. By utilizing an InGaN QD active layer with a tunable broad emission spectrum and a Fabry-Pérot cavity which allows multi-longitudinal mode resonating, the emission spectrum could be tuned among several particular cavity modes, which are decided by the gain enhancement factor. In addition, both the enhancement and suppression of MC emission modes caused by the gain enhancement factor were observed in a single MC device. As the first electrically driven III-V nitride semiconductor based tunable MC light emitter with a tuning range of 129 nm, the device is promising for applications such as in wide-gamut compact displays and projectors.

  3. Luminescent Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Carbon Quantum Dots Composites with Tunable Water-Induced Shape Memory Behavior in Different pH and Temperature Environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanghui; Wan, Xuejuan; Liu, Yijin; Li, Rui; Su, Yikun; Zeng, Xierong; Tang, Jiaoning

    2016-12-21

    Luminescent water-induced shape memory polymer (SMP) composites with tunable shape recovery rate are developed by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs). The oxygen and active hydrogen-rich CQDs can serve as extra physical cross-linking points in PVA via strong hydrogen bonding interaction, which largely improves the shape memory performances of PVA. At room temperature, water can successfully actuate the shape recovery of deformed PVA/CQDs composite. It is demonstrated that this water-induced shape recovery is mainly attributed to the plasticizing effect of water and its competitive hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, a quantitative bending test suggests that the shape recovery time of this water-induced SMP is tunable by altering the environmental pH value and temperature, and a relatively large shape recovery time window (from 20 to 200 s) can be achieved. In addition, the introduction of CQDs endows the PVA/CQDs SMP composites with excellent luminescent property, which makes the shape change of SMP visible under UV light. It should be noted that the mild stimulus condition and tunable shape recovery performances make the luminescent visible PVA/CQDs SMP feasible for diverse biological applications in smart medical devices, stimuli-responsive drug-release, and intelligent sensors in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Ag- and Mn-doped ZnInS/ZnS dual-emission quantum dots with zone tunability in the color coordinate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangguang; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Qi, Zhengqing; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping

    2016-05-06

    In this work, we used Ag- and Mn-doped ZnInS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) acting as a new generation of nontoxic dual-emission QDs with simultaneous tunable emission wavelengths and dual-emission ratiometric, which makes nontoxic dual-emission QDs with broad zone tunability in the color coordinate. The Ag-doped ZnInS ternary QDs can give rise to largely tunable emission wavelengths from 497 nm to 631 nm. The ratiometric of Ag and Mn dual emissions can be tuned by controlling Ag–Mn and Mn–Mn dopant coupling. With increased Mn doping amount, the increased Ag–Mn dopant coupling leads to increased Mn emission at the expense of lowered Ag emission and Ag fluorescence lifetime. The Mn–Mn coupling can be controlled by using different doping manners: co-doping Ag and Mn in ZnInS core or separate-doping Ag in ZnInS core and Mn in ZnS shell. Compared with co-doping, separate doping has weaker Mn–Mn interactions, an increased Mn irradiative recombination rate constant, and bright Mn photoluminescence.

  5. Fabrication and characteristics of GaAs-AlGaAs tunable laser diodes with DBR and phase-control sections integrated by compositional disordering of a quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takaaki; Maeda, Minoru; Suehiro, Masayuki; Hosomatsu, Haruo

    1991-06-01

    GaAs-AlGaAs rib-waveguide graded-index separate-confinement heterostructure (GRINSCH) single-quantum-well (SQW) tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diodes were fabricated by (EB) lithography, ion implantation, and two-step metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth. Active and passive waveguides were monolithically integrated by the compositional disordering of quantum-well heterostructures using silicon ion implantation. First-order gratings and rib waveguides were adopted with EB lithography to improve lasing characteristics, and they have wide application to photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Waveguide losses of partially disordered GRINSCH-SQW passive waveguides were as low as 4.4/cm at the lasing wavelength. A narrow linewidth as low as 560 kHz and a frequency tuning of more than 2.9 THz were obtained. The results show that this fabrication process is useful for PICs.

  6. Fabrication of 780-nm AlGaAs Tunable Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser Diodes by Using Compositional Disordering of a Quantum Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takaaki; Suehiro, Masayuki; Maeda, Minoru; Hihara, Mamoru; Yamada, Noriyuki; Hosomatsu, Haruo

    1991-12-01

    AlGaAs tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diodes (LD’s) with a lasing wavelength of 780 nm were fabricated by means of electron beam (EB) lithography, ion implantation, and two-step metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Active and passive waveguides were monolithically integrated by using silicon ion implantation for compositional disordering of quantum-well heterostructures. The optimum single-quantum-well (SQW) structure, with low threshold current and low internal loss, is about 5 nm thick and has an Al mole fraction of 0.06. The graded-index separate-confinement heterostructure (GRIN-SCH) with a carrier-blocking layer was also used to improve the characteristic temperature of a two-step-growth LD. A Iinewidth as narrow as 690 kHz and a frequency tuning of more than 1.7 THz were obtained.

  7. Magnetic-field tunable THz detectors based on GaAs/AlGaAs and CdTe/CdMgTe quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, J.; Białek, M.; Grigelionis, I.; Adamus, Z.; Wróbel, J.; Umansky, V.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Grynberg, M.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic-field tunable semiconductor detectors are used in THz spectroscopy due to their sensitivity and possibility to respond to photons in a broad frequency range. We compare THz detectors processed on high electron mobility GaAs/GaAlAs and CdTe/CdMgTe quantum wells. Transmission, photocurrent and photovoltage measurements were carried out as a function of the magnetic field at a constant energy of incident THz photons from a THz laser. The samples investigated were grid-gated and grid-free. The spectra show features resulting from excitation of the cyclotron resonance and magnetoplasmons. Theoretical models allow to analyze quantitatively the frequency of observed excitations and determine plasmon dispersion relations. This study allows to point at advantages and disadvantages of THz cyclotron-resonance and plasmonic detectors fabricated on GaAs- and CdTe-based quantum wells as well as to compare these two types of devices.

  8. Low threshold current and widely tunable external cavity lasers with chirped multilayer InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot structure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gray; Su, Pei-Yin; Cheng, Hsu-Chieh

    2012-02-13

    Low threshold and widely tunable InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers are implemented with grating-coupled external-cavity arrangement. Throughout the tuning range of 130 nm, from 1160 to 1290 nm, the threshold current density is not more than 0.9 kA/cm2 and no noticeable threshold jump is observed. For a shorter-cavity device, the injection current is kept at a record low value of 90 mA but the tuning range is further extended to 150 nm, from 1143 to 1293 nm. The effect of cavity length on the tuning characteristics is discussed and the strategy for design and optimization of multilayer quantum-dot structure is also proposed.

  9. Controlled group V intermixing in InGaAsP quantum well structures and its application to the fabrication of two section tunable lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J. H.; Dong, J. R.; Chua, S. J.; Lai, M. Y.; Foo, B. C.; Thompson, D. A.; Robinson, B. J.; Lee, A. S. W.; Hazell, John; Sproule, Irwin

    2002-10-01

    We report the technique of controlled group V quantum well intermixing (QWI) in a compressively strained In0.76Ga0.24As0.85P0.15/In0.76Ga0.24As0.52P0.48 multiquantum well laser structure and its application to the fabrication of two-section tunable lasers. The blueshift of the band-gap energy was enhanced by capping the samples with films of SiO2 or low-temperature grown InP, while suppressed by a SixNy film with a refractive index of about 2.1. Spatially selective band-gap tuning was achieved by patterning the dielectric film into dot and strip arrays with different surface coverage. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra showed that the enhanced blueshift was caused by the interdiffusion of group V atoms between the quantum wells and barriers. A group V interstitial interdiffusion mechanism is proposed for the sample capped with SiO2 and this is supported by the even more efficient intermixing induced by low-temperature InP, which contains a high concentration of excess phosphorus. A two-section tunable laser operating around 1.55 μm was fabricated using this QWI technology. A tuning range of about 10 nm was demonstrated by simply changing the current injected into the phase tuning section.

  10. Glycerol-regulated facile synthesis and targeted cell imaging of highly luminescent Ag2Te quantum dots with tunable near-infrared emission.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yanfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this work, highly luminescent and emission tunable Ag2Te quantum dots (QDs) were facilely prepared by using water-dispersed glycerol as viscous solvent and CH3COOAg/Na2TeO3 as Ag/Te precursors. Viscous glycerol was utilized to slow the nucleation and growth of QDs at 200°C, and enabled the isolation of QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results revealed that the as-prepared Ag2Te QDs exhibited tunable near-infrared emission from 930 to 1084nm, high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs, more than 20%), good photostability and low cytotoxicity. After surface coating of a thin silica shell (∼1.4nm), the resulting NH2 terminated Ag2Te@SiO2-NH2 displayed enhanced PL QYs, higher photostability and biocompatibility when compared with the original Ag2Te QDs. Through a facile carboxy-amine coupling, folic acid (FA) was grafted with Ag2Te@SiO2-NH2 to form Ag2Te@SiO2-FA nanocomposites, which were used for targeted PL imaging of folate receptor over-expressed tumor cells.

  11. Room temperature absorption in laterally biased quantum infrared detectors fabricated by MBE regrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Álvaro; San-Román, Rocío; Hierro, Adrián

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we show room temperature operation of a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) using lateral conduction through ohmic contacts deposited at both sides of two n-doped quantum wells. To reduce the dark current due to direct conduction in the wells, we apply an electric field between the quantum wells and two pinch-off Schottky gates, in a fashion similar to a field effect device. Since the normal incidence absorption is strongly reduced in intersubband transitions in quantum wells, we first analyze the response of a detector based on quantum dots (QD). This QD device shows photocurrent signal up to 150 K when it is processed in conventional vertical detector. However, it is possible to observe room temperature signal when it is processed in a lateral structure. Finally, the room temperature photoresponse of the QWIP is demonstrated, and compared with theory. An excellent agreement between the estimated and measured characteristics of the device is found.

  12. Mn2+-Doped CdSe/CdS Core/Multishell Colloidal Quantum Wells Enabling Tunable Carrier-Dopant Exchange Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delikanli, Savas; Scrace, Thomas; Murphy, Joseph; Barman, Biblop; Tsai, Yutsung; Zhang, Peiyao; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Christodoulides, Joseph; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Petrou, Athos; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    We report the manifestations of carrier-dopant exchange interactions in colloidal Mn2+-doped CdSe/CdS core/multishell quantum wells. In our solution-processed quantum well heterostructures, Mn2+ was incorporated by growing a Cd0.985Mn0:015S monolayer shell on undoped CdSe nanoplatelets using the colloidal atomic layer deposition technique. The carrier-magnetic ion exchange interaction effects are tunable through wave function engineering. This is realized by controlling the spatial overlap between the carrier wave functions with the manganese ions through adjusting the location, composition, and number of the CdSe, Cd1-xMnxS, and CdS layers. Our colloidal quantum wells, which exhibit magneto-optical properties analogous to those of epitaxially grown quantum wells, offer new opportunities for solution-processed spin-based semiconductor devices. H.V.D. acknowledges support from EU-FP7 Nanophotonics4Energy NoE, TUBITAK, NRF-CRP-6-2010-02 and A*STAR of Singapore. Work at the University at Buffalo was supported by NSF DMR 1305770.

  13. Tunable circuit for tunable capacitor devices

    DOEpatents

    Rivkina, Tatiana; Ginley, David S.

    2006-09-19

    A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.

  14. Laser Optical Biasing of the Quantum Transport Properties of n-InSb.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    of the SdH oscillations. The research being done is directed at obtaining fundamental information concerning the effects of CO and CO2 laser radiation on the quantum transport properties on n-InSb. (Author)

  15. The Dawn of New Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Nanocrystals for Tunable Bandgaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, Richard J. Alan

    Ge1-xSnx alloys are among a small class of benign semiconductors with composition tunable bandgaps in the near-infrared spectrum. As the amount of Sn is increased the band energy decreases and a transition from indirect to direct band structure occurs. Hence, they are prime candidates for fabrication of Si-compatible electronic and photonic devices, field effect transistors, and novel charge storage device applications. Success has been achieved with the growth of Ge1-xSnx thin film alloys with Sn compositions up to 34%. However, the synthesis of nanocrystalline alloys has proven difficult due to larger discrepancies ( 14%) in lattice constants. Moreover, little is known about the chemical factors that govern the growth of Ge1-xSnx nanoalloys and the effects of quantum confinement on structure and optical properties. A synthesis has been developed to produce phase pure Ge1-xSnx nanoalloys which provides control over both size and composition. Three sets of Ge 1-xSnx nanocrystals have been studied, 15-23 nm, 3.4-4.6 nm and 1.5-2.5 nm with Sn compositions from x = 0.000-0.279. Synthetic parameters were explored to control the nucleation and growth as well as the factors that have led to the elimination of undesired metallic impurities. The structural analysis of all nanocrystals suggests the diamond cubic structure typically reported for Ge1-xSnx thin films and nanocrystalline alloys. As-synthesized Ge1-xSnx nanoalloys exhibit high thermal stability and moderate resistance against sintering up to 400-500 °C and are devoid of crystalline and amorphous elemental Sn impurities. The largest set of nanocrystals (15-23 nm) were useful in determining the compositional dependence on lattice parameters as studied using powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Systematic expansion of the cubic Ge lattice with increasing Sn composition was confirmed suggesting homogenous distribution of Sn and Ge in the nanocrystals. High resolution scanning transmission electron

  16. Circadian-tunable Perovskite Quantum Dot-based Down-Converted Multi-Package White LED with a Color Fidelity Index over 90.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jae Byung; Do, Young Rag

    2017-06-05

    New metrics of the color and circadian performances of down-converted white light-emitting diodes (DC-WLEDs) are rapidly becoming popular in smart lighting systems. This is due to the increased desire for accurate analytical methods to measure the effects of newly developed quantum dot (QD)-based lighting on the vision, color, and circadian sensors of retina cells in the human eye. In this regard, a two-measure system known as technical memorandum TM-30-2015 (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America), encompassing the color fidelity index (CFI, R f ) and the color gamut index (CGI, R g ), has been developed as a new metrics of color to replace the currently utilized color rendering index (CRI, R a ). In addition, the tunability of the circadian efficacy of radiation (CER) is now more important due to its effect on the control of melatonin suppression/secretion, resetting of the central/local clocks of individuals given their daily cycles, and benefits to human health. In this paper, we developed and analyzed six-colored perovskite (Pe; cyan, green, yellowish green, amber, orange, and red colors) QDs-based multi-package WLED, and optimized the SPDs of tunable PeQD-based multi-package WLEDs in terms of promising human-centric lighting device, given its optimized visual energy, color qualities and health-promoting effects.

  17. Colloidal Organometal Halide Perovskite (MAPbBrxI3−x, 0≤x≤3) Quantum Dots: Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photoluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xiangxing; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskite materials, typically methylammonium lead trihalide (MAPbX3: MA = methylammonium; X = Br, I), are recently attract enormous attention for their distinguished photo-electronic properties. The control of morphology, composition and dispersability of MAPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals is crucial for the property tailoring and still a major challenge. Here we report the synthesis of colloidal MAPbBrxI3−x(0 ≤ x ≤ 3) nanocrystals at room temperature by using alkyl carboxylate as capping ligands. These nanocrystals exhibit continuously tunable UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) across the visible spectrum, which is attributed to the quantum confinement effect with certain stoichiometry. Their unique exciton recombination dynamics was investigated and discussed. PMID:27775023

  18. Colloidal Organometal Halide Perovskite (MAPbBrxI3‑x, 0≤x≤3) Quantum Dots: Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xiangxing; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-10-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskite materials, typically methylammonium lead trihalide (MAPbX3: MA = methylammonium X = Br, I), are recently attract enormous attention for their distinguished photo-electronic properties. The control of morphology, composition and dispersability of MAPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals is crucial for the property tailoring and still a major challenge. Here we report the synthesis of colloidal MAPbBrxI3‑x(0 ≤ x ≤ 3) nanocrystals at room temperature by using alkyl carboxylate as capping ligands. These nanocrystals exhibit continuously tunable UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) across the visible spectrum, which is attributed to the quantum confinement effect with certain stoichiometry. Their unique exciton recombination dynamics was investigated and discussed.

  19. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Tunable All-Optical Filtering and Buffering in a Coupled Quantum Dot-Planar Photonic Crystal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yong; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-08-01

    We theoretically investigate controlled tunable all-optical filtering and buffering of optical pulses in a hybrid nano-photonic structure, where a single quantum dot (QD) embedded in a photonic crystal nanocavity is side-coupled between a bare nanocavity and a photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate that there is a sharp low-loss transmission peak in the transmission spectrum under even low QD-nanocavity coupling strength and the input optical pulses can be delayed up to several hundred picoseconds within the dephasing time of the QD. The filtering regime can be shifted readily by manipulating the detuning between the QD excitonic transition frequency and resonant frequency of the nanocavity mode, which can be explored in future for on-chip all-optical logic and signal processing.

  20. Quasiparticle spin relaxation with superconducting velocity-tunable state in GaAs(100) quantum wells in proximity to s -wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the quasiparticle spin relaxation with superconducting-velocity-tunable state in GaAs (100) quantum wells in proximity to an s -wave superconductor. We first present the influence of the supercurrent on the quasiparticle state in GaAs (100) quantum wells, which can be tuned by the superconducting velocity. Rich features such as the suppressed Cooper pairings, large quasiparticle density and nonmonotonically tunable momentum current can be realized by varying the superconducting velocity. In the degenerate regime, the quasiparticle Fermi surface is composed by two arcs, referred to as Fermi arcs, which are contributed by the electron- and holelike branches. The D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation is then explored, and intriguing physics is revealed when the Fermi arc emerges. Specifically, when the order parameter tends to zero, it is found that the branch-mixing scattering is forbidden in the quasielectron band. When the condensation process associated with the annihilation of the quasielectron and quasihole is slow, this indicates that the electron- and holelike Fermi arcs in the quasielectron band are independent. The open structure of the Fermi arc leads to the nonzero angular average of the effective magnetic field due to the spin-orbit coupling, which acts as an effective Zeeman field. This Zeeman field leads to spin oscillations even in the strong-scattering regime. Moreover, in the strong-scattering regime, we show that the open structure of the Fermi arc also leads to the insensitiveness of the spin relaxation to the momentum scattering, in contrast to the conventional motional narrowing situation. Nevertheless, with a finite order parameter, the branch-mixing scattering can be triggered, opening the interbranch spin relaxation channel, which is dominant in the strong-scattering regime. In contrast to the situation with an extremely small order parameter, due to the interbranch channel, the spin oscillations vanish and the spin relaxation

  1. Parameter optimization in biased decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-10-01

    The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.

  2. Five-band bias-selectable integrated quantum well detector in an n-p-n architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, G.; Aytac, Y.; Perera, A. G. U.; Matsik, S. G.; Buchanan, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Liu, H. C.

    2010-12-01

    A detector with five bands covering visible to long-wave infrared is demonstrated using a GaAs-based n-p-n-architecture. The major elements are two back-to-back connected p-i-n photodiodes with InGaAs/GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs-based quantum wells integrated within the n-regions. At 80 K, a preliminary detector shows two combinations of bands, each responding in three bands, covering the 0.6-0.8, 3-4, and 4-8 μm ranges and the 0.8-0.9, 0.9-1.0, and 9-13 μm ranges. A good selection of these two combinations based on the bias voltage polarity is observed. A similar four-band detector without any cross-talk between the bands is proposed using In0.53Ga0.47As/InP material system.

  3. Tunable Solid-State Quantum Memory Using Rare-Earth-Ion-Doped Crystal, Nd3(+):GaN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-26

    provide a tunable memory. To vary the applied field, we designed and grew a series of Nd-doped GaN p-i-n structures, strain- balanced superlattice...27 Fig. 23 Electric field vs. GaN well/ AlxGa(1-x)N barrier thickness for strain- balanced superlattice (SBSL) structures with...of Nd-doped GaN p-i-n structures, strain- balanced superlattice structures, and periodic unbalanced structures. 2. Introduction Because of an

  4. Formation of a protected sub-band for conduction in quantum point contacts under extreme biasing.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Han, J E; Xiao, S; Song, J; Reno, J L; Bird, J P

    2014-02-01

    Managing energy dissipation is critical to the scaling of current microelectronics and to the development of novel devices that use quantum coherence to achieve enhanced functionality. To this end, strategies are needed to tailor the electron-phonon interaction, which is the dominant mechanism for cooling non-equilibrium ('hot') carriers. In experiments aimed at controlling the quantum state, this interaction causes decoherence that fundamentally disrupts device operation. Here, we show a contrasting behaviour, in which strong electron-phonon scattering can instead be used to generate a robust mode for electrical conduction in GaAs quantum point contacts, driven into extreme non-equilibrium by nanosecond voltage pulses. When the amplitude of these pulses is much larger than all other relevant energy scales, strong electron-phonon scattering induces an attraction between electrons in the quantum-point-contact channel, which leads to the spontaneous formation of a narrow current filament and to a renormalization of the electronic states responsible for transport. The lowest of these states coalesce to form a sub-band separated from all others by an energy gap larger than the source voltage. Evidence for this renormalization is provided by a suppression of heating-related signatures in the transient conductance, which becomes pinned near 2e(2)/h (e, electron charge; h, Planck constant) for a broad range of source and gate voltages. This collective non-equilibrium mode is observed over a wide range of temperature (4.2-300 K) and may provide an effective means to manage electron-phonon scattering in nanoscale devices.

  5. Exponentially Biased Ground-State Sampling of Quantum Annealing Machines with Transverse-Field Driving Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2017-02-01

    We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated with a particular instance. Even worse, some states are exponentially suppressed, in agreement with previous studies on toy model problems [New J. Phys. 11, 073021 (2009), 10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073021]. These results suggest that more complex driving Hamiltonians are needed in future quantum annealing machines to ensure a fair sampling of the ground-state manifold.

  6. Exponentially Biased Ground-State Sampling of Quantum Annealing Machines with Transverse-Field Driving Hamiltonians.

    PubMed

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2017-02-17

    We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated with a particular instance. Even worse, some states are exponentially suppressed, in agreement with previous studies on toy model problems [New J. Phys. 11, 073021 (2009)NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073021]. These results suggest that more complex driving Hamiltonians are needed in future quantum annealing machines to ensure a fair sampling of the ground-state manifold.

  7. Nonlinear thermoelectric response due to energy-dependent transport properties of a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilans, Artis; Burke, Adam M.; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Leijnse, Martin; Linke, Heiner

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots are useful model systems for studying quantum thermoelectric behavior because of their highly energy-dependent electron transport properties, which are tunable by electrostatic gating. As a result of this strong energy dependence, the thermoelectric response of quantum dots is expected to be nonlinear with respect to an applied thermal bias. However, until now this effect has been challenging to observe because, first, it is experimentally difficult to apply a sufficiently large thermal bias at the nanoscale and, second, it is difficult to distinguish thermal bias effects from purely temperature-dependent effects due to overall heating of a device. Here we take advantage of a novel thermal biasing technique and demonstrate a nonlinear thermoelectric response in a quantum dot which is defined in a heterostructured semiconductor nanowire. We also show that a theoretical model based on the Master equations fully explains the observed nonlinear thermoelectric response given the energy-dependent transport properties of the quantum dot.

  8. Two-color In0.4Ga0.6As/Al0.1Ga0.9As quantum dot infrared photodetector with double tunneling barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianliang; Ma, Wenquan; Wei, Yang; Zhang, Yanhua; Huo, Yongheng; Cui, Kai; Chen, Lianghui

    2011-03-01

    We report a two-color quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) using double tunneling barriers (DTBs) on one side of the InGaAs/AlGaAs dots. The two-color detection is achieved by changing the polarity of the applied bias voltages. In contrast, the same QDIP structure without the DTBs does not exhibit this detection wavelength tunability by switching the bias polarity. The two-color detection is ascribed to a different escape mechanism of electrons between positive and negative biases. The electrons escape out of the quantum well through resonant tunneling for a positive bias voltage while tunnel through a triangular barrier for a negative bias voltage.

  9. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott

    2017-07-11

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  10. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  11. Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in phase-biased superconductor-quantum dot-superconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiršanskas, Gediminas; Goldstein, Moshe; Flensberg, Karsten; Glazman, Leonid I.; Paaske, Jens

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of a phase difference on Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states in a spinful Coulomb-blockaded quantum dot contacted by a superconducting loop. In the limit where charging energy is larger than the superconducting gap, we determine the subgap excitation spectrum, the corresponding supercurrent, and the differential conductance as measured by a normal-metal tunnel probe. In absence of a phase difference only one linear combination of the superconductor lead electrons couples to the spin, which gives a single YSR state. With finite phase difference, however, it is effectively a two-channel scattering problem and therefore an additional state emerges from the gap edge. The energy of the phase-dependent YSR states depend on the gate voltage and one state can cross zero energy twice inside the valley with odd occupancy. These crossings are shifted by the phase difference towards the charge degeneracy points, corresponding to larger exchange couplings. Moreover, the zero-energy crossings give rise to resonant peaks in the differential conductance with magnitude 4 e2/h . Finally, we demonstrate that the quantum fluctuations of the dot spin do not alter qualitatively any of the results.

  12. Tunable Microwave Transversal Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFOSR-TR. 84-0977 S4. TI TLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYP ?FE&T&PEO OEE U!NABLE MICROWAVE TRANSVERSAL FILTERS...this goal through magnetostatic waves MSW propagating at microwave frequency in magnetically biased, liquid phase epitaxial films of yttrium iron...garnet (YIG) grown on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). This technology has a number of advantages; low loss (greater than 30db/usec at xband), tunable by

  13. Water-soluble multidentate polymers compactly coating Ag2S quantum dots with minimized hydrodynamic size and bright emission tunable from red to second near-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Gui, Rijun; Wan, Ajun; Liu, Xifeng; Yuan, Wen; Jin, Hui

    2014-05-21

    Hydrodynamic size-minimized quantum dots (QDs) have outstanding physicochemical properties for applications in multicolor molecular and cellular imaging at the level of single molecules and nanoparticles. In this study, we have reported the aqueous synthesis of Ag2S QDs by using thiol-based multidentate polymers as capping reagents. By regulating the composition of the precursors (AgNO3 and sulfur-N2H4·H2O complex) and multidentate polymers (poly(acrylic acid)-graft-cysteamine-graft-ethylenediamine), as well as the reaction time, Ag2S QDs (2.6-3.7 nm) are prepared, displaying tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission from red to the second near-infrared region (687-1096 nm). The small hydrodynamic thickness (1.6-1.9 nm) of the multidentate polymers yields a highly compact coating for the QDs, which results in the bright fluorescent QDs with high PL quantum yields (QYs: 14.2-16.4%). Experimental results confirm that the QDs have high PL stability and ultralow cytotoxicity, as well as high PLQYs and small hydrodynamic sizes (4.5-5.6 nm) similar to fluorescent proteins (27-30 kDa), indicating the feasibility of highly effective PL imaging in cells and living animals.

  14. Aqueous synthesis of Ag and Mn co-doped In2S3/ZnS quantum dots with tunable emission for dual-modal targeted imaging.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pei-Yu; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chou, Tzung-Han; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Jia-Yaw

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present the microwave-assisted synthesis of In2S3/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) co-doped with Ag(+) and Mn(2+) (referred to as AgMn:In2S3/ZnS). Ag(+) altered the optical properties of the host QDs, whereas the spin magnetic moment (S=5/2) of Mn(2+) efficiently induced the longitudinal relaxation of water protons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the aqueous synthesis of color-tunable AgMn:In2S3/ZnS core/shell QDs with magnetic properties. The synthetic procedure is rapid, facile, reproducible, and scalable. The obtained QDs offered a satisfactory quantum yield (45%), high longitudinal relaxivity (6.84s(-1)mM(-1)), and robust photostability. In addition, they exhibited excellent stability over a wide pH range (5-12) and high ionic strength (0.15-2.0M NaCl). As seen by confocal microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, AgMn:In2S3/ZnS conjugated to hyaluronic acid (referred to as AgMn:In2S3/ZnS@HA) efficiently and specifically targeted cluster determinant 44, a receptor overexpressed on cancer cells. Moreover, AgMn:In2S3/ZnS@HA showed negligible cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, rendering it a promising diagnostic probe for dual-modal imaging in clinical applications.

  15. Macroscopic quantum effects in the zero voltage state of the current biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.; Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.; Esteve, D.

    1985-05-01

    When a weak microwave current is applied to a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in the thermal limit the escape rate from the zero voltage state is enhanced when the microwave frequency is near the plasma frequency of the junction. The resonance curve is markedly asymmetric because of the anharmonic properties of the potential well: this behavior is well explained by a computer simulation using a resistively shunted junction model. This phenomenon of resonant activation enables one to make in situ measurements of the capacitance and resistance shunting the junction, including contributions from the complex impedance presented by the current leads. For the relatively large area junctions studied in these experiments, the external capacitive loading was relatively unimportant, but the damping was entirely dominated by the external resistance.

  16. Remotely Tunable Nonlinear Metamaterial at Microwave Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shelby; Silva, Sinhara; Zhou, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a remotely tunable metamaterial at microwave frequency. The metamaterial consists of a two-gap split ring resonator with varactor diodes integrated in to one of the gaps. By varying a microwave pump signal remotely, the capacitance of the varactor diodes can be controlled. Thus we can tune the working frequency of the metamaterial. Our metamaterials enable an easily-applicable approach to realize tunable frequency without an external bias circuit compared to other tunable metamaterials.

  17. Gate-tunable rectification inversion and photovoltaic detection in graphene/WSe{sub 2} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Anyuan; Liu, Erfu; Long, Mingsheng; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng; Wang, Yiyan; Xia, Tianlong; Hu, Weida

    2016-05-30

    We studied electrical transport properties including gate-tunable rectification inversion and polarity inversion, in atomically thin graphene/WSe{sub 2} heterojunctions. Such engrossing characteristics are attributed to the gate tunable mismatch of Fermi levels of graphene and WSe{sub 2}. Also, such atomically thin heterostructure shows excellent performances on photodetection. The responsivity of 66.2 mA W{sup −1} (without bias voltage) and 350 A W{sup −1} (with 1 V bias voltage) can be reached. What is more, the devices show great external quantum efficiency of 800%, high detectivity of 10{sup 13} cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W, and fast response time of 30 μs. Our study reveals that vertical stacking of 2D materials has great potential for multifunctional electronic and optoelectronic device applications in the future.

  18. Luminescent InP Quantum Dots with Tunable Emission by Post-Synthetic Modification with Lewis Acids.

    PubMed

    Stein, Jennifer L; Mader, Elizabeth A; Cossairt, Brandi M

    2016-04-07

    We demonstrate the ability of M(2+) Lewis acids (M = Cd, Zn) to dramatically enhance the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of InP quantum dots. The addition of cadmium and zinc is additionally found to red- and blue-shift, respectively, the lowest energy absorption and emission of InP quantum dots while maintaining particle size. This treatment results in a facile strategy to post-synthetically tune the luminescence color in these materials. Optical and structural characterization (XRD, TEM, XAS, ICP) have led us to identify the primary mechanism of PL turn-on as surface passivation of phosphorus dangling bonds, affording PL QYs up to 49% without the growth of a type I shell or the addition of HF. This route to PL enhancement and color tuning may prove useful as a standalone treatment or as a complement to shelling strategies.

  19. LDRD final report on high power broadly tunable Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers for improved chemical species detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.; Fuller, Charles T.; Samora, Sally; Klem, John Frederick; Young, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine a novel quantum cascade laser design that should inherently increase the output power of the laser while simultaneously providing a broad tuning range. Such a laser source enables multiple chemical species identification with a single laser and/or very broad frequency coverage with a small number of different lasers, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based chemical detection systems. In our design concept, the discrete states in quantum cascade lasers are replaced by minibands made of multiple closely spaced electron levels. To facilitate the arduous task of designing miniband-to-miniband quantum cascade lasers, we developed a program that works in conjunction with our existing modeling software to completely automate the design process. Laser designs were grown, characterized, and iterated. The details of the automated design program and the measurement results are summarized in this report.

  20. Silanization of Low-Temperature-Plasma Synthesized Silicon Quantum Dots for Production of a Tunable, Stable, Colloidal Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I. E.; Shircliff, R. A.; Macauley, C.; Smith, D. K.; Lee, B. G.; Agrawal, S.; Stradins, P.; Collins, R. T.

    2012-02-16

    We present a method for grafting silanes onto low-temperature-plasma synthesized silicon quantum dots. The resulting solution of dots is characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and determined to be a colloidal suspension. The silane is attached at a single point on the quantum dot surface to avoid cross-linking and multilayer formation, and photoluminescence spectroscopy shows the colloidal suspension of dots is stable for over two months in air. The hydroxyl-terminated surfaces required for silanization are created by wet chemical etch, which can be used to tune the luminescence of the silicon dots in the green- to red-wavelength range. We find, however, that the wet etch cannot move the emission into the blue-wavelength range and discuss this observation in terms of the nature of etching process and origin of the emission. In addition, we discuss the photoluminescence quantum yield in the context of other passivation and synthetic techniques.

  1. A facile method to synthesis high-quality CdSe quantum dots for large and tunable nonlinear absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yawan; Wang, Chong; Zhu, Baohua; Gu, Yuzong

    2017-04-01

    The CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a hot injection method in the atmospheric environment without any protective gas. The size of CdSe NC was tuned by controlling the growth time and the NCs' high-quality was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A large third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption of CdSe NCs was obtained by using Z-scan technique with 30 ps excitation at 532 nm, which was tunable with variable size and the energy difference between the first exciton absorption peak and the laser wavelength. The NLO susceptibility of CdSe NCs can reach as high as 1.81 × 10-10 esu at the size of 3.3 nm and at resonance absorption peak.

  2. Quantum annealing search of Ising spin glass ground state(s) with tunable transverse and longitudinal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, A.; Chakrabarti, B. K.

    2014-09-01

    Here we first discuss briefly the quantum annealing technique. We then study the quantum annealing of Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model with the tuning of both transverse and longitudinal fields. Both the fields are time-dependent and vanish adiabatically at the same time, starting from high values. We solve, for rather small systems, the time-dependent Schrodinger equation of the total Hamiltonian by employing a numerical technique. At the end of annealing we obtain the final state having high overlap with the exact ground state(s) of classical spin glass system (obtained independently).

  3. On the zero-bias anomaly and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts near pinch-off.

    PubMed

    Xiang, S; Xiao, S; Fuji, K; Shibuya, K; Endo, T; Yumoto, N; Morimoto, T; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y

    2014-03-26

    We investigate the linear and non-linear conductance of quantum point contacts (QPCs), in the region near pinch-off where Kondo physics has previously been connected to the appearance of the 0.7 feature. In studies of seven different QPCs, fabricated in the same high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction, the linear conductance is widely found to show the presence of the 0.7 feature. The differential conductance, on the other hand, does not generally exhibit the zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) that has been proposed to indicate the Kondo effect. Indeed, even in the small subset of QPCs found to exhibit such an anomaly, the linear conductance does not always follow the universal temperature-dependent scaling behavior expected for the Kondo effect. Taken collectively, our observations demonstrate that, unlike the 0.7 feature, the ZBA is not a generic feature of low-temperature QPC conduction. We furthermore conclude that the mere observation of the ZBA alone is insufficient evidence for concluding that Kondo physics is active. While we do not rule out the possibility that the Kondo effect may occur in QPCs, our results appear to indicate that its observation requires a very strict set of conditions to be satisfied. This should be contrasted with the case of the 0.7 feature, which has been apparent since the earliest experimental investigations of QPC transport.

  4. Magnetospectroscopy of excited states in charge-tunable GaAs/AlGaAs [111] quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durnev, M. V.; Vidal, M.; Bouet, L.; Amand, T.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Zhou, P.; Wang, G.; Mano, T.; Ha, N.; Kuroda, T.; Marie, X.; Sakoda, K.; Urbaszek, B.

    2016-06-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of highly charged and excited electron-hole complexes in strain-free (111) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots grown by droplet epitaxy. We address the complexes with one of the charge carriers residing in the excited state, namely, the "hot" trions X-* and X+*, and the doubly negatively charged exciton X2 -. Our magnetophotoluminescence experiments performed on single quantum dots in the Faraday geometry uncover characteristic emission patterns for each excited electron-hole complex, which are very different from the photoluminescence spectra observed in (001)-grown quantum dots. We present a detailed theory of the fine structure and magnetophotoluminescence spectra of X-*,X+*, and X2 - complexes, governed by the interplay between the electron-hole Coulomb exchange interaction and the heavy-hole mixing, characteristic for these quantum dots with a trigonal symmetry. Comparison between experiment and theory allows for precise charge state identification, as well as extraction of electron-hole exchange interaction constants and g factors for the charge carriers occupying excited states.

  5. Water-soluble multidentate polymers compactly coating Ag2S quantum dots with minimized hydrodynamic size and bright emission tunable from red to second near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Rijun; Wan, Ajun; Liu, Xifeng; Yuan, Wen; Jin, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Hydrodynamic size-minimized quantum dots (QDs) have outstanding physicochemical properties for applications in multicolor molecular and cellular imaging at the level of single molecules and nanoparticles. In this study, we have reported the aqueous synthesis of Ag2S QDs by using thiol-based multidentate polymers as capping reagents. By regulating the composition of the precursors (AgNO3 and sulfur-N2H4.H2O complex) and multidentate polymers (poly(acrylic acid)-graft-cysteamine-graft-ethylenediamine), as well as the reaction time, Ag2S QDs (2.6-3.7 nm) are prepared, displaying tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission from red to the second near-infrared region (687-1096 nm). The small hydrodynamic thickness (1.6-1.9 nm) of the multidentate polymers yields a highly compact coating for the QDs, which results in the bright fluorescent QDs with high PL quantum yields (QYs: 14.2-16.4%). Experimental results confirm that the QDs have high PL stability and ultralow cytotoxicity, as well as high PLQYs and small hydrodynamic sizes (4.5-5.6 nm) similar to fluorescent proteins (27-30 kDa), indicating the feasibility of highly effective PL imaging in cells and living animals.Hydrodynamic size-minimized quantum dots (QDs) have outstanding physicochemical properties for applications in multicolor molecular and cellular imaging at the level of single molecules and nanoparticles. In this study, we have reported the aqueous synthesis of Ag2S QDs by using thiol-based multidentate polymers as capping reagents. By regulating the composition of the precursors (AgNO3 and sulfur-N2H4.H2O complex) and multidentate polymers (poly(acrylic acid)-graft-cysteamine-graft-ethylenediamine), as well as the reaction time, Ag2S QDs (2.6-3.7 nm) are prepared, displaying tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission from red to the second near-infrared region (687-1096 nm). The small hydrodynamic thickness (1.6-1.9 nm) of the multidentate polymers yields a highly compact coating for the QDs, which results in

  6. Voltage tunable two-color infrared detection using semiconductor superlattices.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Amlan; Choi, Kyung K.; Tsui, Daniel Chee; Reno, John Louis

    2003-08-01

    We demonstrate a voltage tunable two-color quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that consists of multiple periods of two distinct AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices separated by AlGaAs blocking barriers on one side and heavily doped GaAs layers on the other side. The detection peak switches from 9.5 {micro}m under large positive bias to 6 {micro}m under negative bias. The background-limited temperature is 55 K for 9.5 {micro}m detection and 80 K for 6 {micro}m detection. We also demonstrate that the corrugated-QWIP geometry is suitable for coupling normally incident light into the detector.

  7. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  8. Electron beam induced and microemulsion templated synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: tunable broadband emission and charge carrier recombination dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.; Rath, Madhab C.; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-04-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a rapid and one step templated approach inside the water pool of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) based water-in-oil microemulsions (MEs) via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique with high dose rate, which favours high nucleation rate. The interplay of different experimental parameters such as precursor concentration, absorbed dose and {{W}0} values (aqueous phase to surfactant molar ratio) of MEs were found to have interesting consequences on the morphology, photoluminescence (PL), surface composition and carrier recombination dynamics of as-grown QDs. For instance, highly stable ultrasmall (∼1.7 nm) bluish-white light emitting QDs were obtained with quantum efficiency (η) of ∼9%. Furthermore, QDs were found to exhibit tunable broadband light emission extending from 450 to 750 nm (maximum FWHM ∼180 nm). This could be realized from the CIE (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage) chromaticity co-ordinates, which varied across the blue region to the orange region thereby, conferring their potential application in white light emitting diodes. Additionally, the average PL lifetime ≤ft( ≤ft< τ \\right> \\right) values could be varied from 18 ns to as high as 74 ns, which reflect the role of surface states in terms of their density and distribution. Another interesting revelation was the self-assembling of the initially formed QDs into nanorods with high aspect ratios ranging from 7 to 20, in correspondence with the {{W}0} values. Besides, the fundamental roles of the chemical nature of water pool and the interfacial fluidity of AOT MEs in influencing the photophysical properties of QDs were investigated by carrying out a similar study in CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; cationic surfactant) based MEs. Surprisingly, very profound and contrasting results were observed wherein ≤ft< τ \\right> and η of the QDs in case of CTAB MEs were found to be at least three times lower as compared to

  9. Negative magnetization and the tunable exchange bias field in LaCr0.8Mn0.2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Tribedi; Ravi, S.

    2014-05-01

    Manganese substituted Lanthanum chromite LaCr0.8Mn0.2O3 exhibits negative magnetization with decrease in temperature under the field cooled (FC) condition for the applied field H≤2000 Oe. The maximum magnetic compensation temperature, (Tcomp) was 147 K. A reentrant positive magnetization was observed at T≤50 K due to low temperature transition. The negative magnetization is explained by considering the paramagnetic moment of Mn ions under the influence of negative internal field. Measurement of magnetic hysteresis loops under FC condition shows the presence of exchange bias field at T

  10. Direct determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum by a tunable quantum cascade laser-based mid-IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstetter, M.; Volgger, L.; Genner, A.; Jungbauer, C.; Lendl, B.

    2013-02-01

    This work reports on a compact sensor for fast and reagent-free point-of-care determination of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in blood serum based on a tunable (1030-1230 cm-1) external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL). For simple and robust operation a single beam set-up was designed and only thermoelectric cooling was used for the employed laser and detector. Full computer control of analysis including liquid handling and data analysis facilitated routine measurements. A high optical pathlength (>100 μm) is a prerequisite for robust measurements in clinical practice. Hence, the optimum optical pathlength for transmission measurements in aqueous solution was considered in theory and experiment. The experimentally determined maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was around 140 μm for the QCL blood sensor and around 50 μm for a standard FT-IR spectrometer employing a liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector. A single absorption spectrum was used to calculate the analyte concentrations simultaneously by using a partial-least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. Glucose was determined in blood serum with a prediction error (RMSEP) of 6.9 mg/dl and triglycerides with an error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 17.5 mg/dl in a set of 42 different patients. In spiked serum samples the lactate concentration could be determined with an RMSECV of 8.9 mg/dl.

  11. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Wood, E. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Herndon, S. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.

    2011-02-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is important as a significant source of hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere and as a potent indoor air pollutant. It is thought to be generated in both environments via heterogeneous reactions involving nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In order to enable fast-response HONO detection suitable for eddy-covariance flux measurements and to provide a direct method that avoids interferences associated with derivatization, we have developed a 2-channel tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) capable of simultaneous high-frequency measurements of HONO and NO2. Beams from two mid-infrared continuous-wave mode quantum cascade lasers (cw-QCLs) traverse separate 210 m paths through a multi-pass astigmatic sampling cell at reduced pressure for the direct detection of HONO (1660 cm-1) and NO2 (1604 cm-1). The resulting one-second detection limits (S/N=3) are 300 and 30 ppt (pmol/mol) for HONO and NO2, respectively. Our HONO quantification is based on revised line-strengths and peak positions for cis-HONO in the 6-micron spectral region that were derived from laboratory measurements. An essential component of ambient HONO measurements is the inlet system and we demonstrate that heated surfaces and reduced pressure minimize sampling artifacts.

  12. Wide emission-tunable CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots and their conjugation with E. coli O-157

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haifeng; Zhou, Guangjun; Zhou, Juan; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xingshuang; Kong, Peng; Yang, Zhongsen

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • QDs with variety morphology were obtained via an injection controlled process. • 3-D PL spectra of core–shell QDs show different excitation wavelength dependence. • The PL intensity of QDs with ZnSe transition layer increases dramatically. • Core–shell QDs were processed into aqueous phase and conjugated with E. coli O-157. - Abstract: Wide emission-tunable and different morphological alloyed CdTeSe quantum dots (QDs), CdTeSe/ZnS and CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core–shell QDs were successfully synthesized via an injection controlled process. The effect of injection procedure and reaction temperature were systematically discussed and the growth mechanism was proposed. Most efficient PL wavelength was correlated with reaction time and temperature. The 3-D PL spectra of spherical bare CdTeSe and core–shell QDs with different passivation showed different excitation wavelength dependency. The PL intensity of CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core–shell QDs increased greatly in comparison with that of CdTeSe and CdTeSe/ZnSe QDs. ZnSe transition layer played an important role in improving the PL intensity by providing a smoothened interface and gradient band offsets. The core–shell QDs were transferred into aqueous phase and successfully conjugated with Escherichia coli O-157. The proposed phase-transfer and bio-labeling strategy may be applicable to various QDs with different compositions.

  13. Tunable all electric spin polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Nikhil K.

    To realize the full potential of spin-based devices, ways must be found to inject, manipulate, and detect the spin of the electron by purely electrical means. Previously, our group has shown that a quantum point contact (QPC) with lateral spin orbit coupling (LSOC) can be used to create a strongly spin-polarized current by purely electrical means. The LSOC results from the lateral in-plane electric field created by the confining potential in QPCs with in-plane side gates (SGs). Strongly spin-polarized currents can be generated by tuning the asymmetric bias voltages on the side gates. A conductance anomaly in the form of a plateau at conductance G ≅ 0.5G0 (where G 0 = 2e2/h) was observed in the ballistic conductance of a QPC based in the absence of magnetic field - which was established to be a signature of complete spin polarization. A Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) analysis was used to model a small QPC and three ingredients were found to be essential to generate a strong spin polarization: (1) LSOC, (2) an asymmetric lateral confinement, and (3) a strong electron-electron (e-e) interaction. We have also shown that all-electric control of spin polarization can be achieved for different materials, electron mobility, heterostructure design, QPC dimensions and strength of LSOC. Our previous experimental and theoretical results have also found the presence of other conductance anomalies (i.e., at values different from 0.5 G0 ) and the main reason for these occurrences was shown to be due to the influence of surface roughness scattering. In this thesis, we address the important technological challenge to better control the location of the conductance anomalies in QPCs and create a tunable all-electric spin polarizer based on a QPC with four gates, i.e., with two in-plane SGs in series. Here, the first pair of SGs, near the source, is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the QPC channel. The second set of gates, near the drain, is

  14. Formation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-ZnxCd1-xSe quantum dots with tunable band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yue; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Chunyan; Song, Jiahui; Wang, Rongfang; Zhou, Liya

    2015-08-01

    Alloyed ZnxCd1-xSe quantum dots (QDs) covering the UV-visible spectral region are successfully synthesized using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a capping agent. The optical properties of the alloyed QDs are determined on the basis of different ligands, reaction times, pH, Se/Zn molar ratios, and Zn/Cd molar ratios. The band gaps of the as-prepared QDs can be tuned by adjusting the compositions of the dots, and the quantum yield of ZnxCd1-xSe QDs is 33%. All results indicate that ZnxCd1-xSe QDs can be potentially applied in photochemical devices.

  15. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line. PMID:26901199

  16. Elementary excitations in charge-tunable InGaAs quantum dots studied by resonant Raman and resonant photoluminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köppen, Tim; Franz, Dennis; Schramm, Andreas; Heyn, Christian; Gutjahr, Johann; Pfannkuche, Daniela; Heitmann, Detlef; Kipp, Tobias

    2011-04-01

    We report on resonant optical spectroscopy of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots in which the number of electrons can accurately be tuned to N=0,1,2 by an external gate voltage. Polarization, wave vector, and magnetic field dependent measurements enable us to clearly distinguish between resonant Raman and resonant photoluminescence processes. The Raman spectra for N=1 and 2 electrons considerably differ from each other. In particular, for N=2, the quantum-dot He, the spectra exhibit both singlet and triplet transitions reflecting the elementary many-particle interaction. Also the resonant photoluminescence spectra are significantly changed by varying the number of electrons in the QDs. For N=1 we observe complex spectra possibly induced by strong polaronic effects that are suppressed for N=2.

  17. A highly tunable lateral quantum dot realized in InGaAs/InP by an etching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.; Wallin, D.; Xu, H. Q.

    2008-04-01

    We report on the realization of a quantum dot in a modulation doped InGaAs/InP heterostructure by electron beam lithography and chemical wet etching. Using etched trench defined in-plane gates and a local top gate, the tunneling barriers, electron density, and electrostatic potential of the dot can be tuned. Electrical measurements reveal clear Coulomb blockade behavior of the electron transport through the dot and the behavior of electron tunneling through its excited states.

  18. Tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers for the Gen 2 Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelley, Sean; Hilton, Gene; Clarke, John

    We present a series of tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSAs) for installation in ADMX. The axion dark matter candidate is detected via Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q (~100,000) tunable microwave cavity cooled with a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a 7-tesla magnetic field. The microwave photon frequency ν is a function of the unknown axion mass, so both the cavity and amplifier must be scanned over a wide frequency range. An MSA is a linear, phase-preserving amplifier consisting of a superconducting, resonant microstrip flux-coupled to a resistively-shunted dc SQUID biased into the voltage state. Tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip with low inductance GaAs varactor diodes that operate below 100 mK. By varying the bias voltage of the varactors we vary their capacitance, allowing a reflected phase varying from nearly 0 to π, thus achieving a tunability close to a factor of 2. We demonstrate several devices operating below 100 mK, matched to the discrete operating bands of ADMX at frequencies ranging from 560 MHz to 1 GHz, that exhibit gains exceeding 20 dB. The associated noise temperatures, measured with a hot/cold load, approach the standard quantum limit (hν/kB) for a linear phase-preserving amplifier.

  19. Solar-blind Photodetector with High Avalanche Gains and Bias-tunable Detecting Functionality Based on Metastable Phase α-Ga2O3/ZnO Isotype Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuanhu; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Dong; Yang, Sen; Ren, Fang-Fang; Lu, Hai; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-10-04

    The metastable α phase Ga2O3 is an emerging material for developing solar-blind photodetectors and power electronic devices towards civil and military applications. Despite of its superior physical properties, high quality epitaxy of metastable phase α-Ga2O3 remains challenging. To this end, single crystalline α-Ga2O3 epilayers are achieved on nonpolar ZnO (11-20) substrates for the first time and a high performance Au/α-Ga2O3/ZnO isotype heterostructures based Schottky barrier avalanche diode is demonstrated. The device exhibits self-powered functions with a dark current lower than 1 pA, a UV/visible rejection ratio of 10^3 and a detectivity of 7.83×10^13 cm Hz1/2/W. Dual responsivity bands with cutoff wavelengths at 255 nm and 375 nm are observed with their peak responsivities of 0.5 and 0.071A/W at -5V, respectively. High photoconductive gains at low bias is governed by barrier lowing effect at Au/Ga2O3 and Ga2O3/ZnO hetero-interfaces. The device also allows avalanche multiplication processes initiated by pure electron and hole injections under different illumination conditions. High avalanche gains over 10^3 and a low ionization coefficient ratio of electrons and holes are yielded, leading to a total gain over 10^5 and a record high responsivity of 1.10×10^4 A/W. Such avalanche heterostructures with ultra-high gains and bias-tunable UV detecting functionality holds the promise for developing high performance solar-blind photodetectors.

  20. Quantum confinement-tunable intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of cationic porphyrin-CdTe quantum dot nano-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ghada H; Aly, Shawkat M; Usman, Anwar; Eita, Mohamed S; Melnikov, Vasily A; Mohammed, Omar F

    2015-05-11

    Here, we report a ground-state interaction between the positively charged cationic porphyrin and the negatively charged carboxylate groups of the thiol ligands on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs), leading to the formation of a stable nanoassembly between the two components. Our time-resolved data clearly demonstrate that we can dramatically tune the intersystem crossing (ISC) and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin by changing the size of the QDs in the nanoassembly.

  1. Tunable diastereoselection of biased rigid systems by Lewis acid induced conformational effects: a rationalization of the vinylation of cyclic nitrones en route to polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Delso, Ignacio; Marca, Eduardo; Mannucci, Vanni; Tejero, Tomás; Goti, Andrea; Merino, Pedro

    2010-08-23

    The diastereofacial selection in addition reactions to biased rigid systems can be modulated by the action of Lewis acids. As an example, the stereoselectivity of the nucleophilic addition of vinyl magnesium bromide (VMB) to cyclic nitrones in the presence of diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) shows a strong dependence on the temperature and the carbon substituent adjacent at the reaction center; it is remarkable that whereas a high selectivity is obtained at higher temperatures, in the presence of DEAC, a trend to invert the stereochemical course of the reaction is observed at lower temperatures, provided the substituent at C3 of the pyrrolidine ring allows delivery of the vinyl moiety. This behavior and difference in selectivity is to be attributed to the high conformational barriers of the intermediate nitrone-DEAC-VMB complex. A clear inversion of the selectivity is observed at -78 degrees C for the reaction of the nitrone protected as an O-methyl derivative. The present study provides a rationalization for the stereocontrolled addition of nucleophiles to rigid systems (cyclic nitrones).

  2. Characterization of an InGaAs/InP-based Echelle mirror multiplexer for widely-tunable mid-IR sources based on quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbe, L. J.; Carpintero, G.; Gilles, C.; Boulila, F.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the experimental characterization results of a 15-to-1 wavelength multiplexer for a Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser (DFB QCL) array operating in the 7-8.5 μm (mid-long) infrared (IR) range. This design is customized for its use to combine the output from a DFB QCL array with a 0.1 μm wavelength channel spacing for spectroscopy applications, and it is proposed in order to achieve a continuous tuning range overcoming the limited tunability of a single QCLs, required for multi-gas or complex molecule detection. This multiplexer is based on an Echelle diffraction mirror grating scheme, in which multiple output waveguides are deliberately implemented in the design to de-risk for wavelength deviations in the fabrication process. We optimized the location of the input and output guides in order to allow for monolithic integration of the DFB QCL arrays, which would provide for a number of advantages such as a higher stability, less complexity and lower cost over other technologies such as external cavities. We discuss the effects over the device performance of the design, such as the diffraction effects, input channel width overlapping/crosstalk and input channel profile, which are very important to address in order to avoid unaccounted transmission losses. Other parameters such as the profile of the input and output waveguides and fabrication limitations are also discussed as their effect on the device is observed. A series of characterization tests are presented in order to compare the simulation results to the experimental data, which suggests that these multiplexers are a suitable option compared to other IR multiplexer schemes in terms of size and power transmission.

  3. Simulation of tunneling in enzyme catalysis by combining a biased propagation approach and the quantum classical path method: application to lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Janez; Liu, Hanbin; Olsson, Mats H M; Warshel, Arieh

    2008-05-15

    The ability of using wave function propagation approaches to simulate isotope effects in enzymes is explored, focusing on the large H/D kinetic isotope effect of soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1). The H/D kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is calculated as the ratio of the rate constants for hydrogen and deuterium transfer. The rate constants are calculated from the time course of the H and D nuclear wave functions. The propagations are done using one-dimensional proton potentials generated as sections from the full multidimensional surface of the reacting system in the protein. The sections are obtained during a classical empirical valence bond (EVB) molecular dynamics simulation of SLO-1. Since the propagations require an extremely long time for treating realistic activation barriers, it is essential to use an effective biasing approach. Thus, we develop here an approach that uses the classical quantum path (QCP) method to evaluate the quantum free energy change associated with the biasing potential. This approach provides an interesting alternative to full QCP simulations and to other current approaches for simulating isotope effects in proteins. In particular, this approach can be used to evaluate the quantum mechanical transmission factor or other dynamical effects, while still obtaining reliable quantized activation free energies due to the QCP correction.

  4. Tunable visible emission of TM-doped ZnS quantum dots (TM: Mn2+, Co2+, Ag+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    3 d transition-metallic ions doped ZnS quantum dots (Q-dots) were synthesized by the facile wet-chemical process. During synthesis, various ions, i.e. manganese (Mn2+), cobalt (Co2+) and silver (Ag+), were used and their photoluminescence (PL) response investigated. UV-vis absorption studies show that the various dopant ions can effectively tune energy band structure. The PL emission band is red shifted on Mn2+ doping (~575 nm) as compared to pure ZnS Q-dots (~420 nm) which is due to 4T1(G) → 6A1(S) radiative transitions. Blue/green-emission peaks at ~487 nm/~508 nm observed, respectively, on Co2+/Ag+ doping are probably arising from the recombination between the sulfur vacancy level and the new dopant level. Luminescence emission efficiency (LEE) is found to be maximum at 5 mol% Mn2+ doping and then decreases. On doping by Ag+ the LEE is found to be maximum at 2 mol% doping and almost completely quenched at 5 mol% doping. Contrary to the above, Co2+ quenched the overall PL.

  5. Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Sengupta, Saumya; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range (ν ~ 1–5 THz) is of great importance to terahertz system development for applications in spectroscopy, communication, sensing, and imaging. Here, we present a strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based on intracavity difference frequency generation. Room temperature continuous wave emission at 3.41 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and output power up to 14 μW is achieved with a wall-plug efficiency about one order of magnitude higher than previous demonstrations. With this highly efficient design, continuous wave, single mode THz emissions with a wide frequency tuning range of 2.06–4.35 THz and an output power up to 4.2 μW are demonstrated at room temperature from two monolithic three-section sampled grating distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector lasers. PMID:27009375

  6. MoS2 Quantum Dots with a Tunable Work Function for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wang; Chen, Yusheng; Wang, Xinlong; Lv, Lei; Ouyang, Xinhua; Ge, Ziyi; Huang, Hui

    2016-10-12

    An efficient hole extraction layer (HEL) is critical to achieve high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs). In this study, we developed a pinhole-free and efficient HEL based on MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) combined with UV-ozone (UVO) treatment. The optophysical properties and morphology of MoS2 QDs and their photovoltaic performance are investigated. The results showed that MoS2 QDs can form homogeneous films and can be applied as an interfacial layer not only for donors with shallow highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) but also for those with deep HOMO energy levels after UVO treatment (O-MoS2 QDs). The solar cells based on O-MoS2 QDs yield a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.66%, which is 71% and 12% higher than those of the OSCs with pristine MoS2 QD and O-MoS2 nanosheets, respectively, and the highest PCEs for OSCs containing MoS2 materials. Furthermore, the stability of solar cells based on MoS2 QDs is greatly improved in comparison with state-of-the-art PEDOT:PSS. These results demonstrate the great potential of O-MoS2 QDs as an efficient HEL for high-performance OSCs.

  7. Nanoscale dielectric-graphene-dielectric tunable infrared waveguide with ultrahigh refractive indices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bofeng; Ren, Guobin; Zheng, Siwen; Lin, Zhen; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-07-15

    We propose in this paper a dielectric-graphene-dielectric tunable infrared waveguide based on multilayer metamaterials with ultrahigh refractive indices. The waveguide modes with different orders are systematically analyzed with numerical simulations based on both multilayer structures and effective medium approach. The waveguide shows hyperbolic dispersion properties from mid-infrared to far-infrared wavelength, which means the modes with ultrahigh mode indices could be supported in the waveguide. Furthermore, the optical properties of the waveguide modes could be tuned by the biased voltages on graphene layers. The waveguide may have various promising applications in the quantum cascade lasers and bio-sensing.

  8. Tunable microwave impedance matching to a high impedance source using a Josephson metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Altimiras, Carles Parlavecchio, Olivier; Joyez, Philippe; Vion, Denis; Roche, Patrice; Esteve, Daniel; Portier, Fabien

    2013-11-18

    We report the efficient coupling of a 50  Ω microwave circuit to a high impedance conductor. We use an impedance transformer consisting of a λ/4 co-planar resonator whose inner conductor contains an array of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), providing it with a tunable lineic inductance L∼80 μ{sub 0}, resulting in a characteristic impedance Z{sub C}∼1 kΩ. The impedance matching efficiency is characterized by measuring the shot noise power emitted by a dc biased tunnel junction connected to the resonator. We demonstrate matching to impedances in the 15 to 35 kΩ range with bandwidths above 100 MHz around a resonant frequency tunable between 4 and 6 GHz.

  9. Controlling spin polarization of a quantum dot via a helical edge state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Benedikt; Virtanen, Pauli; Recher, Patrik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate a Zeeman-split quantum dot (QD) containing a single spin 1 /2 weakly coupled to a helical Luttinger liquid (HLL) within a generalized master equation approach. The HLL induces a tunable magnetization direction on the QD controlled by an applied bias voltage when the quantization axes of the QD and the HLL are noncollinear. The backscattering conductance (BSC) in the HLL is finite and shows a resonance feature when the bias voltage equals the Zeeman energy in magnitude. The observed BSC asymmetry in bias voltage directly reflects the quantization axis of the HLL spin.

  10. A one-dimensional tunable magnetic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Butz, S; Jung, P; Filippenko, L V; Koshelets, V P; Ustinov, A V

    2013-09-23

    We present experimental data on a one-dimensional super-conducting metamaterial that is tunable over a broad frequency band. The basic building block of this magnetic thin-film medium is a single-junction (rf-) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Due to the nonlinear inductance of such an element, its resonance frequency is tunable in situ by applying a dc magnetic field. We demonstrate that this results in tunable effective parameters of our metamaterial consisting of 54 rf-SQUIDs. In order to obtain the effective magnetic permeability μr,eff from the measured data, we employ a technique that uses only the complex transmission coefficient S₂₁.

  11. Electrically Tunable Optical Delay Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    conjointly pursued for improved monolithic ODL device design was attempts to shed the simple DBR approach, and investigate other novel, perhaps aperiodic...tunable optical delay lines. Our approach focuses on monolithic semiconductor multilayer heterostructures (Distributed Bragg Reflector) to produce true...time delays for incident transmitted optical pulses. Quantum wells are grown in every other layer of the DBR stack. When a field is applied across

  12. Parity crossings of Shiba states and Majorana-like zero bias anomalies in hybrid superconductor-normal nanowire systems with quantum dot behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, Ramon; Zitko, Rok; Lopez, Rosa; Lim, Jong Soo

    2015-03-01

    Although recent experiments with semiconducting nanowires are partially consistent with the the existence of Majorana bound states (MBS) at normal-superconductor junctions, other mechanisms cannot be completely ruled out. In this talk, I will focus on short nanowires with quantum dot behavior and discuss the magnetic field dependence of Shiba states as well as novel Kondo features induced by the weak coupling to a normal lead. Our results are based on the phase diagram of an Anderson impurity in contact with superconducting and normal-state leads. This phase diagram is obtained by means of the numerical renormalization group technique and is valid for arbitrary ratio of the superconducting gap to the Kondo temperature. Overall, we find a very rich behavior of spectral functions with zero-bias anomalies which can emerge irrespective of whether the ground state is a doublet or a singlet. This phenomenology originates from crossings of the ground state fermionic parity and mimics that of MBS.

  13. InP-InxGa1-xAs core-multi-shell nanowire quantum wells with tunable emission in the 1.3-1.55 μm wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, H A; Ameruddin, A S; Caroff, P; Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Mura, F; Guo, Y; Lysevych, M; Wang, F; Tan, H H; Polimeni, A; Jagadish, C

    2017-09-21

    The usability and tunability of the essential InP-InGaAs material combination in nanowire-based quantum wells (QWs) are assessed. The wurtzite phase core-multi-shell InP-InGaAs-InP nanowire QWs are characterised using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The InP-InGaAs direct interface is found to be sharp while the InGaAs-InP inverted interface is more diffused, in agreement with their planar counterpart. Bright emission is observed from the single nanowires containing the QWs at room temperature, with no emission from the InP core or outer barrier. The tunability of the QW emission wavelength in the 1.3-1.55 μm communication wavelength range is demonstrated by varying the QW thickness and in the 1.3 μm range by varying the composition. The experiments are supported by simulation of the emission wavelength of the wurtzite phase InP-InGaAs QWs in the thickness range considered. The radial heterostructure is further extended to design multiple QWs with bright emission, therefore establishing the capability of this material system for nanowire based optical devices for communication applications.

  14. Size effect on negative capacitance at forward bias in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well-based blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourim, El-Mostafa; Han, Jeong In

    2016-01-01

    Size effect of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) blue light emitting diodes (LEDs), on electrical characteristics in forward bias voltage at high injection current in light emission regime, is observed to induce a substantial dispersion in the current density and normalized negative capacitance (NC) (i.e., capacitance per chip area). The correction of normalized NC by considering the LED p- n junction series resistance has been found to be independent of chip area size with lateral dimensions ranging from 100 µm × 100 µm to 400 µm × 400 µm. This fact, confirms that the inductive effect which is usually behind the NC apparition is homogeneously and uniformly distributed across the entire device area and hence the dispersive characteristics are not related to local paths. From the characteristics of NC dependence on temperature, frequency and direct current bias, a mechanism based on the electrons/holes charge carriers conductivity difference is proposed to be responsible for the transient electron-hole pair recombination process inducing NC phenomenon. Direct measurement of light emission brightness under modulated frequency demonstrated that modulated light output evolution follows the same behavioral tendency as measured in NC under alternating current signal modulation. Thus it is concluded that the NC is valuable information which would be of practical interest in improving the characteristics and parameters relevant to LED p- n junction internal structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, Edgard

    This book gives a new insight into the interpretation of quantum mechanics (stochastic, integral paths, decoherence), a completely new treatment of angular momentum (graphical spin algebra) and an introduction to Fermion fields (Dirac equation) and Boson fields (e.m. and Higgs) as well as an introduction to QED (quantum electrodynamics), supersymmetry and quantum cosmology.

  16. Efficient two-step photocarrier generation in bias-controlled InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice intermediate-band solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kada, T; Asahi, S; Kaizu, T; Harada, Y; Tamaki, R; Okada, Y; Kita, T

    2017-07-19

    We studied the effects of the internal electric field on two-step photocarrier generation in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs). The external quantum efficiency of QDSL-IBSCs was measured as a function of the internal electric field intensity, and compared with theoretical calculations accounting for interband and intersubband photoexcitations. The extra photocurrent caused by the two-step photoexcitation was maximal for a reversely biased electric field, while the current generated by the interband photoexcitation increased monotonically with increasing electric field intensity. The internal electric field in solar cells separated photogenerated electrons and holes in the superlattice (SL) miniband that played the role of an intermediate band, and the electron lifetime was extended to the microsecond scale, which improved the intersubband transition strength, therefore increasing the two-step photocurrent. There was a trade-off relation between the carrier separation enhancing the two-step photoexcitation and the electric-field-induced carrier escape from QDSLs. These results validate that long-lifetime electrons are key to maximising the two-step photocarrier generation in QDSL-IBSCs.

  17. Andreev bound states versus Majorana bound states in quantum dot-nanowire-superconductor hybrid structures: Trivial versus topological zero-bias conductance peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Sau, Jay D.; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by an important recent experiment [Deng et al., Science 354, 1557 (2016), 10.1126/science.aaf3961], we theoretically consider the interplay between Andreev and Majorana bound states in disorder-free quantum dot-nanowire semiconductor systems with proximity-induced superconductivity in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman spin splitting (induced by an external magnetic field). The quantum dot induces Andreev bound states in the superconducting nanowire, which show complex behavior as a function of magnetic field and chemical potential, and the specific question is whether two such Andreev bound states can come together forming a robust zero-energy topological Majorana bound state. We find generically that the Andreev bound states indeed have a high probability of coalescing together producing near-zero-energy midgap states as Zeeman splitting and/or chemical potential are increased, but this mostly happens in the nontopological regime below the topological quantum phase transition, although there are situations where the Andreev bound states could indeed come together to form a zero-energy topological Majorana bound state. The two scenarios (two Andreev bound states coming together to form a nontopological almost-zero-energy Andreev bound state or to form a topological zero-energy Majorana bound state) are difficult to distinguish just by tunneling conductance spectroscopy, since they produce essentially the same tunneling transport signatures. We find that the "sticking together" propensity of Andreev bound states to produce an apparent stable zero-energy midgap state is generic in class D systems in the presence of superconductivity, spin-orbit coupling, and magnetic field, even in the absence of any disorder. We also find that the conductance associated with the coalesced zero-energy nontopological Andreev bound state is nonuniversal and could easily be 2 e2/h , mimicking the quantized topological Majorana zero-bias conductance value. We

  18. Current-oscillator correlation and Fano factor spectrum of quantum shuttle with finite bias voltage and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wenxi; Cao, Yunshan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2012-05-02

    A general master equation is derived to describe an electromechanical single-dot transistor in the Coulomb blockade regime. In the equation, Fermi distribution functions in the two leads are taken into account, which allows one to study the system as a function of bias voltage and temperature of the leads. Furthermore, we treat the coherent interaction mechanism between electron tunneling events and the dynamics of excited vibrational modes. Stationary solutions of the equation are numerically calculated. We show that current through the oscillating island at low temperature appears to have step-like characteristics as a function of the bias voltage and the steps depend on the mean phonon number of the oscillator. At higher temperatures the current steps would disappear and this event is accompanied by the emergence of thermal noise of the charge transfer. When the system is mainly in the ground state, the zero frequency Fano factor of current manifests sub-Poissonian noise and when the system is partially driven into its excited states it exhibits super-Poissonian noise. The difference in the current noise would almost be removed for the situation in which the dissipation rate of the oscillator is much larger than the bare tunneling rates of electrons.

  19. Current-oscillator correlation and Fano factor spectrum of quantum shuttle with finite bias voltage and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wenxi; Cao, Yunshan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2012-05-01

    A general master equation is derived to describe an electromechanical single-dot transistor in the Coulomb blockade regime. In the equation, Fermi distribution functions in the two leads are taken into account, which allows one to study the system as a function of bias voltage and temperature of the leads. Furthermore, we treat the coherent interaction mechanism between electron tunneling events and the dynamics of excited vibrational modes. Stationary solutions of the equation are numerically calculated. We show that current through the oscillating island at low temperature appears to have step-like characteristics as a function of the bias voltage and the steps depend on the mean phonon number of the oscillator. At higher temperatures the current steps would disappear and this event is accompanied by the emergence of thermal noise of the charge transfer. When the system is mainly in the ground state, the zero frequency Fano factor of current manifests sub-Poissonian noise and when the system is partially driven into its excited states it exhibits super-Poissonian noise. The difference in the current noise would almost be removed for the situation in which the dissipation rate of the oscillator is much larger than the bare tunneling rates of electrons.

  20. Electronically Tunable Terahertz Detection Using Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, Eric

    2006-03-01

    Spectroscopy in the millimeter-wave to THz frequencies has received a great deal of recent interest for security applications and chemical identification. This talk will address detectors that utilize plasmons in high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures to provide a frequency tunable detector response. While there are various competing detection schemes based on plasmons, here we will cover the grating-gate detector along with a variant having enhanced performance called the split-grating gate detector. The basic device consists of source and drain electrical contacts along with a single grating-gate that spatially modulates both the incident radiation and the carrier density in a quantum well channel. The plasmon frequency underneath the gate lines is tuned by changing the carrier density with an applied gate bias. When this plasmon frequency is in resonance with the incident radiation field, a resonant peak is found in the photoresponse. The split-gate devices work in a similar fashion, except with additional gates in the device used to build larger non-linearities into the system. By doing so, we have observed a several order of magnitude increase in responsivity. Currently, the grating-gate style of detector covers a frequency range from 150GHz to 800GHz at temperatures ranging from 4K to 80K, however, the ultimate frequency and temperature limits of these detectors are not currently known. The ability to tune the detector response by simply changing a gate voltage leads to an attractive ‘spectrometer-on-a-chip’ where no moving parts would be needed for THz spectral analysis. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Tunable superconductivity in decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zheng; Allain, Adrien; Marty, Laetitia; Bendiab, Nedjma; Toulemonde, Pierre; Strobel, Pierre; Coraux, Johann; Bouchiat, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Graphene offers an exposed bidimensional gas of high mobility charge carriers with gate tunable density. Its chemical inertness offers an outstanding platform to explore exotic 2D superconductivity. Superconductivity can be induced in graphene by means of proximity effect (by depositing a set of superconducting metal clusters such as lead or tin nanoparticles). The influence of decoration material, density or particles and disorder of graphene will be discussed. In the case of disordered graphene, Tin decoration leads to a gate-tunable superconducting-to-insulator quantum phase transition. Superconductivity in graphene is also expected to occur under strong charge doping (induced either by gating or under chemical decoration, in analogy with graphite intercalated compounds). I will also show preliminary results showing the influence of Calcium intercalation of few layer graphene and progress toward the demonstration of intrinsic superconductivity in such systems. Work supported by EU GRANT FP7-NMP GRENADA.

  2. Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2006-01-15

    We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes.

  3. Electric control of exchange bias training.

    PubMed

    Echtenkamp, W; Binek, Ch

    2013-11-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3), and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  4. Electric Control of Exchange Bias Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, W.; Binek, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr2O3, and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  5. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  6. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Background and MURI Program Objectives Chromogenic phenomena (for example: electrochromism, photochromism , thermochromism, piezochromism, and...achieving real time tunability of optical properties of materials. Photochromism and electrochromism in polymeric and organic materials have been...chromogenic phenomena, especially electrochromism, photochromism , photoelectrochromism, thermochromism, tunable luminescence, and tunable reflection, in

  7. Alkaline post-treatment of Cd(II)-glutathione coordination polymers: toward green synthesis of water-soluble and cytocompatible CdS quantum dots with tunable optical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pengcheng; Jiang, Qin; Yu, Ping; Yang, Lifen; Mao, Lanqun

    2013-06-12

    In this study, we demonstrate a facile and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH)-capped water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) with a high cytocompatibility and a tunable optical property based on alkaline post-treatment of Cd-GSH coordination polymers (CPs). Cd-GSH CPs are synthesized with the coordination reaction of Cd(2+) with GSH at different pH values, and the CdS QDs are then formed by adding NaOH to the aqueous dispersion of the Cd-GSH CPs to break the coordination interaction between Cd(2+) and GSH with the release of sulfur. The particle size and optical property of the as-formed CdS QDs are found to be easily tailored by simply adjusting the starting pH values of GSH solutions used for the formation of Cd-GSH CPs, in which the wavelengths of trap-state emission of the QDs red-shift with an increase in the sizes of the QDs that is caused by an increase in the starting pH values of GSH solutions. In addition, the use of GSH as the capping reagent eventually endows the as-formed CdS QDs with enhanced water solubility and good cytocompatibility, as demonstrated with HeLa cells. The method demonstrated here is advantageous in that the cadmium precursor and the sulfur source are nontoxic and easily available, and the size, optical properties, water solubility, and cytocompatibilty of the as-formed CdS QDs are simply achieved and experimentally regulated. This study offers a new and green synthetic route to water-soluble and cytocompatible CdS QDs with tunable optical properties.

  8. Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. Y.; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Razeghi, M.

    2014-11-17

    We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing.

  9. Multi-frequency spin manipulation using rapidly tunable superconducting coplanar waveguide microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, A. T.; Sigillito, A. J.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of frequency-tunable superconducting NbTiN coplanar waveguide microresonators for multi-frequency pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. By applying a bias current to the center pin, the resonance frequency (˜7.6 GHz) can be continuously tuned by as much as 95 MHz in 270 ns without a change in the quality factor of 3000 at 2 K. We demonstrate the ESR performance of our resonators by measuring donor spin ensembles in silicon and show that adiabatic pulses can be used to overcome magnetic field inhomogeneities and microwave power limitations due to the applied bias current. We take advantage of the rapid tunability of these resonators to manipulate both phosphorus and arsenic spins in a single pulse sequence, demonstrating pulsed double electron-electron resonance. Our NbTiN resonator design is useful for multi-frequency pulsed ESR and should also have applications in experiments where spin ensembles are used as quantum memories.

  10. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube–MoS2 heterojunction p-n diode

    PubMed Central

    Jariwala, Deep; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Wu, Chung-Chiang; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L.; Geier, Michael L.; Marks, Tobin J.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The p-n junction diode and field-effect transistor are the two most ubiquitous building blocks of modern electronics and optoelectronics. In recent years, the emergence of reduced dimensionality materials has suggested that these components can be scaled down to atomic thicknesses. Although high-performance field-effect devices have been achieved from monolayered materials and their heterostructures, a p-n heterojunction diode derived from ultrathin materials is notably absent and constrains the fabrication of complex electronic and optoelectronic circuits. Here we demonstrate a gate-tunable p-n heterojunction diode using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and single-layer molybdenum disulfide as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. The vertical stacking of these two direct band gap semiconductors forms a heterojunction with electrical characteristics that can be tuned with an applied gate bias to achieve a wide range of charge transport behavior ranging from insulating to rectifying with forward-to-reverse bias current ratios exceeding 104. This heterojunction diode also responds strongly to optical irradiation with an external quantum efficiency of 25% and fast photoresponse <15 μs. Because SWCNTs have a diverse range of electrical properties as a function of chirality and an increasing number of atomically thin 2D nanomaterials are being isolated, the gate-tunable p-n heterojunction concept presented here should be widely generalizable to realize diverse ultrathin, high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:24145425

  11. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube-MoS2 heterojunction p-n diode.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Deep; Sangwan, Vinod K; Wu, Chung-Chiang; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Geier, Michael L; Marks, Tobin J; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-11-05

    The p-n junction diode and field-effect transistor are the two most ubiquitous building blocks of modern electronics and optoelectronics. In recent years, the emergence of reduced dimensionality materials has suggested that these components can be scaled down to atomic thicknesses. Although high-performance field-effect devices have been achieved from monolayered materials and their heterostructures, a p-n heterojunction diode derived from ultrathin materials is notably absent and constrains the fabrication of complex electronic and optoelectronic circuits. Here we demonstrate a gate-tunable p-n heterojunction diode using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and single-layer molybdenum disulfide as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. The vertical stacking of these two direct band gap semiconductors forms a heterojunction with electrical characteristics that can be tuned with an applied gate bias to achieve a wide range of charge transport behavior ranging from insulating to rectifying with forward-to-reverse bias current ratios exceeding 10(4). This heterojunction diode also responds strongly to optical irradiation with an external quantum efficiency of 25% and fast photoresponse <15 μs. Because SWCNTs have a diverse range of electrical properties as a function of chirality and an increasing number of atomically thin 2D nanomaterials are being isolated, the gate-tunable p-n heterojunction concept presented here should be widely generalizable to realize diverse ultrathin, high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.

  12. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): A Wavelength-Tunable Fiber-Coupled Narrow-Band Twin-Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Fa; Liu, Bi-Heng; Fang, Bin; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2009-07-01

    We present a wavelength-tunable narrow-band fiber-coupled source to generate correlated photon pairs at 539nm and 1550nm. Using a 10-mm PPLN crystal, we obtain more than 50mm tunable range near 1550nm. This source, given its spectral property and tunable property, is well suited for tasks in fiber-optic quantum communication and cryptography networks.

  13. Composition-Tunable Optical Properties of Zn x Cd(1 - x)S Quantum Dot-Carboxymethylcellulose Conjugates: Towards One-Pot Green Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoplatforms for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Caires, Anderson J.; Mansur, Rafael L.; Oliveira, Luiz C.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals with unique properties that can be engineered by controlling the nanoparticle size and chemical composition by doping and alloying strategies. However, due to their potential toxicity, augmenting their biocompatibility is yet a challenge for expanding to several biomedical and environmentally friendly applications. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop composition-tunable and biocompatible Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs using carboxymethylcellulose polysaccharide as direct capping ligand via green colloidal aqueous route at neutral pH and at room temperature for potential biomedical and environmental applications. The ternary alloyed QDs were extensively characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that Zn x Cd(1 - x)S QDs were surface stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose biopolymer with spherical morphology for all composition of alloys and narrow sizes distributions ranging from 4 to 5 nm. The XRD results indicated that monophasic ternary alloyed Zn x Cd1 - x S nanocrystals were produced with homogenous composition of the core as evidenced by EELS and XPS analyses. In addition, the absorption and emission optical properties of Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs were red shifted with increasing the amount of Cd2+ in the alloyed nanocrystals, which have also increased the quantum yield compared to pure CdS and ZnS nanoparticles. These properties of alloyed nanomaterials were interpreted based on empirical model of Vegard's law and chemical bond model (CBM). As a proof of concept, these alloyed-QD conjugates were tested for biomedical and environmental applications. The results demonstrated that they were non-toxic and effective fluorophores for bioimaging live HEK293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells) using confocal

  14. Composition-Tunable Optical Properties of Zn x Cd(1 - x)S Quantum Dot-Carboxymethylcellulose Conjugates: Towards One-Pot Green Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoplatforms for Biomedical and Environmental Applications.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Alexandra A P; Mansur, Herman S; Caires, Anderson J; Mansur, Rafael L; Oliveira, Luiz C

    2017-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals with unique properties that can be engineered by controlling the nanoparticle size and chemical composition by doping and alloying strategies. However, due to their potential toxicity, augmenting their biocompatibility is yet a challenge for expanding to several biomedical and environmentally friendly applications. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop composition-tunable and biocompatible Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs using carboxymethylcellulose polysaccharide as direct capping ligand via green colloidal aqueous route at neutral pH and at room temperature for potential biomedical and environmental applications. The ternary alloyed QDs were extensively characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that Zn x Cd(1 - x)S QDs were surface stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose biopolymer with spherical morphology for all composition of alloys and narrow sizes distributions ranging from 4 to 5 nm. The XRD results indicated that monophasic ternary alloyed Zn x Cd1 - x S nanocrystals were produced with homogenous composition of the core as evidenced by EELS and XPS analyses. In addition, the absorption and emission optical properties of Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs were red shifted with increasing the amount of Cd(2+) in the alloyed nanocrystals, which have also increased the quantum yield compared to pure CdS and ZnS nanoparticles. These properties of alloyed nanomaterials were interpreted based on empirical model of Vegard's law and chemical bond model (CBM). As a proof of concept, these alloyed-QD conjugates were tested for biomedical and environmental applications. The results demonstrated that they were non-toxic and effective fluorophores for bioimaging live HEK293T cells (human embryonic kidney

  15. Tunable superconducting microstrip resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamyan, A. A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Danilov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a simple yet versatile design for a tunable superconducting microstrip resonator. Niobium nitride is employed as the superconducting material and aluminum oxide, produced by atomic layer deposition, as the dielectric layer. We show that the high quality of the dielectric material allows to reach the internal quality factors in the order of Qi˜104 in the single photon regime. Qi rapidly increases with the number of photons in the resonator N and exceeds 105 for N ˜10 -50 . A straightforward modification of the basic microstrip design allows to pass a current bias through the strip and to control its kinetic inductance. We achieve a frequency tuning δf =62 MHz around f0=2.4 GHz for a fundamental mode and δf =164 MHz for a third harmonic. This translates into a tuning parameter Qiδf /f0=150 . The presented design can be incorporated into essentially any superconducting circuitry operating at temperatures below 2.5 K.

  16. Quantum paraelectricity probed by superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovikj, D.; Manca, N.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Caviglia, A. D.; Steele, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    Superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators are powerful and versatile tools used in areas ranging from radiation detection to circuit quantum electrodynamics. Their potential for low intrinsic losses makes them attractive as sensitive probes of electronic properties of bulk materials and thin films. Here we use superconducting MoRe CPW resonators to investigate the high-frequency (up to 0.3 GHz) and low-temperature (down to 3.5 K) permittivity of SrTiO3 , a nonlinear dielectric on the verge of a ferroelectric transition (quantum paraelectricity). We perform a quantitative analysis of its dielectric properties as a function of external dc bias (up to ±15 V ), rf power, and mode number and discuss our results within the framework of the most recent theoretical models. We also discuss the origin of a fatigue effect that reduces the tunability of the dielectric constant of SrTiO3 , which we relate to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  17. Broadband Ge/SiGe quantum dot photodetector on pseudosubstrate.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Andrew; Kirienko, Victor; Armbrister, Vladislav; Dvurechenskii, Anatolii

    2013-05-08

    : We report the fabrication and characterization of a ten-period Ge quantum dot photodetector grown on SiGe pseudosubstrate. The detector exhibits tunable photoresponse in both 3- to 5- μm and 8- to 12- μm spectral regions with responsivity values up to about 1 mA/W at a bias of -3 V and operates under normal incidence radiation with background limited performance at 100 K. The relative response in the mid- and long-wave atmospheric windows could be controlled through the applied voltage.

  18. Broadband Ge/SiGe quantum dot photodetector on pseudosubstrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a ten-period Ge quantum dot photodetector grown on SiGe pseudosubstrate. The detector exhibits tunable photoresponse in both 3- to 5- μm and 8- to 12- μm spectral regions with responsivity values up to about 1 mA/W at a bias of −3 V and operates under normal incidence radiation with background limited performance at 100 K. The relative response in the mid- and long-wave atmospheric windows could be controlled through the applied voltage. PMID:23651470

  19. Eliminating Bias

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to eliminate bias from monitoring systems by instituting appropriate installation, operation, and quality assurance procedures. Provides links to download An Operator's Guide to Eliminating Bias in CEM Systems.

  20. Tunable nano dispersed LC based patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Afaque; Yadav, Harsh; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents Patch antenna based on pure and Nano dispersed liquid crystals (LCs) for earth and space applications. Patch antenna are one of the most attractive antennas designed for RF frequency. To fulfill the demand of modern antenna i.e. tunability, a design of LC based patch antenna with optimum frequency of 15 GHz is investigated. In this design, NLC and ZnO doped NLC were used as a dielectric substrate. Its dielectric permittivity was controlled by biasing voltage. The dielectric properties of the 4-Cyano-4' -pentylbiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and NLC doped with Zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles was studied at room temperature. The concentration of doping material was 0.5% by w.t. in ZnO. Results shows that dielectric parameters are strong function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Moreover, Using doped NLC as dielectric substrate one gets more tunability or shift in resonant frequency in the proposed geometry.

  1. Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Lee, Ho Wai Howard; Sokhoyan, Ruzan; Pala, Ragip A; Thyagarajan, Krishnan; Han, Seunghoon; Tsai, Din Ping; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    Metasurfaces composed of planar arrays of subwavelength artificial structures show promise for extraordinary light manipulation. They have yielded novel ultrathin optical components such as flat lenses, wave plates, holographic surfaces, and orbital angular momentum manipulation and detection over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the optical properties of metasurfaces developed to date do not allow for versatile tunability of reflected or transmitted wave amplitude and phase after their fabrication, thus limiting their use in a wide range of applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable metasurface that enables dynamic electrical control of the phase and amplitude of the plane wave reflected from the metasurface. Tunability arises from field-effect modulation of the complex refractive index of conducting oxide layers incorporated into metasurface antenna elements which are configured in reflectarray geometry. We measure a phase shift of 180° and ∼30% change in the reflectance by applying 2.5 V gate bias. Additionally, we demonstrate modulation at frequencies exceeding 10 MHz and electrical switching of ±1 order diffracted beams by electrical control over subgroups of metasurface elements, a basic requirement for electrically tunable beam-steering phased array metasurfaces. In principle, electrically gated phase and amplitude control allows for electrical addressability of individual metasurface elements and opens the path to applications in ultrathin optical components for imaging and sensing technologies, such as reconfigurable beam steering devices, dynamic holograms, tunable ultrathin lenses, nanoprojectors, and nanoscale spatial light modulators.

  2. Tunable microstrip SQUID amplifiers for the Gen 2 Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelley, Sean; Hilton, Gene; Clarke, John; ADMX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We present a series of tunable microstrip SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) amplifiers (MSAs) for installation in ADMX. The axion dark matter candidate is detected via Primakoff conversion to a microwave photon in a high-Q (~100,000) tunable microwave cavity cooled with a dilution refrigerator in a 7-tesla magnetic field. The microwave photon frequency ν is a function of the unknown axion mass, so both the cavity and amplifier must be scanned over a wide frequency range. An MSA is a linear, phase-preserving amplifier consisting of a square washer loop, fabricated from a thin Nb film, incorporating two Josephson tunnel junctions with resistive shunts to prevent hysteresis. The input is coupled via a microstrip made from a square Nb coil deposited over the washer with an intervening insulating layer. Tunability is achieved by terminating the microstrip with GaAs varactors that operate below 100 mK. By varying the varactor capacitance with a bias voltage, the resonant frequency is varied by up to a factor of 2. We demonstrate several devices operating below 100 mK, matched to the discrete operating bands of ADMX at frequencies ranging from 560 MHz to 1 GHz. The MSAs exhibit gains exceeding 20 dB and the associated noise temperatures, measured with a hot/cold load, approach the standard quantum limit (hν/kB) . Supported by DOE Grants DE - FG02 - 97ER41029, DE - FG02 - 96ER40956, DE - AC52 - 07NA27344, DE - AC03 - 76SF00098, and the Livermore LDRD program.

  3. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  4. Microelectromechanical tunable inductor

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-05-04

    A microelectromechanical tunable inductor is formed from a pair of substantially-identically-sized coils arranged side by side and coiled up about a central axis which is parallel to a supporting substrate. An in-plane stress gradient is responsible for coiling up the coils which. The inductance provided by the tunable inductor can be electrostatically changed either continuously or in discrete steps using electrodes on the substrate and on each coil. The tunable inductor can be formed with processes which are compatible with conventional IC fabrication so that, in some cases, the tunable inductor can be formed on a semiconductor substrate alongside or on top of an IC.

  5. Intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.

  6. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  7. Composite Supraparticles with Tunable Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Montanarella, Federico; Altantzis, Thomas; Zanaga, Daniele; Rabouw, Freddy T; Bals, Sara; Baesjou, Patrick; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2017-09-26

    Robust luminophores emitting light with broadly tunable colors are desirable in many applications such as light-emitting diode (LED)-based lighting, displays, integrated optoelectronics and biology. Nanocrystalline quantum dots with multicolor emission, from core- and shell-localized excitons, as well as solid layers of mixed quantum dots that emit different colors have been proposed. Here, we report on colloidal supraparticles that are composed of three types of Cd(Se,ZnS) core/(Cd,Zn)S shell nanocrystals with emission in the red, green, and blue. The emission of the supraparticles can be varied from pure to composite colors over the entire visible region and fine-tuned into variable shades of white light by mixing the nanocrystals in controlled proportions. Our approach results in supraparticles with sizes spanning the colloidal domain and beyond that combine versatility and processability with a broad, stable, and tunable emission, promising applications in lighting devices and biological research.

  8. Tunable coupling between two superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, F.; Wulschner, F.; Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Solano, E.; Zueco, D.; Garcia Ripoll, J.-J.

    2014-03-01

    During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made towards quantum computation and quantum simulation with superconducting circuits. In such architectures, the controlled exchange of information between two superconducting transmission line resonators via a tunable coupling is a useful tool. Here, we present experimental progress on such devices. Specifically, the coupling is mediated either by a superconducting flux qubit or by an RF SQUID. Our results allow us to analyze the tunable coupling in frequency and time domain. We acknowledge support from: the DFG via SFB 631; the German excellence initiative via NIM; the EU projects CCQED, PROMISCE, SCALEQIT; Spanish MINECO FIS2009-12773-C02-01, FIS2011-25167, FIS2012-36673-C03-02; UPV/EHU UFI 11/55; Basque Government IT472-10.

  9. A widely tunable 10-μm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sow, P. L. T.; Mejri, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Lopez, O.; Argence, B.; Chardonnet, C.; Darquié, B.; Goncharov, A.; Amy-Klein, A.; Daussy, C.

    2014-06-30

    We report the coherent phase-locking of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 10-μm to the secondary frequency standard of this spectral region, a CO{sub 2} laser stabilized on a saturated absorption line of OsO{sub 4}. The stability and accuracy of the standard are transferred to the QCL resulting in a line width of the order of 10 Hz, and leading to the narrowest QCL to date. The locked QCL is then used to perform absorption spectroscopy spanning 6 GHz of NH{sub 3} and methyltrioxorhenium, two species of interest for applications in precision measurements.

  10. Aqueous synthesis of multidentate-polymer-capping Ag2Se quantum dots with bright photoluminescence tunable in a second near-infrared biological window.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lianjiang; Wan, Ajun; Zhao, Tingting; Huang, Ran; Li, Huili

    2014-05-14

    A new strategy for fabricating water-dispersible Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) is presented. A multidentate polymer (MDP) was synthesized and used as a capping agent for Ag2Se QDs. The MDP-capping Ag2Se QDs were synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature, which are highly photoluminescent in a second near-infrared (NIR-II) biological window and possess good photostability. These readily prepared NIR-II fluorescent nanoprobes have great potential for biomedical applications, especially useful for in vivo imaging.

  11. Charge- and Flux-Insensitive Tunable Superconducting Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sete, Eyob A.; Reagor, Matthew J.; Didier, Nicolas; Rigetti, Chad T.

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting qubits with in situ tunable properties are important for constructing a quantum computer. Qubit tunability, however, often comes at the expense of increased noise sensitivity. Here, we propose a flux-tunable superconducting qubit that minimizes the dephasing due to magnetic flux noise by engineering controllable flux "sweet spots" at frequencies of interest. This is realized by using a SQUID with asymmetric Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor formed from an array of junctions. Taking into account correlated global and local noises, it is possible to improve dephasing time by several orders of magnitude. The proposed qubit can be used to realize fast, high-fidelity two-qubit gates in large-scale quantum processors, a key ingredient for implementing fault-tolerant quantum computers.

  12. Tunable Microfluidic Microlasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    particularly convenient material for microfluidic experiments with LC. Figure 7: A droplet of E7 nematic liquid crystal on a PDMS...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0039 TUNABLE MICROFLUIDIC MICROLASERS Francesco Simoni Universita Politecnica delle Marche...DATES COVERED (From – To) 15 June 2010 – 15 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE MICROFLUIDIC MICROLASERS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655

  13. Tunable superconducting qudit mediated by microwave photons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sung Un; Bae, Myung-Ho; Kim, Nam; Kang, Kicheon

    2015-08-15

    We have investigated the time-domain characteristics of the Autler-Townes doublet in a superconducting circuit. The transition probabilities between the ground state and the Autler-Townes doublet states are shown to be controlled in a phase-coherent manner using a well-known microwave pulse pattern technique. The experimental results are well explained by a numerical simulation based on the Markovian master equation. Our result indicates that the Autler-Townes doublet states might be useful as a tunable qudit for implementation of quantum information processing, in particular as a multivalued quantum logic element.

  14. Tunable optical parametric amplification of a single-frequency quantum cascade laser around 8 μm in ZnGeP2.

    PubMed

    Clément, Quentin; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Barrientos-Barria, Jessica; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Raybaut, Myriam; Godard, Antoine

    2013-10-15

    We demonstrate optical parametric amplification in ZnGeP(2) (ZGP) of the radiation emitted by a single-frequency continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the range 7.8-8.4 μm. The ZGP amplifier is pumped by a single-frequency parametric source at 2210 nm. For a pump energy of 6 mJ, we report an average gain of 50 over this range and a maximum gain of 111 for 7.5 mJ. An exponential trend is observed when changing the pump energy, with very good agreement with theory. These features are of valuable interest for increasing the standoff detection range of hazardous chemicals and explosives by QCL-based backscattering spectroscopy systems.

  15. QEPAS based detection of broadband absorbing molecules using a widely tunable, cw quantum cascade laser at 8.4 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Rafal; Wysocki, Gerard; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2007-06-01

    Detection of molecules with wide unresolved rotationa-lvibrational absorption bands is demonstrated by using Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and an amplitude modulated, high power, thermoelectrically cooled quantum cascade laser operating at 8.4 μm in an external cavity configuration. The laser source exhibits single frequency tuning of 135 cm-1 with a maximum optical output power of 50 mW. For trace-gas detection of Freon 125 (pentafluoroethane) at 1208.62 cm-1 a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of NNEA=2.64x10-9 cm-1W/Hz1/2was obtained. Noise equivalent sensitivity at ppbv level as well as spectroscopic chemical analysis of a mixture of two broadband absorbers (Freon 125 and acetone) with overlapping absorption spectra were demonstrated.

  16. Room temperature synthesis of ultra-small, near-unity single-sized lead halide perovskite quantum dots with wide color emission tunability, high color purity and high brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lucheng; Geng, Jing; Ai, Lisha; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Phosphor with extremely narrow emission line widths, high brightness, and wide color emission tunability in visible regions is required for display and lighting applications, yet none has been reported in the literature so far. In the present study, single-sized lead halide perovskite (APbX 3; A = CH3NH3 and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystalline (NC) phosphors were achieved for the first time in a one-pot reaction at room temperature (25 °C). The size-dependent samples, which included four families of CsPbBr3 NCs and exhibited sharp excitonic absorption peaks and pure band gap emission, were directly obtained by simply varying the concentration of ligands. The continuity of the optical spectrum can be successively tuned over the entire UV-visible spectral region (360-610 nm) by preparing CsPbCl3, CsPbI3, and CsPb(Y/Br)3 (Y = Cl and I) NCs with the use of CsPbBr3 NCs as templates by anion exchange while maintaining the size of NCs and high quantum yields of up to 80%. Notably, an emission line width of 10-24 nm, which is completely consistent with that of their single particles, indicates the formation of single-sized NCs. The versatility of the synthetic strategy was validated by extending it to the synthesis of single-sized CH3NH3PbX 3 NCs by simply replacing the cesium precursor by the CH3NH3 X precursor.

  17. Room temperature synthesis of ultra-small, near-unity single-sized lead halide perovskite quantum dots with wide color emission tunability, high color purity and high brightness.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lucheng; Geng, Jing; Ai, Lisha; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-08-19

    Phosphor with extremely narrow emission line widths, high brightness, and wide color emission tunability in visible regions is required for display and lighting applications, yet none has been reported in the literature so far. In the present study, single-sized lead halide perovskite (APbX 3; A = CH3NH3 and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystalline (NC) phosphors were achieved for the first time in a one-pot reaction at room temperature (25 °C). The size-dependent samples, which included four families of CsPbBr3 NCs and exhibited sharp excitonic absorption peaks and pure band gap emission, were directly obtained by simply varying the concentration of ligands. The continuity of the optical spectrum can be successively tuned over the entire UV-visible spectral region (360-610 nm) by preparing CsPbCl3, CsPbI3, and CsPb(Y/Br)3 (Y = Cl and I) NCs with the use of CsPbBr3 NCs as templates by anion exchange while maintaining the size of NCs and high quantum yields of up to 80%. Notably, an emission line width of 10-24 nm, which is completely consistent with that of their single particles, indicates the formation of single-sized NCs. The versatility of the synthetic strategy was validated by extending it to the synthesis of single-sized CH3NH3PbX 3 NCs by simply replacing the cesium precursor by the CH3NH3 X precursor.

  18. A novel density-tunable nanocomposites of CdTe quantum dots linked to dendrimer-tethered multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yunlong; Tang, Chunran; Wang, Haowen; Jiang, Jianhui; Tian, Meina; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2008-10-01

    A novel nanocomposite of CdTe-PAMAM-MWNT was synthesized by covalently linking CdTe quantum dots (QDs) onto highly water-soluble multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with dendritic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM). The IR, UV-vis and TEM methods has been used for the characterization of the composites. A facile method for controlling the density of QDs in the composite by simply changing the ratio of CdTe QDs/PAMAM-MWNT, as was verified by the TEM images. The experiments revealed that PAMAM and PAMAM-MWNT, once covalently linked with CdTe QDs, had remarkable effect on their fluorescence property. The fluorescence intensity of the CdTe-PAMAM hybrid was substantially enhanced as a compared to that of QDs, and the fluorescence was quenched greatly when QDs reacted with PAMAM-MWNT. The experimentally observed phenomena indicate that electron and energy transfer took place efficiently between CdTe QDs, PAMAM and MWNTs in the novel composite. These nanocomposits might hold great potential in photoelectron device and biotechnology applications.

  19. Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Mahboobeh; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Yousefi, Leila

    2015-11-01

    A tunable THz absorber, with absorbance more than 90% is proposed, and numerically characterized. The absorber structure is based on metamaterials with unit cells consisting of two patterned graphene layers separated by a 5-nm thick layer of Al2O3. Numerical results show that when the chemical potential of the top graphene microribbons are tuned by an external variable bias and that of the lower graphene fishnet is kept at μC=0, frequency of the absorption peaks can be tuned as desired, therefore we can have a tunable or switchable absorber. The proposed absorber can have applications in designing tunable reflective THz filters or tunable THz switches and modulators. It can also be used for cloaking objects in THz range.

  20. Method and means for generation of tunable laser sidebands in the far-infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M. (Inventor); Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method for generating tunable far-infrared radiation is described. The apparatus includes a Schottky-barrier diode which has one side coupled through a conductor to a waveguide that carries a tunable microwave frequency; the diode has an opposite side which is coupled through a radiating whisker to a bias source. Infrared light is directed at the diode, and infrared light with tunable sidebands is radiated by the whisker through an open space to a reflector. The original infrared is separated from a tunable infrared sideband by a polarizing Michelson interferometer.

  1. Paper-based solid-phase multiplexed nucleic acid hybridization assay with tunable dynamic range using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2013-08-06

    A multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay on a paper-based platform is presented using multicolor immobilized quantum dots (QDs) as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The surface of paper was modified with imidazole groups to immobilize two types of QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates that were assembled in solution. Green-emitting QDs (gQDs) and red-emitting QDs (rQDs) served as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) acceptors. The gQD/Cy3 FRET pair served as an internal standard, while the rQD/A647 FRET pair served as a detection channel, combining the control and analytical test zones in one physical location. Hybridization of dye-labeled oligonucleotide targets provided the proximity for FRET sensitized emission from the acceptor dyes, which served as an analytical signal. Hybridization assays in the multicolor format provided a limit of detection of 90 fmol and an upper limit of dynamic range of 3.5 pmol. The use of an array of detection zones was designed to provide improved analytical figures of merit compared to that which could be achieved on one type of array design in terms of relative concentration of multicolor QDs. The hybridization assays showed excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of oligonucleotides. Selectivity of the two-plex hybridization assay was demonstrated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection at a contrast ratio of 50:1. Additionally, it is shown that the use of preformed QD-probe oligonucleotide conjugates and consideration of the relative number density of the two types of QD-probe conjugates in the two-color assay format is advantageous to maximize assay sensitivity and the upper limit of dynamic range.

  2. Optophononics with Coupled Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    the molecular polaron can be used as an efficient and tunable coherent coupler for quantum states in spatially separated low-dimensional structures...cold finger of a closed cycle microscopy cryostat and kept at a temperature of 20K. A tunable diode laser with a tuning range from about 900 to 1,000...et al. Tunable exciton relaxation in vertically coupled semiconductor InAs quantum dots. Phys. Rev. B 84, 081404(R) (2011). 10 100 1,000 0 5 A m pl ifi

  3. Tunable structural colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2009-10-01

    Strain gauges that change colour when stressed, bright backlight-free displays and highly sensitive biological sensors are all potential applications of tunable photonic crystal materials, reports Duncan Graham-Rowe.

  4. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  5. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.

    PubMed

    Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-29

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  6. Connecting strongly correlated superfluids by a quantum point contact.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman; Brantut, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-18

    Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.

  7. A tunable wavelength-conversion laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kentaro; Kuno, Masaaki; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Wakao, Kiyohide

    1992-05-01

    A novel wavelength-conversion laser was fabricated using monolithic integration of a bistable laser diode and a wavelength-tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser. This device converts an input light signal with a certain wavelength to output light with a tunable wavelength over 3.5 nm. Input power required for switching is investigated, and its resonant dependence on input wavelength is revealed. Input polarization is also discussed, and suppression of crosstalk is demonstrated. This device's turn-off switching response is greatly influenced by the light power of the input signal as well as bias current, and the first 1 Gb/s operation is achieved in optimum conditions for fast turn-off and stable turn-on.

  8. Correlation of Conductance Measurements from a Quantum Dot with Three Terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Ryan; Prada, Marta; Qin, Hua; Huettel, Andreas; Goswami, Srijit; Blick, Robert; Eberl, Karl

    2005-03-01

    We have measured the differential conductance of a quantum dot coupled by three tunable tunneling barriers to three terminals. The quantum dot is formed by laterally constricting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure with Schottky split-gates. The advantage to performing conductance measurements on a quantum dot with three leads is that we are able to directly measure information about the individual tunneling barriers and determine how the states interact with the leads. At a base temperature of 250mK, we have observed new phenomena not previously reported from three-terminal, mesoscopic experiments. These effects include conductance peak suppression in the nonlinear bias regime and the simultaneous coupling of two different states to two separate leads.

  9. Quantum witness of high-speed low-noise single-photon detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Huang, Kun; Liang, Yan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Xueshun; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrate high-speed and low-noise near-infrared single-photon detection by using a capacitance balancing circuit to achieve a high spike noise suppression for an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. The single-photon detector could operate at a tunable gate repetition rate from 10 to 60 MHz. A peak detection efficiency of 34% has been achieved with a dark count rate of 9 × 10⁻³ per gate when the detection window was set to 1 ns. Additionally, quantum detector tomography has also been performed at 60 MHz of repetition rate and for the detection window of 1 ns, enabling to witness the quantum features of the detector with the help of a negative Wigner function. By varying the bias voltage of the detector, we further demonstrated a transition from the full-quantum to semi-classical regime.

  10. Electrically tunable nonlinear plasmonics in graphene nanoislands.

    PubMed

    Cox, Joel D; Javier García de Abajo, F

    2014-12-11

    Nonlinear optical processes rely on the intrinsically weak interactions between photons enabled by their coupling with matter. Unfortunately, many applications in nonlinear optics are severely hindered by the small response of conventional materials. Metallic nanostructures partially alleviate this situation, as the large light enhancement associated with their localized plasmons amplifies their nonlinear response to record high levels. Graphene hosts long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that also interact strongly with light. Here we show that the nonlinear polarizabilities of graphene nanoislands can be electrically tuned to surpass by several orders of magnitude those of metal nanoparticles of similar size. This extraordinary behaviour extends over the visible and near-infrared spectrum for islands consisting of hundreds of carbon atoms doped with moderate carrier densities. Our quantum-mechanical simulations of the plasmon-enhanced optical response of nanographene reveal this material as an ideal platform for the development of electrically tunable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  11. Widely tunable edge emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlet, Gert; Wesstrom, Jan-Olof; Rigole, Pierre-Jean; Broberg, Bjoern

    2001-11-01

    We will present the current state-of-the-art in widely tunable edge emitting lasers for WDM applications. Typical applications for a tunable laser will be discussed, and the different types of tunable lasers available today will be compared with respect to the requirements posed by these applications. We will focus on the DBR-type tunable lasers - DBR, SG-DBR and GCSR - which at present seem to be the only tunable lasers mature enough for real-life applications. Their main advantages are that they are all monolithic, with no moving parts, and can be switched from one frequency to the other very rapidly since the tuning is based on carrier injection and not on thermal or mechanical changes. We will briefly discuss the working principle of each of these devices, and present typical performance characteristics. From a manufacturing point of view, rapid characterization of the lasers is crucial; therefore an overview will be given of different characterization schemes that have recently been proposed. For the end user, reliability is the prime issue. We will show results of degradation studies on these lasers and outline how the control electronics that drive the laser can compensate for any frequency drift. Finally, we will also discuss the impact of the requirement for rapid frequency switching on the design of the control electronics.

  12. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Su; Ren, Hongwen; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-12-01

    Tunable optofluidic devices exhibit some unique characteristics that are not achievable in conventional solid-state photonic devices. They provide exciting opportunities for emerging applications in imaging, information processing, sensing, optical communication, lab-on-a-chip and biomedical engineering. A dielectrophoresis effect is an important physical mechanism to realize tunable optofluidic devices. Via balancing the voltage-induced dielectric force and interfacial tension, the liquid interface can be dynamically manipulated and the optical output reconfigured or adaptively tuned in real time. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices offer several attractive features, such as rapid prototyping, miniaturization, easy integration and low power consumption. In this review paper, we first explain the underlying operation principles and then review some recent progress in this field, covering the topics of adaptive lens, beam steering, iris, grating, optical switch/attenuator and single pixel display. Finally, the future perspectives are discussed.

  13. Tunable lasers- an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, B.D.; Buser, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    This overview of tunable lasers describes their applicability to spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and middle infrared ranges; to rapid on-line diagnostics by ultrashort cavity lasers; to exploration, by the free electron laser, for its wide tuning in the far infrared to submillimeter region; to remote detection, in areas such as portable pollution monitors, on-line chemical analyzers, auto exhaust analyzers, and production line controls; to photochemistry; and to other potential areas in diagnostics, communications, and medical and biological sciences. The following lasers are characterized by their tunability: solid state lasers, primarily alexandrite, with a tuning range of ca 1000 Angstroms; color center lasers; semiconductor lasers; dye lasers; gas lasers, where high-pressure CO/sub 2/ discharges are the best known example for a wide tunability range, and research is continuing in systems such as the alkali dimers; and, at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometers, the possibilities beyond Cerenkov and free electron lasers.

  14. Tunable metasurfaces (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-09-01

    Metasurfaces composed of sub-wavelength artificial structures show promise for extraordinary light-manipulation and development of ultrathin optical components such as lenses, wave plates, orbital angular detection, and holograms over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. However structures developed to date do not allow for post-fabrication control of antenna properties. We have investigated the integration of the transparent conductor indium tin oxide (ITO) active elements to realize gate-tunable phased arrays of subwavelength patch antenna in a metasurface configuration to enable gate tunable permittivity. The magnetic dipole resonance of each patch antenna interacts with the carrier density-dependent permittivity resonance of the ITO to enable phase and amplitude tunability. Operation of patch antennas and beam steering phased arrays will be discussed.

  15. Functionalized graphene/silicon chemi-diode H₂ sensor with tunable sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Ahsan; Singh, Amol Kumar; Sudarshan, Tangali S; Koley, Goutam

    2014-03-28

    A reverse bias tunable Pd- and Pt-functionalized graphene/Si heterostructure Schottky diode H2 sensor has been demonstrated. Compared to the graphene chemiresistor sensor, the chemi-diode sensor offers more than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity as the molecular adsorption induced Schottky barrier height change causes the heterojunction current to vary exponentially in reverse bias. The reverse bias operation also enables low power consumption, as well as modulation of the atomically thin graphene's Fermi level, leading to tunable sensitivity and detection of H₂ down to the sub-ppm range.

  16. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lani, Shane W; Wasequr Rashid, M; Hasler, Jennifer; Sabra, Karim G; Levent Degertekin, F

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  17. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, Shane W. E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu Sabra, Karim G.; Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  18. Monolithic integration of MQW wavelength tunable DBR lasers with external cavity electroabsorption modulators by selective-area MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Robert M.; Smith, Gary M.; Hughes, J. S.; Osowski, Mark L.; Jones, A. M.; Coleman, James J.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of multiple-quantum well (MQW) wavelength tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers with nonabsorbing gratings and monolithically integrated external cavity electroabsorption modulators fabricated by selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are presented. Uncoated devices exhibit cw threshold currents as low as 10.5 mA with slope efficiencies of 0.21 W/A from the laser facet and 0.06 W/A from the modulator facet. After the application of facet coatings, slope efficiencies from the modulator facet increase to 0.14 W/A. Wavelength tuning of 7 nm is obtained by injection current heating of the DBR section. These devices exhibit extinction ratios of 18 dB from the modulator facet at a low modulator bias of 1 V, when measured with a broad-area detector. When coupled to a singlemode fiber, these devices exhibit high extinction ratios of 40 dB at a modulator bias of 1.25 V. Photo-generated current versus optical power plots indicate that the extinction ratios are not limited by carrier build- up in the modulator quantum wells.

  19. Journal bias or author bias?

    PubMed

    Harris, Ian

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics regarding bias and conflicts of interest in medical journals. Wilson targets one journal (the New England Journal of Medicine: NEJM) and one particular "scandal" to make his point that journals' decisions on publication are biased by commercial conflicts of interest (CoIs). It is interesting that he chooses the NEJM which, by his own admission, had one of the strictest CoI policies and had published widely on this topic. The feeling is that if the NEJM can be guilty, they can all be guilty.

  20. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...the area of the metamaterial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS MEMORY , MATAMATERIALS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  1. Fabrication of 2D sheet-like BiOCl/carbon quantum dot hybrids via a template-free coprecipitation method and their tunable visible-light photocatalytic activities derived from different size distributions of carbon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fang; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhong, Fei; Pei, Xule; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Au, Chaktong

    2016-02-01

    A series of two-dimensional (2D) interlaced BiOCl/carbon quantum dot composites (denoted as BiOCl/CQD composites) were synthesized by a template-free coprecipitation method at room temperature, and the influence of different particle size distributions of the CQDs on the physiochemical properties and photocatalytic activities of the BiOCl/CQD composites was studied. CQDs can change the morphology and increase the specific surface area of the BiOCl/CQD composites. Moreover, the particle size distribution of the CQDs (CQD loading amount) has some effect on the light absorption, separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and photocatalytic performance of the BiOCl/CQD composites. The optimized size distribution of the CQDs is 50-150 nm. BiOCl/CQD (50-150 nm) composites showed the best improvement of light absorption and the highest photocurrent density of 0.44 μA cm-2, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with almost 100% 2-nitrophenol removal under visible-light irradiation. The high efficacy of BiOCl/CQD (50-150 nm) composites could be attributed to their excellent light absorption and highly effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  2. Tunable single-photon frequency conversion in a Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei-Bin; Huang, Jin-Feng; Fan, Heng

    2013-12-01

    Quantum information carriers like photons might be manipulated, stored and transmitted in different quantum systems. It is important to integrate those systems efficiently. The capability of converting photons from one wavelength to another wavelength is a key requirement for combining the photons in telecommunications band for quantum transmission and the photons in near-visible band for quantum storage. Here, we investigate the tunable single-photon frequency conversion in the five-level emitter-Sagnac interferometer system. We show that the efficient single-photon conversion can be achieved in this scheme, at the same time, the frequencies of the input and output photons can be tuned in a large scale by controlling the frequencies and Rabi frequencies of the external driving fields. The realization of this scheme may lead to the efficient combination of quantum storage system with the quantum communication system.

  3. Characterizing a Superconducting Resonator with Frequency-Compensated Tunable Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, James; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A. G.; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Martinis, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic quantum state transfer between devices on different chips requires the ability to transfer quantum states between traveling qubits and fixed logic qubits. Reflections must be minimized to avoid energy loss and phase interference; this requires tunable coupling to an inter-chip line while the two devices are at equal frequencies. To achieve this, we present a 6GHz superconducting coplanar resonator with tunable coupling to a 50 Ohm transmission line. We compensate for the resulting shift in resonator frequency by simultaneously tuning a second SQUID. We further demonstrate the device coherence and the ability both to release a single-frequency shaped pulse into the transmission line and to efficiently capture a shaped pulse, prerequisites for efficient inter-chip deterministic quantum state transfer.

  4. I-V and Differential Conduction Characteristics of an AlGaAs/GaAs Lateral Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidry, D. H.; Morath, C. P.; Cowan, V. M.; Cardimona, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    A new infrared detector design, henceforth referred to as a lateral quantum dot infrared photodetector (LQDIP), with the potential for a tunable internal spectral response was investigated. In this design, InAs quantum dots are buried in a GaAs quantum well, which is in turn tunnel-coupled to a second GaAs quantum well. Photoexcited electrons from the quantum dots are expected to tunnel over to the second well, where they are then swept out via a lateral (perpendicular to the growth direction) bias voltage. The lateral photocurrent is in part directed to tunnel into the second quantum well by the depletion field of a narrow pinch-off gate, applied vertically (parallel to the growth direction). Under a proper biasing arrangement, this detector architecture is expected to exhibit the ability to tune to select infrared frequencies as well as operate with reduced dark currents and unity gain in the second well. The LQDIP detector architecture, operating principles and conditions, and preliminary results of I- V, photocurrent, and differential conductance measurements are all discussed.

  5. Tunable dysprosium laser.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Matthew R; Jackson, Stuart D

    2016-10-01

    We report the demonstration of a tunable dysprosium laser. The experiment employed in-band pumping of a Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber and a simple resonator design involving a ruled diffraction grating. The laser produced tuning between 2.95 and 3.35 μm, limited by the availability of optics.

  6. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  7. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

  8. Dynamic behavior of an injection-locked quantum-dash Fabry-Perot laser at zero-detuning.

    PubMed

    Pochet, M; Naderi, N A; Terry, N; Kovanis, V; Lester, L F

    2009-11-09

    This work investigates the behavior of a zero-detuned optically-injected quantum-dash Fabry-Perot laser as the injected field ratio is increased from near-zero to levels resulting in stable locking. Using a normalized model describing optically-injected semiconductor lasers, variations in the slave laser's free-running characteristics are shown to have a strong impact on the coupled system's behavior. The theoretical model is verified experimentally using a high resolution spectrometer. It is found that the quantum-dash laser has the technological advantage of a low linewidth enhancement factor at low bias currents that suppresses undesirable Period-2 and chaotic behavior. Such observations suggest that optically-injected quantum-dash lasers can be used as an enabling component for tunable photonic oscillators.

  9. Piezoelectric tunable microwave superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, N. C.; Fan, Y.; Tobar, M. E.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of engineered quantum systems, there is a demand for superconducting tunable devices, able to operate with high-quality factors at power levels equivalent to only a few photons. In this work, we developed a 3D microwave re-entrant cavity with such characteristics ready to provide a very fine-tuning of a high-Q resonant mode over a large dynamic range. This system has an electronic tuning mechanism based on a mechanically amplified piezoelectric actuator, which controls the resonator dominant mode frequency by changing the cavity narrow gap by very small displacements. Experiments were conducted at room and dilution refrigerator temperatures showing a large dynamic range up to 4 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively, and were compared to a finite element method model simulated data. At elevated microwave power input, nonlinear thermal effects were observed to destroy the superconductivity of the cavity due to the large electric fields generated in the small gap of the re-entrant cavity.

  10. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  11. Generation of a tunable environment for electrical oscillator systems.

    PubMed

    León-Montiel, R de J; Svozilík, J; Torres, Juan P

    2014-07-01

    Many physical, chemical, and biological systems can be modeled by means of random-frequency harmonic oscillator systems. Even though the noise-free evolution of harmonic oscillator systems can be easily implemented, the way to experimentally introduce, and control, noise effects due to a surrounding environment remains a subject of lively interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a setup that provides a unique tool to generate a fully tunable environment for classical electrical oscillator systems. We illustrate the operation of the setup by implementing the case of a damped random-frequency harmonic oscillator. The high degree of tunability and control of our scheme is demonstrated by gradually modifying the statistics of the oscillator's frequency fluctuations. This tunable system can readily be used to experimentally study interesting noise effects, such as noise-induced transitions in systems driven by multiplicative noise, and noise-induced transport, a phenomenon that takes place in quantum and classical coupled oscillator networks.

  12. Magnetically Tunable Polymer Nanocomposites for RF and Microwave Device Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojak, K.; Pal, S.; Srikanth, H.; Morales, C.; Dewdney, J.; Wang, J.; Weller, T.

    2011-03-01

    There has been much interest in polymer nanocomposites (PNC) recently due to potential applications for EMI shielding, tunable electromagnetic devices and flexible electronics. We report synthesis, structural, magnetic and RF characterization on PNCs ranging from 20-80 wt-% loadings of Fe 3 O4 and CoFe 2 O4 nanoparticles (~ 8 nm) in a thermosetting resin from the Rogers Corporation. Nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition and characterized by XRD and TEM. Magnetic properties were studied using a Quantum Design PPMS. PNCs displayed characteristic features of superparamagnetism at room temperature and blocking at low temperature. Microwave transmission/reflection studies were done using a microstrip resonator. Strong tunability in the microwave absorption was observed. We extend our study to include nanoparticle-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by CVD. These high-aspect ratio magnetic nanostructures, with tunable anisotropy, are of particular interest in enhancing magnetic and microwave responses in existing PNCs.

  13. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -T[stmbol] superconducting thin films with special arrangements of antidots / R. Wöerdenweber, P. Dymashevski and V. R. Misko. Quantum tunneling of relativistic fluxons / K. Konno et al. -- 6. Quantum information processing in solid states. Qubit decoherence by low-frequency noise / K. Rabenstein, V. A. Sverdlov and D. V. Averin. A critique of two-level approximation / K. Savran and T. Hakioǧlu. Josephson arrays as quantum channels / A. Romito, C. Bruder and R. Fazio. Fighting decoherence in a Josephson qubit circuit / E. Collin et al. Fast switching current detection at low critical currents / J. Walter, S. Corlevi and D. Haviland. Asymmetric flux bias for coupled qubits to observe entangled states / Y. Shimazu. Interaction of Josephson qubits with strong QED cavity modes: dynamical entanglement transfer and navigation / G. Falci et al. Controlling decoherence of transported quantum spin information in semiconductor spintronics / B. Nikolic and S. Souma. Decoherence due to telegraph and 1/f noise in Josephson qubits / E. Paladino et al. Detection of entanglement in NMR quantum information processing / R. Rahimi, K. Takeda and M. Kitagawa. Multiphoton absorption and SQUID switching current behaviors in superconducting flux-qubit experiments / H. Takayanagi et al. -- 7. Quantum information theory. Quantum query complexities / K. Iwama. A construction for non-stabilizer Clifford codes / M. Hagiwara and H. Imai. Quantum pushdown automata that can deterministically solve a certain problem / Y. Murakami et al. Trading classical for quantum computation using indirection / R. van Meter. Intractability of the initial arrangement of input data on qubits / Y. Kawano et al. Reversibility of modular squaring / N. Kunihiro, Y. Takahashi and Y. Kawano. Study of proximity effect at D-wave superconductors in quasiclassical methods / Y. Tanuma, Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya -- 8. Spintronics in band electrons. Triplet superconductors: exploitable basis for scalable quantum computing / K. S. Wood et al. Spin

  14. Type tunable asymmetric interleaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiheng; Liu, Bing; Sun, Xin; Chen, Lixiang; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Xingxing

    2016-11-01

    A type of an interleaver with tunable bandwidth ratio for a dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is proposed, which integrates a nested ring resonator with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The merits of the interleaver are its structure simplicity and the ultralarge tunability on bandwidth ratio. Based on the coupled-mode theory, the effects of essential parameter changes on the output waveforms have been analyzed. According to the theoretical analysis and simulation results, the bandwidth ratio is more determined by the coupling efficiency while the bandwidth is controlled by the optical length of the ring resonator. It was found that the bandwidth ratio is adjustable and varies between 1.5 and 10.5. Therefore, the interleaver can provide important implications for the DWDM system.

  15. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, Eric A [Rio Rancho, NM; Wasserman, Daniel [Lowell, MA

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  16. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  17. Tunable Polymer Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    Sylgard® 184). Poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) was provided by Atofina Chemicals, Inc. (Plexiglas V920). The SEBS copolymer and PMMA resins...convex poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) lens, R=25.8 mm, with a tunable elastomeric lens membrane, R=38.6 mm. The PMMA is rigid; the variable focal...using a combination of deformable and rigid polymeric materials. An elastomeric styrene- ethylene /butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer was

  18. Tunable Optical Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    tunable source science and technology. Research into methods of improving laser sources continued during the past year. We invented a new.ortical...number of groups have proposed and analyzed lower-state energies, E - E. Once the temperature methods of making remote temperature measurements, is...measuring ture profiling: performance simulations of Mason’s and humidity simultaneously by using a method ," Appl. Opt. 18,3539-3541 (1979

  19. Tunable Resonant Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagu, Jean I.

    1987-01-01

    The most attractive features of resonant scanners are high reliability and eternal life as well as extremely low wobble and jitter. Power consumption is also low, electronic drive is simple, and the device is capable of handling large beams. All of these features are delivered at a low cost in a small package. The resonant scanner's use in numerous high precision applications, however, has been limited because of the difficulty in controlling its phase and resonant frequency. This paper introduces the concept of tunable/controllable resonant scanners, discusses their features, and offers a number of tuning techniques. It describes two angular scanner designs and presents data on tunable range and life tests. It also reviews applications for these new tunable resonant scanners that preserve the desirable features of earlier models while removing the old problems with synchronization or time base flexibility. The three major types of raster scanning applications where the tunable resonant scanner may be of benefit are: 1. In systems with multiple time bases such as multiple scanner networks or with scanners keyed to a common clock (the line frequency or data source) or a machine with multiple resonant scanners. A typical application is image and text transmission, also a printer with a large data base where a buffer is uneconomical. 2. In systems sharing data processing or laser equipment for reasons of cost or capacity, typically multiple work station manufacturing processes or graphic processes. 3. In systems with extremely precise time bases where the frequency stability of conventional scanners cannot be relied upon.

  20. Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    Mechanical Metamaterials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0709 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Siavouche Nemat...creating mechanical metamaterials over a broad range of frequencies. We have shown that it is possible to have stress waves with negative dynamic...scattering can be controlled, and energy can be focused or dissipated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mechanical Metamaterials , Tunability 16. SECURITY

  1. An origami tunable metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchi, Kazuko; Diaz, Alejandro R.; Rothwell, Edward J.; Ouedraogo, Raoul O.; Tang, Junyan

    2012-04-01

    The transmission characteristics of a folded surface decorated with a periodic arrangement of split-ring resonators is investigated. The folding pattern has one displacement degree of freedom, allowing motion that can be used to adjust the separation between the rings. When the geometry of the folded surface is varied by mechanical means, the change in spacing between the rings causes a shift in resonance frequency, making the surface mechanically tunable.

  2. Tuning the external optical feedback-sensitivity of a passively mode-locked quantum dot laser

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, R. Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.; Grillot, F.; Mee, J. K.; Murrell, D.

    2014-07-28

    The external optical feedback-sensitivity of a two-section, passively mode-locked quantum dot laser operating at elevated temperature is experimentally investigated as a function of absorber bias voltage. Results show that the reverse-bias voltage on the absorber has a direct impact on the damping rate of the free-running relaxation oscillations of the optical signal output, thereby enabling interactive external control over the feedback-response of the device, even under the nearly resonant cavity configuration. The combination of high temperature operation and tunable feedback-sensitivity is highly promising from a technological standpoint, in particular, for applications requiring monolithic integration of multi-component architectures on a single chip in order to accomplish, for instance, the dual-objectives of stable pulse quality and isolation from parasitic reflections.

  3. Variable-bias coin tossing

    SciTech Connect

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2006-03-15

    Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT.

  4. Variable-bias coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2006-03-01

    Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT.

  5. Tunable diode pumped Rb laser with single longitudinal and transverse mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfei; Hua, Weihong; Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a tunable single frequency Rb laser with TEM00 mode is realized. The linewidth is less than 1 GHz, with tuning range of 5 GHz, and central wavelength drift of less than 95 MHz (0.2 pm). The laser power is 1.4 W, with power fluctuation of less than 2%. Such kinds of tunable DPALs could be potential in applications for laser spectroscopy and quantum optics etc.

  6. Sensitive Radio-Frequency Measurements of a Quantum Dot by Tuning to Perfect Impedance Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, N.; Schupp, F. J.; Mavalankar, A.; Rogers, G.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Cottet, A.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Electrical readout of spin qubits requires fast and sensitive measurements, which are hindered by poor impedance matching to the device. We demonstrate perfect impedance matching in a radio-frequency readout circuit, using voltage-tunable varactors to cancel out parasitic capacitances. An optimized capacitance sensitivity of 1.6 aF /√{Hz } is achieved at a maximum source-drain bias of 170 -μ V root-mean-square and with a bandwidth of 18 MHz. Coulomb blockade in a quantum-dot is measured in both conductance and capacitance, and the two contributions are found to be proportional as expected from a quasistatic tunneling model. We benchmark our results against the requirements for single-shot qubit readout using quantum capacitance, a goal that has so far been elusive.

  7. Magnetically tunable unidirectional waveguide based on magnetic photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Weiwei; Wang, Jiafu E-mail: qushaobo@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zhaotang; Pang, Yongqiang; Qu, Shaobo E-mail: qushaobo@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we presented a magnetically tunable ferrite-loaded unidirectional waveguide based on magnetic photonic crystals. Two rows of ferrite rods are symmetrically arranged near the two lateral sides of the rectangular waveguide, where they are biased with static magnetic fields with the same amplitude and opposite directions along the rod axis. Since the magnetic one-way transmission is induced by the magnetic surface plasmon resonance, the operating band of the unidirectional waveguide can be tuned by changing the biased magnetic field intensity. To validate the design, a prototype was fabricated and measured. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the unidirectional transmission property.

  8. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another.

  9. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    SciTech Connect

    Lesage, A. A. J. Smith, L. W. Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-07

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another.

  10. The Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jacob

    /CoO bilayer is deposited on the surface of BaTiO 3 substrate which allows for tunable stress in the adjacent Co thin film. This stress induces strain in the Co film thus alters its magnetic anisotropy. The change of the magnetization orientation at the Co/CoO interface tunes its exchange bias and coercivity and provides a route to study the interface magnetism of the exchange bias heterostructure from a new perspective.

  11. Tunable nonlinear superconducting metamaterials: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, Melissa

    I present experimental and numerical simulation results for two types of nonlinear tunable superconducting metamaterials: 2D arrays of rf SQUIDs (radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices) as magnetic metamaterials and arrays of Josephson junction-loaded wires as electric metamaterials. The effective inductance of a Josephson junction is sensitive to dc current, temperature, and rf current. I took advantage of this property to design arrays of Josephson junction-loaded wires that present a tunable cutoff frequency and thus a tunable effective permittivity for propagating electromagnetic waves in a one-conductor waveguide. I measured the response of the metamaterial to each tuning parameter and found agreement with numerical simulations that employ the RCSJ (resistively and capacitively shunted junction) model. An rf SQUID is an analogue of an SRR (split ring resonator) with the gap capacitance replaced with a Josephson junction. Like the SRR the SQUID is a resonant structure with a frequency-dependent effective permeability. The difference between the SQUID and the SRR is that the effective inductance and thus effective permeability of the SQUID can be tuned with dc and rf flux, and temperature. Individual rf SQUID meta-atoms and two-dimensional arrays were designed and measured as a function of each tuning parameter and I have found excellent agreement with numerical simulations. There is also an interesting transparency feature that occurs for intermediate rf flux values. The tuning of SQUID arrays has a similar character to the tuning of individual rf SQUID meta-atoms. However, I found that the coupling between the SQUIDs increases the resonant frequency, decreases dc flux tuning, and introduces additional resonant modes. Another feature of arrays is disorder which suppresses the coherence of the response and negatively impacts the emergent properties of the metamaterial. The disorder was experimentally found to be mainly due to a dc flux

  12. High efficiency cw laser-pumped tunable alexandrite laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, S.T.; Shand, M.L.

    1983-10-01

    High efficiency cw alexandrite laser operation has been achieved. With longitudinal pumping by a krypton laser in a nearly concentric cavity, a 51% output power slope efficiency has been measured. Including the transmission at the input coupler mirror, a quantum yield of 85% has been attained above threshold. Tunability from 726 to 802 nm has also been demonstrated. The low loss and good thermal properties make alexandrite ideal for cw laser operation.

  13. Quantum-confined Stark effect in band-inverted junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Fernández, A.; Domínguez-Adame, F.

    2017-09-01

    Topological phases of matter are often characterized by interface states, which were already known to occur at the boundary of a band-inverted junction in semiconductor heterostructures. In IV-VI compounds such interface states are properly described by a two-band model, predicting the appearance of a Dirac cone in single junctions. We study the quantum-confined Stark effect of interface states due to an electric field perpendicular to a band-inverted junction. We find a closed expression to obtain the interface dispersion relation at any field strength and show that the Dirac cone widens under an applied bias. Thus, the Fermi velocity can be substantially lowered even at moderate fields, paving the way for tunable band-engineered devices based on band-inverted junctions.

  14. Optically Mapping the Electronic Structure of Coupled Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-10

    frequency- tunable titanium–sapphire laser . The photoluminescence signal was spectrally dispersed with a 0.75m monochromator equipped with a 1,200mm−1...923–926 (2000). 9. Drexler, H., Leonard, D., Hansen, W., Kotthaus, J. P. & Petroff, P. M. Spectroscopy of quantum levels in charge- tunable InGaAs...Beirne, G. J. et al. Quantum light emission of two lateral tunnel-coupled (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots controlled by a tunable static electric field. Phys

  15. Tunable Snapshot Spectrometer Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    tunable snapshot imaging spectrometer has been demonstrated. A liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) has been integrated into a...integrate a liquid crystal spatial light modulator into a CTIS instrument and characterize its performance as a tunable CTIS disperser, and (2) to...Spectrometer Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator Computer Generated Hologram 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 138

  16. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R [Williamsburg, VA

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  17. Tunable Molecular Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Lett. 2, 64-66 (1978). 13. R. Burnham, "Discharge pumped mercuric halide dissociation lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 156-159 (1978). 14. W. L. Nighan...University of Illinois. The goal of this research program was two-fold: 1) to develop new sources of tunable coherent radiation in the visible and...efficiency for converting XeF radiation (X - 351 nm) into blue-green output is 23% which corresponds to a photon conversion efficiency of approximately 1/3

  18. Frequency Tunable Wire Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides frequency tunable solid-state radiation-generating devices, such as lasers and amplifiers, whose active medium has a size in at least one transverse dimension (e.g., its width) that is much smaller than the wavelength of radiation generated and/or amplified within the active medium. In such devices, a fraction of radiation travels as an evanescent propagating mode outside the active medium. It has been discovered that in such devices the radiation frequency can be tuned by the interaction of a tuning mechanism with the propagating evanescent mode.

  19. Tunable random fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Babin, S. A.; Podivilov, E. V.; El-Taher, A. E.; Harper, P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2011-08-15

    An optical fiber is treated as a natural one-dimensional random system where lasing is possible due to a combination of Rayleigh scattering by refractive index inhomogeneities and distributed amplification through the Raman effect. We present such a random fiber laser that is tunable over a broad wavelength range with uniquely flat output power and high efficiency, which outperforms traditional lasers of the same category. Outstanding characteristics defined by deep underlying physics and the simplicity of the scheme make the demonstrated laser a very attractive light source both for fundamental science and practical applications.

  20. Tunable chromium lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.L.; Payne, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    During the decade that has passed since the discovery of the alexandrite laser, many other tunable vibronic sideband lasers based on Cr/sup 3 +/ have been developed. These lasers span the wavelength range from 700 nm to at least 1235 nm. Experimental and theoretical research has provided an understanding of the important factors that influence the performance of these Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers and other solid state vibronic lasers. The intrinsic performance levels of some of the most promising Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers are evaluated from extrapolated slope efficiency measurements. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.