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Sample records for biaxial nematic liquid

  1. Molecular-field-theory approach to the Landau theory of liquid crystals: uniaxial and biaxial nematics.

    PubMed

    Luckhurst, Geoffrey R; Naemura, Shohei; Sluckin, Timothy J; Thomas, Kenneth S; Turzi, Stefano S

    2012-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystal phase diagrams in temperature-biaxiality space are usually complex. We construct a Landau theory based on the analogous molecular-field theory for orthorhombic biaxial nematic fluids. A formal procedure yields coefficients (some of which, unusually, can be tensorial) in this Landau expansion, correctly predicts the complete set of invariants formed from the ordering tensors, and avoids ad hoc parametrization of the molecular biaxiality. By regularizing the Landau expansion to avoid unwanted order parameter divergences at low temperatures, we predict phase behavior over the whole range of biaxiality. The resulting phase diagrams have the same topology as those of molecular-field theory.

  2. Phase biaxiality in nematic liquid crystalline side-chain polymers of various chemical constitutions.

    PubMed

    Severing, Kirsten; Stibal-Fischer, Elke; Hasenhindl, Alfred; Finkelmann, Heino; Saalwächter, Kay

    2006-08-17

    In a previous deuterium NMR study conducted on a liquid crystalline (LC) polymer with laterally attached book-shaped molecules as the mesogenic moiety, we have revealed a biaxial nematic phase below the conventional uniaxial nematic phase (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004, 92, 125501). To elucidate details of its formation, we here report on deuterium NMR experiments that have been conducted on different types of LC side-chain polymers as well as on mixtures with low-molar-mass mesogens. Different parameters that affect the formation of a biaxial nematic phase, such as the geometry of the attachment, the spacer length between the polymer backbone and the mesogenic unit, as well as the polymer dynamics, were investigated. Surprisingly, also polymers with terminally attached mesogens (end-on polymers) are capable of forming biaxial nematic phases if the flexible spacer is short and thus retains a coupling between the polymer backbone and the LC phase. Furthermore, the most important parameter for the formation of a biaxial nematic phase is the dynamics of the polymer backbone, as the addition of a small percentage of low molar mass LC to the biaxial nematic polymer from the original study served to shift both the glass transition and the appearance of detectable biaxiality in a very similar fashion. Plotting different parameters for the investigated systems as a function of T/Tg also reveals the crucial role of the dynamics of the polymer backbone and hence the glass transition.

  3. Critical points and symmetries of a free energy function for biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillingworth, D. R. J.

    2015-05-01

    We describe a general mean field model for the free energy function for a homogeneous medium of mutually interacting molecules, based on the formalism for a biaxial nematic liquid crystal set out by Katriel et al (1986) in an influential paper in Liquid Crystals 1 and subsequently called the KKLS formalism. The free energy is expressed as the sum of an entropy term and an interaction (Hamiltonian) term. Using the language of group representation theory we identify the order parameters as averaged components of a linear transformation, and characterize the full symmetry group of the entropy term in the liquid crystal context as a wreath product SO(3) ≀ Z2. The symmetry-breaking role of the Hamiltonian, pointed out by Katriel et al, is here made explicit in terms of centre manifold reduction at bifurcation from isotropy. We use tools and methods of equivariant singularity theory to reduce the bifurcation study to that of a D3-invariant function on R2, ubiquitous in liquid crystal theory, and to describe the ‘universal’ bifurcation geometry in terms of the superposition of a familiar swallowtail surface controlling uniaxial equilibria and another less familiar surface controlling biaxial equilibria. In principle this provides a template for all nematic liquid crystal phase transitions close to isotropy, although further work is needed to identify the absolute minima that are the critical points representing stable phases.

  4. Role of Molecular Structure on X-ray Diffraction in Thermotropic Uniaxial and Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Bharat R.; Kang, Shin-Woong; Prasad, Veena; Kumar, Satyendra

    2009-08-27

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most definitive methods to determine the structure of condensed matter phases, and it has been applied to unequivocally infer the structures of conventional calamitic and lyotropic liquid crystals. With the advent of bent-core and tetrapodic mesogens and the discovery of the biaxial nematic phase in them, the experimental results require more careful interpretation and analysis. Here, we present ab-initio calculations of X-ray diffraction patterns in the isotropic, uniaxial nematic, and biaxial nematic phases of bent-core mesogens. A simple Meier-Saupe-like molecular distribution function is employed to describe both aligned and unaligned mesophases. The distribution function is decomposed into two, polar and azimuthal, distribution functions to calculate the effect of the evolution of uniaxial and biaxial nematic orientational order. The calculations provide satisfactory semiquantitative interpretations of experimental results. The calculations presented here should provide a pathway to more refined and quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction data from the biaxial nematic phase.

  5. Domain walls and anchoring transitions mimicking nematic biaxiality in the oxadiazole bent-core liquid crystal C7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Cukrov, Greta; Xiang, Jie; Shin, Sung-Tae; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    We investigate the origin of secondary disclinations that were recently described as a new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. With an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in an uniaxial nematic during the surface anchoring transition, in which surface orientation of the director changes from tangential (parallel to the bounding plates) to tilted. Each domain wall separates two regions with the director tilted in opposite azimuthal directions. At the centre of the wall, the director remains parallel to the bonding plates. The domain walls can be easily removed by applying a modest electric field. The anchoring transition is explained by the balance of (a) the intrinsic perpendicular surface anchoring produced by the polyimide aligning layer and (b) tangential alignment caused by ionic impurities forming electric double layers. The model is supported by the fact that the temperature of the tangential-tilted anchoring transition decreases as the cell thickness increases and as the concentration of ionic species (added salt) increases. We also demonstrate that the surface alignment is strongly affected by thermal degradation of the samples. The study shows that C7 exhibits only a uniaxial nematic phase and demonstrate yet another mechanism (formation of secondary disclinations) by which a uniaxial nematic can mimic a biaxial nematic behaviour.

  6. Domain walls and anchoring transitions mimicking nematic biaxiality in the oxadiazole bent-core liquid crystal C7.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ki; Cukrov, Greta; Xiang, Jie; Shin, Sung-Tae; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-05-28

    We investigate the origin of "secondary disclinations" that were recently described as new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. Using an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in a uniaxial nematic phase during the surface anchoring transition, in which surface orientation of the director changes from tangential (parallel to the bounding plates) to tilted. Each domain wall separates two regions with the director tilted in opposite azimuthal directions. At the centre of the wall, the director remains parallel to the bounding plates. The domain walls can be easily removed by applying a moderate electric field. The anchoring transition is explained by the balance of (a) the intrinsic perpendicular surface anchoring produced by the polyimide aligning layer and (b) tangential alignment caused by ionic impurities forming electric double layers. The model is supported by the fact that the temperature of the tangentially tilted anchoring transition decreases as the cell thickness increases and as the concentration of ionic species (added salt) increases. We also demonstrate that the surface alignment is strongly affected by thermal degradation of the samples. This study shows that C7 exhibits only a uniaxial nematic phase and demonstrates yet another mechanism (formation of "secondary disclinations") by which a uniaxial nematic phase can mimic a biaxial nematic behaviour.

  7. Effect of Molecular Flexibility on the Nematic-to-Isotropic Phase Transition for Highly Biaxial Molecular Non-Symmetric Liquid Crystal Dimers.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Nerea; López, David Orencio; Diez-Berart, Sergio; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Salud, Josep; Pérez-Jubindo, Miguel Angel; Ros, María Blanca

    2011-09-27

    In this work, a study of the nematic (N)-isotropic (I) phase transition has been made in a series of odd non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers, the α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4'-oxy) alkanes, by means of accurate calorimetric and dielectric measurements. These materials are potential candidates to present the elusive biaxial nematic (NB) phase, as they exhibit both molecular biaxiality and flexibility. According to the theory, the uniaxial nematic (NU)-isotropic (I) phase transition is first-order in nature, whereas the NB-I phase transition is second-order. Thus, a fine analysis of the critical behavior of the N-I phase transition would allow us to determine the presence or not of the biaxial nematic phase and understand how the molecular biaxiality and flexibility of these compounds influences the critical behavior of the N-I phase transition.

  8. Effect of Molecular Flexibility on the Nematic-to-Isotropic Phase Transition for Highly Biaxial Molecular Non-Symmetric Liquid Crystal Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Nerea; López, David Orencio; Diez-Berart, Sergio; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Salud, Josep; Pérez-Jubindo, Miguel Angel; Ros, María Blanca

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a study of the nematic (N)–isotropic (I) phase transition has been made in a series of odd non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers, the α-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4’-yloxy)-ω-(1-pyrenimine-benzylidene-4’-oxy) alkanes, by means of accurate calorimetric and dielectric measurements. These materials are potential candidates to present the elusive biaxial nematic (NB) phase, as they exhibit both molecular biaxiality and flexibility. According to the theory, the uniaxial nematic (NU)–isotropic (I) phase transition is first-order in nature, whereas the NB–I phase transition is second-order. Thus, a fine analysis of the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition would allow us to determine the presence or not of the biaxial nematic phase and understand how the molecular biaxiality and flexibility of these compounds influences the critical behavior of the N–I phase transition. PMID:28824100

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Computer simulations of biaxial nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Roberto; Muccioli, Luca; Orlandi, Silvia; Ricci, Matteo; Zannoni, Claudio

    2008-11-01

    Biaxial nematic (Nb) liquid crystals are a fascinating condensed matter phase that has baffled, for more than thirty years, scientists engaged in the challenge of demonstrating its actual existence, and which has only recently been experimentally found. During this period computer simulations of model Nb have played an important role, both in providing the basic physical properties to be expected from these systems, and in giving clues about the molecular features essential for the thermodynamic stability of Nb phases. However, simulation studies are expected to be even more crucial in the future for unravelling the structural features of biaxial mesogens at the molecular level, and for helping in the design and optimization of devices towards the technological deployment of Nb materials. This review article gives an overview of the simulation work performed so far, and relying on the recent experimental findings, focuses on the still unanswered questions which will determine the future challenges in the field.

  10. Biaxial Nematic Phase in Model Bent-Core Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Piotr; Longa, Lech

    2011-07-01

    We determine the bifurcation phase diagrams with isotropic (I), uniaxial (NU) and biaxial (NB) nematic phases for model bent-core mesogens using Onsager-type theory. The molecules comprise two or three Gay-Berne interacting ellipsoids of uniaxial and biaxial shape and a transverse central dipole. The Landau point is found to turn into an I-NB line for the three-center model with a large dipole moment. For the biaxial ellipsoids, a line of Landau points is observed even in the absence of the dipoles.

  11. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  12. Search for microscopic and macroscopic biaxiality in the cybotactic nematic phase of new oxadiazole bent-core mesogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Cukrov, Greta; Vita, Francesco; Scharrer, Eric; Samulski, Edward T.; Francescangeli, Oriano; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of biaxial orientational order in nematic liquid crystals is a subject of intense current interest. We explore the tendencies toward local and global biaxial ordering in the recently synthesized trimethylated oxadiazole-based bent-core mesogens with a pronounced asymmetric (bow-type) shape of molecules. The combination of x-ray diffraction and optical studies suggests that the biaxial order is expressed differently at the short- and long-range scales. Locally, at the scale of a few molecules, x-ray-diffraction data demonstrate biaxial packing. However, above the mesoscopic scale, the global orientational order in all three compounds is uniaxial, as evidenced by uniform homeotropic alignment of the nematic phase which is optically tested over the entire temperature range and by the observations of topological defects induced by individual and aggregated colloidal spheres in the nematic bulk.

  13. Minimal coupling model of the biaxial nematic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longa, Lech; Grzybowski, Piotr; Romano, Silvano; Virga, Epifanio

    2005-05-01

    A minimal coupling model exhibiting isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial nematic phases is analyzed in detail and its relation to existing models known in the literature is clarified. Its intrinsic symmetry properties are exploited to restrict the relevant ranges of coupling constants. Further on, properties of the model are thoroughly investigated by means of bifurcation theory as proposed by Kayser and Raveché [Phys. Rev. A 17, 2067 (1978)] and Mulder [Phys. Rev. A 39, 360 (1989)]. As a first step toward this goal, the bifurcation theory is applied to a general formulation of density functional theory in terms of direct correlation functions. On a general formal level, the theory is then analyzed to show that the bifurcation points from the reference, high-symmetry equilibrium phase to a low-symmetry structure depend only on the properties of the one-particle distribution function and the direct pair correlation function of the reference phase. The character of the bifurcation (whether spinodal, critical, tricritical, isolated Landau point, etc.) depends, in addition, on a few higher-order direct correlation functions. Explicit analytical results are derived for the case when only the leading L=2 terms of the potential (mean-field analysis) or of the direct pair correlation function expansion in the symmetry-adapted basis are retained. Formulas are compared with the numerical calculations for the mean-field, momentum L=2 potential model, in which case they are exact. In particular, bifurcations from the isotropic and uniaxial nematic to the biaxial nematic phases are discussed. The possibility of the recently reported nematic uniaxial-nematic biaxial tricritical point [A. M. Sonnet, E. G. Virga, and G. E. Durand, Phys. Rev. E 67, 061701 (2003)] is analyzed as well.

  14. Complex free-energy landscapes in biaxial nematic liquid crystals and the role of repulsive interactions: A Wang-Landau study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamala Latha, B.; Murthy, K. P. N.; Sastry, V. S. S.

    2017-09-01

    General quadratic Hamiltonian models, describing the interaction between liquid-crystal molecules (typically with D2 h symmetry), take into account couplings between their uniaxial and biaxial tensors. While the attractive contributions arising from interactions between similar tensors of the participating molecules provide for eventual condensation of the respective orders at suitably low temperatures, the role of cross coupling between unlike tensors is not fully appreciated. Our recent study with an advanced Monte Carlo technique (entropic sampling) showed clearly the increasing relevance of this cross term in determining the phase diagram (contravening in some regions of model parameter space), the predictions of mean-field theory, and standard Monte Carlo simulation results. In this context, we investigated the phase diagrams and the nature of the phases therein on two trajectories in the parameter space: one is a line in the interior region of biaxial stability believed to be representative of the real systems, and the second is the extensively investigated parabolic path resulting from the London dispersion approximation. In both cases, we find the destabilizing effect of increased cross-coupling interactions, which invariably result in the formation of local biaxial organizations inhomogeneously distributed. This manifests as a small, but unmistakable, contribution of biaxial order in the uniaxial phase. The free-energy profiles computed in the present study as a function of the two dominant order parameters indicate complex landscapes. On the one hand, these profiles account for the unusual thermal behavior of the biaxial order parameter under significant destabilizing influence from the cross terms. On the other, they also allude to the possibility that in real systems, these complexities might indeed be inhibiting the formation of a low-temperature biaxial order itself—perhaps reflecting the difficulties in their ready realization in the laboratory.

  15. {sup 52}Cr Spinor Condensate: A Biaxial or Uniaxial Spin Nematic

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Ho, T.-L.

    2006-05-19

    We show that the newly discovered {sup 52}Cr Bose condensate in zero magnetic field can be a spin nematic of the following kind: a 'maximum' polar state, a 'colinear' polar state, or a biaxial nematic ferromagnetic state. We also present the phase diagram with a magnetic field in the interaction subspace containing the chromium condensate. It contains many uniaxial and biaxial spin nematic phases, which often but not always break time reversal symmetry, and can exist with or without spontaneous magnetization.

  16. Molecular field theory for biaxial smectic A liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, T. B. T.; Sluckin, T. J.; Luckhurst, G. R.

    2013-10-01

    Thermotropic biaxial nematic phases seem to be rare, but biaxial smectic A phases less so. Here we use molecular field theory to study a simple two-parameter model, with one parameter promoting a biaxial phase and the second promoting smecticity. The theory combines the biaxial Maier-Saupe and McMillan models. We use alternatively the Sonnet-Virga-Durand (SVD) and geometric mean approximations (GMA) to characterize molecular biaxiality by a single parameter. For non-zero smecticity and biaxiality, the model always predicts a ground state biaxial smectic A phase. For a low degree of smectic order, the phase diagram is very rich, predicting uniaxial and biaxial nematic and smectic phases, with the addition of a variety of tricritical and tetracritical points. For higher degrees of smecticity, the region of stability of the biaxial nematic phase is restricted and eventually disappears, yielding to the biaxial smectic phase. Phase diagrams from the two alternative approximations for molecular biaxiality are similar, except inasmuch that SVD allows for a first-order isotropic-biaxial nematic transition, whereas GMA predicts a Landau point separating isotropic and biaxial nematic phases. We speculate that the rarity of thermotropic biaxial nematic phases is partly a consequence of the presence of stabler analogous smectic phases.

  17. Mechanic and electromechanic effects in biaxially stretched liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Calleja, Ricardo; Llovera-Segovia, Pedro; Riande, Evaristo; Quijano López, Alfredo

    2013-02-01

    The effect of combined electromechanic force fields in nematic side chain liquid crystal elastomers will be analyzed. A biaxially stretched plate in the x- and y-directions under an electric field applied in the perpendicular direction to the plate will be considered. A neo-Hookean model is chosen, which implies Gaussian behaviour. Results are obtained for both a soft and semisoft case showing the effect of the electric field on the rotation of the director and the free energy density function.

  18. Chirality and biaxiality in cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics of chirality and biaxiality in liquid crystals through a variety of theoretical approaches, including Monte Carlo simulations, lattice mean-field theory, and Landau theory. All of these calculations show that there is an important interaction between cholesteric twist and biaxial order: The twist acts as a field on the biaxial order, and conversely, the biaxial order increases the twist, that is, reduces the pitch. We model the behavior of chiral biaxial liquid crystals as a function of temperature and discuss how the predictions can be tested in experiments.

  19. Boundary Stability of a Nematic Liquid Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, William; Santangelo, Chris

    2014-03-01

    We consider a nematic liquid crystal droplet in air confined between two parallel plates with homeotropic boundary conditions. The boundary conditions at the nematic-plate and nematic-air interfaces induce either a hedgehog or planar ring disclination within the nematic bridge, depending on the plate separation and bridge radius. We study the stability of the liquid crystal-air boundary of a nearly cylindrical nematic bridge by minimizing the Frank elastic energy.

  20. Biaxial nematic phases in fluids of hard board-like particles.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ratón, Y; Varga, S; Velasco, E

    2011-08-07

    We use density-functional theory, of the fundamental-measure type, to study the relative stability of the biaxial nematic phase, with respect to non-uniform phases such as smectic and columnar, in fluids made of hard board-like particles with sizes σ(1) > σ(2) > σ(3). A restricted-orientation (Zwanzig) approximation is adopted. Varying the ratio κ(1) = σ(1)/σ(2) while keeping κ(2) = σ(2)/σ(3), we predict phase diagrams for various values of κ(2) which include all the uniform phases: isotropic, uniaxial rod- and plate-like nematics, and biaxial nematic. In addition, spinodal instabilities of the uniform phases with respect to fluctuations of the smectic, columnar and plastic-solid types are obtained. In agreement with recent experiments, we find that the biaxial nematic phase begins to be stable for κ(2)≳ 2.5. Also, as predicted by previous theories and simulations on biaxial hard particles, we obtain a region of biaxiality centred at κ(1)≈κ(2) which widens as κ(2) increases. For κ(2)≳ 5 the region κ(2)≈κ(1) of the packing-fraction vs. κ(1) phase diagrams exhibits interesting topologies which change qualitatively with κ(2). We have found that an increasing biaxial shape anisotropy favours the formation of the biaxial nematic phase. Our study is the first to apply FMT theory to biaxial particles and, therefore, it goes beyond the second-order virial approximation. Our prediction that the phase diagram must be asymmetric in the neighbourhood of κ(1)≈κ(2) is a genuine result of the present approach, which is not accounted for by previous studies based on second-order theories. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. On the Landau-de Gennes Elastic Energy of a Q-Tensor Model for Soft Biaxial Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucci, Domenico; Nicolodi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    In the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, the propensities for alignments of molecules are represented at each point of the fluid by an element Q of the vector space S_0 of 3× 3 real symmetric traceless matrices, or Q -tensors. According to Longa and Trebin (1989), a biaxial nematic system is called soft biaxial if the tensor order parameter Q satisfies the constraint tr(Q^2) = const. After the introduction of a Q-tensor model for soft biaxial nematic systems and the description of its geometric structure, we address the question of coercivity for the most common four-elastic-constant form of the Landau-de Gennes elastic free-energy (Iyer et al. 2015) in this model. For a soft biaxial nematic system, the tensor field Q takes values in a four-dimensional sphere S^4_ρ of radius ρ ≤ √{2/3} in the five-dimensional space S_0 with inner product < Q, P \\rangle = tr(Q{P}) . The rotation group SO(3) acts orthogonally on S_0 by conjugation and hence induces an action on S^4_ρ \\subset S_0 . This action has generic orbits of codimension one that are diffeomorphic to an eightfold quotient S^3/H of the unit three-sphere S^3 , where H={± 1, ± i, ± j, ± k} is the quaternion group, and has two degenerate orbits of codimension two that are diffeomorphic to the projective plane RP^2 . Each generic orbit can be interpreted as the order parameter space of a constrained biaxial nematic system and each singular orbit as the order parameter space of a constrained uniaxial nematic system. It turns out that S^4_ρ is a cohomogeneity one manifold, i.e., a manifold with a group action whose orbit space is one-dimensional. Another important geometric feature of the model is that the set Σ _ρ of diagonal Q-tensors of fixed norm ρ is a (geodesic) great circle in S^4_ρ which meets every orbit of S^4_ρ orthogonally and is then a section for S^4_ρ in the sense of the general theory of canonical forms. We compute necessary and sufficient coercivity conditions for the

  2. Solid microparticles in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muševič, Igor

    A brief historic overview of colloidal experiments in the 1990's is given in the introduction. These experiments have later inspired research on nematic colloids, after the technique of laser tweezers manipulation of particles was introduced to this field. Basic topological properties of colloidal inclusions in the nematic liquid crystals are discussed and the nematic-mediated forces between dipolar and quadrupolar colloidal particles in bulk nematic are explained. Structural and topological properties of 2D and 3D colloidal crystals and superstructures made of colloidal particles of different size and symmetry in bulk nematic liquid crystal are described. Laser-tweezer manipulation and rewiring of topological defect loops around colloidal particles is introduced. This results in the colloidal entanglement, as well as knotting and linking of defect loops of the order parameter field. Shape and size-dependent colloidal interactions in the nematic liquid crystals are reviewed. The chapter concludes with the discussion of bulk chiral nematic and blue phase colloids.

  3. Biaxial nematic phase stability and demixing behaviour in monolayers of rod-plate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; González-Pinto, Miguel; Velasco, Enrique

    2016-09-21

    We theoretically study the phase behaviour of monolayers of hard rod-plate mixtures using a fundamental-measure density functional in the restricted-orientation (Zwanzig) approximation. Particles can rotate in 3D but their centres of mass are constrained to be on a flat surface. In addition, we consider both species to be subject to an attractive potential proportional to the particle contact area on the surface and with adsorption strengths that depend on the species type. Particles have board-like shape, with sizes chosen using a symmetry criterion: same volume and same aspect ratio κ. Phase diagrams were calculated for κ = 10, 20 and 40 and different values of adsorption strengths. For small adsorption strengths the mixtures exhibit a second-order uniaxial nematic-biaxial nematic transition for molar fraction of rods 0 ≤x≲ 0.9. In the uniaxial nematic phase the particle axes of rods and plates are aligned perpendicular and parallel to the monolayer, respectively. At the transition, the orientational symmetry of the plate axes is broken, and they orient parallel to a director lying on the surface. For large and equal adsorption strengths the mixture demixes at low pressures into a uniaxial nematic phase, rich in plates, and a biaxial nematic phase, rich in rods. The demixing transition is located between two tricritical points. Also, at higher pressures and in the plate-rich part of the phase diagram, the system exhibits a strong first-order uniaxial nematic-biaxial nematic phase transition with a large density coexistence gap. When rod adsorption is considerably large while that of plates is small, the transition to the biaxial nematic phase is always of second order, and its region of stability in the phase diagram considerably widens. At very high pressures the mixture can effectively be identified as a two-dimensional mixture of squares and rectangles which again demixes above a certain critical point. We also studied the relative stability of uniform

  4. Nematic-nematic demixing in polydisperse thermotropic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollich, Peter

    2005-06-01

    We consider the effects of polydispersity on isotropic-nematic phase equilibria in thermotropic liquid crystals, using a Maier-Saupe theory [Z. Naturforsch. A 13A, 564 (1958)] with factorized interactions. A sufficient spread (≈50%) in the interaction strengths of the particles leads to phase separation into two or more nematic phases, which can in addition coexist with an isotropic phase. The isotropic-nematic coexistence region widens dramatically as polydispersity is increased, leading to reentrant isotropic-nematic phase separation in some regions of the phase diagram. We show that similar phenomena will occur also for nonfactorized interactions as long as the interaction strength between any two particle species is lower than the mean of the intraspecies interactions.

  5. Spreading of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulard, Christophe

    2004-11-01

    A cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal drop in the nematic phase should spread on a silicon wafer. In fact, the drop hardly spreads due to the strong antagonist anchoring on the substrate and at the free surface. In a humidity controlled box at high RH and on a hydrophilic substrate, the friction is considerably reduced and the drop spreads easily. A well defined instability develops at the contact line, with two characteristic wavelengths, associated with a modulation of the drop thickness. A theoretical analysis, made by M. Ben Amar and L. Cummings, allows to understand one of the wavelength by an elastic approach and gives a wavelength proportionnal to the local drop's thickness.

  6. Low symmetry tetrahedral nematic liquid crystal phases: Ambidextrous chirality and ambidextrous helicity.

    PubMed

    Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the symmetry properties as well as the dynamic behavior of various non-polar nematic liquid crystal phases with tetrahedral order. We concentrate on systems that show biaxial nematic order coexisting with octupolar (tetrahedral) order. Non-polar examples are phases with D2 and S4 symmetries, which can be characterized as biaxial nematics lacking inversion symmetry. It is this combination that allows for new features in the statics and dynamics of these phases. The D2-symmetric phase is chiral, even for achiral molecules, and shows ambidextrous chirality in all three preferred directions. The achiral S4-symmetric phase allows for ambidextrous helicity, similar to the higher-symmetric D2d-symmetric phase. Such phases are candidates for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules.

  7. Q-tensor model for electrokinetics in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Conklin, Christopher; Calderer, M. Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Viñals, Jorge; Walkington, Noel J.

    2017-05-01

    We use a variational principle to derive a mathematical model for a nematic electrolyte in which the liquid crystalline component is described in terms of a second-rank order parameter tensor. The model extends the previously developed director-based theory and accounts for the presence of disclinations and possible biaxiality. We verify the model by considering a simple but illustrative example of liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmotic flow around a stationary dielectric spherical particle placed at the center of a large cylindrical container filled with a nematic electrolyte. Assuming homeotropic anchoring of the nematic on the surface of the particle and uniform distribution of the director on the surface of the container, we consider two configurations with a disclination equatorial ring and with a hyperbolic hedgehog, respectively. The computed electro-osmotic flows show a strong dependence on the director configurations and on the anisotropies of dielectric permittivity and electric conductivity of the nematic, characteristic of liquid crystal-enabled electrokinetics. Further, the simulations demonstrate space charge separation around the dielectric sphere, even in the case of isotropic permittivity and conductivity. This is in agreement with the induced-charge electroosmotic effect that occurs in an isotropic electrolyte when an applied field acts on the ionic charge it induces near a polarizable surface.

  8. Multiple solutions in twisted nematic liquid crystal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, N. J.; Hogan, S. J.

    A twisted nematic layer is modelled using a continuum theory which allows for the presence of phase changes and biaxiality within liquid crystals. Under certain approximations analytical solutions are found and used to validate numerical solutions of the full problem. Using a numerical continuation package (AUTO) it is possible to find regions where multiple solutions for the director configuration and hysterisis can occur. Changes in temperature, amount of twist and gap width are investigated in d etail and subsequently the relevance of these results to display technology is discussed.

  9. Electro-osmosis in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Carme Calderer, M.; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Walkington, Noel J.

    2016-04-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a nematic electrolyte based on a variational formulation of nematodynamics. Extending our previous work, we consider a general setup which incorporates dielectric anisotropy of the liquid-crystalline matrix and the full set of nematic viscosities. We verify the model by comparing its predictions to the results of the experiments on the substrate-controlled liquid-crystal-enabled electrokinetics. In the experiments a nematic liquid crystal confined to a thin planar cell with surface-patterned anchoring conditions exhibit electro-osmotic flows along the "guiding rails" imposed by the spatially varying director.

  10. Electro-osmosis in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Tovkach, O M; Calderer, M Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Walkington, Noel J

    2016-07-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a nematic electrolyte based on a variational formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the model by comparing its predictions to the results of the experiments on the substrate-controlled liquid-crystal-enabled electrokinetics. In the experiments, a nematic liquid crystal confined to a thin planar cell with surface-patterned anchoring conditions exhibits electro-osmotic flows along the "guiding rails" imposed by the spatially varying director. Extending our previous work, we consider a general setup which incorporates dielectric anisotropy of the liquid-crystalline matrix and the full set of nematic viscosities.

  11. Electro-osmosis in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Calderer, M. Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Walkington, Noel J.

    2016-07-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a nematic electrolyte based on a variational formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the model by comparing its predictions to the results of the experiments on the substrate-controlled liquid-crystal-enabled electrokinetics. In the experiments, a nematic liquid crystal confined to a thin planar cell with surface-patterned anchoring conditions exhibits electro-osmotic flows along the "guiding rails" imposed by the spatially varying director. Extending our previous work, we consider a general setup which incorporates dielectric anisotropy of the liquid-crystalline matrix and the full set of nematic viscosities.

  12. Biaxial ferromagnetic liquid crystal colloids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingkun; Ackerman, Paul J.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2016-01-01

    The design and practical realization of composite materials that combine fluidity and different forms of ordering at the mesoscopic scale are among the grand fundamental science challenges. These composites also hold a great potential for technological applications, ranging from information displays to metamaterials. Here we introduce a fluid with coexisting polar and biaxial ordering of organic molecular and magnetic colloidal building blocks exhibiting the lowest symmetry orientational order. Guided by interactions at different length scales, rod-like organic molecules of this fluid spontaneously orient along a direction dubbed “director,” whereas magnetic colloidal nanoplates order with their dipole moments parallel to each other but pointing at an angle to the director, yielding macroscopic magnetization at no external fields. Facile magnetic switching of such fluids is consistent with predictions of a model based on competing actions of elastic and magnetic torques, enabling previously inaccessible control of light. PMID:27601668

  13. Dispersive shock waves in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Noel F.

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of coherent light with an initial step intensity profile in a nematic liquid crystal is studied using modulation theory. The propagation of light in a nematic liquid crystal is governed by a coupled system consisting of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the light beam and an elliptic equation for the medium response. In general, the intensity step breaks up into a dispersive shock wave, or undular bore, and an expansion fan. In the experimental parameter regime for which the nematic response is highly nonlocal, this nematic bore is found to differ substantially from the standard defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation structure due to the effect of the nonlocality of the nematic medium. It is found that the undular bore is of Korteweg-de Vries equation-type, consisting of bright waves, rather than of nonlinear Schrödinger equation-type, consisting of dark waves. In addition, ahead of this Korteweg-de Vries bore there can be a uniform wavetrain with a short front which brings the solution down to the initial level ahead. It is found that this uniform wavetrain does not exist if the initial jump is below a critical value. Analytical solutions for the various parts of the nematic bore are found, with emphasis on the role of the nonlocality of the nematic medium in shaping this structure. Excellent agreement between full numerical solutions of the governing nematicon equations and these analytical solutions is found.

  14. Role of Molecular Structure on X-ray Diffraction in Uniaxial and Biaxial Phases of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, Bharat R.; Kang, Shin-Woong; Prasad, Veena; Kumar, Satyendra

    2009-04-29

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most definitive methods to determine the structure of condensed matter phases, and it has been applied to unequivocally infer the structures of conventional calamitic and lyotropic liquid crystals. With the advent of bent-core and tetrapodic mesogens and the discovery of the biaxial nematic phase in them, the experimental results require more careful interpretation and analysis. Here, we present ab-initio calculations of X-ray diffraction patterns in the isotropic, uniaxial nematic, and biaxial nematic phases of bent-core mesogens. A simple Meier-Saupe-like molecular distribution function is employed to describe both aligned and unaligned mesophases. The distribution function is decomposed into two, polar and azimuthal, distribution functions to calculate the effect of the evolution of uniaxial and biaxial nematic orientational order. The calculations provide satisfactory semiquantitative interpretations of experimental results. The calculations presented here should provide a pathway to more refined and quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction data from the biaxial nematic phase.

  15. Hierarchy of orientational phases and axial anisotropies in the gauge theoretical description of generalized nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Nissinen, Jaakko; de Boer, Josko; Slager, Robert-Jan; Zaanen, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking encompasses the breaking of the rotational symmetries O(3 ) of isotropic space to a discrete subgroup, i.e., a three-dimensional point group. The subgroups form a rich hierarchy and allow for many different phases of matter with orientational order. Such spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in nematic liquid crystals, and a highlight of such anisotropic liquids is the uniaxial and biaxial nematics. Generalizing the familiar uniaxial and biaxial nematics to phases characterized by an arbitrary point-group symmetry, referred to as generalized nematics, leads to a large hierarchy of phases and possible orientational phase transitions. We discuss how a particular class of nematic phase transitions related to axial point groups can be efficiently captured within a recently proposed gauge theoretical formulation of generalized nematics [K. Liu, J. Nissinen, R.-J. Slager, K. Wu, and J. Zaanen, Phys. Rev. X 6, 041025 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041025]. These transitions can be introduced in the model by considering anisotropic couplings that do not break any additional symmetries. By and large this generalizes the well-known uniaxial-biaxial nematic phase transition to any arbitrary axial point group in three dimensions. We find in particular that the generalized axial transitions are distinguished by two types of phase diagrams with intermediate vestigial orientational phases and that the window of the vestigial phase is intimately related to the amount of symmetry of the defining point group due to inherently growing fluctuations of the order parameter. This might explain the stability of the observed uniaxial-biaxial phases as compared to the yet to be observed other possible forms of generalized nematic order with higher point-group symmetries.

  16. Hierarchy of orientational phases and axial anisotropies in the gauge theoretical description of generalized nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Nissinen, Jaakko; de Boer, Josko; Slager, Robert-Jan; Zaanen, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking encompasses the breaking of the rotational symmetries O(3) of isotropic space to a discrete subgroup, i.e., a three-dimensional point group. The subgroups form a rich hierarchy and allow for many different phases of matter with orientational order. Such spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in nematic liquid crystals, and a highlight of such anisotropic liquids is the uniaxial and biaxial nematics. Generalizing the familiar uniaxial and biaxial nematics to phases characterized by an arbitrary point-group symmetry, referred to as generalized nematics, leads to a large hierarchy of phases and possible orientational phase transitions. We discuss how a particular class of nematic phase transitions related to axial point groups can be efficiently captured within a recently proposed gauge theoretical formulation of generalized nematics [K. Liu, J. Nissinen, R.-J. Slager, K. Wu, and J. Zaanen, Phys. Rev. X 6, 041025 (2016)2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041025]. These transitions can be introduced in the model by considering anisotropic couplings that do not break any additional symmetries. By and large this generalizes the well-known uniaxial-biaxial nematic phase transition to any arbitrary axial point group in three dimensions. We find in particular that the generalized axial transitions are distinguished by two types of phase diagrams with intermediate vestigial orientational phases and that the window of the vestigial phase is intimately related to the amount of symmetry of the defining point group due to inherently growing fluctuations of the order parameter. This might explain the stability of the observed uniaxial-biaxial phases as compared to the yet to be observed other possible forms of generalized nematic order with higher point-group symmetries.

  17. Stochastic rotation dynamics for nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuang-Wu Mazza, Marco G.

    2015-04-28

    We introduce a new mesoscopic model for nematic liquid crystals (LCs). We extend the particle-based stochastic rotation dynamics method, which reproduces the Navier-Stokes equation, to anisotropic fluids by including a simplified Ericksen-Leslie formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the applicability of this hybrid model by studying the equilibrium isotropic-nematic phase transition and nonequilibrium problems, such as the dynamics of topological defects and the rheology of sheared LCs. Our simulation results show that this hybrid model captures many essential aspects of LC physics at the mesoscopic scale, while preserving microscopic thermal fluctuations.

  18. Biaxial liquid-crystal elastomers: a lattice model.

    PubMed

    Skacej, G; Zannoni, C

    2008-02-01

    We present a simple coarse-grained lattice model for monodomain biaxial liquid-crystal elastomers and perform large-scale Monte Carlo simulations in the proposed model system. Orientational ordering--uniaxial or biaxial--reflects in sample deformations on cooling the system. The simulation output is used to predict calorimetry data and deuterium magnetic resonance spectra.

  19. Universal mean-field phase diagram for biaxial nematics obtained from a minimax principle.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Fulvio; Virga, Epifanio G; Gartland, Eugene C; De Matteis, Giovanni; Sonnet, André M; Durand, Georges E

    2006-05-01

    We study a class of quadratic Hamiltonians which describe both fully attractive and partly repulsive molecular interactions, characteristic of biaxial liquid crystal molecules. To treat the partly repulsive interactions we establish a minimax principle for the associated mean-field free energy. We show that the phase diagram described by Sonnet [Phys. Rev. E 67, 061701 (2003)] is universal. Our predictions are in good agreement with the recent observations on both V-shaped and tetrapodal molecules.

  20. Core Structure and Non-Abelian Reconnection of Defects in a Biaxial Nematic Spin-2 Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgh, Magnus O.; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.

  1. Core Structure and Non-Abelian Reconnection of Defects in a Biaxial Nematic Spin-2 Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Borgh, Magnus O; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-12-30

    We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.

  2. Advection of nematic liquid crystals by chaotic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Náraigh, Lennon

    2017-04-01

    Consideration is given to the effects of inhomogeneous shear flow (both regular and chaotic) on nematic liquid crystals in a planar geometry. The Landau-de Gennes equation coupled to an externally prescribed flow field is the basis for the study: this is solved numerically in a periodic spatial domain. The focus is on a limiting case where the advection is passive, such that variations in the liquid-crystal properties do not feed back into the equation for the fluid velocity. The main tool for analyzing the results (both with and without flow) is the identification of the fixed points of the dynamical equations without flow, which are relevant (to varying degrees) when flow is introduced. The fixed points are classified as stable/unstable and further as either uniaxial or biaxial. Various models of passive shear flow are investigated. When tumbling is present, the flow is shown to have a strong effect on the liquid-crystal morphology; however, the main focus herein is on the case without tumbling. Accordingly, the main result of the work is that only the biaxial fixed point survives as a solution of the Q-tensor dynamics under the imposition of a general flow field. This is because the Q-tensor experiences not only transport due to advection but also co-rotation relative to the local vorticity field. A second result is that all families of fixed points survive for certain specific velocity fields, which we classify. We single out for close study those velocity fields for which the influence of co-rotation effectively vanishes along the Lagrangian trajectories of the imposed velocity field. In this scenario, the system exhibits coarsening arrest, whereby the liquid-crystal domains are "frozen in" to the flow structures, and the growth in their size is thus limited.

  3. Optical studies of the nematic phase of an oxazole-derived bent-core liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, J. A.; Stojadinovic, S.; Dingemans, T.; Sprunt, S.; Jákli, A.

    2003-10-01

    Various optical and dynamic light scattering studies have been conducted on the nematic phase of an oxazole-derived bent-core liquid crystal. At optical length scales and in the absence of applied fields, homogeneously aligned samples of this material, which has an oxazole heterocyclic ring in the central core, are found to behave more like a conventional straight-core nematic than a previously investigated ester-based class of bent-core molecules that have a benzene ring as the core linkage between the two arms of the bow-shaped molecule. In particular, the nematic refractive indices of the oxazole compound combine in the standard way [i.e., ((2n2o+n2e)/3)] to match the isotropic value throughout the nematic range, and the observed director fluctuation modes have relaxation rates comparable to those of the usual thermotropics. However, polarized light scattering data reveal evidence of weak biaxial fluctuations, and indications of electric-field-induced biaxiality are observed in the refractive index measurements.

  4. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederrecht, G.P.; Wasielewski, M.R. |; Galili, T.; Levanon, H.

    1998-07-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  5. Free surface dynamics of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Linda; Kondic, Lou; Lam, Michael; Lin, Te-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Spreading thin films of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) are known to behave very differently to those of isotropic fluids. The polar interactions of the rod-like molecules with each other, and the interactions with the underlying substrate, can lead to intricate patterns and instabilities that are not yet fully understood. The physics of a system even as simple as a film of NLC spreading slowly over a surface (inclined or horizontal) are remarkably complex: the outcome depends strongly on the details of the NLC's behavior at both the substrate and the free surface (so-called ``anchoring'' effects). We will present a dynamic flow model that takes careful account of such nematic-substrate and nematic-free surface interactions. We will present model simulations for several different flow scenarios that indicate the variety of behavior that can emerge. Spreading over a horizontal substrate may exhibit a range of unstable behavior. Flow down an incline also exhibits intriguing instabilities: in addition to the usual transverse fingering, instabilities can be manifested behind the flowing front in a manner reminiscent of Newtonian flow down an inverted substrate. NSF DMS-1211713.

  6. Dynamics of Active Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCamp, Stephen J.

    liquid crystal by assembling microtubule bundles into a quasi-2D film confined to a large, flat oil-water interface. Internal stresses generated by kinesin motors drive the system far from equilibrium which precludes a uniformly aligned nematic ground state through the continuous creation and annihilation of +/-1/2 motile defects. First, we demonstrate that the nematic is extensile by observing the deformation of a photobleached spot which undergoes extension along the nematic director and contraction perpendicular to the director. We map the experimentally tunable parameter, ATP concentration, to the intrinsic activity of the sample measured by the characteristic time of the contractile dynamics. Then, we characterize the flow of individual microtubules by measuring their relative velocity within the nematic and find a flow field consistent with a force dipole but where the magnitude of the extension and contraction velocity are proportional to the separation between the filaments. The extensile and contractile flow velocities can be tuned by the ATP concentration and can be as large as 6 mum/s. Then we spatially map microtubule concentration, alignment, and flow near topological defect cores. We test a theory which predicts that flows are directly proportional to the local alignment of the nematic and find our results inconsistent with that theory. Finally, we measure large scale velocity and vorticity distributions as well as vortex area distributions and find agreement with other recent theoretical predictions. Next, we turn our attention to the complex behavior of defects in the active nematic. Using defect tracking algorithms developed by Gabriel S. Redner, we measure the +/-1/2 defect velocity and lifetime distributions as well as MSD and average defect density. We find that average velocities, lifetimes, and densities are tunable by varying the ATP concentration. The MSDs reveal that motile +1/2 defects stream ballistically through the sample (up to 15 mum

  7. Isotropization of nematic liquid crystals by TMDSC

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Dadmun, M.; Zhang, Ge; Boller, A.; Wunderlich, B. |

    1997-12-01

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and traditional DSC are used to study the transition between the nematic liquid crystalline state and the isotropic liquid for two small molecules [4,4{prime}-azoxyanisole and N,N`-bis(4-n-octyloxybenzal)-1,4-phenylenediamine] and one macromolecule (4,4{prime}-dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene copolymerized with a 1:1 molar mixture of 1,7-dibromoheptane and 1,9-dibromononane). The DSC measurements with 4,4{prime}-azoxyanisole were used for temperature calibration with varying heating and cooling rates. Quasi-isothermal TMDSC with small temperature amplitude and standard TMDSC with underlying heating and cooling rates were utilized to analyze the breadth of the transitions. It could be verified that the isotropization transition of a nematic liquid crystal is, indeed, reversible for all three molecules. The nature of the transition changes, however, from relatively sharp, for small, rigid molecules, to about three kelvins wide for the small molecule with flexible ends, to as broad as 20 K for the macromolecule. It was also demonstrated that quantitative heats of fusion of sharp transitions can be extracted from TMDSC, but only from the time-domain heat-flow signal.

  8. Prediction of flow-aligning and tumbling in a bent-core nematic liquid crystal using measurements of orienation order parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min Sang; Park, Beom-Jin; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2010-03-01

    The flow behavior of bent-core nematic liquid crystal (A131), which has been known to exhibit a biaxial nematic phase, is predicted by measurements of 2^nd and 4^th rank orientation order parameters. Using experimentally determined uniaxial, and , and biaxial orientation order parameters, , and from polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy, we compute the tumbling parameter, λ. The relationships between the order parameters and tumbling parameter derived by 2 different groups are used and the results are computed: a molecular theory by Archer and Larson (1995), that by Kroger and Seller (1995) for uniaxial system, and Leslie's theory for 2-director continuum. Temperature evolution of tumbling parameter shows the transition from a flow alignment regime to a tumbling instability. The results of the temperature evolution of tumbling parameter of bent-core nematic LC are compared to those of pure nematic LC (5CB) and LC mixture (E7).

  9. Particles and curvatures in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Francesca; Luo, Yimin; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    Elastic interactions in anisotropic fluids can be harnessed to direct particle interactions. A strategy to smoothly manipulate the director field in nematic liquid crystals is to vary the topography of the bounding surfaces. A rugged landscape with peaks and valleys create local deformations of the director field which can interact with particles in solution. We study this complex interaction in two different settings. The first consists of an array of shallow pores in a poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) membrane, whose curvature can be tuned either by swelling the PDMS membrane or by mechanical stretching. The second is a set of grooves with wavy walls, fabricated by photolithography, with various parameters of curvature and shapes. In this contexts we study how the motion of colloidal particles in nematic liquid crystals can be influenced by their interaction with the peaks and valleys of the bottom substrate or of the side walls. Particles with different associated topological defects (hedgehogs or Saturn rings) behave differently as they interact with the topographical features, favoring the docking on peaks or valleys. These experimental systems are also ideal to study the ``lock and key'' mechanism of particles in holes and to investigate a possible route for particle sorting.

  10. Spontaneous ordering of magnetic particles in liquid crystals: From chains to biaxial lamellae.

    PubMed

    Peroukidis, Stavros D; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2015-07-01

    Using Monte Carlo computer simulations we explore the self-assembly and ordering behavior of a hybrid, soft magnetic system consisting of small magnetic nanospheres in a liquid-crystalline (LC) matrix. Inspired by recent experiments with colloidal rod matrices, we focus on conditions where the sphere and rod diameters are comparable. Already in the absence of a magnetic field, the nematic ordering of the LC can stabilize the formation of magnetic chains along the nematic or smectic director, yielding a state with local (yet no macroscopic) magnetic order. The chains, in turn, increase the overall nematic order, reflecting the complex interplay of the structure formation of the two components. When increasing the sphere diameter, the spontaneous uniaxial ordering is replaced by biaxial lamellar morphologies characterized by alternating layers of rods and magnetic chains oriented perpendicular to the rod's director. These ordering scenarios at zero field suggest a complex response of the resulting hybrid to external stimuli, such as magnetic fields and shear forces.

  11. Competition between capillarity, layering and biaxiality in a confined liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Varga, S; Martinez-Ratón, Y; Velasco, E

    2010-05-01

    The effect of confinement on the phase behaviour and structure of fluids made of biaxial hard particles (cuboids) is examined theoretically by means of Onsager second-order virial theory in the limit where the long particle axes are frozen in a mutually parallel configuration. Confinement is induced by two parallel planar hard walls (slit-pore geometry), with particle long axes perpendicular to the walls (perfect homeotropic anchoring). In bulk, a continuous nematic-to-smectic transition takes place, while shape anisotropy in the (rectangular) particle cross-section induces biaxial ordering. As a consequence, four bulk phases, uniaxial and biaxial nematic and smectic phases, can be stabilised as the cross-sectional aspect ratio is varied. On confining the fluid, the nematic-to-smectic transition is suppressed, and either uniaxial or biaxial phases, separated by a continuous transition, can be present. Smectic ordering develops continuously from the walls for increasing particle concentration (in agreement with the supression of nematic-smectic second-order transition at confinement), but first-order layering transitions, involving structures with n and n + 1 layers, arise in the confined fluid at high concentration. Competition between layering and uniaxial-biaxial ordering leads to three different types of layering transitions, at which the two coexisting structures can be both uniaxial, one uniaxial and another biaxial, or both biaxial. Also, the interplay between molecular biaxiality and wall interactions is very subtle: while the hard wall disfavours the formation of the biaxial phase, biaxiality is against the layering transitions, as we have shown by comparing the confined phase behaviour of cylinders and cuboids. The predictive power of Onsager theory is checked and confirmed by performing some calculations based on fundamental-measure theory.

  12. Laser damage resistant nematic liquid crystal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raszewski, Z.; Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Soms, L.; Marczak, J.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Perkowski, P.; Kedzierski, J.; Miszczyk, E.; Olifierczuk, M.; Morawiak, P.; Mazur, R.

    2013-08-01

    There exists a problem in diagnostics of a dense plasma (so-called Thomson diagnostics). For this purpose, the plasma is illuminated by series of high energy laser pulses. Such pulses are generated by several independent lasers operating sequentially, and these pulses are to be directed along an exactly the same optical path. In this case, the energy of each separate pulse is as large as 3 J, so it is impossible to generate a burst of such pulses by a single laser. In this situation, several independent lasers have to be used. To form optical path with λ = 1.064 μm and absolute value of the energy of laser pulse through of 3 J, a special refractive index matched twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell (NLCC) of type LCNP2 with switching on time τON smaller than 5 μs might be applied. High laser damage resistance of NLCC and short τON can be fulfilled by preparation of liquid crystal cells with Liquid Crystal Mixture (LCM), well tuned to twisted nematic electro-optical effect, and well tuned all optical interfaces (Air - Antireflection - Quartz Plate - Electrode - Blocking Film - Aligning Layer - LCM - Aligning Layer - Blocking Film - Electrode - Quartz Plate - Antireflection - Air). In such LCNP2 cell, the transmission is higher than 97% at λ = 1.064 μm, as it is presented by Gooch and Tarry [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1575 (1975)]. The safe laser density energy is about 0.6 J/cm2 for a train of laser pulses (λ = 1.064 μm, pulse duration 10 ns FWHM, pulse repetition rate 100 pps, train duration 10 s), so the area of liquid crystal cell tolerating 3 J through it shall be as large as 5 cm2. Due to the presence of two blocking film layers between electrodes, LCNP2 can be driven by high voltages. Switching on time smaller than τON = 5 μs was obtained under 200 V switching voltage.

  13. Transmission characteristics of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A. D.

    1976-01-01

    An approximate analytical expression is calculated for the transmission of thin twisted nematic layers situated between a polarizer/analyzer pair. The approximation assumes that the twist angle of the nematic liquid crystal is smaller than the maximum retardation of the cell. The direction of the incident light is assumed to be parallel to the normal of the electrode. This configuration is analyzed for a general arrangement of polarizer and analyzer; the general result is evaluated for the case of the polarizer parallel and analyzer perpendicular to the liquid-crystal optical axis on the input and output electrodes, respectively. The results show that in the case of a thin twisted nematic layer the transmission depends on the thickness of the layer, on the birefringence of the liquid crystal, and on the wavelength of the light. This is a departure from the well-known independence of the transmission on these parameters for a thick twisted nematic layer.

  14. Monte Carlo investigation of critical properties of the Landau point of a biaxial liquid-crystal system.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Nababrata; Shabnam, Sabana; DasGupta, Sudeshna; Roy, Soumen Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to investigate the critical properties of a special singular point usually known as the Landau point. The singular behavior is studied in the case when the order parameter is a tensor of rank 2. Such an order parameter is associated with a nematic-liquid-crystal phase. A three-dimensional lattice dispersion model that exhibits a direct biaxial nematic-to-isotropic phase transition at the Landau point is thus chosen for the present study. Finite-size scaling and cumulant methods are used to obtain precise values of the critical exponent ν=0.713(4), the ratio γ/ν=1.85(1), and the fourth-order critical Binder cumulant U^{*}=0.6360(1). Estimated values of the exponents are in good agreement with renormalization-group predictions.

  15. Principles of thermal design with nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumeron, S.; Pereira, E.; Moraes, F.

    2014-02-01

    Highly engineered materials are arousing great interest because of their ability to manipulate heat, as described by the coordinate transformation approach. Based on recently developed analog gravity models, we present how a simple device based on nematic liquid crystals can achieve in principle either thermal concentration or expulsion. These outcomes are shown to stem from the topological properties of a disclination-like structure, induced in the nematic phase by anchoring conditions.

  16. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  17. Aberration Compensation Using Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somalingam, S.; Hain, M.; Tschudi, T.; Knittel, J.; Richter, H.

    We have developed a novel transmissive nematic liquid crystal device which is capable of compensating spherical wavefront aberration that occurs during the operation of optical pickup systems. In order to increase the storage capacity, next generation optical data storage systems beyond CD and DVD will use according to the Blu-Ray specification (BD) blue laser light and an objective lens with high numerical aperture (N.A.) of 0.85. However, such high N.A. systems have an inherent higher sensitivity on aberrations. For example spherical aberration is inversely proportional to the wavelength and grows with the fourth power of N.A. of the objective lens. In an optical pickup system there are two sources for spherical aberration: The first one is the variation of the substrate thickness due to manufacturing tolerances under mass production conditions. The second one concerns disks with multiple data-layers, which cause spherical aberration when layers are switched, as the objective lens can only be optimized for a single layer thickness. We report a method for effective compensation of spherical aberration by utilizing a novel liquid crystal device, which generates a parabolic wavefront profile. This particular shape makes the device highly tolerant against lateral movement. A sophisticated electrode design allows us to reduce the number of driving electrodes down to two by using the method of conductive ladder mashing. Further evaluation in a blue-DVD test drive has been carried out with good results. By placing the device into an optical pick-up we were able to readout a dual-layer ROM disk with a total capacity of 50 gigabytes (GB). A data-to-clock jitter of 6.9% for the 80 μm and of 8.0% for the 100 μm cover layer could be realized.

  18. Positron lifetime measurements in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Parmar, Devendra S.

    1991-01-01

    Positron lifetimes in the isotropic phases of chiral nematic liquid crystal formulations and their mixtures up to the racemic level were measured. The lifetime spectra for all liquid crystal systems were analyzed into three components. Although the individual spectra in the left- and right-handed components are identical, their racemic mixtures exhibit much larger orthopositronium lifetimes; these larger lifetimes indicate the presence of larger microvoids. This result is consistent with the reportedly higher thermodynamic stability and color play range in the racemic mixtures of chiral nematic liquid crystals.

  19. Polarized photoluminescence from nematic and chiral- nematic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conger, Brooke Morgan

    Polarization control is key to optoelectronics in terms of the processing and display of optical information. In principle, photonic or electronic excitation of anisotropic films should result in polarized light emission. Because of spontaneous molecular self-assembly, liquid crystals are ideal for the exploration of polarized luminescence. Although most studies on polarized luminescence have been based on liquid crystalline fluid films, solid films are preferred in view of morphological stability. Therefore, the theme of my thesis is the study of polarized luminescence from various fluorescent liquid crystal systems. From the fundamental perspective, a theory modeling the process of polarized photoluminescence was validated using fluorophore doped fluid liquid crystal films. To provide the morphological stability crucial to practical application, polarized fluorescence using vitrifiable and polymeric liquid crystals functionalized with fluorescent moieties was investigated. In addition, liquid crystalline π- conjugated polymers were synthesized and characterized as a new class of optical polymers. The effect of the emission source on achievable polarization from pyrene and carbazole systems was also elucidated. The main observations are as follows: (1) The observed degrees of polarization for all fluorescent liquid crystal systems were found to agree with the theories governing polarized fluorescence. (2) Low molar mass vitrifiable and polymeric liquid crystalline cyanoterphenyl and cyanotolane derivatives were found to yield moderate polarized fluorescence. Monomer emission was established as the decay pathway for the precursors and cyclohexane and polymethacrylate derivatives. (3) Ordered solid films from thiophene and p-phenylene π-conjugated polymers were found to induce significant degrees of polarized fluorescence. (4) Emission from glass-forming pyrenyl derivatives exhibited excimer emission in dilute solution and neat film, whereas in solid hosts it was

  20. Effects of polymers on the rotational viscosities of nematic liquid crystals and dynamics of field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.

    1993-12-31

    Many of the important physical phenomena exhibited by the nematic phase, such as its unusual flow properties and its responses to the electric and the magnetic fields, can be discussed regarding it as a continous medium. The Leslie-Erickson dynamic theory has the six dissipative coefficients from continuum model of liquid crystal. Parodi showed that only five of them are independent, when Onsagar`s reciprocal relations are used. One of these, which has no counterpart in the isotropic liquids, is the rotational viscosity co-efficient, {gamma}{sub 1}. The main objective of this project is to study the rotational viscosities of selected micellar nematic systems and the effect of dissolved polymers in micellar and thermotropic liqud crystals. We used rotating magnetic field method which allows one to determine {gamma}{sub 1} and the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, {chi}{sub a}. For the ionic surfactant liquid crystals of SDS and KL systems used in this study, the rotational viscosity exhibited an extraordinary drop after reaching the highest values {gamma}{sub 1} as the temperature was lowered. This behavior is not observed in normal liquid crystals. But this phenomena can be attributed to the existence of nematic biaxial phase below the rod-like nematic N{sub c} phase. The pretransitional increase in {gamma}{sub 1} near the disk-like nematic to smectic-A phase transition of the pure CsPFO/H{sub 2}O systems are better understood with the help of mean-field models of W.L. McMillan. He predicted a critical exponent {nu} = {1/2} for the divergence of {gamma}{sub 1}. The polymer (PEO, molecular weight = 10{sup 5}) dissolved in CsPFO/H{sub 2}O system (which has 0.6% critical polymer concentration), suppressed the nematic to lamellar smectic phase transition in concentrated polymer solutions (0.75% and higher). In dilute polymer solutions with lower than 0.3% polyethylene-oxide, a linear increase of {gamma}{sub 1} is observed, which agrees with Brochard theory.

  1. Lattice Statistical Models for the Nematic Transitions in Liquid-Crystalline Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, E. S.; Vieira, A. P.; Salinas, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the connections between some simple Maier-Saupe lattice models, with a discrete choice of orientations of the microscopic directors, and a recent proposal of a two-tensor formalism to describe the phase diagrams of nematic liquid-crystalline systems. This two-tensor proposal is used to formulate the statistical problem in terms of fully connected lattice Hamiltonians, with the local nematic directors restricted to the Cartesian axes. Depending on the choice of interaction parameters, we regain all of the main features of the original mean-field two-tensor calculations. With a standard choice of parameters, we obtain the well-known sequence of isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial nematic structures, with a Landau multicritical point. With another suitably chosen set of parameters, we obtain two tricritical points, according to some recent predictions of the two-tensor calculations. The simple statistical lattice models are quite easy to work with, for all values of parameters, and the present calculations can be carried out beyond the mean-field level.

  2. Defects in liquid crystal nematic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Nieves, A.; Utada, A. S.; Vitelli, V.; Link, D. R.; Nelson, D. R.; Weitz, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    We generate water/liquid crystal (LC)/water double emulsions via recent micro-capillary fluidic devices [A. S. Utada, et.al. Science 308, 537 (2005)]. The resultant objects are stabilized against coalescence by using surfactants or adequate polymers; these also fix the boundary conditions for the director field n. We use 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and impose tangential boundary conditions at both water/LC interfaces by having polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) dispersed in the inner and outer water phases. We confirm recent predictions [D. R. Nelson, NanoLetters 2, 1125 (2002)] and find that four strength s=+1/2 defects are present; this is in contrast to the two s=+1 defect bipolar configuration observed for bulk spheres [A. Fernandez-Nieves, et.al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 105503 (2004)]. However, these defects do not lie in the vertices of a tetrahedron but are pushed towards each other until certain equilibration distance is reached. In addition to the four defect shells, we observe shells with two s=+1 defects and even with three defects, a s=+1 and two s=+1/2. We argue these configurations arise from nematic bulk distortions that become important as the shell thickness increases. Finally, by adding a different surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), to the outer phase, we can change the director boundary conditions at the outermost interface from parallel to homeotropic, to induce coalescing of the two pair of defects in the four defect shell configuration to yield two defect bipolar shells.

  3. Liquid microlenses and waveguides from bulk nematic birefringent profiles.

    PubMed

    Čančula, Miha; Ravnik, Miha; Muševič, Igor; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-09-19

    We demonstrate polarization-selective microlensing and waveguiding of laser beams by birefringent profiles in bulk nematic fluids using numerical modelling. Specifically, we show that radial escaped nematic director profiles with negative birefringence focus and guide light with radial polarization, whereas the opposite - azimuthal - polarization passes through unaffected. A converging lens is realized in a nematic with negative birefringence, and a diverging lens in a positive birefringence material. Tuning of such single-liquid lenses by an external low-frequency electric field and by adjusting the profile and intensity of the beam itself is demonstrated, combining external control with intrinsic self-adaptive focusing. Escaped radial profiles of birefringence are shown to act as single-liquid waveguides with a single distinct eigenmode and low attenuation. Finally, this work is an approach towards creating liquid photonic elements for all-soft matter photonics.

  4. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  5. Dielectrophoretic manipulation of the mixture of isotropic and nematic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Dong; Lee, Bomi; Kang, Shin-Woong; Song, Jang-Kun

    2015-08-01

    In various applications involving liquid crystals, the manipulation of the nanoscale molecular assembly and microscale director alignment is highly useful. Here we show that a nematic-isotropic mixture, a unique bi-liquid system, has potential for the fabrication of microstructures having an ordered phase within a disordered phase, or vice versa. The volume expansion and shrinkage, migration, splitting, mergence and elongation of one phase within the other are easily accomplished via thermal treatment and dielectrophoretic manipulation. This is particularly achievable when one phase is suspended in the middle. In that case, a highly biased ordered-phase preference of surfaces, that is, the nematic-philic nature of a polyimide layer and the nematic-phobic nature of a self-assembled monolayer of chlorosilane derivatives, is used. Further, by combining this approach with photopolymerization, the patterned microstructure is solidified as a patterned polymer film having both isotropic and anisotropic molecular arrangements simultaneously, or as a template with a morphological variation.

  6. Dynamic arrest of nematic liquid-crystal colloid networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Lu; Hwang, Jeoung-Yeon; Kim, Chanjoong

    2013-10-01

    We report interesting self-assembly structures of nematic liquid-crystal colloid (NLCC) networks, which are arrested during cooling from the isotropic temperature to room temperature. The NLCC is composed of sterically stabilized colloidal particles and a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) with nematic-isotropic transition temperature (TNI) that is much higher than those of previously studied 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl and N-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline. We find that the structure of NLCCs depends on TNI, cooling rates, and boundary conditions, varying from cellular network to hierarchical fern structures in different length scales. Our time-lapse study shows that the transition from the cellular network to the fern structure directly corresponds to the transition from a spinodal demixing to a nucleation-and-growth mechanism.

  7. High-Genus nematic liquid crystal droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalakshmi, V.; Ekapop, P.; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    We will discuss the defect structures that originate in nematic droplets with two or more handles. In these cases, the topology of the bounding surface requires the presence of defects. Our experiments elucidate where do these defects locate and how many of them populated the ground state of the system.

  8. Shape of impurity electronic absorption bands in nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1994-11-01

    The impurity-matrix anisotropic static intermolecular interactions, orientation-statistical properties, and electronic structure of uniaxial impurity molecules are shown to have a significant influence on spectral moments of the electronic absorption bands of impurities in the nematic liquid crystal. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Dipole azimuthons and vortex charge flipping in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Assanto, Gaetano; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-10-24

    We demonstrate self-trapped laser beams carrying phase singularities in nematic liquid crystals. We experimentally observe the astigmatic transformation of vortex beams into spiraling dipole azimuthons accompanied by power-dependent charge-flipping of the on-axis phase singularity. The latter topological reactions involve triplets of vortex lines and resemble pitchfork bifurcations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Global defect topology in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.

    2016-07-01

    We give the global homotopy classification of nematic textures for a general domain with weak anchoring boundary conditions and arbitrary defect set in terms of twisted cohomology, and give an explicit computation for the case of knotted and linked defects in R3, showing that the distinct homotopy classes have a 1-1 correspondence with the first homology group of the branched double cover, branched over the disclination loops. We show further that the subset of those classes corresponding to elements of order 2 in this group has representatives that are planar and characterize the obstruction for other classes in terms of merons. The planar textures are a feature of the global defect topology that is not reflected in any local characterization. Finally, we describe how the global classification relates to recent experiments on nematic droplets and how elements of order 4 relate to the presence of τ lines in cholesterics.

  11. Global defect topology in nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Machon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We give the global homotopy classification of nematic textures for a general domain with weak anchoring boundary conditions and arbitrary defect set in terms of twisted cohomology, and give an explicit computation for the case of knotted and linked defects in R3, showing that the distinct homotopy classes have a 1–1 correspondence with the first homology group of the branched double cover, branched over the disclination loops. We show further that the subset of those classes corresponding to elements of order 2 in this group has representatives that are planar and characterize the obstruction for other classes in terms of merons. The planar textures are a feature of the global defect topology that is not reflected in any local characterization. Finally, we describe how the global classification relates to recent experiments on nematic droplets and how elements of order 4 relate to the presence of τ lines in cholesterics. PMID:27493576

  12. Parity breaking in nematic tactoids of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, Luana; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2011-03-01

    In many colloidal systems, an orientationally ordered nematic phase emerges from the isotropic melt in the form of spindle-like birefringent tactoids. In cases studied so far, the tactoids always reveal a mirror-symmetric non-chiral structure, even when the building units are chiral, as in the case of tobacco mosaic virus and fd virus. We report on parity breaking in the nematic tactoids formed in molecularly non-chiral polymer-crowded solutions of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals. The effect is manifested by twist of the director and optical activity. Fluorescent confocal polarizing microscopy reveals that the tactoids nucleate at boundaries of cells. We explain the chirality induction by the effect of geometrical anchoring and by increase of the splay elastic constant in condensed nematic regions of crowded solutions. NSF DMR MWN 0710544.

  13. Fluctuation Modes of a Twist-Bend Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsouzi, Z.; Shamid, S. M.; Borshch, V.; Challa, P. K.; Baldwin, A. R.; Tamba, M. G.; Welch, C.; Mehl, G. H.; Gleeson, J. T.; Jakli, A.; Lavrentovich, O. D.; Allender, D. W.; Selinger, J. V.; Sprunt, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report a dynamic light-scattering study of the fluctuation modes in a thermotropic liquid crystalline mixture of monomer and dimer compounds that exhibits the twist-bend nematic (NTB ) phase. The results reveal a spectrum of overdamped fluctuations that includes two nonhydrodynamic modes and one hydrodynamic mode in the NTB phase, and a single nonhydrodynamic mode plus two hydrodynamic modes (the usual nematic optic axis or director fluctuations) in the higher temperature, uniaxial nematic phase. The properties of these fluctuations and the conditions for their observation are comprehensively explained by a Landau-de Gennes expansion of the free-energy density in terms of heliconical director and helical polarization fields that characterize the NTB structure, with the latter serving as the primary order parameter. A "coarse-graining" approximation simplifies the theoretical analysis and enables us to demonstrate quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimentally determined temperature dependence of the mode relaxation rates.

  14. Quantum Dot Chain Assembly Mediated by Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, Peter; Basu, Rajratan; Finkenstadt, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    A small quantity of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were dispersed in a nematic liquid crystal (LC) media and the QDs were found to exhibit self-assembled asymmetric structures, most likely QD-chains. In the nematic phase the ensemble LC +QD photoluminescence (PL) exhibits an anisotropic spectral line shape, as compared to the emission of QDs doped in the isotropic phase. This indicates a nematic mediated arrangement of the QDs. A simple model is proposed to explain the asymmetric behavior of the PL band as an effective chain of radiatively coupled emitters. The effect of the liquid crystals is to provide an entropic force that attracts dots to minimize the excluded volume. The dielectric reorientation dynamics immediately following the removal of an applied field appears as a one-step exponential decay for the LC and a two-step exponential decay with a slower process for the LC +QD system. The results suggest that anisotropic chain-like QD-assemblies are formed in the nematic platform. A related study has examined PL of ferroelectric LC doped with graphene QD [Kumar, Veeresh, et al., Liquid Crystals (2014)

  15. Thermo optical study of nematic liquid crystal doped with ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessy P., J.; Shalini, M.; Patel, Nainesh; Sarawade, Pradip; Radha, S.

    2017-05-01

    Liquid crystal composite materials with tunable physical properties are of great scientific interest because of optoelectronic and biomedical applications. We report our study of modified optical properties of 5CB Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) by doping with ferrofluid at low concentrations of 0.1% by the investigation of thermo optic behaviour. The observed sensitivity of optical response in ferrofluid doped NLC is expected to pave way for several thermo-optic applications.

  16. Photoalignment of a Nematic Liquid Crystal Fluid and Glassy-Nematic Oligofluorenes on Coumarin-Containing Polymer Films

    SciTech Connect

    Trajkovska, A.; Kim, C.; Marshall, K.L.; Mourey, T.H.; Chen, S.H.

    2007-03-19

    The orientations of both a nematic liquid crystal fluid and a series of monodisperse glassy-nematic oligofluorenes were investigated on photoalignment films comprising a polymethacrylate backbone with 7-benzoyloxycoumarin pendants. Both classes of liquid crystalline material were found to undergo a transition from a parallel to a perpindicular orientation with reference to the polarization axis of UV-irradiation at a sufficiently high extent of dimerization.

  17. Hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal light scattering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofmann, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications.A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04094a

  18. Internal orientations in externally deformed nematic polymer liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walasek, Janusz

    2007-07-01

    The system of linear polymer liquid crystal (PLC) macromolecules, each modeled by semiflexible chain of alternate connected flexible and stiff rodlike sequences, is externally deformed. As a result, two orientation phases for hard rods are generated. One of them is nematic N+ with orientation parameter s >0; this has the place in monomer liquid crystal (MLC) systems and in PLCs. The nematic N- phase with s >0 appears in deformed PLCs only. This causes the fact that orientation of PLC chains, as a whole, is generated also by the system deformation. A discussion of that effect is the main goal of this article. The change of orientation is also discussed dependent on changes of the system temperature and parameters of the chain structure, such as the liquid crystal component concentration, contour lengths of stiff and flexible parts, and internal interactions parameters. Average shape of PLC chain and the shape anisotropy are calculated and discussed.

  19. Ordering Quantum Dot Clusters via Nematic Liquid Crystal Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodarte, Andrea; Pandolfi, R.; Hirst, L. S.; Ghosh, S.

    2012-11-01

    Nematic liquid crystal (LC) materials can be used to create ordered clusters of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) from a homogeneous isotropic dispersion. At the phase transition, the ordered domains of nematic LC expel the majority of dispersed QDs into the isotropic domains. The final LC phase produces a series of QD clusters that are situated at the defect points of the liquid crystal texture. Lower concentrations of QDs are organized in a network throughout the LC matrix that originates from the LC phase transition. Inside the QD clusters the inter-particle distance enables efficient energy transfer from high energy dots to lower energy dots. Because the QD clusters form at defect sites, the location of the clusters can be preselected by seeding the LC cell with defect nucleation points.

  20. Phase behavior of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with a chemically and geometrically structured substrate.

    PubMed

    Harnau, L; Kondrat, S; Poniewierski, A

    2005-07-01

    A nematic liquid crystal in contact with a grating surface possessing an alternating stripe pattern of locally homeotropic and planar anchoring is studied within the Frank-Oseen model. The combination of both chemical and geometrical surface pattern leads to rich phase diagrams, involving a homeotropic, a planar, and a tilted nematic texture. The effect of the groove depth and the anchoring strengths on the location and the order of phase transitions between different nematic textures is studied. A zenithally bistable nematic device is investigated by confining a nematic liquid crystal between the patterned grating surface and a flat substrate with strong homeotropic anchoring.

  1. Effects of Polymers on the Rotational Viscosities of Nematic Liquid Crystals and Dynamics of Field Alignment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Du-Rim

    Many of the important physical phenomena exhibited by the nematic phase, such as its unusual flow properties and its responses to the electric and the magnetic fields, can be discussed regarding it as a continuous medium. The Leslie-Erickson dynamic theory has the six dissipative coefficients from continuum model of liquid crystal. Parodi showed that only five of them are independent, when Onsagar's reciprocal relations are used. One of these, which has no counterpart in the isotropic liquids, is the rotational viscosity coefficient, gamma_1. The main objective of this project is to study the rotational viscosities of selected micellar nematic systems and the effect of dissolved polymers in micellar and thermotropic liquid crystals. We used rotating magnetic field method which allows one to determine gamma _1 and the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, chi_{a}. For the ionic surfactant liquid crystals of SDS and KL systems used in this study, the rotational viscosity exhibited an extraordinary drop after reaching the highest value gamma_1 as the temperature was lowered. This behavior is not observed in normal liquid crystals. But this phenomena can be attributed to the existence of nematic biaxial phase below the rod-like nematic N_{c} phase. The pretransitional increase in gamma _1 near the disk-like nematic to smectic -A phase transition of the pure CsPFO H_2O systems are better understood with the help of mean-field models of W. L. McMillan. He predicted a critical exponent nu = -{1over 2} for the divergence of gamma_1. The polymer (PEO, molecular weight = 10 ^5) dissolved in CsPFO H_2O system (which has 0.6% critical polymer concentration), suppressed the nematic to lamellar smectic phase transition in concentrated polymer solutions (0.75% and higher). In dilute polymer solutions with lower than 0.3% polyethylene-oxide, a linear increase of gamma_1 is observed, which agrees with Brochard theory. The polymer solutions in thermotropic liquid crystal solvents

  2. Electrical Freedericksz transitions in nematic liquid crystals containing ferroelectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cîrtoaje, Cristina; Petrescu, Emil; Stoian, Victor

    2015-03-01

    A new theoretical approach was elaborated to explain the contradictions reported in many papers about the electric threshold for Freedericksz transition in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) with ferroparticles additives. The free energy density of the mixture was estimated and the contributions of the interaction energy of NLC molecules with ferroparticles surface were calculated. Experimental results for 5CB-BaTiO3 mixture are given.

  3. Modelling Ferroelectric Nanoparticles in Nematic Liquid Crystals (FERNANO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-26

    DIPARTIMENTO DI CHIMICA FISICA ED INORGANICA VIALE DEL RISORGIMENTO 4 BOLOGNA, 40136 ITALY EOARD GRANT #FA8655-11-1-3046 Report...AND ADDRESS(ES) DIPARTIMENTO DI CHIMICA FISICA ED INORGANICA VIALE DEL RISORGIMENTO 4 BOLOGNA, 40136 ITALY 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION... Molecular Dynamics simulations, nematic liquid crystal, nematogen (5CB), tetragonal BaTiO3, tetragonal crystal 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  4. Photoluminescence analysis of self induced planer alignment in azo dye dispersed nematic liquid crystal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rishi Sood, Srishti Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    We have developed azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal complex for advanced photonic liquid crystal display technology aspects. Disperse orange azo dye self introduced planer alignment in the nematic liquid crystal without any surface anchoring treatment. Planer alignment was characterized by optical polarizing microscopy. The electro-optical switching response of dye disperse planer aligned nematic cell was investigated as a function of applied voltage with the help of photoluminescence spectrophotometer for the tuning of photoluminescence contrast.

  5. Magnetically stabilized nematic order. II. Critical states and algebraically ordered nematic spin liquids in one-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Hui; Zhou Fei

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the Zeeman-field-driven quantum phase transitions between singlet spin liquids and algebraically ordered O(2) nematic spin liquids of spin-one bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. We find that the critical behavior is characterized by condensation of hardcore bosons instead of ideal magnons in high-dimensional lattices. Critical exponents are strongly renormalized by hardcore interactions and critical states are equivalent to the free Fermion model up to the Friedel oscillations. We also find that the algebraically ordered nematic spin liquids close to critical points are fully characterized by the Luttinger-liquid dynamics with Luttinger-liquid parameters magnetically tunable. The Bethe ansatz solution has been applied to determine the critical magnetization and nematic correlations.

  6. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Jaritza; Gujral, Ankit; Huang, Chengbin; Bishop, Camille; Yu, Lian; Ediger, M D

    2017-02-07

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition. Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ∼10(5) times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  7. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Jaritza; Gujral, Ankit; Huang, Chengbin; Bishop, Camille; Yu, Lian; Ediger, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition. Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ˜105 times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  8. Nematic-like stable glasses without equilibrium liquid crystal phases

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gomez, Jaritza [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Gujral, Ankit [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Huang, Chengbin [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2222, USA; Bishop, Camille [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Yu, Lian [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2222, USA; Ediger, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

    2017-02-01

    We report the thermal and structural properties of glasses of posaconazole, a rod-like molecule, prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD glasses of posaconazole can show substantial molecular orientation depending upon the choice of substrate temperature, Tsubstrate, during deposition.Ellipsometry and IR measurements indicate that glasses prepared at Tsubstrate very near the glass transition temperature (Tg) are highly ordered. For these posaconazole glasses, the orientation order parameter is similar to that observed in macroscopically aligned nematic liquid crystals, indicating that the molecules are mostly parallel to one another and perpendicular to the interface. To our knowledge, these are the most anisotropic glasses ever prepared by PVD from a molecule that does not form equilibrium liquid crystal phases. These results are consistent with a previously proposed mechanism in which molecular orientation in PVD glasses is inherited from the orientation present at the free surface of the equilibrium liquid. This mechanism suggests that molecular orientation at the surface of the equilibrium liquid of posaconazole is nematic-like. Posaconazole glasses can show very high kinetic stability; the isothermal transformation of a 400 nm glass into the supercooled liquid occurs via a propagating front that originates at the free surface and requires ~105 times the structural relaxation time of the liquid (τα). We also studied the kinetic stability of PVD glasses of itraconazole, which is a structurally similar molecule with equilibrium liquid crystal phases. While itraconazole glasses can be even more anisotropic than posaconazole glasses, they exhibit lower kinetic stability.

  9. Thermal Characterization of Thermotropic Nematic Liquid-Crystalline Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, David; Cardarelli, Matt; Sanchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Mbanga, Badel L.; Atherton, Timothy J.; Cebe, Peggy

    Nematic Liquid-Crystallline Elastomers (LCEs) are weakly crosslinked polymeric networks that exhibit rubber elasticity and liquid-crystalline orientational order due to the presence of mesogenic groups. Three end-on side-chain nematic LCEs were investigated using real-time synchrotron wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TG) to correlate thermal behavior with structural and chemical differences among them. The elastomers differed in crosslinking density and mesogen composition. Thermally reversible glass transition temperature, Tg, and nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature, Tni, were observed upon heating and cooling for all samples. By varying the heating rate, Tg0 and Tni0 were determined at zero heating rate. The temperature dependence of the orientational order parameter was determined from the anisotropic azimuthal angular distribution of the equatorial reflection seen during real-time WAXS experiments. Our results show that the choice of crosslinking unit, its shape, density, as well as the structure of co-monomers, all influence the temperature range over which the thermal transitions take place.

  10. Nematic liquid crystals doped with nanoparticles: Phase behavior and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Mikhail A.; Gorkunov, Maxim V.

    Thermodynamics and dielectric properties of nematic liquid crystals doped with various nanoparticles have been studied in the framework of a molecular mean-field theory. It is shown that spherically isotropic nanoparticles effectively dilute the liquid crystal material and cause a decrease of the nematic-isotropic transition temperature, while anisotropic nanoparticles are aligned by the nematic host and, in turn, may significantly improve the liquid crystal alignment. In the case of strong interaction between spherical nanoparticles and mesogenic molecules, the nanocomposite possesses a number of unexpected properties: The nematic-isotropic co-existence region appears to be very broad, and the system either undergoes a direct transition from the isotropic phase into the phase-separated state, or undergoes first a transition into the homogeneous nematic phase and then phase-separates at a lower temperature. The phase separation does not occur for sufficiently low nanoparticle concentrations, and, in certain cases, the separation takes place only within a finite region of the nanoparticle concentration. For nematics doped with strongly polar nanoparticles, the theory predicts the nanoparticle aggregation in linear chains that make a substantial contribution to the static dielectric anisotropy and optical birefringence of the nematic composite. The theory clarifies the microscopic origin of important phenomena observed in nematic composites including a shift of the isotropic-nematic phase transition and improvement of the nematic order; a considerable softening of the first order nematic-isotropic transition; a complex phase-separation behavior; and a significant increase of the dielectric anisotropy and the birefringence.

  11. Density functional theory for chiral nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Belli, S; Dussi, S; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2014-08-01

    Even though chiral nematic phases were the first liquid crystals experimentally observed more than a century ago, the origin of the thermodynamic stability of cholesteric states is still unclear. In this Rapid Communication we address the problem by means of a density functional theory for the equilibrium pitch of chiral particles. When applied to right-handed hard helices, our theory predicts an entropy-driven cholesteric phase, which can be either right or left handed, depending not only on the particle shape but also on the thermodynamic state. We explain the origin of the chiral ordering as an interplay between local nematic alignment and excluded-volume differences between left- and right-handed particle pairs.

  12. Charge retention of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simulated thin-film transistor (TFT) circuit has been built to drive the twisted nematic (TN) cell for the measurements of charge retention and the transmission versus peak voltage applied to the drain electrode of the simulated TFT using the gate pulse width as a parameter. The established rule that the transmission of the TN cell depends only on the rms voltage applied to the cell has been confirmed by calculating the rms voltage of the charge retention curves in correlation with the measured transmissions. The deviation of the decaying charge retention curves from the exponential behavior has been observed and can be qualitatively explained by a combination of the dielectric and transport properties of nematic liquid-crystal medium.

  13. Equilibrium configurations of nematic liquid crystals on a torus.

    PubMed

    Segatti, Antonio; Snarski, Michael; Veneroni, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The topology and the geometry of a surface play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium configurations of thin films of liquid crystals. We propose here a theoretical analysis of a recently introduced surface Frank energy, in the case of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystals coating a toroidal particle. Our aim is to show how a different modeling of the effect of extrinsic curvature acts as a selection principle among equilibria of the classical energy and how new configurations emerge. In particular, our analysis predicts the existence of stable equilibria with complex windings.

  14. Observation of large nematic domains of discotic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Abhijeet; Wang, Xuezhen; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2015-03-01

    Discotic liquid crystals are commonly found in nature in the form of clay, nacre. They are technologically important in applications such as conductive polymers, semiconductors and photovoltaics. Size and its distribution play an important role in their self-assemblies. Here we observed large nematic domains of discotic liquid crystals grown on a time scale of months. The development of such domains is observed to be faster for nanodisks that relatively smaller in size. The orientation of nanodisks is affected by gravity and inter-particle interactions which are yet to be fully understood.

  15. Thermo - optical studies of nematic liquid crystal elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharde, Rita A.; Mani, Santosh A.; Lal, Suman; Tripathi, S. K.; Khosla, Samriti

    2014-10-01

    The influences of structural parameter on thermo - optical properties of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomer (NLCE) were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Polarizing Microscopy Studies (PMS). Dielectric Measurement was also performed in addition to these measurements. The NLCE used in the present study were synthesized, has a unique coupling between anisotropic order of Liquid crystal component and elasticity of polymer network. The investigations were performed as function of temperature during heating and cooling processes. The study revealed the correlation of thermo - optical behavior of NLCE with the crosslinking agent and temperature.

  16. Metastable nematic hedgehogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, Riccardo; Virga, Epifanio G.

    1996-07-01

    For nematic liquid crystals, we study the local stability of a radial hedgehog against biaxial perturbations. Our analysis employs the Landau - de Gennes functional to describe the free energy stored in a ball, whose radius is a parameter of the model. We find that a radial hedgehog may be either unstable or metastable, depending on the values of the elastic constants. For unstable hedgehogs, we give an explicit expression for the radius of the ball within which the instability manifests itself: it can be interpreted as the size of the biaxial core of the defect; it is of the same order of magnitude as the radius of the disclination ring predicted by Penzenstadler and Trebin's model. The metastable hedgehogs predicted by our model are the major novelty of the paper. They tell us that we may also expect truly uniaxial point defects, whose core contains no biaxial structure.

  17. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A; Romero-Enrique, José M; Silvestre, Nuno M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  18. Material Flows in an Active Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Active matter systems are composed of energy consuming constituent components which drive far-from-equilibrium dynamics. As such, active materials exhibit energetic states which would be unfavorable in passive, equilibrium materials. We study one such material; an active nematic liquid crystal which exists in a dynamical steady state where +/-1/2 defects are continuously generated and annihilated at a constant rate. The active nematic is composed of micron-sized microtubule filaments which are highly concentrated into a quasi-2D film that resides on an oil-water interface. Kinesin motor proteins drive inter-filament sliding which results in net extensile motion of the microtubule film. Notably, we find a mesophase in which motile +1/2 defects, acquire system-spanning orientational order. Currently, we are tracking material flows generated by the active stresses in the system to measure length scales at which energy is dissipated, and to measure the relation between internally generated flows and bend in the nematic field.

  19. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A.; Romero-Enrique, José M.; Silvestre, Nuno M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  20. Dispersion and Excluded Volume Interactions in Nematic Liquid Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliks, Mark David

    1988-12-01

    The effectiveness of the potential of mean torque in accounting for solute orientation is explored. It is described by repulsive (excluded volume) and attractive forces (dispersion) and is tested using rigid, semi-flexible and flexible solutes dissolved in nematic phases. For rigid molecules (benzenes and anthracene) the attractive short range potential gave the best results. For anthracene the results indicated that the potential can discriminate between solute/solvent interactions. For wholly aliphatic solvents the excluded volume forces gave excellent agreement, as did the attractive forces for the aromatic solvents. For the semi-flexible molecule, biphenyl, quadrupole splittings were simulated using the internal torsion angle as a parameter. The values of this angle were predicted to vary systematically with temperature. Using crystallographic and idealized structural data as the starting points for the calculation, the structure of PAA in the nematic phase was estimated. Both the internal angle and the aromatic proton valence angles were determined. Flexible, "siamese-twin" liquid crystals having an internal per-deuterated spacer consisting of ten methylenes were studied. They differed only in the length of the aliphatic tails (5105, 101010). The quadrupole splittings of both twins dissolved in the nematic phase of BCH-S1131 were identical. Quantitative simulations of the splittings using standard RIS geometry and excluded volume forces were successful. In the bulk nematic phase the order parameter of 5105 was greater than 101010. The difference was interpreted as a dilution effect of the mesogenic cores by aliphatic tails. Simulations indicated the conformation of the spacer is highly extended. As parameterized the required strength of the mean field is a strong function of the molecular dimensions, suggesting that the current description still is incomplete.

  1. Flexoelectricity in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, S.; Panov, V. P.; Greco, C.; Ferrarini, A.; Görtz, V.; Goodby, J. W.; Gleeson, H. F.

    2014-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the magnitude of the difference in the splay and bend flexoelectric coefficients, |e1 - e3|, of an oxadiazole bent-core liquid crystal by measuring the critical voltage for the formation of flexodomains together with their wave number. The coefficient |e1 - e3| is found to be a factor of 2-3 times higher than in most conventional calamitic nematic liquid crystals, varying from 8 pCm-1 to 20 pCm-1 across the ˜60 K—wide nematic regime. We have also calculated the individual flexoelectric coefficients e1 and e3, with the dipolar and quadrupolar contributions of the bent-core liquid crystal by combining density functional theory calculations with a molecular field approach and atomistic modelling. Interestingly, the magnitude of the bend flexoelectric coefficient is found to be rather small, in contrast to common expectations for bent-core molecules. The calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental values, offering an insight into how molecular parameters contribute to the flexoelectric coefficients and illustrating a huge potential for the prediction of flexoelectric behaviour in bent-core liquid crystals.

  2. Flexoelectricity in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S. Panov, V. P.; Gleeson, H. F.; Greco, C.; Ferrarini, A.; Görtz, V.; Goodby, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    We have determined experimentally the magnitude of the difference in the splay and bend flexoelectric coefficients, |e{sub 1} − e{sub 3}|, of an oxadiazole bent-core liquid crystal by measuring the critical voltage for the formation of flexodomains together with their wave number. The coefficient |e{sub 1} − e{sub 3}| is found to be a factor of 2–3 times higher than in most conventional calamitic nematic liquid crystals, varying from 8 pCm{sup −1} to 20 pCm{sup −1} across the ∼60 K—wide nematic regime. We have also calculated the individual flexoelectric coefficients e{sub 1} and e{sub 3}, with the dipolar and quadrupolar contributions of the bent-core liquid crystal by combining density functional theory calculations with a molecular field approach and atomistic modelling. Interestingly, the magnitude of the bend flexoelectric coefficient is found to be rather small, in contrast to common expectations for bent-core molecules. The calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental values, offering an insight into how molecular parameters contribute to the flexoelectric coefficients and illustrating a huge potential for the prediction of flexoelectric behaviour in bent-core liquid crystals.

  3. Nematic liquid crystals on sinusoidal channels: the zigzag instability.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Romero-Enrique, Jose M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-01-11

    Substrates which are chemically or topographically patterned induce a variety of liquid crystal textures. The response of the liquid crystal to competing surface orientations, typical of patterned substrates, is determined by the anisotropy of the elastic constants and the interplay of the relevant lengths scales, such as the correlation length and the surface geometrical parameters. Transitions between different textures, usually with different symmetries, may occur under a wide range of conditions. We use the Landau-de Gennes free energy to investigate the texture of nematics in sinusoidal channels with parallel anchoring bounded by nematic-air interfaces that favour perpendicular (hometropic) anchoring. In micron size channels 5CB was observed to exhibit a non-trivial texture characterized by a disclination line, within the channel, which is broken into a zigzag pattern. Our calculations reveal that when the elastic anisotropy of the nematic does not favour twist distortions the defect is a straight disclination line that runs along the channel, which breaks into a zigzag pattern with a characteristic period, when the twist elastic constant becomes sufficiently small when compared to the splay and bend constants. The transition occurs through a twist instability that drives the defect line to rotate from its original position. The interplay between the energetically favourable twist distortions that induce the defect rotation and the liquid crystal anchoring at the surfaces leads to the zigzag pattern. We investigate in detail the dependence of the periodicity of the zigzag pattern on the geometrical parameters of the sinusoidal channels, which in line with the experimental results is found to be non-linear.

  4. Nematic liquid crystals on sinusoidal channels: the zigzag instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, Nuno M.; Romero-Enrique, Jose M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-01-01

    Substrates which are chemically or topographically patterned induce a variety of liquid crystal textures. The response of the liquid crystal to competing surface orientations, typical of patterned substrates, is determined by the anisotropy of the elastic constants and the interplay of the relevant lengths scales, such as the correlation length and the surface geometrical parameters. Transitions between different textures, usually with different symmetries, may occur under a wide range of conditions. We use the Landau-de Gennes free energy to investigate the texture of nematics in sinusoidal channels with parallel anchoring bounded by nematic-air interfaces that favour perpendicular (hometropic) anchoring. In micron size channels 5CB was observed to exhibit a non-trivial texture characterized by a disclination line, within the channel, which is broken into a zigzag pattern. Our calculations reveal that when the elastic anisotropy of the nematic does not favour twist distortions the defect is a straight disclination line that runs along the channel, which breaks into a zigzag pattern with a characteristic period, when the twist elastic constant becomes sufficiently small when compared to the splay and bend constants. The transition occurs through a twist instability that drives the defect line to rotate from its original position. The interplay between the energetically favourable twist distortions that induce the defect rotation and the liquid crystal anchoring at the surfaces leads to the zigzag pattern. We investigate in detail the dependence of the periodicity of the zigzag pattern on the geometrical parameters of the sinusoidal channels, which in line with the experimental results is found to be non-linear.

  5. Harnessing optical vortex lattices in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Barboza, R; Bortolozzo, U; Assanto, G; Vidal-Henriquez, E; Clerc, M G; Residori, S

    2013-08-30

    By creating self-induced vortexlike defects in the nematic liquid crystal layer of a light valve, we demonstrate the realization of programable lattices of optical vortices with arbitrary distribution in space. On each lattice site, every matter vortex acts as a photonic spin-to-orbital momentum coupler and an array of circularly polarized input beams is converted into an output array of vortex beams with topological charges consistent with the matter lattice. The vortex arrangements are explained on the basis of light-induced matter defects of both signs and consistent topological rules.

  6. Surface-induced structures in nematic liquid crystal colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshuk, S. B.; Tovkach, O. M.; Lev, B. I.

    2014-08-01

    We predict theoretically the existence of a class of colloidal structures in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells, which are induced by surface patterns on the plates of the cell (like cells with UV-irradiated polyamide surfaces using micron sized masks in front of the cell). These bulk structures arise from nonuniform boundary conditions for the director distortions at the confining surfaces. In particular, we demonstrate that quadrupole spherical particles (like spheres with boojums or Saturn-ring director configurations) form a square lattice inside a planar NLC cell, which has checkerboard patterns on both its plates.

  7. Ordering of Glass Rods in Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    C. Chen, C. Wang, F. Chu, C. Chao, C. Kang, P. Chou, and Y. Chen, “Color-tunable light-emitting device based on the mixture of CdSe nanorods and...Lapointe, D. H. Reich, and R. L. Leheny, “Manipulation and organization of ferromagnetic nanowires by patterned nematic liquid crystals,” Langmuir...24(19), 11175–11181 (2008). 15. C. Lapointe, N. Cappallo, D. H. Reich, and R. L. Leheny, “Static and dynamic properties of magnetic nanowires in

  8. The Viscoelastic Properties of Nematic Monodomains Containing Liquid Crystal Polymers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dongfeng

    The work presented here investigates the viscoelastic properties of nematic materials containing liquid crystal polymers (LCP). We focus on how the elastic constants and the viscosity coefficients of the mixture systems are influenced by polymer architectures. In dynamic light scattering studies of the relaxation of the director orientation fluctuations for the splay, twist, and bend deformation modes, decrease of the relaxation rates was observed when LCPs were dissolved into low molar mass nematics (LMMN). For the side-chain LCPs, the slowing down in the bend mode is comparable to or larger than those of the splay and twist modes. For main-chain LCPs, the relative changes in the relaxation rates for the twist and splay modes are about one order of magnitude larger than that for the bend mode. The results of light scattering under an electric field show that the decrease in the twist relaxation rate is due to a large increase in the twist viscosity and a minor decrease in the twist elastic constant. These changes were found to increase with decrease of the spacer length, with increase of molecular weight, and with decrease of the backbone flexibility. In Freedericksz transition measurements, the splay and bend elastic constants and the dielectric anisotropies of the nematic mixtures were determined and the values are 5~15% lower than those of the pure solvent. From the analysis of the results of Freedericksz transition and light scattering experiments, a complete set of the elastic constants and viscosity coefficients corresponding to the three director deformation modes were obtained for the LCP mixtures. The changes in the viscosity coefficients due to addition of LCPs were analysed to estimate the anisotropic shapes of the polymer backbone via a hydrodynamic model. The results suggest that an oblate backbone configuration is maintained by the side-chain LCPs and a prolate chain configuration appears for the main-chain LCPs. The rheological behavior of a side

  9. Simulation of coherent backscattering of light in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, E. V. Kokorin, D. I. Romanov, V. P.

    2012-08-15

    Multiple scattering of light by the fluctuations of the director in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) aligned by a magnetic field is considered. A peak of coherent backscattering is calculated by numerical simulation. Since the indicatrix of single scattering for a liquid crystal (LC) is known exactly, the calculations are carried out without any simplifying assumptions on the parameters of the liquid crystal. Multiple scattering is simulated as a random walk of photons in the medium. A peak of coherent backscattering in such a medium is very narrow; therefore, the so-called semianalytical method is applied. The parameters of the backscattering peak obtained by numerical simulation are compared with the available experimental data and with the results of analytical approximations. It turns out that the experimental data are in good agreement with the results of simulation. The results of numerical simulation adequately describe the anisotropy and the width of the backscattering peak.

  10. Substrate-induced gliding in a nematic liquid crystal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mema, E.; Kondic, L.; Cummings, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the interaction between nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) and polymer substrates. Such substrates can interact with NLCs, exhibiting a phenomenon known as director gliding: the preferred orientation of the NLC molecules at the interface changes on time scales that are slow relative to the elastic relaxation time scale of the NLC. We present two models for gliding, inspired by experiments that investigate the interaction between the NLC and a polymer substrate. These models, though simple, lead to nontrivial results, including loss of bistability under gliding. Perhaps surprisingly, we find that externally imposed switching between the steady states of a bistable system may reverse the effect of gliding, preventing loss of bistability if switching is sufficiently frequent. Our findings may be of relevance to a variety of technological applications involving liquid crystal devices, and particularly to a new generation of flexible liquid crystal displays that implement polymeric substrates.

  11. Interaction between two spherical particles in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Stark, Holger; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We numerically investigate the interaction between two spherical particles in a nematic liquid crystal mediated by elastic distortions in the orientational order. We pay attention to the cases where two particles with equal radii R0 impose rigid normal anchoring on their surfaces and carry a pointlike topological defect referred to as a hyperbolic hedgehog. To describe the geometry of our system, we use bispherical coordinates, which prove useful in the implementation of boundary conditions at the particle surfaces and at infinity. We adopt the Landau de Gennes continuum theory in terms of a second-rank tensor order parameter Qij for the description of the orientational order of a nematic liquid crystal. We also utilize an adaptive mesh refinement scheme that has proven to be an efficient way of dealing with topological defects whose core size is much smaller than the particle size. When the two “dipoles,” composed of a particle and a hyperbolic hedgehog, are in parallel directions, the two-particle interaction potential is attractive for large interparticle distances D and proportional to D-3 as expected from the form of the dipole-dipole interaction, until the well-defined potential minimum at D≃2.46 R0 is reached. For the antiparallel configuration with no hedgehogs between the two particles, the interaction potential is repulsive and behaves as D-2 for D≲10 R0 , which is stronger than the dipole-dipole repulsion ( ˜ D-3 ) expected theoretically as an asymptotic behavior for large D .

  12. Substrate induced gliding for a nematic liquid crystal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mema, Ensela; Cummings, Linda; Kondic, Lou

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between nematic liquid crystals (NLC) and polymer substrates is of current industrial interest, due to a desire to manufacture a new generation of flexible Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) for use in portable electronic devices. Polymer substrates present challenges because they can interact with the NLC, exhibiting a phenomenon known as gliding: the preferred orientation of the NLC molecules at the interface changes over timescales of minutes to hours. We present two models for gliding, inspired by the physics and chemistry of the interaction between the NLC and polymer substrate. These models, though simple, lead to non-trivial results, including loss of bistability, a finding that may have implications for display devices. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMS-1211713.

  13. Finding exact spatial soliton profiles in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, J; Neyts, K; Vanbrabant, P J M; James, R; Fernandez, F A

    2010-02-15

    Finding exact analytical soliton profile solutions is only possible for certain types of non-linear media. In most cases one must resort to numerical techniques to find the soliton profile. In this work we present numerical calculations of spatial soliton profiles in nematic liquid crystals. The nonlinearity is governed by the optical-field-induced liquid crystal director reorientation, which is described by a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The soliton profile is found using an iterative scheme whereby the induced waveguide and mode profiles are calculated alternatively until convergence is achieved. In this way it is also possible to find higher order solitons. The results in this work can be used to accurately design all-optical interconnections with soliton beams.

  14. Laser-Induced Thermomechanical Effects in Nematic Liquid-Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksanyan, A. K.; Gevorgyan, G. S.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Alaverdyan, R. B.

    As we know there are several mechanisms allowing us to convert absorbed energy by liquid crystal (LC) to the energy of reorientation of director. One of them is the third thermomechanical effect. Third thermomechanical effect induced by Gaussian beam was recently studied both theoretically and experimentally. It was shown that thermomechanical effects can decrease the threshold of Fréedericksz transition in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC). One of the big advantages of thermomechanical effect compared with other mechanisms (for instance giant optical nonlinearity (GON)), which are absent in the case of normal incidence of laser beam, is that it emerges at any angle of incidence of laser beam. Thermomechanical effects were also studied in NLC, containing azobenzene in their molecular structure. It was suggested that one of the mechanisms of optical nonlinearity observed in the experiment in such medium may be the thermomechanical effect.

  15. Chirality Differentiation by Diffusion in Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2017-01-01

    Chirality is of great importance in the living world. It helps differentiate biochemical reactions such as those that take place during digestion. It may also help differentiate physical processes such as diffusion. Aiming to study the latter effect, we investigate the diffusion of guest chiral molecules in chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid-crystal hosts. We discover that the diffusion dramatically depends on the handedness of the guest and host molecules and the chiral differentiation is greatly enhanced by the proper alignment of the liquid-crystal host. The diffusion of a guest chiral molecule in a chiral host with the same handedness is much faster than in a chiral host with opposite handedness. We also observe that the differentiation of chirality depends on the diffusion direction with respect to the twisting direction (helical axis). These results might be important in understanding effects of chirality on physical processes that take place in biological organisms. In addition, this effect could be utilized for enantiomer separation.

  16. Chiral power change upon photoisomerization in twisted nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Simoncelli, Sabrina; Aramendía, Pedro F

    2015-05-05

    In this work, we use the photoisomerization of azobenzenes, a phenanthrospirooxazine, and a fulgide in a twisted nematic liquid crystalline phase to change the chiral twisting power of the system. The changes are probed by the rotatory power of linearly polarized light. Time resolved and steady state experiments are carried out. The chiral change and the photoisomerization process have similar characteristic recovery times and activation energy, thus probing that the change is induced by the modification in the chemical composition of the photochromic dopant system. The amplitude of the light twisting power change correlates with the order change in the liquid crystal (LC) but not with the modification in the absorption characteristics of the system. This indicates that the driving force of the chiral change is the microscopic order modification in the LC phase that affects the helical pitch of the phase.

  17. Mesogenic linear azobenzene polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bagramyan, Arutyun; Thibault-Maheu, Olivier; Galstian, Tigran; Bessette, Andre; Zhao, Yue

    2011-03-15

    We describe the detailed study of a polymer stabilized liquid crystal compound, which was created by using a reactive (monofunctional) azobenzene mesogenic guest and a nematic liquid crystal host. The resonant interaction of light with the azobenzene segment of the guest and the mesogenic nature of the latter enable the optical alignment of host molecules and the permanent fixing of that orientation by means of UV polymerization of the guest. We use dynamic spectral, polarimetric, and scattering techniques to study the orientational ordering and interaction of the guest-host system. We show that the uniform UV polymerization of this compound results in a low scattering material system with dielectric and elastic properties that are relatively close to those of the host, while still providing the capacity for optical configuration of its morphology.

  18. Development of low anchoring strength liquid crystal mixtures for bistable nematic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Gallaire, D.; Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Joly, S.; Dubois, J.-C.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Dozov, I.

    2006-02-01

    The recent Bistable Nematic (BiNem (R)) LCD technology presents long term bistability, high level passive matrix multiplexing and high optical quality. The BiNem device, based on anchoring breaking, needs specific low anchoring strength materials - alignment layers and liquid crystal mixtures. We present here our approach to develop nematic mixtures with wide enough temperature range and low zenithal anchoring energy.

  19. Key-lock colloids in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, Nuno M.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Landau-de Gennes free energy is used to study theoretically the effective interaction of spherical "key" and anisotropic "lock" colloidal particles. We assume identical anchoring properties of the surfaces of the key and of the lock particles, and we consider planar degenerate and perpendicular anchoring conditions separately. The lock particle is modeled as a spherical particle with a spherical dimple. When such a particle is introduced into a nematic liquid crystal, it orients its dimple at an oblique angle θeq with respect to the far field director n∞. This angle depends on the depth of the dimple. Minimization results show that the free energy of a pair of key and lock particles exhibits a global minimum for the configuration when the key particle is facing the dimple of the lock colloidal particle. The preferred orientation ϕeq of the key-lock composite doublet relative to n∞ is robust against thermal fluctuations. The preferred orientation θeq(2 ) of the dimple particle in the doublet is different from the isolated situation. This is related to the "direct" interaction of defects accompanying the key particle with the edge of the dimple. We propose that this nematic-amplified key-lock interaction can play an important role in self-organization and clustering of mixtures of colloidal particles with dimple colloids present.

  20. Liquid crystal gratings from nematic to blue phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yan-qing; Hu, Wei; Lin, Xiao-wen; Srivastava, Abhishek; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2012-10-01

    Some of our recent progress on liquid crystal (LC) gratings, from nematic to blue phase, is reviewed in this invited talk. The first kind of grating is fabricated by periodically adjusting the LC directors to form alternate micro phase retarders and polarization rotators in a cell placed between crossed polarizers. The second one is demonstrated by means of photoalignment technique with alternate orthogonal homogeneously-aligned domains. To improve the response time of the gratings, several approaches are also proposed by using dual-frequency addressed nematic LC, ferroelectric LC and blue phase LC, which shows great performance including high transmittance, polarization independency and submillisecond response. At last, to obtain other controllable LC microstructures rather than simple 1D/2D gratings, we develop a micro-lithography system with a digital micro-mirror device as dynamic mask forms. It may instantly generate arbitrary micro-images on photoalignment layers and further guides the LC molecule orientations. Besides normal phase gratings, more complex patterns such as quasicrystal structures are demonstrated. Some new applications such as tunable multiport optical switching and vector beam generations are expected.

  1. Elastic constants and dynamics in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpert, Anja; Allen, Michael P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present molecular dynamics calculations of the Frank elastic constants, and associated time correlation functions, in nematic liquid crystals. We study two variants of the Gay-Berne potential, and use system sizes of half a million molecules, significantly larger than in previous studies of elastic behaviour. Equilibrium orientational fluctuations in reciprocal (k-) space were calculated, to determine the elastic constants by fitting at low |k|; our results indicate that small system size may be a source of inaccuracy in previous work. Furthermore, the dynamics of the Gay-Berne nematic were studied by calculating time correlation functions of components of the order tensor, together with associated components of the velocity field, for a set of wave vectors k. Confirming our earlier work, we found exponential decay for splay and twist correlations, and oscillatory exponential decay for the bend correlation. In this work, we confirm similar behaviour for the corresponding velocity components. In all cases, the decay rates, and oscillation frequencies, were found to be accurately proportional to k2 for small k, as predicted by the equations of nematodynamics. However, the observation of oscillatory bend fluctuations, and corresponding oscillatory shear flow decay, is in contradiction to the usual assumptions appearing in the literature, and in standard texts. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of using large systems in these calculations.

  2. Nematic liquid crystals at rough and fluctuating interfaces.

    PubMed

    Elgeti, J; Schmid, F

    2005-12-01

    Nematic liquid crystals at rough and fluctuating interfaces are analyzed within the Frank elastic theory and the Landau-de Gennes theory. We study specifically interfaces that locally favor planar anchoring. In the first part we reconsider the phenomenon of Berreman anchoring on fixed rough surfaces, and derive new simple expressions for the corresponding azimuthal anchoring energy. Surprisingly, we find that for strongly aligning surfaces, it depends only on the geometrical surface anisotropy and the bulk elastic constants, and not on the precise values of the chemical surface parameters. In the second part, we calculate the capillary waves at nematic-isotropic interfaces. If one neglects elastic interactions, the capillary wave spectrum is characterized by an anisotropic interfacial tension. With elastic interactions, the interfacial tension, i.e., the coefficient of the leading q(2) term of the capillary wave spectrum, becomes isotropic. However, the elastic interactions introduce a strongly anisotropic cubic q(3) term. The amplitudes of capillary waves are largest in the direction perpendicular to the director. These results are in agreement with previous molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. Generation of spiral dislocation of wave front in absorbing nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budagovsky, I. A.; Zolot'ko, A. S.; Korshunov, D. L.; Smayev, M. P.; Shvetsov, S. A.; Barnik, M. I.

    2015-08-01

    It is demonstrated that an optical beam acquires a component with spiral dislocation of wave front (optical vortex) due to passage through a layer of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal with light-absorbing admixture. The vortex is formed owing to the heating of liquid crystal and transition to isotropic phase in the irradiated region, which leads to the generation of axisymmetric field distribution of director at the interface of the isotropic channel and nematic liquid crystal.

  4. Fast switching from isotropic liquids to nematic liquid crystals: rotaxanes as smart fluids.

    PubMed

    He, Hao; Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2015-11-28

    We examine a solution of rod-like piston-rotaxanes, which can switch their length by external excitation (for example optically) from a short state of length L to a long state of length qL. We show that this solution can exhibit a number of different behaviours. In particular it can rapidly switch from an isotropic to a nematic liquid crystalline state. There is a minimum ratio q* = 1.13 for which transitions from a pure isotropic state to a pure nematic state are possible. We present a phase-switching diagram, which gives the six possible behaviours for this system. It turns out that a large fraction of the phase switching diagram is occupied by the transition from a pure isotropic to a pure nematic state.

  5. Orientational defects near colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Feng, James J; Zhou, Chixing

    2004-01-01

    We study the interaction between a surface-anchoring colloidal particle and a liquid-crystalline host, and in particular the formation of orientational defects near the particle. A mean-field theory based on the nonlocal Marrucci-Greco nematic potential is used to represent molecular interactions in an inhomogeneous orientational field. An evolution equation for the molecular configuration tensor is solved numerically whose steady state minimizes the total free energy of the system. With strong homeotropic anchoring on the particle surface, three types of solutions may appear depending on initial conditions and particle size: Saturn rings, satellite point defects, and polar rings. The Saturn ring remains stable on micrometer-sized particles, contrary to previous calculations but consistent with experiments. A phase diagram is constructed for the three regimes. Based on the free energy, the most stable state is the Saturn ring for smaller particles and the satellite defect for larger ones.

  6. Onset of electroconvection of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng-Qi; Éber, Nándor; Buka, Ágnes; Pesch, Werner; Ahlers, Guenter

    2006-10-01

    We present experimental measurements near the onset of electroconvection (EC) of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystals Phase 5A and MBBA. A voltage of amplitude 2V0 and frequency f was applied. With increasing V0 , EC occurred after the bend Freedericksz transition. We found supercritical bifurcations to EC that were either stationary bifurcations or Hopf bifurcations to traveling convection rolls, depending on the sample conductances. Results for the onset voltages Vc , the critical wave numbers kc , the obliqueness angles θc , and the traveling-wave (Hopf) frequencies at onset ωc over a range of sample conductances and driving frequencies are presented and compared, to the extent possible, with theoretical predictions. For the most part good agreement was found. However, the experiment revealed some unusual results for the orientations of the convection rolls relative to the direction selected by the Freedericksz domain.

  7. Soliton-like defects in nematic liquid crystal thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvyrov, A. N.; Krekhov, A. P.; Lebedev, Yu. A.; Timirov, Yu. I.

    2016-11-01

    The nonsingular soliton-like defects in plane nematic liquid crystal (NLC) layers and spherical NLC drops are experimentally detected and studied when the interaction of NLC molecules with a bounding surface is varied. The dynamics and the annihilation of nonsingular defects of opposite signs on a plane surface are investigated. Periodic transformations of the soliton-like defects in NLC drops in an electric field are detected. The theory of elasticity is used to show that the surface energy taken into account in the total free energy of NLC in the case of weak anchoring leads to the possibility of nonsingular solutions of a director equilibrium equation. The calculated pictures of director distribution in a plane NLC layer and in a spherical NLC drop characterized by weak surface anchoring agree well with the results of polarized light optical observations.

  8. Phase diagrams of orientational transitions in absorbing nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolot'ko, A. S.; Ochkin, V. N.; Smayev, M. P.; Shvetsov, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    A theory of orientational transitions in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), which employs the expansion of optical torques acting on the NLC director with respect to the rotation angle, has been developed for NLCs with additives of conformationally active compounds under the action of optical and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Phase diagrams of NLCs are constructed as a function of the intensity and polarization of the light field, the strength of low-frequency electric field, and a parameter that characterizes the feedback between the rotation of the NLC director and optical torque. Conditions for the occurrence of first- and second-order transitions are determined. The proposed theory agrees with available experimental data.

  9. Phase diagrams of orientational transitions in absorbing nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zolot’ko, A. S. Ochkin, V. N.; Smayev, M. P.; Shvetsov, S. A.

    2015-05-15

    A theory of orientational transitions in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), which employs the expansion of optical torques acting on the NLC director with respect to the rotation angle, has been developed for NLCs with additives of conformationally active compounds under the action of optical and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Phase diagrams of NLCs are constructed as a function of the intensity and polarization of the light field, the strength of low-frequency electric field, and a parameter that characterizes the feedback between the rotation of the NLC director and optical torque. Conditions for the occurrence of first- and second-order transitions are determined. The proposed theory agrees with available experimental data.

  10. Coherent backscattering of light in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenova, E. V. Kuz'min, V. L.; Romanov, V. P.

    2009-03-15

    Multiple light scattering by director fluctuations in nematic liquid crystals is considered. A uniform director orientation is assumed to be specified by an applied magnetic field. The coherent backscattering effect, which consists in the presence of a sharp light backscattering peak, is studied. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is used to calculate the multiple scattering intensity taking into account the contributions of ladder and cyclic diagrams. An analytical expression for the angular and polarization dependences of the coherent backscattering intensity is obtained in terms of the diffusion approximation. The calculation and experimental results are compared. The developed theory is shown to qualitatively describe the elliptical shape of the backscattering cone, to explain the absence of a coherent contribution for crossed polarizations, and to calculate the relative peak height.

  11. Asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating in nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chang-Yu; Shi, Hong-Xin; Ai, Yan-Bao; Yin, Xiang-Bao; Wang, Feng; Ding, Hong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for recording a dynamic phase grating with an asymmetric profile in C60-doped homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was presented. An oblique incidence beam was used to record the thin asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating. The diffraction efficiency we achieved is more than 40%, exceeding the theoretical limit for symmetric profile gratings. Both facts can be explained by assuming that a grating with an asymmetric saw-tooth profile is formed in the NLC. Finally, physical mechanism and mathematical model for characterizing the asymmetric phase holographic grating were presented, based on the photo-refractive-like (PR-like) effect. Project supported by the Science and Technology Programs of the Educational Committee of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. 12541730) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405057).

  12. Soliton-like defects in nematic liquid crystal thin layers

    SciTech Connect

    Chuvyrov, A. N.; Krekhov, A. P.; Lebedev, Yu. A. Timirov, Yu. I.

    2016-11-15

    The nonsingular soliton-like defects in plane nematic liquid crystal (NLC) layers and spherical NLC drops are experimentally detected and studied when the interaction of NLC molecules with a bounding surface is varied. The dynamics and the annihilation of nonsingular defects of opposite signs on a plane surface are investigated. Periodic transformations of the soliton-like defects in NLC drops in an electric field are detected. The theory of elasticity is used to show that the surface energy taken into account in the total free energy of NLC in the case of weak anchoring leads to the possibility of nonsingular solutions of a director equilibrium equation. The calculated pictures of director distribution in a plane NLC layer and in a spherical NLC drop characterized by weak surface anchoring agree well with the results of polarized light optical observations.

  13. Transparent laser damage resistant nematic liquid crystal cell "LCNP3"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raszewski, Z.; Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Dąbrowski, R.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Soms, L.; Olifierczuk, M.; Kędzierski, J.; Morawiak, P.; Mazur, R.; Miszczyk, E.; Mrukiewicz, M.; Kowiorski, K.

    2014-09-01

    There exists the problem in diagnostics of dense plasma (so-called Thomson diagnostics). For this purpose the plasma is illuminated by series of high energy laser pulses. The energy of each separate pulse is as large as 3 J, so it is impossible to generate a burst of such pulses by a single laser. In this situation, the pulses are generated by several independent lasers operating sequentially, and these pulses are to be directed along the same optical path. To form an optical path with λ = 1.064 μm and absolute value of the laser pulse energy of 3 J, a special refractive index matched twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell of type LCNP3, with switching on time τON smaller than 3 μs was applied.

  14. Dielectric Anisotropy of Gold Nanoparticle Colloids in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, Angelo; Foust, Jon; Mahmood, Rizwan

    We present electrical and optical studies of hexanethiol-treated gold nanoparticle (GNPs) colloids in 4-cyano-4 '-pentyl-biphenyl (5CB) liquid crystals. Preliminary data analysis suggests an unusual behavior of sudden drop and then rise in the dielectric anisotropy at a critical concentration of 0.0862% by wt. GNPs and a sudden rise and then drop in the nematic to isotropic transition temperature. Above the critical concentration the data level off to within the uncertainty of the experimental errors. This colloidal system will help us to understand the interaction and the effects of nanoparticles on the self-assembly of LC molecules and the manner in which these particles organize in LC. This study is important for further developments in nanotechnology, sharp and fast display panels, and within the medical field.

  15. A simple four-domain twisted nematic liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianmin; Bos, Philip J.; Bryant, Douglas R.; Johnson, David L.; Jamal, Syed H.

    A particularly simple four-domain (4-D) twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal display (LCD) device is proposed, which is composed of two left handed TN and two right handed TN subpixels. One of each pair of same handedness subpixels is rotated 180 deg with respect to the other, resulting in four domains that mutually compensate one other optically to provide a wide angle of viewing with no gray scale inversion. The detailed fabrication process is presented for a double SiOx oblique evaporation technique used to realize this 4-D TN LCD. A reverse rubbed polyimide fabrication process has also been successfully used and will be presented in the full length article. We present here the first complete viewing angle and contrast ratio data for a simple and successful 4-D TN LCD cell.

  16. Simple four-domain twisted nematic liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Bos, P. J.; Bryant, D. R.; Johnson, D. L.; Jamal, S. H.; Kelly, J. R.

    1995-10-01

    A particularly simple four-domain (4-D) twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal display (LCD) device is proposed, which is composed of two left-handed TN and two right-handed TN subpixels. One of each pair of same handedness subpixels is rotated 180° with respect to the other, resulting in four domains that spatially average one another optically to provide a wide angle of viewing with no gray scale inversion. The detailed fabrication process is presented for a two step SiOx oblique evaporation technique used to realize this 4-D TN LCD. A reverse rubbed polyamide fabrication process has also been successfully used and will be presented in the full length article. Here we present the complete viewing angle and contrast ratio data for a simple and successful 4-D TN LCD cell.

  17. Artificial web of disclination lines in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengfei; Li, Yannian; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-30

    Disclinations are topological singularities of molecular arrangement in liquid crystals, which typically occur when the average orientation of molecules makes a π rotation along a fictitious closed loop taken inside the liquid crystal. Depending on the sense of molecular rotation, the disclination lines are either of 1/2 or -1/2 strength. When two disclination lines with the opposite strength meet, they are annihilated without trace. It is hence generally considered difficult in the nematic phase to stabilize a condensed array of free-standing disclination lines without the aid of topological objects like colloidal inclusions. Here we show that a free-standing web of 1/2-strength twist disclination lines can be stably formed in thin liquid crystal cells by means of a judicious combination of orientationally patterned confining surfaces fabricated by the micropatterned photoalignment technique. Theoretical model indicates that disclination lines are held apart at the intersection by a repulsive force generated by the Frank elasticity.Disclination lines are topological defects in molecular orientation widely found in liquid crystals. Here Wang et al. use a surface patterning technique to produce a very stable freestanding 3D array of ½ twist disclinations, which could be exploited in a variety of nanometre scale applications.

  18. Phase diagram of the uniaxial and biaxial soft-core Gay-Berne model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Roberto; Lintuvuori, Juho S.; Wilson, Mark R.; Zannoni, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been used to explore the phase diagrams for a family of attractive-repulsive soft-core Gay-Berne models [R. Berardi, C. Zannoni, J. S. Lintuvuori, and M. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 174107 (2009)] and determine the effect of particle softness, i.e., of a moderately repulsive short-range interaction, on the order parameters and phase behaviour of model systems of uniaxial and biaxial ellipsoidal particles. We have found that isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial nematic and smectic phases are obtained for the model. Extensive calculations of the nematic region of the phase diagram show that endowing mesogenic particles with such soft repulsive interactions affect the stability range of the nematic phases, and in the case of phase biaxiality it also shifts it to lower temperatures. For colloidal particles, stabilised by surface functionalisation, (e.g., with polymer chains), we suggest that it should be possible to tune liquid crystal behaviour to increase the range of stability of uniaxial and biaxial phases (by varying solvent quality). We calculate second virial coefficients and show that they are a useful means of characterising the change in effective softness for such systems. For thermotropic liquid crystals, the introduction of softness in the interactions between mesogens with overall biaxial shape (e.g., through appropriate conformational flexibility) could provide a pathway for the actual chemical synthesis of stable room-temperature biaxial nematics.

  19. Strong optical diffraction in a nematic liquid crystal with high nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Durbin, S D; Arakelian, S M; Shen, Y R

    1982-04-01

    Quantitative results of measurements on multiorder diffraction of light from a laser-induced phase grating in a nematic liquid crystal with high optical nonlinearity are presented. Theoretical calculations using a nonperturbative approach show good agreement with experiment.

  20. Branched quaternary ammonium amphiphiles: nematic ionic liquid crystals near room temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Jing; Li, Bao; Zhang, Mingliang; Wu, Lixin

    2009-09-21

    Branched quaternary ammonium molecules were synthesized and characterized by calorimetric, optical and X-ray diffraction studies; two of the molecules exhibited interesting nematic liquid crystalline behavior close to room temperature.

  1. Thermochromic Behavior of a Novel Nematic Liquid Crystal Mixture:. Effects of Chiral Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, Shikha; Raina, K. K.

    Chirality was induced in a room temperature nematic liquid crystalline mixture. The phase transitions of doped samples were studied and thermochromic response of the mixture was investigated via RGB (Red-Green-Blue) and Hue measurements.

  2. A molecular dynamics study of ferroelectric nanoparticles immersed in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M S S; Canabarro, A A; de Oliveira, I N; Lyra, M L; Mirantsev, L V

    2010-01-01

    A large number of interesting phenomena related to the insertion of colloidal particles in liquid crystals (LC) have recently been reported. Here, we investigate effects caused by the addition of spherically shaped ferroelectric nanoparticles to a nematic liquid crystal. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the density of LC molecules, the orientational order parameter, and the polar and azimuthal angle profiles are calculated as functions of the distance to the center of the immersed nanoparticle for different temperatures of the system. We observe that the assembly of ferroelectric nanoparticles enhances the nematic order in the LC medium changing many properties of its host above the nematic-isotropic transition temperature T (*) (NI) .

  3. ESR studies of the slow tumbling of vanadyl spin probes in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, M. P.; Bruno, G. V.; Lawson, J. O.

    1977-01-01

    ESR line shapes that are appropriate for slowly tumbling vanadyl spin probes in viscous nematic liquid crystals were calculated by the stochastic Liouville method. Because of the symmetry possessed by vanadyl, the analysis and interpretation of these line shapes was simplified considerably. Spectral line shapes agreed well with experimental spectra of VOAcAc in the nematic liquid crystal Phase V and BEPC. Deviations from Brownian rotational diffusion were noted. A slowly fluctuating torque analysis yielded good agreement with the experimental spectra.

  4. Dynamics of disk pairs in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipova, Alena; Denniston, Colin

    2016-11-01

    We use a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method to study the behavior of sets of ferromagnetic colloidal disks in a nematic liquid crystal. When a weak rotating magnetic field acts on the system, the disks rotate following the magnetic field. This leads to a distortion in the liquid crystal that drives translational motion of the disks. If the concentration of disks is high, disks get locked together: a stable chain configuration is created, where each disk lays on the nearest neighbor. For intermediate concentrations of disks, a different behavior is observed. When disks are rotated by the magnetic field by more than 90∘ from their initial orientation, the distortion in the liquid crystal leads to a simultaneous flip of both disks. The final disk positions depends only weakly on the initial configuration. Consecutive rotations of magnetic field push disks towards an equidistant configuration. Periodicity of the systems studied and analysis of the flipping motion of a single disk imply that one can use weak rotating magnetic fields to create stable crystal structures of disks.

  5. Nematic fluctuations and semisoft elasticity in liquid-crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Andrej; Čopič, Martin

    2013-06-01

    We give a detailed theory of nematic fluctuations in liquid-crystal elastomers (LCEs) and calculate relaxation rates as obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In ideal LCEs, a nematic state is formed by a spontaneous orientational symmetry breaking of an isotropic state, manifesting itself in an existence of a coupled director-shear soft mode (Goldstone mode). The relaxation rate of the soft mode (a pure bend and a pure splay mode) goes to zero in a long-wavelength limit. In a real, nonideal sample with a locked-in anisotropy, on the other hand, the relaxation rates of these modes become finite. Nonideal elastomers are characterized by a plateau in the stress-strain curve, and the soft mode can be detected only upon stretching to the point of elastic instability at which the director starts to rotate. We use the semisoft model of Gaussian elasticity to derive relaxation rates as a function of deformation for different scattering geometries. We show that the bend-mode relaxation rate goes to zero at the threshold strain, so it is the soft mode. The splay mode, on the other hand, is not soft because the relaxation rate is finite at the threshold strain. We provide experimental evidence and compare DLS measurements of splay and bend modes of two side-chain LCE samples differing in crosslinking densities. Results of both samples are in complete agreement with the predictions of the semisoft model, which indicates that director relaxation properties are not influenced much by the crosslinking conditions.

  6. Biaxial order parameter in the homologous series of orthogonal bent-core smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, S.; Panarin, Y. P.; Vij, J. K.; Osipov, M.; Lehmann, A.; Tschierske, C.

    2013-07-01

    The fundamental parameter of the uniaxial liquid crystalline state that governs nearly all of its physical properties is the primary orientational order parameter (S) for the long axes of molecules with respect to the director. The biaxial liquid crystals (LCs) possess biaxial order parameters depending on the phase symmetry of the system. In this paper we show that in the first approximation a biaxial orthogonal smectic phase can be described by two primary order parameters: S for the long axes and C for the ordering of the short axes of molecules. The temperature dependencies of S and C are obtained by the Haller's extrapolation technique through measurements of the optical birefringence and biaxiality on a nontilted polar antiferroelectric (Sm-APA) phase of a homologous series of LCs built from the bent-core achiral molecules. For such a biaxial smectic phase both S and C, particularly the temperature dependency of the latter, are being experimentally determined. Results show that S in the orthogonal smectic phase composed of bent cores is higher than in Sm-A calamatic LCs and C is also significantly large.

  7. Role of radius on prewetting behavior in nematic liquid-crystal droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadivar, Erfan

    2009-07-01

    The prewetting phenomena in a nematic liquid crystal confined to a droplet embedded in a spherical solid surface are discussed. This paper is based on Landau-de Gennes theory and Nobili-Durand surface energy. By using a Maxwell construction, we find that the first-order boundary-layer transition inside of droplet which vanishes completely below a critical radius Rc when bulk nematic isotropic transition temperature is approached from above. We obtain a narrow temperature interval above the bulk nematic-isotropic phase transition which corresponds to nematic boundary layer inside of droplet. The interval length depends on surface potential and droplet radius. We also find that there is no critical radius for boundary transition when the nematic-isotropic transition temperature is approached from below.

  8. Dynamics of Order Reconstruction in a Nanoconfined Nematic Liquid Crystal with a Topological Defect

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhang, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    At the wall in a hybrid nematic cell with strong anchoring, the nematic director is parallel to one wall and perpendicular to the other. Within the Landau-de Gennes theory, we have investigated the dynamics of s = ±1/2 wedge disclinations in such a cell, using the two-dimensional finite-difference iterative method. Our results show that with the cell gap decreasing, the core of the defect explodes, and the biaxiality propagates inside the cell. At a critical value of dc* ≈ 9ξ (where ξ is the characteristic length for order-parameter changes), the exchange solution is stable, while the defect core solution becomes metastable. Comparing to the case with no initial disclination, the value at which the exchange solution becomes stable increases relatively. At a critical separation of dc ≈ 6ξ, the system undergoes a structural transition, and the defect core merges into a biaxial layer with large biaxiality. For weak anchoring boundary conditions, a similar structural transition takes place at a relative lower critical value. Because of the weakened frustration, the asymmetric boundary conditions repel the defect to the weak anchoring boundary and have a relatively lower critical value of da, where the shape of the defect deforms. Further, the response time between two very close cell gaps is about tens of microseconds, and the response becomes slower as the defect explodes. PMID:24351807

  9. Generation of harmonics and supercontinuum in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nyushkov, B N; Trashkeev, S I; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Pivtsov, V S; Kobtsev, Sergey M

    2013-02-28

    Nonlinear optical properties of nematic liquid crystals (NLC) have been investigated. A technique for efficient laser frequency conversion in a microscopic NLC volume deposited on an optical fibre end face is experimentally demonstrated. An efficient design of a compact NLC-based IR frequency converter with a fibre input and achromatic collimator is proposed and implemented. Simultaneous generation of the second and third harmonics is obtained for the first time under pumping NLC by a 1.56-mm femtosecond fibre laser. The second-harmonic generation efficiency is measured to be about 1 %, while the efficiency of third-harmonic generation is several tenths of percent. A strong polarisation dependence of the third-harmonic generation efficiency is revealed. When pumping NLC by a cw laser, generation of spectral supercontinua (covering the visible and near-IR spectral ranges) is observed. The nonlinear effects revealed can be due to the light-induced change in the orientational order in liquid crystals, which breaks the initial symmetry and leads to formation of disclination structures. The NLC optical nonlinearity is believed to be of mixed orientationalelectronic nature as a whole. (laser optics 2012)

  10. Influence of the magnetic field on isotropic wetting behavior of a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadivar, Erfan

    2008-09-01

    I present a theoretical investigation of the temperature and magnetic field dependence of isotropic (paranematic) wetting layers close to an aligning substrate within a semi-infinite nematic liquid crystal with positive magnetic anisotropy under condition of weak homeotropic anchoring. Using the Landau-de Gennes model supplement by Nobili-Durand surface free energy, the existence and stability of paranematic wetting layers close to the substrate and below the nematic-isotropic temperature are discussed. Numerical results are presented showing the phase diagram for the isotropic (paranematic), nematic, and wetting layer states. In the present work, the dependence of the transition kind to the magnetic field is discussed.

  11. Predicting photoisomerization profile of the highly polymerized nematic azobenzene liquid crystal network: First principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J.; Li, C.; Chung, H.; Choi, J.; Cho, M.

    2015-05-01

    The cis profile of azobenzene is a key factor in predicting the photodeformation of the nematic azobenzene liquid crystal network (LCN). An ab initio based method for predicting the photoisomerization profile of azobenzene is developed by coupling the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) method with non-linear Beers law, and compared with experimental data. Using this combined method, we calculate the photoisomerization profile of azobenzene with various light input conditions. We identify the cis profile of the nematic LCN structure evolves into a step-like decaying shape when the direction of polarized light is parallel to the nematic direction.

  12. Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Samuel; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven A

    2017-05-09

    Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin [Formula: see text] itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting [Formula: see text] enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above [Formula: see text], we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a "nodal-antinodal dichotomy" reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with "bad metal" phenomenology.

  13. Temperature-induced sign reversal of biaxiality observed by conoscopy in some ferroelectric Sm-C* liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jang-Kun; Chandani, A. D. L.; Fukuda, Atsuo; Vij, J. K.; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Emelyanenko, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    We have studied various ferroelectric liquid crystals to find the average molecular direction of the shortest axis in the perfectly unwound state by using tilted conoscopic measurements. We find that there exist two types of temperature dependencies of the biaxiality. Some materials exhibit increasing biaxiality while others show decreasing biaxiality with increasing temperature. The former shows a temperature-induced sign reversal of biaxiality. Three different physical mechanisms are identified as responsible for the emergence of biaxiality: (i) anisotropic fluctuations of the long molecular axis, (ii) a biased rotation around the long axis, and (iii) the local field effect. By means of a simple theoretical investigation, we conclude that these two types of trends are due mainly to the opposite signs of the biaxial order parameter C , which represents the second mechanism: the biased rotation around the long axis. This means that the central phenyl planes of molecules belonging to materials having biaxiality that increases with temperature are oriented on the average parallel to the tilt plane (the shortest index of refraction axis normal to the tilt plane), and, on the contrary, in those of the others molecules are oriented perpendicular to the tilt plane (the shortest index of refraction axis lying in the tilt plane). Thus, the direction of the phenyl ring plane of the liquid crystal molecules determines the different temperature dependencies of the biaxiality. It is also shown that the phenomenon of sign reversal of the biaxiality is due to the competitive contributions of the first and second physical mechanisms.

  14. Direct mapping of local director field of nematic liquid crystals at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Serra, Francesca; Kamien, Randall D.; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Yang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs), owing to their anisotropy in molecular ordering, are of wide interest in both the display industry and soft matter as a route to more sophisticated optical objects, to direct phase separation, and to facilitate colloidal assemblies. However, it remains challenging to directly probe the molecular-scale organization of nonglassy nematic LC molecules without altering the LC directors. We design and synthesize a new type of nematic liquid crystal monomer (LCM) system with strong dipole–dipole interactions, resulting in a stable nematic phase and strong homeotropic anchoring on silica surfaces. Upon photopolymerization, the director field can be faithfully “locked,” allowing for direct visualization of the LC director field and defect structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in real space with 100-nm resolution. Using this technique, we study the nematic textures in more complex LC/colloidal systems and calculate the extrapolation length of the LCM. PMID:26621729

  15. Nematic Director Reorientation at Solid and Liquid Interfaces under Flow: SAXS Studies in a Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the interplay between flow and boundary condition effects on the orientation field of a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal under flow and confinement in a microfluidic device. Two types of experiments were performed using synchrotron small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS). In the first, a nematic liquid crystal flows through a square-channel cross section at varying flow rates, while the nematic director orientation projected onto the velocity/velocity gradient plane is measured using a 2D detector. At moderate-to-high flow rates, the nematic director is predominantly aligned in the flow direction, but with a small tilt angle of ∼±11° in the velocity gradient direction. The director tilt angle is constant throughout most of the channel width but switches sign when crossing the center of the channel, in agreement with the Ericksen–Leslie–Parodi (ELP) theory. At low flow rates, boundary conditions begin to dominate, and a flow profile resembling the escaped radial director configuration is observed, where the director is seen to vary more smoothly from the edges (with homeotropic alignment) to the center of the channel. In the second experiment, hydrodynamic focusing is employed to confine the nematic phase into a sheet of liquid sandwiched between two layers of Triton X-100 aqueous solutions. The average nematic director orientation shifts to some extent from the flow direction toward the liquid boundaries, although it remains unclear if one tilt angle is dominant through most of the nematic sheet (with abrupt jumps near the boundaries) or if the tilt angle varies smoothly between two extreme values (∼90 and 0°). The technique presented here could be applied to perform high-throughput measurements for assessing the influence of different surfactants on the orientation of nematic phases and may lead to further improvements in areas such as boundary lubrication and clarifying the nature of defect structures in LC displays. PMID

  16. Electrically controllable Fresnel lens in 90° twisted nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chie-Tong; Li, Chien-Yu; Lin, Shih-Hung; Yeh, Hui-Chen

    2015-10-05

    This study presents a theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration of an electrically controllable Fresnel lens in a 90° twisted nematic liquid crystal cell. The cell gap was chosen to satisfy the Gooch-Tarry conditions, and therefore, the polarization rotation effect was valid regardless of the incident polarization direction. The polarization sensitivity of the diffraction efficiency of the 90° twisted nematic Fresnel lens was dependent on the applied voltage regime. Theoretical calculations effectively explain the experimental results.

  17. Nematic director reorientation at solid and liquid interfaces under flow: SAXS studies in a microfluidic device

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Bruno F. B.; Zepeda-Rosales, Miguel; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Fletcher, Bretton J.; Carter, Lester G.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Han, Jun; Li, Youli; Olsson, Ulf; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-10-30

    In this work we investigate the interplay between flow and boundary condition effects on the orientation field of a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal under flow and confinement in a microfluidic device. Two types of experiments were performed using synchrotron small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS). In the first, a nematic liquid crystal flows through a square-channel cross section at varying flow rates, while the nematic director orientation projected onto the velocity/velocity gradient plane is measured using a 2D detector. At moderate-to-high flow rates, the nematic director is predominantly aligned in the flow direction, but with a small tilt angle of ~±11° in the velocity gradient direction. The director tilt angle is constant throughout most of the channel width but switches sign when crossing the center of the channel, in agreement with the Ericksen–Leslie–Parodi (ELP) theory. At low flow rates, boundary conditions begin to dominate, and a flow profile resembling the escaped radial director configuration is observed, where the director is seen to vary more smoothly from the edges (with homeotropic alignment) to the center of the channel. In the second experiment, hydrodynamic focusing is employed to confine the nematic phase into a sheet of liquid sandwiched between two layers of Triton X-100 aqueous solutions. The average nematic director orientation shifts to some extent from the flow direction toward the liquid boundaries, although it remains unclear if one tilt angle is dominant through most of the nematic sheet (with abrupt jumps near the boundaries) or if the tilt angle varies smoothly between two extreme values (~90 and 0°). Lastly, the technique presented here could be applied to perform high-throughput measurements for assessing the influence of different surfactants on the orientation of nematic phases and may lead to further improvements in areas such as boundary lubrication and clarifying the nature of defect structures in LC displays.

  18. Nematic director reorientation at solid and liquid interfaces under flow: SAXS studies in a microfluidic device

    DOE PAGES

    Silva, Bruno F. B.; Zepeda-Rosales, Miguel; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; ...

    2014-10-30

    In this work we investigate the interplay between flow and boundary condition effects on the orientation field of a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal under flow and confinement in a microfluidic device. Two types of experiments were performed using synchrotron small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS). In the first, a nematic liquid crystal flows through a square-channel cross section at varying flow rates, while the nematic director orientation projected onto the velocity/velocity gradient plane is measured using a 2D detector. At moderate-to-high flow rates, the nematic director is predominantly aligned in the flow direction, but with a small tilt angle of ~±11° in themore » velocity gradient direction. The director tilt angle is constant throughout most of the channel width but switches sign when crossing the center of the channel, in agreement with the Ericksen–Leslie–Parodi (ELP) theory. At low flow rates, boundary conditions begin to dominate, and a flow profile resembling the escaped radial director configuration is observed, where the director is seen to vary more smoothly from the edges (with homeotropic alignment) to the center of the channel. In the second experiment, hydrodynamic focusing is employed to confine the nematic phase into a sheet of liquid sandwiched between two layers of Triton X-100 aqueous solutions. The average nematic director orientation shifts to some extent from the flow direction toward the liquid boundaries, although it remains unclear if one tilt angle is dominant through most of the nematic sheet (with abrupt jumps near the boundaries) or if the tilt angle varies smoothly between two extreme values (~90 and 0°). Lastly, the technique presented here could be applied to perform high-throughput measurements for assessing the influence of different surfactants on the orientation of nematic phases and may lead to further improvements in areas such as boundary lubrication and clarifying the nature of defect structures in LC

  19. Nematic director reorientation at solid and liquid interfaces under flow: SAXS studies in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno F B; Zepeda-Rosales, Miguel; Venkateswaran, Neeraja; Fletcher, Bretton J; Carter, Lester G; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Han, Jun; Li, Youli; Olsson, Ulf; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2015-04-14

    In this work we investigate the interplay between flow and boundary condition effects on the orientation field of a thermotropic nematic liquid crystal under flow and confinement in a microfluidic device. Two types of experiments were performed using synchrotron small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS). In the first, a nematic liquid crystal flows through a square-channel cross section at varying flow rates, while the nematic director orientation projected onto the velocity/velocity gradient plane is measured using a 2D detector. At moderate-to-high flow rates, the nematic director is predominantly aligned in the flow direction, but with a small tilt angle of ∼±11° in the velocity gradient direction. The director tilt angle is constant throughout most of the channel width but switches sign when crossing the center of the channel, in agreement with the Ericksen-Leslie-Parodi (ELP) theory. At low flow rates, boundary conditions begin to dominate, and a flow profile resembling the escaped radial director configuration is observed, where the director is seen to vary more smoothly from the edges (with homeotropic alignment) to the center of the channel. In the second experiment, hydrodynamic focusing is employed to confine the nematic phase into a sheet of liquid sandwiched between two layers of Triton X-100 aqueous solutions. The average nematic director orientation shifts to some extent from the flow direction toward the liquid boundaries, although it remains unclear if one tilt angle is dominant through most of the nematic sheet (with abrupt jumps near the boundaries) or if the tilt angle varies smoothly between two extreme values (∼90 and 0°). The technique presented here could be applied to perform high-throughput measurements for assessing the influence of different surfactants on the orientation of nematic phases and may lead to further improvements in areas such as boundary lubrication and clarifying the nature of defect structures in LC displays.

  20. Stability of the Melting Hedgehog in the Landau-de Gennes Theory of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, Radu; Nguyen, Luc; Slastikov, Valeriy; Zarnescu, Arghir

    2014-09-01

    We investigate stability properties of the radially symmetric solution corresponding to the vortex defect (the so called "melting hedgehog") in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes model of nematic liquid crystals. We prove local stability of the melting hedgehog under arbitrary Q-tensor valued perturbations in the temperature regime near the critical supercooling temperature. As a consequence of our method, we also rediscover the loss of stability of the vortex defect in the deep nematic regime.

  1. Stability of the Melting Hedgehog in the Landau-de Gennes Theory of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, Radu; Nguyen, Luc; Slastikov, Valeriy; Zarnescu, Arghir

    2015-02-01

    We investigate stability properties of the radially symmetric solution corresponding to the vortex defect (the so called "melting hedgehog") in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes model of nematic liquid crystals. We prove local stability of the melting hedgehog under arbitrary Q-tensor valued perturbations in the temperature regime near the critical supercooling temperature. As a consequence of our method, we also rediscover the loss of stability of the vortex defect in the deep nematic regime.

  2. Nucleation type instabilities in partially wetting nanoscale nematic liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Michael; Cummings, Linda; Kondic, Lou

    2016-11-01

    Nucleation type instabilities are studied in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) films with thicknesses less than a micrometer. Within the framework of the long wave approximation, a 4th order nonlinear partial differential equation is proposed for the free surface height. Unlike simple fluids, NLC molecules have a dipole moment which induces an elastic response due to deformation in the bulk of the fluid. The model includes the balance between the bulk elasticity energy and the anchoring (boundary) energy at the substrate and free surface, and van der Waals' intermolecular forces, by means of a structural disjoining pressure. In this presentation, we focus on two-dimensional flow and present simulation results for a flat film with a localized perturbation. We are interested in the morphology of the dewetted film as a function of the initial film thickness. We will show that there exists a range of film thicknesses within the linearly unstable flat film regime where stability analysis does not explain the morphology of the dewetted film. Marginal stability criterion (MSC) is used to derive an analytical expression for the velocity at which a perturbation propagates into the unstable flat film. Finally, we discuss the degree to which MSC can be used to explain the observed morphology.

  3. Rayleigh-Bénard convection in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Pesch

    2000-03-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in thin layers of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) heated from below or even from above, leads to a rich variety of new phenomena not found in isotropic fluids. The orientational degrees of freedom of the rod-like molecules of the LCs are of crucial importance as in the electro-convection in these materials. For instance a new type of convection rolls (``abnormal rolls''), due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking of the orientational ordering, has recently motivated considerable activities. A system of coupled Ginzburg-Landau-type equations describes very well the bifurcation sequences near onset [1]. LCs also offer a convenient opportunity to study convection in the presence of a first-order phase change, which is relevant in the earth mantle [2]. It will be demonstrated that theory can scope sucessfully also with this case. [1] E. Plaut and W. Pesch, Phys. Rev. E, 59, 1247 (1999) and references therein [2] S. Sakurai, A. Tschammer, W. Pesch and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. E, 60, 539 (1999)

  4. Alignment of nematic liquid crystals on ruled grating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Minoru; Ura, Mitsuru

    1981-01-01

    Ruled gratings of 0.33-3.33-μm wavelength fabricated with SiO, SiO2, and In2O3-SnO2 are used to study the topographical effects of the surface on the twisted nematic (TN) alignments of liquid crystals (LC's). The types of LC's are Schiff base, azoxy, biphenyl, biphenyl ester, and phenyl cyclohexane. All of the LC's, except the azoxy, used in this study take good homogeneous and TN alignments on all grating films of wavelength less than 0.8 μm. The azoxy takes homeotropic alignment on the SiO and SiO2 grating surfaces. The agreement between experimental results and Frank elasticity theory is fairly good. Topographical effects can take precedence over chemical effects between the LC and surface when chemical anchoring is weak. Making use of the calculated elastic deformation energy of LC's on grating and rubbed surfaces, we estimate the anchoring energies of homogeneous and homeotropic alignments. The application of grating cells to optical display is limited by the occurence of tilt domains.

  5. Correction of horizontal turbulence with nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Hu, Lifa; Li, Dayu; Liu, Yonggang; Jin, Lu; Xuan, Li

    2008-05-12

    To correct horizontal turbulences, a nematic liquid crystal wavefront corrector (NLC WFC) with a fast response is used. It can linearly modulate 2pi radian at a wavelength of 633 nm. The closed-loop frequency of the adaptive optics system was originally only 12 Hz. Hence, a control system using the NLC WFC was developed, graphic processing units (GPUs) were used to compute the compensated wavefront, and the driving software for the NLC WFC was optimized. With these improvements, the closed loop frequency increased up to 60 Hz. Finally, the correction of a 500-m horizontal turbulence was performed with this fast adaptive system. After the correction, the averaged peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) values of the wavefront were reduced to 0.2 lambda and 0.06 lambda, respectively. The core of a fiber bundle is also resolved with a field angle of 0.68". As the limit of the angular resolution of the telescope is 0.65", the quasi-diffraction limited image is acquired with the closed-loop correction. It is shown that the NLC WFC has the ability to correct weak turbulences.

  6. Anomalous swimming behavior of bacteria in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Aranson, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Flagellated bacteria stop swimming in isotropic media of viscosity higher than 0.06kgm-1s-1. However, Bacillus Subtilis slows down by only about 30% in a nematic chromonic liquid crystal (CLC, 14wt% DSCG in water), where the anisotropic viscosity can be as high as 6kgm-1s-1. The bacteria velocity (Vb) is linear with the flagella rotation frequency. The phase velocity of the flagella Vf ~ 2Vb in LC, as compared to Vf ~ 10Vb in water. The flow generated by the bacteria is localized along the bacterial body axis, decaying slowly over tens of micrometers along, but rapidly over a few micrometers across this axis. The concentrated flow grants the bacteria new ability to carry cargo particles in LC, ability not seen in their habitat isotropic media. We attribute these anomalous features to the anisotropy of viscosity of the CLC, namely, the viscosities of splay and twist is hundreds times higher than that of bend deformation, which provides extra boost of swimming efficiency and enables the bacteria swim at considerable speed in a viscous medium. Our findings can potentially lead to applications such as particle transportation in microfluidic devices. A.S and I.A are supported by the US DOE, Office of Science, BES, Materials Science and Engineering Division. S.Z. and O.D.L are supported by NSF DMR 1104850, DMS-1434185.

  7. Theoretical predictions of disclination loop growth for nematic liquid crystals under capillary confinement.

    PubMed

    Shams, Alireza; Yao, Xuxia; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Rey, Alejandro D

    2014-10-01

    The combination of low elasticity modulus, anisotropy, and responsiveness to external fields drives the rich variety of experimentally observed pattern formation in nematic liquid crystals under capillary confinement. External fields of interest in technology and fundamental physics are flow fields, electromagnetic fields, and surface fields due to confinement. In this paper we present theoretical and simulation studies of the pattern formation of nematic liquid crystal disclination loops under capillary confinement including branching processes from a m=+1 disclination line to two m=+1/2 disclination curves that describe the postnucleation and growth regime of the textural transformation from radial to planar polar textures. The early postnucleation and growth of emerging disclination loops in cylindrical capillaries are characterized using analytical and computational methods based on the nematic elastica that takes into account line tension and line bending stiffness. Using subdiffusive growth and constant loop anisotropy, we found that the solution to the nematic elastica is a cusped elliptical geometry characterized by exponential curvature variations. The scaling laws that govern the loop growth reflect the tension to bending elasticity balance and reveal that the loop dilation rate depends on the curvature and normal velocity of the disclination. The line energy growth is accommodated by the decrease in branch-point curvature. These findings contribute to the evolving understanding of textural transformations in nematic liquid crystals under confinement using the nematic elastic methodology.

  8. Maier-Saupe model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, E. S.; Henriques, E. F.; Vieira, A. P.; Salinas, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce shape variations in a liquid-crystalline system by considering an elementary Maier-Saupe lattice model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules. Shape variables are treated in the annealed (thermalized) limit. We analyze the thermodynamic properties of this system in terms of temperature T , concentration c of intrinsically biaxial molecules, and a parameter Δ associated with the degree of biaxiality of the molecules. At the mean-field level, we use standard techniques of statistical mechanics to draw global phase diagrams, which are shown to display a rich structure, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, a reentrant ordered region, and many distinct multicritical points. Also, we use the formalism to write an expansion of the free energy in order to make contact with the Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic phase transitions.

  9. Maier-Saupe model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, E S; Henriques, E F; Vieira, A P; Salinas, S R

    2015-12-01

    We introduce shape variations in a liquid-crystalline system by considering an elementary Maier-Saupe lattice model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules. Shape variables are treated in the annealed (thermalized) limit. We analyze the thermodynamic properties of this system in terms of temperature T, concentration c of intrinsically biaxial molecules, and a parameter Δ associated with the degree of biaxiality of the molecules. At the mean-field level, we use standard techniques of statistical mechanics to draw global phase diagrams, which are shown to display a rich structure, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, a reentrant ordered region, and many distinct multicritical points. Also, we use the formalism to write an expansion of the free energy in order to make contact with the Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic phase transitions.

  10. Recent developments of analysis for hydrodynamic flow of nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fanghua; Wang, Changyou

    2014-01-01

    The study of hydrodynamics of liquid crystals leads to many fascinating mathematical problems, which has prompted various interesting works recently. This article reviews the static Oseen–Frank theory and surveys some recent progress on the existence, regularity, uniqueness and large time asymptotic of the hydrodynamic flow of nematic liquid crystals. We will also propose a few interesting questions for future investigations. PMID:25332384

  11. Straining soft colloids in aqueous nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Mushenheim, Peter C.; Pendery, Joel S.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs), because of their long-range molecular ordering, are anisotropic, elastic fluids. Herein, we report that elastic stresses imparted by nematic LCs can dynamically shape soft colloids and tune their physical properties. Specifically, we use giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as soft colloids and explore the interplay of mechanical strain when the GUVs are confined within aqueous chromonic LC phases. Accompanying thermal quenching from isotropic to LC phases, we observe the elasticity of the LC phases to transform initially spherical GUVs (diameters of 2–50 µm) into two distinct populations of GUVs with spindle-like shapes and aspect ratios as large as 10. Large GUVs are strained to a small extent (R/r < 1.54, where R and r are the major and minor radii, respectively), consistent with an LC elasticity-induced expansion of lipid membrane surface area of up to 3% and conservation of the internal GUV volume. Small GUVs, in contrast, form highly elongated spindles (1.54 < R/r < 10) that arise from an efflux of LCs from the GUVs during the shape transformation, consistent with LC-induced straining of the membrane leading to transient membrane pore formation. A thermodynamic analysis of both populations of GUVs reveals that the final shapes adopted by these soft colloids are dominated by a competition between the LC elasticity and an energy (∼0.01 mN/m) associated with the GUV–LC interface. Overall, these results provide insight into the coupling of strain in soft materials and suggest previously unidentified designs of LC-based responsive and reconfigurable materials. PMID:27140607

  12. Straining soft colloids in aqueous nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushenheim, Peter C.; Pendery, Joel S.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs), because of their long-range molecular ordering, are anisotropic, elastic fluids. Herein, we report that elastic stresses imparted by nematic LCs can dynamically shape soft colloids and tune their physical properties. Specifically, we use giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as soft colloids and explore the interplay of mechanical strain when the GUVs are confined within aqueous chromonic LC phases. Accompanying thermal quenching from isotropic to LC phases, we observe the elasticity of the LC phases to transform initially spherical GUVs (diameters of 2-50 µm) into two distinct populations of GUVs with spindle-like shapes and aspect ratios as large as 10. Large GUVs are strained to a small extent (R/r < 1.54, where R and r are the major and minor radii, respectively), consistent with an LC elasticity-induced expansion of lipid membrane surface area of up to 3% and conservation of the internal GUV volume. Small GUVs, in contrast, form highly elongated spindles (1.54 < R/r < 10) that arise from an efflux of LCs from the GUVs during the shape transformation, consistent with LC-induced straining of the membrane leading to transient membrane pore formation. A thermodynamic analysis of both populations of GUVs reveals that the final shapes adopted by these soft colloids are dominated by a competition between the LC elasticity and an energy (˜0.01 mN/m) associated with the GUV-LC interface. Overall, these results provide insight into the coupling of strain in soft materials and suggest previously unidentified designs of LC-based responsive and reconfigurable materials.

  13. Enhanced diffraction properties of photoinduced gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with Disperse Red 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjing; Wang, Jianhao; Wang, Changshun; Zeng, Pengfei; Pan, Yujia; Yang, Yifei

    2016-01-01

    Diffraction properties of photoinduced gratings recorded by overlapping two coherent beams at 532 nm in nematic liquid crystals doped with Disperse Red 1 were investigated with a probe beam at 632.8 nm. The grating was formed due to the alignment of dye molecules that leaded to the reorientation of the liquid crystal phase. The diffraction efficiency of the photoinduced grating was found to increase rapidly when the sample temperature was close to the clearing point in the nematic phase and a nearly 30-fold enhancement of the first-order diffraction efficiency was obtained. The pretransitional enhancement of the diffraction efficiency was discussed in terms of the reorientation of liquid crystals, optical nonlinearity effects and the onset of critical opalescence near the nematic-isotropic phase transition. Moreover, a peak shift of diffraction efficiency towards the lower temperature was observed with the increase of recording light intensity, which was attributed to laser induced photochemical disordering.

  14. Topologically Required Defects in Nematic Liquid Films over Microposts or in contact with Anisotropic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharbi, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present an experimental investigation of topological defects in nematic liquid crystals formed over micropost array with a LC-air interface pinning to the pillar edges or containing washer-shaped microparticles in suspension. For nematic-LC covered microposts with homeotropic anchoring conditions on all boundaries, including the LC-air and LC-substrate interfaces, disclination lines form that bear the signature of the micropost and satisfy global topological constraints of the system. When washer particles with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in homeotropic liquid crystal cells, new topological configurations are observed. In each case, defects are described from both a geometric and topological perspective. Finally, we demonstrate that topological defects created by microposts and washers can generate elastic interactions with dispersed microparticles in nematic liquid crystals. We believe this is a promising route to controlling colloidal self-assembly in complex media.

  15. Nonlinear continuous-wave optical propagation in nematic liquid crystals: Interplay between reorientational and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Laudyn, Urszula A.; Piccardi, Armando; Kwasny, Michał; Klus, Bartlomiej; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2017-07-01

    We investigate nonlinear optical propagation of continuous-wave (CW) beams in bulk nematic liquid crystals. We thoroughly analyze the competing roles of reorientational and thermal nonlinearity with reference to self-focusing/defocusing and, eventually, the formation of nonlinear diffraction-free wavepackets, the so-called spatial optical solitons. To this extent we refer to dye-doped nematic liquid crystals in planar cells excited by a single CW beam in the highly nonlocal limit. To adjust the relative weight between the two nonlinear responses, we employ two distinct wavelengths, inside and outside the absorption band of the dye, respectively. Different concentrations of the dye are considered in order to enhance the thermal effect. The theoretical analysis is complemented by numerical simulations in the highly nonlocal approximation based on a semi-analytic approach. Theoretical results are finally compared to experimental results in the Nematic Liquid Crystals (NLC) 4-trans-4'-n-hexylcyclohexylisothiocyanatobenzene (6CHBT) doped with Sudan Blue dye.

  16. Enhanced diffraction properties of photoinduced gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with Disperse Red 1

    PubMed Central

    LI, Hongjing; WANG, Jianhao; WANG, Changshun; ZENG, Pengfei; PAN, Yujia; YANG, Yifei

    2016-01-01

    Diffraction properties of photoinduced gratings recorded by overlapping two coherent beams at 532 nm in nematic liquid crystals doped with Disperse Red 1 were investigated with a probe beam at 632.8 nm. The grating was formed due to the alignment of dye molecules that leaded to the reorientation of the liquid crystal phase. The diffraction efficiency of the photoinduced grating was found to increase rapidly when the sample temperature was close to the clearing point in the nematic phase and a nearly 30-fold enhancement of the first-order diffraction efficiency was obtained. The pretransitional enhancement of the diffraction efficiency was discussed in terms of the reorientation of liquid crystals, optical nonlinearity effects and the onset of critical opalescence near the nematic-isotropic phase transition. Moreover, a peak shift of diffraction efficiency towards the lower temperature was observed with the increase of recording light intensity, which was attributed to laser induced photochemical disordering. PMID:27725471

  17. Dynamics and Instabilities of an overdamped active nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Elias; Baskaran, Aparna

    Active nematics have been studied extensively in the context of suspensions of active particles, with a Stokes equation describing the flow of the surrounding fluid. Here we will present a continuum model of an overdamped (often termed 'dry') active nematic, where activity enters through self-induced flows. These flows represent the ability of the internal forces to convect, shear, or rotate the nematic order. The self-induced shear gives rise to an instability in the homogeneous ordered state which is analogous to that seen in active suspensions. The self-induced rotation gives rise to a new instability. A phase diagram from this model will be presented, and the phenomenology will be compared with what is seen in experimental and simulated active systems. We would like to acknowledge Grant support through NSF (NSF-DMR-1149266), (DMR-0820492), (NIH-5T32EB009419) and IGERT (DGE-1068620).

  18. Surface alignment, anchoring transitions, optical properties, and topological defects in the nematic phase of thermotropic bent-core liquid crystal A131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyuk, B.; Wonderly, H.; Mathews, M.; Li, Q.; Shiyanovskii, S. V.; Lavrentovich, O. D.

    2010-10-01

    We study optical, structural, and surface anchoring properties of thermotropic nematic bent-core material A131. The focus is on the features associated with orientational order as the material has been reported to exhibit not only the usual uniaxial nematic but also the biaxial nematic phase. We demonstrate that A131 experiences a surface anchoring transition from a perpendicular to tilted alignment when the temperature decreases. The features of the tilted state are consistent with surface-induced birefringence associated with smectic layering near the surface and a molecular tilt that changes along the normal to the substrates. The surface-induced birefringence is reduced to zero by a modest electric field that establishes a uniform uniaxial nematic state. Both refractive and absorptive optical properties of A131 are consistent with the uniaxial order. We found no evidence of the “polycrystalline” biaxial behavior in the cells placed in crossed electric and magnetic fields. We observe stable topological point defects (boojums and hedgehogs) and nonsingular “escaped” disclinations pertinent only to the uniaxial order. Finally, freely suspended films of A131 show uniaxial nematic and smectic textures; a decrease in the film thickness expands the temperature range of stability of smectic textures, supporting the idea of surface-induced smectic layering. Our conclusion is that A131 features only a uniaxial nematic phase and that the apparent biaxiality is caused by subtle surface effects rather than by the bulk biaxial phase.

  19. Determination of the microwave permittivities of nematic liquid crystals using a single-metallic slit technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuzi; Sambles, J. R.

    2002-09-01

    A technique is presented for quantifying the microwave permittivities of small quantities of material. Here a 75 mum gap between two 3 mm thick aluminum plates is filled with a nematic liquid crystal. This filled slit is inserted in an absorber aperture. A set of transmission peaks are recorded as a function of incident wavelength for microwaves polarized with their electric field perpendicular to the slit direction. When a voltage is applied between the two plates, the liquid crystal realigns and the shift of the resonant peaks gives the anisotropic permittivities of the nematic material in the microwave region.

  20. Nematic quantum liquid crystals of bosons in frustrated lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Martin, Ivar

    2016-04-01

    We consider a family of tight-binding models with macroscopically degenerate lowest energy band, separated from other bands by a gap. At zero temperature, the absence of a unique minimum in the single particle dispersion makes the standard Bose condensation unfavorable. Instead, by constructing exact solutions of the interacting problem and making controlled flat-band projection (enabled by the spectral gap), we demonstrate formation of exotic states that spontaneously break rotational symmetry. They are nematic Wigner crystal, supersolid, and superfluid. In particular, the nematic superfluid is uniform in real space but has anisotropic momentum distribution, which provides a new scenario of Bose condensate.

  1. Vitrified chiral-nematic liquid crystalline films for selective reflection and circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Katsis, D.; Chen, P.H.M.; Mastrangelo, J.C.; Chen, S.H.; Blanton, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    Nematic and left-handed chiral-nematic liquid crystals comprising methoxybiphenylbenzoate and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine pendants to a cyclohexane core were synthesized and characterized. Although pristine samples were found to be polycrystalline, thermal quenching following heating to and annealing at elevated temperatures permitted the molecular orders characteristic of liquid crystalline mesomorphism to be frozen in the glassy state. Left at room temperature for 6 months, the vitrified liquid crystalline films showed no evidence of recrystallization. An orientational order parameter of 0.65 was determined with linear dichroism of a vitrified nematic film doped with Exalite 428 at a mole fraction of 0.0025. Birefringence dispersion of a blank vitrified nematic film was determined using a phase-difference method complemented by Abbe refractometry. A series of vitrified chiral-nematic films were prepared to demonstrate selective reflection and circular polarization with a spectral region tunable from blue to the infrared region by varying the chemical composition. The experimentally measured circular polarization spectra were found to agree with the Good-Karali theory in which all four system parameters were determined a priori: optical birefringence, average refractive index, selective reflection wavelength, and film thickness.

  2. Edge pinning and transformation of defect lines induced by faceted colloidal rings in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyuk, Bohdan; Liu, Qingkun; Yuan, Ye; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2016-06-01

    Nematic colloids exhibit a large diversity of topological defects and structures induced by colloidal particles in the orientationally ordered liquid crystal host fluids. These defects and field configurations define elastic interactions and medium-mediated self-assembly, as well as serve as model systems in exploiting the richness of interactions between topologies and geometries of colloidal surfaces, nematic fields, and topological singularities induced by particles in the nematic bulk and at nematic-colloidal interfaces. Here we demonstrate formation of quarter-strength surface-pinned disclinations, as well as a large variety of director field configurations with splitting and reconnections of singular defect lines, prompted by colloidal particles with sharp edges and size large enough to define strong boundary conditions. Using examples of faceted ring-shaped particles of genus g =1 , we explore transformation of defect lines as they migrate between locations in the bulk of the nematic host to edge-pinned locations at the surfaces of particles and vice versa, showing that this behavior is compliant with topological constraints defined by mathematical theorems. We discuss how transformation of bulk and surface defect lines induced by faceted colloids can enrich the diversity of elasticity-mediated colloidal interactions and how these findings may impinge on prospects of their controlled reconfigurable self-assembly in nematic hosts.

  3. Phase winding of a nematic liquid crystal by dynamic localized reorientation of an azo-based self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yue; Fang, Guanjiu; Glaser, Matthew A; Maclennan, Joseph E; Korblova, Eva; Walba, David M; Clark, Noel A

    2014-08-12

    Azobenzene-based molecules forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) tethered to a glass surface are highly photosensitive and readily reorient liquid crystals in contact with them when illuminated with polarized actinic light. We probe the coupling of such monolayers to nematic liquid crystal in a hybrid cell by studying the dynamics of liquid crystal reorientation in response to local orientational changes of the monolayer induced by a focused actinic laser with a rotating polarization. The steady increase in the azimuth of the mean molecular orientation of the SAM around the laser beam locally reorients the nematic, winding up an extended set of nested rings of splay-bend nematic director reorientation until the cumulative elastic torque exceeds that of the surface coupling within the beam, after which the nematic director starts to slip. Quantitative analyses of the ring dynamics allow measurements of the anchoring strength of the azo-SAM and its interaction with the nematic liquid crystal.

  4. Seeing and Sculpting Nematic Liquid Crystal Textures with the Thom construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bryan; Alexander, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    Nematic liquid crystals are the foundation for modern display technology and also exhibit topological defects that can readily be seen under a microscope. Recently, experimentalists have been able to create and control several new families of interesting defect textures, including reconfigurably knotted defect lines around colloids (Ljubljana) and the ``toron,'' a pair of hedgehogs bound together with a ring of double-twist between them (CU Boulder). We apply the Thom construction from algebraic topology to visualize 3 dimensional molecular orientation fields as certain colored surfaces in the sample. These surfaces turn out to be a generalization to 3 dimensions of the dark brushes seen in Schlieren textures of two-dimensional samples of nematics. Manipulations of these surfaces correspond to deformations of the nematic orientation fields, giving a hands-on way to classify liquid crystal textures which is also easily computable from data and robust to noise.

  5. Two-Point Particle Tracking Microrheology of Nematic Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Biological and technological complex fluids that are usually available in microscopic amounts (e.g. liquid crystals and biopolymer networks) can exhibit microstructural order leading to nematic rheological behavior. However, current microrheological methods cannot measure their directional viscoelastic coefficients. We recently introduced a directional two-point particle-tracking microrheology (D2PTM) technique to determine these coefficients (1). Here, we experimentally validate D2PTM by applying this method to disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a lyotropic chromonic nematic liquid crystal that has recently sparked attention due to its biocompatibility and other interesting properties. We chose DSCG because its directional viscosity coefficients have been previously characterized by dynamic light scattering and are available in the literature. Our results suggest that D2PTM measurements agree well with measurements from previous methods. Furthermore, this new technique provides additional information about the microrheological response of nematic fluids that was not accessible via previous methods.

  6. Hydrodynamics Defines the Stable Swimming Direction of Spherical Squirmers in a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintuvuori, J. S.; Würger, A.; Stratford, K.

    2017-08-01

    We present a study of the hydrodynamics of an active particle—a model squirmer—in an environment with a broken rotational symmetry: a nematic liquid crystal. By combining simulations with analytic calculations, we show that the hydrodynamic coupling between the squirmer flow field and liquid crystalline director can lead to reorientation of the swimmers. The preferred orientation depends on the exact details of the squirmer flow field. In a steady state, pushers are shown to swim parallel with the nematic director while pullers swim perpendicular to the nematic director. This behavior arises solely from hydrodynamic coupling between the squirmer flow field and anisotropic viscosities of the host fluid. Our results suggest that an anisotropic swimming medium can be used to characterize and guide spherical microswimmers in the bulk.

  7. Multiscale approach to nematic liquid crystals via statistical field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Sui

    2017-08-01

    We propose an approach to a multiscale problem in the theory of thermotropic uniaxial nematics based on the method of statistical field theory. This approach enables us to relate the coefficients A , B , C , L1, and L2 of the Landau-de Gennes free energy for the isotropic-nematic phase transition to the parameters of a molecular model of uniaxial nematics, which we take to be a lattice gas model of nematogenic molecules interacting via a short-ranged potential. We obtain general constraints on the temperature and volume fraction of nematogens for the Landau-de Gennes theory to be stable against molecular orientation fluctuations at quartic order. In particular, for the case of a fully occupied lattice, we compute the values of the isotropic-nematic transition temperature and the order parameter discontinuity predicted by (i) a continuum approximation of the nearest-neighbor Lebwohl-Lasher model and (ii) a Lebwohl-Lasher-type model with a nematogenic interaction of finite range. We find that the predictions of (i) are in reasonably good agreement with known results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Multiscale approach to nematic liquid crystals via statistical field theory.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bing-Sui

    2017-08-01

    We propose an approach to a multiscale problem in the theory of thermotropic uniaxial nematics based on the method of statistical field theory. This approach enables us to relate the coefficients A, B, C, L_{1}, and L_{2} of the Landau-de Gennes free energy for the isotropic-nematic phase transition to the parameters of a molecular model of uniaxial nematics, which we take to be a lattice gas model of nematogenic molecules interacting via a short-ranged potential. We obtain general constraints on the temperature and volume fraction of nematogens for the Landau-de Gennes theory to be stable against molecular orientation fluctuations at quartic order. In particular, for the case of a fully occupied lattice, we compute the values of the isotropic-nematic transition temperature and the order parameter discontinuity predicted by (i) a continuum approximation of the nearest-neighbor Lebwohl-Lasher model and (ii) a Lebwohl-Lasher-type model with a nematogenic interaction of finite range. We find that the predictions of (i) are in reasonably good agreement with known results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  9. [Polarization-sensitive characteristics of the transmission spectra in photonic crystal with nematic liquid crystal defects].

    PubMed

    Dai, Qin; Wu, Ri-na; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Rui-liang; Wang, Peng-chong; Quan, Wei; Xu, Song-ning

    2012-05-01

    The polarization-sensitive characteristics in the transmission spectra of TiO2/SiO2 optical multilayer films of one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) with nematic liquid crystal defects were investigated in the present paper. The transmission spectra measurements and simulated results show that the polarization-sensitive feature was obvious when natural light was normal incident onto the parallelly aligned nematic liquid crystal. There were peaks of the extraordinary light (TE mode) with center wavelengths 1831 and 1800 nm and the ordinary light (TM mode) with center wavelengths 1452 and 1418 nm in the photonic forbidden band, respectively. With applied voltage increasing, the peaks of the extraordinary light was blue-shifted, and coincided with the peaks of O light gradually. Their tunable ranges were about 31 and 34 nm, respectively. For the random nematic liquid crystal, polarization sensitivity was not observed. Meanwhile, an individual extraordinary light peak with center wavelength 1801 nm and an individual ordinary light peak with center wavelength 1391 nm were obtained in the photonic forbidden band, respectively. The peaks were also found blue-shifted with applied voltage increasing, and their tunable ranges were about 64 and 15 nm, respectively. The polarization insensitive photonic crystal with nematic liquid crystal defects can be achieved by random liquid crystal molecules, which make the effective refractive index of the extraordinary light equal to that of the ordinary light.

  10. The Effect of Aerosil Network on Smectic A-Reentrant Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Larochelle, Simon; Birgeneau, Robert J.

    2006-03-01

    We report on a high resolution x-ray scattering study of aerosil dispersion effects on nematic-smectic A and smectic A-reentrant nematic phase transitions in 6OCB (hexyloxycyanobiphenyl) and 8OCB (octyloxycyanobiphenyl) liquid crystal mixtures. Dispersed aerosil particles introduce quenched randomness to the liquid crystal phases, which destroys the long range smectic order [1]. The experiment was conducted on mixtures with different 6OCB:8OCB concentrations and aerosil densities. The parabolic smectic A phase boundary is found to be slightly distorted in the presence of the aerosil network, with shifted transition and median (TM) temperatures. Above TM, the order parameter, susceptibility and parallel correlation lengths for the thermal and random parts of the structure factor show behaviors similar to those observed in non-reentrant nematic-smectic A second order phase transitions [2]. At TM, where the order parameter has its maximum value, the scattering peaks are only defined by the random part of the structure factor. The smectic order parameter decreases with a further decrease in temperature, while the susceptibility and thermal correlation length increasingly show nematic-like behavior. Finally, at the lowest temperature, the mixtures are found in the reentrant nematic phase. [1] P.S. Clegg et. al. PRE 67,021703 (2003) [2] S. Larochelle et. al. in preparation

  11. X-ray and Raman scattering study of orientational order in nematic and heliconical nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gautam; Fu, Jinxin; Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Song, Jang-Kun; Vengatesan, M. R.; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Fisch, Michael R.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2016-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the orientational order parameters and in the nematic (N ) and twist-bend nematic (Ntb) phases of the liquid crystal dimer CB7CB have been measured using x-ray and polarized Raman scattering. The obtained from both techniques are the same, while , determined by Raman scattering is, as expected, systematically larger than its x-ray value. Both order parameters increase in the N phase with decreasing temperature, drop across the N -Ntb transition, and continue to decrease. In the Ntb phase, the x-ray value of eventually becomes negative, providing a direct and independent confirmation of a conical molecular orientational distribution. The heliconical tilt angle α, determined from orientational distribution functions in the Ntb phase, increases to ˜24∘ at ˜15 K below the transition. In the Ntb phase, α (T ) ∝(T*-T)λ , with λ =0.19 ±0.03 . The transition supercools by 1.7 K, consistent with its weakly first-order nature. The value of λ is close to 0.25 indicating close proximity to a tricritical point.

  12. Tunable nanojet-induced mode achieved by coupled core-shell microcylinders with nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The tunable nanojet-induced mode achieved by coupled core-shell microcylinders with nematic liquid crystals is reported. The optical transmission properties of touching core-shell microcylinders with nematic liquid crystals are studied by using high resolution finite-difference time-domain simulation. We identify two rotation mechanisms of liquid crystal in terms of the coupling efficiency between neighboring core-shell microcylinders. The nanojet-induced guided modes depend strongly on the directors of liquid crystals. The optical transport can be continuously tuned in the core-shell microcylinder by controlling the directors of liquid crystals. The coupled core-shell microcylinders can be assembled inside hollow structures to build tunable optical waveguides for effective and low-loss guiding of photons.

  13. Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching

    PubMed Central

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    The electrically tunable properties of liquid-crystal fishnet metamaterials are theoretically investigated in the terahertz spectrum. A nematic liquid crystal layer is introduced between two fishnet metallic structures, forming a voltage-controlled metamaterial cavity. Tuning of the nematic molecular orientation is shown to shift the magnetic resonance frequency of the metamaterial and its overall electromagnetic response. A shift higher than 150 GHz is predicted for common dielectric and liquid crystalline materials used in terahertz technology and for low applied voltage values. Owing to the few micron-thick liquid crystal cell, the response speed of the tunable metamaterial is calculated as orders of magnitude faster than in demonstrated liquid-crystal based non-resonant terahertz components. Such tunable metamaterial elements are proposed for the advanced control of electromagnetic wave propagation in terahertz applications. PMID:26272652

  14. Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterials based on thin nematic liquid crystal layers for fast switching.

    PubMed

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2015-08-14

    The electrically tunable properties of liquid-crystal fishnet metamaterials are theoretically investigated in the terahertz spectrum. A nematic liquid crystal layer is introduced between two fishnet metallic structures, forming a voltage-controlled metamaterial cavity. Tuning of the nematic molecular orientation is shown to shift the magnetic resonance frequency of the metamaterial and its overall electromagnetic response. A shift higher than 150 GHz is predicted for common dielectric and liquid crystalline materials used in terahertz technology and for low applied voltage values. Owing to the few micron-thick liquid crystal cell, the response speed of the tunable metamaterial is calculated as orders of magnitude faster than in demonstrated liquid-crystal based non-resonant terahertz components. Such tunable metamaterial elements are proposed for the advanced control of electromagnetic wave propagation in terahertz applications.

  15. Self-organization and electrooptical characteristics of a nematic liquid crystal-cellulose diacetate composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovoy, A. V.; Shipovskaya, A. B.; Nazvanov, V. F.

    2008-12-01

    Stable self-organization process has been observed during the formation of thin films of a composite based on a nematic liquid crystal and a cellulose acetate polymer matrix. Optical transmission characteristics and electrooptical response time of the composite have been theoretically calculated and experimentally studied.

  16. A new method for solid surface topographical studies using nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baber, N.; Strugalski, Z.

    1984-03-01

    A new simple method has been developed to investigate the topography of a wide range of solid surfaces using nematic liquid crystals. Polarizing microscopy is employed. The usefulness of the method for detecting weak mechanical effects has been demonstrated. An application in criminology is foreseen.

  17. Shape of impurity electronic absorption bands in a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Aver`yanov, E.M.

    1995-02-01

    It is shown that the anisotropic intermolecular impurity-matrix interactions, statistical orientation properties, and the electronic structure of the uniaxial impurity molecules considerably affect the spectral moments of the impurity electronic adsorption bands in a nematic liquid crystal. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Nematicons deflection through interaction with disclination lines in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Laudyn, Urszula A.; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.

    2013-11-25

    In this work, we study experimentally the interaction of spatial optical soliton in chiral nematic liquid crystals with disclination line created in a wedge shaped cell. We show that in most cases the self-confined beam preserves this interaction. We demonstrate that this interaction can be employed for efficient bending of the soliton trajectory, as a result of reflection and refraction.

  19. Nematic liquid crystals: a suitable medium for self-confinement of coherent and incoherent light.

    PubMed

    Peccianti, Marco; Assanto, Gaetano

    2002-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystals exhibit a saturable, non-instantaneous nonlinear response through light-induced reorientation. In such a material, we demonstrate that (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitary waves can be generated at milliwatt power levels not only with a coherent optical beam, but also with incoherent excitations. Self-trapping also allows the efficient guidance of a weak co-polarized probe.

  20. Consequences of director-density coupling theory for flexoelectricity in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Vitoriano, Carlindo; Sátiro, Caio

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically study how the measurements of the flexoelectric coefficients in nematic liquid crystals are affected by the inclusion of the director-density coupling energy. It is shown that this investigation is quite relevant for interpreting the data of experiments.

  1. 3H NMR of the tritiated isotopologues of methane in nematic liquid-crystal solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnell, E. Elliott; de Lange, Cornelis A.; Capitani, Donatella; Angelini, Giancarlo; Ursini, Ornella

    2010-02-01

    The NMR spectra of the tritiated isotopologues of methane dissolved in several nematic liquid-crystalline solvents are measured. The spectral parameters obtained agree extremely well with those predicted from earlier NMR studies of the deuterated isotopologues, providing excellent confirmation of the theory for vibration-reorientation interaction developed earlier.

  2. Thermomechanical effects in uniformly aligned dye-doped nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Krimer, D O; Residori, S

    2007-05-01

    We show theoretically that thermomechanical effects in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals when illuminated by laser beams, can become important and lead to molecular reorientation at intensities substantially lower than that needed for optical Fréedericksz transition. We propose a 1D model that assumes homogenous intensity distribution in the plane of the layer and is capable to describe such a thermally induced threshold lowering. We consider a particular geometry, with a linearly polarized light incident perpendicularly on a layer of homeotropically aligned dye-doped nematics.

  3. Polar structure of disclination loops in nematic liquid crystals probed by second-harmonic-light scattering.

    PubMed

    Pardaev, Shokir A; Williams, J C; Twieg, R J; Jakli, A; Gleeson, J T; Ellman, B; Sprunt, S

    2015-03-01

    Angle-resolved, second-harmonic-light scattering (SHLS) measurements are reported for three different classes of thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (NLCs): polar and nonpolar rodlike compounds and a bent-core compound. Results revealing well-defined scattering peaks are interpreted in terms of the electric polarization induced by distortions of the nematic orientational field ("flexopolarity") associated with inversion wall defects, nonsingular disclinations, analogous to Neel walls in ferromagnets, that often exhibit a closed loop morphology in NLCs. Analysis of the SHLS patterns based on this model provides a "proof-of-concept" for a potentially useful method to probe the flexopolar properties of NLCs.

  4. Nematic liquid crystals on spherical surfaces: control of defect configurations by temperature, density, and rod shape.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Subas; Solis, Francisco J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown that defect conformations in spherical nematic liquid crystals can be controlled through variations of temperature, shell thickness, and other environmental parameters. These modifications can be understood as a result of the induced changes in the effective elastic constants of the system. To characterize the relation between defect conformations and elastic anisotropy, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of a nematic on a spherical surface. As the anisotropy is increased, the defects flow from a tetrahedral arrangement to two coalescing pairs and then to a great circle configuration. We also analyze this flow using a variational method based on harmonic configurations.

  5. Nematic liquid crystals on spherical surfaces: Control of defect configurations by temperature, density, and rod shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Subas; Solis, Francisco J.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown that defect conformations in spherical nematic liquid crystals can be controlled through variations of temperature, shell thickness, and other environmental parameters. These modifications can be understood as a result of the induced changes in the effective elastic constants of the system. To characterize the relation between defect conformations and elastic anisotropy, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of a nematic on a spherical surface. As the anisotropy is increased, the defects flow from a tetrahedral arrangement to two coalescing pairs and then to a great circle configuration. We also analyze this flow using a variational method based on harmonic configurations.

  6. Optically optimized transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. T.; Chiu, H. W.; Kwok, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    A new Mueller matrix approach is developed for the design of optical modes for all nematic liquid crystal displays (LCD). In particular, for linearly polarized light going into the LC cell, conditions for linear polarization and circular polarization outputs are obtained. By considering the switching between different polarization modes, new transmittive and reflective bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD operating conditions with optimized contrast and brightness are discovered. A passive matrix driven single polarizer reflective BTN display was fabricated with reasonably good measured optical performance and fast selection time.

  7. Strain dependence of the nematic fluctuation relaxation in liquid-crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Andrej; Copic, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic light scattering on a nematic liquid-crystal elastomer was performed as a function of deformation perpendicular to the director and along the director. We show that the relaxation rate of the nematic director fluctuations increases with strain along the director, as expected from the theory of semisoft elasticity. Deformation applied perpendicular to the director, on the other hand, decreases the relaxation rate to a very small value at the onset of the soft elastic response, revealing the existence of a dynamic soft mode. The results are in complete agreement with the theory of semisoft elasticity and allow us to determine all the constants of the model.

  8. Switching behavior and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals in nematic gels

    PubMed

    Gautier; Brunet; Grupp; Sauvajol; Anglaret

    2000-11-01

    Anisotropic nematic gels are prepared via in situ polymerization of diacrylate monomers in an orientated nematic liquid crystal (LC) matrix. The switching behavior of the LC molecules under electric field is probed in polarized Raman spectroscopy and straight theta-2straight theta elastic light scattering experiments. The electro-optical characteristics of the gels are directly related to the electric field dependence of the fraction of switched molecules. The electro-optical contrast relates to the coexistence of switched LC domains and LC domains anchored to the polymer network.

  9. Fiber-to-fiber nonlinear coupling via a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyushkov, B. N.; Trashkeev, S. I.; Ivanenko, A. V.; Kolker, D. B.; Purtov, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear optical coupling between two single-mode fibers terminated coaxially in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was explored for the first time. Light-induced reorientation of nematic molecules can result in the stable self-collimation of light transmitted through the gap between fibers. Thus, high coupling efficiency can be achieved despite large fiber spacing. We demonstrated a coupling efficiency of up to ∼0.7, achieved with spacing equal to four diffraction lengths. This feature opens up possibilities for the development of novel in-line fiber-optic elements based on NLCs. For instance, a polarization controller was proposed and considered.

  10. Laser beam propagation in nematic liquid crystals at the temperature close to the nematicisotropic critical point.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Sung; Jiang, I-Min; Tsai, Ming-Shan

    2008-03-17

    This study investigates the optical nonlinearity of beam propagation in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells at a temperature close to the nematic-isotropic temperature (TNI). The undulate propagation mode with convergent and divergent loops appearing alternately is reported and the thermally enhanced optical reorientation nonlinearity at the focus is described. The optically induced phase transition exists along the pump beam direction. With the application of the conscopic technique, the arrangements of LC at the focus are proposed in this study. Results of this study demonstrate that the evolution of the LC configuration was affected by the pump beam based on the analysis of conoscopic patterns.

  11. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Faget, L; Lamarque-Forget, S; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph; Auroy, P; Dozov, I

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional "anticonical" degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  12. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Auroy, P.; Dozov, I.

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional “anticonical” degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  13. Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Samuel; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2017-05-01

    Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin 1212 itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting TcTc enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above TcTc, we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a “nodal-antinodal dichotomy” reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with “bad metal” phenomenology.

  14. Anisotropic stokes drag and dynamic lift on cylindrical colloids in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Joel B; Lapointe, Clayton P; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L

    2010-11-26

    We have measured the Stokes drag on magnetic nanowires suspended in the nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). The effective drag viscosity for wires moving perpendicular to the nematic director differs from that for motion parallel to the director by factors of 0.88 to 2.4, depending on the orientation of the wires and their surface anchoring. When the force on the wires is applied at an oblique angle to the director, the wires move at an angle to the force, demonstrating the existence of a lift force on particles moving in a nematic. This dynamic lift is significantly larger for wires with homeotropic anchoring than with longitudinal anchoring in the experiments, suggesting the lift force as a mechanism for sorting particles according to their surface properties.

  15. Thermal and optical study of semiconducting CNTs-doped nematic liquid crystalline material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimal, T.; Singh, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Pandey, S.; Agrahari, K.; Manohar, R.

    2016-06-01

    We report the thermal and spectroscopic analysis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) material. The CNTs have been oriented in the p-ethoxybenzylidene p-butylaniline NLC. The thermal study of the CNTs doped nematic mixtures shows a significant decrease in the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. However higher doping concentration of CNTs has led to the further increase in transition temperature. The UV-Visible spectroscopy has been attempted on the CNTs/NLC mixtures at room temperature. The investigated NLC present one absorption band corresponding to π-π* electronic transition. A red shift of λmax with the increasing concentration of CNTs in the mixture has been observed. The band gap of NLC has been found to decrease after the doping of CNTs. The absorbance was measured for the UV light, polarized parallel and perpendicular to the LC director in the planar aligned cell.

  16. Defect structures mediate the isotropic-nematic transition in strongly confined liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Gârlea, Ioana C; Mulder, Bela M

    2015-01-21

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study rod-like lyotropic liquid crystals confined to a square slab-like geometry with lateral dimensions comparable to the length of the particles. We observe that this system develops linear defect structures upon entering the planar nematic phase. These defect structures flank a lens-shaped nematic region oriented along a diagonal of the square box. We interpret these structures as a compromise between the 2-fold order of the bulk nematic phase and the 4-fold order imposed by the lateral boundaries. A simple Onsager-type theory that effectively implements these competing tendencies is used to model the phase behavior in the center of the box and shows that the free-energy cost of forming the defect structures strongly offsets the transition-inducing effects of both the transverse and lateral confinement.

  17. Elastic anisotropy effects on the electrical responses of a thin sample of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, O. A.; Yednak, C. A. R.; Ribeiro de Almeida, R. R.; Teixeira-Souza, R. T.; Evangelista, L. R.

    2017-03-01

    The electrical responses of a nematic liquid crystal cell are investigated by means of the elastic continuum theory. The nematic medium is considered as a parallel circuit of a resistance and a capacitance and the electric current profile across the sample is determined as a function of the elastic constants. In the reorientation process of the nematic director, the resistance and capacitance of the sample are determined by taking into account the elastic anisotropy. A nonmonotonic profile for the current is observed in which a minimum value of the current may be used to estimate the elastic constants values. This scenario suggests a theoretical method to determine the values of the bulk elastic constants in a single planar aligned cell just by changing the direction of applied electrical field and measuring the resulting electrical current.

  18. Wrinkling of a thin film on a nematic liquid-crystal elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Harsh; Pelcovits, Robert A.; Powers, Thomas R.

    2016-07-01

    Wrinkles commonly develop in a thin film deposited on a soft elastomer substrate when the film is subject to compression. Motivated by recent experiments [Agrawal et al., Soft Matter 8, 7138 (2012)], 10.1039/c2sm25734c that show how wrinkle morphology can be controlled by using a nematic elastomer substrate, we develop the theory of small-amplitude wrinkles of an isotropic film atop a nematic elastomer. The directors of the nematic elastomer are initially uniform. For uniaxial compression of the film along the direction perpendicular to the elastomer directors, the system behaves as a compressed film on an isotropic substrate. When the uniaxial compression is along the direction of nematic order, we find that the soft elasticity characteristic of liquid-crystal elastomers leads to a critical stress for wrinkling which is very small compared to the case of an isotropic substrate. We also determine the wavelength of the wrinkles at the critical stress and show how the critical stress and wavelength depend on substrate depth and the anisotropy of the polymer chains in the nematic elastomer.

  19. Wrinkling of a thin film on a nematic liquid-crystal elastomer.

    PubMed

    Soni, Harsh; Pelcovits, Robert A; Powers, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Wrinkles commonly develop in a thin film deposited on a soft elastomer substrate when the film is subject to compression. Motivated by recent experiments [Agrawal et al., Soft Matter 8, 7138 (2012)]1744-683X10.1039/c2sm25734c that show how wrinkle morphology can be controlled by using a nematic elastomer substrate, we develop the theory of small-amplitude wrinkles of an isotropic film atop a nematic elastomer. The directors of the nematic elastomer are initially uniform. For uniaxial compression of the film along the direction perpendicular to the elastomer directors, the system behaves as a compressed film on an isotropic substrate. When the uniaxial compression is along the direction of nematic order, we find that the soft elasticity characteristic of liquid-crystal elastomers leads to a critical stress for wrinkling which is very small compared to the case of an isotropic substrate. We also determine the wavelength of the wrinkles at the critical stress and show how the critical stress and wavelength depend on substrate depth and the anisotropy of the polymer chains in the nematic elastomer.

  20. Molecular theory of phase separation in nematic liquid crystals doped with spherical nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Osipov, Mikhail A; Gorkunov, Maxim V

    2014-05-19

    A molecular-statistical theory is developed, which enables one to describe the nematic-isotropic phase transition in liquid crystals doped with spherical nanoparticles taking into account the effects of phase separation. It has been shown that in the case of strong interaction between nanoparticles and mesogenic molecules the nematic nanocomposite possesses a number of unexpected properties. In particular, the nematic-isotropic co-existence region appears to be very broad, and the system either undergoes a direct transition from the isotropic phase into the phase-separated state, or undergoes the transition into the homogeneous nematic phase first and then phase-separates at a lower temperature. Phase separation does not occur at all if the concentration of the nanoparticles is sufficiently low, and in some cases it takes place only within a finite region of nanoparticle concentration. A number of temperature-concentration phase diagrams is presented and the molar fractions of nanoparticles in the co-existing isotropic and nematic phases are calculated numerically as functions of temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Two-step switching in dual-frequency nematic liquid crystal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrukiewicz, M.; Perkowski, P.; Piecek, W.; Mazur, R.; Chojnowska, O.; Garbat, K.

    2015-11-01

    The so-called dual-frequency nematic mixtures are very promising components for applications in fast operating devices. Compared with classical nematics, they exhibit positive or negative anisotropy of the electric permittivity depending on the applied frequencies of an external electric field. Owing to this property, an overall switching process from planar to homeotropic orientations, and vice versa, can be shortened by using the electric field with two different frequencies. Electro-optical switching characteristics of transmission versus time as a function of applied voltage were obtained for two different dual-frequency mixtures in twisted nematic cells. For one of the investigated mixtures, unusual decrease in the light transmission at switching from the homeotropic to planar orientation at threshold voltage was observed. The switching process apparently occurs in two steps. The mechanism of the two-step switching at twisted dual-frequency nematic structures was discussed. The explanation of the switching mechanism takes into account the influence of the electric field with different frequencies on molecules with transverse and longitudinal dipole moments. Moreover, molecular structure of compounds constituting the mixtures was analyzed. Additionally, response times of the switching driven with low and high frequency pulses were shown. This work helps to understand the molecular interaction and electro-optical switching in the dual-frequency nematic liquid crystals.

  2. Study of intrinsic anchoring in nematic liquid crystals based on modified Gruhn Hess pair potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2008-01-01

    A nematic liquid crystal slab composed of N molecular layers is investigated using a simple cubic lattice model, based upon the molecular pair potential which is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals. A perfect nematic order is assumed in the theoretical treatment, which means the orientation of the molecular long axis coincides with the director of liquid crystal and the total free energy equals to the total interaction energy. We present a modified Gruhn Hess model, which is relative to the splay-bend elastic constant K. Furthermore, we have studied the free nematic interfacial behavior (intrinsic anchoring) by this model in the assumption of the perfect nematic order. We find that the preferred orientation at the free interface and the intrinsic anchoring strength change with the value of modification, and that the director profile can be determined by the competition of the intrinsic anchoring with external forces present in the system. Also we simulate the intrinsic anchoring at different temperatures using Monte Carlo method and the simulation results show that the intrinsic anchoring favors planar alignment and the free interface is more disordered than the bulk.

  3. Reversible macroscopic dynamics of polar nematic liquid crystals: Reversible currents and their experimental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Helmut R.; Cladis, P. E.; Pleiner, Harald

    2009-03-01

    Polar liquid crystalline phases are relevant for fluid liquid crystal phases observed in banana liquid crystals as well as for a class of polymeric liquid crystalline materials investigated recently. In this Brief Report we present the reversible dynamics for polar nematic liquid crystals with C∞v symmetry, where the macroscopic polarization representing polar order acts as an independent macroscopic variable. We find reversible coupling terms, for example, between flow and temperature and concentration gradients specific for the existence of a polar preferred direction. We suggest concrete experiments to check the importance of the reversible dynamic cross-coupling terms presented here.

  4. Switching and intrinsic position bistability of soliton beams in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Beeckman, Jeroen; Madani, Abbas; Vanbrabant, Pieter J. M.; Henneaux, Pierre; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Haelterman, Marc

    2011-03-15

    We study theoretically and experimentally the propagation of light beams in chiral nematic liquid crystals. Despite the rather complex refractive index distribution of these crystals, their reorientational nonlinearity can compensate for diffraction, leading to robust solitonlike beams propagating along helical trajectories. We demonstrate that, due to a symmetry-breaking instability of the liquid crystal structure, these beams undergo abrupt switching and bistability, features that are of potential interest for applications to all-optical signal processing.

  5. Studies of Optical Wave Front Conjugation and Imaging Properties of Nematic Liquid Crystal Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    processes was also demonstrated. The capability of optical four wave mixing to generate amplified reflection and self- oscillation in nematic liquid crystal...via real time optical wave mixing process was also demonstrated. The capability of optical four wave mixing to generate amplified reflection and self...the special nonlinear optical properties of liquid crystal films for optical wave front conjugation and in related four -wave mixing processes. The

  6. Observation of polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Vasnetsov, M V; Pas'ko, V A; Kasyanyuk, D S

    2011-06-01

    We analyze the optical effects associated with an adiabatic rotation of a plane of polarization in a twisted nematic liquid crystal. The experimental verification was performed with a cell with linear rubbing of a front surface and circular rubbing of a rear surface. The expectations of the liquid crystal's orientation defect origin along the line of the maximum tension and a polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase are confirmed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Dynamic Magneto-optic Coupling in a Ferromagnetic Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potisk, Tilen; Svenšek, Daniel; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald; Lisjak, Darja; Osterman, Natan; Mertelj, Alenka

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodynamics of complex fluids with multiple order parameters is governed by a set of dynamic equations with many material constants, of which only some are easily measurable. We present a unique example of a dynamic magneto-optic coupling in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid, in which long-range orientational order of liquid crystalline molecules is accompanied by long-range magnetic order of magnetic nanoplatelets. We investigate the dynamics of the magneto-optic response experimentally and theoretically and find out that it is significantly affected by the dissipative dynamic cross-coupling between the nematic and magnetic order parameters. The cross-coupling coefficient determined by fitting the experimental results with a macroscopic theory is of the same order of magnitude as the dissipative coefficient (rotational viscosity) that governs the reorientation of pure liquid crystals.

  8. Planar Anchoring of Achiral Nematic Liquid Crystals in Capillaries -- with a Twist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Zoey S.; Jeong, Joonwoo; Kang, Louis; Collings, Peter J.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    In the common three-term Frank free energy of a nematic liquid crystal, the ground state configuration will have no deformations and all nematic directors will be parallel. However, certain confining geometries can impose significant deformations on the ground state, even if a zero-deformation configuration can be drawn that satisfies all boundary conditions. By solving the Euler-Lagrange problem of the Frank free energy equation, including the saddle-splay term, with cylindrical confinement and degenerate planar anchoring, we find conditions for a highly deformed ground state configuration that has a double twist like structure. We explore these effects experimentally with both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystal materials, finding good agreement with the theoretically predicted configuration. We also observe a rich phenomenology of defect structures in the liquid crystal samples. Acknowledgement: We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation through NSF DMR 1205463, NSF DMR 1104707, and MRSEC DMR 1120901.

  9. Driving voltage properties sensitive to microscale liquid crystal orientation pattern in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Takahashi, Koki; Yamaguchi, Rumiko; Nose, Toshiaki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the micropattern-sensitive driving voltage properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells and found that the threshold voltage for inducing the Fréedericksz transition strongly depends on the micropatterned LC molecular orientation state. We discuss the effects of various cell parameters such as the period of the micropattern Λ, the LC layer thickness d, and the twist angle Φ on the threshold voltage. By a computer simulation of the LC molecular orientation, we found that the threshold voltage V th varies in response to the deformation factor Δ (= d 2/Λ2 + Φ2/π2) of the spatially distributed LC molecular orientation. We confirm that V\\text{th}2 is proportional to 1 - Δ from both theoretical and experimental standpoints.

  10. Elastic torque and the levitation of metal wires by a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, C; Hultgren, A; Silevitch, D M; Felton, E J; Reich, D H; Leheny, R L

    2004-01-30

    Anisotropic particles suspended in a nematic liquid crystal disturb the alignment of the liquid crystal molecules and experience small forces that depend on the particles' orientation. We have measured these forces using magnetic nanowires. The torque on a wire and its orientation-dependent repulsion from a flat surface are quantitatively consistent with theoretical predictions based on the elastic properties of the liquid crystal. These forces can also be used to manipulate submicrometer-scale particles. We show that controlled spatial variations in the liquid crystal's alignment convert the torque on a wire to a translational force that levitates the wire to a specified height.

  11. Non-linear Imaging of Nanoscale Surface Defects on Alphabet Letter Shaped Colloids in a Uniformly Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Julian; Lapointe, Clayton P.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2012-03-01

    The formation of defect structures on the surfaces of colloids immersed in uniformly aligned nematic liquid crystals is a phenomenon which, if better understood, could lead to advances in micro and nanoscale colloidal self assembly techniques. In this study, three photon fluorescence microscopy (3PFM) was used in conjunction with holographic optical tweezers (HOT) in order to stabilize and image surface defects on English alphabet letter shaped colloids suspended in a uniformly aligned nematic liquid crystal. This data made it possible to characterize the location and strength of these defects for a robust variety of shapes. A relationship between particle shape and angle of orientation vs the host nematic was also observed.

  12. Repulsion-attraction switching of nematic colloids formed by liquid crystal dispersions of polygonal prisms.

    PubMed

    Senyuk, B; Liu, Q; Nystrom, P D; Smalyukh, I I

    2017-09-27

    Self-assembly of colloidal particles due to elastic interactions in nematic liquid crystals promises tunable composite materials and can be guided by exploiting surface functionalization, geometric shape and topology, though these means of controlling self-assembly remain limited. Here, we realize low-symmetry achiral and chiral elastic colloids in the nematic liquid crystals using colloidal polygonal concave and convex prisms. We show that the controlled pinning of disclinations at the prism edges alters the symmetry of director distortions around the prisms and their orientation with respect to the far-field director. The controlled localization of the disclinations at the prism's edges significantly influences the anisotropy of the diffusion properties of prisms dispersed in liquid crystals and allows one to modify their self-assembly. We show that elastic interactions between polygonal prisms can be switched between repulsive and attractive just by controlled re-pinning the disclinations at different edges using laser tweezers. Our findings demonstrate that elastic interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in nematic liquid crystals are sensitive to the topologically equivalent but geometrically rich controlled configurations of the particle-induced defects.

  13. Geometrical optics approach to the nematic liquid crystal grating: numerical results.

    PubMed

    Kosmopoulos, J A; Zenginoglou, H M

    1987-05-01

    The problem of the grating action of a periodically distorted nematic liquid crystal layer, in the geometrical optics ray approximation is considered, and a theory for the calculation of the fringe powers is proposed. A nonabsorbing nematic phase is assumed, and the direction of incidence is taken to be normal to the layer. The powers of the resulting diffraction fringes are related to the spatial and angular deviation of the rays propagating across the layer and to the perturbation of the phase of the wave associated with the ray. The theory is applied to the simple case of a harmonically distorted nematic layer. In the case of a weakly distorted nematic layer the results agree with the predictions of Carroll's model, where only even-order fringes are important. As the distortion becomes larger, odd-order fringes (with the exception of the first order) become equally important, and particularly those at relatively large orders (e.g., seven and nine) exhibit maxima greater than that of the even-order neighbors. Finally, the dependence of the powers of odd-order fringes on the distortion angle is quite different from that of the even-order fringes.

  14. Understanding the distinctive elastic constants in an oxadiazole bent-core nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, S.; Addis, J.; Greco, C.; Ferrarini, A.; Görtz, V.; Goodby, J. W.; Gleeson, H. F.

    2012-10-01

    The splay and bend elastic constants of the bent-core oxadiazole material [C5-Ph-ODBP-Ph-OC12] have been investigated as a function of temperature across the nematic phase. The bend constant K33 is found to take values of ˜3.0 pN and to be almost temperature independent, whereas, the splay constant K11 increases monotonically from ˜3.5 pN close to the isotropic phase transition to values of ˜9 pN deep in the nematic phase. No pretransitional divergence is observed in either K11 or K33 at temperatures approaching the underlying phase. This behavior of the elastic constants is distinct from that observed in rodlike liquid crystal systems but appears to share characteristics with the few other bent-core nematic systems studied to date. We discuss the interdependence of the elastic constants, the birefringence, and the order parameter to allow a comparison of the observed behavior with theory. We show that calculations of the elastic constants via molecular-field theory and atomistic modeling are in excellent qualitative as well as good quantitative (within 2 pN) agreement with the measurements across the temperature range, offering a deeper understanding of the elasticity in bent-core nematic materials than has been, hitherto, available.

  15. Liquid crystal alignment at macroscopically isotropic polymer surfaces: Effect of an isotropic-nematic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasova, Natalie; Reznikov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of an isotropic-nematic (I -N ) phase transition on the liquid crystal alignment at untreated polymer surfaces. We demonstrate that the pattern at the untreated substrate in the planar cell where the other substrate is uniformly rubbed strongly depends on the temperature gradient across the cell during the I -N phase transition, being macroscopically isotropic if the untreated substrate is cooled faster, but becoming almost homogeneous along the rubbing direction in the opposite temperature gradient. We interpret the observed effect using complementary models of heat transfer and nematic elasticity. Based on the heat transfer model we show that the asymmetric temperature conditions in our experiments provide unidirectional propagation of the I -N interface during the phase transition and determine the initial director orientation pattern at the test's untreated surface. Using the Frank-Oseen model of nematic elasticity, we represent the three-dimensional director field in the nematic cell as a two-dimensional (2D) pattern at the untreated surface and perform 2D numeric simulations. The simulations explain the experimental results: Different initial director orientations at the untreated surface evolve into different stationary patterns.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of Gay-Berne nematic liquid crystal: Elastic properties from direct correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, J.; Trebin, H. R.; Longa, L.

    1994-08-01

    We report NVT and NPT molecular dynamics simulations of a Gay-Berne nematic liquid crystal using generalization of recently proposed algorithm by Toxvaerd (Phys. Rev. E47, 343, 1993). On the basis of these simulations the Oseen-Zoher-Frank elastic constants K(sub 11), K(sub 22) and K(sub 33) as well as the surface constants K(sub 13) and K(sub 24) have been calculated within the framework of the direct correlation function approach of Lipkin et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 82, 472 (1985)). The angular coefficients of the direct pair correlation function, which enter the final formulas, have been determined from the computer simulation data for the pair correlation function of the nematic by combining the Ornstein-Zernike relation and the Wienier-Hopf factorization scheme. The unoriented nematic approximation has been assumed when constructing the reference, isotropic state of Lipkin et al. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of temperatures, densities and pressures a very detailed information has been provided about elastic behaviour of the Gay-Berne nematic. Interestingly, it is found that the results for the surface elastic constants are qualitatively different than those obtained with the help of analytical approximations for the isotropic, direct pair correlation function. For example, the values of the surface elastic constants are negative and an order of magnitude smaller than the bulk elasticity.

  17. Determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of nematic liquid crystals by using wedge cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kędzierski, J.; Raszewski, Z.; Kojdecki, M. A.; Kruszelnicki-Nowinowski, E.; Perkowski, P.; Piecek, W.; Miszczyk, E.; Zieliński, J.; Morawiak, P.; Ogrodnik, K.

    2010-06-01

    A new accurate and fast interference method for determining ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of nematic liquid crystals is presented and discussed. The method relies on microscopic measurements of distances between interference fringes appearing in polarised parallel coherent monochromatic light beam transmitted normally to the surfaces through a wedge cell filled with a nematic. Both glass plates confining the cell are coated with a partly transparent thin film of metal which is deposited by evaporation in vacuum. Owing to the multiple reflections between the surfaces and a small edge angle, the interference fringes observed near the wedge apex edge are sharp and equidistant. To apply this method one needs only small amount of an investigated liquid crystal. Basic mathematical formulae and results of an experiment are briefly discussed.

  18. Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yuji; Jampani, V.S.R.; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sakane, Shin; Le, Khoa V.; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable. PMID:27819290

  19. Microsecond-range optical shutter for unpolarized light with chiral nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen; Shin, Jungsoon; Lee, Keechang

    2015-04-15

    A fast electro-optic shutter is fabricated and demonstrated. The device works independently of the polarization state of the incoming light beam. Modulation between 3% transmission and 60% transmission is obtained within a wavelength range of 50 nm with a response time of 20 μs. The device consists of two partly polymerized chiral nematic liquid crystal layers separated by a half wave plate. The transmission modulation is due to a 50 nm wavelength shift of the photonic band gap of the chiral liquid crystal realized by applying an electric field over a mixture of photo-polymerized LC and non-reactive nematic LC containing a chiral dopant. The shutter features high reflectivity in the photonic band gap. We investigate the influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the width and the depth of the reflection band.

  20. Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings and self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed

    Khoo; Liang

    2000-11-01

    A quantitative theory and experimental results on self-starting optical phase conjugation, using stimulated orientational and thermal scattering in nematic liquid crystal films, are presented. The coupled wave-material equations for the laser-induced refractive index changes, grating formation, and coherent wave mixing effects are developed. Analytical solutions are obtained for the case of negligible pump depletion, and numerical solutions for various input and generated signals, taking losses into account, are obtained. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of realizing these stimulated scattering and phase conjugation processes in thin (200 &mgr;m) nematic liquid crystal with a milliwatt-power cw laser. Theoretical estimates for various gain constants and threshold intensities, and their dependence on various physical parameters, are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  1. Self-organization processes and topological defects in nanolayers in a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chuvyrov, A. N.; Girfanova, F. M. Mal'tsev, I. S.

    2008-05-15

    Atomic force microscopy is used to study the self-organization processes that occur during the formation of topological defects in nanomolecular layers in a nematic liquid crystal with the homeotropic orientation of its molecules with respect to the substrate. In this case, a smectic monolayer with a thickness of one molecule length (about 2.2 nm) forms on the substrate, and a nanomolecular layer of a nematic liquid crystal forms above this monolayer. In such virtually two-dimensional layers, numerous different nanoclusters, namely, hut structures, pyramids, raft structures with symmetry C{sub nm} (where n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, ?, {infinity}), cones, and nanopools, form [1]. They have a regular shape close to the geometry of solid crystals. Modulated linear structures and topological point defects appear spontaneously in the nanopools and raft structures.

  2. Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuji; Jampani, V S R; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sakane, Shin; Le, Khoa V; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-11-07

    Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable.

  3. Electro-optic characteristics of 4-domain vertical alignment nematic liquid crystal display with interdigital electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Cho, H. M.; Lee, W. G.; Lee, S. H.

    2000-06-01

    We have fabricated a vertically aligned 4-domain nematic liquid crystal display cell with thin film transistor. Unlike the conventional method constructing 4-domain, i.e., protrusion and surrounding electrode which needs additional processes, in this study the pixel design forming 4-domain with interdigital electrodes is suggested. In the device, one pixel is divided into two parts. One part has a horizontal electric field in the vertical direction and the other part has a horizontal one in the horizontal direction. Such fields in the horizontal and vertical direction drive the liquid crystal director to tilt down in four directions. In this article, the electro-optic characteristics of cells with 2 and 4 domain have been studied. The device with 4 domain shows faster response time than normal twisted-nematic and in-plane switching cells, wide viewing angle with optical compensation film, and more stable color characteristics than 2-domain vertical alignment cell with similar structure.

  4. Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yuji; Jampani, V. S. R.; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sakane, Shin; Le, Khoa V.; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable.

  5. Microsecond-range optical shutter for unpolarized light with chiral nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Shin, Jungsoon; Lee, Keechang; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    A fast electro-optic shutter is fabricated and demonstrated. The device works independently of the polarization state of the incoming light beam. Modulation between 3% transmission and 60% transmission is obtained within a wavelength range of 50 nm with a response time of 20 μs. The device consists of two partly polymerized chiral nematic liquid crystal layers separated by a half wave plate. The transmission modulation is due to a 50 nm wavelength shift of the photonic band gap of the chiral liquid crystal realized by applying an electric field over a mixture of photo-polymerized LC and non-reactive nematic LC containing a chiral dopant. The shutter features high reflectivity in the photonic band gap. We investigate the influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the width and the depth of the reflection band.

  6. Optical nonlinearity due to thermomechanical effect in the planar and homeotropic nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursamad, J. B.; Phirouznia, A.; Sahrai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Possibility of observing third thermomechanical (TM) effect in uniform nematic liquid crystals (NLC) with proper selection of boundary conditions on the cell walls is theoretically studied. Absorption of a light wave induces the needed temperature gradient for the TM effect. The molecular director reorientation due to third TM effect and the induced phase shift on the probe beam are calculated. The forth TM coefficient can be measured directly by the method proposed in this work.

  7. Direct observation of coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Orihara, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Yuji; Nagaya, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium, we simultaneously observe the intensity change due to director fluctuations under a polarizing microscope and the Brownian motion of a fluorescent particle trapped weakly by optical tweezers. The calculated cross-correlation function of the particle position and the spatial gradient of the intensity is nonzero, clearly indicating the existence of coupling.

  8. Phase shifting digital holography implemented with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria-Luisa; Castro, Albertina; Arrizón, Victor

    2009-12-20

    We describe and experimentally demonstrate a phase shifting method based on the lateral displacement of a grating implemented with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. This method allows an accurate implementation of the phase shift without requiring moving parts. The technique is implemented in a Mach-Zehnder digital holography setup in which the field transmitted by the sample object freely propagates to the hologram plane.

  9. Computer-generated holograms with optimum bandwidths obtained with twisted-nematic liquid-crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Arrizón, Victor; González, Luis A; Ponce, Rodrigo; Serrano-Heredia, Alfonso

    2005-03-20

    We discuss a computer-generated hologram for encoding arbitrary complex modulation based on a commercial twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display. This hologram is implemented with the constrained complex modulation provided by the display in a phase-mostly configuration. The hologram structure and transmittance are determined to obtain on-axis signal reconstruction, maximum bandwidth, optimum efficiency, and high signal-to-noise ratio. We employed the proposed holographic code for the experimental synthesis of first-order Bessel beams.

  10. Direct observation of coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihara, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Nobutaka; Sasaki, Yuji; Nagaya, Tomoyuki

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium, we simultaneously observe the intensity change due to director fluctuations under a polarizing microscope and the Brownian motion of a fluorescent particle trapped weakly by optical tweezers. The calculated cross-correlation function of the particle position and the spatial gradient of the intensity is nonzero, clearly indicating the existence of coupling.

  11. Reconfigurable 1×2 wavelength selective switch using high birefringence nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Plinio Jesús; Pérez, Isabel; Vázquez, Carmen; Sánchez Pena, José Manuel

    2012-09-01

    A reconfigurable 1×2 wavelength selective switch, based on a Lyot filter and high birefringence nematic liquid crystals, is proposed. Simulations and experimental results of a reconfigurable switch are reported. Insertion losses from 3.4 dB and rejection ratios up to 15 dB are obtained in a two input channel system at 560 and 621 nm. Control voltages of 0 to 3 V(RMS) are used.

  12. Nematic order-disorder state transition in a liquid crystal analogue formed by oriented and migrating amoeboid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemkemer, R.; Teichgräber, V.; Schrank-Kaufmann, S.; Kaufmann, D.; Gruler, H.

    2000-10-01

    In cell culture, liquid crystal analogues are formed by elongated, migrating, and interacting amoeboid cells. An apolar nematic liquid crystal analogue is formed by different cell types like human melanocytes (=pigment cells of the skin), human fibroblasts (=connective tissue cells), human osteoblasts (=bone cells), human adipocytes (=fat cells), etc. The nematic analogue is quite well described by i) a stochastic machine equation responsible for cell orientation and ii) a self-organized extracellular guiding signal, E_2, which is proportional to the orientational order parameter as well as to the cell density. The investigations were mainly made with melanocytes. The transition to an isotropic state analogue can be accomplished either by changing the strength of interaction (e.g. variation of the cell density) or by influencing the cellular machinery by an externally applied signal: i) An isotropic gaseous state analogue is observed at low cell density (ρ < 110melanocytes/mm^2) and a nematic liquid crystal state analogue at higher cell density. ii) The nematic state analogue disappears if the bipolar shaped melanocytes are forced to become a star-like shape (induced by colchicine or staurosporine). The analogy between nematic liquid crystal state analogue formed by elongated, migrating and interacting cells and the nematic liquid crystal phase formed by interacting elongated molecules is discussed.

  13. Optical analysis of spatially periodic patterns in nematic liquid crystals: Diffraction and shadowgraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesch, Werner; Krekhov, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    Optical methods are most convenient for analyzing spatially periodic patterns with wave vector q in a thin layer of a nematic liquid crystal. In the standard experimental setup a beam of parallel light with a “short” wavelength λ≪2π/q passes the nematic layer. Recording the transmitted light the patterns are either directly visualized by shadowgraphy or characterized more indirectly by the diffraction fringes due to the optical-grating effects of the pattern. In this work we present a systematic short-wavelength analysis of these methods for the commonly used planar orientation of the optical axis of liquid crystal at the confining surfaces. Our approach covers general three-dimensional experimental geometries with respect to the relative orientation of q and of the wave vector k of the incident light. In particular, we emphasize the importance of phase-grating effects, which are not accessible in a pure geometric optics approach. Finally, as a by-product we present also an optical analysis of convection rolls in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, where the refraction index of the fluid is isotropic in contrast to its uniaxial symmetry in nematic liquid crystals. Our analysis is in excellent agreement with an earlier physical optics approach by Trainoff and Cannell [Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-663110.1063/1.1449892 14, 1340 (2002)], which is restricted to a two-dimensional geometry and technically much more demanding.

  14. Optical analysis of spatially periodic patterns in nematic liquid crystals: diffraction and shadowgraphy.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Werner; Krekhov, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    Optical methods are most convenient for analyzing spatially periodic patterns with wave vector q in a thin layer of a nematic liquid crystal. In the standard experimental setup a beam of parallel light with a "short" wavelength λ<2π/q passes the nematic layer. Recording the transmitted light the patterns are either directly visualized by shadowgraphy or characterized more indirectly by the diffraction fringes due to the optical-grating effects of the pattern. In this work we present a systematic short-wavelength analysis of these methods for the commonly used planar orientation of the optical axis of liquid crystal at the confining surfaces. Our approach covers general three-dimensional experimental geometries with respect to the relative orientation of q and of the wave vector k of the incident light. In particular, we emphasize the importance of phase-grating effects, which are not accessible in a pure geometric optics approach. Finally, as a by-product we present also an optical analysis of convection rolls in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, where the refraction index of the fluid is isotropic in contrast to its uniaxial symmetry in nematic liquid crystals. Our analysis is in excellent agreement with an earlier physical optics approach by Trainoff and Cannell [Phys. Fluids 14, 1340 (2002)], which is restricted to a two-dimensional geometry and technically much more demanding.

  15. Continuous Rotation of Achiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplets Driven by Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Poy, Guilhem; Oswald, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Suspended droplets of cholesteric (chiral nematic) liquid crystals spontaneously rotate in the presence of a heat flux due to a temperature gradient, a phenomenon known as the Lehmann effect. So far, it is not clear whether this effect is due to the chirality of the phase and the molecules or only to the chirality of the director field. Here, we report the continuous rotation in a temperature gradient of nematic droplets of a lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal featuring a twisted bipolar configuration. The achiral nature of the molecular components leads to a random handedness of the spontaneous twist, resulting in the coexistence of droplets rotating in the two senses, with speeds proportional to the temperature gradient and inversely proportional to the droplet radius. This result shows that a macroscopic twist of the director field is sufficient to induce a rotation of the droplets, and that the phase and the molecules do not need to be chiral. This suggests that one can also explain the Lehmann rotation in cholesteric liquid crystals without introducing the Leslie thermomechanical coupling—only present in chiral mesophases. An explanation based on the Akopyan and Zeldovich theory of thermomechanical effects in nematics is proposed and discussed.

  16. An immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interactions in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    The nematic phase of a liquid crystal is characterized by a spontaneous local molecular alignment leading to an anisotropic (direction-dependent) response to deformations. A body moving through such a phase can induce complex viscous and elastic structures in the flow, and the fluid's anisotropic response can generate surprising forces on the immersed body. Bacteria swimming in a liquid crystal, for instance, have been observed to align with the orientation of the underlying director field. The complexity of such problems generally makes mathematical analysis intractable, and the computation of solutions can still be very challenging. In this talk an immersed boundary method for computing fluid-structure interactions in a nematic liquid crystal will be discussed. The Ericksen-Leslie equations, or a more general Landau-de Gennes model, are solved on a fixed, regular grid. Immersed boundaries communicate forces onto the fluid as in Peskin's original method, but now also torques on the nematic director field through molecular anchoring boundary conditions. Sample applications will also be discussed, including the locomotion of undulatory bodies in anisotropic fluids.

  17. Hard Spherocylinders of Two Different Lengths as a Model System of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on an Anisotropic Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Tomonori; Hyodo, Yosuke; Momoi, Yuichi; Kwak, Musun; Kang, Dongwoo; Choi, Youngseok; Nishioka, Akihiro; Haba, Osamu; Yonetake, Koichiro

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we describe the effects of an anisotropic substrate on the alignment of a nematic liquid crystal. We examine how the substrate affects the alignment of a nematic liquid crystal by Monte Carlo simulation. The liquid crystal on a substrate was described by the phase separation of liquid crystal molecules and substrate molecules, both of which were modeled by hard particles. We used hard rods to represent both the liquid crystal and the substrate. The length of the hard rods representing the substrate was adjusted to represent the degree of substrate anisotropy. The results show that the nematic alignment could either be reinforced or weakened, depending on the length of the substrate rods. Mean field theory is used to analyze the simulation results. We confirmed that the distance over which the substrate affects the bulk liquid crystal is about 3 nm for the present hard-rod-based model.

  18. Alignment and electrooptic effects in nanoparticle-doped nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkead, Brandy; Urbanski, Martin; Qi, Hao; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Hegmann, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that doping nematic liquid crystals with nanoparticles can alter the electrooptic response of the nematic host as well as the alignment of the liquid crystal molecules on various substrates. In addition, nanoparticles dispersed in a nematic matrix often induce defects and defect patterns justifying the necessity for more detailed optical and electrooptic investigations including effects of nanoparticle size, coating, concentration and core material. We studied the local alignment of nematic LC molecules in such dispersions by means of fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy. The results of two- and three-dimensional imaging indicate that frequently observed birefringent stripes, which are induced by the presence of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots, correspond to twist disclinations located at the LC/substrate interface. The luminescence of dispersed quantum dots shows that the ends of these disclination threads are pinned to conglomerates of nanoparticles that stabilize these line defects. By performing (x,z)-scans, it can be shown that the defects are not walls extending through the entire cell gap, but lines that are located at the substrate surface. Our experiments also confirm, as hypothesized before, that the nanoparticles preferably reside at the liquid crystal/substrate interfaces. Finally, detailed electrooptic investigations also revealed that a contrast inversion observed earlier is initiated by a change from parallel to homeotropic anchoring, thereby causing an instability, which in turn leads to the appearance of convection rolls (Kapustin-Williams domains). This electrohydrodynamic instability is likely an example for the behavior of (+, -) systems predicted by de Gennes, which was only recently experimentally observed for the first time.

  19. On a generalization of the Rapini-Papoular expression of the surface free energy for nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, G.; Gabbasova, Z.; Kosevich, Yu. A.

    1991-12-01

    The effect of the K_{13} and K_1 elastic constants on the equilibrium orientation of nematic liquid crystals is considered. Our analysis shows that these terms can be ignored if the surface energy is modified in a particular way. In this manner the difficulties in the elastic theory of nematic liquid crystals connected to the proper minimization of the free energy can be solved. Several suggestions have been made in the past to overcome this lacuna in the elastic theory of nematics. In our paper we suggest a different approach leading to a new surface free energy. The surface variation of the nematic average orientation induced by K_{13} and K_1 is also estimated.

  20. Nonsymmetric bent-core liquid crystals based on a 1,3,4-thiadiazole core unit and their nematic mesomorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Seltmann, Jens; Marini, Alberto; Mennucci, Benedetta; Dey, Sonal; Kumar, Satyendra; Lehmann, Matthias

    2012-09-06

    The synthesis and thermotropic properties of novel V-shaped molecules having a central 1,3,4-thiadiazole core with a bend-angle of 160 degrees are reported. The compounds consist of a shape-persistent oligo(phenylene ethynylene) scaffold with lateral alkyloxy substituents. One of the terminal aromatic units possesses an alkoxy chain capped by an ethyl ester group while the second terminus is a pyridyl group. They exhibit enantiotropic nematic phases and are characterized by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Results from conoscopy indicate a biaxial nature of the nematic phase near room temperature. DFT calculations of dipole moments and molecular polarizabilities are used to substantiate the experimental findings.

  1. Detecting, visualizing, and measuring gold nanoparticle chirality using helical pitch measurements in nematic liquid crystal phases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Mori, Taizo; Lee, Huey-Charn; Worden, Matthew; Bidwell, Eric; Hegmann, Torsten

    2014-12-23

    Chirality at the nanoscale, or more precisely, the chirality or chiroptical effects of chiral ligand-capped metal nanoparticles (NPs) is an intriguing and rapidly evolving field in nanomaterial research with promising applications in catalysis, metamaterials, and chiral sensing. The aim of this work was to seek out a system that not only allows the detection and understanding of NP chirality but also permits visualization of the extent of chirality transfer to a surrounding medium. The nematic liquid crystal phase is an ideal candidate, displaying characteristic defect texture changes upon doping with chiral additives. To test this, we synthesized chiral cholesterol-capped gold NPs and prepared well-dispersed mixtures in two nematic liquid crystal hosts. Induced circular dichroism spectropolarimetry and polarized light optical microscopy revealed that all three gold NPs induce chiral nematic phases, and that those synthesized in the presence of a chiral bias (disulfide) are more powerful chiral inducers than those where the NP was formed in the absence of a chiral bias (prepared by conjugation of a chiral silane to preformed NPs). Helical pitch data here visually show a clear dependence on the NP size and the number of chiral ligands bound to the NP surface, thereby supporting earlier experimental and theoretical data that smaller metal NPs made in the presence of a chiral bias are stronger chiral inducers.

  2. Confined nematic liquid crystal between two spherical boundaries with planar anchoring.

    PubMed

    Seyednejad, Seyed Reza; Mozaffari, Mohammad Reza; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-01

    Nematic shells of liquid crystals have been provided in microscales. Defect structures in the shells are very essential in the electro-optical applications of such colloidal objects. We have numerically minimized the free energy of symmetric and asymmetric spherical shells of the nematic liquid crystal. Considering degenerate planar anchoring on the surfaces and isotropic nematic elasticity, a variety of defect structures are observed by controlling or varying the thicknesses of the shell and its degree of asymmetry. In symmetric shells, our calculations show that boojums (bipolar) defects appear in thick shells and tetrahedral (baseball) defects in thin shells. In asymmetric shells, while we are in the bipolar regime, the boojums defects transform to trigonal configurations. Free energy landscape shows that in this regime the inner droplet is not stable in the center and it is trapped in an off-center minimum energy position. For the case of thin shells, there are two degenerate director textures with similar tetrahedral configuration of the disclination lines. The levels are split in asymmetric shells. The stability of the inner droplet in the center position depends on director texture. It is stable for one texture and unstable for the other one. For an unstable pattern there is no minimum energy position for the inner droplet and it moves until it touches the outer boundary.

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of nematic liquid crystal micro-optics structures with complex patterned electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xing; Kang, Shengwu; Zhang, Xinyu; Ji, An; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Tianxu

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3-D) relaxation method is used to model the dynamic response behavior of liquid crystal (LC) directors in LC micro-optics structures with complex patterned electrodes. The method is based on Frank- Oseen continuum elastic theory by using a vectorial representation. This method can deal with liquid crystal structures with arbitrary patterned electrodes, and it is quite computational stability. Different numerical results obtained according the method are as follows: (1) the nematic LC structures with complex patterned electrodes applied by a constant voltage signal, and (2) the nematic LC structures with different thickness of LC layer, and (3) the nematic LC structures with different signal voltage. The typical results include the distribution of LC directors in LC layers, the distribution of electric potential in LC layers, and the distribution of phase retardation. The results show that the method can be used to effectively predict the formation of disclination lines, which has a strong impact on the performance of LC micro-optics structures.

  4. Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching

    SciTech Connect

    Tartan, Chloe C. E-mail: steve.elston@eng.ox.ac.uk; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J. E-mail: steve.elston@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-05-14

    Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10–100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.

  5. Confined nematic liquid crystal between two spherical boundaries with planar anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyednejad, Seyed Reza; Mozaffari, Mohammad Reza; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-01

    Nematic shells of liquid crystals have been provided in microscales. Defect structures in the shells are very essential in the electro-optical applications of such colloidal objects. We have numerically minimized the free energy of symmetric and asymmetric spherical shells of the nematic liquid crystal. Considering degenerate planar anchoring on the surfaces and isotropic nematic elasticity, a variety of defect structures are observed by controlling or varying the thicknesses of the shell and its degree of asymmetry. In symmetric shells, our calculations show that boojums (bipolar) defects appear in thick shells and tetrahedral (baseball) defects in thin shells. In asymmetric shells, while we are in the bipolar regime, the boojums defects transform to trigonal configurations. Free energy landscape shows that in this regime the inner droplet is not stable in the center and it is trapped in an off-center minimum energy position. For the case of thin shells, there are two degenerate director textures with similar tetrahedral configuration of the disclination lines. The levels are split in asymmetric shells. The stability of the inner droplet in the center position depends on director texture. It is stable for one texture and unstable for the other one. For an unstable pattern there is no minimum energy position for the inner droplet and it moves until it touches the outer boundary.

  6. Chiral amplification in a cyanobiphenyl nematic liquid crystal doped with helicene-like derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Pieraccini, Silvia; Masiero, Stefano; Spada, Gian Piero

    2009-10-07

    The addition of a chiral non-racemic dopant to a nematic liquid crystal (LC) has the effect of transferring the molecular chirality to the phase organization and a chiral nematic phase is formed. This molecular chirality amplification in the LC provides a unique possibility for investigating the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular interactions, and mesoscale organization. It is known that axially chiral or helical-shaped molecules with reduced conformational disorder are good candidates for high helical twisting power derivatives. In particular, biaryl derivatives are known to be efficient chiral inducers in biaryl nematic mesophases. In this paper, we focus on a new series of helicene-like molecules of known absolute configuration. We have integrated cholesteric pitch measurements with geometry optimization by DFT calculations and analysis of the twisting ability by the Surface Chirality model to shed light on the structural features responsible for the analogies and differences exhibited by these derivatives. The investigation of these dopants with well-defined geometry, by virtue of the low conformational freedom, and the substituents variously distributed around the core, allows us to extend our knowledge of the molecular origin of the chirality amplification in liquid crystals and to confirm the simple relationship "molecular P-helicity" --> "cholesteric P-handedness" for helical-shaped helicene-like derivatives.

  7. Localised polymer networks in chiral nematic liquid crystals for high speed photonic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled periodic structures based upon chiral liquid crystalline materials have significant potential in the field of photonics ranging from fast-switching optoelectronic devices to low-threshold lasers. The flexoelectro-optic effect, which is observed in chiral nematic liquid crystals (LCs) when an electric field is applied perpendicular to the helical axis, has significant potential as it exhibits analogue switching in 10-100 μs. However, the major technological barrier that prohibits the commercial realisation of this electro-optic effect is the requirement of a uniform, in-plane alignment of the helix axis between glass substrates. Here, it is shown that periodic polymer structures engineered in the nematic phase of a chiral nematic LC device using direct laser writing can result in the spontaneous formation of the necessary uniform lying helix (ULH) state. Specifically, two-photon polymerization is used in conjunction with a spatial light modulator so as to correct for aberrations introduced by the bounding glass substrates enabling the polymer structures to be fabricated directly into the device. The ULH state appears to be stable in the absence of an externally applied electric field, and the optimum contrast between the bright and dark states is obtained using polymer structures that have periodicities of the order of the device thickness.

  8. Nonlinear and Electro-Optics of Nano-Dispersed Nematic Liquid Crystals with Tunable - - and Positive Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, I. C.; Diaz, A.; Kwon, D.; Werner, D. H.; Liou, J.; Stinger, Mike; Park, J. H.; Kubo, S.; Mallouk, T.

    We present a review of recent progress in the studies of the nonlinear- and electro-optics of liquid crystals, particularly in their meta-material forms. An analytical expression for the "ultimate" optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals is obtained, and several routes to realizing such optical nonlinearities are discussed. We also describe two approaches for realizing tunable or reconfigurable negative-zero-positive index materials: (1) planar nano-structured frequency selective surfaces [FSS] containing nematic liquid crystals; (2) core-shell nano-spheres randomly distributed in bulk nematic liquid crystal matrix. Such metamaterials can be designed for applications in the visible-infrared, as well as Terahertz and microwave regimes. These liquid crystalline meta-materials are capable of supra-nonlinearities characterized by refractive index changing coefficients of over 1 cm2/watt and microseconds response times.

  9. Landau-de Gennes theory of isotropic-nematic-smectic liquid crystal transitions.

    PubMed

    Biscari, Paolo; Calderer, Maria Carme; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2007-05-01

    We propose a Landau-de Gennes variational theory fit to simultaneously describe isotropic, nematic, smectic- A , and smectic- C phases of a liquid crystal. The unified description allows us to deal with systems in which one, or all, of the order parameters develop because of the influence of defects, external fields and/or boundary conditions. We derive the complete phase diagram of the system, that is, we characterize how the homogeneous minimizers depend on the value of the constitutive parameters. The coupling between the nematic order tensor and the complex smectic order parameter generates an elastic potential which is a nonconvex function of the gradient of the smectic order parameter. This lack of convexity yields in turn a loss of regularity of the free-energy minimizers. We then consider the effect on an infinitesimal second-order regularization term in the free-energy functional, which fixes the optimal number of defects in the singular configurations.

  10. Propagation of optical spatial solitary waves in bias-free nematic-liquid-crystal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Sciberras, Luke W.; Worthy, Annette L.; Smyth, Noel F.

    2011-10-15

    The propagation of a bulk optical solitary wave in a rectangular cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal--a nematicon--is mathematically modelled. In order to overcome the Freedricksz threshold the cell walls are rubbed to pretilt the nematic. A modulation theory, based on a Lagrangian formulation, is developed for the (2+1)-dimensional propagation of the solitary wave beam down the cell. This modulation theory is based on two different formulations of the director distribution. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are discussed. A previously unexplored method based on images is found to possess significant advantages. Excellent agreement with full numerical solutions of the nematicon equations is found for both methods. Finally, the implications of the results obtained for some widely used approximations to the nematicon equations are discussed, particularly their use in comparisons with experimental results.

  11. Co-dispersion of plasmonic nanorods in thermotropic nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheetah, Ghadah; Liu, Qinkun; Smalukh, Ivan

    Colloidal dispersions of plasmonic metal nanoparticles in liquid crystals promise the capability of pre-engineering tunable optical properties of mesostructured metal-dielectric composites. Recently, concentrated dispersions of anisotropic gold, silver, and metal alloy nanoparticles in nematic hosts have been achieved and successfully controlled by low-voltage fields. However, to enable versatile designs of material behavior of the composites, simultaneous co-dispersion of anisotropic particles with different shapes, alignment properties, and compositions are often needed. We achieve such co-dispersions and explore their switching characteristics in response to external stimuli like light and electric fields. We demonstrated that spectral characteristics of co-dispersions of multiple types of anisotropic nanoparticles in a common nematic host provides unprecedented variety of electrically- and optically-tunable material behavior, with a host of potential practical applications in electro-optic devices and displays Ghadah acknowledges support from the King Faisal University (KFU) graduate fellowship.

  12. Slow light in photonic crystal cavity filled with nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Kaisar; Mnaymneh, Khaled; Awad, Hazem; Hasan, Imad; Hall, Trevor

    2013-10-01

    An innovative technique to tune the slow light propagated through photonic crystal cavity filled with E7 type nematic crystal has been simulated and presented. Observed propagating modes in the previously fabricated photonic crystal indicate that both slow and fast modes propagate in the waveguide. Design efforts were made to adjust the propagating modes as well as their group velocities. Numerical studies show that by inserting nematic liquid crystal, designer can achieve additional degree of freedom to tune the device by using external perturbation such as applying heat or electric field. Comparative studies have also been done to see the performance of the devices fabricated in two deferent material platforms (silicon and InP) with an objective to develop economic and efficient functional material systems for building robust integrated photonic devices that have the ability to slow, store, and process light pulses.

  13. Mean-Field Limit and Phase Transitions for Nematic Liquid Crystals in the Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sven; Genoud, François

    2017-08-01

    We discuss thermotropic nematic liquid crystals in the mean-field regime. In the first part of this article, we rigorously carry out the mean-field limit of a system of N rod-like particles as N→ ∞, which yields an effective `one-body' free energy functional. In the second part, we focus on spatially homogeneous systems, for which we study the associated Euler-Lagrange equation, with a focus on phase transitions for general axisymmetric potentials. We prove that the system is isotropic at high temperature, while anisotropic distributions appear through a transcritical bifurcation as the temperature is lowered. Finally, as the temperature goes to zero we also prove, in the concrete case of the Maier-Saupe potential, that the system converges to perfect nematic order.

  14. Wide-Viewing-Angle Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell Controlled by Complex Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seung Ho; Kim, Hyang Yul; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Nam, Sang-Hee; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Lee, Seung Hee

    2002-07-01

    We have developed a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell driven by a complex electric field. In the device, the pixel electrode exists on the bottom substrate and the counter electrodes exist on the top and bottom substrates such that with a bias voltage both vertical and horizontal fields are generated. The LC molecules are hybrid aligned with homogeneous alignment on the bottom substrate where the alignment direction is coincident with one of the transmission axes of the crossed polarizers. Therefore, the cell appears to be black in the absence of an electric field. When a voltage is applied to obtain a white state, both vertical and horizontal fields enable the LC molecules to rotate with lowered tilt angles than those in the dark state. The device shows a much wider viewing angle than that of the twisted nematic mode, high light efficiency and low driving voltage in electro-optic characteristics.

  15. Spherical tensor analysis of polar liquid crystals with biaxial and chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Zhong-can, Ou-Yang

    2012-11-01

    With the help of spherical tensor expression, an irreducible calculus of a Lth-rank macroscopic susceptibility χ for a polar liquid crystal (PLC) of biaxial and chiral molecules written as the average of molecular hyperpolarizability tensor β associated with their spherical orientational order parameters (0⩽l⩽L) is presented. Comprehensive formulas of L=1,2 have been obtained and the latter explains the optical activity and spontaneous splay texture observed in bent-core PLC. The expression of L=3 specifies for the molecules with D2 symmetry which can be applied to analyze the nonlinear optical second harmonic generation (SHG) observed in proteins, peptides, and double-stranded DNA at interfaces.

  16. Electric field-induced optical second harmonic generation in nematic liquid crystal 5CB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgova, S. I.; Shigorin, V. D.; Maslyanitsyn, I. A.; Todorova, L.; Marinov, Y. G.; Hadjichristov, G. B.; Petrov, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) was studied for the liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) (a nematic phase material at room temperature). The intensity of coherent SHG from 5CB cells upon DC electric field was measured for various initial orientations of the liquid crystal. The dependence of the SHG intensity on the pump beam incidence angle was obtained in transmission geometry using sample rotation method. The experimental results (the registered light intensity in the output SHG interference patterns) were theoretically modelled and analyzed.

  17. Influence of latent heat and thermal diffusion on the growth of nematic liquid crystal nuclei.

    PubMed

    Huisman, B A H; Fasolino, A

    2007-08-01

    The growth of nematic liquid crystal nuclei from an isotropic melt follows a power law behavior with exponent n found experimentally to vary between 1/2 for low quench depths, up to 1 for high quench depths. This behavior has been attributed to the competition between curvature and free energy. We show that curvature cannot account for the low quench depth behavior of the nucleus growth, and attribute this behavior to the diffusion of latent heat. We use a multiscale approach to solve the Landau-Ginzburg order parameter evolution equation coupled to a diffusive heat equation, and discuss this behavior for material parameters experimentally measured for the liquid crystal 8CB.

  18. Refraction of nonlinear beams by localized refractive index changes in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Assanto, Gaetano; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-11-15

    The propagation of solitary waves in nematic liquid crystals in the presence of localized nonuniformities is studied. These nonuniformities can be caused by external electric fields, other light beams, or any other mechanism which results in a modified director orientation in a localized region of the liquid-crystal cell. The net effect is that the solitary wave undergoes refraction and trajectory bending. A general modulation theory for this refraction is developed, and particular cases of circular, elliptical, and rectangular perturbations are considered. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions.

  19. Electrically Controlled Phase Gratings for Terahertz Radiation Based on Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, D.; Tabiryan, N.; Margaryan, H.; Abrahamyan, V.; Hakobyan, N.

    2014-03-01

    A mathematical model of a new type of liquid crystal (LC) based diffraction grating for the terahertz frequency range is proposed. Numerical time-integration by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method of Maxwell-equation systems, describing the proposed structure, has been performed. The partial differential equation, describing the electro-optical induced orientation of the LC molecule in the external electric field, is calculated by the method of lines (MOL). The dependence of induced birefringence vs. external control voltage is obtained for 6CB nematic liquid crystal (NLC).

  20. Effect of anchoring energy and elastic anisotropy on spherical inclusions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    James, Richard; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores how pairs of spherical particles with homeotropic (normal) surface anchoring cluster when immersed in nematic liquid crystal. By means of the Landau-de Gennes continuum theory we calculate how the equilibrium separation of a particle pair depends on the anchoring energy at the particle surface and the elastic anisotropy of the liquid crystal. We find that, for modest to strong anchoring strengths, the particle separation depends linearly on the elastic anisotropy and the inverse of the anchoring strength. Thus, the anchoring strength can be estimated by measuring the particle-pair separation.

  1. The Behaviour of Perturbations to Travelling Waves Arising in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, G. J.; Stewart, I. W.

    The stability of travelling waves which occur when a nematic liquid crystal is subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields has been studied previously by (Stewart and Faulkner, Cont. Mech. Thermodyn. (1997)) where conditions on a control parameter q for stability to occur have been given. This article is concerned with the behaviour of the stable perturbations as time increases. For each of the three travelling wave solutions we calculate both the essential spectrum and the eigenvalues and use these to determine the long-term monotonic or oscillatory behaviour of the perturbations. The results are also relevant to liquid crystals subjected to a single field.

  2. Stabilization of nematic liquid crystal dispersions with acrylamide copolymers and their electrooptical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Seo, Min-Kang; Han, Mijeong; Lee, Jae-Rock

    2003-01-01

    This study reports the observation of electrooptical properties in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films during the formation of a copolymerization of hydrophilic acrylamide with hydrophobic monomers (styrene and methyl methacrylate). According to the interfacial tension and coalescence time measurements, it is proposed that the presence of hydrophobic moieties onto nematic liquid crystal (NLC) droplet surface leads to a steric stabilization of the dispersion, due to increasing interfacial tension of NLC, decreasing NLC droplet size, and finally reducing anchoring effect between NLC and polymeric wall.

  3. Polarization-controlled contrasted images using dye-doped nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Porras Aguilar, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Baldovino-Pantaleon, O; May-Arrioja, D; Arroyo Carrasco, M L; Iturbe-Castillo, M D; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D; Ramos-Garcia, R

    2009-03-02

    We explore the polarization dependence of the nonlinear response of a planar nematic liquid crystal cell doped with 1% wt of methyl red dye. The results obtained show that the refractive index change can be switched from a positive value to a negative one as the polarization of the beam changes from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the rubbing direction. This property is exploited in a phase contrast system, where a dynamic phase filter is photoinduced in a liquid crystal cell placed in the system's Fourier plane. Real-time contrast inversion in the resulting images is demonstrated.

  4. Critical behavior at the isotropic to nematic, nematic to smectic-A and smectic-A to smectic-C phase transitions in a pyrimidine liquid crystal compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Anish; Chakraborty, Susanta; Kumar Das, Malay

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution optical birefringence (∆n) measurement of a pyrimidine liquid crystal compound having nematic, smectic-A and smectic-C phases are reported. The high-resolution ∆n data are rather successful in assessing the critical anomaly at different phase transitions in the investigated compound with a reasonably good accuracy. The critical exponent β, describing the limiting behavior of the nematic order parameter close to the isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase transition, is found to be in good agreement with the tricritical hypothesis. The critical behavior at the nematic-smectic-A (N-Sm-A) and the smectic-A-smectic-C (Sm-A-Sm-C) phase transitions has been explored with the aid of a differential quotient extracted from the ∆n values. The yielded effective critical exponent α‧ is appeared to be nearly tricritical in nature for the N-Sm-A phase transition. For the Sm-A-Sm-C phase transition, α‧ exhibits a weak dependence on the fit range and assumes tricritical value for large temperature range considered, which again is found to be diminished slightly with reduction in the temperature range. Related critical amplitude quotient and corrections-to-scaling quotient are found to display deviations from the theoretical models. Such behavior signals the appearance of a non-Landau character for the orthogonal to tilted smectic phase transition in the investigated compound.

  5. Patterned surface anchoring of nematic droplets at miscible liquid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Ye; Kim, Young-Ki; Miller, Daniel S; Zhang, Rui; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; Bukusoglu, Emre; Zhang, Bo; Brown, Thaddeus M; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2017-08-30

    We report on the internal configurations of droplets of nematic liquid crystals (LCs; 10-50 μm-in-diameter; comprised of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl and 4-(3-acryloyloxypropyloxy)benzoic acid 2-methyl-1,4-phenylene ester) sedimented from aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto interfaces formed with pure glycerol. We observed a family of internal LC droplet configurations and topological defects consistent with a remarkably abrupt transition from homeotropic (perpendicular) to tangential anchoring on the surface of the LC droplets in the interfacial environment. Calculations of the interdiffusion of water and glycerol at the aqueous-glycerol interface revealed the thickness of the diffuse interfacial region of the two miscible liquids to be small (0.2-0.5 μm) compared to the diameters of the LC droplets on the experimental time-scale (15-120 minutes), leading us to hypothesize that the patterned surface anchoring was induced by gradients in concentration of SDS and glycerol across the diameter of the LC droplets in the interfacial region. This hypothesis received additional support from experiments in which the time of sedimentation of the LC droplets onto the interface was systematically increased and the droplets were photo-polymerized to preserve their configurations: the configurations of the LC droplets were consistent with a time-dependent decrease in the fraction of the surface area of each droplet exhibiting homeotropic anchoring. Specifically, LC droplets with <10% surface area with tangential anchoring exhibited a bulk point defect within the LC droplet, whereas droplets with >10% surface area with tangential anchoring exhibited a boojum defect within the tangential region and a disclination loop separated the regions with tangential and homeotropic anchoring. The topological charge of these LC droplet configurations was found to be consistent with the geometrical theorems of Poincaré and Gauss and also well-described by computer

  6. Tunable photonic nanojet achieved using a core-shell microcylinder with nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2013-04-01

    A tunable photonic nanojet achieved using a core-shell microcylinder with nematic liquid crystal is reported. The core-shell microcylinder can be obtained by the infiltration of liquid crystal into the air core of a microcylinder. The refractive indices of the liquid crystals can be changed by rotating the directors of the liquid crystals. Therefore, we were able to control the flow direction of the photonic nanojet in two-dimensional core-shell microcylinder structures. Using high resolution finite-difference time-domain simulation, we demonstrate that the photonic nanojet can be continuously tuned in the core-shell microcylinder. The horizontal and vertical shifts of photonic nanojet depend strongly on the director of the liquid crystals. Such a mechanism of nanojet adjustment should open up a new application for using visible light to detect nanoparticles, optical gratings, and single molecules with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  7. Propelling and spinning of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals driven by ac electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasna, M. V.; Ramudu, U. V.; Chandrasekar, R.; Dhara, Surajit

    2017-01-01

    Dynamics of microparticles in isotropic liquids by transducing the energy of an applied electric field have been studied for decades. Recently, such studies in anisotropic media like liquid crystals have opened up new perspectives in colloid science. Here, we report studies on ac-electric-field-driven dynamics of microsheets in nematic liquid crystals. In planar aligned liquid crystals, with negative dielectric anisotropy, the microsheets are propelled parallel to the director. A steady spinning of the microsheets is observed in homeotropic cells with positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals. The velocity of propelling and the angular frequency of spinning depends on the amplitude and the frequency of the applied electric field. The electrokinetic studies of anisotropic microparticles are important as they are potential for applications in microfluidics and in areas where the controlled transport or rotation is required.

  8. Plasmon electro-optic effect in a subwavelength metallic nanograting with a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palto, S. P.; Barnik, M. I.; Kasyanova, I. V.; Geivandov, A. R.; Shtykov, N. M.; Artemov, V. V.; Gorkunov, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    The electro-optic effect in hybrid structures based on subwavelength metallic nanogratings in contact with a layer of a nematic liquid crystal has been experimentally studied. Metallic gratings are fabricated in the form of interdigitated electrodes, which makes it possible to use them not only as optical elements but also for the production of an electric field in a thin surface region of the layer of the liquid crystal. It has been shown that, owing to the electric-field-induced reorientation of molecules of the liquid crystal near the surface of the grating, it is possible to significantly control the spectral features of the transmission of light, which are caused by the excitation of surface plasmons. The electro-optic effect is superfast for liquid crystal devices because a change in the optical properties of the system requires the reorientation of molecules only in a very thin surface layer of the liquid crystal.

  9. Zigzag line defects and manipulation of colloids in a nematic liquid crystal in microwrinkle grooves

    PubMed Central

    Ohzono, Takuya; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Spatially confined liquid crystals exhibit non-uniform alignment, often accompanied by self-organised topological defects of non-trivial shape in response to imposed boundary conditions and geometry. Here we show that a nematic liquid crystal, when confined in a sinusoidal microwrinkle groove, exhibits a new periodic arrangement of twist deformations and a zigzag line defect. This periodic ordering results from the inherent liquid crystal elastic anisotropy and the antagonistic boundary conditions at the flat liquid crystal–air and the curved liquid crystal–groove interfaces. The periodic structure can be tuned by controlling the groove geometry and the molecular chirality, which demonstrates the importance of boundary conditions and introduced asymmetry for the engineering of topological defects. Moreover, the kinks in the zigzag defects can trap small particles, which may afford a new method for manipulation of colloids. Our system, which uses easily fabricated microwrinkle grooves, provides a new microfabrication method based on the arrangement of controllable defects. PMID:22426222

  10. Necklaces of Liquid Crystal Beads: Nematic Drops Constrained on Thin Cellulosic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Pedro; Geng, Yong; Terentjev, Eugene; Godinho, Maria Helena

    2012-02-01

    Liquid crystal droplets dispersed in a continuous matrix have important applications in electro-optical devices. They also produce intriguing topological defect structures due to the confinement of the liquid crystal by closed boundaries that impose alignment at the interface. In this work we use a simple method to generate stable liquid crystal droplets topologically equivalent to a toroid by depositing tiny volumes of a nematic liquid on cellulosic micro-fibers (1 μm diameter) suspended in air. This system can exhibit non-trivial point topological defects which can be energetically unstable against expanding into ring defects, depending on the fibers constraining geometries. By changing temperature, the system remains stable and allows the study of the defects evolution near the nematic-isotropic transition showing qualitatively different behavior on cooling and heating processes. The necklaces of such liquid crystal drops constitute excellent systems for fundamental studies and open new perspectives for applications. This work was sponsored by Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Force Material Command, USAF, under grant number FA8655-10-1-3020. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purpose notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. Other support includes the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation grant SFRH/BD/63574/2009 and projects PEst-C/CTM/LA0025/2011 (Strategic Project - LA 25 - 2011-2012, PTDC/CTM/099595/2008, PTDC/FIS/110132/2009 and Windsor Treaty grant 2009-10 UR55.

  11. Electro-osmosis of nematic liquid crystals under weak anchoring and second-order surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddar, Antarip; Dhar, Jayabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    Advent of nematic liquid crystal flows has attracted renewed attention in view of microfluidic transport phenomena. Among various transport processes, electro-osmosis stands as one of the efficient flow actuation mechanisms through narrow confinements. In the present study, we explore the electrically actuated flow of an ordered nematic fluid with ionic inclusions, taking into account the influences from surface-induced elasticity and electrical double layer (EDL) phenomena. Toward this, we devise the coupled flow governing equations from fundamental free-energy analysis, considering the contributions from first- and second-order elastic, dielectric, flexoelectric, charged surface polarization, ionic and entropic energies. The present study focuses on the influence of surface charge and elasticity effects in the resulting linear electro-osmosis through a slit-type microchannel whose surfaces are chemically treated to display a homeotropic-type weak anchoring state. An optical periodic stripe configuration of the nematic director has been observed, especially for higher electric fields, wherein the Ericksen number for the dynamic study is restricted to the order of unity. Contrary to the isotropic electrolytes, the EDL potential in this case was found to be dependent on the external field strength. Through a systematic investigation, we brought out the fact that the wavelength of the oscillating patterns is dictated mainly by the external field, while the amplitude depends on most of the physical variables ranging from the anchoring strength and the flexoelectric coefficients to the surface charge density and electrical double layer thickness.

  12. Field-driven dynamics of microcapillaries filled with nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Fred; Khayyatzadeh, Pouya; Abukhdeir, Nasser M.

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) composites have long been a focus of study for their unique electro-optical properties and the feasibility of manufacturing them on a large scale, resulting in applications such as switchable windows. LC domains within PDLCs are typically spheroidal, as opposed to rectangular in LCD technology, and thus exhibit substantially different behaviour in the presence of an external field. In this work, continuum simulations were performed in order to capture the complex formation and electric field-driven switching dynamics of approximations of PDLC domains. A simplified elliptic cylinder (microcapillary) geometry is used and the effects of varying aspect ratio, surface anchoring, and external field strength were studied using the Landau-de Gennes model. The observed nematic formation and reorientation dynamics were found to be governed by the presence and motion of defects within the domain. Aspect ratio was found to strongly influence domain texture by providing regions of high curvature to which defects are attracted. Simulations also predict the presence of a geometry-controlled transition from nematic order enhanced by an external field (low aspect ratio) to nematic order frustrated by an external field (high aspect ratio). This work was made possible by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Compute Ontario.

  13. Symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals: analogy with cosmology and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Repnik, R; Ranjkesh, A; Simonka, V; Ambrozic, M; Bradac, Z; Kralj, S

    2013-10-09

    Universal behavior related to continuous symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystals is studied using Brownian molecular dynamics. A three-dimensional lattice system of rod-like objects interacting via the Lebwohl-Lasher interaction is considered. We test the applicability of predictions originally derived in cosmology and magnetism. In the first part we focus on coarsening dynamics following the temperature driven isotropic-nematic phase transition for different quench rates. The behavior in the early coarsening regime supports predictions made originally by Kibble in cosmology. For fast enough quenches, symmetry breaking and causality give rise to a dense tangle of defects. When the degree of orientational ordering is large enough, well defined protodomains characterized by a single average domain length are formed. With time subcritical domains gradually vanish and supercritical domains grow with time, exhibiting a universal scaling law. In the second part of the paper we study the impact of random-field-type disorder on a range of ordering in the (symmetry broken) nematic phase. We demonstrate that short-range order is observed even for a minute concentration of impurities, giving rise to disorder in line with the Imry-Ma theorem prediction only for the appropriate history of systems.

  14. Robustness of the periodic and chaotic orientational behavior of tumbling nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Ilg, Patrick; Hess, Siegfried

    2006-06-01

    The dynamical behavior of molecular alignment strongly affects physical properties of nematic liquid crystals. A theoretical description can be made by a nonlinear relaxation equation of the order parameter and leads to the prediction that rather complex even chaotic orientational behavior occur. Here the influence of fluctuating shear rates on the orientational dynamics especially on chaotic solutions is discussed. With the help of phase portraits and time evolution diagrams, we investigated the influence of different fluctuation strengths on the flow aligned, isotropic, and periodic solutions. To explore the effect of fluctuations on the chaotic behavior, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent for different fluctuation strengths. We found in all cases that small fluctuations of the shear rate do not affect the basic features of the dynamics of tumbling nematics. Furthermore, we present an amended potential modeling the isotropic to nematic transition and discuss the equivalence and difference to the commonly used Landau-de Gennes potential. In contrast to the Landau-de Gennes potential, our potential has the advantage to restrict the order parameter to physically admissible values. In the case of extensional flow, we show that the amended potential leads for increasing extensional rate to a better agreement with experimental results.

  15. Faraday waves on nematic liquid crystals: effect of Marangoni flow and thermal phase transition.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Contreras, M

    2013-12-01

    The parametric instability in nematic liquid crystal layers has been studied using linear stability theory. Using material parameters of typical nematics, the neutral stability curve and dispersion relation of a system that presents critical subharmonic waves is obtained. The critical acceleration and wave number of the unstable stationary waves are discontinuous at the nematic-isotropic transition temperature and conform to similar sharp changes experienced by the viscosities and surface tension as a function of temperature. Due to Marangoni flow the curve of the critical acceleration as a function of excitation frequency exhibits a minimum. If the Marangoni flow is neglected and the dynamical viscosity is increased, a monotonously increasing dependence of the acceleration in terms of oscillation frequency is observed. A bicritical instability is reached for a layer thickness of a few millimeters. A well-defined subharmonic wave is attained when the thickness of the layer is further increased. The dispersion relation of these waves displays a discontinuous shift at high frequencies due to alternating secondary thresholds of Faraday waves. At negligible external forcing we determined the dispersion relationship of thermal surface waves.

  16. Topological Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals with Bulk Nematic Defect Lines Pinned to Handlebody Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michael G.; Tasinkevych, Mykola; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer dispersed liquid crystals are a useful model system for studying the relationship between surface topology and defect structures. They are comprised of a polymer matrix with suspended spherical nematic drops and are topologically constrained to host defects of an elementary hedgehog charge per droplet, such as bulk or surface point defects or closed disclination loops. We control the genus of the closed surfaces confining such micrometer-sized nematic drops with tangential boundary conditions for molecular alignment imposed by the polymer matrix, allowing us to avoid defects or, on the contrary, to generate them in a controlled way. We show, both experimentally and through numerical modeling, that topological constraints in nematic microdrops can be satisfied by hosting topologically stable half-integer bulk defect lines anchored to opposite sides of handlebody surfaces. This enriches the interplay of topologies of closed surfaces and fields with nonpolar symmetry, yielding new unexpected configurations that cannot be realized in vector fields, having potential implications for topologically similar defects in cosmology and other fields.

  17. Molecular dynamics of a binary mixture of twist-bend nematic liquid crystal dimers studied by dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; Sebastián, Nerea; Salud, Josep; Diez-Berart, Sergio; Dunmur, David A; Luckhurst, Geoffrey R; López, David O; de la Fuente, M Rosario

    2016-06-01

    We report a comprehensive dielectric characterization of a liquid crystalline binary mixture composed of the symmetric mesogenic dimer CB7CB and the nonsymmetric mesogenic dimer FFO9OCB. In addition to the high-temperature nematic phase, such a binary mixture shows a twist-bend nematic phase at room temperature which readily vitrifies on slow cooling. Changes in the conformational distribution of the dimers are reflected in the dielectric permittivity and successfully analyzed by means of an appropriate theoretical model. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of the mixture reflect the different molecular dipole properties of the components, resembling in the present case the characteristic dielectric spectra of nonsymmetric dimers. Comparison of the nematic and twist-bend nematic phases reveals that molecular dynamics are similar despite the difference in the molecular environment.

  18. Optical properties of light-sensitive liquid-crystal elastomers in the vicinity of the nematic-paranematic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorc, Marko; Li, Hui; Domenici, Valentina; Ambrožič, Gabriela; Čopič, Martin; Drevenšek-Olenik, Irena

    2013-02-01

    We investigate light-induced patterning of a monodomain side-chain liquid crystal elastomer (SC-LCE) doped with light-sensitive azobenzene moiety in the temperature region close to the nematic-paranematic phase transition. We show that a strongly nonlinear relationship between the concentration of the cis isomers of the azomesogens and the refractive index modification of the material, which is characteristic for the phase transition region, results in nonmonotonous time dependence of the diffraction efficiency of a probe beam. From this effect we determine the sensitivity of the nematic transition temperature on the molar fraction of the cis isomers. The relation between the cis isomer molar fraction and nematic order also provides a possibility for recording hidden holograms, which can be made visible by cooling the sample from the paranematic to the nematic phase.

  19. Subwavelength coupling strengthened optical amplification in nematic liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua; Xue, Tingyu; Su, Hang; Wang, Yingce; Zhang, Jingwen

    2017-09-01

    We observed strikingly different first reflection dynamics of two counter-propagating laser beams passing through a wedge-shaped C60-doped liquid crystal cell sandwiched between two ZnSe-coated ITO glass plates without applied electric field, suggesting a strong subwavelength energy coupling between light beams. Exponential gain coefficient as high as 10 574 cm-1 was obtained from the 1.1 μm-thick portion of the cell under applied voltage U0 = 3.0 V, consisting with the subwavelength coupling picture. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) supporting layer is identified by considering dipolar properties of liquid crystal molecules that are well aligned. The specific features in energy coupling dynamics and 2D diffraction patterns perceived suggest that SPP mediated coupling is responsible for all the findings.

  20. Stability of Equilibria of Nematic Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Gilles de Gennes was awarded the Nobel Prize ∗Received September 30, 2011. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation and by the...crystals have spurted intensive experimental, theoretical and numerical studies [1, 5, 6, 18, 31, 39]. One notable example is that in 1991 Pierre ...finite-aspect-ratio macromolecules in shear and related linear flows. Rheol Acta, 2003, 42: 20–46 [18] De Gennes P G, Prost J. The Physics of Liquid

  1. Imaging in natural light with nematic liquid crystals (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstian, Tigran V.

    2015-10-01

    Nametic liquid crystals (NLC) are most commonly used liquid crystal (LC) materials in various light modulators [1], displays [2] and lenses [3]. However those materials have a fundamental limitation: they are polarization sensitive since the refractive index modulation here is achieved by the electric field induced reorientation of their local anisotropy axis. Thus, the standard imaging optical systems (used in consumer electronic products and dealing with natural light sources [4]) have to use double NLC structures in a cross oriented way and in rather requiring geometrical conditions. We describe a simple but very efficient optical device that allows the dynamic focusing of unpolarized light using a single NLC layer. The operation principle of the proposed device is based on the combination of an electrically variable "single layer lens" with two fixed optical elements for light reflection and 90° polarization flip. Such an approach is made possible thanks to the close integration of thin film wave plate and mirror. Preliminary experimental studies of the obtained electrically variable mirror show very promising results. Several standard camera geometries, using the double layer approach, and possible new geometries, using the reflective approach, will be described. References 1. Gordon D. Love, Wave-front correction and production of Zernike modes with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, Applied Optics, Vol. 36, Issue 7, pp. 1517-1524 (1997). 2. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays, Wiley, 1999. 3. T. Galstian, Smart Mini-Cameras, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis group, 2013. 4. www.lensvector.com

  2. Phase synchronization of the hydrodynamic and orientational modes during electroconvection in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyrshin, E. S.; Krekhov, A. P.; Skaldin, O. A.; Delev, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of oscillating electroconvective structures appearing in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) under the combined action of applied alternating (ac) and direct (dc) electric voltages has been experimentally studied. It is established that an increase in the dc component of the applied voltage leads to synchronization of the hydrodynamic mode with the orientational twist mode of the NLC director. The synchronization parameter and the phase shift of the modes are determined as function of the applied dc voltage. The results confirm the flexoelectric mechanism of synchronization.

  3. Communication: Orientational structure manipulation in nematic liquid crystal droplets induced by light excitation of azodendrimer dopant

    PubMed Central

    Emelyanenko, Alexander V.; Boiko, Natalia I.; Liu, Jui-Hsiang; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2017-01-01

    Reversible orientational transitions in the droplets of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) caused by the change of boundary conditions under the low intensity diode illumination are investigated. Photosensitivity of NLC is achieved by the addition of the dendrimer compound with azobenzene terminal groups. Two types of NLC droplets in glycerol are considered: the spherical droplets in the bulk of glycerol and the droplets laid-down onto the solid substrate. In the second case, the first order phase transition is revealed. The effects described can be useful for the development of highly sensitive chemical detectors and microsized photo-tunable optical devices. PMID:28595414

  4. Communication: Orientational structure manipulation in nematic liquid crystal droplets induced by light excitation of azodendrimer dopant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Sergey A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander V.; Boiko, Natalia I.; Liu, Jui-Hsiang; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2017-06-01

    Reversible orientational transitions in the droplets of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) caused by the change of boundary conditions under the low intensity diode illumination are investigated. Photosensitivity of NLC is achieved by the addition of the dendrimer compound with azobenzene terminal groups. Two types of NLC droplets in glycerol are considered: the spherical droplets in the bulk of glycerol and the droplets laid-down onto the solid substrate. In the second case, the first order phase transition is revealed. The effects described can be useful for the development of highly sensitive chemical detectors and microsized photo-tunable optical devices.

  5. Role of initial conditions in the decay of spatially periodic patterns in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Werner; Kramer, Lorenz; Eber, Nándor; Buka, Agnes

    2006-06-01

    The decay of stripe patterns in planarly aligned nematic liquid crystals has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The initial patterns have been generated by the electrohydrodynamic instability and a light diffraction technique has been used to monitor their decay. In our experiments different decay rates have been observed as a function of the pattern wave number. According to our theoretical analysis they belong to a spectrum of decay modes and are individually selected in dependence on the initial conditions. Additional insight has emerged from a refined physical optical description of the diffraction intensity. The results compare well with experiments, which include also controlled modifications of the initial conditions to assess different decay modes.

  6. Half-Integer Point Defects in the Q-Tensor Theory of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fratta, G.; Robbins, J. M.; Slastikov, V.; Zarnescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate prototypical profiles of point defects in two-dimensional liquid crystals within the framework of Landau-de Gennes theory. Using boundary conditions characteristic of defects of index k/2, we find a critical point of the Landau-de Gennes energy that is characterised by a system of ordinary differential equations. In the deep nematic regime, b^2 small, we prove that this critical point is the unique global minimiser of the Landau-de Gennes energy. For the case b^2=0, we investigate in greater detail the regime of vanishing elastic constant L → 0, where we obtain three explicit point defect profiles, including the global minimiser.

  7. Equilibrium Configuration in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplet with Homeotropic Anchoring of Finite Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanke, Masaki; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium configuration of order parameter in a nematic liquid crystal droplet with homeotropic anchoring of finite strength at the surface is studied numerically by using the Landau--de Gennes approach. It is found that a hedgehog-like configuration with a disclination loop of a small radius is stable for strong anchoring while an axial configuration without defect is stable for weak anchoring. A first-order phase transition from one configuration to the other occurs as the strength of the anchoring is varied. The critical anchoring strength turns out to increase almost linearly with the inverse of the droplet radius.

  8. Clock-model description of incommensurate ferroelectric films and of nematic-liquid-crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Srolovitz, D.J.; Scott, J.F.

    1986-08-01

    The transmission electron micrographs of submicrometer-thick specimens of incommensurate barium sodium niobate obtained by Xiao-qing e-italict-italic a-italicl-italic. exhibit textures with lines of disclinations ending in vertices of Friedel index m-italic = +1. These are similar to those observed in nematic-liquid-crystal films with continuously degenerate boundary conditions. The nature of the vertices at which these lines meet permits us to examine the physical and topological basis for the equivalence of the two systems. A four-state clock model, in two dimensions, is shown to predict the observed structure.

  9. Colloidal liquid crystals in square confinement: isotropic, nematic and smectic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Louis B. G.; Gao, Yongxiang; Dullens, Roel P. A.; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the confinement of colloidal liquid crystals in three dimensional chambers with a square footprint. To this end we use colloidal silica rods and exploit their relatively large density difference with respect to the dispersing solvent to study isotropic, nematic and smectic phases confined into a single chamber. Combining laser scanning confocal microscopy and soft-lithography techniques enables us to characterize the configurations down to the single particle level. We will focus on the smectic phase and compare to recent theories and simulations.

  10. Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM) using twisted-nematic liquid-crystal modulation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tan H; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (TNLC-SLM) for quantitative phase imaging. The experimental setup is a new implementation of the SLIM principle, which is a phase shifting, white light method for quantitative phase imaging. The approach is based on switching between the phase and amplitude modulation modes of the SLM. Our system is able to deliver a 0.99 nm spatial and 1.33 nm temporal pathlength sensitivity while retaining the optical transverse resolution. The system is implemented as an additional module mounted to a conventional microscope, which makes the system very easy to deploy and integrate with other imaging modalities.

  11. Convection in a nematic liquid crystal with homeotropic alignment and heated from below

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, G.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental results for convection in a thin horizontal layer of a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal heated from below and in a vertical magnetic field are presented. A subcritical Hopf bifurcation leads to the convecting state. There is quantitative agreement between the measured and the predicted bifurcation line as a function of magnetic field. The nonlinear state near the bifurcation is one of spatio-temporal chaos which seems to be the result of a zig-zag instability of the straight-roll state.

  12. Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, S. M.; Qasim, M. M.; Cheng, K. T.; Castles, F.; Ko, D.-H.; Gardiner, D. J.; Nosheen, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Coles, H. J.; Burgess, C.; Hill, L.

    2013-09-01

    We report the demonstration of an optically activated shutter based upon a short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal (LC) device sandwiched between crossed polarizers. This LC is comprised of photo-active chiral dopants. In the trans-state, the LC appears dark between crossed polarizers due to the very short pitch. As the pitch is extended through exposure to ultraviolet light, the device becomes transmissive reaching a maximum for a particular value of the pitch. As a result, it is possible to switch between the light and dark states by subjecting the device to visible light so as to cause a cis-trans photo-isomerisation.

  13. Maier-Saupe-type theory of ferroelectric nanoparticles in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Lena M; Selinger, Jonathan V

    2011-10-01

    Several experiments have reported that ferroelectric nanoparticles have drastic effects on nematic liquid crystals-increasing the isotropic-nematic transition temperature by about 5 K, and greatly increasing the sensitivity to applied electric fields. In a recent paper [Lopatina and Selinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197802 (2009)], we modeled these effects through a Landau theory, based on coupled orientational order parameters for the liquid crystal and the nanoparticles. This model has one important limitation: Like all Landau theories, it involves an expansion of the free energy in powers of the order parameters, and hence it overestimates the order parameters that occur in the low-temperature phase. For that reason, we now develop a new Maier-Saupe-type model, which explicitly shows the low-temperature saturation of the order parameters. This model reduces to the Landau theory in the limit of high temperature or weak coupling, but shows different behavior in the opposite limit. We compare these calculations with experimental results on ferroelectric nanoparticles in liquid crystals.

  14. The influence of homogenization process on lasing performance in polymer-nematic liquid crystal emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamow, Alina; Sznitko, Lech; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw

    2017-07-01

    In this letter we report on the results of studies of amplified spontaneous emission in polymer - liquid crystal emulsions based on mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and 5CB nematic liquid crystal doped with three luminescent dyes: DCM, Coumarin 504 and Coumarin 540. The mixture of dyes was used in order to extend the range of stimulated emission spectra. We have investigated the emission properties of four samples with different size and distribution of liquid crystal micro droplets, controlled by the length of time exposure on ultrasounds during the homogenization process. We have designated the threshold conditions for stimulated emission occurrence and compared the emission spectra obtained below as well as above threshold conditions.

  15. Determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soutar, Colin; Lu, Kanghua

    1994-08-01

    We present an experimental procedure for the determination of the physical properties of an arbitrary twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell. No assumptions are made about the physical properties of the cell, because the commercially available devices are generally produced under proprietary conditions. The techniques developed were then used to evaluate the Jones matrix of an Epson liquid crystal television, and reasonable agreement is observed between theory and experiment. Knowledge of the Jones matrix for these devices helps to evaluate their performance as spatial light modulators in optical processing systems, and such applications are discussed. It also provides an effective means for determining the spatial quality of the liquid crystal layer. We find that there is significant variation in the birefringence across this cell, and the influence that this has on the use of the cell in optical processing systems is discussed.

  16. Straining soft colloids in aqueous nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio; Mushenheim, Peter; Pendery, Joel; Weibel, Douglas; Abbott, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are anisotropic, viscoelastic fluids that can be used to direct colloids into organized assemblies with unusual optical, mechanical, and electrical properties. In past studies, the colloids have been sufficiently rigid that their individual shapes and properties have not been strongly coupled to elastic stresses imposed by the LCs. We will discuss how soft colloids (micrometer-sized shells) behave in LCs. We reveal a sharing of strain between the LC and shells, resulting in formation of spindle-like shells and other complex shapes. These results hint at previously unidentified designs of reconfigurable soft materials with applications in sensing and biology. Related effects relevant to biolocomotion will also be touched upon. Wisconsin MRSEC Grant DMR-1121288.

  17. Chromonic liquid crystalline nematic phase exhibited in binary mixture of two liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaiah, T. N. Sreepad, H. R.; Sridhar, K. N.; Sridhara, G. R.; Nagaraja, N.

    2015-06-24

    A binary mixture of abietic acid and orthophosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) exhibits co-existence of biphasic region of Nematic+Isotropic (N+I), lyotropic Nematic (ND) and Smectic-G (SmG) phases. The mixture exhibits N+I, N and SmG phases at different concentrations and at different temperatures. Mixtures with all concentrations of abietic acid exhibit I→N+I→N→SmG phases sequentially when the specimen is cooled from its isotropic melt. These phases have been characterized by using differential scanning calorimetric, X-ray diffraction, and optical texture studies.

  18. Possible nematic spin liquid in spin-1 antiferromagnetic system on the square lattice: Implications for the nematic paramagnetic state of FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shou-Shu; Zhu, W.; Sheng, D. N.; Yang, Kun

    2017-05-01

    The exotic normal state of iron chalcogenide superconductor FeSe, which exhibits vanishing magnetic order and possesses an electronic nematic order, triggered extensive explorations of its magnetic ground state. To understand its novel properties, we study the ground state of a highly frustrated spin-1 system with bilinear-biquadratic interactions using an unbiased large-scale density matrix renormalization group. Remarkably, with increasing biquadratic interactions, we find a paramagnetic phase between Néel and stripe magnetic ordered phases. We identify this phase as a candidate of nematic quantum spin liquid by the compelling evidences, including vanished spin and quadrupolar orders, absence of lattice translational symmetry breaking, and a persistent nonzero lattice nematic order in the thermodynamic limit. The established quantum phase diagram naturally explains the observations of enhanced spin fluctuations of FeSe in neutron scattering measurement and the phase transition with increasing pressure. This identified paramagnetic phase provides a possibility to understand the novel properties of FeSe.

  19. High-Resolution X-Ray Study of Nematic-Smectic-A And Smectic-A-Reentrant-Nematic Transitions in Liquid-Crystal-Aerosil Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanoglu, M.; Larochelle, S.; Garland, C.W.; Birgeneau, R.J.

    2009-05-21

    We have studied the effects of quenched random disorder created by dispersed aerosil nanoparticle gels on the nematic to smectic- A (N- SmA ) and smectic- A to reentrant nematic ( SmA -RN) phase transitions of thermotropic liquid-crystal mixtures of hexyloxycyanobiphenyl (6OCB) and octyloxycyanobiphenyl (8OCB). These effects are probed using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques. We find that the reentrant characteristics of the system are largely unchanged by the presence of the aerosil gel network. By comparing measurements of the smectic static structure amplitude for this 8OCB- 6OCB+aerosil system with those for butyloxybenzilidene-octylaniline (4O.8)+aerosil gels, we find that the short-range smectic order in the smectic- A phase is significantly weaker in the reentrant system. This result is consistent with the behavior seen in pure 8OCB-6OCB mixtures. The strength of the smectic ordering decreases progressively as the 6OCB concentration is increased. Detailed line shape analysis shows that the high- and low-temperature nematic phases (N and RN) are similar to each other.

  20. High-resolution x-ray study of nematic-smectic- A and smectic- A -reentrant-nematic transitions in liquid-crystal-aerosil gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanoglu, M.; Larochelle, S.; Garland, C. W.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2008-03-01

    We have studied the effects of quenched random disorder created by dispersed aerosil nanoparticle gels on the nematic to smectic- A (N- SmA ) and smectic- A to reentrant nematic ( SmA -RN) phase transitions of thermotropic liquid-crystal mixtures of hexyloxycyanobiphenyl (6OCB) and octyloxycyanobiphenyl (8OCB). These effects are probed using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques. We find that the reentrant characteristics of the system are largely unchanged by the presence of the aerosil gel network. By comparing measurements of the smectic static structure amplitude for this 8OCB- 6OCB+aerosil system with those for butyloxybenzilidene-octylaniline (4O.8)+aerosil gels, we find that the short-range smectic order in the smectic- A phase is significantly weaker in the reentrant system. This result is consistent with the behavior seen in pure 8OCB-6OCB mixtures. The strength of the smectic ordering decreases progressively as the 6OCB concentration is increased. Detailed line shape analysis shows that the high- and low-temperature nematic phases (N and RN) are similar to each other.

  1. Alternating Waves in Electroconvection of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Gyanu; Gleeson, J. T.; Ladd, Joshua; Dangelmayr, Gerhard; Oprea, Juliana

    2006-11-01

    We present the results of pattern formation in electroconvection of liquid crystal 4-ethyl-2-fluoro-4'-[2-(trans-4-pentylclohexyl)-ethyl]biphenyl (I52) with planar alignment. The pattern was a function of three control parameters: applied ac voltage, driving frequency and electrical conductivity. Over certain range of conductivity, the initial transition (supercritical Hopf bifurcation) leads to right and left traveling zig and zag rolls .Time evolution of spatial Fourier transform (FT) of a series of these images with the sampling rate greater than Hopf frequency and taken under same controlled parameters were studied. To demodulate zig/zag rolls, the region around kn ( the wave vector of a given mode) of interest at one quarter of the FT was taken setting remainder of the FTs to zero. Taking the index of the maximum FT value at that region as the reference point, again this region was separated into four parts and redistributed at four corners. The absolute value of the inverse FT of the modified function gives the required envelope. The temporal variation of the amplitudes of these envelopes is periodic between standing zig and zag modes which are consistent with the theoretical predictions*. Supported by NSF-DMS0407418. *G. Dangelmayr and I. Opera. Mol. Cryst., Liq. Cryst., 413:2241, 2004

  2. Quick measurement of electrorheological effect for small amounts of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Chiharu; Hosomi, Yuki; Nakano, Ken

    2015-08-01

    A quick measurement method of effective viscosity, employing damped oscillation between two parallel plates, was proposed to examine the electrorheological (ER) effect for small amounts of nematic liquid crystal (LC). To demonstrate the validity of the method, the viscosity measurements were conducted for ordinary liquids [polyalphaolefins (PAOs)] and a nematic LC [4-pentyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (5CB)] by using a newly developed apparatus that embodied the measurement principle. The viscosity measurements for PAOs showed that when the film thickness is in the submillimeter range (e.g. 0.2 mm), this method provides reliable values of the effective viscosity. The viscosity measurement for 5CB showed that this method evaluates the ER effect with a few dozen cubic millimeters of the sample (e.g. 16 mm3) under the application of a voltage (e.g. 0 to 300 V). It was confirmed that the effective viscosities of 5CB measured at various conditions were scaled to a single master curve as a function of the applied voltage, effective velocity and film thickness.

  3. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Pu, Shengli; Ji, Hongzhu; Yu, Guojun

    2012-05-01

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δ n) and figure of merit of optical properties ( Q = Δ n/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of Q R exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field.

  4. Annihilation dynamics of stringlike topological defects in a nematic lyotropic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R R; Mendes, R S; Fernandes, P R G; Mukai, H

    2013-10-09

    Topological defects can appear whenever there is some type of ordering. Its ubiquity in nature has been the subject of several studies, from early Universe to condensed matter. In this work, we investigated the annihilation dynamics of defects and antidefects in a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal (ternary mixture of potassium laurate, decanol and deionized-destillated water) using the polarized optical light microscopy technique. We analyzed Schlieren textures with topological defects produced due to a symmetry breaking in the transition of the isotropic to nematic calamitic phase after a temperature quench. As result, we obtained for the distance D between two annihilating defects (defect-antidefect pair), as a function of time t remaining for the annihilation, the scaling law D ∝ t(α), with α = 0.390 and standard deviation σ = 0.085. Our findings go in the direction to extend experimental results related to dynamics of defects in liquid crystals since only thermotropic and polymerics ones had been investigated. In addition, our results are in good quantitative agreement with previous investigations on the subject.

  5. In situ prepared polymer films as alignment layers for nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, David; Galerne, Yves

    2006-12-15

    By means of UV-visible irradiations and convenient photoinitiators, we realize the cross-linked polymerization of a triacrylate monomer in solution in a nematic liquid crystal (p-pentyl-p{sup '}-cyanobiphenyl) at low concentrations (a few wt %), i.e., under conditions opposite to the synthesis of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. As atomic force microscope measurements show, when operating close to, but below, the percolation transition, a thin polymer layer is synthesized in situ, directly covering and coating all the substrate. These observations therefore confirm that the properties of anchoring and of alignment memory previously observed in such nematic cells effectively originate from the synthesized polymer film. According to the photoinitiator used, bulk or surface polymerizations dominate and respectively produce continuous or discontinuous films (i.e., with separate clusters). In the former case, polymer aggregates are first synthesized. They then diffuse in the volume until they meet a surface, where they definitely stick if they are large enough. An estimate of the entropy and interaction energy differences between the two states, stuck or free, shows that the aggregates stick on the substrates if their size exceeds the length of about three monomers, i.e., if they contain more than 20-30 monomers. Interestingly, these films may be used to replicate nonuniform alignment patterns that are difficult to realize otherwise. The method may be considered as an imprinting method.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-02-28

    Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.

  7. Enhanced magnetic-field-induced optical properties of nanostructured magnetic fluids by doping nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Pu, Shengli; Ji, Hongzhu; Yu, Guojun

    2012-05-15

    Ferronematic materials composed of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl nematic liquid crystal and oil-based Fe3O4 magnetic fluid were prepared using ultrasonic agitation. The birefringence (Δn) and figure of merit of optical properties (Q = Δn/α, where α is the extinction coefficient) of pure magnetic fluids and the as-prepared ferronematic materials were examined and compared. The figure of merit of optical properties weighs the birefringence and extinction of the materials and is more appropriate to evaluate their optical properties. Similar magnetic-field- and magnetic-particle-concentration-dependent properties of birefringence and figure of merit of optical properties were obtained for the pure magnetic fluids and the ferronematic materials. For the ferronematic materials, the values of Q increase with the volume fractions of nematic liquid crystal under certain fixed field strength and are larger than those of their corresponding pure magnetic fluids at high field region. In addition, the enhancement of Q value increases monotonously with the magnetic field and becomes remarkable when the applied magnetic field is beyond 50 mT. The maximum relative enhanced value of QR exceeds 6.8% in our experiments. The results of this work may conduce to extend the pragmatic applications of nanostructured magnetic fluids in optical field.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of asymmetric flow in nematic liquid crystals with finite anchoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; Aranson, Igor S; de Pablo, Juan J

    2016-02-28

    Liquid crystals (LCs) display many of the flow characteristics of liquids but exhibit long range orientational order. In the nematic phase, the coupling of structure and flow leads to complex hydrodynamic effects that remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we consider the hydrodynamics of a nematic LC in a hybrid cell, where opposite walls have conflicting anchoring boundary conditions, and we employ a 3D lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the time-dependent flow patterns that can arise. Due to the symmetry breaking of the director field within the hybrid cell, we observe that at low to moderate shear rates, the volumetric flow rate under Couette and Poiseuille flows is different for opposite flow directions. At high shear rates, the director field may undergo a topological transition which leads to symmetric flows. By applying an oscillatory pressure gradient to the channel, a net volumetric flow rate is found to depend on the magnitude and frequency of the oscillation, as well as the anchoring strength. Taken together, our findings suggest several intriguing new applications for LCs in microfluidic devices.

  10. Circular flow formation triggered by Marangoni convection in nematic liquid crystal films with a free surface.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunhee; Takezoe, Hideo

    2016-01-14

    We demonstrate circular flow formation at a surface in homeotropically oriented nematic liquid crystals with a free surface using focused laser beam irradiation. Under a weak laser power, a pit together with an associated circular bulge is formed: the Marangoni effect. Here a diverging molecular flow from the pit (thermocapillary flow) also induces director tilt in the radial direction. Upon increasing the laser power, the pit becomes deeper, and eventually evolves into a circular flow associated with a deeper pit and a subsidiary circular bulge or valley structure. This phenomenon is induced by escaping from excess deformation energy due to a bend deformation of the director. Actually, we confirmed that the circular flow is never formed in the isotropic phase. The handedness of the vortex cannot be controlled by circular polarisation, but is controllable by doping with chiral molecules. This rotational motion (a nematic micro-rotor) is a unique phenomenon only exhibited by anisotropic liquids, and is expected to be applied for novel devices.

  11. Topological defects in a living nematic ensnare swimming bacteria [Linking bacterial motility and liquid crystallinity in a model of living nematic

    DOE PAGES

    Genkin, Mikhail Mikhailovich; Sokolov, Andrey; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; ...

    2017-03-08

    Active matter exemplified by suspensions of motile bacteria or synthetic self-propelled particles exhibits a remarkable propensity to self-organization and collective motion. The local input of energy and simple particle interactions often lead to complex emergent behavior manifested by the formation of macroscopic vortices and coherent structures with long-range order. A realization of an active system has been conceived by combining swimming bacteria and a lyotropic liquid crystal. Here, by coupling the well-established and validated model of nematic liquid crystals with the bacterial dynamics, we develop a computational model describing intricate properties of such a living nematic. In faithful agreement withmore » the experiment, the model reproduces the onset of periodic undulation of the director and consequent proliferation of topological defects with the increase in bacterial concentration. It yields a testable prediction on the accumulation of bacteria in the cores of +1/2 topological defects and depletion of bacteria in the cores of -1/2 defects. Our dedicated experiment on motile bacteria suspended in a freestanding liquid crystalline film fully confirms this prediction. Lastly, our findings suggest novel approaches for trapping and transport of bacteria and synthetic swimmers in anisotropic liquids and extend a scope of tools to control and manipulate microscopic objects in active matter.« less

  12. NMR polarization echoes in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levstein, Patricia R.; Chattah, Ana K.; Pastawski, Horacio M.; Raya, Jésus; Hirschinger, Jérôme

    2004-10-01

    We have modified the polarization echo (PE) sequence through the incorporation of Lee-Goldburg cross polarization steps to quench the 1H-1H dipolar dynamics. In this way, the 13C becomes an ideal local probe to inject and detect polarization in the proton system. This improvement made possible the observation of the local polarization P00(t) and polarization echoes in the interphenyl proton of the liquid crystal N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline. The decay of P00(t) was well fitted to an exponential law with a characteristic time τC≈310 μs. The hierarchy of the intramolecular dipolar couplings determines a dynamical bottleneck that justifies the use of the Fermi Golden Rule to obtain a spectral density consistent with the structural parameters. The time evolution of P00(t) was reversed by the PE sequence generating echoes at the time expected by the scaling of the dipolar Hamiltonian. This indicates that the reversible 1H-1H dipolar interaction is the main contribution to the local polarization decrease and that the exponential decay for P00(t) does not imply irreversibility. The attenuation of the echoes follows a Gaussian law with a characteristic time τφ≈527 μs. The shape and magnitude of the characteristic time of the PE decay suggest that it is dominated by the unperturbed homonuclear dipolar Hamiltonian. This means that τφ is an intrinsic property of the dipolar coupled network and not of other degrees of freedom. In this case, one cannot unambiguously identify the mechanism that produces the decoherence of the dipolar order. This is because even weak interactions are able to break the fragile multiple coherences originated on the dipolar evolution, hindering its reversal. Other schemes to investigate these underlying mechanisms are proposed.

  13. Electric-field variations within a nematic-liquid-crystal layer.

    PubMed

    Cummings, L J; Mema, E; Cai, C; Kondic, L

    2014-07-01

    A thin layer of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) across which an electric field is applied is a setup of great industrial importance in liquid crystal display devices. There is thus a large literature modeling this situation and related scenarios. A commonly used assumption is that an electric field generated by electrodes at the two bounding surfaces of the layer will produce a field that is uniform: that is, the presence of NLC does not affect the electric field. In this paper, we use calculus of variations to derive the equations coupling the electric potential to the orientation of the NLC's director field, and use a simple one-dimensional model to investigate the limitations of the uniform field assumption in the case of a steady applied field. The extension of the model to the unsteady case is also briefly discussed.

  14. A Self-Quenched Defect Glass in a Colloid-Nematic Liquid Crystal Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, T. A.; Lintuvuori, J. S.; Schofield, A. B.; Marenduzzo, D.; Poon, W. C. K.

    2011-10-01

    Colloidal particles immersed in liquid crystals frustrate orientational order. This generates defect lines known as disclinations. At the core of these defects, the orientational order drops sharply. We have discovered a class of soft solids, with shear moduli up to 104 pascals, containing high concentrations of colloidal particles (volume fraction ϕ>∼20%) directly dispersed into a nematic liquid crystal. Confocal microscopy and computer simulations show that the mechanical strength derives from a percolated network of defect lines entangled with the particles in three dimensions. Such a “self-quenched glass” of defect lines and particles can be considered a self-organized analog of the “vortex glass” state in type II superconductors.

  15. Electric-field variations within a nematic-liquid-crystal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, L. J.; Mema, E.; Cai, C.; Kondic, L.

    2014-07-01

    A thin layer of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) across which an electric field is applied is a setup of great industrial importance in liquid crystal display devices. There is thus a large literature modeling this situation and related scenarios. A commonly used assumption is that an electric field generated by electrodes at the two bounding surfaces of the layer will produce a field that is uniform: that is, the presence of NLC does not affect the electric field. In this paper, we use calculus of variations to derive the equations coupling the electric potential to the orientation of the NLC's director field, and use a simple one-dimensional model to investigate the limitations of the uniform field assumption in the case of a steady applied field. The extension of the model to the unsteady case is also briefly discussed.

  16. Homeotropic orientation of a nematic liquid crystal by bent-core molecules adsorbed on its surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jiyong; Yang, Seungbin; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Jongyoon; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Shin-Woong; Choi, E.-Joon

    2015-06-01

    We reported the promotion of a homeotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) by bent-core liquid-crystal (BLC) Molecules adsorbed its surface. The BLC was mixed at various concentrations with the NLC, and the mixtures were injected into an empty cell with a cell gap of 13 μm. Although the pure NLC showed a heterogeneous orientation, the BLC-NLC mixture was gradually transformed to a homeotropic alignment with increasing concentration of the BLC. We investigated the surface topography of the samples by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and found that the BLC molecules were segregated into a polyimide (PI) surface and formed protrusion domains with diameters of 50-100 nm. The BLC protrusions might promote the homeotropic orientation of the NLC molecules.

  17. Electro-optic properties of switchable gratings made of polymer and nematic liquid-crystal slices.

    PubMed

    d'Alessandro, A; Asquini, R; Gizzi, C; Caputo, R; Umeton, C; Veltri, A; Sukhov, A V

    2004-06-15

    We report the diffraction properties at wavelengths of 632.8 and 1550 nm for volume transmission gratings made of a sequence of continuously aligned nematic liquid-crystal layers separated by isotropic polymer slices. The gratings are generated by holographically curing a solution of liquid crystal diluted in an isotropic prepolymer by means of a laser beam at a wavelength of 352 nm with a total intensity of approximately 10 mW/cm2. A diffraction efficiency of 98% was measured, and an electric field as low as 5 V/microm switches off the phase grating. Measured angular spectra are fitted by use of the modified coupled-mode theory including the effects of grating birefringence.

  18. A self-quenched defect glass in a colloid-nematic liquid crystal composite.

    PubMed

    Wood, T A; Lintuvuori, J S; Schofield, A B; Marenduzzo, D; Poon, W C K

    2011-10-07

    Colloidal particles immersed in liquid crystals frustrate orientational order. This generates defect lines known as disclinations. At the core of these defects, the orientational order drops sharply. We have discovered a class of soft solids, with shear moduli up to 10(4) pascals, containing high concentrations of colloidal particles (volume fraction φ ≳ 20%) directly dispersed into a nematic liquid crystal. Confocal microscopy and computer simulations show that the mechanical strength derives from a percolated network of defect lines entangled with the particles in three dimensions. Such a "self-quenched glass" of defect lines and particles can be considered a self-organized analog of the "vortex glass" state in type II superconductors.

  19. Dependence of the lateral ion transport on the driving frequency in nematic liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojmenovik, G.; Vermael, S.; Neyts, K.; Asselt, R. van; Verschueren, A. R. M.

    2004-10-01

    The presence of ions in a liquid crystal (LC) influences the transmission characteristics of LC displays. These ions follow the electric field perpendicular to the electrodes and move back and forth under the influence of the ac field. Because of their charge, they can distort the electric field, which leads to transmission changes. Recently it was discovered that due to the LC anisotropy, ion motion parallel with the plane of the electrodes (perpendicular to the electric field) is also possible, even without lateral fields. After driving a pixel for a long time, the ions will accumulate at one pixel edge, which leads to unwanted image artifacts. In this paper, we investigate the frequency dependence of the lateral ion transport in twisted nematic liquid crystal displays at high and low ion concentrations, different ion mobilities, and LC rotational viscosities, for a fixed voltage just above the LC threshold.

  20. On the nature of the orientational effect of ultrasound on nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustina, O. A.; Negazina, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental substantiation of the validity of the model of orientational distortion in a homeotropic layer of nematic liquid crystal under an ultrasonic beam with a sharp boundary is presented for the first time. The model is constructed within the concepts of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and statistical hydrodynamics, taking into account the processes of structural relaxation of the mesophase. It establishes the relationship between the characteristics specifying the homeotropic structure deformation (layer thickness, ultrasound frequency, parameters of the molecular micromodel of liquid crystal, and its material constants) and the layer transparency for a linearly polarized light beam. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data in the frequency range of 0.1-3 MHz.

  1. Tunable optical filter based on self-rolled-up microtube incorporating nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghat, Setareh; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    A widely tunable filter in TiO2 self-rolled-up microtube (SRM) with nematic liquid crystal (NLC), which fills the hollow core of the SRM, is proposed as a novel three-dimensional filter structure. Since the total free energy of the NLC is under the influence of elastic distortion energy, the applied static electric field, and optical power, the reorientation of the liquid crystal is computed by minimizing this quantity in this research. The dependency of the NLC refractive index on applied electric field shows that the dynamic wavelength tuning range of an 8 μm-radius NLC SRM can reach up to the maximum value of 90.6 nm with an operation voltage of 30 V, which is enough to achieve the wavelength tunability from S-band to L-band.

  2. Asymmetric motion of bubble in nematic liquid crystal induced by symmetry-broken evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Lev, Bohdan; Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The size of air bubbles in nematic liquid crystals can be continuously decreased through the absorption of air molecules into the host liquid crystal. A bubble and its accompanying hyperbolic hedgehog point defect undergo a continuous asymmetric motion, while the bubble decreases in size. In this study, a mechanism is proposed to theoretically explain both the motion of the air bubble and the point defect observed experimentally. Anisotropic evaporation of air molecules may occur because of the symmetry breaking of the director configuration near the point defect. The motion of the center of the air bubble to the hyperbolic hedgehog point defect is induced by the anisotropic force due to evaporation of air molecules and Stokes drag force.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Scientific duo of carbon nanotubes and nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Muklesur; Lee, Wei

    2009-03-01

    With an emphasis on the rectified device performance and related liquid-crystal (LC) properties, this paper presents a timely review of the literature on recent development and understanding of colloidal systems of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in thermotropic nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). The dispersion and stability of CNTs in a LC hydrosol are discussed. The effect of CNT inclusion on the physical properties of NLCs is addressed. It is clear that the effect of adding nanotubes to the LC host and the extent of improvement in LC device performance by doping CNTs, if any, depend strongly on the details of the interaction between the nanotubes and the host molecules. It shows that the combination of CNTs and NLCs is not only of scientific interest but also of technical significance.

  4. Isotropic-to-nematic phase transition of liquid crystals confined in nanoemulsion droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, S.; Takanishi, Y.; Yamamoto, J.

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated liquid crystalline nanoemulsions (LCNEs) by introducing low molecular weight liquid crystals (LMWLCs) into the core of nanoemulsions, and investigated the phase transition behavior of LMWLCs in the core part with the various weight ratios of LMWLCs to surfactants. The polarized dynamic light scattering measurement was performed to estimate the radii of LCNEs, and it is found that their radii can be controlled by the weight ratio of LMLCs to surfactant polymers. In the depolarized light scattering, it was revealed that the order of the isotropic-nematic phase transition behavior changes from the first order to biased second order with decreasing radius of LCNEs because of the three-dimensional confinement effect surrounded by an anchoring surface.

  5. Thermal switching of the reflection in chiral nematic mesoporous organosilica films infiltrated with liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Giese, Michael; De Witt, Joanna C; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; Manning, Alan P; Dong, Ronald Y; Michal, Carl A; Hamad, Wadood Y; MacLachlan, Mark J

    2013-08-14

    Materials that undergo stimulus-induced optical changes are important for many new technologies. In this paper, we describe a new free-standing silica-based composite film that exhibits reversible thermochromic reflection, induced by a liquid crystalline guest in the pores of iridescent mesoporous films. We demonstrate that selective reflection from the novel mesoporous organosilica material with chiral nematic organization can be reversibly switched by thermal cycling of the 8CB guest between its isotropic and liquid crystalline states, which was proven by solid-state NMR experiments. The switching of the optical properties of the chiral solid-state host by stimulus-induced transitions of the guest opens the possibility of applications for these novel materials in sensors and displays.

  6. Optical Switching of Nematic Liquid Crystal Film based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Makiko; Delgado, Silverio; Nuno, Zachary; Hirst, Linda; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated an all-optical technique to reversibly switch the spatial orientation of nematic liquid crystal molecules from homeotropic to planar in a few micron thick films. Our method leverages the highly localized electric fields that are generated in the near-field of a densely packed gold nanoparticle layer when the samples are excited by light resonant with the localized surface plasmon absorption. We present simulations and control measurements for off-resonance excitation, where the switching behavior is not observed. Using polarized microscopy and transmission measurements, we observe this switching over a temperature range starting several degrees below and up to the isotropic transition, and at on-resonance excitation power less than 10 μW. In addition, we controllably vary the in-plane directionality of the liquid crystal molecules in the planar state by altering the linear polarization of the incident excitation. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1056860 and ECC-1227034.

  7. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  8. Interference patterns of scattering light induced by orientational fluctuations in an electric-field-biased nematic liquid-crystal film.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Chen, S H; Hsu, C H; Lai, Y

    1998-06-15

    A new light-scattering phenomenon from a planar aligned nematic liquid-crystal film is observed and studied. This new phenomenon exhibits ring patterns in the orthogonal polarization. A simple model based on optical interference has been developed, and its predictions agree well with experimental observation.

  9. Computational studies of history dependence in nematic liquid crystals in random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjkesh, Amid; Ambrožič, Milan; Kralj, Samo; Sluckin, Timothy J.

    2014-02-01

    Glassy liquid crystalline systems are expected to show significant history-dependent effects. Two model glassy systems are the RAN and SSS (sprinkled silica spin) lattice models. The RAN model is a Lebwohl-Lasher lattice model with locally coupled nematic spins, together with uncorrelated random anisotropy fields at each site, while the SSS model has a finite concentration of impurity spins frozen in random directions. Here Brownian simulation is used to study the effect of different sample histories in the low temperature regime in a three-dimensional (d =3) model intermediate between SSS and RAN, in which a finite concentration p nematic spins with coupling W. Simulations were performed at temperature T ˜TNI/2 (TNI the bulk nematic-isotropic transition temperature) for temperature-quenched and field-quenched histories (TQH and FQH, respectively), as well as for temperature-annealed histories (AH). The first two of these limits represent extreme histories encountered in typical experimental studies. Using long-time averages for equilibrated systems, we calculate orientational order parameters and two-point correlation functions. Finite-size scaling was used to determine the range of the orientational ordering, as a function of coupling strength W ,p and sample history. Sample history plays a significant role; for given concentration p, as disorder strength W is increased, TQH systems sustain quasi-long-range order (QLRO) and short-range order (SRO). The data are also consistent with a long-range order (LRO) phase at very low disorder strength. By contrast, for FQH and p ≤0.1, only LRO and QLRO occur within the range of parameters investigated. The crossover between regimes depends on history, but in general, the FQH phase is more ordered than the AH phase, which is more ordered than the TQH phase. However, at temperatures close to the isotropic-nematic phase transition of pure samples

  10. Experimental NMR spin-lattice relaxometry study in the liquid crystalline nematic phase of propylcyano-phenylcyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Acosta, R H; Pusiol, D J

    2001-01-01

    The NMR spin-lattice proton relaxation dispersion T1(nu(L)) of the liquid crystal propylcyano-phenylcyclohexane is studied over several decades of Larmor frequencies and at different temperatures in the nematic mesophase. The results show that the order fluctuation of the local nematic director contribution to T1(nu(L)) undergoes a transition between two power regimes: from T1(nu(L)) protional to nu(1/2)L to nu(alpha)L (alpha approximately 1/3) on going from low to high Larmor frequencies.

  11. Detection of a new 'nematic-like' phase in liquid crystal-amphiphile mixture by differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Kaustabh Roy, Madhusudan Datta, Alokmay

    2014-04-24

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies on phase transitions of the pure liquid crystalline material N-4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and mixtures of MBBA and the amphiphile Stearic Acid (StA) show significant changes in the behavior of mixture from pure MBBA, as regards the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition temperature (T{sub c}) and other thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy, specific heat and activation energy with concentration of StA. In particular, the convexity of the Arrhenius plot in pure MBBA vanishes with StA concentration pointing to the formation of a new, perhaps 'nematic-like', phase in the mixtures.

  12. Structural transition of nematic liquid crystal in cylindrical capillary as a result of the annihilation of two point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetec, Milan; Slavinec, Mitja

    2008-02-01

    We study the annihilation of hedgehog-antihedgehog defects in confined nematic liquid crystals using Brownian molecular dynamics simulations. After the collision, merging of defects, and building a loop disclination structure, system can experience a structural transition into another nematic structure, triggered by a nucleation of loop disclination structure. In our rough theoretical approach we calculate the size of the emerged loop structure as the function of the typical size of the confining cavity. Attention is paid also to the dynamics of the loop structure after collision.

  13. Nematic Liquid Crystal Alignment Behaviors between Crossed Stretched Miropolymer Filaments with Anchoring Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2006-04-01

    We observed the molecular alignment of a liquid crystal (LC) induced by crossing two stretched micropolymer filaments between glass substrates and confirmed its light modulation property. The two microfilaments, which were extracted from a cellulose cloth by stretching it in advance, had surface molecular alignment and stabilized nematic LC alignment between the microfilaments crossed with a small angle. In the fabricated LC cell, a spatially-uniform LC planar alignment is achieved in the area of a filament interval of less than 60 μm. By polarizing microscopy observation of the isotropic-to-nematic wetting transition of the LC material between the polymer filaments, it was confirmed that the stable LC alignment area is formed by the surface anchoring of the filaments. When external voltages were applied to the obtained uniformed alignment LC area, a characteristic periodic electrooptic property was confirmed on the basis of electrically-controlled birefringence under the alignment control of the in-plane anchoring of the filaments.

  14. Annihilation dynamics of topological monopoles on a fiber in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhou, M.; Škarabot, M.; Muševič, I.

    2016-06-01

    We use the laser tweezers to create isolated pairs of topological point defects in a form of radial and hyperbolic hedgehogs, located close and attracted to a thin fiber with perpendicular surface orientation of nematic liquid crystal molecules in a thin planar nematic cell. We study the time evolution of the interaction between the two monopoles by monitoring their movement and reconstructing their trajectories and velocities. We find that there is a crossover in the pair interaction force between the radial and hyperbolic hedgehog. At small separation d , the elastic force between the opposite monopoles results in an increase of the attractive force with respect to the far field, and their relative velocity v scales as a v (d ) ∝d-2 ±0.2 power law. At large separations, the two oppositely charged monopoles can either attract or repel with constant interaction force. We explain this strange far-field behavior by the experimental inaccuracy in setting the fiber exactly perpendicular to the cell director.

  15. Flexoelectro-optic properties of chiral nematic liquid crystals in the uniform standing helix configuration.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Morris, S M; Coles, H J

    2009-09-01

    The flexoelectro-optic effect describes the rotation of the optic axis of a short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal under the application of an electric field. We investigate the effect in the uniform standing helix, or "Grandjean" configuration. An in-plane electric field is applied. The director profile is determined numerically using a static one-dimensional continuum model with strong surface anchoring. The Berreman method is used to solve for plane-wave solutions to Maxwell's equations, and predict the optical properties of the resulting structure in general cases. By using a chiral nematic with short pitch between crossed polarizers an optical switch may be generated. With no applied field the configuration is nontransmissive at normal incidence, but becomes transmissive with an applied field. For this case, numerical results using the Berreman method are supplemented with an analytic theory and found to be in good agreement. The transmitted intensity as a function of tilt, the contrast ratio, and the tilt required for full intensity modulation are presented. The angular dependence of the transmission is calculated and the isocontrast curves are plotted. For typical material and cell parameters a switching speed of 0.017 ms and contrast ratio of 1500:1 at normal incidence are predicted, at a switch-on tilt of 41.5 degrees. Experimental verification of the analytic and numerical models is provided.

  16. Fluorescence microscopy reveals molecular localisation at line defects in nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Ohzono, Takuya; Katoh, Kaoru; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Topological defects easily form in liquid crystals (LCs) as a result of frustrations in spatially dependent anisotropic molecular ordering, and have been regarded as promising tools for facilitating manipulation of relatively large non-LC materials such as colloids. However, it remains unclear whether low-molecular-weight (LMW) impurities that do not aggregate or self-assemble in bulk LCs because of the dominance of entropy can localise at LC defects. Here, by fluorescence microscopy, we directly show the localisation of LMW molecules at the topological line defects of a nematic LC. It is theoretically explained that excess free energy density of nematic ordering at the defect core allows LMW solutes to accumulate at a non-negligible level overcoming the entropy leading to their uniform distributions. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of LC defects as a bottom-up field that enables micromanipulation of LMW molecules and realisation of transformable three-dimensional micro-architectures composed of versatile small functional molecules. PMID:27812045

  17. Nematic liquid crystalline alignment on graphitic carbon film surfaces and its electrooptical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Takamitsu; Yamada, Kenji; Nakamura, Atsushi; Temmyo, Jiro; Kubono, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    A graphitic carbon (g-C) film directly grown on a synthetic quartz glass substrate was applied to a liquid crystal (LC) device as an alignment layer combined with a transparent electrode for a demonstration of high performance. The as-grown g-C films showed a nanometer-size domain with 91.6% transmittance at 550 nm and with a sheet resistance of 5.9 kΩ/sq. The nanodomain of the g-C film surface was associated with a random orientation of the twisted nematic LC (4-pentyl-4‧-n-cyanobiphenyl, 5CB) molecules in an in-plane randomly parallel alignment that was analyzed by polarized optical microscopy (POM). We also demonstrated an LC display (LCD) in an in-plane random hybrid twisted nematic (IPR-HTN) configuration using the g-C films compared with a previously proposed configuration using a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) sublayer and a TN configuration using a polyimide film with a rubbing treatment. It was found that the combined g-C alignment layer/electrode provides a low turn-on voltage, a fast response, and a wide viewing angle as an orientation sublayer and an electrode.

  18. Bistable director alignments of nematic liquid crystals confined in frustrated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Takeaki; Nagura, Jumpei

    2017-01-01

    We studied in-plane bistable alignments of nematic liquid crystals confined by two frustrated surfaces by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the Lebwohl-Lasher spin model. The surfaces are prepared with orientational checkerboard patterns, on which the director field is locally anchored to be planar yet orthogonal between the neighboring blocks. We found the director field in the bulk tends to be aligned along the diagonal axes of the checkerboard pattern, as reported experimentally [J.-H. Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3055 (2001), 10.1063/1.1371246]. The energy barrier between the two stable orientations is increased, when the system is brought to the isotropic-nematic transition temperature. Based on an elastic theory, we found that the bistability is attributed to the spatial modulation of the director field near the frustrated surfaces. As the block size is increased and/or the elastic modulus is reduced, the degree of the director inhomogeneity is increased, enlarging the energy barrier. We also found that the switching rate between the stable states is decreased when the block size is comparable to the cell thickness.

  19. Dynamics of colloidal particles in electrohydrodynamic convection of nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the dynamics of micrometer-sized colloidal particles in electrohydrodynamic convection of nematic liquid crystal. Above the onset voltage of electroconvection, the parallel array of convection rolls appears to be perpendicular to the nematic field at first. The particles are forced to rotate by convection flow and are trapped within a single roll in this voltage regime. A slow glide motion along the roll axis is also observed. The frequency of rotational motion and the glide velocity increase with the applied voltage. Under a much larger voltage where the roll axis temporally fluctuates, the particles occasionally hop to the neighbor rolls. In this voltage regime, the motion of the particles becomes two-dimensional. The motion perpendicular to the roll axis exhibits diffusion behavior at a long time period. The effective diffusion constant is 10(3)-10(4) times larger than the molecular one. The observed behavior is compared with the result obtained by a simple stochastic model for the transport of the particles in convection. The enhancement of diffusion can be quantitatively described well by the rotation frequency in a roll, the width of the roll, and the hopping probability to the neighbor rolls.

  20. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-21

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  1. Effect of confining walls on the interaction between particles in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Lev, Bohdan I.; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    We investigate theoretically how the confining walls of a nematic cell affect the interaction of particles mediated by the elastic deformation of a nematic liquid crystal. We consider the case where strong homeotropic or planar anchoring is imposed on the flat parallel walls so that the director on the wall surfaces is fixed and uniform alignment is achieved in the bulk. This set-up is more realistic experimentally than any other previous theoretical studies concerning the elastic-deformation-mediated interactions that assume an infinite medium. When the anchoring on the particle surfaces is weak, an exact expression of the interaction between two particles can be obtained. The two-body interaction can be regarded as the interaction between one particle and an infinite array of 'mirror images' of the other particle. We also obtain the 'self-energy' of one particle, the interaction of a particle with confining walls, which is interpreted along the same way as the interaction of one particle with its mirror images. We show that the walls play a different role in homeotropic and planar cells, which is attributed to the difference in the symmetry of the cells. We also present the landscapes of the interaction energy when one particle is fixed and demonstrate that the interaction is sensitively dependent on the fixed particle as well as the interparticle distance.

  2. Microscopic origins of anistropic active stress in motor-driven nematic liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Robert; Sweezy-Schindler, Oliver; Baldwin, Christopher; Hough, Loren E.; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton, despite comprising relatively few building blocks, drives an impressive variety of cellular phenomena ranging from cell division to motility. These building blocks include filaments, motor proteins, and static crosslinkers. Outside of cells, these same components can form novel materials exhibiting active flows and nonequilibrium contraction or extension. While dipolar extensile or contractile active stresses are common in nematic motor-filament systems, their microscopic origin remains unclear. Here we study a minimal physical model of filaments, crosslinking motors, and static crosslinkers to dissect the microscopic mechanisms of stress generation in a two-dimensional system of orientationally aligned rods. We demonstrate the essential role of filament steric interactions which have not previously be considered to significantly contribute to active stresses. With this insight, we are able to tune contractile or extensile behavior through control of motor-driven filament sliding and crosslinking. This work provides a roadmap for engineering stresses in active liquid crystals. The mechanisms we study may help explain why flowing nematic motor-filament mixtures are extensile while gelled systems are contractile. PMID:26742483

  3. Multiple short time power laws in the orientational relaxation of nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Jose, Prasanth P; Bagchi, Biman

    2006-11-14

    Relaxation in the nematic liquid crystalline phase is known to be sensitive to its proximity to both isotropic and smectic phases. Recent transient optical Kerr effect (OKE) studies have revealed, rather surprisingly, two temporal power laws at short to intermediate times and also an apparent absence of the expected exponential decay at longer times. In order to understand this unusual dynamics, we have carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations of transient OKE and related orientational time correlation functions in a system of prolate ellipsoids (with aspect ratio equal to 3). The simulations find two distinct power laws, with a crossover region, in the decay of the orientational time correlation function at short to intermediate times (in the range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds). In addition, the simulation results fail to recover any long time exponential decay component. The system size dependence of the exponents suggests that the first power law may originate from the local orientational density fluctuations (like in a glassy liquid). The origin of the second power law is less clear and may be related to the long range fluctuations (such as smecticlike density fluctuations)--these fluctuations are expected to involve small free energy barriers. In support of the latter, the evidence of pronounced coupling between orientational and spatial densities at intermediate wave numbers is presented. This coupling is usually small in normal isotropic liquids, but it is large in the present case. In addition to slow collective orientational relaxation, the single particle orientational relaxation is also found to exhibit slow dynamics in the nematic phase in the long time.

  4. Theory and Simulation of Extensional Flow-Induced Biaxiality in Discotic Mesophases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder P.; Rey, Alejandro D.

    1995-09-01

    Flow-induced biaxiality is simulated for a uniaxial discotic nematic liquid crystal subjected to a constant uniaxial, isothermal, incompressible, irrotational, extensional, three dimensional flow, using a previously presented model [Singh A.P. and Rey A.D., J. Phys. II France 4 (1994) 645]. Numerical and analytical solutions of the director triad (n, m, l), and uniaxial (S) and biaxial (P) alignments are given. The unit sphere description of the director triad is used to discuss and analyze the sensitivity of the director triad trajectories and the coupled alignment (uniaxial and biaxial) relaxations to the initial orientation, nematic potential (U), and to the alignment Deborah number (dimensionless extension rate). The evolution of the director triad is given by the rotation of a moving diad (n, l) around a fixed director (m). When the poles of the orientation unit sphere are along the extension axis, and the equator lies in the compression plane of the flow, it is found that the director diad (n, l) dynamics follow geodesic flow and the trajectories belong to the same meridians (great circles through the poles). The space of stable steady state orientation of the uniaxial director n and the biaxial director m is the whole compression plane (the equator of the unit sphere), while that of the biaxial director l is the extension direction (poles). A high degree extension flow-induced biaxiality is found when the uniaxial director is away from the extension axis and when S is relatively low. The scalar order parameter couplings are captured by analyzing the trajectories in the alignment triangle. Computed scientific visualizations of biaxial molecular orientation distributions are used to correlate the director triad dynamics and the alignment's dynamics. The tensor order parameter is used to calculate the main flow-birefringences, thus providing a direct way to verify the theoretical predictions of this paper.

  5. Nematic liquid crystals confined in microcapillaries for imaging phenomena at liquid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shenghong; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2015-09-21

    Here, we report the development of an experimental system based on liquid crystals (LCs) confined in microcapillaries for imaging interfacial phenomena. The inner surfaces of the microcapillaries were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane to promote an escaped-radial configuration of LCs. We checked the optical appearance of the capillary-confined LCs under a crossed polarizing microscope and determined their arrangement based on side and top views. We then placed the capillary-confined LCs in contact with non-surfactant and surfactant solutions, producing characteristic textures of two bright lines and a four-petal shape, respectively. We also evaluated the sensitivity, stability, and reusability of the system. Our imaging system was more sensitive than previously reported LC thin film systems. The textures formed in microcapillaries were stable for more than 120 h and the capillaries could be reused at least 10 times. Finally, we successfully applied our system to image the interactions of phospholipids and bivalent metal ions. In summary, we developed a simple, small, portable, sensitive, stable, and reusable experimental system that can be broadly applied to monitor liquid-liquid interfacial phenomena. These results provide valuable information for designs using confined LCs as chemoresponsive materials in optical sensors.

  6. A Technique for determining the director pretilt angle in cells with hybrid or homeotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulin, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new technique for determining the director pretilt angle in cells with hybrid or homeotropic alignment of a nematic liquid crystal has been developed. To use this technique, it is necessary to experimentally determine the transmission of an optical system in parallel polarizers and maximum transmission of a cell in crossed polarizers. The technique makes it possible to locally control the liquid crystal director alignment on an aligning surface.

  7. Analog image contouring using a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display.

    PubMed

    Flores, Jorge L; Ferrari, José A; Ramos, Javier A; Alonso, Julia R; Fernández, Ariel

    2010-08-30

    We present a novel image contouring method based on the polarization features of the twisted-nematic liquid-crystal displays (TN-LCDs). TN-LCDs are manufactured to work between a crossed polarizer-analyzer pair. When the analyzer is at 45 deg (instead of 90 deg) with respect to the polarizer, one obtains an optically processed image with pronounced outlines (dark contours) at middle intensity, i.e., the borders between illuminated and dark areas are enhanced. The proposed method is quite robust and does not require precise alignment or coherent illumination. Since it does not involve numerical processing, it could be useful for contouring large images in real-time, which presents potential applications in medical and biological imaging. Validation experiments are presented.

  8. Wavelength, temperature, and voltage dependent calibration of a nematic liquid crystal multispectral polarization generating device

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid calibration of liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) devices is critical for successful clinical implementation of a LC-based Mueller matrix imaging system being developed for noninvasisve skin cancer detection. For multispectral implementation of such a system, the effect of wavelength (), temperature (T), and voltage (V) on the retardance () required to generate each desired polarization state needs to be clearly understood. Calibration involves quantifying this interdependence such that for a given set of system input variables, T, the appropriate voltage is applied across a LC cell to generate a particular retardance. This paper presents findings that elucidate the dependence of voltage, for a set retardance, on the aforementioned variables for a nematic LC cell: 253 mv100 nm-dependence andd 10 mVC T-dependence. Additionally, an empirically derived model is presented that enables initial voltage calibration of retardance for any desired input wavelength within the calibration range of 460-905 nm. copyright 2007 Optical Society of America

  9. Nematic liquid crystals used to control photo-thermal effects in gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, Luigia; De Sio, Luciano; Palermo, Giovanna; Veltri, Alessandro; Placido, Tiziana; Curri, Maria Lucia; Tabiryan, Nelson; Umeton, Cesare

    2016-03-01

    We report on photo-thermal effects observed in gold nanoparticles (GNPs) dispersed in Nematic Liquid Crystals (NLCs). Under a suitable optical radiation, GNPs exhibit a strong light absorption/scattering; the effect depends on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanoparticles, which can be electrically or optically tuned. In this way, the system represents an ideal nano-source of heat, remotely controllable by light to adjust the temperature at the nanoscale. Photo-induced temperature variations in GNPs dispersed in NLCs have been investigated by implementing a theoretical model based on the thermal heating equation applied to an anisotropic medium; theoretical predictions have been compared with results of experiments carried out in a NLC medium hosting GNPs. Both theory and experiments represent a step forward to understand the physics of heat production at the nanoscale, with applications that range from photonics to nanomedicine.

  10. Electric method for studying reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid crystal director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbinin, D. P.; Vakulin, D. A.; Konshina, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method has been proposed for studying the reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) director using the results of measurements of the electric response of an LC cell. The simulation of the time dependences of the current in an LC cell with a homogeneous orientation is carried out upon variation of the applied voltage, the initial tilt angle of the director, dielectric anisotropy, and the elasticity coefficient, as well as the dynamic viscosity, density, and ion mobility in the NLC. A comparison of the experimental and computational curves of the electric response for NLC 5CB shows their good agreement. The method makes it possible to monitor the steady-state current, the density, and the ion mobility in NLCs.

  11. Fiber optic dynamic electric field sensor based on nematic liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Myeong Ock; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2014-05-01

    We propose a fiber-optic dynamic electric field sensor using a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) Fabry-Perot etalon and a wavelength-swept laser. The transmission wavelength of the NLC Fabry-Perot etalon depends on the applied electric field intensity. The change in the effective refractive index of the NLC is measured while changing the applied electric field intensity. It decreases from 1.67 to 1.51 as the applied the electric field intensity is increased. Additionally, we successfully measure the dynamic variation of the electric field using the high-speed wavelength-swept laser. By measuring the modulation frequency of the transmission peaks in the temporal domain, the frequency of the modulated electric field can be estimated.

  12. Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Giovanna; Cataldi, Ugo; De Sio, Luciano; Bürgi, Thomas; Tabiryan, Nelson; Umeton, Cesare

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate and characterize an optical control of the plasmonic heat delivered by a monolayer substrate of gold nanoparticles, obtained by modulating the effective refractive index of the neighboring dielectric medium. The effect, which exploits the dependence of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) refractive index on the molecular director orientation, is realized by using a polarization dependent, light-induced molecular reorientation of a thin film of photo-alignment layer that the NLC is in contact with. For a suitable alignment, plasmonic pumping intensity values ranging from 0.25 W/cm2 to 6.30 W/cm2 can induce up to 17.4 °C temperature variations in time intervals of the order of seconds. The reversibility of the optically induced NLC molecular director orientation enables an active control of the plasmonic photo-induced heat.

  13. Electrically controlled plasmonic lasing resonances with silver nanoparticles embedded in amplifying nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin; Deng, Luogen

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated an electrical control of coherent plasmonic random lasing with very diluted Ag nanoparticles dispersed in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC), in which the external electric field dependent emission intensity and frequency-splitting were recorded. A modified rate equation model is proposed to interpret the observed coherent lasing, which is a manifestation of the double enhancements caused by the plasmon-polariton near-fields of Ag particles on the population inversion of laser dye molecules and on the optical energy density of lasing modes. The featured laser quenching as weakening the applied field indicates that the present lasing resonances are very sensitive to the fluctuant dielectric perturbations in the NLC host, and are thus most likely associated with some coupled plasmonic oscillations among the metal nanoparticles.

  14. Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Chiu, C S

    2001-04-15

    Diffraction gratings were studied in cells of the homogeneously aligned liquid-crystal E7 doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes. These phase gratings were induced by interference modulation of two coherent optical beams, in conjunction with an applied dc field that was perpendicular to the unperturbed director axis. Self-diffraction was observed at all angles of incidence of the writing beams, including normal incidence. A superior nonlinear-index coefficient of 5x10(-2)cm(2)/W was obtained after passage of a 44-mW/cm(2) beam through a film with a grating constant of 18 mum under an external voltage of 15 V. The observed phenomenon depends strongly on the applied dc field, and the memory effect in a nematic film depends strongly on the grating constant.

  15. Chirality-biased point defects dynamics on a disclination line in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Zywociński, Andrzej; Pawlak, Katarzyna; Hołyst, Robert; Oswald, Patrick

    2005-05-19

    Chiral additives in the nematic liquid crystal can alter the dynamics of point defects moving on a disclination line. They exert a constant force on defects, leading to the bimodal distribution of distances between them at long times. The evolution of the system of defects in the presence of chiral additives provides a very direct proof of the existence of repulsive forces between the defects at large distances. We find that addition of a sufficient amount of chiral compound removes all point defects from the system. The process is studied in the system of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl) doped with the chiral compound S811 (from Merck Co.) and in the computer simulations.

  16. Long-time behavior of solution for the compressible nematic liquid crystal flows in R3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jincheng; Tao, Qiang; Yao, Zheng-an

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global existence and long-time behavior of classical solution for the compressible nematic liquid crystal flows in three-dimensional whole space. First of all, the global existence of classical solution is established under the condition that the initial data are close to the constant equilibrium state in HN (R3) (N ≥ 3)-framework. Then, one establishes algebraic time decay for the classical solution by weighted energy method. Finally, the algebraic decay rate of classical solution in Lp (R3)-norm with 2 ≤ p ≤ ∞ and optimal decay rate of their spatial derivative in L2 (R3)-norm are obtained if the initial perturbation belong to L1 (R3) additionally.

  17. Photoluminescent nematic liquid crystalline elastomer with a thermomechanical emission variation function.

    PubMed

    Wei, Renbo; He, Yaning; Wang, Xiaogong; Keller, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Nematic liquid crystalline elastomer (LCE) microactuators are developed, showing simultaneous thermomechanical deformation and photoluminescence (PL) emission variation functions. The microactuators are prepared by a method combining soft-lithography and photo-polymerization/crosslinking. 1,4-Bis(α-cyano-4-methoxystyryl)benzene as the PL dye is synthesized, characterized, and introduced into LCEs as a dopant in the preparation process. During the heating process, PL emission of the LCE micropillars under blue light excitation becomes significantly weak when the micropillars contract. When cooling down, the emission completely recovers as the micropillars stretches back to their original shape. The PL intensity variation at the transition is proved to be related to the thermomechanical deformation.

  18. Nematic fluctuations and semisoft elasticity in swollen liquid-crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Cmok, Luka; Petelin, Andrej; Čopič, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments were performed on stretched sheets of liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) swollen with a nematic solvent with different swelling ratios. We show that the obtained stress-strain curve and DLS data can still be explained with the concepts of semisoft elasticity. The stress-strain curve shows a typical semisoft response with a threshold strain and a plateau region where stress increases only a little with the applied strain. The width of the plateau decreases with the increase of the swelling ratio because the polymer backbone anisotropy reduces during the swelling. The relaxation rate of thermally excited director fluctuations, however, still shows a typical response, and our measurements indicate the presence of a soft dynamic director-shear mode, as predicted by the theory of semisoft elasticity.

  19. Direct measurement of force between colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2008-02-01

    The interparticle force between two colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal is directly measured as a function of the interparticle distance R by two different experimental methods: the free-release method and the optical tweezing method. The obtained force between an elastic 'dipole', which constitutes a colloidal particle and an accompanying hyperbolic hedgehog defect, confirms previous theoretical predictions that the force is attractive and proportional to R-4. We also observe that a repulsive component emerges at short distances to preclude direct contact of the particles. We find that the magnitudes of the forces obtained by the two methods are different. The origin of this discrepancy is discussed by a comparison between the static and the non-static measurements.

  20. Homeotropic orientation behavior of nematic liquid crystals induced by copper ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Gao, Bin; Yang, Meng; Chen, Long-Cong; Xiong, Xing-Liang

    2015-06-01

    A homeotropic ordering film of nematic liquid crystal (LC) induced by copper ions (Cu(2+)) had been developed. The Cu(ClO4)2 was directly spin-coated on the glass substrate without any other chemical modification. A homeotropic orientation of LC thin-film was generated by the interfacial chemical interaction between nitrile-containing LC and copper ions on the surface. Results showed that an appropriate density of Cu(2+) could shorten the response time of orientation, but a shelf-time was prolonged. The LC film fabrication not only offered a simple process, but also presented a great repeatability to detect organophosphonates (DMMP). This study provided guidance for the design of LC films responding to organic molecules as a biosensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nematic liquid crystals in a spatially step-wise magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, Gaetano; Scaraggi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular reorientation induced by a textured external field in a nematic liquid crystal (nLC). In particular, we consider an infinitely wide cell with strong planar anchoring boundary conditions, subjected to a spatially periodic piecewise magnetic field. In the framework of the Frank's continuum theory, we use the perturbation analysis to study in detail the field-induced splay-bend Fréedericksz transition. A numerical approach, based on the finite differences method, is instead employed to solve the fully nonlinear equations. At high field strengths, an analytic approach allows us to draw the bulk profile of the director in terms of elliptic integrals. Finally, through the application of the Bruggeman texture hydrodynamics theory, we qualitatively discuss on the LCs piecewise director configuration under sliding interfaces, which can be adopted to actively regulate friction. Our study opens the pathway for the application of highly controlled nLC texturing for tribotronics.

  2. Two-state model for nematic liquid crystals made of bent-core molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhusudana, N. V.

    2017-08-01

    Nematic (N ) liquid crystals made of bent-core molecules exhibit unusual physical properties such as an intermediate phase between the N and isotropic (I ) phases, a very weak N I transition as inferred from magnetic birefringence measurements in a low field, which is apparently incompatible with a large shift in the N I transition temperature (Tn i) measured under a high field. Using our conformational studies on the aromatic cores, we propose that only conformers which are more straightened than those in the ground state (GS) form clusters with a few layers, which persist even in the isotropic phase, as inferred from x-ray and rheological experiments. We present a Landau-de Gennes theory of the medium, including an orientational coupling between the clusters and the GS molecules, which accounts for all the unusual properties. The intermediate phase to isotropic transition is predicted to exhibit critical behavior at a very low magnetic field of <1 kG .

  3. Relaxation with long-period oscillation in defect turbulence of planar nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Takayuki; Mikami, Yosuke; Nagaya, Tomoyuki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Hara, Kazuhiro; Hidaka, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Through experiments, we studied defect turbulence, a type of spatiotemporal chaos in planar systems of nematic liquid crystals, to clarify the chaotic advection of weak turbulence. In planar systems of large aspect ratio, structural relaxation, which is characterized by the dynamic structure factor, exhibits a long-period oscillation that is described well by a combination of a simple exponential relaxation and underdamped oscillation. The simple relaxation arises as a result of the roll modulation while the damped oscillation is manifest in the repetitive gliding of defect pairs in a local area. Each relaxation is derived analytically by the projection operator method that separates turbulent transport into a macroscopic contribution and fluctuations. The analysis proposes that the two relaxations are not correlated. The nonthermal fluctuations of defect turbulence are consequently separated into two independent Markov processes. Our approach sheds light on diversity and universality from a unified viewpoint for weak turbulence.

  4. Relaxation with long-period oscillation in defect turbulence of planar nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narumi, Takayuki; Mikami, Yosuke; Nagaya, Tomoyuki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Hara, Kazuhiro; Hidaka, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Through experiments, we studied defect turbulence, a type of spatiotemporal chaos in planar systems of nematic liquid crystals, to clarify the chaotic advection of weak turbulence. In planar systems of large aspect ratio, structural relaxation, which is characterized by the dynamic structure factor, exhibits a long-period oscillation that is described well by a combination of a simple exponential relaxation and underdamped oscillation. The simple relaxation arises as a result of the roll modulation while the damped oscillation is manifest in the repetitive gliding of defect pairs in a local area. Each relaxation is derived analytically by the projection operator method that separates turbulent transport into a macroscopic contribution and fluctuations. The analysis proposes that the two relaxations are not correlated. The nonthermal fluctuations of defect turbulence are consequently separated into two independent Markov processes. Our approach sheds light on diversity and universality from a unified viewpoint for weak turbulence.

  5. Behaviors of random laser in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fengfeng; Bian, Huanting; Pei, Yanbo; Hou, Chunfeng; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-01-01

    Random lasing in the nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) with a high doping concentration of the laser dye was observed and characterized. With increasing the pump energy after the occurrence of the random laser (RL), the RL intensity first increases gradually to a maximum, then drops sharply to zero, accompanied by the gradual enhancement of scattering manifested by the growth of far-field diffraction rings of the transmitted pump beam in number. The threshold energy per unit pump area, slope efficiency, and maximal output intensity of the NLC RL depend heavily and nonmonotonically on the pump angle. A model involving the pump pulse induced molecular reorientation in NLCs leading to the pump angle dependent enhancement of scattering is proposed to explain the pump angle dependent properties of RLs.

  6. Thermal optical nonlinearity in photonic crystal fibers filled with nematic liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiak, Piotr; Budaszewski, Daniel; Bednarska, Karolina; Wójcik, Michał; Sobotka, Piotr; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we studied a newly reported class of nonlinear effects observed in 5CB liquid crystals doped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The size of the GNP was determined by direct TEM imaging and by X-ray scattering of the diluted NP solution. GNPs was coated by thiols with the ratio of mesogenic to n-alkyl thiols varying from 1:2 to 1:1. The research involved comparing properties of both undoped and doped 5CB (nematic LC) by infiltrating LC cell and microholes of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) separately. In our experiment the PCF fiber type LMA-10 made by NKT Photonics as host material has been used.

  7. Photo-thermal effects in gold nanoparticles dispersed in thermotropic nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Luigia; De Sio, Luciano; Veltri, Alessandro; Placido, Tiziana; Palermo, Giovanna; Comparelli, Roberto; Curri, Maria Lucia; Agostiano, Angela; Tabiryan, Nelson; Umeton, Cesare

    2015-08-21

    The last few years have seen a growing interest in the ability of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) to control temperature at the nanoscale. Under a suitable optical radiation, MNPs feature an enhanced light absorption/scattering, thus turning into an ideal nano-source of heat, remotely controllable by means of light. In this framework, we report our recent efforts on modeling and characterizing the photo-thermal effects observed in gold nanoparticles (GNPs) dispersed in thermotropic Liquid Crystals (LCs). Photo-induced temperature variations in GNPs dispersed in Nematic LCs (NLCs) have been studied by implementing an ad hoc theoretical model based on the thermal heating equation applied to an anisotropic medium. Theoretical predictions have been verified by performing photo-heating experiments on a sample containing a small percentage of GNPs dispersed in NLCs. Both theory and experiments represent an important achievement in understanding the physics of heat transfer at the nanoscale, with applications ranging from photonics to nanomedicine.

  8. Anisotropic shift of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles doped in nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amit; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-10-06

    Study of the liquid crystal (LC) director around nanoparticles has been an important topic of research very recently, since it allows design and fabrication of next-generation LC devices that are impossible in the past. In our experiment, alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were dispersed in nematic LC. Analysis of the LC director around GNPs was performed by investigating the behavior of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) absorption peaks of the GNPs using spectrophotometry technique. It is found that the incident linearly polarized light orientated at 0°, 45°, and 90° angles with respect to the rubbing direction experiences varying interaction with the LC medium. The corresponding transmission of light reveals the anisotropic shift in wavelength of SPP peak. The anisotropic behavior of SPPs of the GNPs is in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  9. Influence of External Noise on Various Electrohydrodynamic Instabilities in a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jong-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    We report noise-induced threshold shifts on various electrohydrodynamic instabilities (EHIs) in a nematic liquid crystal. There exist three characteristic frequencies (f1, f2, and f3) in the ac-driven EHI system. By controlling the cutoff frequency fc of external multiplicative noise, we examine the dependence of the thresholds on the noise intensity VN for the Williams domain (f1f3), and prewavy (f>f2). Moreover, a dc-driven EHI (isotropic mode) is dealt with in the same way. Depending on VN and fc, noise plays an important role in stabilizing or destabilizing EHIs. The influence of noise on the instability mechanisms and their specific structures is discussed on the basis of the present experimental results.

  10. Motion of a colloidal particle in a nonuniform director field of a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Kyu; Kim, Sung-Jo; Lev, Bohdan; Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a single spherical particle immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. A nonuniform director field is imposed on the substrate by a stripe alignment pattern with splay deformation. The particle of homeotropic anchoring at the surface is accompanied by hyperbolic hedgehog or Saturn-ring defects. The particle motion is dependent on the defect structure. We study the two types of motions theoretically and confirm the obtained results experimentally. The particle accompanied by a hyperbolic hedgehog defect is pulled to a deformed region to relax the elastic deformation energy. The motion occurs in the direction heading the hyperbolic hedgehog defect of a particle in a twist region. The position exhibits a weak S-shaped change as a function of time. The particle accompanied by a Saturn-ring defect shows insignificant motion due to its relatively small deformation energy.

  11. Spectral method for fast measurement of twisted nematic liquid crystal cell parameters.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Plinio Jesús; Pérez, Isabel; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Vázquez, Carmen

    2014-08-10

    We present an experimental approach for the fast measurement of twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal (LC) cells' parameters. It is based on the spectral measurements of the light transmitted by the system polarizer-reference wave plate-LC cell-analyzer. The cell parameters are obtained by fitting the theoretical model to the experimental data. This method allows determining the rubbing angle, the twist angle and its sense, and the spectral dispersion of the LC cell retardation, simultaneously, with few measurements and without the need of applying voltage or any specific analytical conditions. The method is validated by characterizing two different TN cells with retardations of about 0.91 and 1.85 μm. The birefringence relative error is less than 1.3%.

  12. Controllable-Viewing-Angle Display Using a Hybrid Aligned Nematic Liquid-Crystal Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Masaya

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a “controllable-viewing-angle (CVA)” device consisting of a hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) liquid-crystal (LC) cell and an negative C-plate. The CVA device can control the transmission of light at predetermined azimuth angles and at the polar angles without changing the transmission of light in the normal direction. By arranging the CVA device on top of a LC panel, we have realized a simple controllable-viewing-angle display. In particular, the CVA device using a HAN LC cell realizes a stronger light-shielding effect and better control over a wider range of viewing angles than possible with a homogeneous aligned LC cell.

  13. Tunable Optical Grating Based on the Flexoelectric Effect in a Bent-Core Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ying; Jing, Hong-Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Ye, Wen-Jiang; Xu, Ming-Ya; Wang, Everett; Salamon, Péter; Éber, Nándor; Buka, Ágnes

    2017-06-01

    Optical gratings are created by flexoelectric domains in a bent-core nematic liquid crystal. A unique feature of this structure is that its wavelength can be controlled by the amplitude of the applied voltage, as demonstrated by polarizing microscopy and light diffraction techniques. In order to understand the reaction of the system to the voltage change, the dynamics of the switching process is studied via digital processing of recorded image sequences. It is shown that the characteristics and the switching mechanisms are different if the lower voltage level is below or above the threshold of pattern onset. In both cases, the response to increasing voltage levels is much slower than the response to decreasing voltage levels.

  14. Light scattering by a nematic liquid crystal droplet: Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Loiko, V. A. Konkolovich, A. V.; Miskevich, A. A.

    2016-01-15

    Light scattering by an optically anisotropic liquid crystal (LC) droplet of a nematic in an isotropic polymer matrix is considered in the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) approximation. General relations are obtained for elements of the amplitude matrix of light scattering by a droplet of arbitrary shape and for the structure of the director field. Analytic expressions for the amplitude matrices are derived for spherical LC droplets with a uniformly oriented structure of local optical axes for strictly forward and strictly backward scattering. The efficiency factors of extinction and backward scattering for a spherical nonabsorbing LC droplet depending on the LC optical anisotropy, refractive index of the polymer, illumination conditions, and orientation of the optical axis of the droplet are analyzed. Verification of the obtained solutions has been performed.

  15. Temperature dependences of the electrooptical properties of rodlike nematic liquid crystals doped with hockey-stick-shaped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Sunggu; Srivastava, Anoop Kumar; Lee, Hyojin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Choi, E.-Joon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the temperature dependences of the dielectric anisotropy, birefringence, order parameter, splay elastic constant, and rotational viscosity of rodlike nematic liquid crystals (RLCs) doped with hockey-stick-shaped liquid crystals (HLCs). Although the order parameter of the HLC-RLC mixtures was similar to that of the pure RLC, the dielectric anisotropy and the birefringence of the mixtures were decreased or increased depending on the structure of the HLC molecule. In addition, the activation energies of the mixtures were different, which implies that the intramolecular structure of the HLC molecule had more influence on the electrooptical properties of the HLC-RLC binary mixtures than the inter-molecular interaction between the HLC and the RLC molecules.

  16. Dynamic interaction between suspended particles and defects in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Grollau, S; Abbott, N L; de Pablo, J J

    2003-05-01

    Insertion of spherical particles into a uniform nematic liquid crystal gives rise to the formation of topological defects. In the present work, we investigate how a spherical particle accompanied by its topological defects interacts with neighboring disclination lines. We perform two- and three-dimensional dynamic simulations to analyze the effect of a particle on the annihilation process of two disclination lines. The dynamics of the liquid crystal is described by a time-dependent evolution equation on the symmetric traceless order parameter that includes some of the salient features of liquid crystalline materials: excluded volume effects, or equivalently, short-range order elasticity and long-range order elasticity. At the surface of the particle, the liquid crystal is assumed to exhibit strong homeotropic anchoring. The particle is located between two disclination lines of topological charges +1/2 and -1/2. Two-dimensional simulations indicate that the topological defects bound to the particle mediate an interaction between the two disclination lines which increases the attraction between them. This result is confirmed by three-dimensional simulations that provide a complete description of the director field and of the order parameter around the particle. These simulations indicate that a spherical particle between two disclination lines can be surrounded by a Saturn ring, and suggest that the dynamic behavior of disclination lines could be used to report the structure of a defect around the particle.

  17. Electric Field Induced Stable Micro Rotor in Nematic Liquid Crystal Drops Constrained on Thin Cellulosic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, Maria Helena; Geng, Yong; Almeida, Pedro; Figueirinhas, João; Terentjev, Eugene

    2012-02-01

    We directly visualize the response of nematic liquid crystal drops of toroidal topology constrained on thin fibers, suspended in air, to an AC applied electric field E. This new localized liquid crystal system can exhibit non-trivial point defects, which may become energetically unstable against expanding into ring disclinations depending on the fiber constraining geometries. The director anchoring tangential near the fiber surface and homeotropic at the air interface, making a hybrid shell distribution that in turn causes a ring of disclination line around the main axis of the fiber at the center of the droplet. Upon application of E, the disclination ring first expands and slightly moves along the fiber main axis, followed by the appearance of a stable ``spherical particle'' orbiting around the fiber at the center of the liquid crystal drop. The rotation speed of this particle was found to vary linearly with the applied voltage. This constrained liquid crystal geometry seems to meet the essential requirements in which soliton like particles can develop and exhibit stable orbiting in three dimensions upon application of an external electric field. This is another example of a soft energy transducer system which allows, at the micro scale, the transfer in a continuous way of electrical to mechanical energy.

  18. Ultraweak azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a planar orienting photopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Nespoulous, Mathieu; Blanc, Christophe; Nobili, Maurizio

    2007-10-01

    The search of weak anchoring is an important issue for a whole class of liquid crystal displays. In this paper we present an orienting layer showing unreached weak planar azimuthal anchoring for 4-n-pentyl-4{sup '}-cyanobiphenyl nematic liquid crystal (5CB). Azimuthal extrapolation lengths as large as 80 {mu}m are easily obtained. Our layers are made with the commercial photocurable polymer Norland optical adhesive 60. The anisotropy of the film is induced by the adsorption of oriented liquid crystal molecules under a 2 T magnetic field applied parallel to the surfaces. We use the width of surface {pi}-walls and a high-field electro-optical method to measure, respectively, the azimuthal and the zenithal anchorings. The azimuthal anchoring is extremely sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) dose and it also depends on the magnetic field application duration. On the opposite, the zenithal anchoring is only slightly sensitive to the preparation parameters. All these results are discussed in terms of the adsorption/desorption mechanisms of the liquid crystal molecules on the polymer layer and of the flexibility of the polymer network.

  19. Measurement of the Converse Flexoelectric Effect of a Bent-Core Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, John; Teeling, Richelle; Sprunt, Samuel; Gleeson, James; Jakli, Antal

    2008-03-01

    Flexoelectricity is a linear coupling between bend or splay distortions and electric polarization^1. It is a unique property of orientationally ordered materials of which liquid crystals are the best known example. It has been shown that the bend flexoelectric coefficient in ``banana'' bent-core liquid crystals is three orders of magnitude higher than the effect found in calamitic liquid crystals^2. Using a Mirau interferometer attached to the objective port of a microscope, we were able to measure the converse effect. This polarity dependent flexing of a thin cell yielded displacements of 100nm when 100V DC was applied to a 1cm x 2cm x 25μm cell filled with the bent-core nematic liquid crystal 4-chloro-1,3-phenylene bis 4-[4'-(9-decenyloxy) benzoyloxy] benzoate (ClPbis10BB). The substrates were 100μm thick Mylar with ITO as a conducting layer. These preliminary experiments show the promise of new types of soft actuators or beam steering devices. References: ^1Meyer R.B. (1969). Physical Review Letters 22(18): 918-921. ^2Harden, J., B. Mbanga, et al. (2006). Physical Review Letters 97(15). Acknowledgement: NSF DMR-0606160 and NSF REU-0649017

  20. Non-equilibrium nature of two-dimensional isotropic and nematic coexistence in amyloid fibrils at liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jordens, Sophia; Isa, Lucio; Usov, Ivan; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional alignment of shape-anisotropic colloids is ubiquitous in nature, ranging from interfacial virus assembly to amyloid plaque formation. The principles governing two-dimensional self-assembly have therefore long been studied, both theoretically and experimentally, leading, however, to diverging fundamental interpretations on the nature of the two-dimensional isotropic-nematic phase transition. Here we employ single-molecule atomic force microscopy, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy and passive probe particle tracking to study the adsorption and liquid crystalline ordering of semiflexible β-lactoglobulin fibrils at liquid interfaces. Fibrillar rigidity changes on increasing interfacial density, with a maximum caused by alignment and a subsequent decrease stemming from crowding and domain bending. Coexistence of nematic and isotropic regions is resolved and quantified by a length scale-dependent order parameter S(2D)(d). The nematic surface fraction increases with interfacial fibril density, but depends, for a fixed interfacial density, on the initial bulk concentration, ascribing the observed two-dimensional isotropic-nematic coexistence to non-equilibrium phenomena.

  1. Three-dimensional profilometry of microlenses by phase shifting interferometery using nematic liquid crystal material filled cell as a phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Inam, M; Srivastava, V; Mehta, D S

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, we report the use of a nematic liquid crystal material filled cell in transmission mode as a voltage controlled phase modulator for the characterization of microlenses. In one arm of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a nematic liquid crystal filled cell with DC voltage connection was placed, and in another arm of the interferometer microlenses with a 4-F imaging system were placed. Interference takes place between the light beams coming from the two arms of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, one after passing through the nematic liquid crystal cell and another after passing through microlenses. Interference patterns were recorded by a CCD camera. By applying DC voltage to the nematic liquid crystal filled cell, various phase shifted interferograms were recorded, and from phase shifted interferograms, the shape and size of microlenses were determined. The results of the reconstructed profile of the microlenses are compared with white-light profilometry.

  2. Models for ionic contribution to the complex dielectric constant of nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Barbero, G; Lelidis, I

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the models that account the ionic contribution to the complex dielectric constant of a nematic liquid crystal. We compare the predictions of the model of [Sawada, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 318, 225 (1998)] based on the assumption that the electric field in the liquid coincides with the applied one, with the model of Macdonald where the electric field in the sample is determined in self-consistent manner by solving the equation of Poisson. We show that the model of Sawada , widely used to determine the bulk density of ions and their diffusion coefficient in liquid crystal cells, predicts a thickness dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant different from that predicted by the model of Macdonald. On the contrary, the predictions of the two models coincide for what concerns the frequency dependencies of the two components of the dielectric constant. By considering a typical case, we show that the numerical values of the ionic properties derived by means of the model of Sawada may differ even more than 1 order of magnitude by those predicted by the model of Macdonald. A rescaling procedure allowing to evaluate the bulk density of ions and the ionic diffusion coefficient determined by means of the model of Sawada in agreement with the one of Macdonald is proposed.

  3. Direct alignment of nematic liquid crystal molecule using atomic force microscope nano-rubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Itaru; Yoshida, Norio; Ebisawa, Mizue; Takayanagi, Atsuo; Otani, Yukitoshi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2005-12-01

    The orientation control of liquid crystal (LC) molecular on the polyimide film has been necessary to fabricate LC devices. Nano-rubbing by atomic force microscope (AFM) has been proposed as the one of methods to control it precisely. In the method, a thin polyimide film was rubbed by a sharpened AFM probe-tip with relatively strong load force. However, the method has some drawbacks; the frictional wear of AFM probe-tip and the difficulty of reorientation after rubbing. In this paper, we have proposed the orientation control of LC on the polyimide film and using direct AFM nano-rubbing method with weak load forces. The change of LC alignment was quantitatively observed by a polarization microscope and birefringence-contrast scanning near-field optical microscope. The effect of scanning density was strong for azimuth angle but the effect of the scanning velocity was weak for both retardation and azimuth angle. An optical switching device was developed utilized isotropic-nematic phase change of liquid crystal which was rubbed in the grating pattern with methyl red dying, and the optical device was operated at the frequency of 0.5Hz. As a result, The proposed method had an effective method to fabricate novel liquid crystal optical devices.

  4. Controlling defects in nematic and smectic liquid crystals through boundary geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, Daniel A.

    Liquid crystals (LCs), presently the basis of the dominant electronics display technology, also hold immense potential for the design of new self-assembling, self-healing, and "smart" responsive materials. Essential to many of these novel materials are liquid crystalline defects, places where the liquid crystalline order is forced to break down, replacing the LC locally with a higher-symmetry phase. Despite the energetic cost of this local melting, defects are often present at equilibrium when boundary conditions frustrate the material order. These defects provide micron-scale tools for organizing colloids, focusing light, and generating micropatterned materials. Manipulating the shapes of the boundaries thus offers a route to obtaining new and desirable self-assembly outcomes in LCs, but each added degree of complexity in the boundary geometry increases the complexity of the liquid crystal's response. Therefore, conceptually minimal changes to boundary geometry are investigated for their effects on the self-assembled defect arrangements that result in nematic and smectic-A LCs in three dimensions as well as two-dimensional smectic LCs on curved substrates. In nematic LCs, disclination loops are studied in micropost confining environments and in the presence of sharp-edged colloidal inclusions, using both numerical modeling and topological reasoning. In both scenarios, sharp edges add new possibilities for the shape or placement of disclinations, permitting new types of colloidal self-assembly beyond simple chains and hexagonal lattices. Two-dimensional smectic LCs on curved substrates are examined in the special cases where the substrate curvature is confined to points or curves, providing an analytically tractable route to demonstrate how Gaussian curvature is associated with disclinations and grain boundaries, as well as these defects' likely experimental manifestations. In three-dimensional smectic-A LCs, novel self-assembled arrangements of focal conic domains

  5. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Elongated and rodlike objects such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied when immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. Their interaction energy in a uniform nematic field depends on their orientation relative to the director n, and its minimum determines if they stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n. Using free energy calculations, we deduce the orientation at equilibrium that they choose in a uniform director field n or when they are in contact with a splay-bend disclination line. Naturally, the CNT orientations also depend on the anchoring conditions at their surface. Essentially, three types of anchorings are considered, planar, homeotropic, and Janus anchorings in the cases of weak and strong anchoring strengths. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are attracted toward it and ultimately, they get out of the colloidal dispersion to stick on it. Their orientation relative to the line is found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, we finally obtain a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, according to the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line, respectively. The system exhibits a rich versatility even if up to now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. As discussed in the associated experimental paper, these necklaces could be a step toward interesting applications for realizing nanowires self-connected in three dimensions to predesignated electrodes. This method could provide a way to increase the number of transistors that may be connected together on a small volume.

  6. A novel twisted nematic alignment and its effects on the electro-optical dynamics of nanoscale liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauzan, Brittany; Lee, Lay Min; Nuzzo, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic studies of a surface induced, twisted alignment of the nematic liquid crystal, 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and its temperature-dependent electro-optical (EO) dynamics were studied near the crystalline-nematic and nematic-isotropic transition temperatures, and at a median temperature in the nematic phase. A 50 nm thick film of 5CB was confined in nanocavities defined by the dimensions of a gold interdigitated electrode array patterned on a unidirectionally polished ZnSe substrate. The film was assembled between two polished substrates bearing extended nanometer-scaled grooves that are oriented orthogonally to one another. The results show that with this anchoring scheme, the molecular director of the LC film undergoes a ninety-degree twist. Step-scan time resolved spectroscopy (TRS) measurements were made to determine the rate constants for the temperature-dependent EO dynamics of both the electric field-induced orientation and thermal relaxation processes of the LC film. The work rationalizes the impacts of organizational anisotropy and illustrates how it can be exploited as a design principle to effectively influence the electric field-induced dynamics of LC systems.

  7. Matched elastic constants for a perfect helical planar state and a fast switching time in chiral nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meina; Zhou, Xiaochen; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Huai; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2016-05-11

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals possess a self-assembled helical structure and exhibit unique selective reflection in visible and infrared light regions. Their optical properties can be electrically tuned. The tuning involves the unwinding and restoring of the helical structure. We carried out an experimental study on the mechanism of the restoration of the helical structure. We constructed chiral nematic liquid crystals with variable elastic constants by doping bent-dimers and studied their impact on the restoration. With matched twist and bend elastic constants, the helical structure can be restored dramatically fast from the field-induced homeotropic state. Furthermore, defects can be eliminated to produce a perfect planar state which exhibits high selective reflection.

  8. Nonstationary local reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal in a cell with a silicon p- n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Yu. I.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Kucheev, S. I.

    2014-09-01

    We report the first observation of the phenomenon of nonstationary local reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC), which is initiated by a reverse biased p- n junction in a cell with silicon substrate. The velocity of reorientation and the distance traveled by a reoriented nematic band (which is tenfold greater than the cell thickness) are determined by the p- n junction bias voltage. The band profile depends on the distribution of the surface conductivity, which has been set in this work either by irradiation with 30-keV Ga ions or by light-induced generation of nonequilibriun carriers in silicon. The local reorientation of NLC and the depletion of the silicon surface are explained by the influence of ion space charge in the liquid crystal.

  9. Electro-optic properties of nematic and ferroelectric liquid crystalline nanocolloids doped with partially reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapanik, Valeri; Timofeev, Sergei; Haase, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Flakes of partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) were doped in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) and ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs), respectively. The dielectric and electro-optical properties of NLCs doped with those flakes have been investigated. Threshold voltage and switching times are reduced by 30%-50%. This is primarily due to the decrease of the elastic properties of the nanocolloids compared to the non-doped nematics. The influence of the PRGO flakes on the spontaneous polarization, tilt angle and switching time of FLCs was investigated too. Such flakes reduce the response time by 40%-60%, increases spontaneous polarization by 20%-25% and increase the tilt angle by 15%-20%.

  10. Electronic structure and pair potential energy analysis of 4-n-methoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl: A nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Dipendra Tiwari, S. N.; Dwivedi, M. K.

    2016-05-06

    Electronic structure properties of 4-n-methoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl, a pure nematic liquid crystal have been examined using an ab‒initio, HF/6‒31G(d,p) technique with GAMESS program. Conformational and charge distribution analysis have been carried out. MEP, HOMO and LUMO surfaces have been scanned. Ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, global hardness and softness of the liquid crystal molecule have been calculated. Further, stacking, side by side and end to end interactions between a molecular pair have been evaluated. Results have been used to elucidate the physico-chemical and liquid crystalline properties of the system.

  11. Pullback attractors of the two-dimensional non-autonomous simplified Ericksen-Leslie system for nematic liquid crystal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Bo; Li, Fang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the long-time behaviour of the two-dimensional non-autonomous simplified Ericksen-Leslie system for nematic liquid crystal flows introduced in Lin and Liu (Commun Pure Appl Math, 48:501-537, 1995) with a non-autonomous forcing bulk term and order parameter field boundary conditions. In this paper, we prove the existence of pullback attractors and estimate the upper bound of its fractal dimension under some suitable assumptions.

  12. Disclination loops, standing alone and around solid particles, in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentjev, E. M.

    1995-02-01

    A suspended particle with specific director anchoring on its surface introduces a complex distortion field in a nematic liquid crystal matrix. Topological defects-disclination loops, boojums, and hedgehogs, are needed to match the director near the particle surface with that at the far distance, which is determined by boundary conditions on the sample. This paper analyzes the elastic energy and stability of a singular loop of wedge disclination and the first-order transition of the radial hedgehog into a wide singular loop, driven by an external magnetic field. The far field of distortions, created by a ``Saturn ring'' of disclination around the spherical radial particle, allows one to calculate the potential of interaction between such particles and with the surface of the liquid crystal. Particles are repelled from each other and from the rigidly anchored surface with the potential U~1/r3. If the sample surface has soft anchoring, the particle is attracted to it at close distances and is repelled, if beyond the anchoring coherence length ξw. Several experiments to test these conclusions are suggested.

  13. Anchoring Orientation of Nematic and Smectic A Liquid Crystals on PTFE Treated Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Pascal; Dreyfus, Hanna; Guillon, Daniel; Galerne, Yves

    1995-09-01

    The anchoring orientation of different liquid crystals in contact with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) treated surfaces is determined by means of optical interferometry. The anchoring is found to be planar for all the compounds tested, MBBA, 2OO6, 5CB and 7BPI, consisting of polar and non-polar molecules, in the nematic or smectic A phase. This result is consistent with the non-polar nature of PTFE, which is only sensitive to London-like interactions. L'orientation de l'ancrage de différents cristaux liquides sur des surfaces de poly(tétrafluoroéthylène) (téflon) est mesurée par interférométrie optique. Un ancrage planaire est trouvé pour tous les composés essayés MBBA, 2OO6, 5CB et 7BPI, que les molécules soient polaires ou non polaires, en phase nématique ou smectique A. Ce résultat est cohérent avec la nature non-polaire du téflon qui n'est sensible qu'à l'interaction de London.

  14. Kibble-Zurek Scaling during Defect Formation in a Nematic Liquid Crystal.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Nicholas; Dierking, Dr Ingo

    2017-04-05

    Symmetry-breaking phase transitions are often accompanied by the formation of topological defects, as in cosmological theories of the early universe, superfluids, liquid crystals or solid-state systems. This scenario is described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, which predicts corresponding scaling laws for the defect density ρ. One such scaling law suggests a relation ρ≈τQ(-1/2) with τQ the change of rate of a control parameter. In contrast to the scaling of the defect density during annihilation with ρ≈t(-1) , which is governed by the attraction of defects of the same strength but opposite sign, the defect formation process, which depends on the rate of change of a physical quantity initiating the transition, has only rarely been investigated. Herein, we use nematic liquid crystals as a different system to demonstrate the validity of the predicted scaling relation for defect formation. It is found that the scaling exponent is independent of temperature and material employed, thus universal, as predicted. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Defect topologies in a nematic liquid crystal near a patchy colloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melle, Michael; Schlotthauer, Sergej; Mazza, Marco G.; Klapp, Sabine H. L.; Schoen, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Using isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo simulations we investigate defect topologies due to a spherical colloidal particle immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. Defects arise because of the competition between the preferential orientation at the colloid's surface and the far-field director widehat{{n}}0. Considering a chemically homogeneous colloid as a special case we observe the well-known surface and saturn ring defect topologies for weak and strong perpendicular anchoring, respectively; for homogeneous, strong parallel anchoring we find a boojum defect topology that has been seen experimentally [see P. Poulin and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. E 57, 626 (1998)] but not in computer simulations. We also consider a heterogeneous, patchy colloid where the liquid-crystal molecules anchor either preferentially planar or perpendicular at the surface of the colloid. For a patchy colloid we observe a boojum ring defect topology in agreement with recent experimental studies [see M. Conradi, M. Ravnik, M. Bele, M. Zorko, S. Žumer, and I. Muševič, Soft Matter 5, 3905 (2009)]. We also observe two other novel defect topologies that have not been reported thus far neither experimentally nor theoretically.

  16. Lasing in a nematic liquid crystal cell with an interdigitated electrode system

    SciTech Connect

    Shtykov, N M; Palto, S P; Umanskii, B A; Geivandov, A R

    2015-04-30

    Waveguide lasing in a layer of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal has been observed. The liquid-crystal layer was sandwiched between a quartz substrate and a glass cover plate on whose surface was deposited an interdigitated electrode system. This system had a period of 3.75 μm and played a dual role, namely, it created a spatial periodicity of the waveguide medium refractive index (thus creating distributed feedback) and served as a diffraction grating coupling out a part of waveguide radiation into the glass cover plate. The distributed feedback ensured lasing in the 18th diffraction order for the TE modes and in the 19th order for the TM modes of the waveguide. The generated radiation was observed at the exit from the glass plate end face at the angles to the waveguide plane of 33.1 ± 1.5° for TM modes and 21.8 ± 1.8° for TE modes. The intensity and position of the TE emission line showed no regular dependence on the voltage on the electrodes. In the case of TM radiation, an increase in the voltage led to a short-wavelength shift of the laser line and to a decrease in its intensity. (lasers)

  17. Onset of Thermal Convection in a Homeotropically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Leif N.; Ahlers, Guenter; Bajaj, Kapil M. S.

    1996-11-01

    For a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal in a vertical magnetic field and heated from below, it was predicted^1 that the bifurcation from conduction to convection is a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Using 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) at a mean temperature of 25.6^oC in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio (radius/height) Γ=10.6, we observed travelling and standing waves during the transient from conduction to convection. We measured the Hopf frequency ω c and the critical wavenumber kc at different vertical magnetic field strengths in the range 8 alt h ≡ H/ HF alt 17 (HF = 20.1 Gauss is the Fréedericksz field). Over this field range, our results for ωc agree within their scatter of about 2% with the prediction, but our results for kc are systematically lower by about 5%. After the transients, the fully developed flow has a very slow chaotic time dependence which is unrelated to the Hopf frequency.^2 Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG03-87ER13738. ^1Q. Feng, W. Decker, W. Pesch, and L. Kramer, J. Phys. France II 2, 1303 (1992). ^2G. Ahlers, in Pattern Formation in Liquid Crystals, edited by A. Buka and L. Kramer (Springer, 1996).

  18. Side-polished fiber sensing for determination of azimuthal orientation of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuqi; Chen, Zhe; Yu, Jianhui; Li, Haozhi; He, Xiaoli

    2013-09-01

    The orientation of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) can be used in biosensor. The sensing characteristics of side-polished fiber (SPF) for determination of azimuthal orientation of NLC have been investigated. The relationship between the azimuthal angle of NLC director and the optical transmission power in SPF was derived by empirical approach. Experimental results showed that the azimuthal transition of liquid crystal affected the optical transmission power in SPF. While the azimuthal angle increased from 0° to 90°, the optical transmission power increased by 28.10dB, which is similar to the variation tendency of the empirical analysis. When it changes from 0° to 30°, the azimuthal angle is linear to the change of optical transmission power. The respondence of azimuthal angle for optical sensing is averagely 0.359dB/°. Experiments indicate that SPF can be used in determination of the azimuzal transition of NLC. It would be used for a new fiber optical biosensor based on the SPF and NLC.

  19. Numerical solution of the Ericksen-Leslie dynamic equations for two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Pedro A.; Tomé, Murilo F.; Stewart, Iain W.; McKee, Sean

    2013-08-01

    A finite difference method for solving nematic liquid crystal flows under the effect of a magnetic field is developed. The dynamic equations of nematic liquid crystals, given by the Ericksen-Leslie dynamic theory, are employed. These are expressed in terms of primitive variables and solved employing the ideas behind the GENSMAC methodology (Tomé and McKee, 1994; Tomé et al., 2002) [38,41]. These equations are nonlinear partial differential equations consisting of the mass conservation equation and the balance laws of linear and angular momentum. By employing fully developed flow assumptions an analytic solution for steady 2D-channel flow is found. The resulting numerical technique was then, in part, validated by comparing numerical solutions against this analytic solution. Convergence results are presented. To demonstrate the capabilities of the numerical method, the flow of a nematic liquid crystal through various complex geometries are then simulated. Results are obtained for L-shaped channels and planar 4:1 contraction for several values of Reynolds and Ericksen numbers.

  20. Fluctuations and spatio-temporal chaos in electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaochao

    We have studied two fundamental issues in driven nonequilibrium systems using electroconvection in nematic liquid crystal I52 and N4. We first report experimental results for electroconvection of the nematic Liquid Crystal I52 with planar alignment and a conductivity of 1.0 x 10-8 (Om)-1. The cell spacing was 19.4 mum and the driving frequency was 25.0 Hz. Spatio-temporal chaos consisting of a superposition of zig and zag oblique rolls evolved by means of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation from the uniform conduction state[14]. For small ε ≡ V2/V2cFsF - 1 (V is the applied voltage amplitude and Vc the value of V at the onset of convection), we measured the correlation lengths of the envelopes of both zig and zag patterns. These lengths could be fit to a power law in ε with an exponent smaller than that predicted from amplitude equations. The disagreement with theory is similar to that found previously for domain chaos in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection [82]. In the following part, we developed a way to measure local current fluctuations in electroconvection. Several special cells were made and each cell had a small local detecting electrode. The detecting electrodes were squares of width 8. 16. 32, 48 and 128 mum at the center of one of the two large electrodes. The spacing of these cells was close to 20 mum. We used the NLC Merck phase IV (N4) with planar alignment. When the driving ε was from 0.8 to 6, we found that the distribution of the current fluctuations was strongly skewed towards larger values for detecting electrodes smaller than the cell spacing and slightly skewed towards smaller values for the rest of the cells. This is compared with global current-fluctuation measurements in similar cells which showed a Gaussian distribution. For the small electrodes, large fluctuations that extended below the current expected for the conduction state were found and a possible connection with the Gallavotti-Cohen Fluctuation Theorem is discussed. This

  1. Electro-optical response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal single layers of large nematic droplets oriented by rubbed teflon nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Y. G.; Hadjichristov, G. B.; Petrov, A. G.; Marino, S.; Versace, C.; Scaramuzza, N.

    2013-02-01

    The surface orienting effect of rubbed teflon nanolayers on the morphology and electro-optical (EO) response of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) single layers of large nematic droplets was studied experimentally. In PDLC composites of the nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 and NOA65 polymer, single droplets of LC with diameters as larger as 10 μm were confined in layers with a thickness of 10 μm, and the nematic director field was efficiently modified by nanostructuring teflon rubbing of the glass plates of the PDLC cell. For layered PDLCs arranged and oriented in this way, the modulated EO response by the dielectric oscillations of the nematic director exhibits a selective amplitude-frequency modulation controllable by both temperature and voltage applied, and is simply related to the LC droplet size. That may be of practical interest for PDLC-based modulators operating in the infrasound frequency range.

  2. Theory of light-induced deformation of azobenzene elastomers: effects of the liquid-crystalline interactions and biaxiality.

    PubMed

    Toshchevikov, Vladimir; Saphiannikova, Marina

    2014-10-23

    We study light-induced deformation of azobenzene elastomers which can display liquid-crystalline (LC) order. It is shown that photomechanical behavior of azobenzene elastomers is determined by the strength of the LC interactions, which is proportional to the density of rodlike azobenzene chromophores. At weak LC interactions, a uniaxial order and uniaxial deformation of azobenzene elastomers along the polarization vector of the light E is observed. At strong LC interactions, the light is able to induce a phase transition from the uniaxial to the biaxial state, with two axes being related to the vector E and to a preferable alignment of the chromophores in the plane perpendicular to E. The phase transition can be of either the first or the second order. Azobenzene elastomers can demonstrate elongation or contraction along the polarization vector E, depending on the orientation distribution of chromophores around the main chains of network strands. The results of the theory are in a qualitative agreement with experiments and computer simulations, which demonstrate biaxial ordering in azo-containing polymers.

  3. Refractive index matched half-wave plate with a nematic liquid crystal for three-dimensional laser metrology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.; Miszczyk, E.; Raszewski, Z.; Mrukiewicz, M.; Perkowski, P.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Zieliński, J.; Olifierczuk, M.; Kędzierski, J.; Sun, X. W.; Garbat, K.; Kowiorski, K.; Morawiak, P.; Mazur, R.; Tkaczyk, J.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a need in a quality and accuracy of a three-dimensional laser metrology operating in numerically controlled automatic machines. For this purpose, one sends three laser beams mutually perpendicular. These three beams of the wavelength λ = 0.6328 μm are generated by the same laser and are directed along three independent, orthogonal, mutually perpendicular, optical paths with a given light polarization plain. Using these beams, constituting the frame of coordinates, three independent laser rangefinders are able to determine spatial coordinates of a working tool or a workpiece. To form these optical pulses, a special refractive index matched Half-Wave Plate with nematic Liquid Crystal (LCHWP) was applied. The presented half-wave plate is based on a single Twisted Nematic (TN) cell (with the twist angle Φ = π/2) of a rather high cell gap d 15 μm filled with a newly developed High-Birefringence Nematic Liquid Crystal Mixture (HBLCM) of optical anisotropy as high as Δn 0.40 at λ = 0.6328 μm, where the Mauguin limit above 5.00 Δnd >> λ/2 = 0.32 is fulfilled.

  4. Direct mapping of local director field of nematic liquid crystals at the nano-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu; Serra, Francesca; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall

    2015-03-01

    The director field in liquid crystals (LCs) has been characterized mainly via polarized optical microscopy, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, all of which are limited by optical wavelengths - from hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers. Since LC orientation cannot be resolved directly by these methods, theory is needed to interpret the local director field of LC alignment. In this work, we introduce a new approach to directly visualize the local director field of a nematic LC (NLC) at the nano-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A new type of NLC monomer bearing crosslinkable groups was designed and synthesized. It can be well-oriented at particle surfaces and patterned polymer substrates, including micron-sized silica colloids, porous membranes, micropillar arrays, and 1D channels. After carefully crosslinking, the molecular orientation of NLCs around the particles or within the patterns could be directly visualized by SEM, showing oriented nanofibers representing LC director from the fractured samples. Here, we could precisely resolve not only the local director field by this approach, but the defect structures of NLCs, including hedgehogs and line defects. The direct mapping of LC directors at the nanoscale using this method will improve our understanding of NLC local director field, and thus their manipulation and applications. More importantly, a theoretical interpretation will no longer be a necessity to resolve a new material system in this field.

  5. Numerical analysis of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in nematic liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.; Christou, M. A.; Polycarpou, A. C.

    2012-10-01

    In the current work, the nonlinear problem of electromagnetic wave propagation in a Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) cell is solved numerically. The LC is sandwiched between two glass layers of finite thickness and a linearly polarized beam is obliquely incident to the cell. The dielectric properties of N-LCs depend on the tilt angle of the directors. When the excitation beam enters the cell, and providing the incident intensity is above the Fréedericksz threshold, the directors reorient themselves changing the LC's relative permittivity tensor. In turn, this affects beam propagation throughout the crystal. The electromagnetic field is modeled by the time-harmonic Maxwell equations whereas the director field is governed by a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE). Our solution method is iterative, consistently taking into account this interaction between the excitation beam and the director field. The Maxwell equations are solved employing the Mode-Matching Technique (MMT). The solution of the nonlinear differential equation for the director field is obtained with the aid of a finite difference (FD) scheme.

  6. Directed self-assembly of nematic liquid crystals on chemically patterned surfaces: morphological states and transitions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Armas-Perez, Julio C; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; Liu, Xiaoying; Xie, Helou; Bishop, Camille; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P; Zhang, Rui; de Pablo, Juan J; Nealey, Paul F

    2016-10-19

    The morphology and through-film optical properties of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) confined between two surfaces may be engineered to create switches that respond to external electric fields, thereby enabling applications in optoelectronics that require fast responses and low power. Interfacial properties between the confining surfaces and the LC play a central role in device design and performance. Here we investigate the morphology of LCs confined in hybrid cells with a top surface that exhibits uniform homeotropic anchoring and a bottom surface that is chemically patterned with sub-micron and micron- wide planar anchoring stripes in a background of homeotropic anchoring. In a departure from past work, we first investigate isolated stripes, as opposed to dense periodic arrays of stripes, thereby allowing for an in-depth interpretation of the effects of patterning on LC morphology. We observe three LC morphologies and sharp transitions between them as a function of stripe width in the submicron and micron regimes. Numerical simulations and theory help explain the roles of anchoring energy, elastic deformation, entropy, pattern geometry, and coherence length of the LC in the experimentally observed behavior. The knowledge and models developed from an analysis of results generated on isolated features are then used to design dense patterned substrates for high-contrast and efficient orientational switching of LCs in response to applied fields.

  7. Specific features of luminescence quenching in a nematic liquid crystal doped with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurochkina, M. A.; Konshina, E. A.; Shcherbinin, D. P.

    2016-10-01

    The change in the intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) composites as a function of the concentration of CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles 5 nm in diameter has been investigated. It is shown that the PL-quenching intensity in composites with CdSe/ZnS QDs exceeds that in composites with TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles. The lowfrequency spectra of these composites with a concentration of 0.1 wt %, recorded in the range of 102-103 Hz, and the content of mobile ions in them have been investigated. It is found that the dielectric loss in the composite with CdSe/ZnS QDs is much higher and the content of mobile ions is larger by a factor of 3 than in the composites with TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles. It is shown that an increase in the CdSe/ZnS QD concentration in NLC composites leads to an increase in the dielectric loss and a decrease in the PL intensity. Possible mechanisms of the interaction between NLC molecules and CdSe/ZnS QDs are discussed.

  8. Effect of nickel oxide nanoparticles on dielectric and optical properties of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamwal, Gaurav; Prakash, Jai; Chandran, Achu; Gangwar, Jitendra; Srivastava, A. K.; Biradar, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the improvement in dielectric and optical properties of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) by doping of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles. We have observed the dielectric and optical properties of pure and doped cells in order to understand the influence of NiO nanoparticles in the pure NLC. The experimental results have been analyzed through dielectric spectroscopic and optical texural methods.Detailed studies of dielectric parameters such as dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss and dielectric loss factor as a function of frequency with temperature were carried out. It has been observed that on doping the nanoparticles in NLC, the value of dielectric parameters (dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss and dielectric loss factor) decreases. The impedance and resistance of both pure and nanoparticles doped NLC cells were studied and found that for doped NLC, these parameter have low value. In addition to this, optical textures of the pure and doped samples have also been observed with a polarizing optical microscope at room temperature. All the results i.e. related to the investigation of dielectric and electro-optic properties have been explained by using existing theory of NLC.

  9. Dielectric and electro-optic measurements of nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Matthew; Georgiev, Georgi; Atherton, Timothy; Cebe, Peggy

    We studied the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the dielectric and electro-optic properties of nematic 5CB liquid crystals (LCs). Samples containing 0.01%, 0.10% and 1.00% CNTs by weight were prepared. Anti- parallel rubbed cells with a nominal thickness of 10 μm were prepared using indium tin oxide coated glass cells and a polyimide alignment layer. The capacitance and dissipation factor were measured using an Agilent 4284A precision LCR meter. From these measurements, the complex dielectric permittivity was determined as a function of frequency. Analysis of the low frequency regime (f <1000 Hz) indicates that 5CB samples containing CNTs have a higher conductance than neat samples. The Fréedericksz transition critical voltage was noted by a sharp increase in capacitance after an initial plateau. Numerical simulations of CNT-facilitated switching show that polarization induced on the nanotubes from capacitive effects can significantly reduce the critical voltage in DC electric fields, in agreement with experimental results. Measurements of the critical voltage over a range of frequencies will also be presented. Research was supported by the National Science Foundation, DMR1206010.

  10. Preliminary use of nematic liquid crystal adaptive optics with a 2.16-meter reflecting telescope.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Hu, Lifa; Li, Dayu; Peng, Zenghui; Liu, Yonggang; Xuan, Li

    2009-02-16

    A nematic liquid crystal adaptive optics system (NLC AOS) was assembled for a 2.16-m telescope to correct for atmospheric turbulence. LC AOS was designed and optimized with Zemax optical software. Second, an adaptive correction experiment was performed in the laboratory to test the performance of the NLC AOS. After the correction, the peak to valley (PV) and root mean square (RMS) of the wavefront were down to 0.2 lambda (lambda=633 nm) and 0.05 lambda, respectively. Finally, the star of Pollux (beta Gem) was tracked using the 2.16-m Reflecting Telescope, and real time correction of the atmospheric turbulence was performed with the NLC AOS. After the adaptive correction, the average PV and RMS of the wavefront were reduced from 11 lambda and 2.5 lambda to 2.3 lambda and 0.6 lambda, respectively. Although the intensity distribution of the beta Gem was converged and its peak was sharp, a halo still existed around the peak. These results indicated that the NLC AOS only partially corrected the vertical atmospheric turbulence. The limitations of our NLC AOS are discussed and some proposals are made.

  11. Molecular organization of nematic liquid crystals between concentric cylinders: Role of the elastic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiccoli, C.; Pasini, P.; Evangelista, L. R.; Teixeira-Souza, R. T.; Zannoni, C.

    2015-02-01

    The orientational order in a nematic liquid crystal sample confined to an annular region between two concentric cylinders is investigated by means of lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Strong anchoring and homeotropic orientations, parallel to the radial direction, are implemented at the confining surfaces. The elastic anisotropy is taken into account in the bulk interactions by using the pair potential introduced by Gruhn and Hess [T. Gruhn and S. Hess, Z. Naturforsch. A 51, 1 (1996)] and parametrized by Romano and Luckhurst [S. Romano, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 12, 2305 (1998), 10.1142/S0217979298001344; Phys. Lett. A 302, 203 (2002), 10.1016/S0375-9601(02)01042-3; G. R. Luckhurst and S. Romano, Liq. Cryst. 26, 871 (1999), 10.1080/026782999204561], i.e., the so-called GHRL potential. In the case of equal elastic constants, a small but appreciable deformation along the cylinder axis direction is observed, whereas when the values of K11/K33 if K22=K33 are low enough, all the spins in the bulk follow the orientation imposed by the surfaces. For larger values of K11/K33 , spontaneous deformations, perpendicular to the polar plane, increase significantly. Our findings indicate that the onset of these deformations also depends on the ratio K22/K33 and on the radius of the cylindrical surfaces. Although expected from the elastic theory, no tangential component of the deformations was observed in the simulations for the set of parameters analyzed.

  12. Mitigation of dynamic wavefront distortions using a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator and simplex optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandekar, Rahul M.; Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2006-02-01

    Laser beam propagating through the atmosphere is subjected to severe wavefront distortions due to the optical turbulence. This leads to reduction in the received power, ultimately resulting in the BER degradation, even for short ranges. Optical properties of the atmospheric channel change over time; hence, maintaining a reliable link requires dynamic wavefront control to mitigate the effects of the atmospheric turbulence. An electrically addressed programmable nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is proposed to perform this task. Wavefront correction is achieved by computing a phase shift for each pixel of the SLM, which could be a rigorous and time-consuming procedure. Hence, the goal is to obtain a stable and relatively simple approach to dynamically control the modulator elements. The phase profile of the distorted beam can be approximated using Zernike formalism or another type of wavefront polynomial, which provides efficient mapping between a large number of SLM pixels and a much smaller number of approximation coefficients. Furthermore, wavefront correction needs to be performed in real-time; hence the Simplex method by Nelder and Mead, known for fast improvement of an optimization metric, is used to adjust the approximation coefficients. The phase profile obtained from the optimization procedure is imposed on the received beam by the SLM. This facilitates the reduction of the optical path difference (OPD) present in the distorted wavefront by applying an inverse OPD, and mitigating the effects of the optical turbulence. This paper presents a basic algorithm as well as the experimental results.

  13. Elongational perturbations on nematic liquid crystal polymers under a weak shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Wang, Hongyun

    2007-10-01

    The two-dimensional Smoluchowski equation is employed to study the effect of elongational perturbations on nematic liquid crystal polymers under a weak shear. We use the multiscale asymptotic analysis to show that (1) when the elongational perturbation is small relative to the weak shear, the orientational probability density function (pdf) tumbles periodically only in an intermediate range of polymer concentration; outside this intermediate range (i.e., for very small and very large polymer concentration) the orientational pdf converges to a steady state and there is no tumbling. (2) When the elongational perturbation is about 20% of the shear rate or larger, the intermediate range of tumbling disappears and the orientational pdf always converges to a steady state regardless of the polymer concentration. Our theoretical predictions are consistent with various earlier results based on the Leslie-Ericksen theory [C. V. Chaubal and L. G. Leal, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 82, 22 (1999)] or analogous 3D numerical simulations [M. G. Forest, R. Zhou, and Q. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 088301 (2004); M. G. Forest, Q. Wang, R. Zhou, and E. Choate, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 118, 17 (2004)].

  14. Topology and self-assembly of defect-colloidal superstructure in confined chiral nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, M. B.; Ackerman, P. J.; Burkart, A.; Porenta, T.; Žumer, S.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2015-01-01

    We describe formation of defect-colloidal superstructures induced by microspheres with normal surface anchoring dispersed in chiral nematic liquid crystals in confinement-unwound homeotropic cells. Using three-dimensional nonlinear optical imaging of the director field, we demonstrate that some of the induced defects have nonsingular solitonic nature while others are singular point and line topological defects. The common director structures induced by individual microspheres have dipolar symmetry. These topological dipoles are formed by the particle and a hyperbolic point defect (or small disclination loop) of elementary hedgehog charge opposite to that of a sphere with perpendicular boundary conditions, which in cells with thickness over equilibrium cholesteric pitch ratio approaching unity are additionally interspaced by a looped double-twist cylinder of continuous director deformations. The long-range elastic interactions are probed by holographic optical tweezers and videomicroscopy, providing insights to the physical underpinnings behind self-assembled colloidal structures entangled by twisted solitons. Computer-simulated field and defect configurations induced by the colloidal particles and their assemblies, which are obtained by numerically minimizing the Landau-de Gennes free energy, are in agreement with the experimental findings.

  15. Interaction between a disclination and a uniaxial-isotropic phase interface in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Shklyaev, Oleg E; Fried, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    We consider the interaction between a disclination line of strength +/-1/2 and an interface between the uniaxial and isotropic phases of a nematic liquid crystal. We apply a recently developed set of interface conditions including a configurational force balance which generalizes the Gibbs-Thomson equation to account for the curvature elasticity of the uniaxial phase and the orientation dependence of the interfacial free-energy density. We consider a rectangular vessel containing both phases and a disclination. We formulate a relevant free-boundary problem and use numerical methods to determine equilibrium shapes of the interface. When the interfacial free-energy is constant, the shape of the interface is insensitive to whether the strength of the defect is +1/2 or -1/2 and to rotations of the director field consistent with the boundary conditions. Accounting for the dependence of the interfacial free-energy density on the angle between the interfacial unit normal field and the director field eliminates these degeneracies. In particular, when such dependence is taken into account, different solution branches are found, indicating the presence of a bifurcation. We find also that, depending on the magnitude of the anisotropic contribution to the interfacial free-energy density, the interaction between the disclination and the interface may be repulsive or attractive. When the interaction is repulsive, the disclination line positions itself at an energetically optimal distance adjacent to the interface. Otherwise, the uniaxial phase expels the disclination to the interface where a cusp forms.

  16. Sugar Amphiphiles as Revealing Dopants for Induced Chiral Nematic Lyotropic Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    von Minden, Hans Markus; Vill, Volkmar; Pape, Martin; Hiltrop, Karl

    2001-04-01

    The existence of phase chirality in lyotropic liquid crystals still raises questions. The mechanisms behind the transfer of chirality throughout the long-range orientational order are not yet obvious. Guest/host systems with chiral dopants in achiral host phases offer the capability of systematic investigations. We demonstrate that the large amount of accessible sugar amphiphiles exhibits remarkable structure/property relations. Their helical twisting power HTP increases strongly with the number of sugar units of a dopant molecule. The spatial range of the chirality information reaching from a chirally doped micelle to adjacent aggregates is essential for the development of phase chirality. The induced twist of the lyotropic nematic host phase is highly sensitive to small changes of the sugar type (e.g., galacto- to glucopyranose). Depending on the nature of the host phase, either the alpha- or the beta-linkage of the sugar to the hydrophobic moiety of the sugar dopant results in larger HTP values. We propose that our amphiphilic sugar derivatives act like antennae to transfer chirality information. Their effectiveness as chiral dopants is due to a hydrophobic anchoring within the micelles and an extension of their chiral moiety far into the intermicellar region. The chirality transfer works especially well if the hydrophilic and chiral sugar moieties are oriented toward a neighboring micelle in the direction of the helix axis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on ultraviolet-treated nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shenghong; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2014-09-15

    Glucose is an extremely important biomolecule, and the ability to sense it has played a significant role in facilitating the understanding of many biological processes. Here, we report a novel glucose sensor based on ultraviolet (UV)-treated nematic liquid crystals. Submerging UV-treated 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) in a glucose solution (while carefully adjusting its pH to 7.5 with NaOH and HCl) triggered an optical response, from dark to bright, observed with a polarized microscope. Notably, 5CB was located inside a glucose oxidase (GOx)-modified gold grid. We exploited this pH-driven phenomenon to design a new glucose sensor. This device could detect as little as 1 pM analyte, which is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the detection limit of the most sensitive glucose sensor currently available. It also exhibits high selectivity due to GOx modification. Thus, this is a promising technique for glucose detection, not only for clinical diagnostics, but also for sensing low levels of glucose in a biological environment (e.g., single cells and bacterial cultures). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-domain vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystals for reduced off-axis gamma shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Park, Byung Wok; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Hoon; Shin, Ki-Chul; Kim, Hee Seop

    2013-03-01

    Several liquid crystal (LC) modes, such as twisted nematic, vertical alignment (VA), and in-plane switching, have been in competition with each other in the LC display market. Among them, the VA mode has been widely used because of the high contrast ratio. Since the LC molecules are aligned perpendicular to the substrate in the initial state, an excellent dark state can be obtained at normal viewing direction. However, effective phase retardation of LC layer at oblique viewing direction differs greatly from that at normal viewing direction. Thus, gamma distortion phenomenon occurs at oblique view direction. To reduce the gamma shift in the VA mode at oblique viewing direction, multi-domain VA modes were proposed. Although gamma shifts of these modes are smaller than that of the single domain VA mode, the problems still remain. Recently, several technologies for 8-domain alignment have been proposed to decrease the gamma shift at off-axis. However, additional driving circuits are required to realize the eight-domain structure. In this paper we report technologies for the multi-domain VA mode with no additional driving circuits. By using the proposed technologies, we can obtain the dual threshold voltage in each sub-pixel to realize the multi-domain VA mode with no decrease of contrast ratio.

  19. A molecular nematic liquid crystalline material for high-performance organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kuan; Xiao, Zeyun; Lu, Shirong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Pisula, Wojciech; Hanssen, Eric; White, Jonathan M.; Williamson, Rachel M.; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Ouyang, Jianyong; Holmes, Andrew B.; Wong, Wallace W.H.; Jones, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) hold great promise to enable roll-to-roll printing of environmentally friendly, mechanically flexible and cost-effective photovoltaic devices. Nevertheless, many high-performing systems show best power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with a thin active layer (thickness is ~100 nm) that is difficult to translate to roll-to-roll processing with high reproducibility. Here we report a new molecular donor, benzodithiophene terthiophene rhodanine (BTR), which exhibits good processability, nematic liquid crystalline behaviour and excellent optoelectronic properties. A maximum PCE of 9.3% is achieved under AM 1.5G solar irradiation, with fill factor reaching 77%, rarely achieved in solution-processed OPVs. Particularly promising is the fact that BTR-based devices with active layer thicknesses up to 400 nm can still afford high fill factor of ~70% and high PCE of ~8%. Together, the results suggest, with better device architectures for longer device lifetime, BTR is an ideal candidate for mass production of OPVs. PMID:25586307

  20. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 μm-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 Vrms. This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  1. Theoretical model applicable to the experimental determination of surface anchoring energies of nematic liquid crystals. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    For a cell configuration consisting of a thin nematic layer bounded by two parallel plane surfaces, with opposing surfaces suitably treated to produce dissimilar molecular orientations, the elastic continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals was applied to derive an expression relating surface anchoring energies to elastic constants, director orientations at the substrate surfaces, and cell thickness. A numerical comparison with the elastically isotropic result over a range K sub 3 = 1.5 K sub 1 to K sub 3 = 10 K sub 1 showed the effect of elastic anisotropy could be quite significant. Surface anchoring energies calculated for anisotropic of K sub 3 = 2 K sub 1 and K sub 3 + 10 K sub 1 were approximately 50% and 500%, respectively, than the isotropic values.

  2. Gradient polymer-disposed liquid crystal single layer of large nematic droplets for modulation of laser light.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B; Marinov, Yordan G; Petrov, Alexander G

    2011-06-01

    The light modulating ability of gradient polymer-disposed liquid crystal (PDLC) single layer of large droplets formed by nematic E7 in UV-cured polymer NOA65 is studied. Operating at relatively low voltages, such PDLC film with a of thickness 10-25 μm and droplet size up to 50 μm exhibits a good contrast ratio and is capable of producing a large phase shift for the propagating coherent light. For a linearly polarized He-Ne laser (λ=633 nm), an electrically commanded phase shift as large as π/2 can be obtained by the large-droplet region of the film. The electrically produced phase shift and its spatial profile controlled by the thickness of the gradient PDLC single layers of large nematic droplets can be useful for tunable spatial light modulators and other devices for active control of laser light.

  3. The Influence of the Driving Voltage and Ion Concentration on the Lateral Ion Transport in Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojmenovik, Goran; Neyts, Kristiaan; Vermael, Stefaan; Verschueren, Alwin R. M.; van Asselt, Rob

    2005-08-01

    Nematic liquid crystal displays (LCDs) contain ions that influence the electrooptical characteristics of the display. A typical super-twisted nematic (STN) display for mobile phone applications becomes darker at a standard driving frequency if it contains many impurity ions. We have discovered that ions can travel in the plane of the glass plates in the absence of a lateral electric field, leading to lateral nonhomogeneity in transmission (dark and bright stripes). In this paper, we present our research on the lateral ion transport dependence on the driving square wave (SQW) amplitude and dc component at a wide range of ion concentrations. The existence of a dc component, a high ion concentration and high SQW amplitudes increase the lateral ion speed.

  4. Synthesis and mesomorphic behaviour of achiral four-ring unsymmetrical bent-core liquid crystals: Nematic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoj Kumar; Kalita, Gayatri; Laskar, Atiqur Rahman; Debnath, Somen; Gude, Venkatesh; Sarkar, Dipika Debnath; Mohiuddin, Golam; Varshney, Sanjay Kumar; Nandiraju Rao, V. S.

    2013-10-01

    Achiral four ring unsymmetrical bent-core liquid crystals derived from 3-amino-2-methylbenzoic acid have been designed and synthesized with an imine, ester and photochromic azo linking moieties. These hockey-stick shape resembling bent molecules possess an alkoxy chain at one end of the molecule and methyl or methoxy group at the other end. The synthesis, phase transition temperatures and characterization of phase behaviour are discussed. The molecular structure characterization is consistent with data from elemental and spectroscopic analysis. The materials thermal behaviour and phase characterization have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. All these compounds exhibit enantiotropic nematic phase over wide temperature range. Stable supercooling of nematic phase has been observed in methoxy homologues. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the stable molecular conformation, polarizability, dipole moment, Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and bending angle of the compound.

  5. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  6. Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Chang, Shu-Chun; Li, Yi-Han; Chien, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Yi-Chin; Wu, Jin-Jei; Tsay, Shwu-Yun; Chen, Yao-Hui

    2017-03-01

    We propose a robust method to suppress laser speckle using a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) device with high initial transmittance. With applied voltage, a large modulation depth has been produced through light scattering because of the refractive index mismatch between the rotated nematic liquid crystals and the polymer networks. By using PSLCs with 5 wt % monomer, a speckle noise reduction rate of approximately 54.7% can be achieved with an applied voltage of 6 V. The lowest speckle contrast of approximately 0.025 with relatively high discrimination from the projected AF image has also been demonstrated through a wedge PSLC cell.

  7. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  8. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  9. Electro-optic response of the anticlinic, antiferroelectric liquid-crystal phase of a biaxial bent-core molecule with tilt angle near 45∘

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Michi; Chen, Dong; Shao, Renfan; Korblova, Eva; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Walba, David M.; Clark, Noel A.

    2012-03-01

    We describe the unusual electro-optic response of a biaxial bent-core liquid crystal molecule that exhibits an anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic phase (Sm-CAPA) with a molecular tilt angle close to 45°. In the ground state, the sample shows very low birefringence. A weak applied electric field distorts the antiferroelectric ground state, inducing a small azimuthal reorientation of the molecules on the tilt cone. This results in only a modest increase in the birefringence but an anomalously large (˜40°) analog rotation of the extinction direction. This unusual electro-optic response is shown to be a consequence of the molecular biaxiality.

  10. Density functional theory for dense nematic liquid crystals with steric interactions.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Eduardo S; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Taylor, Jamie M; Virga, Epifanio G; Zheng, Xiaoyu

    2017-08-01

    The celebrated work of Onsager on hard particle systems, based on the truncated second order virial expansion, is valid at relatively low volume fractions for large aspect ratio particles. While it predicts the isotropic-nematic phase transition, it does not provide a realistic equation of state in that the pressure remains finite for arbitrarily high densities. In this work, we derive a mean field density functional form of the Helmholtz free energy for nematics with hard core repulsion. In addition to predicting the isotropic-nematic transition, the model provides a more realistic equation of state. The energy landscape is much richer, and the orientational probability distribution function in the nematic phase possesses a unique feature-it vanishes on a nonzero measure set in orientation space.

  11. Density functional theory for dense nematic liquid crystals with steric interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Eduardo S.; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Taylor, Jamie M.; Virga, Epifanio G.; Zheng, Xiaoyu

    2017-08-01

    The celebrated work of Onsager on hard particle systems, based on the truncated second order virial expansion, is valid at relatively low volume fractions for large aspect ratio particles. While it predicts the isotropic-nematic phase transition, it does not provide a realistic equation of state in that the pressure remains finite for arbitrarily high densities. In this work, we derive a mean field density functional form of the Helmholtz free energy for nematics with hard core repulsion. In addition to predicting the isotropic-nematic transition, the model provides a more realistic equation of state. The energy landscape is much richer, and the orientational probability distribution function in the nematic phase possesses a unique feature—it vanishes on a nonzero measure set in orientation space.

  12. Three-dimensional control of the helical axis of a chiral nematic liquid crystal by light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yannian; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Wang, Ling; Bunning, Timothy J.; Li, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals—otherwise referred to as cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs)—are self-organized helical superstructures that find practical application in, for example, thermography, reflective displays, tuneable colour filters and mirrorless lasing. Dynamic, remote and three-dimensional control over the helical axis of CLCs is desirable, but challenging. For example, the orientation of the helical axis relative to the substrate can be changed from perpendicular to parallel by applying an alternating-current electric field, by changing the anchoring conditions of the substrate, or by altering the topography of the substrate’s surface; separately, in-plane rotation of the helical axis parallel to the substrate can be driven by a direct-current field. Here we report three-dimensional manipulation of the helical axis of a CLC, together with inversion of its handedness, achieved solely with a light stimulus. We use this technique to carry out light-activated, wide-area, reversible two-dimensional beam steering—previously accomplished using complex integrated systems and optical phased arrays. During the three-dimensional manipulation by light, the helical axis undergoes, in sequence, a reversible transition from perpendicular to parallel, followed by in-plane rotation on the substrate surface. Such reversible manipulation depends on experimental parameters such as cell thickness, surface anchoring condition, and pitch length. Because there is no thermal relaxation, the system can be driven either forwards or backwards from any light-activated intermediate state. We also describe reversible photocontrol between a two-dimensional diffraction state, a one-dimensional diffraction state and a diffraction ‘off’ state in a bilayer cell.

  13. Formation of nematic liquid crystals of sterically stabilized layered double hydroxide platelets.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Maurice C D; Devid, Edwin J; van Schooneveld, Matti M; Vonk, Chantal; Lekkerkerker, Henk N W

    2008-08-21

    Colloidal platelets of hydrotalcite, a layered double hydroxide, have been prepared by coprecipitation at pH 11-12 of magnesium nitrate and aluminum nitrate at two different magnesium to aluminum ratios. Changing the temperature and ionic strength during hydrothermal treatment, the platelets were tailored to different sizes and aspect ratios. Amino-modified polyisobutylene molecules were grafted onto the platelets following a convenient new route involving freeze-drying. Organic dispersions in toluene were prepared of the particles with the largest size and highest aspect ratio. The colloidal dispersions prepared in this way showed isotropic-nematic phase transitions above a limiting concentration in a matter of days. The number density at the transition and the width of the biphasic region were determined and compared to theory. The orientation of the platelets in nematic droplets (tactoids) and at the isotropic-nematic interface were analyzed by polarization microscopy. It was observed that sedimentation induces a nematic layer in samples that are below the limiting concentration for isotropic-nematic phase separation. No nematic phase was observed in the initial aqueous suspensions of the ungrafted particles.

  14. Modulation Properties of a Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator and its Applications in a Joint Transform Correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Eddy Chipoon

    The spatial light modulator is one of the key elements in a real time optical signal processing architecture. Within the past five or six years, a commercially available twisted nematic type liquid crystal television (LCTV) has emerged as a popular spatial light modulator. This inexpensive, electrical addressable device has been shown to be very effective in performing various optical signal processing applications. This thesis investigates the modulation properties of this device and its applications in a joint transform correlator (JTC). The twisted nematic liquid crystal cell is well known for its polarization property. However, the phase modulation property due to the birefringence of the nematic liquid crystal is equally important. Through extensive experimental studies, it is found that the liquid crystal television under investigation can indeed provide more than 2pi of phase modulation. Using the phase modulation property of an LCTV and a point diffraction interferometer, we propose and demonstrate an iterative technique for phase correction of an optical system. This technique is a fully programmable, active, and on-line process which has the capability of performing wavefront restoration in real time. Attention is then turned to the application of the LCTV in a JTC architecture. We discuss several real time joint transform correlation systems using various spatial light modulators. The final stage of our research study is to apply a JTC in a target tracking problem. The correlator is made adaptive to the environment by using the target images in the previous frame of a motion sequence as the reference images. The system is thus able to handle dynamic targets tracking under scale, rotation, and perspective distortions.

  15. Second harmonic light scattering induced by defects in the twist-bend nematic phase of liquid crystal dimers.

    PubMed

    Pardaev, Shokir A; Shamid, S M; Tamba, M G; Welch, C; Mehl, G H; Gleeson, J T; Allender, D W; Selinger, J V; Ellman, B; Jakli, A; Sprunt, S

    2016-05-11

    The nematic twist-bend (NTB) phase, exhibited by certain thermotropic liquid crystalline (LC) dimers, represents a new orientationally ordered mesophase - the first distinct nematic variant discovered in many years. The NTB phase is distinguished by a heliconical winding of the average molecular long axis (director) with a remarkably short (nanoscale) pitch and, in systems of achiral dimers, with an equal probability to form right- and left-handed domains. The NTB structure thus provides another fascinating example of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in nature. The order parameter driving the formation of the heliconical state has been theoretically conjectured to be a polarization field, deriving from the bent conformation of the dimers, that rotates helically with the same nanoscale pitch as the director field. It therefore presents a significant challenge for experimental detection. Here we report a second harmonic light scattering (SHLS) study on two achiral, NTB-forming LCs, which is sensitive to the polarization field due to micron-scale distortion of the helical structure associated with naturally-occurring textural defects. These defects are parabolic focal conics of smectic-like "pseudo-layers", defined by planes of equivalent phase in a coarse-grained description of the NTB state. Our SHLS data are explained by a coarse-grained free energy density that combines a Landau-deGennes expansion of the polarization field, the elastic energy of a nematic, and a linear coupling between the two.

  16. Pristine and quantum dots dispersed nematic liquid crystal: Impact of dispersion and applied voltage on dielectric and electro-optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Pankaj Kumar; Joshi, Bipin; Singh, Shri

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we have dispersed Cd1-xZnxS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in nematic liquid crystal (LC) BBHA which shows negative dielectric anisotropy (Δε = -2.90) [1]. The impact of QDs dispersion, applied bias and concentration of QDs on the dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, response time, transmittance and birefringence as a function of frequency and temperature for planar alignment has been studied. We have observed that dispersion of QDs in pure nematic LC influences these properties. Due to QDs dispersion the birefringence increases and this helps in the alignment and ordering of nematic molecules. Under applied bias the ionic contributions to the dielectric loss as observed in low frequency region are suppressed and the relaxation frequency is shifted towards higher frequency side. We have made an effort to explain the observed behaviour of pristine and dispersed systems on the basis of interactions between QDs and nematic molecules.

  17. Multiple electroconvection scenarios in a bent-core nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadapatri, Pramod; Krishnamurthy, K. S.; Weissflog, W.

    2010-09-01

    We report on the anisotropic electrohydrodynamic states formed over a wide temperature range (˜45°C) in a planarly aligned bent-core nematic liquid crystal driven by fields of frequency in the range 0.1 Hz-1 MHz. Three different primary bifurcation scenarios are generated in the voltage-frequency (V-f) plane, depending on the temperature T . These, under increasing T , are characterized by the pattern sequences (i) in-plane longitudinal rolls (ILR)→in-plane normal rolls 1 (INR1), (ii) Williams rolls (WR)→ILR→INR1 , and (iii) WR→INR2→INR1 . Temperature-induced ILR→INR2 transition, the first example of its kind, points to elastic anisotropy as possibly the determining factor in wave vector selection. In the ILR and INR states, at threshold, the director modulations are predominantly azimuthal, and the streamlines, mainly normal to the wave vector, lie in the sample plane. Well above threshold, growing director deviations lead to narrow disclination loops that evolve in regular arrays, with their area density being exponential in voltage. The defects drift in a coordinated manner along the flow lines with a speed that scales nonlinearly with voltage; they mediate in the eventual occurrence of turbulence. The current theories of anisotropic convection based on static electrical parameters fail to account for the observed high-frequency instabilities. The study includes (i) a quantitative characterization of the critical parameter functions Vc(f) , Vc(T) , qc(f) , and qc(T) , with qc denoting the critical pattern wave number, and (ii) measurement of electrical and elastic parameters of relevance to electroconvection; the latter show anomalous features supporting the cluster hypothesis.

  18. Novel Cholesteric Glassy Liquid Crystals Comprising Benzene Functionalized with Hybrid Chiral-Nematic Mesogens

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C; Marshall, K L; Wallace, J U; Ou, J J; Chen, S H

    2010-03-12

    With 4-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl benzoate nematogens chemically bonded to a benzene core via enantiomeric 2-methylpropyl spacers, a new series of cholesteric glassy liquid crystals has been synthesized for an investigation of structure-property relationships. Glass-forming ability, phase-transition temperatures, and stability against crystallization are affected by both the number and the position of substituent groups on the benzene ring with 1,3,5-trisubstituted system possessing the most favorable set of properties, Tg at 73 °C and Tc at 295 °C. With (S)-3-bromo-2-methylpropanol as the chiral precursor, left-handed helical stacking was observed for all the cholesteric GLCs reported herein. Films of the 1,3,5-trisubstituted and meta-disubstituted systems show a selective reflection wavelength, λR, at 413 and 422 nm, respectively, whereas that of the ortho-isomer exhibits a λR at 860 nm. Replacing one of the hybrid chiral-nematic mesogen in the 1,3,5-trisubstituted system by a nematogen loosens the helical pitch to yield a λR at 630 nm, still shorter than that of the ortho-isomer despite the dilution by a nematogen. This observation suggests the importance of regioisomerism to helical twisting. The difference in λR was interpreted in terms of molecular packing involving chiral spacers through computational chemistry. The susceptibility of cholesteric GLCs to photoalignment was tested using the ortho-isomer. The degree of photoalignment improves with an increasing rotational mobility of pendant coumarin monomers to an extent comparable to mechanical alignment on conventional rubbed polyimide films.

  19. Surfactant Induced Interfacial Anchoring Transitions in Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplets on Glass Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Thareja, Prachi

    The interfacial adsorption of surfactants at planar nematic liquid crystal (NLC)-water interface induces an ordering transition from a tilted to perpendicular anchoring with the increase in surfactant concentration at CN=C/Ccmc≪1, where Ccmc is the Critical Micelle Concentration of surfactants in water. In this study, we show that depending upon the surfactant structure a tilted to perpendicular NLC anchoring transition is observed at C/Ccmc≥1 in 5CB droplets of size 50-70μm. Micrometer sized 5CB droplets are deposited on glass surfaces using flow coating of 5CB-in-ethanol solutions. When placed on 5CB drop decorated glass surfaces, the aqueous surfactant solutions of aliphatic chain surfactants (SDS, CTAB and CPBr) at CN<1, result in an optical transition to a bright-cross texture attributed to the tilted anchoring of 5CB molecules at 5CB-water interface. At C/Ccmc≥1, perpendicular anchoring of 5CB molecules at 5CB-water interface results in a droplet texture with a hedgehog defect. In contrast, aqueous solutions of SDBS lead to 5CB droplets with a bright-cross texture regardless of the surfactant concentration in the aqueous phase. These results indicate that the orientation of 5CB molecules is independent of the nature of the surfactant headgroup. In addition, 5CB droplet decorated OTS treated glass substrates show a hedgehog texture which disappears completely on exposure to organic vapors with the response time-dependent on the polarity of the vapor molecules.

  20. Dynamic Response of Graphitic Flakes in Nematic Liquid Crystals: Confinement and Host Effect.

    PubMed

    Tie, Weiwei; Bhattacharyya, Surjya Sarathi; Gao, Yuanhao; Zheng, Zhi; Shin, Eun Jeong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, MinSu; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2017-09-01

    Electric field-induced reorientation of suspended graphitic (GP) flakes and its relaxation back to the original state in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host are of interest not only in academia, but also in industrial applications, such as polarizer-free and optical film-free displays, and electro-optic light modulators. As the phenomenon has been demonstrated by thorough observation, the detailed study of the physical properties of the host NLC (the magnitude of dielectric anisotropy, elastic constants, and rotational viscosity), the size of the GP flakes, and cell thickness, are urgently required to be explored and investigated. Here, we demonstrate that the response time of GP flakes reorientation associated with an NLC host can be effectively enhanced by controlling the physical properties. In a vertical field-on state, higher dielectric anisotropy and higher elasticity of NLC give rise to quicker reorientation of the GP flakes (switching from planar to vertical alignment) due to the field-induced coupling effect of interfacial Maxwell-Wagner polarization and NLC reorientation. In a field off-state, lower rotational viscosity of NLC and lower cell thickness can help to reduce the decay time of GP flakes reoriented from vertical to planar alignment. This is mainly attributed to strong coupling between GP flakes and NLC originating from the strong π-π interaction between benzene rings in the honeycomb-like graphene structure and in NLC molecules. The high-uniformity of reoriented GP flakes exhibits a possibility of new light modulation with a relatively faster response time in the switching process and, thus, it can show potential application in field-induced memory and modulation devices.

  1. A decoupled energy stable scheme for a hydrodynamic phase-field model of mixtures of nematic liquid crystals and viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jia; Yang, Xiaofeng; Shen, Jie; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear, first-order, decoupled, energy-stable scheme for a binary hydrodynamic phase field model of mixtures of nematic liquid crystals and viscous fluids that satisfies an energy dissipation law. We show that the semi-discrete scheme in time satisfies an analogous, semi-discrete energy-dissipation law for any time-step and is therefore unconditionally stable. We then discretize the spatial operators in the scheme by a finite-difference method and implement the fully discrete scheme in a simplified version using CUDA on GPUs in 3 dimensions in space and time. Two numerical examples for rupture of nematic liquid crystal filaments immersed in a viscous fluid matrix are given, illustrating the effectiveness of this new scheme in resolving complex interfacial phenomena in free surface flows of nematic liquid crystals.

  2. Optical studies of blue phase III, twist-bend and bent-core nematic liquid crystals in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Pavan Kumar

    This dissertation is mainly divided into three parts. First, the dynamic light scattering measurements on both calamitic and bent-core nematic liquid crystals, carried out in the new split-helix resistive magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee is discussed. In a nematic liquid crystal the molecules tend to be aligned along a constant direction, labeled by a unit vector (or "director") n. However, there are fluctuations from this average configuration. These fluctuations are very large for long wavelengths and give rise to a strong scattering of light. The magnetic field reduces the fluctuations of liquid crystal director n. Scattered light was detected at each scattering angle ranging from 0° to 40°. The relaxation rate and inverse scattered intensity of director fluctuations exhibit a linear dependence on field-squared up to 25 Tesla. We also observe evidence of field dependence of certain nematic material parameters. In the second part of the dissertation, magneto-optical measurements on two liquid crystals that exhibit a wide temperature-range amorphous blue phase (BPIII) are discussed. Blue phase III is one of the phases that occur between chiral nematic and isotropic liquid phases. Samples were illuminated with light from blue laser; the incident polarization direction of the light was parallel to the magnetic field. The transmitted light was passed through another polarizer oriented at 90° with respect to the first polarizer and was detected by a photo-detector. Magnetic fields up to 25Tesla are found to suppress the onset of BPIII in both materials by almost 1 degree celcius. This effect appears to increase non-linearly with the field strength. The effect of high fields on established BPIII's is also discussed, in which we find significant hysteresis and very slow dynamics. Possible explanations of these results are discussed. In the third part of the dissertation, magneto-optic measurements on two odd-numbered dimer molecules

  3. Acoustical and optical investigations of the size effect in nematic-isotropic phase transition in liquid crystal microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimochkin, G. I.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Lukin, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    The absorption of ultrasound (at a frequency of 2.7 MHz) and the depolarized light transmission and scattering (at a wavelength of 630 nm) in liquid crystal (LC) emulsions have been studied during the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition in LC droplets with radii ranging from 150 to 2300 nm. The obtained acoustical and optical data are used to determine the influence of the droplet size on characteristics of the N-I phase transition. It is shown that the acoustical and optical characteristics of LC emulsions have good prospects to be used for the investigation of phase transitions in submicron samples.

  4. Spin Nematics, Valence-Bond Solids, and Spin Liquids in SO(N) Quantum Spin Models on the Triangular Lattice.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Ribhu K

    2015-10-09

    We introduce a simple model of SO(N) spins with two-site interactions which is amenable to quantum Monte Carlo studies without a sign problem on nonbipartite lattices. We present numerical results for this model on the two-dimensional triangular lattice where we find evidence for a spin nematic at small N, a valence-bond solid at large N, and a quantum spin liquid at intermediate N. By the introduction of a sign-free four-site interaction, we uncover a rich phase diagram with evidence for both first-order and exotic continuous phase transitions.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of a viscous nematic liquid crystal: Evidence counter to a second-order phase change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shutt, W. E.; Gelerinter, E.; Fryburg, G. C.; Sheley, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    The ordering in a viscous, nematic, liquid crystal was studied using vanadyl acetyl acetonate and several nitroxides as paramagnetic probes. The ordering curve for VAAC at both K-band and X-band shows a slope discontinuity at a reduced temperature of 0.85. This discontinuity is caused by the tumbling time of the VAAC becoming comparable with the hyperfine splitting. The slope discontinuity is not present in the ordering curves of the nitroxides. The results are taken as evidence counter to the presence of a second-order phase transition.

  6. One-step facile synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals with tunable morphology in a nematic liquid crystalline medium

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Kaustabh; Satpati, Biswarup; Datta, Alokmay

    2016-05-23

    The present study describes in-situ synthesis of noble metal nano structures (MNCs) (Au and Ag) within a nematic liquid crystalline medium MBBA [N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline] without using any seed mediated growth protocol or without using any external stabilizing or reducing agent. Detailed Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study indicates that apart from Kinetic based mechanism, the thermodynamical parameters also influence greatly the morphological evolution of these MNCs. The MNCs are of diverse shapes including nano prisms, hexagons, urchins, cubes, and rods which depend on the time of reaction and the choice of nanoparticle precursor.

  7. Effects of carbon nanosolids on the electro-optical properties of a twisted nematic liquid-crystal host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yu; Shih, Yu-Cheng

    2004-07-01

    We present results of the electro-optical effect in 90° twisted nematic cells of pristine and doped liquid crystals under an applied dc voltage. The doped cells were fabricated with a minute addition of either buckminsterfullerene C60 or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Investigated were the switching behaviors as well as the hystereses and time evolutions of both the optical transmittance and electrical capacitance of the display samples. It is shown that doping with nanotubes can effectively reduce the dc driving voltage and improve the switching behavior.

  8. Direct visualization of spatiotemporal structure of self-assembled colloidal particles in electrohydrodynamic flow of a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuji; Hoshikawa, Hikaru; Seto, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Jampani, V S R; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-07

    Characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics is of vital importance to soft matter systems far from equilibrium. Using a confocal laser scanning microscopy, we directly reveal three-dimensional motion of surface-modified particles in the electrohydrodynamic convection of a nematic liquid crystal. Particularly, visualizing a caterpillar-like motion of a self-assembled colloidal chain demonstrates the mechanism of the persistent transport enabled by the elastic, electric, and hydrodynamic contributions. We also precisely show how the particles' trajectory is spatially modified by simply changing the surface boundary condition.

  9. One-step facile synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals with tunable morphology in a nematic liquid crystalline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Kaustabh; Satpati, Biswarup; Datta, Alokmay

    2016-05-01

    The present study describes in-situ synthesis of noble metal nano structures (MNCs) (Au and Ag) within a nematic liquid crystalline medium MBBA [N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline] without using any seed mediated growth protocol or without using any external stabilizing or reducing agent. Detailed Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study indicates that apart from Kinetic based mechanism, the thermodynamical parameters also influence greatly the morphological evolution of these MNCs. The MNCs are of diverse shapes including nano prisms, hexagons, urchins, cubes, and rods which depend on the time of reaction and the choice of nanoparticle precursor.

  10. Electrical and thermal tuning of quality factor and free spectral range of optical resonance of nematic liquid crystal microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofi, Junaid Ahmad; Mohiddon, M. A.; Dutta, N.; Dhara, Surajit

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally study the effect of temperature and electric field on the quality (Q ) factor and free spectral range (FSR) of whispering-gallery-mode optical resonance of dye-doped nematic liquid crystal microdroplets. Both the Q factor and the FSR are highly sensitive to the temperature and electric field and are tunable. The Q factor decreases, whereas the FSR increases substantially, with increasing temperature and electric field. The variation of the Q factor and FSR is understood based on the change in the effective refractive index and the dynamic size of the microdroplets.

  11. Liquid-Crystal Displays: Fabrication and Measurement of a Twisted Nematic Liquid-Crystal Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waclawik, Eric R.; Ford, Michael J.; Hale, Penny S.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment is developed for a laboratory course on nanostructures, as part of the undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree in nanotechnology at Flinders University. Designed to demonstrate the relationship between molecular order and the optical dielectric properties of the liquid crystalline state, the experiment is shown to be a useful tool…

  12. Liquid-Crystal Displays: Fabrication and Measurement of a Twisted Nematic Liquid-Crystal Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waclawik, Eric R.; Ford, Michael J.; Hale, Penny S.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment is developed for a laboratory course on nanostructures, as part of the undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree in nanotechnology at Flinders University. Designed to demonstrate the relationship between molecular order and the optical dielectric properties of the liquid crystalline state, the experiment is shown to be a useful tool…

  13. Effects of carbon nanotubes on the physical properties of a nematic liquid crystal N-(4‧-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jber, Nasreen Raheem; Rashad, Alaa Adnan; Shihab, Mehdi Salih

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the nematic liquid crystal (LC) N-(4'-methoxybenzylidene)-4-n-butylaniline (MBBA) was prepared and doped with different concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, and 0.1 wt.%) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at room temperature to study the electric properties of (LC-CNTs) cell. The experimental results showed that capacitance of (LC-CNTs) cell became higher than that of pure LC cell. The dielectric permittivity is determined as a function of applied frequency (100 Hz to 100 kHz) at voltage (5 V); it is found that increasing concentration of CNTs (0.1 wt.%) led to increase in the real part dielectric constant and decrease in imaginary part for (LC-CNTs) cell compared with the pure liquid crystal. Also conductivity of (LC-CNTs) cell was increased with increasing concentration of CNTs more than 0.05 wt.%. Theoretical study was carried out by using PM3 method for stable geometries of a nematic liquid crystal molecule of MBBA assembled parallel on a molecule of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT). The result showed that the interaction caused by π,π-stacking between MBBA molecule and the wall of CNT and that may lead to formation of the local short range orientation order by LC molecules on the surface of the CNT. The binding energy of the LC molecule on the CNT wall was within the typical van der Waals interaction.

  14. In-plane switching of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell for single-cellgap transflective display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gak Seok; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Song, Dong Han; Kim, Jae Chang; Park, Dae Lim; Hwang, Seong Soo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Sung Il

    2008-02-01

    We propose an optical configuration of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal (TNLC) device driven by an in-plane electric field for a single-cellgap transflective display. The dark state of the reflective part is realized by a nematic liquid crystal layer with the twisted angle of 63.6° and the retardation of 194 nm, while a quarter-wave plate is inserted for the dark state of the transmissive part. Wavelength dispersion of the TNLC layer is suppressed by introducing a half-wave plate, whose optimum angle is found by using the Muller matrix method. Different directions of electric fields rotate liquid crystals to 15° for the bright state of the reflective part, but to -30° for that of the transmissive part. With the proposed configuration, we can realize a single-gamma transflective display in single cellgap structure without any in-cell retardation layers. By fabricating a 2.0" qCIF+ (176×RGB×220) prototype panel, we demonstrated both high reflection/transmission and single gamma of the proposed configuration.

  15. Electric-field-induced transport of microspheres in the isotropic and chiral nematic phase of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jiyoung; Gleeson, Helen F.; Dierking, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    The application of an electric field to microspheres suspended in a liquid crystal causes particle translation in a plane perpendicular to the applied field direction. Depending on applied electric field amplitude and frequency, a wealth of different motion modes may be observed above a threshold, which can lead to linear, circular, or random particle trajectories. We present the stability diagram for these different translational modes of particles suspended in the isotropic and the chiral nematic phase of a liquid crystal and investigate the angular velocity, circular diameter, and linear velocity as a function of electric field amplitude and frequency. In the isotropic phase a narrow field amplitude-frequency regime is observed to exhibit circular particle motion whose angular velocity increases with applied electric field amplitude but is independent of applied frequency. The diameter of the circular trajectory decreases with field amplitude as well as frequency. In the cholesteric phase linear as well as circular particle motion is observed. The former exhibits an increasing velocity with field amplitude, while decreasing with frequency. For the latter, the angular velocity exhibits an increase with field amplitude and frequency. The rotational sense of the particles on a circular trajectory in the chiral nematic phase is independent of the helicity of the liquid crystalline structure, as is demonstrated by employing a cholesteric twist inversion compound.

  16. Electric-field-induced transport of microspheres in the isotropic and chiral nematic phase of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jiyoung; Gleeson, Helen F; Dierking, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    The application of an electric field to microspheres suspended in a liquid crystal causes particle translation in a plane perpendicular to the applied field direction. Depending on applied electric field amplitude and frequency, a wealth of different motion modes may be observed above a threshold, which can lead to linear, circular, or random particle trajectories. We present the stability diagram for these different translational modes of particles suspended in the isotropic and the chiral nematic phase of a liquid crystal and investigate the angular velocity, circular diameter, and linear velocity as a function of electric field amplitude and frequency. In the isotropic phase a narrow field amplitude-frequency regime is observed to exhibit circular particle motion whose angular velocity increases with applied electric field amplitude but is independent of applied frequency. The diameter of the circular trajectory decreases with field amplitude as well as frequency. In the cholesteric phase linear as well as circular particle motion is observed. The former exhibits an increasing velocity with field amplitude, while decreasing with frequency. For the latter, the angular velocity exhibits an increase with field amplitude and frequency. The rotational sense of the particles on a circular trajectory in the chiral nematic phase is independent of the helicity of the liquid crystalline structure, as is demonstrated by employing a cholesteric twist inversion compound.

  17. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R.; Zola, R.S.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (τ{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that τ∼d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  18. Photoresponsive azo-doped aerosil/7CB nematic liquid-crystalline nanocomposite films: the role of polyimide alignment layers of the films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.

    2017-01-01

    We studied thin films (25 µm-thick) of nanomaterials composed from 3 wt.% aerosil nanospheres and the room-temperature nematic liquid crystal 4-n-heptyl cyanobiphenyl (7CB). The inclusion of 3 wt.% of the photoactive liquid crystal 4-(4‧-ethoxyphenylazo)phenyl hexanoate (EPH) in the aerosil/7CB nanostructured nematics make them photoresponsive. The films had alignment layers from rubbed polyimide (PI). Our study is concentrated on the inspection of the PI-role for the photo-stimulated electro-optical properties of the considered EPH-doped aerosil/7CB nanocomposite films.

  19. ARTICLES: Spatial and temporal light modulator of the photosemiconductor-liquid crystal type exhibiting texture and cholesteric-nematic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyaeva, L. I.; Vladimirov, F. L.; Morichev, I. E.; Morozova, Elena A.; Myl'nikov, V. S.; Pletneva, N. I.

    1983-08-01

    A study was made of the operating characteristics of a spatial and temporal light modulator of the photosemiconductor-liquid crystal type exhibiting an orientational texture transition as well as a cholesteric-nematic phase transition. The photosemiconductor was a chalcogenide film of the selenium-arsenic type and the liquid crystal was a composite based on cyanbiphenyls, azoxy compounds, complex esters, and tolans. The modulator could be used for reversible recording, long-term storage, and positive and negative imaging without recourse to polarization optics or preliminary orientation of the liquid crystal. The maximum sensitivity was 1 μ W/cm2, the resolution was at least 65 pairs of lines/mm, and the minimum write-erase cycle time was 0.75 sec.

  20. Pretransitional behavior above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of an auxetic trimer liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Kang, D; Mahajan, M P; Zhang, S; Petschek, R G; Rosenblatt, C; He, C; Liu, P; Griffin, A C

    1999-10-01

    Static light scattering and electric field-induced Kerr measurements were performed above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of a terminal-lateral-lateral-terminal negative Poisson ratio trimer. For both measurements the inverse susceptibility was observed to be nearly linear with temperature, a result inconsistent with our previously reported Kerr data [Phys. Rev. E 58, 2041 (1998)].

  1. Theoretical Study Of The Effect Of Cell Thickness On Nematic Order In Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswini, P.; Govind, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental observations show that the nematic order parameter is significantly enhanced as the thickness of the cell is reduced. Calculations of earlier theories do not agree well with the experimental data. We propose a simple extension of Maier-Saupe (M-S) theory to account for the enhancement. Our calculations are in better agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Perturbation Theory versus Thermodynamic Integration. Beyond a Mean-Field Treatment of Pair Correlations in a Nematic Model Liquid Crystal.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Martin; Haslam, Andrew J; Jackson, George

    2017-09-05

    The phase behavior and structure of a simple square-well bulk fluid with anisotropic interactions is described in detail. The orientation dependence of the intermolecular interactions allows for the formation of a nematic liquid-crystalline phase in addition to the more conventional isotropic gas and liquid phases. A version of classical density functional theory (DFT) is employed to determine the properties of the model, and comparisons are made with the corresponding data from Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles, providing a benchmark to assess the adequacy of the DFT results. A novel element of the DFT approach is the assumption that the structure of the fluid is dominated by intermolecular interactions in the isotropic fluid. A so-called augmented modified mean-field (AMMF) approximation is employed accounting for the influence of anisotropic interactions. The AMMF approximation becomes exact in the limit of vanishing density. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the AMMF approximation with respect to an accurate description of isotropic and nematic branches of the phase diagram, the degree of orientational order, and orientation-dependent pair correlations. The performance of the AMMF approximations is found to be good in comparison with the MC data; the AMMF approximation has clear advantages with respect to an accurate and more detailed description of the fluid structure. Possible strategies to improve the DFT are discussed.

  3. Influence of virtual surfaces on Frank elastic constants in a polymer-stabilized bent-core nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, P. Lakshmi; Hiremath, Uma S.; Yelamaggad, C. V.; Madhuri, K. Priya; Prasad, S. Krishna

    2016-04-01

    Effect of a polymer network on the threshold voltage of the Fréedericksz transition, Frank elastic constants, switching speed, and the rotational viscosity are investigated in a polymer-stabilized bent-core nematic liquid crystal with different polymer concentrations. These polymer networks form virtual surfaces with a finite anchoring energy. The studies bring out several differences in comparison to similar studies with a calamitic liquid crystal as the nematic host. For example, on varying the polymer content the threshold voltage decreases initially, but exhibits a drastic increase above a critical concentration. A similar feature—reaching a minimum before rising—is seen for the bend elastic constant, which gets enhanced by an order of magnitude for a polymer content of 2.5 wt %. In contrast, the splay elastic constant has a monotonic variation although the overall enhancement is comparable to that of the bend elastic constant. The behavior changing at a critical concentration is also seen for the switching time and the associated rotational viscosity. The presence of the polymer also induces a shape change in the thermal dependence of the bend elastic constant. We explain the features observed here on the basis of images obtained from the optical and atomic force microscopy.

  4. Influence of virtual surfaces on Frank elastic constants in a polymer-stabilized bent-core nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Madhuri, P Lakshmi; Hiremath, Uma S; Yelamaggad, C V; Madhuri, K Priya; Prasad, S Krishna

    2016-04-01

    Effect of a polymer network on the threshold voltage of the Fréedericksz transition, Frank elastic constants, switching speed, and the rotational viscosity are investigated in a polymer-stabilized bent-core nematic liquid crystal with different polymer concentrations. These polymer networks form virtual surfaces with a finite anchoring energy. The studies bring out several differences in comparison to similar studies with a calamitic liquid crystal as the nematic host. For example, on varying the polymer content the threshold voltage decreases initially, but exhibits a drastic increase above a critical concentration. A similar feature-reaching a minimum before rising-is seen for the bend elastic constant, which gets enhanced by an order of magnitude for a polymer content of 2.5 wt %. In contrast, the splay elastic constant has a monotonic variation although the overall enhancement is comparable to that of the bend elastic constant. The behavior changing at a critical concentration is also seen for the switching time and the associated rotational viscosity. The presence of the polymer also induces a shape change in the thermal dependence of the bend elastic constant. We explain the features observed here on the basis of images obtained from the optical and atomic force microscopy.

  5. Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, D; Ouskova, E; Ksondzyk, S; Reshetnyak, V; Cseh, L; Mehl, G H; Reznikov, Y

    2012-05-01

    It was shown that irradiation of a nematic liquid crystal doped with metal nanoparticles in the visible near the plasmon resonance band led to strong thermal changes of the refractive indices. The effect was studied by recording of dynamic optical gratings in the colloid. Nanoparticles "worked" as effective nano-heaters in a matrix causing the order parameter decrease around the particles. A large nonlinearity parameter (n (2) ≈ 10(-2) cm(2)/kW and fast response (≈ 0.7 ms), with no detectable particles' aggregation and excellent photo- thermo-stability make these colloids potentially attractive nonlinear optical media. Application of a dynamic holography technique allowed measuring the coefficients of thermal conductivity of the liquid crystal along the director k (||) = (0.4 ± 0.02) W m(-1)K(-1) and perpendicular to the director k (⊥) = (0.2 ± 0.01) W m(-1)K(-1).

  6. Ferroelectric C* phase induced in a nematic liquid crystal matrix by a chiral non-mesogenic dopant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozhidaev, E. P.; Torgova, S. I.; Barbashov, V. A.; Minchenko, M. V.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Ostrovskii, B. I.; Strigazzi, A.

    2015-02-01

    We report on a ferroelectric chiral smectic C (C*) phase obtained in a mixture of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) and a chiral nonmesogenic dopant. The existence of C* phase was proven by calorimetric, dielectric and optical measurements, and also by X-rays analysis. The smectic C* which is obtained in such a way can flow, allowing to restore the ferroelectric liquid crystal layer structure in the electro-optical cells after action of the mechanical stress, as it happens with the cells filled with NLC. The proposed method of obtaining smectic C* material allows us to create innovative electro-optical cell combining the advantages of NLC (mechanical resilience) and smectic C* (high switching speed).

  7. Acousto-optic effect in a nematic liquid-crystal layer under the binary effect of sound and viscous waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikov, E. N.

    2010-03-15

    The optical effect in a liquid crystal cell containing a homeotropic layer of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is analyzed. An NLC layer, located between crossed polaroids and opaque in the absence of external effect, is cleared after irradiation by an ultrasonic beam with a sharp spatial boundary. This enlightenment is suggested to be caused by the reorientation of crystal molecules in the acoustic flows that arise under the binary effect of the layer compression in the irradiated region and the viscous waves propagating from the layer boundaries. The flows were calculated taking into account the stress caused by the velocity convection and crystal structure relaxation. An expression is derived for the cell transparency, and the relative role of the convection and relaxation processes in the effect is determined.

  8. Zig-zag wall lattice in a nematic liquid crystal with an in-plane switching configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade-Silva, I.; Clerc, M. G.; Odent, V.

    2014-08-01

    Liquid crystals displays with tailoring electrodes exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics when a large voltage is applied. We report experimental observations of the appearance of a programmable zig-zag lattice using an in-plane-switching cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal. Applying a small voltage to a wide range of frequencies, the system exhibits an Ising wall lattice. Increasing the voltage, this lattice presents a spatial instability generating an undulating wall lattice, and to higher voltages it becomes zig-zag type. Experimentally, we characterize the bifurcations and phase diagram of the wall lattice. Theoretically, we develop, from first principles, a descriptive model. This model has a good qualitative agreement with experimental observations.

  9. Optimal Boundary Control of a Simplified Ericksen-Leslie System for Nematic Liquid Crystal Flows in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaterra, Cecilia; Rocca, Elisabetta; Wu, Hao

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate an optimal boundary control problem for a two dimensional simplified Ericksen-Leslie system modelling the incompressible nematic liquid crystal flows. The hydrodynamic system consists of the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid velocity coupled with a convective Ginzburg-Landau type equation for the averaged molecular orientation. The fluid velocity is assumed to satisfy a no-slip boundary condition, while the molecular orientation is subject to a time-dependent Dirichlet boundary condition that corresponds to the strong anchoring condition for liquid crystals. We first establish the existence of optimal boundary controls. Then we show that the control-to-state operator is Fréchet differentiable between appropriate Banach spaces and derive first-order necessary optimality conditions in terms of a variational inequality involving the adjoint state variables.

  10. Curvature generation in nematic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostajeran, Cyrus

    2015-06-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of shape formation using modern responsive materials that can be preprogrammed to undergo spatially inhomogeneous local deformations. In particular, nematic liquid crystalline solids offer exciting possibilities in this context. Considerable recent progress has been made in achieving a variety of shape transitions in thin sheets of nematic solids by engineering isolated points of concentrated Gaussian curvature using topological defects in the nematic director field across textured surfaces. In this paper, we consider ways of achieving shape transitions in thin sheets of nematic glass by generation of nonlocalized Gaussian curvature in the absence of topological defects in the director field. We show how one can blueprint any desired Gaussian curvature in a thin nematic sheet by controlling the nematic alignment angle across the surface and highlight specific patterns which present feasible initial targets for experimental verification of the theory.

  11. Global characterization of a nematic liquid crystal display LCX038ARA using the retarder-rotor model in the modulation amplitude regime-coupled without applied voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas Cely, C. J.; Acevedo, C. H.; Torres Moreno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This work shows experimental and theoretical results of the characterization of a nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator Sony model LCX038ARA for the parameters angle of molecular rotation, the birefringence and angle of the molecular axis, using the retarder-rotor model without electric field applied in the amplitude regime-coupled.

  12. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle

  13. Observation of a nematic quantum Hall liquid on the surface of bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Benjamin E.; Randeria, Mallika T.; Gyenis, András; Wu, Fengcheng; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, R. J.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Yazdani, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Nematic quantum fluids with wave functions that break the underlying crystalline symmetry can form in interacting electronic systems. We examined the quantum Hall states that arise in high magnetic fields from anisotropic hole pockets on the Bi(111) surface. Spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope showed that a combination of single-particle effects and many-body Coulomb interactions lift the six-fold Landau level (LL) degeneracy to form three valley-polarized quantum Hall states. We imaged the resulting anisotropic LL wave functions and found that they have a different orientation for each broken-symmetry state. The wave functions correspond to those expected from pairs of hole valleys and provide a direct spatial signature of a nematic electronic phase.

  14. Nematic-field-driven positioning of particles in liquid crystal droplets.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Wang, Xiaoguang; Mondiot, Frederic; Miller, Daniel S; Abbott, Nicholas L; de Pablo, Juan J

    2013-11-27

    Common nematic oils, such as 5CB, experience planar anchoring at aqueous interfaces. When these oils are emulsified, this anchoring preference and the resulting topological constraints lead to the formation of droplets that exhibit one or two point defects within the nematic phase. Here, we explore the interactions of adsorbed particles at the aqueous interface through a combination of experiments and coarse-grained modeling, and demonstrate that surface-active particles, driven by elastic forces in the droplet, readily localize to these defect regions in a programmable manner. When droplets include two nanoparticles, these preferentially segregate to the two poles, thereby forming highly regular dipolar structures that could serve for hierarchical assembly of functional structures. Addition of sufficient concentrations of surfactant changes the interior morphology of the droplet, but pins defects to the interface, resulting in aggregation of the two particles.

  15. Wetting transition of a nematic liquid crystal on a periodic wedge-structured substrate.

    PubMed

    Patricio, P; Pham, C-T; Romero-Enrique, J M

    2008-01-01

    It is known that the wetting behaviour of a fluid is deeply altered by the presence of rough or structured substrates. We first review some simple considerations about isotropic fluids and rough substrates, and then we generalize Wenzel's law, which assigns an effective contact angle to a droplet on a rough substrate, when the wetting layer has an ordered phase, like a nematic. We estimate the conditions for which the wetting behavior of an ordered fluid can be qualitatively different from that usually found in a simple fluid. To support our general considerations, we use the Landau-de Gennes mean field approach to investigate theoretically and numerically the wetting transition of a nematic phase on a periodic triangular structured substrate.

  16. Effect of alignment on the nematic to isotropic phase transition of bulk octylcyanobiphenyl brings possible solutions to liquid crystal display drawback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dipti

    2009-03-01

    The effect of alignment on the nematic to isotropic phase transition of bulk octylcyanobiphenyl reveals a reduced time and temperature lag with possible solutions to the time response and backlight bleed drawbacks of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). The aligned octylcyanobiphenyl shows a quicker and early occurrence of the nematic transition with less deviation from thermal rates than the unaligned octylcyanobiphenyl using calorimetry technique. Smaller enthalpy of activation indicates less energy requirement and makes the aligned octylcyanobiphenyl suitable for LCDs. The results are discussed in terms of the formation of aligned domains of octylcyanobiphenyl molecules under the force of magnetic field.

  17. Electric and Magnetic Field-Assisted Orientational Transitions in the Ensembles of Domains in a Nematic Liquid Crystal on the Polymer Surface

    PubMed Central

    Parshin, Alexander M.; Gunyakov, Vladimir A.; Zyryanov, Victor Y.; Shabanov, Vasily F.

    2014-01-01

    Using electro- and magneto-optical techniques, we investigated orientational transitions in the ensembles of domains in a nematic liquid crystal on the polycarbonate film surface under the conditions of competing surface forces that favor radial and uniform planar alignment of nematic molecules. Having analyzed field dependences of the intensity of light passed through a sample, we established the threshold character of the orientational effects, plotted the calculated intensity versus magnetic coherence length, and compared the latter with the equilibrium length that characterizes the balance of forces on the polymer surface. PMID:25279586

  18. Polarity-sensitive transient patterned state in a twisted nematic liquid crystal driven by very low frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K S; Kumar, Pramoda; Kumar, M Vijay

    2013-02-01

    We report, for a rodlike nematic liquid crystal with small positive dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, and in the 90°-twisted configuration, low frequency (<2 Hz) square wave electric field generated Carr-Helfrich director modulation appearing transiently over a few seconds at each polarity reversal and vanishing almost completely under steady field conditions. Significantly, the instability is polarity sensitive, with the maximum distortion localized in the vicinity of the negative electrode, rather than in the midplane of the layer. This is revealed by the wave vector alternating in the two halves of the driving cycle between the alignment directions at the two substrates. Besides the Carr-Helfrich mechanism, quadrupolar flexoelectric polarization arising under electric field gradient is strongly indicated as being involved in the development of the transient periodic order. Similar transient instability is also observed in other nematic compounds with varying combinations of dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, showing its general nature. The study also deals with various characteristics of the electro-optic effect that emerge from the temporal variation of optical response for different driving voltages, frequencies, and temperatures.

  19. Polarity-sensitive transient patterned state in a twisted nematic liquid crystal driven by very low frequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, K. S.; Kumar, Pramoda; Kumar, M. Vijay

    2013-02-01

    We report, for a rodlike nematic liquid crystal with small positive dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, and in the 90°-twisted configuration, low frequency (<2 Hz) square wave electric field generated Carr-Helfrich director modulation appearing transiently over a few seconds at each polarity reversal and vanishing almost completely under steady field conditions. Significantly, the instability is polarity sensitive, with the maximum distortion localized in the vicinity of the negative electrode, rather than in the midplane of the layer. This is revealed by the wave vector alternating in the two halves of the driving cycle between the alignment directions at the two substrates. Besides the Carr-Helfrich mechanism, quadrupolar flexoelectric polarization arising under electric field gradient is strongly indicated as being involved in the development of the transient periodic order. Similar transient instability is also observed in other nematic compounds with varying combinations of dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, showing its general nature. The study also deals with various characteristics of the electro-optic effect that emerge from the temporal variation of optical response for different driving voltages, frequencies, and temperatures.

  20. Curvature induced quasi-melting from rough surfaces in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, G.; Durand, G.

    1991-06-01

    The Berreman-de Gennes model, describing the azimutal anchoring energy of a nematic material oriented by a grooved surface, is revisited. When the groove wave-length is shorter than the nematic-isotropic coherence lenght, the nematic should decrease locally its order parameter to decrease the too large curvature energy induced by the boundaries. This curvature induced surface quasi-melting could explain recent observations on the order parameter decrease close to oblique SiO evaporated rough surfaces. Le modèle de Berreman-de Gennes, qui décrit l'ancrage azimuthal d'un nématique orienté par une surface ondulée est rediscuté. Quand la période des ondulations est plus courte que la longueur de cohérence nématique-isotrope, le nématique préfère fondre que se courber. Ce mécanisme explique la décroissance du paramètre d'ordre observée sur des surfaces rugueuses obtenues par évaporation oblique de SiO.