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Sample records for bibliography ethical legal

  1. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.

    1993-11-01

    This second edition of the ELSI Bibliography provides a current and comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Since the first edition of the ELSI Bibliography was printed last year, new publications and earlier ones identified by additional searching have doubled our computer database of ELSI publications to over 5600 entries. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography reflects this growth of the underlying computer database. Researchers should note that an extensive collection of publications in the database is available for public use at the General Law Library of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  2. Bibliography: Ethical legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.

    1992-05-01

    The present document is a bibliography of more than 2600 publications, assembled and organized by Michael S. Yesley of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, focused on the ethical, legal, and social aspects, issues and implications of the Human Genome Project. It is meant to serve as a resource for scientists, educators, ethicists, philosophers, journalists, lawyers, and everyone else with an interest in the implications of the Genome Project. It is planned that at periodic intervals, as new publications and resources appear, this bibliography will be updated. In addition, there are plans to provide on-line access in the near future. Identification of the relevant literature will greatly facilitate future research and educational activities in this important field of inquiry, and we are pleased to make this ELSI bibliography and library resource available as a public service.

  3. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical, legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project. 1994 Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.; Ossorio, P.N.

    1994-09-01

    This report updates and expands the second edition of the ELSI Bibliography, published in 1993. The Bibliography and Supplement provides a comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. The Bibliography and Supplement are extracted from a database compiled at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the support of the Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography was dated May 1993 but included publications added to the database until fall 1993. This Supplement reflects approximately 1,000 entries added to the database during the past year, bringing the total to approximately 7,000 entries. More than half of the new entries were published in the last year, and the remainder are earlier publications not previously included in the database. Most of the new entries were published in the academic and professional literature. The remainder are press reports from newspapers of record and scientific journals. The topical listing of the second edition has been followed in the Supplement, with a few changes. The topics of Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington`s Disease, and Sickle Cell Anemia have been combined in a single topic, Disorders. Also, all the entries published in the past year are included in a new topic, Publications: September 1993--September 1994, which provides a comprehensive view of recent reporting and commentary on the science and ELSI of genetics.

  4. Bibliography on Public Access to Legal Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinertsen, Gail

    1986-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of literature on public access to legal information is categorized into three sections: public access to legal information and materials in law libraries, access in non-law libraries, and non-prison libraries' responsibility to provide legal information to prisoners. (CLB)

  5. An annotated bibliography of psychiatric medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Anzia, D J; La Puma, J

    1991-03-01

    We offer an annotated bibliography of psychiatric medical ethics that we hope will be useful for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals who are interested in the moral dimensions of psychiatric care. We present the educational and clinical rationale for the bibliography, ways to use the bibliography, and the bibliography itself. Using the American Psychiatric Association's Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry as a principled framework, we selected references based primarily on educational and clinical relevance for physicians. We include both empirical and conceptual analyses of the ethical issues seen daily in the office, clinic, hospital, nursing home, and in society at large.

  6. Legal Literature Survey: A Bibliography for a Workshop on Unraveling Government and Legal Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Michael O.

    This bibliography is an attempt to provide an introduction to the literature of law, and a guide for the librarian in the non-legal collection. It is selective, with emphasis on acquisition tools, bibliographies, organization manuals, and legal reference books, including guides to research, dictionaries, directories, and manuals for legal…

  7. Should nurses act legally or ethically?

    PubMed

    Newnham, H

    1998-03-01

    Should health professionals act legally or ethically in the delivery of health care presuming it is impossible to do both? There is a tendency by some to take the position that to act ethically is more important in the provision of health care and to ignore or at least minimise any legal consequences that may arise. At the same time the law may ignore ethical principles claiming the legal position is more important. This article argues that while law and ethics are both important in the delivery of health care the law as the final arbitrator takes precedence.

  8. Ethics in oncology: an annotated bibliography of important literature.

    PubMed

    Tenner, Laura L; Helft, Paul R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this annotated bibliography about important articles in the field of ethics and oncology is to provide the practicing hematologist/oncologist with a brief overview of some of the important literature in this crucial area.

  9. Ethics in Oncology: An Annotated Bibliography of Important Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Laura L.; Helft, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this annotated bibliography about important articles in the field of ethics and oncology is to provide the practicing hematologist/oncologist with a brief overview of some of the important literature in this crucial area. PMID:23942932

  10. Ethical Issues in Social Work. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Martha W., Comp.

    Designed as a practical aid to social work students and practitioners interested in approaching the ethical issues inherent in social work practice, this annotated bibliography lists over 500 books and articles, most of which were published between 1970 and 1983. The bibliography has two main parts, of which the first consists of selections from…

  11. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 3: Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 3 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "The Law and Ethical Practices in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Theodore P.…

  12. Legal vs Ethical News-Gathering Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahl, Rod

    1990-01-01

    Discusses legal and ethical issues surrounding methods of news-gathering, including undercover reporting, misrepresentation of the reporter's identity, fabrication, and plagiarism. Maintains that high school reporters should search out and follow guidelines for their information-seeking methods. (SR)

  13. What Makes It Tough Teaching Legal Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehoff, Leonard M.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching legal ethics can be a difficult job, as students often come to the course thinking it will be a waste of time--either because they believe it is impossible to find provably correct answers to ethical problems, or because they think that the answers are obvious. This attitude prevents a collection of challenges: the teacher must engage…

  14. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 1: Ethical Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Wayne C.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 1 (8 articles) from a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Standards for School Counselors: Test Your Knowledge" (Wayne C. Huey)…

  15. Desegregation in Education: A Legal Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Michael B., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    Includes references on equal educational opportunity, educational finance, preferential admissions, higher education, racial discrimination in teacher employment, civil rights, school desegregation, legal education, minorities, desegregation litigation, busing, and due process of law. (AM)

  16. A Search for Environmental Ethics: An Initial Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglemyer, Mary, Comp.; And Others

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of publications dealing with the relationship between ethics and the natural environment. Coverage begins with the post-war period (1945). The 446 entries appear alphabetically by author and title, and both a subject index and a name index are provided. Included are writings by scientists, conservationists,…

  17. Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, James

    This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…

  18. Regenerative nanomedicine: ethical, legal, and social issues.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Linda MacDonald; Boyce, Jeanann S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in regenerative nanomedicine raise a host of ethical, legal, and social questions that healthcare providers and scientists will need to consider. These questions and concerns include definitions, appropriate applications, dual use, potential risks, regulations, and access. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the questions and concerns and recommend proactive consideration and solutions. PMID:22042687

  19. Resistance to Reform in Legal Ethics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elizabeth D.

    Perceptions of forces that may restrain the implementation of needed change in legal ethics instruction were investigated in 1984, using a model of resistance to planned change proposed by Goodwin Watson. Based on this model, five barriers to change were assessed: conformity to norms, systemic and cultural coherence, vested interests, the…

  20. Legal and ethical issues in research

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Camille; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research. Researchers should note the major international guidelines and regional differences in legislation. Hence, specific ethical advice should be sought at local Ethics Review Committees. PMID:27729698

  1. Legal and ethical issues in neonatal nursing.

    PubMed

    2016-09-12

    Neonatal nurses regularly face complex legal and ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the hypothetical case of Jack, a two-day-old infant, born at 39 weeks' gestation, and diagnosed with trisomy 13 (syndrome), a life-limiting condition and being cared for in a neonatal intensive care unit. Jack's prognosis is poor and he is not expected to live past two weeks of age. PMID:27615591

  2. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution.

  3. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. PMID:26873131

  4. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr., Ed.; Hermann, Mary A., Ed.; Huey, Wayne C., Ed.

    School counselors face ethical and legal challenges every day. This new edition of "Ethical and Legal Issues in School Counseling" provides valuable information and guidelines to help school counselors meet these challenges head-on. Edited and compiled by three experts in the field, including two who are counselor educators as well as attorneys…

  5. [Suicide and its ethical and legal evaluation].

    PubMed

    Hinderer, H

    1978-01-01

    Suicide is--considering general principles to be judged both from ethical and legal viewpoints. Moreover special attentions has to be paid to the particularities of a single case and to the fact that these particularities do not recur. This is also true of the attempt to commit suicide. The "suicideprophylaxis" is of great social important. Attention has to be paid to the problems of a fellowman, who is possibly frightened of a think or who is ill and sees no wayout from his hopelessness. The author discusses regulations of the criminallaw such as indemniti in a case of suicide--if there was no "suicide and also a putting death against another person without there own consent" and the duty of help according to paragraph 119 StGB in an accident or represent a general danger. ("erweiterter Suicid")

  6. Social-Cognitive Development, Ethical and Legal Knowledge, and Ethical Decision Making of Counselor Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Ieva, Kara P.

    2010-01-01

    Counselors are required to have high levels of social-cognitive development, significant knowledge regarding ethical and legal practice, and sound ethical decision-making processes to provide effective and ethical services to their clients. This study investigated the effect of two counseling ethics courses on 64 master's-level counselor education…

  7. AIDS and orphans: legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Siamwiza, R

    1998-03-01

    This article explores the ethical and human rights issues surrounding AIDS and those orphaned by the epidemic in Zambia. A major area of controversy is on the rights of parents and children in adoptive or fostering relationships; civil law is unclear, and customary law treats children as the property of parents and selected kin. HIV/AIDS adds to the controversy concerning the following rights for adoptive and foster parents and children: 1) the right of prospective parents to know the health status of the child, and the child to know the prospective parent's status; 2) the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of the foster child's biological family after the placement; 3) the rights of adoptive or foster parents to public welfare assistance, health care, educational grants, particularly if the child has HIV; 4) property rights of adopted or foster children within their new families; and 5) the legal and civil rights of abandoned children. In conclusion, the ethical issues surrounding adoption and fostering require extensive research and public debate, taking into account the impact of broad socioeconomic changes affecting the extended family, as well as the impact of AIDS. PMID:12222354

  8. AIDS and orphans: legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Siamwiza, R

    1998-03-01

    This article explores the ethical and human rights issues surrounding AIDS and those orphaned by the epidemic in Zambia. A major area of controversy is on the rights of parents and children in adoptive or fostering relationships; civil law is unclear, and customary law treats children as the property of parents and selected kin. HIV/AIDS adds to the controversy concerning the following rights for adoptive and foster parents and children: 1) the right of prospective parents to know the health status of the child, and the child to know the prospective parent's status; 2) the rights, responsibilities, and obligations of the foster child's biological family after the placement; 3) the rights of adoptive or foster parents to public welfare assistance, health care, educational grants, particularly if the child has HIV; 4) property rights of adopted or foster children within their new families; and 5) the legal and civil rights of abandoned children. In conclusion, the ethical issues surrounding adoption and fostering require extensive research and public debate, taking into account the impact of broad socioeconomic changes affecting the extended family, as well as the impact of AIDS.

  9. Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.

  10. Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490

  11. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  12. Cyberspace in the Curricula: New Legal and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethers, J. Steven

    1998-01-01

    Finds that most journalism and mass communication programs integrate legal and ethical issues surrounding cyberspace and interactive media into existing courses, especially into ethics and communication law courses, but also into introductory survey courses, communication technology, and reporting classes. Details reasons why some programs do not…

  13. How ethics committees can safely navigate untested legal waters.

    PubMed

    Ahern, M L

    1984-10-01

    If hospital ethics committees are to meet their goal of ensuring that society's ethical maturation follows technology's growth and impact, they need to carefully formulate their functions before putting them in operation. The author provides some important guidelines on how to match the function and form of ethics committees so that potential legal problems, such as guardianship, informed consent, malpractice, and statutory civil rights issues, can be avoided.

  14. Legal and ethical issues in neonatal nursing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Victoria; Ellis, Catherine; Strumidlo, Laura

    2016-06-29

    Neonatal nurses regularly face complex legal and ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the hypothetical case of Jack, a two-day-old infant diagnosed with trisomy 13 (syndrome), a life-limiting condition. Jack's prognosis is poor, and he is not expected to live past two weeks of age. The legal and ethical perspectives of withholding life-sustaining treatment in infants and children will be explored through the application of ethical frameworks, as well as statute and case law relevant to children and adolescent nursing. The article also discusses the neonatal nurse's role, with reference to local and national guidelines. PMID:27353936

  15. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media. PMID:21436925

  16. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.

  17. Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media. PMID:21436925

  18. Ethical and legal issues in e-mail therapy.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Daniel Edward; Schulman, Charles Eric

    1996-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists recently started using electronic mail (e-mail) to conduct therapy. This article explores relevant ethical and legal issues including, among others, the nature of the professional relationship, boundaries of competence, informed consent, treating minors, confidentiality, and the duty to warn and protect. To illustrate these complex issues, two services currently operating are discussed. To address potential hazards to clients and the profession, a new ethical standard for e-mail therapists is offered.

  19. Ethical and legal risks associated with archival research.

    PubMed

    Taube, Daniel O; Burkhardt, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Mental health facilities and practitioners commonly permit resarchers to have direct access to patients' records for the purposes of archival research without the informed consent of patient-participants. Typically these researchers have access to all information in such records as long as they agree to maintain confidentiality and remove any identifying data from subsequent research reports. Changes in the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles (American Psychological Association, 1992) raise ethical and legal issues that require consideration by practitioners, researchers, and facility Institutional Review Boards. This article addresses these issues and provides recommendations for changes in ethical standards as well as alternative avenues for conducting research using archival mental health records.

  20. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suresh

    2012-09-01

    Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient's death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship. PMID:23450235

  1. Social Media and Professional School Counselors: Ethical and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Griffith, Catherine; Greene, Jennifer H.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social media continues to expand in prevalence and is a medium of communication for individuals of all ages. Schools are using social media to engage their stakeholders at increasing rates. Therefore, school counselors require the knowledge and appreciation of ethical and legal issues regarding the use of such technology. The purpose of…

  2. Upholding Legal and Ethical Duties in the Age of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Elika A.; Morgan, Kara Puklich; Wilde, Laura K.

    2008-01-01

    As public schools across the nation begin to implement the response to intervention (RTI) model of service delivery, school psychologists may find themselves in the difficult position of trying to balance the need to collaborate as part of a problem-solving team with their duty to uphold legal and ethical obligations surrounding informed consent…

  3. Legal Guardianship in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: Ethical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Thomas P.; Fearey, Margaret S.

    1989-01-01

    This article examines legal and ethical issues in the rehabilitation of the head-injured client, particularly the use of guardianship. Several models of rehabilitation goal setting are discussed, with a particular emphasis upon an educational model for the relationship between provider and client. Changes in guardianship procedures are suggested.…

  4. Decisions of Student Affairs Administrators: Ethical or Legal Basis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Margery A.

    In higher education, trends in student affairs administration have gone from an "obedience" stage through a "due process" stage and back to a contractual "law and order" stage. Today, being an agent of the institution means paying attention to legal implications because of the threat of lawsuits. The Ethics section from a Council for Advancement…

  5. Legal and Ethical Issues in Evaluating Abortion Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Lori E.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on ethical and legal issues that arose in the evaluation of abortion services. Discusses the development of decision rules and tradeoffs in dealing with these issues to reach rational and objective decisions. Places the discussion in the context of balancing usefulness and propriety with respect to informed consent and privacy and makes…

  6. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  7. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  8. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible. PMID:26268291

  9. Ethical and legal aspects of noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2014-02-01

    The new technology that will allow genetic testing of a fetus within the first trimester of pregnancy by isolating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother's blood raises a range of ethical and legal issues. Considered noninvasive, this test is safe and reliable, and may avoid alternative genetic testing by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which risks causing spontaneous abortion. Ethical and legal issues of cffDNA testing will become more acute if testing expands to fetal whole-genome sequencing. Critical issues include the state of the science or diagnostic art; the appropriateness of offering the test; the implications of denying the test when it is available and appropriate; disclosure and counseling following test results; and management of patients' choices on acquiring test results. A challenge will be providing patients with appropriate counseling based on up-to-date genetic knowledge, and accommodating informed patients' legal choices.

  10. Ethical and legal considerations in video recording neonatal resuscitations.

    PubMed

    Gelbart, B; Barfield, C; Watkins, A

    2009-02-01

    As guidelines for neonatal resuscitation evolve from a growing evidence base, clinicians must ensure that practice is closely aligned with the available evidence, based on methodologically sound and ethically conducted research. This paper reviews ethical, legal and risk-management issues arising during the design of a quality-assurance project to make video recordings of neonatal resuscitations after high-risk deliveries. The issues, which affect patients, researchers, staff and the hospital at large, include the following: 1) Informed consent for research involving emergency procedures is often not possible, for lack of time to provide sufficient information. The mental capacity of the subject or parent may be compromised by the impending emergency, and freedom of choice is threatened by the time pressure to consent. 2) Video recording of the inevitable medical errors raises issues of whether participating staff may be identifiable and accountable, affecting their willingness to participate in such research. The approach to staff participation and identification is reviewed. 3) The use of video data for education threatens the privacy of research subjects. The ethics of maintaining privacy is balanced with the ethics of using the data to improve practice of resuscitation. 4) The research subjects (patients, or the staff whose performance is being monitored) must be defined. 5) There are legal and ethical aspects of management and ownership of data. 6) The role of the Human Research Ethics Committee in protecting the research subject and possibly the medicolegal interests of the hospital is discussed. This paper reviews the literature and discusses the issues.

  11. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  12. Medicine beyond borders: the legal and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie J

    2009-09-01

    The ease and affordability of international travel has contributed to the rapid growth of the healthcare industry where people from all around the world are traveling to other countries to obtain medical, dental, and surgical care while at the same time touring, vacationing and fully experiencing the attractions of the countries that they are visiting. A combination of many factors has led to the recent increase in popularity of medical tourism such as exorbitant costs of healthcare in industrialized nations, favorable currency exchange rates in the global economy, rapidly improving technology in many countries of the world and most importantly proven safety of healthcare in selected foreign nations. Nevertheless, the development of medical tourism has certainly awakened many ethical and legal issues, which must be addressed. Issues pertaining to malpractice, consumer protection, organ trafficking, alternative medicine and telemedicine need comprehensive legal regulatory framework to govern them. Ethical issues are also been raised by the promotion of medical tourism in particular those pertaining to doctor and patient relationship. A future, where medical law is subsumed into various legal and ethical dimensions, poses serious challenges for the practice and ethics of medicine.

  13. Medicine beyond borders: the legal and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie J

    2009-09-01

    The ease and affordability of international travel has contributed to the rapid growth of the healthcare industry where people from all around the world are traveling to other countries to obtain medical, dental, and surgical care while at the same time touring, vacationing and fully experiencing the attractions of the countries that they are visiting. A combination of many factors has led to the recent increase in popularity of medical tourism such as exorbitant costs of healthcare in industrialized nations, favorable currency exchange rates in the global economy, rapidly improving technology in many countries of the world and most importantly proven safety of healthcare in selected foreign nations. Nevertheless, the development of medical tourism has certainly awakened many ethical and legal issues, which must be addressed. Issues pertaining to malpractice, consumer protection, organ trafficking, alternative medicine and telemedicine need comprehensive legal regulatory framework to govern them. Ethical issues are also been raised by the promotion of medical tourism in particular those pertaining to doctor and patient relationship. A future, where medical law is subsumed into various legal and ethical dimensions, poses serious challenges for the practice and ethics of medicine. PMID:20157960

  14. Retrospective research: What are the ethical and legal requirements?

    PubMed

    Junod, V; Elger, B

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective research is conducted on already available data and/or biologic material. Whether such research requires that patients specifically consent to the use of "their" data continues to stir controversy. From a legal and ethical point of view, it depends on several factors. The main criteria to be considered are whether the data or the sample is anonymous, whether the researcher is the one who collected it and whether the patient was told of the possible research use. In Switzerland, several laws delineate the procedure to be followed. The definition of "anonymous" is open to some interpretation. In addition, it is debatable whether consent waivers that are legally admissible for data extend to research involving human biological samples. In a few years, a new Swiss federal law on human research could clarify the regulatory landscape. Meanwhile, hospital-internal guidelines may impose stricter conditions than required by federal or cantonal law. Conversely, Swiss and European ethical texts may suggest greater flexibility and call for a looser interpretation of existing laws. The present article provides an overview of the issues for physicians, scientists, ethics committee members and policy makers involved in retrospective research in Switzerland. It aims at provoking more open discussions of the regulatory problems and possible future legal and ethical solutions. PMID:20349361

  15. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made.

  16. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made. PMID:10436738

  17. [Living donors for kidney transplantation: ethical and legal challenges].

    PubMed

    Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Fournier, Catherine; Legendre, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has developed very heterogeneously worldwide despite excellent results and without taking into account the context of global organ shortage. Such a heterogeneity highlights persistent ethical issues, whereas organ trafficking is emerging as an organized transplant tourism reinforcing the need for strong national legal frameworks. Despite its powerful regulation system, which ensures standardization, transparency and accountability of support for donation, France remains reluctant to enlarge the circle of legal donors, whereas it would be the first step to give a greater role to living organ donation. PMID:20510152

  18. Voluntary and involuntary sterilization: medical, ethical, legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-08-01

    Surgical voluntary sterilization has become one of the most widely used methods of contraception, with vasectomy and tubal sterilization being the most commonly employed techniques, associated with a low failure, morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae rate. As sterilization is related with the elimination of the possibility for procreation, a number of ethical, legal and religious issues have arisen, leading often to personal misjudgements, legal disputes, and failures in applying family planning. Involuntary sterilization is currently not practiced, except in cases of severely mentally retarded people, who are unable to appreciate the consequences of their acts or care for their children and who may have a high likelihood of propagating hereditary disease.

  19. Video recording of ophthalmic surgery--ethical and legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Andrew M J; Emsley, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    Video documenting is increasingly used in ophthalmic training and research, with many ophthalmologists routinely recording their surgical cases. Although this modality represents an excellent means of improving technique and advancing knowledge, there are major ethical and legal considerations with its use. Informed consent to record is required in most situations. Patients should be advised of any risk of identification and the purpose of the recording. Systems should be in place to deal with issues such as data storage, withdrawal of consent, and patients requesting copies of their recording. Privacy and security of neither patients nor health care professionals should be compromised. Ownership and distribution of video recordings, the potential for their use in medical litigation, the ethics and legality of editing and the impact on surgeon performance are other factors to consider. Although video recording of ophthalmic surgery is useful and technically simple to accomplish, patient safety and welfare must always remain paramount.

  20. Canadian Health Measures Survey: ethical, legal and social issues.

    PubMed

    Day, Brent; Langlois, Renée; Tremblay, Mark; Knoppers, Bartha-Maria

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) of Statistics Canada has addressed the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) arising from the survey. The development of appropriate procedures and the rationale behind them are discussed in detail for some specific ELSI. Health Canada's Research Ethics Board, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, and the Data Access and Control Services Division at Statistics Canada, provided advice to the CHMS on ELSI. Statistics Canada's legal obligation to protect confidentiality, the oath of office, and security measures at Statistics Canada are explained. Additional information on safeguards specific to the CHMS is presented. The ELSI discussed include communication and consent, privacy and confidentiality, reporting results to survey respondents, inclusiveness, and storage of biospecimens. Common to all ELSI is the need for respondents' awareness and acceptance of their role in the survey process, and the obligation of the CHMS to respect respondents and the data they provide.

  1. Ethical and legal issues and the "new genetics".

    PubMed

    Otlowski, Margaret F A; Williamson, Robert

    2003-06-01

    Although uniquely personal, the information from gene analyses impacts on parents, siblings, children and even entire ethnic groups. Doctors need to carefully balance the right of a patient to privacy against the wider family and society interests, consistent with ethical standards and their legal obligations. Doctors also need to be in a position to advise their patients of potential risks that may result from obtaining predictive genetic information, such as discrimination by third parties. While these issues are not new, they occur with new sharpness in the "new genetics", where clinicians have to be familiar not only with clinical significance, but also the ethical and legal implications of genetic analyses and information. PMID:12765510

  2. Human embryonic stem cell research: ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J A

    2001-01-01

    The use of human embryonic stem cells to replace damaged cells and tissues promises future hope for the treatment of many diseases. However, many countries now face complex ethical and legal questions as a result of the research needed to develop these cell-replacement therapies. The challenge that must be met is how to permit research on human embryonic tissue to occur while maintaining respect for human life generally.

  3. [Ethical and legal aspects at the emergency department

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P R; Torreão, L A

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss ethical and legal aspects of physicianś attitudes in emergency departments under the light of Braziĺs codes and laws.METHODS: The authors raise questions based upon case reports and comment using the medical ethical code, laws that protect children and adolescents, hospitalized children and adolescents rights statement and medical federal council decisions.RESULTS: The authors discuss child patients' rights and the parents disclosure right; the problem of domestic violence and abuse and the physician duty to denunciate this kind of practice for the child security and protection; the medical responsability even under workplace adverse conditions, as well as the concerns related to transportation of patients to another hospital; the dilemma between withholding and withdrawing life support measures at the emergency department and the prohibition to certificate death in violent death situations; the autonomy and decision-making capa-city of adolescent patients and their limitations, including violation of confidentiality.CONCLUSIONS: The commentaries presented in the article try to explain to the pediatrician how to identify ethical and legal conflicts in the emergency department and to prepare him (her) to assume attitudes based on codes and legal statements, as well as to respect the patient's rights. PMID:14685477

  4. Pharmacogenetics--legal, ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    March, R; Cheeseman, K; Doherty, M

    2001-11-01

    The overall objective of pharmacogenetics is to determine the genetic basis of variability in drug efficacy and safety, and to use this information to benefit the patient. Genetics can be used to develop drugs that are suitable for the majority of patients and to help identify those patients for whom a certain drug may not be the most appropriate. This review will cover some background to pharmacogenetics and various issues including confidentiality, data protection, coding of samples and genetic data, informed consent, and drug development guidelines. International, national and regional variation in the legal and regulatory basis for pharmacogenetics presents challenges for researchers attempting to increase scientific understanding in the field. Examples of national and international regulations and guidelines will be given. It is clear that pharmacogenetics today is a long way from the 'personalised medicine' advocated by some individuals in recent years. The aim of pharmacogenetic research should always be to make sure that patients have the best treatment available and that patients are not exposed to drugs to which they are genetically unable to respond. This vision must continue to inspire researchers and regulators who are working together to make it a widespread reality.

  5. Technological innovations in forensic genetics: social, legal and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions.

  6. Legal and Ethical Issues for School Counselors: Supervision as a Safeguard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barletta, John

    In the past 20 years, counselors have become increasingly aware of the legal and ethical issues related to counseling. This paper addresses the various legal and ethical topics relevant to school counselors. Since counselors need to make informed decisions based on statutes, codes of ethics, professional standards, community expectations, and…

  7. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  8. [Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

    2014-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege women's reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couples' rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage.

  9. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  10. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  11. Ethical and legal aspects of applied genomic technologies: practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Penelope K

    2005-02-01

    Many ethical and legal issues surround genomic technologies, some of which are present for other kinds of medical data, but some of which are specific to genomic data. Specifically the global nature of genomic data and the life-long implications of genetic defects on the health of the individual subject produce challenges in the ethical and legal handling of this data. In general, data derived from transcriptome analysis, which studies gene expression, as well as proteomics and metabolomics, carry less ethically-charged information than measures of the germ line genome. However, theoretical issues that have been raised related to withholding therapy based on a specific genotype which could also apply to a specific expression profile. Potential solutions for these challenges are discussed, such as maintaining a connection with research participants through a trusted third party, using electronic means to manage that contact and reconsent subjects. A flexible, secure information technology infrastructure is proposed to manage and search consent forms, provide the ability to collect additional data and consent while maintaining participant confidentiality.

  12. Legal and ethical issues in human organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Parturkar, D

    2006-06-01

    The Indian Law on Human Organ and Tissue transplantation protects the interests and preserves the lives of both the donor as well as the recipient patient. An issue arises as to the relationship of others with one's body or parts thereof especially one's cadaver. The posessory rights of the cadaver, property rights in the human corpse will be discussed in this paper. The ethical issues involved in altruism give rise to number of contradictions on which this paper focuses. The removal of organs would constitute an "injury" in ethical and legal terms if the intended use of an organ or tissue is not legally and ethically acceptable. How one determines the existence of the 'injury' in this context, where application of the concept of non-malfeasance is itself a good defense, is discussed in the paper. Consent in case of a cadaver has always been a matter of debate. The application of the doctrine of consent will be referred to in the course of this article. PMID:16929814

  13. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOURNE, DOROTHY DULLES; BOURNE, JAMES R.

    THIS PARTIALLY ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGE IN PUERTO RICO LISTS WORKS ON PUERTO RICAN COMMUNITIES (MAINLY RURAL), SOCIAL PATTERNS, FAMILY PATTERNS AND PRACTICES, AGRICULTURE, ECONOMICS, EDUCATION, AND MIGRATION. ALTHOUGH THE BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS JOURNAL ARTICLES, IT CONSISTS MAINLY OF BOOK-LENGTH RESEARCH STUDIES. DATES OF…

  14. [Triploid cloned human embryos: ethical, social, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This work attempts to place the experiment within the scientific and social framework of pluripotent-stem-cell research and offer reflections of an ethical and (to a lesser extent) legal nature on the results obtained by this research group. To these ends, the work is divided into two parts. The first part describes the most important aspects of Noggle and Egli's announcement and the biotechnological and media context in which it was made. The second part is concerned with the bioethical issues raised by the experiment. There are basically four issues, which relate to: (1) the nuclear transfer technique, (2) the use of human ovules to carry out the experiment, (3) the destruction of human blastocysts, and (4) the ethical requirements of scientific publications.

  15. Ectopic pregnancy and emergency care: ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Faúndes, A; Cook, R J

    2003-07-01

    Ectopic or tubal pregnancy presents a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment in order to contain risks of maternal death and morbidity, including loss of future fertility. Medical circumstances involving individual patients and resources of the prevailing health care system will determine the options and means of treatment. Termination of ectopic pregnancy does not constitute or directly implicate abortion. Any practice of deliberately delaying treatment of reliably diagnosed ectopic pregnancy, on non-clinical grounds, until rupture of the fallopian tube has occurred or is imminent, in order to justify termination of the ectopic pregnancy on grounds of saving the patient's life, is unethical and illegal. Those who undertake or counsel deliberate delay of medically-indicated treatment can be charged with criminal offences and civil (non-criminal) liability, and medical professional misconduct. On reliable diagnosis, prompt treatment to remove ectopic pregnancy is legally justified, and ethically and legally required.

  16. Ethical and Legal Challenges Associated with Public Molecular Autopsies.

    PubMed

    Moore, Quianta L; Majumder, Mary A; Rutherford, Lindsey K; McGuire, Amy L

    2016-06-01

    There is a national movement supporting the retention and use of bio-specimens from deceased individuals for the purpose of genetic testing. This manuscript discusses the significance of postmortem genetic testing in the context of death determination by medical examiners (i.e., public molecular autopsies). We highlight distinctive concerns that are raised in the areas of consent, confidentiality, and return of results when genetic testing is performed as part of a public molecular autopsy. We believe our manuscript will contribute to the development of a robust ethical and legal framework for genetic testing in this context. PMID:27338606

  17. Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2001-01-01

    This selective bibliography of books for librarians includes titles regarding academic libraries; administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction; cataloging and classification; children's and young adult services; collection development; copyright; customer service; distance education; electronic libraries; fund raising; government…

  18. Euthanasia of companion animals: a legal and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fenga, Carmela; Morciano, Cristina; Morelli, Chiara; Russo, Maria; Di Pietro, Carlotta; Passantino, Michele

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the conditions under which euthanasia of small pets is justified are only partially regulated by law n. 281/1991, article 2 n. 6 and 9, by the later Ministry Circular n. 9 made on 10/03/1992 and by law n. 189/2004. Law n. 281/1991, besides delegating the job of birth control in cat and dog populations to the regions, has made it statutory that stray dogs may only be euthanised when they are 'seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous'. The Ministry Circular underlines the fact that 'euthanasia of dogs is prohibited except in special justified cases'. On the other hand, due to the legal classification of animals as property, the owner has the right of ownership over his animal so that he can sell it and kill it (ius vitae ac necis). In this view a request for euthanasia is licit, whatever the animal's state of health may be. The authors feel that further legislation to regulate the question more completely would be opportune and thus they analyse the problems of legal-ethics and public health that a veterinarian faces when carrying out euthanasia, also bearing in mind the laws and codes of professional ethics. They suggest possible solutions which could be adopted by the competent authorities. PMID:17361075

  19. Legal and ethical issues in psychiatric genetic research.

    PubMed

    Shore, D; Berg, K; Wynne, D; Folstein, M F

    1993-05-01

    Genetic research may uncover the causes of severe mental disorders, and many projects have been undertaken to locate the genes responsible for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer disease. A number of sensitive legal and ethical issues have been raised, including 1) protection of confidential data concerning research subjects; 2) the assessment of types and degree of risk to subjects who participate in such studies; 3) the legal and ethical acceptability of substituted judgement on behalf of patients who may not be competent to provide informed consent; and 4) the separation of research and clinical roles in areas such as genetic counseling. Federal regulations and other guidelines are of limited value in dealing with such concerns, and many important human subjects issues will need to be dealt with by the investigator, subject to approval by a local Institutional Review Board. There does seem to be general agreement that informed consent must be obtained, potential risks of research need to be minimized, and confidentiality of sensitive data must be protected.

  20. Ethical and legal issues in special patient care.

    PubMed

    Shuman, S K; Bebeau, M J

    1994-07-01

    Dental professionals encounter a number of challenging ethical and legal dilemmas when caring for special patients. Questions may arise in securing consent for treatment; using restraints; overcoming economic, social, and physical barriers to care; and dealing with patient abuse. These concerns generally stem from underlying conflicts between any of the fundamental ethical principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, veracity, and fidelity. When securing consent for treatment, practitioners must consider both legal competence and decision-making capacity. If decision-making is impaired, input should be solicited from others to arrive at treatment decisions in keeping with the patient's values concerning dental care. To guard against the inappropriate use of restraints, 10 guidelines are presented for consideration. Providers should strive not to allow economic considerations to influence their care unduly either by failing to offer a full range of options or by providing care that is below usual standards. Services must be made available to disabled individuals on the same basis that they are available to others without disability. This principle forms the basis of the Americans with Disabilities Act, which stipulates what accommodations must be made to ensure that physical and social barriers do not impede access to dental care. Finally, special patients, particularly the frail elderly, are at increased risk to become victims of abuse. Dental professionals should be familiar with the warning signs and symptoms of such abuse and their obligation to take actions to end it.

  1. Ethical-legal problems of DNA databases in criminal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, M.; Lareu, M. V.; Pestoni, C.; Salas, A.; Carracedo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in DNA technology and the discovery of DNA polymorphisms have permitted the creation of DNA databases of individuals for the purpose of criminal investigation. Many ethical and legal problems arise in the preparation of a DNA database, and these problems are especially important when one analyses the legal regulations on the subject. In this paper three main groups of possibilities, three systems, are analysed in relation to databases. The first system is based on a general analysis of the population; the second one is based on the taking of samples for a particular list of crimes, and a third is based only on the specific analysis of each case. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are compared and controversial issues are then examined. We found the second system to be the best choice for Spain and other European countries with a similar tradition when we weighed the rights of an individual against the public's interest in the prosecution of a crime. Key Words: DNA databases • forensic genetics • ethics PMID:10951922

  2. Euthanasia of companion animals: a legal and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fenga, Carmela; Morciano, Cristina; Morelli, Chiara; Russo, Maria; Di Pietro, Carlotta; Passantino, Michele

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the conditions under which euthanasia of small pets is justified are only partially regulated by law n. 281/1991, article 2 n. 6 and 9, by the later Ministry Circular n. 9 made on 10/03/1992 and by law n. 189/2004. Law n. 281/1991, besides delegating the job of birth control in cat and dog populations to the regions, has made it statutory that stray dogs may only be euthanised when they are 'seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous'. The Ministry Circular underlines the fact that 'euthanasia of dogs is prohibited except in special justified cases'. On the other hand, due to the legal classification of animals as property, the owner has the right of ownership over his animal so that he can sell it and kill it (ius vitae ac necis). In this view a request for euthanasia is licit, whatever the animal's state of health may be. The authors feel that further legislation to regulate the question more completely would be opportune and thus they analyse the problems of legal-ethics and public health that a veterinarian faces when carrying out euthanasia, also bearing in mind the laws and codes of professional ethics. They suggest possible solutions which could be adopted by the competent authorities.

  3. Reflecting on ethical and legal issues in wildlife disease.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Hamish; Hocking, Barbara Ann

    2005-08-01

    Disease in wildlife raises a number of issues that have not been widely considered in the bioethical literature. However, wildlife disease has major implications for human welfare. The majority of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic: this is, they occur in humans by cross-species transmissions from animal hosts. Managing these diseases often involves balancing concerns with human health against animal welfare and conservation concerns. Many infectious diseases of domestic animals are shared with wild animals, although it is often unclear whether the infection spills over from wild animals to domestic animals or vice versa. Culling is the standard means of managing such diseases, bringing economic considerations, animal welfare and conservation into conflict. Infectious diseases are also major threatening processes in conservation biology and their appropriate management by culling, vaccination or treatment raises substantial animal ethics issues. One particular issue of great significance in Australia is an ongoing research program to develop genetically modified pathogens to control vertebrate pests including rabbits, foxes and house mice. Release of any self-replicating GMO vertebrate pathogen gives rise to a whole series of ethical questions. We briefly review current Australian legal responses to these problems. Finally, we present two unresolved problems of general importance that are exemplified by wildlife disease. First, to what extent can or should 'bioethics' be broadened beyond direct concerns with human welfare to animal welfare and environmental welfare? Second, how should the irreducible uncertainty of ecological systems be accounted for in ethical decision making?

  4. A Qualitative Examination of Ethical and Legal Considerations Regarding Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased attention to dating violence among adolescents and young adults, limited information is available on ethical and legal considerations specific to this population. Therefore, this qualitative study explores 21 trainees' and practitioners' conceptualization of ethical and legal issues pertaining to adolescent dating violence.…

  5. The Ethical and Legal Framework for the Decision Not to Resuscitate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Melinda A.; Cassel, Christine K.

    1984-01-01

    Practicing physicians are frequently faced with the question of whether or not to institute cardiopulmonary resuscitation in case of cardiac or respiratory arrest in a patient in hospital. Medical training has usually not included any systematic analysis of this issue from either an ethical or a legal standpoint. Many physicians may be unaware that ethical and legal principles, as well as professional guidelines, exist to guide such decision making. In practice, physicians make this decision without the benefit of training in ethical analysis. The problem is especially acute in teaching hospitals when young physicians unacquainted with formal ethics or the law must often make decisions emergently. Studies show some discrepancy between ethical and legal principles and the actual decision making by physicians. For this reason, we recommend an approach that will enable physicians to make and implement decisions not to resuscitate that are consistent with current ethical and legal standards. PMID:6702189

  6. Ethical, Legal, Social, and Policy Implications of Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has engendered a host of moral and social concerns virtually since its inception. The policy implications of a genetic basis for behaviors are widespread and extend beyond the clinic to the socially important realms of education, criminal justice, childbearing, and child rearing. The development of new techniques and analytic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, and optogenetics, has clearly changed the study of behavioral genetics. However, the social context of biomedical research has also changed profoundly over the past few decades, and in ways that are especially relevant to behavioral genetics. The ever-widening scope of behavioral genetics raises ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the potential new applications to criminal justice, education, the military, and reproduction. These issues are especially critical to address because of their potentially disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations such as children, the unborn, and the incarcerated. PMID:23452225

  7. Legal, ethical, and social issues in human genome research.

    PubMed

    Greely, H T

    1998-01-01

    In the past several decades, biological sciences have been revolutionized by their increased understanding of how life works at the molecular level. In what ways, and to what extent, will this scientific revolution affect the human societies within which the science is situated? The legal, ethical, and social implications of research in human genetics have been discussed in depth, particularly in the context of the Human Genome Project and, to a lesser extent, the proposed Human Genome Diversity Project. Both projects could have significant effects on society, the former largely at the level of individuals or families and the latter primarily at the level of ethnic groups or nations. These effects can be grouped in six broad categories: identity, prediction, history, manipulation, ownership and control, and destiny.

  8. Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography pertaining to the teaching of geology at the elementary school level. Included are general reference books, field guides, children's books, audio-visual materials, booklets, kits, maps, posters, computer courseware, and an index of geology-related articles appearing in past issues of "Ranger Rick"…

  9. Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsted, Ann L., Comp.

    1983-01-01

    Two annotated bibliographies of books are compiled, one devoted to Roosevelt and the New Deal, the other concerned with Hitler, the Weimar Republic, and the rise of Nazism. Annotations indicate scope of the work and occasionally point out bias or point of view. (CS)

  10. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider.

    PubMed

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-10-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key 'points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These 'points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure.

  11. Neuroimaging techniques for memory detection: scientific, ethical, and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Daniel V

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques for forensic purposes. Memory detection techniques, including the well-publicized Brain Fingerprinting technique (Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc., Seattle WA), exploit the fact that the brain responds differently to sensory stimuli to which it has been exposed before. When a stimulus is specifically associated with a crime, the resulting brain activity should differentiate between someone who was present at the crime and someone who was not. This article reviews the scientific literature on three such techniques: priming, old/new, and P300 effects. The forensic potential of these techniques is evaluated based on four criteria: specificity, automaticity, encoding flexibility, and longevity. This article concludes that none of the techniques are devoid of forensic potential, although much research is yet to be done. Ethical issues, including rights to privacy and against self-incrimination, are discussed. A discussion of legal issues concludes that current memory detection techniques do not yet meet United States standards of legal admissibility.

  12. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Burton, Paul; Chisholm, Rex; Fortier, Isabel; Goodwin, Pat; Harris, Jennifer; Hveem, Kristian; Kaye, Jane; Kent, Alistair; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lindpaintner, Klaus; Little, Julian; Riegman, Peter; Ripatti, Samuli; Stolk, Ronald; Bobrow, Martin; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dressler, Lynn; Joly, Yann; Kato, Kazuto; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; McPherson, Treasa; Nicolás, Pilar; Ouellette, Francis; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos; Sarin, Rajiv; Wallace, Susan; Wiesner, Georgia; Wilson, Julia; Zeps, Nikolajs; Simkevitz, Howard; De Rienzo, Assunta; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-01-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key ‘points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These ‘points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure. PMID:25248396

  13. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal. PMID:23529363

  14. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  15. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  16. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  17. [Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable. PMID:19507516

  18. [Ethical issues of personal genome: a legal perspective--ethical and legal ramifications of personal genome research].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Whole-genome research projects, especially those involving whole-genome sequencing, tend to raise intractable ethical and legal challenges. In this kind of research, genetic and genomic data obtained by typing or sequencing are usually put in open or limited access scientific databases on the Internet to promote studies by many researchers. Once data become available on the Internet, it will be virtually meaningless to withdraw the information, effectively nullifying participants' right to revoke consent. Although the author favors the governance system that will assure research subjects of the right to withdraw their participation, considering these characteristics of whole-genome research, he finds those recommendations offered in Caulfield T, et al: Research ethics recommendations for whole-genome research: Consensus statement. PLoS Biol 6(3): e73(2008), especially to the effect that the consent process should include information about data security and the governance structure and, in particular, the mechanism for considering future research protocols, well reasoned and acceptable.

  19. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory.

  20. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-01-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417

  1. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-09-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.

  2. End-of-life decisions in Malaysia: Adequacies of ethical codes and developing legal standards.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Alias, Fadhlina

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life decision-making is an area of medical practice in which ethical dilemmas and legal interventions have become increasingly prevalent. Decisions are no longer confined to clinical assessments; rather, they involve wider considerations such as a patient's religious and cultural beliefs, financial constraints, and the wishes and needs of family members. These decisions affect everyone concerned, including members of the community as a whole. Therefore it is imperative that clear ethical codes and legal standards are developed to help guide the medical profession on the best possible course of action for patients. This article considers the relevant ethical, codes and legal provisions in Malaysia governing certain aspects of end-of-life decision-making. It highlights the lack of judicial decisions in this area as well as the limitations with the Malaysian regulatory system. The article recommends the development of comprehensive ethical codes and legal standards to guide end-of-life decision-making in Malaysia.

  3. Disaster behavioral health: legal and ethical considerations in a rapidly changing field.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian W; Speier, Anthony H

    2014-08-01

    Disaster behavioral health is increasingly regarded as a central part of disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Legal and ethical issues have received relatively little attention and have sparked divergent opinions. Optimally, understanding and applying legal and ethical considerations requires an understanding of the evolution of the disaster behavioral health field and the context of disaster response and recovery. In addition, there are many legal and ethical questions identified for consideration, and many ways to approach reaching understanding and consensus. Traditionally, discussions of disaster behavioral health, including legal and ethical issues, have not included understanding decision making processes that occur in extreme circumstances. Models which interpret disaster response operations as complex adaptive systems are presented for consideration as useful tools for preparing mental health workers for effectively delivering services in acute disaster response environments.

  4. Developing an Ethical and Legal Interoperability Assessment Process for Retrospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne-Marie; Kirby, Emily; Fortier, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The past decade has witnessed the creation of major international research consortia, aiming to facilitate the sharing of data from different studies to maximize health benefits. However, combining heterogeneous data across existing studies requires addressing issues related to both data harmonization and ethical and legal interoperability. This article proposes a rigorous interoperability assessment process to assess whether different data sets are sufficiently ethically and legally interoperable to allow for a given proposed research use. The methodology used to develop this process is based on a comprehensive analysis of the international ethical and legal framework governing the use of retrospective data in research, and includes the following steps: (I) finding existing processes; (II) comparing processes to identify similarities and differences and determining the limits of the "consistent whole"; (III) establishing common principles and procedures; and, (IV) changing or removing processes that do not contribute to the consistent whole. Each of these four steps were examined using step-specific methodologies, including (a) literature and policy reviews; (b) consultations with international ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) experts; and (c) a case study piloting the proposed framework in an actual international research consortium. This assessment process takes into account key legal and ethical components such as consent, recontact, and waiver of consent. As a result, this analysis allows the development of a comprehensive filter used to verify the legal and ethical restrictions pertaining to a data set. This in turns helps in determining whether the given data set can to be used for a proposed research project, or is ethically and legally interoperable for use in research collaborations. By integrating this filter to the regular data access processes used by cohorts, not only will researchers be able to create virtual "mega-cohorts" of research

  5. THE GHOST IN OUR GENES: LEGAL AND ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF EPIGENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Cai, Yu; Marchant, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most scientifically important, and legally and ethically significant, cutting-edge subjects of scientific discovery. Epigenetics link environmental and genetic influences on the traits and characteristics of an individual, and new discoveries reveal that a large range of environmental, dietary, behavioral, and medical experiences can significantly affect the future development and health of an individual and their offspring. This article describes and analyzes the ethical and legal implications of these new scientific findings. PMID:19459537

  6. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, S O; Raji, Y; Salako, B L

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons. PMID:26787578

  7. Ethical and legal issues relating to abortion in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Silber, T J

    1989-04-01

    At least 1 million teenagers in the United States get pregnant every year; 350,000 teenagers choose to terminate their pregnancies by abortion. Doctors who examine teenagers usually find that their patients come in fairly late, and some teenagers may carry their pregnancy to term while others request abortions as late as the 2nd trimester. Abortion as well as full-term pregnancy are procedures that carry extreme mental stress. Many teenagers that go through with either procedure suffer mental breakdowns. Adolescents' stages of moral development can be classified into a 3 major categories: preconventional; conventional; or postconventional. Preconventional behavior may consist of worry about the reactions of individuals holding power over the adolescent's life; conventional behavior may consist of the adolescent conforming, as well as maintaining societal rules; and postconventional behavior may consist of the wishes of the adolescent outweighing societal expectations in their decision-making. The legal aspects concerning adolescents seeking abortions are governed by the "mature minor doctrine". Some abortions can be performed on adolescents without parental support; however, recent court decisions have provided certain measures for "immature minors." Recent debates on ethical and moral issues have been on the autonomy of the adolescent to make decisions on their own and the rights of the fetus versus the mother. Counseling is available for adolescents unsure of what decisions to make the unable to get support from their families.

  8. Ethical, legal, and social implications of biobanks for genetics research.

    PubMed

    Haga, Susanne B; Beskow, Laura M

    2008-01-01

    The elucidation of the causes of complex diseases pivots on understanding the interaction between biological (genetic) and environmental factors that give rise to disease risk. The modest effects of genetic factors in complex diseases supports the need for large-scale studies of high-quality human biological materials, paired with detailed clinical data, to adequately detect these effects. To this end, biobanks or biorepositories have been developed around the world, by public and private entities alike, to provide researchers the opportunity to study collections of human biospecimens annotated with clinical and other health-related measurements. It has been estimated that more than 270 million tissue samples are stored in the U.S., expanding at a rate of approximately 20 million samples annually. In this chapter, we discuss several ethical, legal, and social issues that have been raised surrounding biobanks, including recruitment of vulnerable populations, informed consent, data disclosure to participants, intellectual property, and privacy and security. Throughout the chapter, we will highlight experiences of national biobanks in Iceland, the U.K., Sweden, and Estonia, and the proposal for a U.S. population cohort study. The dependence on public participation requires clear and transparent policies developed through inclusive processes.

  9. Ethical and legal issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, S O; Raji, Y; Salako, B L

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients being offered kidney transplantation by many centers in the developing world, it is not unexpected that there would be attendant ethical and legal issues even when the selection process for transplantation seems medically justified. Because of the inadequate infrastructure for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, coupled with the challenges of logistics for maintenance dialysis, transplantation would seem to be the best option for patients with end-stage renal failure, even in developed economies where these can easily be tackled. The main issues here revolve around incentives for donors, organ trade and trafficking and the economics of eliminating the waiting list and the criminal activities of organ trans-plantation. In the developing world, with the current level of corruption and poverty, there is a need to redouble efforts to monitor transplant activities. Professional bodies should take the lead in this regard. Furthermore, there is a need for governments to engage in public consultation and community awareness concerning organ donation in living and deceased persons.

  10. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  11. [Research with participants suffering from dementia. Ethical and legal considerations in research involving human subjects].

    PubMed

    Schüßler, N; Schnell, M W

    2014-12-01

    Using case reports from the health services research project Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster, fundamental issues of research ethics, data protection and legal guardianship are shown and explained. A plan of important aspects to be considered while planning, conducting and recruiting for research with nursing home inhabitants suffering from dementia in a legally correct and safe manner is presented.

  12. Commercial biobanks and genetic research: ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Anderlik, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Human biological material is recognized as an important tool in research, and the demand for collections that combine samples and data is increasing. For-profit companies have assumed a leading role in assembling and managing these collections. The emergence of commercial biobanks has raised significant ethical and legal issues. The growing awareness of the importance of human biological material in research has been accompanied by a growing awareness of the deficiencies of existing archives of tissue. Commercial biobanks are attempting to position themselves as a, if not the, solution to problems that include a lack of public trust in researchers and lack of financial resources to support the prospective creation of collections that meet the highest scientific and ethical standards in the non-profit sector. Broad social and policy questions surrounding the operation of commercial biobanks have been raised however. International documents, in particular, suggest discomfort with the idea of gain from the mere transfer or exchange of human genetic material and information. Commercial involvement in the development of useful products from tissue is generally not condemned, so long as there is attention to scientific and social norms. Views on the acceptability of commercial biobanks vary. Specific issues that arise when commercial biobanks are permitted--in the areas of consent, recruitment, confidentiality, and accountability--are also relevant to the operation of public and private, non-profit biobanks. Although many uncertainties remain, consensus seems to be forming on a number of issues. For example, there appears to be agreement that blanket consent to future unspecified research uses, with no conditions, is unacceptable. Indeed, many of the leading commercial biobanks have been attentive to concerns about consent, recruitment, and confidentiality. Unfortunately, the binding nature of assurances in these areas is unclear, especially given the risk of insolvency

  13. [Ethical and legal questions regarding the killing of animals to avoid considerable pain and suffering].

    PubMed

    Möbius, G

    1994-09-01

    The ethical and legal problems that are connected with the killing of animals are continuously discussed. Problems with the interpretation of "reasonable reason" and the public criticism of killing to get luxury goods as well as of the methods of killing show the main points. In contrast to the killing of animals in the interest of people the euthanasia of animals to prevention of considerable, not to soothed pain and suffering is appreciated generally as reasonably and ethically justified. The ethical justification confronts with legal problems based on the conflicting position of animals in civil law. These problems are important for a practising veterinarian. PMID:7956816

  14. Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me?

    PubMed

    Kapp, M B

    2006-04-01

    The conduct of biomedical research involving the participation of human beings implicates a variety of ethical concerns pertaining to such values as dignity, bodily integrity, autonomy, and privacy. These ethical concerns have been translated into a complex regulatory apparatus in the USA, containing specific legal provisions concerning such matters as participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality. A topic of particular interest for pathologists is the handling of human tissue specimens that may be used for present, or stored for future, research purposes. This article examines the ethical and legal ramifications of obtaining and storing tissue samples for research purposes, with special attention to the issues of informed consent and confidentiality.

  15. Legal, Professional and Ethical Issues: The Use of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drier, Harry N.

    This monograph deals with normative ethics, or the application of ethical principles in judging the rightness or wrongness of actions. Specifically, the monograph addresses normative ethics in the use of automated systems in the field and practice of counseling and guidance. It is noted that the immense growth planned for computer applications in…

  16. Ethical and Legal Issues in Biobanking for Genomic Research in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akintola, Simisola O

    2012-01-01

    The pursuit of genomic research and biobanking has raised concerns and discussions about the ethical and legal implications. Given the specific challenges that surround such enterprise in low and middle income countries, it is pertinent to examine them in the light of the advent of Biobanking and Genomic research in Nigeria. In this paper I discuss the issues and suggest model solutions derived from advanced jurisdictions. These ethical and legal issues are discussed within the context of the legal system of a typical African country whose jurisprudence derives from that of its erstwhile colonial master, the United Kingdom. This includes issues relating to law and human rights, informed consent, native and customary law.

  17. The ethics of psychopharmacological research in legal minors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jacinta OA; Koelch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychopharmacology for children and adolescents is fraught with ethical problems and tensions. This has practical consequences as it leads to a paucity of the research that is essential to support the treatment of this vulnerable group. In this article, we will discuss some of the ethical issues which are relevant to such research, and explore their implications for both research and standard care. We suggest that finding a way forward requires a willingness to acknowledge and discuss the inherent conflicts between the ethical principles involved. Furthermore, in order to facilitate more, ethically sound psychopharmacology research in children and adolescents, we suggest more ethical analysis, empirical ethics research and ethics input built into psychopharmacological research design. PMID:19063724

  18. Ethical, legal, and societal issues and recommendations for controlled and uncontrolled DCD.

    PubMed

    Haase, Bernadette; Bos, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Lewis, Penney; Rudge, Chris; Valero, Ricard; Wind, Tineke; Wright, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This report deals with organ retrieval procedures in both controlled and uncontrolled DCD, looking at the ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects during the different phases of the process. A recently published report by the UK Donation Ethics Committee (UKDEC) has served as an important reference document to outline the steps in the controlled DCD patient-donor pathway (Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. UK Donation Ethics Committee. An ethical framework for controlled donation after circulatory death. December 2011). For uncontrolled DCD, the UKDEC pathway description was adapted. At the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013, an established expert European Working Group reviewed the UKDEC reports, which were then considered along with the available published literature. Along this pathway, the crucial ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects have been flagged, and relevant recommendations have been formulated based on a consensus of the working group. PMID:26581182

  19. Trends in ethical and legal frameworks for the use of human biobanks.

    PubMed

    Cambon-Thomsen, A; Rial-Sebbag, E; Knoppers, B M

    2007-08-01

    Numerous studies of genetic epidemiology and post-genomics in respiratory diseases rely on the use of biobanks, defined as organised biological sample collections with associated personal and clinical data. The use of biobanks is increasing and raises several ethical issues. What are the ethical trends and legal frameworks in the post-genomic era? Are there new issues in relation to the developments of techniques and new study designs? How does this affect the clinician's attitudes and relationship with the patients? The main ethical issues encountered are: informed consent; confidentiality; secondary use of samples and data over time; return of results; and data sharing. Different levels and modalities of dealing with such issues are identified and vary from legally binding measures to "soft" regulations, such as ethical recommendations by various committees or professional organisations. A further level of complexity appears with the increasing international dimension of such activities in a context in which national positions vary on those topics. There is a tension between a necessary level of diversity in ethical positions and an indispensable common pedestal of principles and procedures to manage these issues in order to foster research. Current legal and ethical trends favour the facilitation of secondary use of samples, more biobank openness, balanced with a growing attention to dialogue and public/stakeholder consultation, an increased role for research ethics committees and more sophisticated data protection and governance structures.

  20. Trends in ethical and legal frameworks for the use of human biobanks.

    PubMed

    Cambon-Thomsen, A; Rial-Sebbag, E; Knoppers, B M

    2007-08-01

    Numerous studies of genetic epidemiology and post-genomics in respiratory diseases rely on the use of biobanks, defined as organised biological sample collections with associated personal and clinical data. The use of biobanks is increasing and raises several ethical issues. What are the ethical trends and legal frameworks in the post-genomic era? Are there new issues in relation to the developments of techniques and new study designs? How does this affect the clinician's attitudes and relationship with the patients? The main ethical issues encountered are: informed consent; confidentiality; secondary use of samples and data over time; return of results; and data sharing. Different levels and modalities of dealing with such issues are identified and vary from legally binding measures to "soft" regulations, such as ethical recommendations by various committees or professional organisations. A further level of complexity appears with the increasing international dimension of such activities in a context in which national positions vary on those topics. There is a tension between a necessary level of diversity in ethical positions and an indispensable common pedestal of principles and procedures to manage these issues in order to foster research. Current legal and ethical trends favour the facilitation of secondary use of samples, more biobank openness, balanced with a growing attention to dialogue and public/stakeholder consultation, an increased role for research ethics committees and more sophisticated data protection and governance structures. PMID:17666560

  1. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  2. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    PubMed

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). PMID:24529696

  3. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    PubMed

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC).

  4. Sharing and Reuse of Sensitive Data and Samples: Supporting Researchers in Identifying Ethical and Legal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Schluender, Irene; Smee, Carol; Suhr, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Availability of and access to data and biosamples are essential in medical and translational research, where their reuse and repurposing by the wider research community can maximize their value and accelerate discovery. However, sharing human-related data or samples is complicated by ethical, legal, and social sensitivities. The specific ethical and legal requirements linked to sensitive data are often unfamiliar to life science researchers who, faced with vast amounts of complex, fragmented, and sometimes even contradictory information, may not feel competent to navigate through it. In this case, the impulse may be not to share the data in order to safeguard against unintentional misuse. Consequently, helping data providers to identify relevant ethical and legal requirements and how they might address them is an essential and frequently neglected step in removing possible hurdles to data and sample sharing in the life sciences. Here, we describe the complex regulatory context and discuss relevant online tools—one which the authors co-developed—targeted at assisting providers of sensitive data or biosamples with ethical and legal questions. The main results are (1) that the different approaches of the tools assume different user needs and prior knowledge of ethical and legal requirements, affecting how a service is designed and its usefulness, (2) that there is much potential for collaboration between tool providers, and (3) that enriched annotations of services (e.g., update status, completeness of information, and disclaimers) would increase their value and facilitate quick assessment by users. Further, there is still work to do with respect to providing researchers using sensitive data or samples with truly ‘useful’ tools that do not require pre-existing, in-depth knowledge of legal and ethical requirements or time to delve into the details. Ultimately, separate resources, maintained by experts familiar with the respective fields of research, may be

  5. Sharing and Reuse of Sensitive Data and Samples: Supporting Researchers in Identifying Ethical and Legal Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sariyar, Murat; Schluender, Irene; Smee, Carol; Suhr, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Availability of and access to data and biosamples are essential in medical and translational research, where their reuse and repurposing by the wider research community can maximize their value and accelerate discovery. However, sharing human-related data or samples is complicated by ethical, legal, and social sensitivities. The specific ethical and legal requirements linked to sensitive data are often unfamiliar to life science researchers who, faced with vast amounts of complex, fragmented, and sometimes even contradictory information, may not feel competent to navigate through it. In this case, the impulse may be not to share the data in order to safeguard against unintentional misuse. Consequently, helping data providers to identify relevant ethical and legal requirements and how they might address them is an essential and frequently neglected step in removing possible hurdles to data and sample sharing in the life sciences. Here, we describe the complex regulatory context and discuss relevant online tools-one which the authors co-developed-targeted at assisting providers of sensitive data or biosamples with ethical and legal questions. The main results are (1) that the different approaches of the tools assume different user needs and prior knowledge of ethical and legal requirements, affecting how a service is designed and its usefulness, (2) that there is much potential for collaboration between tool providers, and (3) that enriched annotations of services (e.g., update status, completeness of information, and disclaimers) would increase their value and facilitate quick assessment by users. Further, there is still work to do with respect to providing researchers using sensitive data or samples with truly 'useful' tools that do not require pre-existing, in-depth knowledge of legal and ethical requirements or time to delve into the details. Ultimately, separate resources, maintained by experts familiar with the respective fields of research, may be needed while

  6. Comparative effectiveness research and big data: balancing potential with legal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra; Thorpe, Jane Hyatt

    2015-01-01

    Big data holds big potential for comparative effectiveness research. The ability to quickly synthesize and use vast amounts of health data to compare medical interventions across settings of care, patient populations, payers and time will greatly inform efforts to improve quality, reduce costs and deliver more patient-centered care. However, the use of big data raises significant legal and ethical issues that may present barriers or limitations to the full potential of big data. This paper addresses the scope of some of these legal and ethical issues and how they may be managed effectively to fully realize the potential of big data.

  7. Comparative effectiveness research and big data: balancing potential with legal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra; Thorpe, Jane Hyatt

    2015-01-01

    Big data holds big potential for comparative effectiveness research. The ability to quickly synthesize and use vast amounts of health data to compare medical interventions across settings of care, patient populations, payers and time will greatly inform efforts to improve quality, reduce costs and deliver more patient-centered care. However, the use of big data raises significant legal and ethical issues that may present barriers or limitations to the full potential of big data. This paper addresses the scope of some of these legal and ethical issues and how they may be managed effectively to fully realize the potential of big data. PMID:25565069

  8. Legal and Ethical Issues in the Cardiovascular Care of Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Emery, Michael S; Quandt, Eric F

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the legal and ethical issues in the cardiovascular care of elite athletes. An important distinction between the assessment and care of elite athletes and the general population necessitates an understanding of the applicable legal standard and the limitation of potential exposures. Important recommendations and pertinent case law is presented that can assist the medical provider in comprehending important considerations with regard to preparticipation evaluations, return-to-play decisions, and second opinions in elite athletes.

  9. Reneging: A Topic to Promote Engaging Discussions about Law and Ethics in a Business Law or Legal Environment Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…

  10. Ethical, legal and social issues related to cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M

    2008-01-01

    The author analyses the implications of cell therapy from a legal study that regulates the use of embryonic material: the regulation of the obtaining of cells, of research with embryos and their research and therapeutic use. There is a detailed look at the provisions in the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe and concludes that "therapeutic cloning" is not prohibited in our legal regulation.

  11. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 4: The School Counselor and Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, Lanthan D., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 4 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "School Counselors and the Reporting of Child Abuse: A Survey of State Laws and…

  12. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  13. Doctoral Students' Understanding of Legal and Ethical Obligations in Conducting Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Queen Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Dikeh, Charles Nna

    2015-01-01

    Conducting education research requires researchers to observe key legal and ethical obligations and to respect the rights of research participants. Legislation pertaining to data protection, in particular, has important implications for the way in which research data is collected, used, stored and shared. Researchers are also required to conduct…

  14. Racist Parenting and the Best Interests of the Child: A Legal and Ethical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Paul T.; Heavin, Heather; Walker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a recent Manitoba child custody case to provide a legal and ethical account of the notion of the best interests of the child. We explore the tension between the best interests of the child and parental rights to expression of a racist nature. We consider how the interests of different actors--the state, parents and…

  15. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  16. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  17. The New Zealand Cot Death Study: some legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E A; Hassall, I B; Scragg, R; Taylor, B J; Ford, R P; Allen, E M

    1992-01-01

    The New Zealand Cot Death Study is a 3 year multicentre case-control study aimed at identifying the risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The paper describes some of the legal and ethical issues which arose in the planning, implementation and analysis of the study.

  18. Art and the Teaching of Legal Ethics: A Common Conceptual Palette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elizabeth D.

    Common themes of human relationships that emerge when one examines legal ethics education and the visual arts are the foci of this paper which examines parallel developments in community attitudes and sociological and psychological forces during different historical periods. Comparisons of the ideological evolution of the fine arts and legal…

  19. Patient autonomy. Legal and ethical issues in the post-anaesthetic care unit.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The need for patient autonomy, empowerment and choice has become central to health reforms. Confronted with the prospects of such perpetual changes, respect for patient autonomy has to be tempered with paternalistic beneficence. This article discusses the difficulties encountered when applying patient autonomy within the post-anaesthetic care unit (PACU), evaluating ethical, legal and professional issues.

  20. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  1. The Role of the Law School in the Teaching of Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Warren E.

    1980-01-01

    The Chief Justice of the United States outlines the duty and opportunity, besides relating legal theory to practice, regarding inculcating principles of professional ethics and standards in law students. This duty should permeate the entire educational experience from the first hour. Available from Dennis & Co., 251 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14203.…

  2. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Policies, Ethics, Standards, and Legal Issues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on policies, ethics, standards, and legal issues from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Study on the School Information Technology Pilot Scheme: Possibilities of Creative and Lifelong…

  3. Ethical and legal issues arising in research on inducing human germ cells from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Greely, Henry T

    2013-08-01

    Derivation of eggs or sperm from pluripotent stem cells or direct reprogramming from somatic cells would have huge effects on assisted reproductive technology. Here we discuss important ethical, legal, and social issues that would be raised by the development of such female or male gametes for clinical use.

  4. [Social perceptions on genomics in four Latin American countries. Ethical-legal implications].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo; Valdebenito Herrera, Carolina; Misseroni, Adelio; Fernández Milla, Lautaro; Outomuro, Delia; Schiattino Lemus, Irene; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze under an ethical and legal perspective the consequences and anxieties generated by the human genome project in the population of four Latin American countries: Argentine, Chile, México and Perú, through bibliographical analysis and interviews done to biomedical researches, lawyers and legislators, students and lay civilians.

  5. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    PubMed

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities. PMID:25845205

  6. Human embryonic stem cell research: implications from an ethical and legal standpoint.

    PubMed

    Trepagnier, D M

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ethical and legal implications of one of the newest and most controversial medical breakthroughs. Stem cell research has been performed on mice for many years, but human embryonic stem cells are believed by scientists to be the basis for possible treatments and/or cures to many diseases affecting millions of people around the world. In order to perform research on human embryonic stem cells, numerous ethical issues must be addressed. Guidelines and protocols can be established in order to allow scientists to pursue new medical advances while maintaining the highest ethical standards in the use of human embryos. An alternative to using embryos is adult stem cells which have recently proven to be more versatile than previously believed. Opposing views will always be encountered when facing new science technologies. Where should the ethical line be drawn?

  7. Forensic genetics and ethical, legal and social implications beyond the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mildred K; Sankar, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Data on human genetic variation help scientists to understand human origins, susceptibility to illness and genetic causes of disease. Destructive episodes in the history of genetic research make it crucial to consider the ethical and social implications of research in genomics, especially human genetic variation. The analysis of ethical, legal and social implications should be integrated into genetic research, with the participation of scientists who can anticipate and monitor the full range of possible applications of the research from the earliest stages. The design and implementation of research directs the ways in which its results can be used, and data and technology, rather than ethical considerations or social needs, drive the use of science in unintended ways. Here we examine forensic genetics and argue that all geneticists should anticipate the ethical and social issues associated with nonmedical applications of genetic variation research. PMID:15510102

  8. RUSA Guidelines. Guidelines for Liaison Work in Managing Collections and Services; Guidelines for Medical, Legal, and Business Information Service Responses; Guidelines for the Preparation of a Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reference & User Services Quarterly, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines developed by RUSA (Reference and User Services Association), a division of the American Library Association, regarding collection development with user liaisons; meeting user needs for medical, legal, or business information; and bibliography preparation that includes a variety of formats such as nonprint materials and Web…

  9. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    PubMed

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision.

  10. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    PubMed

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision. PMID:24372097

  11. The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Research Program at the National Human Genome Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Eric M; Thomson, Elizabeth J; Boyer, Joy T

    1997-09-01

    Organizers of the Human Genome Project (HGP) understood from the beginning that the scientific activities of mapping and sequencing the human genome would raise ethical, legal, and social issues that would require careful attention by scientists, health care professionals, government officials, and the public. The establishment of the ELSI (ethical, legal, and social implications) programs at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was thought to be vital to the success of the HGP in the United States. It also provided a novel approach to the simultaneous study of ethical, legal, and social issues and basic scientific issues. Eric Juengst, the first director of the ELSI program, described its origins in a previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (Juengst 1991). Now in its seventh year, the ELSI program has accomplished much. This article summarizes the evolution and goals of the ELSI program at NHGRI, outlines the program's current research priorities with examples of activities within each priority area, and provides a look to the future, including the initiation of a strategic planning process.

  12. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-06-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures.

  13. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations).

  14. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  15. [Decubitus ulcers and wounds. Ethical and legal features].

    PubMed

    Santisteban Cano, Mar

    2005-01-01

    The author presented a conference at the 5th National Symposium on Bedsores, or Decubitus Ulcers, and Chronic Injuries. In our country there is no specific regulation on the medical-sanitary responsibility regarding decubitus ulcers, or bedsores, and other injuries; rather these regulations are covered by more general legal concepts such as the civil responsibility according to articles 1902 and 1903.4 of the "CC", the patrimonial responsibility the State has for the normal or abnormal functioning of the Sanitary Administration, and penal responsibility.

  16. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Novotny, T E; Carlin, D

    2005-08-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use.

  17. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  18. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed.

  19. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. PMID:24287346

  20. [Clinical autopsies. Practical approach, legal foundations and ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Friemann, J

    2010-07-01

    Only an autopsy can demonstrate topographical and morphological circumstances in detail and correlate the clinical and autopsy findings based on the examination of all organs. The practical approach in a fatality is described based on the example of the Lüdenscheid Hospital. A uniform legal regulation for dealing with corpses does not exist in Germany. There are two approaches to the question under which circumstances a clinical autopsy is allowed: the extended permission solution and the objection solution. Whether a clinical autopsy can be carried out is decided by the medical specialist selected on application. Autopsies can be necessary from insurance or administrative legal grounds or in the case of an anatomical autopsy is decided by the persons themselves. In order to guarantee the quality of an autopsy it is necessary to use a standardized approach with evaluation and assessment of the results, for example using a quality assurance protocol and the production of an autopsy report. Using this approach important information can be gained not only on the accuracy of the main diagnosis and cause of death but also on additional diseases, response to therapy and the course of the disease and under circumstances can lead to modifications in the approach.

  1. Gamete donation and anonymity: the ethical and legal debate.

    PubMed

    Frith, L

    2001-05-01

    The British government is currently considering whether to review the law on information provision for donor offspring. This paper therefore provides an overview of the current international legal situation relating to donor anonymity and a review of the key arguments and evidence on both sides of the debate. While the British government is considering all aspects of information giving, both identifying and non-identifying donor information, this paper will focus on the most contentious issue: the provision of information that would identify the donor. The current legal situation in the UK and internationally is examined, drawing attention to a possible international trend towards more information giving. The evolution of the present British system is outlined and it is asked whether some of the concerns and values that gave rise to the practice of anonymous donation are still relevant today. Looking at the concept of a child's right to know their biological identity it examines the possible basis of such a right and its potential conflict with the perceived interests of the child's parents. Finally, some of the practical obstacles to non-anonymous donation are evaluated. The paper concludes that a review of the British law is both timely and desirable. PMID:11331623

  2. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues related to the health data-warehouses: re-using health data in the research and public health research.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Eugenia; Barh, Anne; Brown, Dario; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research derived from the application of information and communication technologies in medicine operates in a context involving the globalization of collecting, sharing, storage, transfer and re-use of personal health data. Health data computerization within Clinical Information Systems (as Electronic Healthcare Records) should allow the re-use of health data for clinical research and public health purposes. One of the objects allowing the integration of healthcare and research information systems is the health data-warehouse (DWH). However, ethical-legal frameworks in force are not adapted to these DWHs because they were not conceived for re-using data in a different context than the one of their acquisition. For that matter, access modalities to data-warehouses must ensure the respect of patients' rights: information to the patient, as well as confidentiality and security. Through a bibliography research, some Ethical, legal and Social Issues (ELSI) have been identified: Patients' rights Modalities of implementation of the DWs; Solidarity and common good; Transparency and Trust. Comparative analysis between the Directive 95/46/CE and the "Proposal for regulation on protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data" shows that this regulation pretends allowing the re-use of key-coded data when aimed at a scientific purpose. However, since this new regulation does not align with the ethical and legal requirements at an operational level, a Code of practice on secondary use of Medical Data in scientific Research Projects has been developed at the European Level. This Code provides guidance for Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) and will help to propose practical solutions to overcome the issue of the re-use of data for research purposes.

  3. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues related to the health data-warehouses: re-using health data in the research and public health research.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Eugenia; Barh, Anne; Brown, Dario; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Research derived from the application of information and communication technologies in medicine operates in a context involving the globalization of collecting, sharing, storage, transfer and re-use of personal health data. Health data computerization within Clinical Information Systems (as Electronic Healthcare Records) should allow the re-use of health data for clinical research and public health purposes. One of the objects allowing the integration of healthcare and research information systems is the health data-warehouse (DWH). However, ethical-legal frameworks in force are not adapted to these DWHs because they were not conceived for re-using data in a different context than the one of their acquisition. For that matter, access modalities to data-warehouses must ensure the respect of patients' rights: information to the patient, as well as confidentiality and security. Through a bibliography research, some Ethical, legal and Social Issues (ELSI) have been identified: Patients' rights Modalities of implementation of the DWs; Solidarity and common good; Transparency and Trust. Comparative analysis between the Directive 95/46/CE and the "Proposal for regulation on protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data" shows that this regulation pretends allowing the re-use of key-coded data when aimed at a scientific purpose. However, since this new regulation does not align with the ethical and legal requirements at an operational level, a Code of practice on secondary use of Medical Data in scientific Research Projects has been developed at the European Level. This Code provides guidance for Innovative Medicine Initiative (IMI) and will help to propose practical solutions to overcome the issue of the re-use of data for research purposes. PMID:25991247

  4. The medico-legal, social and ethical implications of surrogate parenthood.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, R A

    1992-01-01

    Infertility has existed for thousands of years and treatment has evolved with the advance of medical science. Surrogate parenthood was effected previously by sexual intercourse, but AIH, AID and GIFT have rendered this practice obsolete. The terms surrogate mother, partial and full surrogacy are defined. Medico-legal, social and ethical arguments for and against surrogacy are discussed. References are made to varying national attitudes as to the desirability of legalizing surrogate parenthood and the implications for commissioning parents, the surrogate mother and adequate counselling are considered. PMID:1302784

  5. Bibliographie (Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents a selective bibliography of dictionaries, books, and articles. References are grouped under three sections: I. Lexicology, II. Dictionaries and III. Didactics. Each item is followed by a concise critical note. The compilation is by the "Centre d'Etudes du Lexique" (CELEX, Paris-Villetaneuse). (MES)

  6. [Crispr-Cas9 Gene Editing Revolution and the Its Ethical and Legal Challenges].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    After discovering the CRISPR-Cas9 as an extraordinary method for Gene editing it is necessary to reflect on the ethical, political and legal impact of this technology. This work pretends to offer a preliminary consideration of these problems. I do not pay attention to the potential of CRISPR-Cas9 in the fields of health or environment, nor to all the ethical, legal and political challenges it involves. I principally focus the attention on the possibility of using CRISPR-Cas9 to alter the human germ line. There are some rulings on this topic delivered by intergovernmental organizations. There also are some statements from the scientific community on the matter. They are important in order to know the reasons why they propose a moratorium on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 for human germ line editing. I begin the paper with a short explanation on how CRISPR-Cas9 works. PMID:27637196

  7. Ethical and legal issues in the clinical practice of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Romero, Marcos; Vazquez-Naya, Jose Manuel; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since it was conceived, the notion of primary care has been a crucial concept in health services. Most health care is provided at this level and primary care clinicians have an essential role, both in terms of disease prevention and disease management. During the last decades, primary health care has evolved from a traditional paternalistic model, in which patients played the role of passive recipient of care, towards a situation in which patients are partners involved in the decision making-process. This new context opened a considerable number of new ethical and legal aspects, which need to be comprehensively analyzed and discussed in order to preserve the quality of primary health care all around the world. This work reviews the most important ethical and legal issues in primary health care. Legislation issues are explained in the context of the Spanish Health Services.

  8. [Crispr-Cas9 Gene Editing Revolution and the Its Ethical and Legal Challenges].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    After discovering the CRISPR-Cas9 as an extraordinary method for Gene editing it is necessary to reflect on the ethical, political and legal impact of this technology. This work pretends to offer a preliminary consideration of these problems. I do not pay attention to the potential of CRISPR-Cas9 in the fields of health or environment, nor to all the ethical, legal and political challenges it involves. I principally focus the attention on the possibility of using CRISPR-Cas9 to alter the human germ line. There are some rulings on this topic delivered by intergovernmental organizations. There also are some statements from the scientific community on the matter. They are important in order to know the reasons why they propose a moratorium on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 for human germ line editing. I begin the paper with a short explanation on how CRISPR-Cas9 works.

  9. [Treatment of a patient against his will: ethical and legal approaches].

    PubMed

    Hanson, B

    2000-09-01

    Treating a patient against his own will presents many ethical and legal challenges. Considering the way doctors see their profession, the human rights, and the belgian and european laws, the author tries to delineate the conditions that make such a paternalist attitude acceptable. These conditions include the patient's incapacity of rational reason and the necessity of immediate management. This exception to the principle of autonomy presents some dangers and pitfalls that are recalled.

  10. Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations in Pregnant Women With Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Mallory E; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-09-01

    The rising prevalence of women with opioid addiction in pregnancy necessitates understanding of medical, ethical, and legal considerations on the part of obstetricians. In addition to briefly reviewing the medical care of opioid abuse in pregnancy, we offer a careful consideration of the stigmatization of addiction and resultant medicolegal sequelae. We advocate for improved access to opioid maintenance therapy and social services as a means of improving healthful pregnancy outcomes and decry recent trends in the criminalization of addiction nationwide. PMID:26244538

  11. Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-08-19

    • Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking.

  12. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction.

    PubMed

    Cheong, M A; Tay, S K

    2014-06-01

    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed.

  13. Ethical, legal and policy issues in management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hackler, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Alcohol use during pregnancy may have severe and lasting effects on the developing fetus. Unfortunately it is often difficult to detect and address maternal drinking, as previous articles in this series have demonstrated. The difficulty is only compounded by a number of ethical quandaries and legal concerns. Underlying most of these concerns is a particularly agonizing conflict of obligations: to protect vulnerable, nascent human life on the one hand, and to preserve the privacy, dignity, and trust of one's patient on the other.

  14. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, May Anne; Tay, Catherine Swee Kian

    2014-01-01

    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed. PMID:25017403

  15. Child protection: legal and ethical obligation regarding the report of child abuse in four different countries.

    PubMed

    Cukovic-Bagic, Ivana; Welbury, Richard R; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Hatibovic-Kofman, Sahza; Nuzzolese, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Child protection is the duty of every single member of the society. Health professionals who work with children, such as members of dental team, are in the unique position to recognize signs of physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as (dental) neglect. They should report any suspected case where a child is or may be in need of welfare. The professional responsibility is regulated by legal and ethical obligations. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the legal and ethical Acts, and the similarities vs. differences in obligations regarding reporting child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases in four countries: Croatia, United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. In all four countries all health professionals have a duty to report their suspicion if a child is in a harmful situation. All of them who fail to report, or even neglect or delay to report a suspicion, are liable on conviction to a pecuniary fine which varies from country to country. Depending on the country, if a professional has reasonable grounds to suspect that a child is or may be in need of protection, must report to: CAS (children's aid society), to CSS (center for social services), to police, to a Juvenile Court, or to the ombudsman. In all four countries, dentists are not asked to diagnose 'child maltreatment', but simply report the suspicion with supportive evidence. Ethical obligation comes from medical and dental ethical codes regulated by the Chamber or Council of Dentists. In all four countries legal and ethical obligations in reporting CAN are similar. Differences are related mostly to fines for nonreporting or a delay in reporting. Expanded investigation through other European countries and standard operational procedures is needed, in order to harmonize policies and guidelines for reporting CAN and maximize children protection. PMID:24776437

  16. Ethical, social and legal implications of genetic testing in liver disease.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Dirk J; Bernat, James L

    2006-06-01

    Advances in molecular genetics challenge the hepatology community to understand and implement genetic knowledge. Despite excitement about the potential benefits of new genetic information, concerns have been raised about the inappropriate use of genetic testing, clinicians' incorrect ordering and misinterpretation of test results, and discrimination in employment and insurability based on tests results. Among the public there is fear and mistrust, in part based on horrifying historical events that were gross violations of medical ethical standards. Clinicians, scientists, patient advocacy groups, and government agencies worldwide are debating the optimal legal protections to prevent abuse. In addition, these groups are developing clinical guidelines for optimal use. Traditional ethical and legal standards of confidentiality between physicians and their patients are under scrutiny. A new principle, "the duty to warn," is emerging that has applications specific to genetic testing and may conflict with the duty to maintain patient confidentiality. Emerging ethical, legal, and social issues involve the appropriate use and protection of confidential data in tissue and serum banks. Education of the profession and the public at many levels will increase the likelihood that the unraveling of the human genome will maximally benefit society. If fear of genetic testing can be alleviated, selection bias in research could be reduced. Professional and lay organizations concerned with liver disease should consider a more active role in the public and professional debate, and foster education at all levels.

  17. Legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas in electronic health record adoption and use.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2011-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clinical decision support warnings and alerts, and mechanisms for clinicians to publically report potential EHR safety issues. Ethical dilemmas that need additional discussion relate to opt-out provisions that exclude patients from electronic record storage, sale of deidentified patient data by EHR vendors, adolescent control of access to their data, and use of electronic data repositories to redesign the nation's health care delivery and payment mechanisms on the basis of statistical analyses. Finally, one overwhelming financial question is who should pay for EHR implementation because most users and current owners of these systems will not receive the majority of benefits. The authors recommend that key stakeholders begin discussing these issues in a national forum. These actions can help identify and prioritize solutions to the key legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas discussed, so that widespread, safe, effective, interoperable EHRs can help transform health care. PMID:21422090

  18. [Orphan drugs: some legal, ethical and economics aspects].

    PubMed

    Pabst, J Y

    2001-09-01

    Besides well-known diseases, about 5,000 identified are classed as "orphan" because of the lack of any response in terms of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The development of drugs for these diseases, intended for a limited number of patients, often requires considerable research, and subsequently, cost. The aim of the present article is to discuss the ethical, political and economic problems relevant to the development and disposal of drugs specifically designed for these diseases, now commonly called "orphan" drugs. These questions have been raised at discussions and dialogues at the European Parliament where European regulations on orphan drugs were adopted on December 15, 1999. These regulations (141/2000/EEC) came into effect in the European Union on January 22, 2000, and are widely inspired from the American model. The regulations stipulate that the criterion for designation of the drug is based on a disease prevalence of 5/10000). Advantages commonly recognized for the orphan drug status concern: community registration (centralized marketing approval), eligibility for grants and national or community fiscal support, lower or canceled registration fees, technical contribution via the European drug agency (EMEA), and exclusive rights for a 10-year period. On May 12, 2000, the European Commission completed the status by adopting rules establishing the criteria used for designating a drug as an orphan drug. This document implements the dispositions available to pharmaceutical firms inciting them to invest in the development of orphan drugs. PMID:11567205

  19. Ethical and legal issue raised by DNA fingerprinting in France.

    PubMed

    Mangin, P

    1996-01-01

    As soon as DNA identification tests have been introduced as a new powerful tool in criminalistics and in paternity testing, this new technology has immediately aroused a mixture of ethical concerns, suspicion and interest among scientists and non-scientists. The major concerns about the so called 'DNA fingerprints' were related first to the possible constitution of data based by the police agencies for the purpose of identifying and investigating individuals as potential criminal suspects, and secondly to the risk of a widespread use without safeguards for private investigation as establishing paternity or the typing of a person for insurance companies. In this context, and in order to preserve civil liberties and the respect of individual privacy, the national Consultative Bioethics Committee advised, as early as 1989, the French government that DNA identification should be strictly limited to judicial use and performed by accredited laboratories. After a long debate, this recommendation has finally been adopted in July, 1994 by the French Parliament. As a result, France is presently the only member state of the European Union with such restricted legislation. This is not without raising difficulties in the implementation of the law, especially in the field of paternity testing where the demand is growing and can be satisfied in any other neighbour country. PMID:9009599

  20. Complications of ERCP: ethical obligations and legal consequences.

    PubMed

    Rácz, István; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Hassan, Majid

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a skill and technique demanding high-risk procedure with an overall complication rate of about 5-10%. Pancreatitis remains the most common complication of ERCP, however, bleeding after sphincterotomies, infections and cardiopulmonary complications as well as perforations may also occur. Patient- and procedure-related risk factors of ERCP complications are mainly predictable so that ERCP often can be avoided and substituted for alternative imaging techniques, especially in high-risk patients. Written consent should be obtained for any ERCP to provide documentary evidence that explanation of the proposed procedure and endoscopic treatment was given and that consent was sought and obtained. The investigating doctor remains responsible for ensuring sufficient time for the patient's questions and to make informed decision before the start of any procedure. The most common legal consequence of an ERCP complication is a civil negligence claim for compensation, however, a clinician may in rare cases be faced with criminal proceedings where there is evidence of gross negligence. Analysis of claims against gastroenterologists suggests the conclusion that ERCP should be done for good indications, by trained endoscopists with standard techniques, with good, documented, patient-informed consent and communication before and after the procedure.

  1. Confidentiality Limits with Clients Who Have HIV: A Review of Ethical and Legal Guidelines and Professional Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Anna K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Highlights barrage of ethical issues regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews ethical and legal guidelines pertaining to HIV and AIDS and confidentiality. Summarizes HIV and AIDS confidentiality policies of major helping professional organizations, articulates questions that contribute to…

  2. Ethical, legal and social issues of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects. PMID:18807438

  3. Ethical, legal and social issues of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

    PubMed

    Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

  4. Care of critically ill newborns in India. Legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K N; Paul, V K

    1995-06-01

    The nature of neonatal care in India is changing. While the quality of care will most likely improve as the economy grows, the eventual scope of change remains to be seen. Attitudinal and behavioral changes, in addition to better economic conditions, are needed to realize more appropriate interventions in neonatal care. Economic, cultural, religious, social, political, and other considerations may limit or affect neonatal care, especially for ELBW infants or infants with congenital malformations or brain injury. Various protections for critically ill newborns exist under Indian law and the Constitution of India. New laws are being enacted to enhance the level of protection conferred, including laws which ban amniocentesis for sex determination and define brain death in connection with the use of human organs for therapeutic purposes. The applicability of consumer protection laws to medical care is also being addressed. It is noted, however, that India lacks a multidisciplinary bioethics committee. An effort should be made to discuss the legal and ethical issues regarding the care of critically ill newborns, with discussions considering religious, cultural, traditional, and family values. Legal and ethical guidelines should be developed by institutions, medical councils, and society specific to newborn care, and medical, nursing, and other paramedical schools should include these issues as part of the required coursework. Physicians, nurses, philosophers, and attorneys with expertise in law and ethics should develop and teach these courses. Such measures over the long term will ensure that future health care providers are exposed to these issues, ideally with a view toward enhancing patient care.

  5. Extubation versus tracheostomy in withdrawal of treatment-ethical, clinical, and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh; Flynn, Maura G; Donegan, Ciaran F; Smith, David; O'Neill, Shane J; McElvaney, Noel Gerard

    2010-06-01

    The provision of life-sustaining ventilation, such as tracheostomy to critically ill patients, is commonly performed. However, the utilization of tracheostomy or extubation after a withdrawal of treatment decision is debated. There is a dearth of practical information available to aid clinical decision making because withdrawal of treatment is a challenging scenario for all concerned. This is further complicated by medicolegal and ethical considerations. Care of the "hopelessly ill" patient should be based on daily evaluation and comfort making it impossible to fit into general algorithms. Although respect for autonomy is important in healthcare, it is limited for patients in an unconscious state. Beneficence remains the basis for withdrawing treatment in futile cases and underpins the "doctrine of double effect." This article presents a relevant clinical case of hypoxic brain injury where a question of withdrawal of treatment arose and examines the ethical, clinical, and medicolegal considerations inherent in such cases, including beneficence, nonmaleficence, and the "sanctity of life doctrine." In addition, the considerations of prognosis for recovery, patient autonomy, patient quality of life, and patient family involvement, which are central to decision making, are addressed. The varying legal frameworks that exist internationally regarding treatment withdrawal are also described. Good ethics needs sound facts, and despite the lack of legal foundation in several countries, withdrawal of treatment remains practiced, and the principles described within this article aim to aid clinician decision making during such complex and multifaceted end-of-life decisions. PMID:19850443

  6. Ethical and legal aspects in medically assisted human reproduction in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Beatrice; Astarastoae, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Up to the present, there have not been any specific norms regarding medically assisted human reproduction in Romanian legislation. Due to this situation the general legislation regarding medical assistance (law no. 95/2006, regarding the Reform in Health Care System), the Penal and Civil law and the provisions of the Code of Deontology of the Romanian College of Physicians are applied to the field of medically assisted human reproduction. By analysing the ethical and legal conflicts regarding medically assisted human reproduction in Romania, some characteristics cannot be set apart because they derive from religious, cultural and socio-economic aspects. In this article the authors identify the development stages of medically assisted human reproduction in Romania, beginning from these characteristics and insisting upon the failure of the legal system in this specific field. The authors consider that the law regarding medically assisted human reproduction cannot be effective because it did not take into account the ethical and cultural aspects that might appear. Furthermore, in this framework of the legal process, no public debate involving the representatives of civil society was undertaken although the Council of Europe Oviedo Convention approved by our country according to law no. 17/2001 stipulated exactly this working method.

  7. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhai, A; Moodley, J; McQuoid-Mason, D J; Rodeck, C

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible disease processes. However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could lead to false hope among sick patients. It also raises the question of intellectual and actual property rights in human cell lines and the techniques by which they are produced. Review of legal systems internationally reveals that there is no global consensus on therapeutic embryonic stem cell research. Legal considerations are very much influenced by ethical deliberations on the moral status of the embryo. The South African parliament is promulgating legislation permitting therapeutic cloning, thereby demonstrating a commitment by the state to act in the best interests of patients and of regenerative medicine.

  8. Ethical, legal and social issues to consider when designing a surrogacy law.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements. PMID:24804538

  9. Cross-border research on human embryonic stem cells: legal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido

    2009-03-01

    Although stem cell research is a field that stands to benefit a lot from international cooperation, collaboration between scientists of different countries is hampered by the great divergence in national stem cell legislations. More specifically, researchers from countries with restrictive stem cell policies find themselves unable to participate in international research or attend meetings or workshops in more permissive environments as they fear being prosecuted in their home country for activities that are deemed acceptable abroad. Juridical clarity on this subject is long overdue. Legally, extraterritorial jurisdiction based on the nationality principle does not conflict with international law. However, invoking this principle to prosecute stem cell researchers would constitute a breach with the current custom to limit extraterritorial jurisdiction to exceptional crimes or circumstances. On the ethical front, legislators have an obligation towards their constituents to protect them from harm through the criminal justice system, but at the same time they should be wary of legal moralism and of jeopardising freedom of research. Researchers on their part cannot simply ignore the law whenever it deviates from their personal moral opinions, but they are not acting unethically if they perform research that they esteem to be ethically justified where it is also legally accepted. Allowing researchers to work freely abroad-within the jurisdiction of the host country-is a way for legislator and researcher to show respect for each other's different moral values and to balance their rights and obligations towards each other. PMID:19052926

  10. Ethics, privacy and the legal framework governing medical data: opportunities or threats for biomedical and public health research?

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Yves; Levêque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Privacy is an important concern in any research programme that deals with personal medical data. In recent years, ethics and privacy have become key considerations when conducting any form of scientific research that involves personal data. These issues are now addressed in healthcare professional training programmes. Indeed, ethics, legal frameworks and privacy are often the subject of much confusion in discussions among healthcare professionals. They tend to group these different concepts under the same heading and delegate responsibility for "ethical" approval of their research programmes to ethics committees. Public health researchers therefore need to ask questions about how changes to legal frameworks and ethical codes governing privacy in the use of personal medical data are to be applied in practice. What types of data do these laws and codes cover? Who is involved? What restrictions and requirements apply to any research programme that involves medical data?

  11. Legal and Ethical Considerations in Allowing Parental Exemptions From Newborn Critical Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD) Screening.

    PubMed

    Hom, Lisa A; Silber, Tomas J; Ennis-Durstine, Kathleen; Hilliard, Mary Anne; Martin, Gerard R

    2016-01-01

    Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) screening is rapidly becoming the standard of care in the United States after being added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in 2011. Newborn screens typically do not require affirmative parental consent. In fact, most states allow parents to exempt their baby from receiving the required screen on the basis of religious or personally held beliefs. There are many ethical considerations implicated with allowing parents to exempt their child from newborn screening for CCHD. Considerations include the treatment of religious exemptions in our current legal system, as well as medical and ethical principles in relation to the rights of infants. Although there are significant benefits to screening newborns for CCHD, when a parent refuses for religious or personal beliefs, in the case of CCHD screening, the parental decision should stand.

  12. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Conducting Clinical Trials in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    R, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) is a condition where the patients will be mentally unstable initially and where later, with therapy, they gradually return to normalcy. As AWS comprises two stages; a mentally unstable state and a normal state of mind, the ethical and legal issues behind recruitment of these subjects become a little ambiguous in a clinical trial. This study was taken up to clarify the uncertainty regarding the biphasic states of minds (i.e. unstable mind and sound mind) of the subjects who were involved in a clinical trial done on AWS. Law and ethics regarding the clinical trials which involve psychiatric subjects need to be strengthened and amended from time to time, in order to protect the interests of both patients and physicians. PMID:24995195

  13. Screening workers for genetic hypersusceptibility: potential ethical, legal, and social implications from the Human Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Wicks, A C; Sever, L E; Harty, R; Gajewski, S W; Marcus-Smith, M

    1999-01-01

    One of the potential outcomes of the Human Genome Project will be the ability to identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health effects following exposure to hazardous substances in the workplace because of genetic hypersusceptibility. The ability to identify such individuals is likely to lead to the inclusion of genetic screening in worker protection programs. This technology and its applications will have a number of potential ethical, legal, and social implications. In this commentary, the authors examine five broad topics relating to the use of screening for genetic hypersusceptibility in the workplace: (1) issues of risk; (2) the rationale and legal basis for screening; (3) the privacy concerns of workers; (4) the confidentiality of test results; and (5) potential discrimination. The authors close by suggesting some guidelines for developing policies regarding genetic screening.

  14. Legal, financial, and ethical ambiguities for Mexican American families: caring for children with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Roberta S

    2003-05-01

    The author reports findings from a study about experiences of 17 Mexican American families caring for children with serious chronic conditions. Legal, financial, and ethical ambiguities arose when parents' desire to provide necessary care for their children and providers' professional commitment to offer this care conflicted with United States laws, including welfare reform initiatives, requiring providers to determine eligibility before providing care to immigrants and to report undocumented care seekers to authorities. Families frequently felt intimidated because health care systems are complex, and legal residency status often varied among family members. Findings imply that official policy and education of family members should aim to assure that children with chronic conditions receive needed services without relying on providers to enforce immigration laws. PMID:12756688

  15. Legal and ethical issues in microbicides research and development in Canada.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Anna

    2004-08-01

    The Canadian AIDS Society (CAS) recently completed a report entitled Microbicides Development and Delivery in Canada: Legal, Ethical and Human Rights Issues. The report builds on Canadian and international experience and was written in consultation with Canadian community and international experts. It is available on the CAS website (www.cdnaids.ca) and from the Canadian HIV/AIDS Information Centre (www.aidssida.cpha.ca) as of September 2004. In this article the report's author, Anna Alexandrova, argues that Canada needs to develop a microbicides development and delivery strategy that addresses research and development issues, outlines possible roles for meaningful community participation, and provides guidelines on funding, promotion, licensing, and distribution.

  16. Ethical, legal and social implications of incorporating personalized medicine into healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kyle B; Rothstein, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    As research focused on personalized medicine has developed over the past decade, bioethics scholars have contemplated the ethical, legal and social implications of this type of research. In the next decade, there will be a need to broaden the focus of this work as personalized medicine moves into clinical settings. We consider two broad issues that will grow in importance and urgency. First, we analyze the consequences of the significant increase in health information that will be brought about by personalized medicine. Second, we raise concerns about the potential of personalized medicine to exacerbate existing disparities in healthcare. PMID:25601880

  17. Ethical and legal challenges posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome: implications for the control of severe infectious disease threats.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O; Bayer, Ronald; Fairchild, Amy L

    2003-12-24

    The appearance and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on a global level raised vital legal and ethical issues. National and international responses to SARS have profound implications for 3 important ethical values: privacy, liberty, and the duty to protect the public's health. This article examines, through legal and ethical lenses, various methods that countries used in reaction to the SARS outbreak: surveillance and contact tracing, isolation and quarantine, and travel restrictions. These responses, at least in some combination, succeeded in bringing the outbreak to an end. The article articulates a set of legal and ethical recommendations for responding to infectious disease threats, seeking to reconcile the tension between the public's health and individual rights to privacy, liberty, and freedom of movement. The ethical values that inform the recommendations include the precautionary principle, the least restrictive/intrusive alternative, justice, and transparency. Development of a set of legal and ethical recommendations becomes even more essential when, as was true with SARS and will undoubtedly be the case with future epidemics, scientific uncertainty is pervasive and urgent public health action is required.

  18. Selected Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College and University Law, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This 80-item bibliography on problems of federal tax law affecting colleges and universities cites articles from legal journals and the Filer Commission report. Sections are titled Exempt Status of Institutions and Related Entities (22 citations), Charitable Giving and Bequests (32), Scholarships and Fellowships (6), General Tax Developments (6),…

  19. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to <2%. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend routine HIV testing of all pregnant women and at-risk newborn infants. When pregnant women decline HIV testing and/or treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences.

  20. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed

  1. Ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the use of genomic technology by the U.S. Military

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J.; Li, Tracy Yeheng

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genomic science are attracting the interest of the U.S. military for their potential to improve medical care for members of the military and to aid in military recruitment, training, specialization, and mission accomplishment. While researchers have explored the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the use of genomic science in a wide variety of contexts, there has been virtually no examination of these issues in connection with the use of genomics by the military. This article identifies potential uses of genomic science by the military, proposes an applicable ethical and legal framework, and applies the framework to provide ethical and legal guidance for military decision-makers. PMID:25937933

  2. Clinical genetic research 3: Genetics ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) research.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Daryl; Etchegary, Holly

    2015-01-01

    ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) is a widely used acronym in the bioethics literature that encompasses a broad range of research areas involved in examining the various impacts of science and technology on society. In Canada, GE3LS (Genetics, Ethical, Economic, Environmental, Legal, Social issues) is the term used to describe ELSI studies. It is intentionally more expansive in that GE3LS explicitly brings economic and environmental issues under its purview. ELSI/GE3LS research has become increasingly important in recent years as there has been a greater emphasis on "translational research" that moves genomics from the bench to the clinic. The purpose of this chapter is to outline a range of ELSI-related work that might be conducted as part of a large scale genetics or genomics research project, and to provide some practical insights on how a scientific research team might incorporate a strong and effective ELSI program within its broader research mandate. We begin by describing the historical context of ELSI research and the development of GE3LS research in the Canadian context. We then illustrate how some ELSI research might unfold by outlining a variety of research questions and the various methodologies that might be employed in addressing them in an area of ELSI research that is encompassed under the term "public engagement." We conclude with some practical pointers about how to build an effective ELSI/GE3LS team and focus within a broader scientific research program.

  3. Screening for Psychopathology Versus Selecting for Suitability: Ethical and Legal Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.; Galarza, Laura; Arvey, Richard; Hysong, Sylvia; Sackett, Paul; Cascio, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    The current system for psychological selection of U.S. astronauts is divided into two phases: The select-out phase and the select-in phase. The select-out phase screens candidates for psychopathology; candidates who do not meet the baseline psychiatric requirements are immediately disqualified. The select-in phase assesses candidates for suitability to fly short- and long-duration missions. Suitability ratings are given for ten factors found to be critical for short and long-duration space missions. There are qualitative differences in the purpose of the two phases (select-in vs. select-out) and in the nature of the information collected in each phase. Furthermore, there are different logistic, ethical, and legal issues related to a medical or psychiatric (select-out) screening versus a suitability (select-in) psychological screening process . The purpose of this presentation is to contrast the ethical and legal environment surrounding the select-out and select-in phases of the psychological selection system. Issues such as data collection, data storage and management, the federal statutory environment, and personnel training will be discussed. Further, a summary of the new standards for psychological testing is presented, along with their implications for astronaut selection.

  4. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sabatello, Maya

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children). Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins (“the right to know”), and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right. PMID:26388996

  5. Legal and ethical issues in neuroimaging research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results.

    PubMed

    Kulynych, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Humans subjects research entails significant legal and ethical obligations. Neuroimaging researchers must be familiar with the requirements of human subjects protection, including evolving standards for the protection of privacy and the disclosure of risk in "non-therapeutic" research. Techniques for creating veridical surface renderings from volumetric anatomical imaging data raise new privacy concerns, particularly under the federal medical privacy regulation. Additionally, neuroimaging researchers must consider their obligation to communicate research results responsibly. The emerging field of neuroethics should strive to raise awareness of these issues and to involve neuroimaging researchers in the legal, ethical, and policy debates that currently surround human subjects research.

  6. Care of critically ill newborns in India. Legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K N; Paul, V K

    1995-06-01

    The nature of neonatal care in India is changing. While the quality of care will most likely improve as the economy grows, the eventual scope of change remains to be seen. Attitudinal and behavioral changes, in addition to better economic conditions, are needed to realize more appropriate interventions in neonatal care. Economic, cultural, religious, social, political, and other considerations may limit or affect neonatal care, especially for ELBW infants or infants with congenital malformations or brain injury. Various protections for critically ill newborns exist under Indian law and the Constitution of India. New laws are being enacted to enhance the level of protection conferred, including laws which ban amniocentesis for sex determination and define brain death in connection with the use of human organs for therapeutic purposes. The applicability of consumer protection laws to medical care is also being addressed. It is noted, however, that India lacks a multidisciplinary bioethics committee. An effort should be made to discuss the legal and ethical issues regarding the care of critically ill newborns, with discussions considering religious, cultural, traditional, and family values. Legal and ethical guidelines should be developed by institutions, medical councils, and society specific to newborn care, and medical, nursing, and other paramedical schools should include these issues as part of the required coursework. Physicians, nurses, philosophers, and attorneys with expertise in law and ethics should develop and teach these courses. Such measures over the long term will ensure that future health care providers are exposed to these issues, ideally with a view toward enhancing patient care. PMID:7636406

  7. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

  8. [Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: legal and ethical dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Mitrossili, M

    2014-01-01

    continues to divide the psychiatric and legal word for it causes intense questioning from a legal, ethical, deontological and clinical aspect, as it offends fundamental rights of the individual. In a legal civilization, in which the principle of informed consent or refusal constitutes a basic rule of the lawfulness of the medical and psychiatric act, any divergence from this rule has consequences for the patients and affects a well-tempered therapeutic treatment. The above mentioned measure could be counterbalanced by the legal regulation of advance directives and the provision for the appointment of a proxy person by the mental patient.

  9. Using Critical Literacy to Explore Genetics and Its Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues with In-Service Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael L.; Melancon, Megan E.; Kleine, Karynne L. M.

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by…

  10. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  11. Legal Liabilities and Professional Ethics Associated with the Use of Computerized Administrative and Instructional Technology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wholeben, Brent Edward

    The increasing availability and the highly variable quality of computer hardware and software make it imperative that school professionals become acquainted with issues of legal liability and professional ethics regarding the use of computers in education. This document explores problems associated with the lack of proper training of school…

  12. Religious, Ethical and Legal Considerations in End-of-Life Issues: Fundamental Requisites for Medical Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Jahn Kassim, Puteri Nemie; Alias, Fadhlina

    2016-02-01

    Religion and spirituality have always played a major and intervening role in a person's life and health matters. With the influential development of patient autonomy and the right to self-determination, a patient's religious affiliation constitutes a key component in medical decision making. This is particularly pertinent in issues involving end-of-life decisions such as withdrawing and withholding treatment, medical futility, nutritional feeding and do-not-resuscitate orders. These issues affect not only the patient's values and beliefs, but also the family unit and members of the medical profession. The law also plays an intervening role in resolving conflicts between the sanctity of life and quality of life that are very much pronounced in this aspect of healthcare. Thus, the medical profession in dealing with the inherent ethical and legal dilemmas needs to be sensitive not only to patients' varying religious beliefs and cultural values, but also to the developing legal and ethical standards as well. There is a need for the medical profession to be guided on the ethical obligations, legal demands and religious expectations prior to handling difficult end-of-life decisions. The development of comprehensive ethical codes in congruence with developing legal standards may offer clear guidance to the medical profession in making sound medical decisions.

  13. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  14. Legal consequences and ethical dilemmas of pain perception in persistent vegetative states.

    PubMed

    Rifkinson-Mann, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    "Persistent vegetative state" (PVS) describes brain-damaged patients who survive their injuries in a sleeplike, insensible state, with periodic awakenings. Due to technological advances, such individuals can sustain biological existence for prolonged periods of time. Their existence results in a dichotomy between the legal and medical interpretations of persistent vegetative states, giving rise to ethical conflicts. The author reviews the limitations in our understanding of what PVS signifies for the afflicted individual, and explores the conflicts arising from such limitations that may impact an individual's right to live or die. The author concludes that the medical community has yet to adopt consistent clinical criteria to diagnose PVS and that a universal standard for PVS is needed to avoid the abuse of vegetative individuals' rights.

  15. Eurocord position on ethical and legal issues involved in cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M N

    1998-07-01

    The Eurocord group held a round table discussion on the topic of ethical and legal issues involved in cord blood transplantation at the group's 2nd annual meeting at Annecy in May 1997. As chairman of the session the author was commissioned to put in writing the group's consensus on the subject. This covers the topics of: cord blood collections for autologous and intra-familiar usage; procreation for the purpose of haematopoietic progenitor cell donation for transplantation of a family member; cord blood banking including safety requirements and quality control regulations; patient priorities for usage of stored units; and patent rights. This paper's text was submitted for review to other participating members of the group. No amendments were made. The author feels confident that the paper faithfully reflects the consensus achieved.

  16. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs.

  17. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    PubMed

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  18. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. PMID:27012736

  19. Vaccinating Health Care Workers Against Influenza: The Ethical and Legal Rationale for a Mandate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Joel T.; Poland, Gregory A.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Tilburt, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvements in clinician education, symptom awareness, and respiratory precautions, influenza vaccination rates for health care workers have remained unacceptably low for more than three decades, adversely affecting patient safety. When public health is jeopardized, and a safe, low-cost, and effective method to achieve patient safety exists, health care organizations and public health authorities have a responsibility to take action and change the status quo. Mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers is supported not only by scientific data but also by ethical principles and legal precedent. The recent influenza pandemic provides an opportunity for policymakers to reconsider the benefits of mandating influenza vaccination for health care workers, including building public trust, enhancing patient safety, and strengthening the health care workforce. PMID:21228284

  20. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    PubMed

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care. PMID:26322648

  1. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-09-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  2. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-12-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  3. Physician unions--an ethical and legal issue in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Canales, B K

    2000-12-01

    The controversial issue of physicians' unions has been revived in the past few years by the economic juggernaut of managed care. The uproar of legal and ethical dilemmas surrounding the creation of physician unions centers around self-employed physicians, their formal employment relationship to HMOs under the National Labor Relations Act, and the ramifications of exempting physicians from current antitrust laws. Will physician collective bargaining increase competition and equalize the power between physicians and HMOs so that the quality of patient care improves? This report discusses relevant laws and the history of physicians' unionization, reviews contemporary thought and present policies on physician unionization, and comments on alternatives and new policies that could be created in order to resolve this dilemma.

  4. Practical legal and ethical considerations for the provision of acute disaster mental health services.

    PubMed

    Call, John A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jenuwine, Michael J; Flynn, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Mental health professionals who provide emergency psychosocial assistance in the immediate aftermath of disasters do so in the midst of crisis and chaos. Common roles undertaken by disaster mental health professionals include treating existing conditions of disaster survivors and providing psychosocial support to front line responders and those acutely affected. Other roles include participating in multidisciplinary health care teams as well as monitoring and supporting team members' mental health. When, in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, mental health professionals provide such assistance, they may take on legal and ethical responsibilities that they are not fully aware of or do not fully comprehend. Unfortunately, not much has been written about these obligations, and professional organizations have provided little guidance. Thus, the purpose of the present article is to outline and discuss an analysis framework and suggest recommendations that mental health professionals can use to help guide their actions during the chaos immediate post disaster.

  5. Maternal-fetal conflicts. Ethical and legal implications for nurse-midwives.

    PubMed

    King, N M

    1991-01-01

    The problem of maternal-fetal conflict presents both ethical and legal challenges to birth attendants as well as to policymakers. This essay suggests that a crisis intervention approach to such conflicts fosters an adversarial view of the relationship between the pregnant woman and her fetus, which can be divisive and counterproductive. A better approach to maternal-fetal conflicts emphasizes mutually held goals rather than countervailing rights and uses the doctrine of informed consent to enhance the pregnant woman's ability to make responsible choices for both herself and her fetus. Nonphysician birth attendants can take a leading role by employing client-centered professional values to develop and extend this cooperative approach to maternal-fetal conflicts.

  6. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B.; Malin, Bradley A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Williams, Marc S.; Clayton, Ellen W.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk. PMID:24030434

  7. Teaching spiritual care in a public institution: legal implications, standards of practice, and ethical obligations.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Cheryl M

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the status of teaching spiritual care in a public institution of higher education. The resurgence of interest in spiritual care across the United States has spurred interest and expanded theories of spirituality within the nursing profession. Nursing education rose to the challenge of teaching spiritual care theories and interventions to students, despite the absence of policy to guide educators. However, differences between public and private educational institutions have led to variations in the teaching of spiritual care. In addition to the legal implications stemming from the need for separation of church and state, nurses must also be aware of their ethical obligations in order to teach spiritual care concepts appropriately. The accrediting agencies for nursing education programs and hospitals, as well as state licensure boards, foster high expectations for nurses to provide spiritual care. A call for research and policy development to guide nurse educators is also addressed in this article.

  8. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B; Malin, Bradley A; Koenig, Barbara A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rothstein, Mark A; Williams, Marc S; Clayton, Ellen W; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk.

  9. Legal and ethical issues in the use of anonymous images in pathology teaching and research.

    PubMed

    Tranberg, H A; Rous, B A; Rashbass, J

    2003-02-01

    The privacy of patients' health information is of paramount importance. However, it is equally important that medical staff and students have access to photographs and video recordings of real patients for training purposes. Where the patient can be identified from such images, his or her consent is clearly required to both obtain the image and to use it in this way. However, the need for consent, both legally and ethically, is much less convincing where the patient cannot, by the very nature of the image, be identified from it. This is the case for many images used in the teaching of clinical medicine, such as videos taken of laparoscopies, images of internal organs and unlabelled X-rays.

  10. Collecting biomeasures in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics: ethical and legal concerns.

    PubMed

    Greely, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    As social surveys like the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) consider adding biomeasures to their data collections, they will face complicated ethical, legal, and practical issues. Both fairly and not, research participants are likely to be more concerned about their biomeasures than about their social data. This heightened concern will force investigators to pay more attention to difficult issues such as the research participant's control over subsequent uses of the samples or data, the participant's right to withdraw from the project, protection of the research participant's privacy, return to the participant of important risk information gained through the research, some special issues involving children and families, and the process of informed consent. Investigators can navigate these issues successfully, but the effort will demand time, careful thought, and attention.

  11. RETURN OF RESULTS: ETHICAL AND LEGAL DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH AND CLINICAL CARE

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Evans, Barbara J; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-01-01

    The return of individual results to research participants has been vigorously debated. Consensus statements indicate that researchers and bioethicists consider the return of research results most appropriate when the findings are clinically relevant. Even when clinical utility is the motivator, however, the return of individual research results is not equivalent to clinical care. There are important differences in the domains of research and medical care, both from a legal standpoint and in terms of the ethical responsibilities of clinicians and researchers. As a corollary, researchers risk promoting a therapeutic misconception if they create quasi-clinical settings for return of clinically relevant research results. Rather, efforts should be focused on clarity in the provision of research results, appropriate caveats and, most important, appropriate referrals when the results may be helpful to consider in medical care. PMID:24616381

  12. Points to Consider: Ethical, Legal, and Psychosocial Implications of Genetic Testing in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Belmont, John W.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Berkman, Benjamin E.; Bombard, Yvonne; Holm, Ingrid A.; Levy, Howard P.; Ormond, Kelly E.; Saal, Howard M.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; McInerney, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) and American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) jointly published a statement on genetic testing in children and adolescents. In the past 20 years, much has changed in the field of genetics, including the development of powerful new technologies, new data from genetic research on children and adolescents, and substantial clinical experience. This statement represents current opinion by the ASHG on the ethical, legal, and social issues concerning genetic testing in children. These recommendations are relevant to families, clinicians, and investigators. After a brief review of the 1995 statement and major changes in genetic technologies in recent years, this statement offers points to consider on a broad range of test technologies and their applications in clinical medicine and research. Recommendations are also made for record and communication issues in this domain and for professional education. PMID:26140447

  13. Denial of pregnancy: a literature review and discussion of ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Angela; Millar, Simon; Robins, James

    2011-07-01

    Denial of pregnancy is an important condition that is more common than expected, with an incidence at 20 weeks gestation of approximately 1 in 475. The proportion of cases persisting until delivery is about 1 in 2500, a rate similar to that of eclampsia. Denial of pregnancy poses adverse consequences including psychological distress, unassisted delivery and neonaticide. It is difficult to predict which women will develop denial of pregnancy. There are a number of forms of denial of pregnancy, including psychotic and non-psychotic variants. Denial of pregnancy is a 'red flag' that should trigger referral for psychiatric assessment. A national registry may help to provide more information about this condition and implement appropriate care. This condition poses challenging legal and ethical issues including assessment of maternal capacity, evaluation of maternal (and possibly fetal) best interests and the possibility of detention in hospital.

  14. PR Bibliography, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Based on searches of over 200 periodicals, this annotated bibliography of books and journal articles presents material related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1992. The annotated bibliography is subdivided into more than 30 different categories ranging from business ethics to writing techniques. The largest…

  15. PR Bibliography, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Based on searches of databases and over 140 periodicals, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1993. The annotated bibliography is subdivided into 35 different categories, including business credibility and ethics;…

  16. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    PubMed

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  17. Developing guidance for pregnancy testing of adolescents participating in research: ethical, legal and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Vic; Brierley, Joe

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents need safe effective drugs that have undergone ethically approved testing in clinical trials; such studies often require pregnancy testing in 'women of childbearing age' which includes children/adolescents. There is a lack of consistent standard operating procedures for pregnancy testing in these individuals, in either research or clinical (ie, both preprocedure and clinical emergency) settings. Some harmonisation between a selective or universal testing approach based on a risk analysis of the trial drug or procedure would seem sensible. The need for pregnancy testing and the reasons for the method chosen (universal or selective) should be clearly defined in the research protocol. Research ethics committees (RECs) need to satisfy themselves that the selection of subjects to be tested, the procedures for obtaining consent and the respecting of the young person's confidentiality are appropriate and that management of any positive tests are in accord with local safeguarding policies and procedures. Researchers should have core competencies necessary to manage sensitive questioning and child safeguarding training. Clinical trials of medicinal product (CTIMP) pregnancy testing in females 13-15 years of age requires parental consent and the child's active involvement in the decision-making process ('assent') the implications of a positive test should be discussed in advance Children under 13 years should not normally be subject to pregnancy testing in CTIMPs, unless there are exceptional circumstances, for example, a trial of contraceptive agents of a high teratogenicity risk, as reviewed by a specialist paediatric REC. We analyse the ethical, legal and practical aspects of this issues and supply guidance to support those involved.

  18. Ethical, legal and social issues for personal health records and applications.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Reid; Froomkin, A Michael; Cava, Anita; Abril, Patricia; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2010-10-01

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Project HealthDesign included funding of an ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) team, to serve in an advisory capacity to the nine design projects. In that capacity, the authors had the opportunity to analyze the personal health record (PHR) and personal health application (PHA) implementations for recurring themes. PHRs and PHAs invert the long-standing paradigm of health care institutions as the authoritative data-holders and data-processors in the system. With PHRs and PHAs, the individual is the center of his or her own health data universe, a position that brings new benefits but also entails new responsibilities for patients and other parties in the health information infrastructure. Implications for law, policy and practice follow from this shift. This article summarizes the issues raised by the first phase of Project HealthDesign projects, categorizing them into four topics: privacy and confidentiality, data security, decision support, and HIPAA and related legal-regulatory requirements. Discussion and resolution of these issues will be critical to successful PHR/PHA implementations in the years to come.

  19. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  20. Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and the Ethical and Legal Obligations of Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy; Duijst, Wilma; Bos, Mike; Chassis, Iris; Codreanu, Igor; Danovitch, Gabriel; Gill, John; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Shin, Milbert

    2016-02-01

    Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role-and legal and ethical obligations-of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered.

  1. Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and the Ethical and Legal Obligations of Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Duijst, Wilma; Bos, Mike; Chassis, Iris; Codreanu, Igor; Danovitch, Gabriel; Gill, John; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Shin, Milbert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role—and legal and ethical obligations—of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered. PMID:27500253

  2. Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and the Ethical and Legal Obligations of Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy; Duijst, Wilma; Bos, Mike; Chassis, Iris; Codreanu, Igor; Danovitch, Gabriel; Gill, John; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Shin, Milbert

    2016-02-01

    Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role-and legal and ethical obligations-of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered. PMID:27500253

  3. Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, M; Bloch, M; Kanani, S; Quarrell, O W; Theilman, J; Hedrick, A; Dickens, B; Lynch, A; Hayden, M

    1990-01-01

    The goal of predictive testing is to modify the risk for currently healthy individuals to develop a genetic disease in the future. Such testing using polymorphic DNA markers has had major application in Huntington disease. The Canadian Collaborative Study of Predictive Testing for Huntington Disease has been guided by major principles of medical ethics, including autonomy, beneficence, confidentiality, and justice. Numerous ethical and legal dilemmas have arisen in this program, challenging these principles and occasionally casting them into conflict. The present report describes these dilemmas and offers our approach to resolving them. These issues will have relevance to predictive-testing programs for other adult-onset disorders. PMID:1971997

  4. Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Considerations when Disclosing a High-Risk Syndrome for Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vijay A; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Jyoti; Saks, Elyn R

    2015-10-01

    There are complex considerations when planning to disclose an attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) diagnosis. In this review, we evaluate ethical, legal, and clinical perspectives as well as caveats related to full, non- and partial disclosure strategies, discuss societal implications, and provide clinical suggestions. Each of the disclosure strategies is associated with benefits as well as costs/considerations. Full disclosure promotes autonomy, allows for the clearest psychoeducation about additional risk factors, helps to clarify and/or correct previous diagnoses/treatments, facilitates early intervention and bolsters communication between providers but there are important considerations involving heritability, comorbidity, culture, and stigma. Non-disclosure advances nonmaleficence by limiting stigma and stress (which may inadvertently exacerbate the condition), and confusion (related to the rapidly evolving diagnosis) in a sensitive developmental period but is complicated by varying patient preferences and the possibility that, as new treatments without adverse effects become available, the risk with false positives no longer justifies the accompanying loss of autonomy. Partial disclosure balances ethical considerations by focusing on symptoms instead of labels, but evidence that laypersons may interpret this information as a pseudo-diagnosis and that symptoms alone also contribute to stigma limits the efficacy of this approach. In addition, there are notable societal considerations relating to disclosure involving conservatorship, the reach of insurance companies, and discrimination. We advocate a hybrid approach to disclosure and recommend future research aimed at understanding the effects of stigma on clinical course and a renewed focus on those help-seeking cases that do not transition but remain clinically relevant.

  5. Ethical, legal and social issues in newborn screening in the United States.

    PubMed

    Therrell, Bradford L

    2003-01-01

    Four million babies are born annually in the US. There are 51 separate laws mandating universal screening and each has its own restrictions. Forty-nine programs allow the parents to "opt out" of testing (dissent), and 2 programs allow the parents to "opt in" (consent). The extent to which these decisions are "informed" varies and in most cases, no information exists as to whether the parents knew or understood what the newborn screening program entailed. Most programs have educational material available describing the state program but whether this information is the information needed (in terms of literacy level and content) to provide a sufficient understanding of the program is not generally known. In most programs, testing is automatic and the program information is contained in the hospital materials given to the mother upon entry or exit from the birthing facility. All newborn screening programs are administered by the state public health agency and ultimately the state legislatures are responsible for creating the laws governing newborn screening. Financing mechanisms are complex with fees varying from $0 - $60 and not directly related to the number of disorders screened, although system components such as education, methods of sample collection, sample submission, laboratory testing, follow-up, confirmation, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and quality assurance are considered in most fee setting processes. The standards for programs have developed over the years at least partly as a result of medical-legal confrontations. During the past several years there has been a notable increase in program expansions including expanded biochemical testing and screening for hearing loss. In 1999, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau funded a newborn screening task force to review the issues facing state newborn screening systems and to make recommendations for improvements and/or changes in these systems. Two primary issues of ethical, legal and social consequence were

  6. The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute: reflections on an ongoing experiment.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Jean E; Boyer, Joy T; Sun, Kathie Y; Rothenberg, Karen H; Lockhart, Nicole C; Guyer, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute has supported empirical and conceptual research to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomics. As a component of the agency that funds much of the underlying science, the program has always been an experiment. The ever-expanding number of issues the program addresses and the relatively low level of commitment on the part of other funding agencies to support such research make setting priorities especially challenging. Program-supported studies have had a significant impact on the conduct of genomics research, the implementation of genomic medicine, and broader public policies. The program's influence is likely to grow as ELSI research, genomics research, and policy development activities become increasingly integrated. Achieving the benefits of increased integration while preserving the autonomy, objectivity, and intellectual independence of ELSI investigators presents ongoing challenges and new opportunities.

  7. Willingness of the Local Health Department Workforce to Respond to Infectious Disease Events: Empirical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rutkow, Lainie; Barnett, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Institute of Medicine, the local health department workforce is at the hub of the public health emergency preparedness system. A growing body of research has pointed to troubling attitudinal gaps among local health department workers, a vital response cohort, regarding willingness to respond to emergent infectious disease threats, ranging from naturally occurring pandemics to bioterrorism events. A summary of relevant literature on the empirical evidence, ethical norms, and legal standards applicable to the willingness of public health professionals to respond to an infectious disease emergency is presented. Recommendations are proposed for future work to be done to bring the relevant empirical, ethical, and legal considerations together to develop practical guidance for the local response to infectious disease emergencies. PMID:24963648

  8. Patients as consumers of health care in South Africa: the ethical and legal implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background South Africa currently has a pluralistic health care system with separate public and private sectors. It is, however, moving towards a socialised model with the introduction of National Health Insurance. The South African legislative environment has changed recently with the promulgation of the Consumer Protection Act and proposed amendments to the National Health Act. Patients can now be viewed as consumers from a legal perspective. This has various implications for health care systems, health care providers and the doctor-patient relationship. Discussion Calling a recipient of health care a ‘consumer’ as opposed to a ‘patient’ has distinct connotations and may result in differential behaviour. Labels reflect the ideals of the context in which they are used. Various models of the doctor-patient relationship exist and different metaphors have been used to describe it. Increasingly there are third parties involved within the doctor-patient relationship making it more difficult for the doctor to play the fiduciary role. In certain parts of the world, there has been a shift from a traditional paternalistic model to a consumerist model. The ethical implications of the commodification of health care are complex. As health care becomes a ‘product’ supplied by the health care ‘provider’, there is the risk that doctors will replace professional ethics with those of the marketplace. Health care is a universal human need and cannot be considered a mere commodity. In modern medical ethics, great emphasis is placed on the principle of respect for patient autonomy. Patients are now the ultimate decision-makers. The new Consumer Protection Act in South Africa applies to consumers and patients alike. It enforces strict liability for harm caused by goods and services. Everyone in the supply chain, including the doctor, can be held jointly and severally liable. This may lead to enormous challenges in health care delivery. Summary Viewing patients as

  9. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality. PMID:27294458

  10. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    PubMed

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined.

  11. [Withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration in severe stroke: medical, legal and ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Tannier, C; Crozier, S; Zuber, M; Constantinides, Y; Delezie, E; Gisquet, E; Grignoli, N; Lamy, C; Louvet, F; Pinel, J-F

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of cases, severe stroke is accompanied by difficulty in swallowing and an altered state of consciousness requiring artificial nutrition and hydration. Because of their artificial nature, nutrition and hydration are considered by law as treatment rather basic care. Withdrawal of these treatments is dictated by the refusal of unreasonable obstinacy enshrined in law and is justified by the risk of severe disability and very poor quality of life. It is usually the last among other withholding and withdrawal decisions which have already been made during the long course of the disease. Reaching a collegial consensus on a controversial decision such as artificial nutrition and hydration withdrawal is a difficult and complex process. The reluctance for such decisions is mainly due to the symbolic value of food and hydration, to the fear of "dying badly" while suffering from hunger and thirst, and to the difficult distinction between this medical act and euthanasia. The only way to overcome such reluctance is to ensure flawless accompaniment, associating sedation and appropriate comfort care with a clear explanation (with relatives but also caregivers) of the rationale and implications of this type of decision. All teams dealing with this type of situation must have thoroughly thought through the medical, legal and ethical considerations involved in making this difficult decision.

  12. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information. PMID:25006139

  13. Dealing with the parent whose judgment is impaired by alcohol or drugs: legal and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Fraser, John J; McAbee, Gary N

    2004-09-01

    An estimated 11 to 17.5 million children are being raised by a substance-abusing parent or guardian. The importance of this statistic is undeniable, particularly when a patient is brought to a pediatric office by a parent or guardian exhibiting symptoms of judgment impairment. Although the physician-patient relationship exists between the pediatrician and the minor patient, other obligations (some perceived and some real) should be considered as well. In managing encounters with impaired parents who may become disruptive or dangerous, pediatricians should be aware of their responsibilities before acting. In addition to fulfilling the duty involved with an established physician-patient relationship, the pediatrician should take reasonable care to safeguard patient confidentiality; protect the safety of the patient and other patients, visitors, and employees; and comply with reporting mandates. This clinical report identifies and discusses the legal and ethical concepts related to these circumstances. The report offers implementation suggestions when establishing anticipatory office procedures and training programs for staff on what to do (and not do) in such situations to maximize the patient's well-being and safety and minimize the liability of the pediatrician. PMID:15342868

  14. The translational potential of research on the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Wylie; Appelbaum, Paul; Dame, Lauren; Marshall, Patricia; Press, Nancy; Pyeritz, Reed; Sharp, Richard; Juengst, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Federally funded research on the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of genomics includes a programmatic charge to consider policy-relevant questions and to communicate findings in venues that help inform the policy-making process. In addressing this goal, investigators must consider the range of policies that are relevant to human genetics; how foundational research in bioethics, law, and the social sciences might inform those policies; and the potential professional issues that this translational imperative raises for ELSI investigators. We review these questions in light of experiences from a consortium of federally funded Centers of Excellence in ELSI Research, and offer a set of policy recommendations for program design and evaluation of ELSI research. We conclude that it would be a mistake to require that ELSI research programs demonstrate a direct impact on science or health policy; however, ELSI researchers can take steps to increase the relevance of their work to policy makers. Similarly, funders of ELSI research who are concerned with facilitating policy development can help by building cross-disciplinary translational research capacities, and universities can take steps to make policy-relevant research more rewarding for scholars in the humanities, social sciences, and law. PMID:24946153

  15. Points to consider: Ethical, legal, and psychosocial implications of genetic testing in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Rapid developments in genetic knowledge and technologies increase the ability to test asymptomatic children for late-onset diseases, disease susceptibilities, and carrier status. These developments raise ethical and legal issues that focus on the interests of children and their parents. Although parents are presumed to promote the well-being of their children, a request for a genetic test may have negative implications for children, and the health-care provider must be prepared to acknowledge and discuss such issues with families. This report is grounded in several social concepts: First, the primary goal of genetic testing should be to promote the well-being of the child. Second, the recognition that children are part of a network of family relationships supports an approach to potential conflicts that is not adversarial but, rather, emphasizes a deliberative process that seeks to promote the child`s well-being within this context. Third, as children grow through successive stages of cognitive and moral development, parents and professionals should be attentive to the child`s increasing interest and ability to participate in decisions about his or her own welfare. 46 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Implantable nano-neurotechnological devices: consideration of ethical, legal, and social issues and implications.

    PubMed

    Giordano, James; Akhouri, Rohan; McBride, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been considerable progress in the capability and application(s) of technology in the neurosciences. The tools of neurotechnology conjoin advances made in other disciplines, including nanoscience, to offer somewhat unique properties and capabilities that affect multiple dimensions of neural systems via implantable devices that afford articulation and manipulation at the subcellular scale. However, while striving for good, it is equally important to regard potential to generate major ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that arise in, and from the study and applications of implantable nano-neurotechnologies. This paper discusses specific properties and uses of various nano-neurotechnologies, and addresses proximate and distal ELSI. We argue that the fusion of nano- and neuroscience and technologies give rise to unique risks and burdens, but posit that a frank precautionary principle might be unrealistic given the demiurge of progress. Rather, we call for a dialectical approach that balances technological incentives with responsibility for inquiry, application, and consequences, and advocate that potential ELSI must be appreciated early and throughout the research and development process.

  17. The Translational Potential of Research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Appelbaum, Paul; Dame, Lauren; Marshall, Patricia; Press, Nancy; Pyeritz, Reed; Sharp, Richard; Juengst, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Federally funded research on the ethical, legal and social implications of genomics (“ELSI” research) includes a programmatic charge to consider policy-relevant questions and to communicate findings in venues that help inform the policy-making process. In addressing this goal, investigators must consider the range of policies that are relevant to human genetics, how foundational research in bioethics, law, and the social sciences might inform those policies, and the potential professional issues that this translational imperative raises for ELSI investigators. We review these questions in the light of experiences from a consortium of federally funded Centers of Excellence in ELSI Research, and offer a set of policy recommendations for program design and evaluation of ELSI research. We conclude that it would be a mistake to require that ELSI research programs demonstrate a direct impact on science or health policy; however, ELSI researchers can take steps to increase the relevance of their work to policy makers. Similarly, funders of ELSI research concerned to facilitate policy development can help by building cross-disciplinary translational research capacities, and universities can take steps to make policy-relevant research more rewarding for scholars in the humanities, social sciences, and law. PMID:24946153

  18. The effect of genomics on health services management: ethical and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M J

    2001-01-01

    The growing use of genetic testing for diagnostic and predictive purposes, and for the purpose of selecting therapeutic regimens with better risk-benefit ratios for patients, raises numerous legal and ethical challenges. Researchers and institutional review boards must pay careful attention to the need to obtain informed consent from subjects. The FDA will face increased pressure to more carefully regulate the accuracy of genetic testing. Clinicians will need to safeguard the privacy and confidentiality of sensitive patient information, especially when testing is performed in settings in which the information may be readily accessible to insurers and employers. Novel genomic treatments may increase liability for drug manufacturers, but physicians and other healthcare providers, including health plans' drug formularies, will bear the primary liability risk. Difficult questions of distributive justice also must be faced if third-party payers resist covering genomic services because of their cost. Down the road, more aggressive gene therapy techniques and the ability to test for non-disease traits will tax our notions of fairness, equality, and the limits of professional authority. PMID:11299702

  19. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information.

  20. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality.

  1. Ethical and legal issues in the procurement, storage and use of DNA.

    PubMed

    McQueen, M J

    1998-08-01

    At the risk of ignoring the benefits, the problems of genetic testing have been widely discussed. Many clinical laboratories are archival stores for human tissues and very few have formal policies and procedures for the use of this material. There is little evidence of planning or preparation of appropriate protocols for the safekeeping of the collected clinical material. The process of informed consent needs to be re-examined. The standard of what would be expected by a reasonable and prudent person poses challenging questions relating to confidentiality and privacy, control and ownership of the stored tissue and cells, withdrawing from a research study, length of storage of samples, the use of biological materials by other parties, and the use of biological materials for purposes other than those for which they were first obtained. There also needs to be a clear understanding of identifiable, non-identifiable and anonymous samples. Clinical laboratory staff and their professional organisations need to engage in the discussion and development around the ethical, legal and social issues raised by testing human DNA. Clinical research laboratories will be increasingly involved in DNA testing and will be asked for access to stored blood or tissue. It is essential that professional responsibility is understood and is then exercised in the presence of appropriate policies and procedures. There is also a paramount need to involve the public who are already demonstrating evidence of alienation from the world occupied by genetics research.

  2. Ethical, legal, and social issues related to genomics and cancer research: the impending crisis.

    PubMed

    Ellerin, Bruce E; Schneider, Robert J; Stern, Arnold; Toniolo, Paolo G; Formenti, Silvia C

    2005-11-01

    Cancer research is a multibillion-dollar enterprise validated by the clinical trial process and increasingly defined by genomics. The continued success of the endeavor depends on the smooth functioning of the clinical trial system, which in turn depends on human subject participation. Yet human subject participation can exist only in an atmosphere of trust between research participants and research sponsors, and the advent of genomics has raised a multitude of ethical, legal, and social issues that threaten this trust. The authors examine 6 of these issues: (1) informed consent; (2) privacy, confidentiality, and family disclosure dilemmas; (3) property rights in genomic discoveries; (4) individual and institutional conflicts of interest; (5) insurance and employment issues; and (6) litigation under the federal False Claims Act. The authors conclude that failure to resolve these issues may lead to a sufficient impairment of trust in genomics-based clinical trials on the part of potential research participants that the clinical trial system may implode for lack of willing participants, thus threatening the future of cancer research.

  3. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Historical, Ethical, and Legal Issues Associated With Prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration. PMID:25031978

  4. Legal, ethical, and methodological considerations in the Internet-based study of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Donoghue, Christine

    2010-01-01

    With its ever-growing penetration of remote regions of the world, the Internet provides great opportunity for conducting research. Beyond clear advantages such as increased cost-effectiveness and efficiency in collecting large samples, Internet-based research has proven particularly useful in reaching hidden or marginalized populations who engage in illegal or deviant behaviors. However, this new medium for research raises important and complex legal, ethical, and methodological/technological issues that researchers must address, particularly when studying undetected criminal behaviors. The current paper chronicles various issues that were encountered in the implementation of an active Internet-based pilot research study of child pornography (CP) users. Moreover, this study was undertaken to address a critical gap in the existing research on CP offending, which has to date primarily focused on incarcerated or convicted samples. The Internet provides the optimal medium for studying community populations of CP users, given that it has become the primary market for CP distribution. This paper is designed to serve as a guide for researchers interested in conducting Internet-based research studies on criminal and sexually deviant populations, particularly CP offenders. Several recommendations are offered based on our own experiences in the implementation of this study.

  5. PATIENT'S RIGHT TO INFORMED CONSENT IN REPUBLIC SRPSKA: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PHYSICAL REHABILITATION).

    PubMed

    Milinkovic, Igor; Majstorovic, Biljana

    2014-12-01

    The principle of informed consent, which requires a patient's fully-informed consent prior to the medical treatment, is closely connected with the value of human dignity. The realization and protection of a patient's dignity is not possible without his/her right to choose the character and scope of medical treatment. This goal cannot be adequately achieved within the traditional model of medical paternalism characterized by the physician's authoritative position. The first part of the article deals with the content and ethical significance of the informed consent doctrine. The legal framework of informed consent in Republic Srpska (RS), one of the two Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH)entities, is analyzed. Special reference is made to the relevance of the informed consent principle within the physical rehabilitation process. Although ethical aspects of physical rehabilitation are often overlooked, this medical field possesses a strong ethical dimension (including an appropriate realization of the patient's right to informed consent).

  6. Ethical and Legal Issues in Computer-Mediated Communications: The Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ethical use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the lack of integration of information ethics into elementary, secondary, and higher education curricula. The development of information ethics instruction is proposed which would include such topics as intellectual property, destruction of digital property, confidentiality and…

  7. The medical-legal quandary of healthcare in capital punishment: an ethical dilemma for the anesthesia provider.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin W

    2008-12-01

    The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"?

  8. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues

    PubMed Central

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers’ perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers’ legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients’ control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale. PMID:27755563

  9. An evaluation of the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications program of the U.S. Human Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Jin, J

    2000-01-01

    The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program is an in-house evaluation program for the United States Human Genome Project. Understanding the ethical and moral implications of genetic information and technology is crucial towards ensuring the proper use of genetic data. The ELSI programs have had a positive influence in understanding problematic areas surrounding the HGP by acting as a center for discussion for many bioethicists and scientists. However, ELSI is often too passive and does not provide enough practical guidance to the public on the complex implications of the HGP. As it stands now, there is room for major improvement such as increased cooperation between ELSI and non-government organizations. NGO's would serve as bridges between ELSI and the public, and a collaboration would enable in-depth probing and more comprehensive analysis of issues of public concern.

  10. Ethical, legal, and social issues of the Human Genome Project: what to do with what we know.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, C

    1994-01-01

    Since fiscal year 1991, the U.S. Human Genome Project has spent $170.6 million in federal funds to help isolate genes associated with Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome and to localize genes that predispose people to breast cancer, colon cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Now comes the hard part. Biology's 21st century megaproject starts to look relatively manageable compared to another challenge facing the enterprise: sorting out ethical, legal, and social issues associated with using this information. "The Human Genome Project," wrote Senior Editor Barbara Jasny in the October 1 Science editorial, stretches "the limits of the technology and the limits of our ability to ethically and rationally apply genetic information to our lives."

  11. Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others) arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed. PMID:22977316

  12. Spheres of influence: Ethical, legal, and social issues of the Human Genome Project: What to do with what we know

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, C. )

    1994-01-01

    Since fiscal year 1991, the U.S. Human Genome Project has spent $170.6 million in federal funds to help isolate genes associated with Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, myotonic dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome and to localize genes that predispose people to breast cancer, colon cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Now come the hard part. Biology's 21st century megaproject starts to look relatively manageable compared to another challenge facing the enterprise: sorting out ethical, legal, and social issues associated with using this information. [open quotes]The Human Genome Project,[close quotes] wrote Senior Editor Barbara Jasny in the October 1 Science editorial, stretches [open quotes]the limits of the technology and the limits of our ability to ethically and rationally apply genetic information to our lives.[close quotes

  13. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    PubMed

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-06-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  14. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    PubMed

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-09-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  15. A voluntary privacy standard for health services and policy research: legal, ethical and social policy issues in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Weisbaum, Karen M; Slaughter, Pamela M; Collins, Paulette K

    2005-01-01

    In this review, the authors describe how one group of Canadian researchers has begun to address current privacy protection challenges with the end goal of developing a Canadian national standard for privacy protection specific to health services and policy research (HSPR). They provide a concise description of some of the key messages and issues that resulted from a recent series of HSPR workshops and describe some of the workshop outcomes in terms of their legal, ethical and social/policy significance. The review ends with a brief description of some future directions for research and development in this area.

  16. The Educator in the Law Library: Problems, Bibliography, Research Tools, Analysis of a Case, Glossary of Legal Terms. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezny, Arthur A.; Sales, M. Vance

    Law books and their use by educators, primarily graduate students of education, are described. Exercises are also presented to introduce the student in education, and in particular in school administration, to some of the main classes of legal materials that will be addressed in a course in school law. The exercises are designed to familiarize the…

  17. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  18. Managers Confront Competing Practical, Legal, and Ethical Claims: A Comprehensive Teaching Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Law classes help reveal the successes of the American legal system. Students observe that the law is honorable, workable, and effective. At the same time, law classes offer the opportunity to look at those situations where the legal system sometimes struggles to achieve its justice goals. Students certainly need to learn that lesson, but they also…

  19. Neuroscience, ethics and legal responsibility: the problem of the insanity defense. Commentary on "The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach".

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The insanity defense presents many difficult questions for the legal system. It attracts attention beyond its practical significance (it is seldom used successfully) because it goes to the heart of the concept of legal responsibility. "Not guilty by reason of insanity" generally requires that as a result of mental illness the defendant was unable to distinguish right from wrong at the time of the crime. The many difficult and complex questions presented by the insanity defense have led some in the legal community to hope that neuroscience might help resolve some of these problems, but that hope is not likely to be realized.

  20. Assessing the Legal and Ethical Preparedness of Master of Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Agee, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between the preparedness of master of public health (MPH) graduates in public health law and ethics and their completion of courses in these areas. Methods. We reviewed accredited public health schools and programs to assess the supply of required and elective courses in law and ethics. In addition, we conducted an Internet-based scenario survey of MPH graduates. Survey results were analyzed, and relationships between scenario responses and completion of law and ethics courses were assessed. Results. Of the 93 programs and schools reviewed, 14% required a course in ethics and 16% required a course in law. The majority (range = 55%–76%) of the survey respondents indicated being “prepared” or “very prepared” for each of the 9 public health scenarios. There were no significant relationships between scenario responses and completion of an ethics course. Responses to 2 scenarios (one involving food code violations and one involving a prison population) were significantly related to participants' completion of a course in law. Conclusions. Few public health schools and programs require graduate courses in ethics and law. Most MPH graduates report being prepared to address public health challenges. Additional research is necessary to improve techniques for measuring preparedness. PMID:18633077

  1. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648

  2. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined.

  3. Legal and ethical considerations in processing patient-identifiable data without patient consent: lessons learnt from developing a disease register.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Charlotte L; Cook, Gary A; Jones, Michael A

    2007-05-01

    The legal requirements and justifications for collecting patient-identifiable data without patient consent were examined. The impetus for this arose from legal and ethical issues raised during the development of a population-based disease register. Numerous commentaries and case studies have been discussing the impact of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA1998) and Caldicott principles of good practice on the uses of personal data. But uncertainty still remains about the legal requirements for processing patient-identifiable data without patient consent for research purposes. This is largely owing to ignorance, or misunderstandings of the implications of the common law duty of confidentiality and section 60 of the Health and Social Care Act 2001. The common law duty of confidentiality states that patient-identifiable data should not be provided to third parties, regardless of compliance with the DPA1998. It is an obligation derived from case law, and is open to interpretation. Compliance with section 60 ensures that collection of patient-identifiable data without patient consent is lawful despite the duty of confidentiality. Fears regarding the duty of confidentiality have resulted in a common misconception that section 60 must be complied with. Although this is not the case, section 60 support does provide the most secure basis in law for collecting such data. Using our own experience in developing a disease register as a backdrop, this article will clarify the procedures, risks and potential costs of applying for section 60 support.

  4. Legal and Ethical Issues in School Psychologists' Participation in Psychopharmacological Interventions with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMers, Stephen T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expanded role for psychologists and school psychologists ranging from increased knowledge about psychopharmacology to collaborative practice with prescribing physician to obtaining limited independent prescription privileges. Explores legal issues associated with such role expansion: credential concerns, malpractice liability, and record…

  5. What Does the Right to Education Mean? A Look at an International Debate from Legal, Ethical, and Pedagogical Points of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jover, Gonzalo

    2001-01-01

    Explores the legal, ethical, and pedagogical aspects of the right to education. Describes a study aimed at learning what the global attitudes are toward the right to an education. Discusses globalization and its effects on education and examines the impact of international caucuses such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child. (Contains 17…

  6. Case Study of a Coffee War: Using the "Starbucks v. Charbucks" Dispute to Teach Trademark Dilution, Business Ethics, and the Strategic Value of Legal Acumen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    A Harvard Business School-style teaching case can be a powerful pedagogical tool to teach law and ethics to business students because instructors can combine a traditional business case study with Socratic-style dialogue and legal analysis from a managerial perspective. This teaching note includes suggestions for several methods of using the case,…

  7. Rethinking ethical and legal issues at the end of life in the U.K. and Brazil: a role for solidarity?

    PubMed

    Ventura, Carla A Arena; Gallagher, Ann; Jago, Robert; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2013-12-01

    There are currently high profile debates about legal and ethical aspects of end of life care and treatment in the U.K. and Brazil. Unlike some other jurisdictions, neither country has legalised assisted dying or euthanasia. We argue that it is timely to consider the issues from the perspectives of an evolving concept in bioethics, that of solidarity.

  8. Exploring Professional, Ethical and Legal Dimensions of Social Studies Teachers' Rights and Responsibilities: Implications for NCSS "Standards for Social Studies Teachers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Donald O.

    A comprehensive statement of teacher rights and responsibilities must consider the nature of the teaching profession, ethical standards, and legal dimensions. Precision in defining these areas as they relate to social studies teachers is difficult due to disagreement about purposes and approaches to social studies, lack of practitioner support of…

  9. Clinical trials with subjects unable to give consent: some ethical-legal paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The Italian Data Protection Authority recently authorised a US pharmaceutical company and an Italian hospital to use the personal data of people without capacity to make their own decisions, including those with no legal representation, within the framework of a specific clinical trial although this is not legal under current Italian legislation. This action effectively acknowledged the validity of consent given by persons with family ties to patients, or those in hospitals caring for patients, in contrast with Italian legislation which regards as valid only consent that is given by a legally appointed guardian. This article considers the present state of the regulations governing trials involving incapacitated adults, the paradoxes generated by the discrepancy between the authorisation granted by the Authority and current legislation, and (possible) future developments. PMID:24057312

  10. Does the Shoe Fit? Ethical, Legal, and Policy Considerations of Global Positioning System Shoes for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Kels, Charles G

    2016-08-01

    As the overall incidence of Alzheimer's disease rises, the burden on caregivers and law enforcement institutions will increase to find individuals who wander. As such, technological innovations that could reduce this burden will become increasingly important. One such innovation is the GPS Shoe. As with any innovation involving the transfer of personal data to third parties, potential pitfalls with respect to loss of privacy and inadequate consent counterbalance the substantial promise of GPS shoes. To some extent, advance planning can mitigate these concerns, wherein individuals willingly elect to be monitored before their impairments progress to a stage that makes such authorization impractical. Nonetheless, tension may arise between the peace of mind of caregivers and family members and other important considerations at the intersection of autonomy, privacy, dignity, and consent. Ultimately, confronting ethical, legal, and policy considerations at the front end of product development and deployment will help ensure that new technologies are used wisely and that their lifesaving potential is realized. PMID:27394035

  11. Does the Shoe Fit? Ethical, Legal, and Policy Considerations of Global Positioning System Shoes for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Kels, Charles G

    2016-08-01

    As the overall incidence of Alzheimer's disease rises, the burden on caregivers and law enforcement institutions will increase to find individuals who wander. As such, technological innovations that could reduce this burden will become increasingly important. One such innovation is the GPS Shoe. As with any innovation involving the transfer of personal data to third parties, potential pitfalls with respect to loss of privacy and inadequate consent counterbalance the substantial promise of GPS shoes. To some extent, advance planning can mitigate these concerns, wherein individuals willingly elect to be monitored before their impairments progress to a stage that makes such authorization impractical. Nonetheless, tension may arise between the peace of mind of caregivers and family members and other important considerations at the intersection of autonomy, privacy, dignity, and consent. Ultimately, confronting ethical, legal, and policy considerations at the front end of product development and deployment will help ensure that new technologies are used wisely and that their lifesaving potential is realized.

  12. Legal and ethical duties of the clinician treating a patient who is liable to be impulsively violent.

    PubMed

    Beck, J C

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews published tort cases that arose after a patient impulsively hurt or killed someone. Plaintiffs alleged breach of the duty to protect (Tarasoff) or negligent release from hospital. There are sixteen cases involving a variety of facts and diagnoses. As a matter of law courts typically hold that impulsive violence is not foreseeable. One jury found a defendant negligent but that verdict was ultimately overturned. Statutes on duty to protect do not imply a duty to act on the fact patterns of impulsive violence in this sample. The author concludes that the ethical duty to do careful clinical work is essentially identical to the legal duty to use due care in these cases. The law imposes no additional burden on the clinician in these cases.

  13. The ethical and legal implications of Jaffee v Redmond and the HIPAA medical privacy rule for psychotherapy and general psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Paul W; Swire, Peter P

    2002-09-01

    The 1996 Jaffee v Redmond US Supreme Court decision established a privilege for psychotherapeutic communications in the federal courts. The new privilege has both substantive and symbolic importance. In its strongly worded opinion in Jaffee v Redmond, the US Supreme Court made clear that confidentiality in psychotherapy takes precedence over certain other important societal goals. The new Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) medical privacy rule promulgated by the Department of Health and Human Services relies on Jaffee v Redmond in providing additional legal protections for confidential psychotherapy. Both the US Supreme Court's Jaffee v Redmond ruling and the HIPAA rule support the ethical protection of confidentiality of conversations between psychiatrists and patients. PMID:12232971

  14. Calculated Risk Taking in the Treatment of Suicidal Patients: Ethical and Legal Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses discharge of suicidal patients from inpatient care from both economic and ethical perspectives. Suggests that clinicians must exercise prudence in discharging patients unlikely to recover, considering duty to preserve life. Encourages discharge when benefits outweigh risks, with careful preparation of patient and family and meticulous…

  15. Geneletter: An Internet-based newsletter on the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics. Final report to the Department of Energy [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Philip; Wertz, Dorothy C.

    2001-05-01

    The GeneLetter (http://www.geneletter.org) is an Internet newsletter on ethical, legal, and social issues in genetics, designed for a wide and varied audience, some of whom may not be familiar with genetic science. It appears every two months, with a variety of long and short feature articles on ethics and on genetic disorders, a section on new federal and state legislation, an international section, a student corner, book and video reviews, a summary of genetics in the news, and a list of upcoming conferences. Feature articles have ventured into an area of wide general concern, behavioral genetics. The newsletter also has an interactive chatbox and the opportunity of more private communications with the editors via email. The purpose of the GeneLetter is to help fill a communication and knowledge gap on ethical, legal and social issues surrounding genetics.

  16. Ethical, legal, and social concerns about expanded newborn screening: fragile X syndrome as a prototype for emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Skinner, Debra; Davis, Arlene M; Whitmarsh, Ian; Powell, Cynthia

    2008-03-01

    Technology will make it possible to screen for fragile X syndrome and other conditions that do not meet current guidelines for routine newborn screening. This possibility evokes at least 8 broad ethical, legal, and social concerns: (1) early identification of fragile X syndrome, an "untreatable" condition, could lead to heightened anxiety about parenting, oversensitivity to development, alterations in parenting, or disrupted bonding; (2) because fragile X syndrome screening should be voluntary, informed consent could overwhelm parents with information, significantly burden hospitals, and reduce participation in the core screening program; (3) screening will identify some children who are or appear to be phenotypically normal; (4) screening might identify children with other conditions not originally targeted for screening; (5) screening could overwhelm an already limited capacity for genetic counseling and comprehensive care; (6) screening for fragile X syndrome, especially if carrier status is disclosed, increases the likelihood of negative self-concept, societal stigmatization, and insurance or employment discrimination; (7) screening will suggest risk in extended family members, raising ethical and legal issues (because they never consented to screening) and creating a communication burden for parents or expanding the scope of physician responsibility; and (8) screening for fragile X syndrome could heighten discrepancies in how men and women experience genetic risk or decide about testing. To address these concerns we recommend a national newborn screening research network; the development of models for informed decision-making; materials and approaches for helping families understand genetic information and communicating it to others; a national forum to address carrier testing and the disclosure of secondary or incidental findings; and public engagement of scientists, policy makers, ethicists, practitioners, and other citizens to discuss the desired aims of

  17. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  18. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  19. A nation's genes for a cure to cancer: evolving ethical, social and legal issues regarding population genetic databases.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Alice

    2004-01-01

    The advent of the human genome sequence has focused research on understanding underlying genetic links to complex diseases such as cancer, asthma and heart disease. In the past few years, individual countries, such as Iceland, Estonia, Singapore and the United Kingdom, have created national databases of their citizens' DNA for comparative research. Most recently, an international consortium including Nigeria, Japan, China and the United States launched a $100 million project called the International HapMap to map the human genome according to haplotypes, blocks of DNA that contain genetic variation. Such population genetic databases present challenging ethical, social and legal issues, yet regulation of genetic information has developed sporadically, from region to region, without a consistent international standard. Without a clear understanding of the consequences of genetic research in terms of individual and community-wide discrimination and stigmatization, genetic databases raise concerns about the protection of genetic information. This Note provides a survey of the evolving landscape of population genetic databases as a legislative and public policy tool for national and international regulators. It compares different approaches to regulating the collection and use of population genetic databases in order to understand what areas of consensus are formulating a foundation for an international standard. As the first population genetics project that will span multiple countries for the collection of DNA, the International HapMap has the potential to become an influential standard for the protection of population genetic information. This Note highlights issues among the national databases and the HapMap project that raise ethical, social and legal concerns for the future and recommends further protections for both individual donors and community interests.

  20. Legal and Ethical Implications of Working with Minors in Alabama: Consent and Confidentiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Michael A.; Cobia, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, there has been little guidance in the professional literature with respect to counseling minors outside of the school setting. Although most authors suggest referring to state statutes for legal limits of counseling practice, little research exists describing these requirements in Alabama. The purpose of this literature and…

  1. Limitation of the therapeutic effort: ethical and legal justification for withholding and/or withdrawing life sustaining treatments.

    PubMed

    Borsellino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Withholding and withdrawing a treatment already established are two forms of limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE). The question of undergoing or not undergoing lifesaving medical treatments is not restricted to a specific health care context, as it refers to a variety of treatments, and it does not concern a restricted group of diseases. LTE has become part of the options compatible with the good clinical practice, in accordance with a deep change in modern medicine's 'mission' along with the increased importance attributed to the patient's general, personal condition, and to the quality of his/her life. However, LTE remains a controversial issue, and it still has many opponents, in particular, but not exclusively, in those cases in which the question is the withdrawal of treatments, which a widespread conventional wisdom considers ethically and legally different from not initiating treatments. But is it justified to address LTE as a totally controversial issue, especially in case of withdrawal of treatments? The paper answers negatively by arguing that there are criteria both in medical ethics and in law often adequate enough to remove doubts, and to guide decisions and actions.

  2. Ethical, legal, and social issues in health technology assessment for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    Potter, B K; Avard, D; Entwistle, V; Kennedy, C; Chakraborty, P; McGuire, M; Wilson, B J

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening programs have been a focus of recent policy debates that have included attention to ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs). In parallel, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether and how ELSIs may be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA). We conducted a knowledge synthesis study to explore both guidance and current practice regarding the consideration of ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening. As the concluding activity for this project, we held a Canadian workshop to discuss the issues with a diverse group of stakeholders. Based on key workshop themes integrated with our study results, we suggest that population-based genetic screening programs may present particular types of ELSIs and that a public health ethics perspective is potentially highly relevant when considering them. We also suggest that approaches to addressing ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening may need to be flexible enough to respond to diversity in HTA organizations, cultural values, stakeholder communities, and contextual factors. Finally, we highlight a need for transparency in the way that HTA producers move from evidence to conclusions and the ways in which screening policy decisions are made.

  3. Morally Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Children and Dementia Patients as Research Subjects: Representation in Legal Documents and Ethical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Karin; Bos, Wendy; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    Children and adults with dementia are vulnerable populations. Both groups are also relatively seldom included in biomedical research. However, including them in clinical trials is necessary, since both groups are in need of scientific innovation and new therapies. Their dependence and limited decision-making capacities increase their vulnerability, necessitating extra precautions when including them in clinical trials. Beside these similarities there are also many differences between the groups. The most obvious one is that children have an entire life ahead of them and will become persons with certain ideals and preferences, while adults with dementia have lived a life in which they have expressed their ideals and preferences. Some of the available research guidelines recognize these differences, setting one list of specific requirements for groups of incapacitated adults and another list for children. Other documents, however, do not differentiate and only set requirements for subjects unable to consent as a single category of subjects. In this article we analyse to what extent the similarities and differences between the two groups are represented in legal documents and ethical guidelines. The article presents an overview and an analysis of the requirements for doing research with children and dementia patients. We conclude with suggestions about how to better incorporate the morally relevant aspects of these two groups in legislation and ethical guidelines. PMID:26481208

  4. Morally Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Children and Dementia Patients as Research Subjects: Representation in Legal Documents and Ethical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Karin; Bos, Wendy; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    Children and adults with dementia are vulnerable populations. Both groups are also relatively seldom included in biomedical research. However, including them in clinical trials is necessary, since both groups are in need of scientific innovation and new therapies. Their dependence and limited decision-making capacities increase their vulnerability, necessitating extra precautions when including them in clinical trials. Beside these similarities there are also many differences between the groups. The most obvious one is that children have an entire life ahead of them and will become persons with certain ideals and preferences, while adults with dementia have lived a life in which they have expressed their ideals and preferences. Some of the available research guidelines recognize these differences, setting one list of specific requirements for groups of incapacitated adults and another list for children. Other documents, however, do not differentiate and only set requirements for subjects unable to consent as a single category of subjects. In this article we analyse to what extent the similarities and differences between the two groups are represented in legal documents and ethical guidelines. The article presents an overview and an analysis of the requirements for doing research with children and dementia patients. We conclude with suggestions about how to better incorporate the morally relevant aspects of these two groups in legislation and ethical guidelines.

  5. Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Slabbert, Melodie; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future.

  6. Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Slabbert, Melodie; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future. PMID:22908741

  7. Hunger strikers: ethical and legal dimensions of medical complicity in torture at Guantanamo Bay.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Sarah M; Leaning, Jennifer; Greenough, P Gregg; Burkle, Frederick M

    2013-12-01

    Physicians and other licensed health professionals are involved in force-feeding prisoners on hunger strike at the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay (GTMO), Cuba, the detention center established to hold individuals captured and suspected of being terrorists in the wake of September 11, 2001. The force-feeding of competent hunger strikers violates medical ethics and constitutes medical complicity in torture. Given the failure of civilian and military law to end the practice, the medical profession must exert policy and regulatory pressure to bring the policy and operations of the US Department of Defense into compliance with established ethical standards. Physicians, other health professionals, and organized medicine must appeal to civilian state oversight bodies and federal regulators of medical science to revoke the licenses of health professionals who have committed prisoner abuses at GTMO. PMID:24073786

  8. Hunger strikers: ethical and legal dimensions of medical complicity in torture at Guantanamo Bay.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Sarah M; Leaning, Jennifer; Greenough, P Gregg; Burkle, Frederick M

    2013-12-01

    Physicians and other licensed health professionals are involved in force-feeding prisoners on hunger strike at the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay (GTMO), Cuba, the detention center established to hold individuals captured and suspected of being terrorists in the wake of September 11, 2001. The force-feeding of competent hunger strikers violates medical ethics and constitutes medical complicity in torture. Given the failure of civilian and military law to end the practice, the medical profession must exert policy and regulatory pressure to bring the policy and operations of the US Department of Defense into compliance with established ethical standards. Physicians, other health professionals, and organized medicine must appeal to civilian state oversight bodies and federal regulators of medical science to revoke the licenses of health professionals who have committed prisoner abuses at GTMO.

  9. Ethical and legal considerations regarding disputed authorship with the use of shared data.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Robert K; Lareau, Craig R; Clevenger, Jeanne K; Reger, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Little guidance is currently available for handling disputes between research mentors and students when working with shared data. This article analyzes how the ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association (APA), the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and the American Educational Research Association (AERA) can inform common disputes in this area. Additional insights about the nature of the research relationship are derived from contract and copyright law. Practice guidelines are proposed to safeguard student and faculty welfare in research collaboration, and recommendations are provided to help prevent and resolve disputes between students and faculty. PMID:18593100

  10. Ethical and legal considerations regarding disputed authorship with the use of shared data.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Robert K; Lareau, Craig R; Clevenger, Jeanne K; Reger, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Little guidance is currently available for handling disputes between research mentors and students when working with shared data. This article analyzes how the ethical guidelines from the American Psychological Association (APA), the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), and the American Educational Research Association (AERA) can inform common disputes in this area. Additional insights about the nature of the research relationship are derived from contract and copyright law. Practice guidelines are proposed to safeguard student and faculty welfare in research collaboration, and recommendations are provided to help prevent and resolve disputes between students and faculty.

  11. The right to die and physician-assisted suicide medical, legal, and ethical aspects (Part I).

    PubMed

    Wecht, C H

    1998-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper examines the issue of the "Right to Die", and its relationship to the discipline of Bioethics and the doctrine of Informed Consent. The discussion underlines the role and rights of the patient. A number of relevant judgments are quoted, with their implications. Part 2, to be published in our next issue, continues the discussion, with emphasis on the subject of physician-assisted suicide and the activities of Dr. Kevorkian. Further legal cases are quoted with relevant analysis, together with proposed legislation under the title "Death with Dignity". Finally, the author points to possible future developments in this controversial issue.

  12. DNA banking and DNA databanking: Legal, ethical, and public policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Lawyer, J.D.; Small, D.

    1997-04-30

    The purpose of this research was to provide support to enable the authors to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus had both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed under the project.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder: ethical and legal relevance to the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Kathryn; Acierno, Ron; Gros, Daniel F; Yoder, Matthew; Tuerk, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a major public health concern in both civilian and military populations, across race, age, gender, and socio-economic status. While PTSD has been around for centuries by some name or another, its definition and description also continue to evolve. Within the last few years, the American Psychological Association has published the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which includes some major changes in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Recent data on epidemiology, etiological theories, and empirically supported methods of treatment, as well as implications for legal processes and criminal justice system personnel, are discussed.

  14. Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976-1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic genetics to support the right to identity in Argentina included issues such as the best interest of children being raised by criminals, the right to learn the truth of one's origin and identity, rights of their biological families, the issue of voluntary versus compulsory testing of victims, as well as the duty of the state to investigate crimes against humanity, punish perpetrators and provide justice and reparation to the victims. In the 30 years following the return to democracy in 1984, the search, localization and DNA testing of disappeared children and young adults has led, so far, to the genetic identification of 116 persons who had been abducted as babies. The high value placed on DNA testing to identify victims of identity suppression did not conflict with the social consensus that personal identity is a complex and dynamic concept, attained by the interaction of genetics with historical, social, emotional, educational, cultural and other important environmental factors. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics within a developing set of ethical and political circumstances.

  15. Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976-1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic genetics to support the right to identity in Argentina included issues such as the best interest of children being raised by criminals, the right to learn the truth of one's origin and identity, rights of their biological families, the issue of voluntary versus compulsory testing of victims, as well as the duty of the state to investigate crimes against humanity, punish perpetrators and provide justice and reparation to the victims. In the 30 years following the return to democracy in 1984, the search, localization and DNA testing of disappeared children and young adults has led, so far, to the genetic identification of 116 persons who had been abducted as babies. The high value placed on DNA testing to identify victims of identity suppression did not conflict with the social consensus that personal identity is a complex and dynamic concept, attained by the interaction of genetics with historical, social, emotional, educational, cultural and other important environmental factors. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics within a developing set of ethical and political circumstances. PMID:25691122

  16. Ethical and legal issues in cases of withdrawing treatment from an incompetent patient in Italy.

    PubMed

    Veshi, Denard

    2013-12-01

    The traditional approach towards end-of-life decision-making in Italy has changed. Whilst article 32 of the Italian Constitution recognizes the 'right to health' that grants patients to withhold or withdraw medical treatment, the Italian Medical Ethics Code neglects any kind of assistance during death or euthanasia. Although norms seem clear, ethicists and lawyers continue to discuss if withdrawing treatment from an incompetent patient should be classified as immoral and/or illegal. This is the result of acceptance of concepts such as patient's autonomy and the "right to die". On one hand, ethicist and lawyers, valuing the patient's autonomy, believe that letting die cannot be punished. On the other hand, however, some conservative ethicists and lawyers argue that the right to life is absolute and imperative and therefore a physician must do everything possible to protect one's life. PMID:24552117

  17. Freedom of movement across the EU: legal and ethical issues for children with chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Mercieca, Cecilia; Aquilina, Kevin; Pullicino, Richard; Borg, Andrew A

    2012-11-01

    While freedom of movement has been one of the most highly respected human right across the EU, there are various aspects which come into play which still need to be resolved for this to be achieved in practice. One of these key issues is cross border health care. Indeed, there is an increasing awareness of standardisation of health service provision and cross border collaboration in the EU. However, certain groups particularly children may be at risk of suboptimal treatment as a result. We present the case of a child patient which highlights the complexity of this matter spanning family law, health law, social security law as well as ethical issues. EU legislation needs to ensure that children patients have access to high quality care across the EU borders. PMID:23109513

  18. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall. PMID:27209528

  19. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  20. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall.

  1. Discontinuation of mechanical ventilation at end-of-life: the ethical and legal boundaries of physician conduct in termination of life support.

    PubMed

    Szalados, James E

    2007-04-01

    End-of-life care in the ICU generally encompasses both the withholding and withdrawal of life support and the administration of palliative care. There is little practical distinction in the specific technology or life-support modality that is limited or removed with respect to the subsequent medical, ethical, or legal analysis. The important ethical issues pertinent to end-of-life care in the ICU at the point-of-life support discontinuation are: (1) the distinction between allowing patients to die in accordance with their wishes and causing them die, (2) the fine line between respecting a patient's wish to die with dignity and control and the risk of subsequent allegations of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide, and (3) the adjunctive use of medications that simultaneously provide comfort but also may hasten death. The medical and legal issues are summarized, and an algorithm for the discontinuation of mechanical ventilatory support at the end of life is presented. PMID:17368174

  2. Parents' perceptions of HIV counselling and testing in schools: ethical, legal and social implications.

    PubMed

    Gwandure, Ruth; Ross, Eleanor; Dhai, Ames; Gardner, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, particularly among adolescents, the Departments of Health and Education have proposed a school-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) campaign to reduce HIV infections and sexual risk behaviour. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, our qualitative study explored perceptions of parents regarding the ethico-legal and social implications of the proposed campaign. Despite some concerns, parents were generally in favour of the HCT campaign. However, they were not aware of their parental limitations in terms of the Children's Act. Their views suggest that the HCT campaign has the potential to make a positive contribution to the fight against HIV and AIDS, but needs to be well planned. To ensure the campaign's success, there is a need to enhance awareness of the programme. All stakeholders, including parents, need to engage in the programme as equal partners.  PMID:24388086

  3. Confidentiality in genetic testing: legal and ethical issues in an international context.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, B M

    1993-01-01

    This comparative legal study on confidentiality in genetic testing examines three levels of communication of genetic information: the personal; the familial; and the institutional third parties. At the first two levels, it is argued that the approach is one that recognizes genetic individuality and reciprocity within the physician-patient relationship without legislative interference. This stands in contrast to the possible use of genetic information by economic third parties or, even, that of the state with respect to the DNA profiling of the genetic identity of criminals, the approach for both areas being the promulgation of 'genetic-specific' or human rights legislation with the hope of preventing discrimination. This rush to constrain the impact of genetic information through legislation is criticized since it may well lead to further stigmatization. The author proposes the promotion of the concept of genetic privacy within the broader rubric of informational self-determination.

  4. Parents' perceptions of HIV counselling and testing in schools: ethical, legal and social implications.

    PubMed

    Gwandure, Ruth; Ross, Eleanor; Dhai, Ames; Gardner, Jillian

    2013-07-29

    In view of the high prevalence of HIV and AIDS in South Africa, particularly among adolescents, the Departments of Health and Education have proposed a school-based HIV counselling and testing (HCT) campaign to reduce HIV infections and sexual risk behaviour. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, our qualitative study explored perceptions of parents regarding the ethico-legal and social implications of the proposed campaign. Despite some concerns, parents were generally in favour of the HCT campaign. However, they were not aware of their parental limitations in terms of the Children's Act. Their views suggest that the HCT campaign has the potential to make a positive contribution to the fight against HIV and AIDS, but needs to be well planned. To ensure the campaign's success, there is a need to enhance awareness of the programme. All stakeholders, including parents, need to engage in the programme as equal partners. 

  5. Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. Methods We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. Results The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Conclusions Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw

  6. Implementing risk-stratified screening for common cancers: a review of potential ethical, legal and social issues

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A.E.; Chowdhury, S.; Hallowell, N.; Pashayan, N.; Dent, T.; Pharoah, P.; Burton, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of common genetic variants associated with common cancers including breast, prostate and ovarian cancers would allow population stratification by genotype to effectively target screening and treatment. As scientific, clinical and economic evidence mounts there will be increasing pressure for risk-stratified screening programmes to be implemented. Methods This paper reviews some of the main ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) raised by the introduction of genotyping into risk-stratified screening programmes, in terms of Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of biomedical ethics—respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. Two alternative approaches to data collection, storage, communication and consent are used to exemplify the ELSI issues that are likely to be raised. Results Ultimately, the provision of risk-stratified screening using genotyping raises fundamental questions about respective roles of individuals, healthcare providers and the state in organizing or mandating such programmes, and the principles, which underpin their provision, particularly the requirement for distributive justice. Conclusions The scope and breadth of these issues suggest that ELSI relating to risk-stratified screening will become increasingly important for policy-makers, healthcare professionals and a wide diversity of stakeholders. PMID:23986542

  7. Using critical literacy to explore genetics and its ethical, legal, and social issues with in-service secondary teachers.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Michael L; Melançon, Megan E; Kleine, Karynne L M

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by applying a critical literacy approach that allows people develop cognitive skills such that they are able to "read the world" (Wink, 2004). The approach is one that permits readers to go beyond the literal text to examine what is present as well as what is missing as it relates to issues of equity and fairness. Becoming critically literate enabled these teacher-participants to challenge the subtle attitudes, values, and beliefs conveyed by a range of written and oral texts. The teacher-participants in this course improved their critical literacy skills by actively reading, critically writing about, and using evidence to support their conclusions about issues arising from advances in human genetics. A biologist, a linguist, and an educator collaboratively designed and taught the course. The personalized focus on the integration of thoughtful reading and writing in this class enhanced the teacher-participants' (n = 16) professional and intellectual development and will potentially improve learning in their biology and English classrooms in the future.

  8. Navigating the legal and ethical foundations of informed consent and confidentiality in integrated primary care.

    PubMed

    Hudgins, Cathy; Rose, Sandra; Fifield, Peter Y; Arnault, Steve

    2013-03-01

    This article describes findings from ongoing research and analysis of current literature in addition to discussions with leaders in the field, communications with lawyers and administrators of advocacy and government agencies pertaining to integrated primary care (IPC). Standards of care are established based on a myriad of factors, including professional codes of ethics, case law, state and federal laws, professional standards, existing best practices, current professional guidelines, administrative rules and regulations, and licensing board regulations. Regulations may differ for behavioral health and medical providers, posing challenges in IPC settings. This article provides a review of these regulations, particularly 42CFR Part 2, a federal law governing confidentiality for substance abuse programs, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and state laws relevant to patient care in IPC settings. On the basis of findings from the study, the authors make recommendations related to patient care practices concerning informed consent and release of information procedures, treatment and warm hand-off protocols, documentation and electronic record keeping, agreements with other providers, and billing.

  9. Protecting Ideas: Ethical and Legal Considerations When a Grant's Principal Investigator Changes.

    PubMed

    Koniaris, Leonidas G; Coombs, Mary I; Meslin, Eric M; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2016-08-01

    Ethical issues related the responsible conduct of research involve questions concerning the rights and obligations of investigators to propose, design, implement, and publish research. When a principal investigator (PI) transfers institutions during a grant cycle, financial and recognition issues need to be addressed to preserve all parties' obligations and best interests in a mutually beneficial way. Although grants often transfer with the PI, sometimes they do not. Maintaining a grant at an institution after the PI leaves does not negate the grantee institution's obligation to recognize the PI's original ideas, contributions, and potential rights to some forms of expression and compensation. Issues include maintaining a role for the PI in determining how to take credit for, share and publish results that involve his or her original ideas. Ascribing proper credit can become a thorny issue. This paper provides a framework for addressing situations and disagreements that may occur when a new PI continues the work after the original PI transfers. Included are suggestions for proactively developing institutional mechanisms that address such issues. Considerations include how to develop solutions that comply with the responsible conduct of research, equitably resolve claims regarding reporting of results, and avoid the possibility of plagiarism. PMID:26228741

  10. Ethical and legal issues in the control of drug abuse and drug trafficking: the Nigerian case.

    PubMed

    Obot, I S

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents a general review of drug law and policy in Nigeria beginning with the international attempts to control the traffic in liquor during the pre-colonial and colonial periods. The paper assesses the impact of penal policy on trafficking and use of illicit drugs at different stages in the transformation of Nigeria from a colonial outpost to an independent nation. One persistent feature of drug control mechanisms in Nigeria has been the emphasis on the reduction of supply with the imposition of harsh though inconsistent punishment including, at one time, the death penalty for trafficking. Consequently, initiatives aimed at demand reduction through education, treatment and rehabilitation have been neglected. One reason for this is that, to a great extent, drug control strategy in modern Nigeria has been a response to international demands; another is that they were formulated under military regimes with an overriding concern for law and order. Other features of the Nigerian drug problem are presented and the need for the reform of current laws is stressed. It is argued that an enduring solution lies in the implementation of a comprehensive but clearly defined policy aimed both at the control of supply and reduction of demand. While the state has the duty and the right to protect its citizens from drug-related harm, it is an ethical imperative to institute control measures which do no harm to the citizens they are meant to protect.

  11. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: recent developments, their clinical relevance and some ethical, social, and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Norbert, Paul W; Roses, Allen D

    2003-03-01

    In recent debates on novel procedures of molecular medicine pharmacogenomics is attracting more and more attention as a genotype-based approach for improving safety and efficacy of the use of therapeutic substances. Promoted by basic knowledge generated in the field of medical genomics, facilitated by novel technological tools for mapping genetic variation in individuals, and supported by results of initial clinical studies linking specific genotypes to metabolic characteristics of individuals important for assessing drug response, procedures of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics now are starting to impact significantly on clinical research and development and medical practice. In this situation assessing the goals, risk, and benefits of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics is essential for the medically successful, ethically justifiable, and socially acceptable implementation of genotype-based diagnosis and pharmacotherapy. We discuss the current state of the art in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics and introduce a model for evidence based assessment of its goals, risk, and benefits. We differentiate here between pragmatic and normative issues in the development of pharmacogenomics in order to contrast prevailing, insufficiently interest-based modes of public technology assessment with the evidence-based mode that can be established as part of clinical study design. Finally, we provide a framework for the analysis of social accountability that can be used for technology development and technology assessment with regard to pharmacogenomics in particular and molecular medicine in general.

  12. Allowing HIV-positive organ donation: ethical, legal and operational considerations.

    PubMed

    Mgbako, O; Glazier, A; Blumberg, E; Reese, P P

    2013-07-01

    Case reports of kidney transplantation using HIV-positive (HIV+) donors in South Africa and advances in the clinical care of HIV+ transplant recipients have drawn attention to the legal prohibition of transplanting organs from HIV+ donors in the United States. For HIV+ transplant candidates, who face high barriers to transplant access, this prohibition violates beneficence by placing an unjustified limitation on the organ supply. However, transplanting HIV+ organs raises nonmaleficence concerns given limited data on recipient outcomes. Informed consent and careful monitoring of outcome data should mitigate these concerns, even in the rare circumstance when an HIV+ organ is intentionally transplanted into an HIV-negative recipient. For potential donors, the federal ban on transplanting HIV+ organs raises justice concerns. While in practice there are a number of medical criteria that preclude organ donation, only HIV+ status is singled out as a mandated exclusion to donation under the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA). Operational objections could be addressed by adapting existing approaches used for organ donors with hepatitis. Center-specific outcomes should be adjusted for HIV donor and recipient status. In summary, transplant professionals should advocate for eliminating the ban on HIV+ organ donation and funding studies to determine outcomes after transplantation of these organs.

  13. Can autonomy be limited--an ethical and legal perspective in a South African context?

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sidney F

    2014-11-01

    The principle of autonomy acknowledges the positive duty on a health care practitioner to respect the decisions of a patient. The principle of respect for autonomy is codified in the International Bill of Rights, the African Charter, The South African Constitution (108 of 1996) and the Patients' Right Charter. The common notion is to protect a person's liberty, privacy and integrity. Health care practitioners should honour the rights of patients to self-determination or to make their own informed choices. Patients have the right to live their lives by their own beliefs, values and preferences. This implies that a healthcare practitioner should respect the wishes of a patient when a patient makes an autonomous decision. The principle of respect for autonomy takes into consideration a patient's choice based on informed consent and the protection of confidentiality of the patient. Informed consent is a process whereby information is shared with a patient to enable an informed decision. It is therefore important for a patient to be well informed to give effect to the notion of making an informed decision. The relationship between the healthcare practitioner and the patient is based on trust and communication. Full disclosure to a patient will empower a patient to make a true informed decision. It is of particular importance for a health care practitioner to acknowledge and respect the decisions and choice made by a patient so as not to violate a patient's autonomy. Can autonomy be limited? It can, if legally required and duly justified. Section 36 of the South African Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) limits rights in the Bill of Rights by application of a general law. PMID:25557414

  14. Ethical and legal implications of whole genome and whole exome sequencing in African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid advances in high throughput genomic technologies and next generation sequencing are making medical genomic research more readily accessible and affordable, including the sequencing of patient and control whole genomes and exomes in order to elucidate genetic factors underlying disease. Over the next five years, the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Initiative, funded by the Wellcome Trust (United Kingdom) and the National Institutes of Health (United States of America), will contribute greatly towards sequencing of numerous African samples for biomedical research. Discussion Funding agencies and journals often require submission of genomic data from research participants to databases that allow open or controlled data access for all investigators. Access to such genotype-phenotype and pedigree data, however, needs careful control in order to prevent identification of individuals or families. This is particularly the case in Africa, where many researchers and their patients are inexperienced in the ethical issues accompanying whole genome and exome research; and where an historical unidirectional flow of samples and data out of Africa has created a sense of exploitation and distrust. In the current study, we analysed the implications of the anticipated surge of next generation sequencing data in Africa and the subsequent data sharing concepts on the protection of privacy of research subjects. We performed a retrospective analysis of the informed consent process for the continent and the rest-of-the-world and examined relevant legislation, both current and proposed. We investigated the following issues: (i) informed consent, including guidelines for performing culturally-sensitive next generation sequencing research in Africa and availability of suitable informed consent documents; (ii) data security and subject privacy whilst practicing data sharing; (iii) conveying the implications of such concepts to research participants in resource

  15. Adoption Bibliography and Multi-Ethnic Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Why, Elizabeth Wharton, Comp.

    Designed for parents who have adopted or who contemplate adoption, and for educational, legal, medical, social, and theological professionals, this bibliography and source book contains over 1250 citations relating to adoption. The book is divided into two parts. The first section is a bibliography of articles, personal narratives, dissertations,…

  16. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature

  17. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature.

  18. Selected Bibliography (259 ref.) of Ojibwa and Other Native American Related Research Concerning Psychoeducational Assessment and Intervention (as well as Related Historical, Cultural, Legal, Economic, and Medical Factors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Damian, Comp.

    Utilizing ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), DAI (Dissertation Abstracts International), and APA (American Psychological Association) computer search resources and library resources in Tennessee, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Canada, this bibliography contains 259 citations pertaining to Ojibwa (Chippewa) and other Native Americans.…

  19. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  20. Some legal, social, and ethical issues related to the genetic testing revolution, as exemplified in the long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebman, J

    2001-01-01

    Molecular Biology is revolutionizing medicine. There are a number of conditions, particularly exemplified by the long QT syndrome, where there is no structural abnormality but where a subset of patients is prone to sudden death. The issues of appropriate care are very complex, because there is tremendous overlap between patients with prolongation of the QT who remain asymptomatic and those with prolongation who are very symptomatic. Furthermore, even those who are prone to have one of the abnormal genes, may be asymptomatic. A large literature has developed, from both legal and ethical aspects, related to the fact that in genetic disease per se, not only is the person at risk, but so are many members of his or her family. A large literature has also developed as to which should be prime, the patient's privacy or the responsibility to make sure the entire family is knowledgeable and perhaps tested. At the present moment our care is based upon the fact that the precise identification of the gene is not yet available on a routine basis. This of course, may soon change. But we will still have difficult decisions to make. Obviously, we have a responsibility as physicians to be as precise as our discipline allows, but we have a responsibility to be flexible. Relief of anxiety, as an example, has to be a prime issue. This is certainly the case now when any information related to infants with potential sudden death is still incomplete. We must not approach the care of the patient in such a way that protection of the physician may interfere with appropriate care. The discussion necessarily includes a variety of aspects. PMID:11781954

  1. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    PubMed

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  2. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    PubMed

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  3. A Legal and Ethical Analysis of the Effects of Triggering Conditions on Surrogate Decision-Making in End-of-Life Care in the US.

    PubMed

    Clint Parker, J; Goldberg, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    The central claim of this paper is that American states' use of so-called "triggering conditions" to regulate surrogate decision-making authority in end-of-life care leaves unresolved a number of important ethical and legal considerations regarding the scope of that authority. The paper frames the issue with a case set in a jurisdiction in which surrogate authority to withdraw life-sustaining treatment is triggered by two specific clinical conditions. The case presents a quandary insofar as the clinical facts do not satisfy the triggering conditions, and yet both the appropriate surrogates and the care team agree that withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment is in the best interest of the patient. The paper surveys applicable law across the 50 states and weighs the arguments for and against the inclusion of such triggering conditions in relevant legal regimes. The paper concludes by assessing the various legal and policy options states have for regulating surrogate decision-making authority in light of the moral considerations (including epistemic difficulties), and notes the possibility for conflict within ethics teams arising from the potential tension between prudence, risk-aversion, and moral obligation. PMID:26084270

  4. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  5. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  6. Student Strip Searches: The Legal and Ethical Implications of "Safford Unified School District v. Redding" for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Mario S.; Brady, Kevin P.; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

    2011-01-01

    The legal freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures is guaranteed to all adult citizens under the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. These same legal protections from unreasonable searches and seizures are not guaranteed to today's k-12 student population. School officials are not subject to the same warrant and probable cause…

  7. Genetic testing and genomic analysis: a debate on ethical, social and legal issues in the Arab world with a focus on Qatar.

    PubMed

    El Shanti, Hatem; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Gallouzi, Imed Eddine; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-11-14

    In 2013 both Saudi Arabia and Qatar launched genome projects with the aim of providing information for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and, ultimately to realize personalized medicine by sequencing hundred thousands samples. These population based genome activities raise a series of relevant ethical, legal and social issues general, related to the specific population structure as well as to the Islamic perspective on genomic analysis and genetic testing. To contribute to the debate, the Authors after reviewing the existing literature and taking advantage of their professional experience in the field and in the geographic area, discuss and provide their opinions. In particular, the Authors focus on the impact of consanguinity on population structure and disease frequency in the Arab world, on genetic testing and genomic analysis (i.e. technical aspects, impact, etc.) and on their regulations. A comparison between the Islamic perspective and the ethical, social and legal issues raised in other population contexts is also carried. In conclusion, this opinion article with an up-to-date contribution to the discussion on the relevance and impact of genomic analysis and genetic testing in the Arab world, might help in producing specific national guidelines on genetic testing and genomic analysis and help accelerate the implementation and roll out of genome projects in Muslim countries and more specifically in Qatar, and other countries of the Gulf.

  8. Yesterday's war; tomorrow's technology: peer commentary on ‘Ethical, legal, social and policy issues in the use of genomic technologies by the US military’

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Nicholas G.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent article by Maxwell J. Mehlman and Tracy Yeheng Li, in the Journal of Law and the Biosciences, sought to examine the ethical, legal, social, and policy issues associated with the use of genetic screening and germ-line therapies (‘genomic technologies’) by the US Military. In this commentary, we will elaborate several related matters: the relationship between genetic and non-genetic screening methods, the history of selection processes and force strength, and the consequences and ethics of, as Mehlman and Li suggest, engineering enhanced soldiers. We contend, first, that the strengths of genomic testing as a method of determining enrollment in the armed forces has limited appeal, given the state of current selection methods in the US armed forces. Second, that the vagaries of genetic selection, much like other forms of selection that do not bear causally or reliably on soldier performance (such as race, gender, and sexuality), pose a systematic threat to force strength by limiting the (valuable) diversity of combat units. Third, that the idea of enhancing warfighters through germ-line interventions poses serious ethical issues in terms of the control and ownership of ‘enhancements’ when members separate from service. PMID:27774182

  9. Legal and ethical obligations to conduct a clinical drug trial in Australia as an investigator initiated and sponsored study for an overseas pharmaceutical company.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2004-01-01

    Most multi-centre trials are both financed and sponsored by the pharmaceutical company involved. What follows will map the path adopted for an investigator initiated and sponsored study for a new indication of an established medication. The chief investigators of a company-sponsored, investigator-initiated, multi-centre, placebo-controlled study of an established medication, Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listed for treatment of one condition but trialled in the management of another condition (trial of off-label use), were approached to submit a protocol to repeat the type of study with a different compound. The new study would test a different agent, also PBS listed, for the same condition as in the initial study and with the same off-licence application. The company would finance the study, provide the medication and matched placebo but only review the investigator-initiated protocol which would be sponsored by the principal investigator. This required the investigator to implement the trial, as would normally be done by the pharmaceutical company, yet also act as its principal investigator. The principal investigator, with colleagues and a Clinical Research Organisation (CRO), developed a protocol, adapted for the new agent, and submitted it for approval. Upon acceptance a contract was negotiated with the pharmaceutical company which had to overcome jurisdictional conflicts between common law and civil law legal systems. A CRO was contracted to undertake administrative functions which dictated special contractual agreements to overcome possible conflicts of interest for a sponsor/investigator to protect patient interests. There was need to find indemnification insurance with jurisdictional problems, co-investigators, ethics committee approvals and finance management as just some of the difficulties encountered. The paper will outline how these obstacles were overcome and how ethical and legal issues were respected through compromise. The ethical and legal

  10. Legal and ethical obligations to conduct a clinical drug trial in Australia as an investigator initiated and sponsored study for an overseas pharmaceutical company.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2004-01-01

    Most multi-centre trials are both financed and sponsored by the pharmaceutical company involved. What follows will map the path adopted for an investigator initiated and sponsored study for a new indication of an established medication. The chief investigators of a company-sponsored, investigator-initiated, multi-centre, placebo-controlled study of an established medication, Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listed for treatment of one condition but trialled in the management of another condition (trial of off-label use), were approached to submit a protocol to repeat the type of study with a different compound. The new study would test a different agent, also PBS listed, for the same condition as in the initial study and with the same off-licence application. The company would finance the study, provide the medication and matched placebo but only review the investigator-initiated protocol which would be sponsored by the principal investigator. This required the investigator to implement the trial, as would normally be done by the pharmaceutical company, yet also act as its principal investigator. The principal investigator, with colleagues and a Clinical Research Organisation (CRO), developed a protocol, adapted for the new agent, and submitted it for approval. Upon acceptance a contract was negotiated with the pharmaceutical company which had to overcome jurisdictional conflicts between common law and civil law legal systems. A CRO was contracted to undertake administrative functions which dictated special contractual agreements to overcome possible conflicts of interest for a sponsor/investigator to protect patient interests. There was need to find indemnification insurance with jurisdictional problems, co-investigators, ethics committee approvals and finance management as just some of the difficulties encountered. The paper will outline how these obstacles were overcome and how ethical and legal issues were respected through compromise. The ethical and legal

  11. Lessons from the past: directions for the future. Do new marketed surgical procedures and grafts produce ethical, personal liability, and legal concerns for physicians?

    PubMed

    Ostergard, Donald R

    2007-06-01

    New procedures and materials for incontinence and prolapse are proliferating rapidly. Surgical procedures were developed by physicians and carried their names, but over the last 15 years, these procedures are developed by industry and bear the trade names of the companies selling the kits needed to perform them. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves devices, not procedures, and does not require submission of efficacy or adverse-event data to gain this approval by the 510-K process. Evidence-based medicine is lacking in the performance of these procedures that may be considered experimental by an insurance company or malpractice carrier with denial of payment or coverage. Physicians and hospitals are exposing themselves to financial, legal, and ethical risks when performing or allowing such procedures to be performed. Informed consent from the patient cannot be obtained. We must not confuse medical marketing with evidence-based medicine.

  12. Medically Assisted Procreation and Fast-Moving Developments in Science and Law: Ethical and Legal Issues in Heterologous Procreation in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Delbon, Paola; Conti, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Significance for public health Continual scientific progress is making new applications available, with significant medical, ethical, legal and social implications, not only for the persons directly concerned. In the area of medically assisted procreation, the use of heterologous techniques is able to overcome problems of sterility or infertility for those requesting access to methods of this kind. On the other hand, legislation is required to regulate the many correlated issues, also with regard to other parties such as ova or sperm donors and the offspring resulting from the use of these techniques: the protection of the health of the offspring; the management of laboratory results obtained during donor selection tests; the protection of confidentiality; the donor-child traceability; the number of donations; and individuals’ rights to be fully informed about their biological origins are just some of the questions confirming that the implications of new procreation techniques are not restricted merely to the couples who access them. PMID:26425499

  13. Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.O.; Lapham, E.V.

    1996-12-31

    This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

  14. Legal, Ethical, and Financial Aspects of Providing Services to Children with Swallowing Disorders in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This article considers the role of the speech-language pathologist in providing services to children with swallowing disorders in the public school setting. Topics addressed include requirements (or aspects) under various federal laws and regulations, as well as ethical, liability, and funding issues. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests.

  16. Hydrogen Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  17. Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Wayne, Comp.

    This bibliography lists approximately 1,100 titles of technical and vocational publications in the following areas: Accounting; Agriculture; Air Conditioning and Refrigeration; Aircraft; Architectural and Building Technology; Arts; Automobiles and Diesels; Biography; Body, Health, and Nutrition; Business; Chemistry; Civil Engineering; Computers;…

  18. Autism Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Kelly; Sobsey, Dick

    The bibliography contains 392 citations relevant to education and related services for children with autism and their families published between 1983 and 1988. Most of the citations are journal articles but a number of relevant books are also included. Citations are alphabetized by title. An author index (by first author) and a subject index are…

  19. Ethical, Legal, and Practical Issues in the Control and Regulation of Suicide Promotion and Assistance over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2007-01-01

    The promotion of suicide and description of suicide methods on the Internet have led to widespread concern that legal control is mandated. Apart from value concerns pertaining to attitudes about suicide, the guarantee of freedom of expression presents a serious challenge to the introduction of restrictive laws. Recent developments in Australia and…

  20. Ethical Attitudes of German Specialists in Reproductive Medicine and Legal Regulation of Preimplantation Sex Selection in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Miriam; Dahl, Edgar; Alexander, Henry; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of its ethical and social implications, preimplantation sex selection is frequently the subject of debates. Methods In 2006, we surveyed specialists in reproductive medicine in Germany using an anonymous questionnaire, including sociodemographic data and questions regarding ethical problems occurring in the practice of reproductive medicine. Most questions focused on preimplantation sex selection, including 10 case vignettes, since these enabled us to describe the most difficult and ethically controversial situations. This is the first survey among specialists in reproductive medicine regarding this topic in Germany. Results 114 specialists in reproductive medicine participated, 72 males (63%) and 42 females (37%), average age was 48 years (age range 29–67 years). The majority of respondents (79%) favoured a regulation that limits the use of preimplantation sex selection only for medical reasons, such as X-linked diseases (including 18%: summoning an ethics commission for every case). A minority of 18% approved of the use of sex selection for non-medical reasons (4% generally and further 14% for family balancing). 90% had received obvious requests from patients. The highest approval (46%) got the counselling guideline against a preimplantation sex selection and advising a normal pregnancy, if preimplantation sex selection would be allowed in Germany. The majority (67%) was opposed the personal use of preimplantation sex selection for non-medical reasons, but would think about it in medical cases. In opposite to woman, 14% of the men were in favour of personal use for non-medical reasons (p = 0,043). 25% of specialists in reproductive medicine feared that an allowance of preimplantation sex selection would cause a shift in the sex ratio. Conclusions The majority of German specialists in reproductive medicine opposes preimplantation sex selection for non-medical reasons while recommending preimplantation sex selection for medical reasons, e

  1. Advance Directives in Some Western European Countries: A Legal and Ethical Comparison between Spain, France, England, and Germany.

    PubMed

    Veshi, Denard; Neitzke, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    We have studied national laws on advance directives in various Western European countries: Romance-speaking countries (Italy, France, Portugal, and Spain), English-speaking countries (Ireland and the United Kingdom), and German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland). We distinguish two potentially complementary types of advance medical declaration: the 'living will' and the nomination of a legal proxy. After examining the similarities and differences between countries, we analyse in detail the legislation of four countries (Spain, France, England, and Germany), since the other countries in this survey have similar legal principles and/or a similar political approach. In conclusion, we note that in all the countries examined, advance directives have been seen as an instrument to enable the patient's right to self-determination. Notwithstanding, in Romance-speaking countries, the involvement of physicians in the end-of-life process and risks arising from the execution of advance directives were also considered. PMID:26427271

  2. Selected bibliography of ground-water in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography contains 899 records related to the hydrology of the US. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: aquifers; artesian wells; geophysics; ground water; flow models; pollution; tritium; water levels; water policy; and legal aspects. The subject index provides listings of records related to each state. Some of the items (81) are themselves bibliographies.

  3. Nuclear war: a selective bibliography, 1977-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography lists books, general and legal periodical articles, and congressional materials on the strategy and consequences of nuclear warfare. Cited items were published during the period 1977-1982.

  4. The Evolution of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues and dilemmas span from conception to the grave. The interconnectedness of advocacy, ethics, and end of life/death with dignity are woven into this issue of the Professional Case Management journal. Case management is a critical member of the team when these discussions arise. And knowledge of the issues, along with legal, ethical, and professional codes, is highlighted. PMID:27231955

  5. Ethical, legal, and practical issues in the control and regulation of suicide promotion and assistance over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Weisstub, David N

    2007-02-01

    The promotion of suicide and description of suicide methods on the Internet have led to widespread concern that legal control is mandated. Apart from value concerns pertaining to attitudes about suicide, the guarantee of freedom of expression presents a serious challenge to the introduction of restrictive laws. Recent developments in Australia and Europe are presented, noting jurisdictional complexity as an obstacle to effective application. Finally, scientific data of an epidemiological nature are revealed to be insufficient to warrant making causal assertions about the Internet and its relation to suicidal acts, including those of vulnerable populations. Recommendations are made with respect to public education, suicide prevention, and future research.

  6. DNA banking and DNA databanking: Legal, ethical, and public policy issues. Progress report, [April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Small, D.

    1994-02-18

    The purpose of the grant was to provide support to enable us to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus has both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed since the inception of the project and describes the activities still in progress.

  7. The use of human tissue in epidemiological research; ethical and legal considerations in two biobanks in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Truyers, Carla; Kellen, Eliane; Arbyn, Marc; Trommelmans, Leen; Nys, Herman; Hensen, Karen; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bartholomeeusen, Stefaan; Hansson, Mats; Buntinx, Frank

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the legal implications of setting up two new biobanks in Belgium. The first is hospital-based and will archive tissue from patients with haematologic cancer, whereas the second is linked to a general practice based morbidity registry and will involve storage of blood samples. To date, Belgium has no specific legislation that regulates storage of human tissue and related databases. Several issues concerning the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal medical data are discussed from the existing privacy legislation. We will address the principle of consent (broad versus specific) and the type of data recorded (anonymous, encoded and identifiable) for both biobanks.

  8. A Bibliography on Moral/Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klafter, Marcia B., Comp.

    This bibliography is a collection of approximately 1,800 citations of articles, books, and curriculum materials published between 1960 and June 1975 in the area of moral/ethical/values education. The documents are coded: (A) by type--research report, specific data; review of research; instructional procedure, description, curriculum content,…

  9. [The surgical innovation: From the legal framework through the veritable ethics innovation - Technical aspects and practical applications].

    PubMed

    Flageul, G; Aharoni, C; Delay, E; Desouches, C; Devauchelle, B; Guimberteau, J-C; Lantieri, L; Le Louarn, C; Magalon, G

    2010-10-01

    Grace to the creativity of surgeons and the introduction of new technologies, second half of the XXth century opened the era of innovations and decisive progress. At the same time, however, is born the feeling of distrust and claiming which has come with the graving and threatening juridiciarisation. The evolution of complex structures of our society joined the ingenuity researchers unlimited makes formal law and the legal framework constantly to adapt oneself to circumstances. In the field of surgery, it's necessary to make work in integrity the innovation and protection at the patient's and their dignity. The legal framework that governs today innovation in surgery must still to go further and will precise. Dignity, compelling paradigm for all those who seek to better understand and better protect human starred as impassable limit any search and any experimentation. To make this chapter more alive, we have supplemented it and illustrated by the testimony some of the most fruitful French last years innovative in order to enrich our thinking of the fruit of their large and brilliant experience.

  10. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  11. Transfusion Requirements in Microsurgical Reconstruction in Maxillofacial Surgery: Ethical and Legal Problems of Patients Who Are Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lorena Pingarron; Arias-Gallo, Javier; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Seco, Pilar Ruiz; Moro, Javier Gonzalez M; Burgueño-Garcia, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Objective To study transfusion requirements in patients with cancer undergoing head and neck reconstructive surgery and to discuss surgical and anesthetic strategies to reduce blood loss when the patient is a Jehovah's Witness. Material and Methods A descriptive study to expose the percentage of blood transfusions performed in patients with cancer undergoing microsurgical reconstructions in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the referred hospital in the past 9 years. Results Two hundred thirty-seven microsurgical reconstructions were performed in head and neck tumors between January 2001 and December 2009. Statistical analysis shows a significant decrease (p = 0.035) in the number of patients needing transfusions patients in recent years. Conclusions The treatment of patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses is an ethical and moral dilemma for the clinician and in particular for surgeons. PMID:24436733

  12. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below.

  13. Research Ethics: Reforming Postgraduate Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…

  14. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  15. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Frank

    Intended to act as a general introduction for high school and college students, this book presents an annotated bibliography of books, periodical articles, legal materials, and other documents dealing with the subject of intellectual freedom and censorship. The book is divided into five parts: (1) "The Theoretical Foundations of Censorship and…

  16. Revenue Producing Athletes: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Leroy; And Others

    An annotated bibliography on revenue producing sports is presented, with attention to: Proposition 48, exploitation of athletes, legal proceedings, research related to athletes and academic performance, psychological characteristics of athletes, and counseling programs for athletes. Introductions to each of the six topics are included. The section…

  17. Governments and Information. A Supplemental Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Helen

    Divided into three major sections, Information Policies, Legal Information, and Presidential Information, this bibliography provides full citations for a wide range of government publications. Call numbers and locations of the documents in the Syracuse University Library system are supplied. Within the Information Policies portion, there are…

  18. Shared decision-making: is it time to obtain informed consent before radiologic examinations utilizing ionizing radiation? Legal and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Concerns about the possibility of developing cancer due to diagnostic imaging examinations utilizing ionizing radiation exposure are increasing. Research studies of survivors of atomic bomb explosions, nuclear reactor accidents, and other unanticipated exposures to similar radiation have led to varying conclusions regarding the stochastic effects of radiation exposure. That high doses of ionizing radiation cause cancer in humans is generally accepted, but the question of whether diagnostic levels of radiation cause cancer continues to be hotly debated. It cannot be denied that overexposure to ionizing radiation beyond a certain threshold, which has not been exactly determined, does generate cancer. This causes a dilemma: what should patients be informed about the possibility that a CT or similar examination might cause cancer later in life? At present, there is no consensus in the radiology community as to whether informed consent must be obtained from a patient before the patient undergoes a CT or similar examination. The author analyzes whether there is a legal duty mandating radiologists to obtain such informed consent but also, irrespective of the law, whether there an ethical duty that compels radiologists to inform patients of potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, there has been a noticeable shift from a benevolent, paternalistic approach to medical care to an autonomy-based, shared-decision-making approach, whereby patient and physician work as partners in determining what is medically best for the patient. Radiologists should discuss the benefits and hazards of imaging with their patients.

  19. The ethical, legal and social implications of umbilical cord blood banking: learning important lessons from the protection of human genetic information.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, David

    2012-03-01

    Internationally networked umbilical cord blood banks hold great promise for better clinical outcomes, but also raise a host of potential ethical and legal concerns. There is now significant accumulated experience in Australia and overseas with regard to the establishment of human genetic research databases and tissue collections, popularly known as "biobanks". For example, clear lessons emerge from the controversies that surrounded, stalled or derailed the establishment of some early biobanks, such as Iceland's deCODE, Autogen's Tonga database, a proposed biobank in Newfoundland, Canada, and the proposed Taiwan biobank. More recent efforts in the United Kingdom, Japan, Quebec and Tasmania have been relatively more successful in generating public support, recognising the critical need for openness and transparency, and ample public education and debate, in order to build community acceptance and legitimacy. Strong attention must be paid to ensuring that other concerns--about privacy, discrimination, informed consent, governance, security, commercial fairness and financial probity--are addressed in structural terms and monitored thereafter, in order to maintain public confidence and avoid a backlash that inevitably would imperil such research. Once lost, credibility is very difficult to restore.

  20. Dialysis: prolonging life or prolonging dying? Ethical, legal and professional considerations for end of life decision making.

    PubMed

    White, Y; Fitzpatrick, G

    2006-01-01

    There are over 7,000 people on dialysis in Australia and this is predicted to increase due to the ageing population and the high incidence of diabetes mellitus. Discontinuation of dialysis is the second most frequent cause of death in dialysis patients in Australia. Risk factors for the discontinuation of dialysis include: co-morbidities (especially diabetes mellitus) and being older. Because the decision to discontinue dialysis is a major life choice, collaborative decision making should be encouraged, and the patient needs assurances of the continuation of care and kindness, a palliative care plan, and the alleviation of suffering. Patients decide to discontinue dialysis because of an unacceptable quality of life, depression and a chronic failure to thrive. Health professionals need to support end of life decision making using an ethical decision framework. A review of current literature was undertaken and revealed a paucity of information in regard to palliation in those with end stage renal disease who had discontinued dialysis. The fear of dying, pain, suffering, and abandonment that a patient and/or their family may perceive as being associated with death may create barriers to decisions to discontinue with dialysis treatments. Therefore health care personnel should provide information with honesty to allow patients to predict their quality of life and death. Support for the patient and family during the dying period should be multi-disciplinary, with clear and timely communication between all members of the team.

  1. BARTERING FOR A COMPATIBLE KIDNEY USING YOUR INCOMPATIBLE, LIVE KIDNEY DONOR: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES RELATED TO KIDNEY CHAINS.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Evelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Kidney chains are a recent and novel method of increasing the number of available kidneys for transplantation and have the potential to save thousands of lives. However, because they are novel, kidney chains do not fit neatly within existing legal and ethicalframeworks, raising potential barriers to their full implementation. Kidney chains are an extension of paired kidney donation, which began in the United States in 2000. Paired kidney donations allow kidney patients with willing, but incompatible, donors to swap donors to increase the number of donor/recipient pairs and consequently, the number of transplants. More recently, transplant centers have been using non-simultaneous, extended, altruistic donor ("NEAD") kidney chains--which consist of a sequence of donations by incompatible donors--to further expand the number of donations. This Article fully explains paired kidney donation and kidney chains and focuses on whether NEAD chains are more coercive than traditional kidney donation to a family member or close friend and whether NEAD chains violate the National Organ Transplant Act's prohibition on the transfer of organs for valuable consideration. PMID:27263265

  2. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. HIV testing for peacekeeping forces: legal and human rights issues.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. PMID:14743823

  3. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided. PMID:26602787

  4. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided.

  5. Developing an Ethical Appreciation in Communication Classes: Pedagogical Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Kenneth E.

    Integrating ethics into a communication course is one means of advancing an understanding of ethical issues. Since textbooks in most instances will not have a substantial coverage of ethical material, the instructor can look for supplementary materials in references such as the bibliography entitled "Ethical Responsibility in Communication"…

  6. Legal, ethical, and economic implications of breaking down once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations into their single components for cost reduction.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Miguel A; Llibre, Josep M

    2014-11-01

    The availability of generic lamivudine in the context of the current economic crisis has raised a new issue in some European countries: breaking up the once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations (FDAC) of efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine, tenofovir/emtricitabine, or abacavir/lamivudine, in order to administer their components separately, thereby allowing the use of generic lamivudine instead of branded emtricitabine or lamivudine. The legal, ethical, and economic implications of this potential strategy are reviewed, particularly in those patients receiving a once-daily single-tablet regimen. An unfamiliar change in antiretroviral treatment from a successful patient-friendly FDAC into a more complex regimen including separately the components to allow the substitution of one (or some) of them for generic surrogates (in the absence of a generic bioequivalent FDAC) could be discriminatory because it does not guarantee access to equal excellence in healthcare to all citizens. Furthermore, it could violate the principle of non-maleficence by potentially causing harm both at the individual level (hindering adherence and favouring treatment failure and resistance), and at the community level (hampering control of disease transmission and transmission of HIV-1 resistance). Replacing a FDAC with the individual components of that combination should only be permitted when the substituting medication has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of active ingredients, pharmaceutical form, method of administration, dosage and presentation as the medication being replaced, and a randomized study has demonstrated its non-inferiority. Finally, a strict pharma-economic study supporting this change, comparing the effectiveness and the cost of a specific intervention with the best available alternative, should be undertaken before its potential implementation. PMID:24139337

  7. What ethical and legal principles should guide the genotyping of children as part of a personalised screening programme for common cancer?

    PubMed

    Hall, Alison Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Susmita; Pashayan, Nora; Hallowell, Nina; Pharoah, Paul; Burton, Hilary

    2014-03-01

    Increased knowledge of the gene-disease associations contributing to common cancer development raises the prospect of population stratification by genotype and other risk factors. Individual risk assessments could be used to target interventions such as screening, treatment and health education. Genotyping neonates, infants or young children as part of a systematic programme would improve coverage and uptake, and facilitate a screening package that maximises potential benefits and minimises harms including overdiagnosis. This paper explores the potential justifications and risks of genotyping children for genetic variants associated with common cancer development within a personalised screening programme. It identifies the ethical and legal principles that might guide population genotyping where the predictive value of the testing is modest and associated risks might arise in the future, and considers the standards required by population screening programme validity measures (such as the Wilson and Jungner criteria including cost-effectiveness and equitable access). These are distinguished from the normative principles underpinning predictive genetic testing of children for adult-onset diseases-namely, to make best-interests judgements and to preserve autonomy. While the case for population-based genotyping of neonates or young children has not yet been made, the justifications for this approach are likely to become increasingly compelling. A modified evaluative and normative framework should be developed, capturing elements from individualistic and population-based approaches. This should emphasise proper communication and genuine parental consent or informed choice, while recognising the challenges associated with making unsolicited approaches to an asymptomatic group. Such a framework would be strengthened by complementary empirical research.

  8. Why we should not legalize euthanasia. The foundational ethical principle obliging us to protect life must be translated into a concrete norm.

    PubMed

    Place, M D

    1993-03-01

    The euthanasia debate is really the backdrop for a discussion within our society about the very nature of human life and meaning. Because the origin of life is in God, human beings do not have dominion over life but are stewards of life. The powerful combination of sanctity and stewardship is expressed in the foundational ethical principle. This principle says that no person has the right to directly take innocent human life and in fact there is a positive obligation to nurture and protect life. In our secular society there is a need to develop a "natural" metaphysic of sacredness. Such a metaphysic can serve as bedrock from which a foundational principle can be developed and then applied in concrete moral norms. It can show that life contributes to the full dignity of the human person. For this perspective to be effective in countering the movement to legalize euthanasia, this sense of integral wholeness of human personhood must be demonstrated in a convincing manner. It can be because a dualistic philosophical bias has been found wanting by Western culture. We must arrive at what ethicists would call concrete norms that guide individual choices. At issue is how we translate our foundational principle--Do not directly attack innocent human life--into a concrete norm when confronted with the possibility of death. Some persons question whether the concrete norm opposing euthanasia should be a matter of public morality. To answer this question, we must turn to our foundational principle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10124303

  9. Legal, ethical, and economic implications of breaking down once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations into their single components for cost reduction.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Miguel A; Llibre, Josep M

    2014-11-01

    The availability of generic lamivudine in the context of the current economic crisis has raised a new issue in some European countries: breaking up the once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations (FDAC) of efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine, tenofovir/emtricitabine, or abacavir/lamivudine, in order to administer their components separately, thereby allowing the use of generic lamivudine instead of branded emtricitabine or lamivudine. The legal, ethical, and economic implications of this potential strategy are reviewed, particularly in those patients receiving a once-daily single-tablet regimen. An unfamiliar change in antiretroviral treatment from a successful patient-friendly FDAC into a more complex regimen including separately the components to allow the substitution of one (or some) of them for generic surrogates (in the absence of a generic bioequivalent FDAC) could be discriminatory because it does not guarantee access to equal excellence in healthcare to all citizens. Furthermore, it could violate the principle of non-maleficence by potentially causing harm both at the individual level (hindering adherence and favouring treatment failure and resistance), and at the community level (hampering control of disease transmission and transmission of HIV-1 resistance). Replacing a FDAC with the individual components of that combination should only be permitted when the substituting medication has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of active ingredients, pharmaceutical form, method of administration, dosage and presentation as the medication being replaced, and a randomized study has demonstrated its non-inferiority. Finally, a strict pharma-economic study supporting this change, comparing the effectiveness and the cost of a specific intervention with the best available alternative, should be undertaken before its potential implementation.

  10. Chernobyl bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  11. Pyroshock: Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper represents a review copy for text that is to be included in the Shock and Vibration Recommended Practice Document. This section on pyroshock is written an a general introduction to and description of the topic loading to presentation of an extensive bibliography on the subject. Pyroshock is an evolving science that needs continued focus on both achieving improvements in testing and measurement techniques and advancing instrumentation capabilities. When desired in the near future, recommended practices can be presented. Pyroshock phenomena are associated with separation systems of missiles. spacecraft, and in some cases airplanes. During launch, a rocket driven vehicle may be exposed to 19 to 30 g's of acceleration with predominant frequencies less than 200 Hz. After launch or takeoffs sections or parts of vehicles may be separated rapidly using explosive driven release mechanisms. Separations can involve stage disconnections for spacecraft sections or payload ejections from missiles and airplanes. At separation, localized pyrotechnic induced accelerations may range from 1000 to over 100,000 g's at frequencies much higher than 1000 Hz. These pyroshocks are characterized by high intensity, high frequency transients that decay rapidly. Pyroshock impulses have insignificant velocity changes.

  12. Pyroshock: Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    This paper represents a review copy for text that is to be included in the Shock and Vibration Recommended Practice Document. This section on pyroshock is written an a general introduction to and description of the topic loading to presentation of an extensive bibliography on the subject. Pyroshock is an evolving science that needs continued focus on both achieving improvements in testing and measurement techniques and advancing instrumentation capabilities. When desired in the near future, recommended practices can be presented. Pyroshock phenomena are associated with separation systems of missiles. spacecraft, and in some cases airplanes. During launch, a rocket driven vehicle may be exposed to 19 to 30 g`s of acceleration with predominant frequencies less than 200 Hz. After launch or takeoffs sections or parts of vehicles may be separated rapidly using explosive driven release mechanisms. Separations can involve stage disconnections for spacecraft sections or payload ejections from missiles and airplanes. At separation, localized pyrotechnic induced accelerations may range from 1000 to over 100,000 g`s at frequencies much higher than 1000 Hz. These pyroshocks are characterized by high intensity, high frequency transients that decay rapidly. Pyroshock impulses have insignificant velocity changes.

  13. Prison Libraries: Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, David M.

    An Alphabetically arranged bibliography, listing 485 entries representing 518 citations taken from "Poole's Index to Periodical Literature" 1802-1906, "Cannon's Bibliography of Library Economy," and "Library Literature" 1921 to mid-1970. Other sources used include: The Index to the Journal of Correctional Education; ten bibliographies taken from…

  14. Urban Sociology Bibliography, Exchange Bibliography 1336.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James L.; And Others

    This bibliography on urban sociology cites studies which discuss the structures and processes of urban society from an historical and comparative perspective. Although it includes studies that discuss population growth, decline, size, and density, the prime concern of this bibliography is not with urban demography. After a brief look at some…

  15. School Counselor Advocacy: When Law and Ethics May Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Carolyn B.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2010-01-01

    Legal rules establish basic duties akin to the floor for acceptable behavior, whereas ethical codes represent aspirational standards for best practice. For school counselors, fulfilling both legal requirements and ethical principles may pose challenges that warrant careful consideration. This article outlines a legal/ethical conflict in the case…

  16. Are You a Legally Literate School Counselor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Beale, Andrew V.

    2010-01-01

    This exercise is designed to assist school counselors in assessing their knowledge of prevalent ethical and legal issues within the school setting. The aim is to highlight emerging legal and ethical dilemmas and motivate counselors to stay abreast of specific school rules and policies, as well as keep a basic understanding of state and federal…

  17. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  18. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  19. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics.

  20. Analysis: A Legal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This commentary summarizes the uncertain state of the law regarding consent for posthumous gamete retrieval. The emergence of a legal framework will be aided by the kind of ethical analysis prompted by this family's request for removal and preservation of a deceased patient's ovaries. PMID:27045308

  1. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography lists 731 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in 1990. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  2. Management: A bibliography for NASA Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography lists 707 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technology information system in 1985. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs, and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  3. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography lists 653 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1987. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citiations are grouped into ten subject categories; human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management, reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  4. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography lists 822 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in 1988. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  5. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography lists 755 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in 1989. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  6. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 630 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in 1991. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  7. Professional Ethics in a Risky World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Roger B., Jr.; Saunders, Sue A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines student affairs professionals' areas of practice in which legal risk-management and ethical practice frequently clash. Offers a series of recommendations to maximize ethical practice while minimizing risks. Provides a framework for further discussion and reflection. (MKA)

  8. Transforming the Swaziland National Bibliography (SNB): Visions of Currency, Access, Coverage and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muswazi, Paiki

    This paper explores the evolution of the Swaziland National Bibliography (SNB), noting its roots in international resolutions on national bibliographies and legislation bestowing legal depository status on the University of Swaziland Libraries and the Swaziland National Library Service. It is observed that since publication of the first issue in…

  9. Rural Education: January 1979-March 1990. Quick Bibliography Series: QB90-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Patricia LaCaille, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 108 citations (some with annotations) for selected rural education literature entered into the AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and March 1990. The publications include books, commission papers, journal articles, legal documents, reports, and academic theses. Some of the topics covered in the bibliography as they…

  10. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  11. Using Commercial Advertising To Build an Understanding of Ethical Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that teachers of middle and secondary students use the legal and ethical questions that have evolved around commercial advertising as a springboard to introduce students to the importance of ethical decision making in general. Discusses law versus ethics; why ethics is practically important; and ethical truthfulness. (SR)

  12. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography covering awards, computers and technology, critical thinking, developmental psychology and aging, ethics, graduate education and training issues, high school psychology, history, introductory psychology, learning and cognition, perception/physiological/comparative psychology, research methods and research-related…

  13. The Natural Environment: An Annotated Bibliography on Attitudes and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglemyer, Mary, Comp.; Seagraves, Eleanor R., Comp.

    Presented in this annotated bibliography are 857 entries which deal with ethics, attitudes, and values and the relationship of these topics to the natural environment. The entries (numbered consecutively throughout the book) are arranged by these categories and subcategories: (1) comprehensive--general, decision-making, planning, and population;…

  14. A Selected Appalachian Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary K., Comp.

    This bibliography was compiled to assist high school and junior college teachers in planning a classroom unit on Appalachian literature. It contains suggested fiction and poetry, as well as general background reading. Topic entries are: Bibliographies; Chicago; Fiction; Folklore; General Background Reading (includes psychological, sociological and…

  15. NFE Core Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. for International Studies in Education.

    This collection of core bibliographies, which expands on an initial bibliography published in 1979 of the core resources housed in the Non-Formal Education Information Center at Michigan State University, comprises a basic stock of materials on nonformal education and women in development that have been contributed by development planners,…

  16. Annual Bibliography, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jo. B., Comp.

    2012-01-01

    This classified, comprehensive bibliography for Appalachian studies includes books, journal articles, government documents, and selected newspaper articles published in 2010, plus relevant titles indexed in ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database. Also, a number of earlier citations not included in the previous bibliography are listed here.…

  17. PR Bibliography, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Based on searches of nearly 200 periodicals as well as publishers' flyers and brochures from 30 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1996. The annotated bibliography is…

  18. PR Bibliography, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Based on searches of more than 100 periodicals as well as flyers and brochures from 24 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles (published in 1995) related to the knowledge and practice of public relations. The annotated bibliography is divided…

  19. PR Bibliography, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Based on searches of more than 100 periodicals as well as flyers and brochures from 24 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1994. The annotated bibliography is subdivided…

  20. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  1. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  2. Selected bibliography of China

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 276 records related to the geology of the China. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; lithology; paleontology; stratigraphy; tectonics; drilling; earthquakes; exploration; geophysics; mineral resources; and seismology. The subject index provides listings of records related to each of the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (10) are themselves bibliographies.

  3. Glossolalia: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Richard R.

    This bibliography was designed to aid a study of Holiness snake-handling churches in Appalachia. The bibliography includes items published between 1964 and 1974, and has been restricted to this time period in order to pay adequate attention to the use of tongues in "today's church." No effort has been made to include newspaper articles or foreign…

  4. PR Bibliography, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books published in 2001 on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. This bibliography is subdivided into 40 categories including campaigns; consumer relations; community relations; corporate social responsibility;…

  5. PR Bibliography, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. New categories for this 1999 edition of the bibliography include Public Relations Theory, Feminist Issues in Public Relations, and Environmental Public Relations.…

  6. PR Bibliography, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Encompassing both the practical and the scholarly, this annotated bibliography on public relations aims to provide a window into some of each of the offerings in academic and business journals, as well as in trade and professional journals published in 1997. The introduction notes that many entries in the bibliography deal with the Internet, the…

  7. PR Bibliography, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books published in 2000 on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. This bibliography is subdivided into 29 categories including campaigns; community relations; corporate image; education; employee relations;…

  8. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  9. Employee Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    This partially annotated bibliography of several hundred items includes material published since 1965. Entries are listed alphabetically by author. The following subject headings were used in the literature search for this bibliography: communication in management, communication in personnel management, reports to employees, attitude surveys,…

  10. Bibliography of Citizenship Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 CASAS "Bibliography of Citizenship Materials" lists available instructional resources for citizenship education. It focuses on materials appropriate for preparing people for the naturalization process and the standardized citizenship examination. Resources include textbooks, audio materials, software and Videos/DVDs. The bibliography also…

  11. Data Banks; Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aa, H. J., Comp.; And Others

    This 249 item, mostly annotated bibliography cites literature on the general themes of basic principles, hardware, software and application studies of data bases. The broad categories are principles, development possibilities, organizational design, bibliographies, economic aspects, data structure-design, file organization, programing, aviation,…

  12. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  13. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  14. Environmental Awareness Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Fred C.

    Environmental Awareness is the theme of this bibliography compiled by the Friends Council on Education to assist in the task of implementing environmental awareness courses and experiences into the crowded curricula and extra-curricular life of schools and colleges. Part One, "Definition of the Problem," is a selected bibliography of printed…

  15. Groundwater protection: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, N.

    1985-10-01

    The selected bibliography consists of four sections. Section One contains material on groundwater written from a legal perspective. Items in the section focus on the evolving role of the law in protecting, conserving, and managing groundwater resources in the United States. Much of this material contains primary information on groundwater hydrology for those who are unfamiliar with the subject. Section Two includes material on groundwater hydrology written from a scientific/technical viewpoint. The material ranges from introductory texts to complex studies that utilize mathematical or computer models to predict levels of groundwater consumption or contamination. Some of these items also include law-related information such as local, state, and federal regulations affecting groundwater use.

  16. The Attorney-Client Relationship as a Business Law-Legal Environment Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Murray S.

    2004-01-01

    Business school law courses should promote understanding of legal processes affecting business, help students learn to recognize legal issues and manage legal risks, increase ethical sensitivity, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. To this end, business law and legal environment textbooks tend to focus on ethical and legal…

  17. Ethical Issues in Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Peter; Coad, Raylene

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that a literature survey can alert students to real-life ethical problems surrounding many organic compounds. Topic areas students could explore include: hazards in the workplace, toxic chemicals, and nerve gas structures. Background information and an extensive bibliography are given. (DH)

  18. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  19. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right. PMID:18313010

  20. Information for Inmates, Series # 1; A Bibliography of Fundamental Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Joel A., Comp.

    All of the books cited in this brief bibliography are annotated. Included are books on such subjects as: censorship, the moral and legal rights of prisoners, and basic human and civil rights. Some, if not all, of these books should be part of every prison library collection. (NH)

  1. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume I. Citation extracts. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This annoted bibliography contains 1131 citations. It represents reports, papers, and articles appearing over the past eighteen years covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources. Six indexes include: author, conference title, descriptor, journal title, report number, and sponsor. (MHR)

  2. Mass Communications: A Bibliography of Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Fred K.; Paine, Nancy E.

    The bibliographies cited in this collection deal with substantive issues in mass communication. Entries exclude media as creative forms, technical aspects of production, indexes, and union lists. The 234 entries--all works published since 1924--are arranged according to the following categories: (1) advertising and public relations, (2)…

  3. Ethics and the Law: Friend or Foe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stude, E. W.; McKelvey, James

    1979-01-01

    This article discussed the relation between ethical standards for counselors and the legal principles of our society as it affects the client-counselor relationship. The concepts of client confidentiality and counselor liability are defined. A client-counselor situation is outlined, with suggested counselor responses to the ethical/legal issues…

  4. Movie Books: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item annotated bibliography lists books dealing with various aspects of children's films: monsters, television production, filmmaking, kids of the movies, animation, movie stunts, magic, movie animals, and photography. Publisher, publication date, and intended grade level are included. (EJS)

  5. Bibliographies: The Librarian's Bookshelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2003-01-01

    This selective bibliography is organized by subject headings that include administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction/information literacy; cataloging and classification; children's and young adults; collection development; copyright; customer service; distance education; electronic libraries; evaluation of library services; fund…

  6. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  7. NASA geodynamics program: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Seventh Geodynamics Program report summarizes program activities and achievements during 1988 and 1989. Included is a 115 page bibliography of the publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program since its initiation in 1979.

  8. International Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.

    1988-01-01

    One in a series of bibliographies of articles in international higher education journals lists items on a variety of administrative, financial, faculty, student, curricular, and related issues. Articles on specific geographic regions are categorized separately. (MSE)

  9. Bibliographies. The Librarian's Bookshelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography for materials helpful to librarians includes works relating to administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction; information literacy; cataloging and classification; children's and adolescent services and materials; collection development; copyright; distance education; electronic libraries; evaluation; fund raising;…

  10. Bibliography [On Drugs].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Detroit, MI.

    A bibliography of materials on drugs is presented. The book and paper back entries are annotated. Selected technical references are listed under these major findings: (1) dependency, (2) barbiturates, (3) amphetamines, and (4) general pharmacology. (PS)

  11. Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.

  12. Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tol, Joan E., Ed.

    Law review and journal articles on sexual harassment in higher education are presented along with policies and procedures from selected universities and organizations, guidance on drafting policies, and a selected bibliography. The following law review and journal articles are presented: "Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment" (Elsa…

  13. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  14. APA Ethics. A Help or Hindrance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gram, Peter C.

    The Committee on Scientific and Professional Ethics and Conduct of the APA deals with ethical matters and decides on membership. It can recommend to the Board disbarment, a reprimand, or a probationary period. The APA has a code of ethics, but congressional investigations and legal questions concerning behavioral research and individual rights and…

  15. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography lists 706 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1984. Entries, which include abstracts, are arranged in the following categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs, and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy. Subject, personal author, corporate source, contract number, report number, and accession number indexes are included.

  16. The New World of Human Genetics: A dialogue between Practitioners & the General Public on Ethical, Legal & Social Implications of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Amy

    2014-12-08

    The history and reasons for launching the Human Genome project and the current uses of genetic human material; Identifying and discussing the major issues stemming directly from genetic research and therapy-including genetic discrimination, medical/ person privacy, allocation of government resources and individual finances, and the effect on the way in which we perceive the value of human life; Discussing the sometimes hidden ethical, social and legislative implications of genetic research and therapy such as informed consent, screening and preservation of genetic materials, efficacy of medical procedures, the role of the government, and equal access to medical coverage.

  17. Bibliographie Annotee de Linguistique Acadienne (Annotated Bibliography of Acadian Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesner, Edward

    A bibliography of 430 books, journal articles, papers, and other references on Acadian French written in English or French is divided into two principal sections: an annotated bibliography of works focusing on the Acadian French dialect spoken in the Canadian Maritime Provinces, and an unannotated bibliography pertaining to Louisiana Acadian…

  18. Socratic Method Adds Zest to Ethics, Law Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    1978-01-01

    Provides examples of case studies on journalism law and ethics, handled in the Socratic questioning method, showing how this approach helps students to realize what legal and ethical implications they may encounter as reporters and editors. (RL)

  19. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  20. [Ethical review of research in the grey area. The Ethical Review Act should be widened and case management more efficient].

    PubMed

    Lafolie, Pierre; Agahi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The present legal definition of the term research creates problems with what can be considered for ethical vetting by the Research Ethical Review Board. The Ethical Review Act should be revised in order for student projects involving patients or quality assurance in healthcare to be accepted for ethical vetting by the Board. PMID:25710225

  1. Bibliography on Criterion Referenced Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Randolph A.; Franz, Carleen

    This bibliography contains 262 references on Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) that were obtained from the following sources: (1) the author's personal files; (2) a bibliography compiled by Hsu and Boston (ERIC Document #ED 068 531) containing 52 references; (3) a bibliography compiled by Keller (ERIC Document #ED 060 041) containing 116…

  2. Bibliography of Aeronautics, 1929

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, Paul

    1930-01-01

    This Bibliography of Aeronautics for 1929 covers the aeronautical literature published from January 1 to December 31, 1929. The first Bibliography of Aeronautics was published by the Smithsonian Institution as Volume 55 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections and covered the material published prior to June 30, 1909. Supplementary volumes of the Bibliography of Aeronautics for the subsequent years have been published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The last preceding volume was for the calendar year 1928. As in the previous volumes, citations of the pUblications of all nations are included in th.e languages in which. these publications originally appeared. The arrangement is in dictionary form with author and subject entry, and one alphabetical arrangement. Detail in the matter of subject reference has been omitted on account of the cost of presentation, but an attempt has been made to give sufficient cross reference for research in special lines.

  3. Bibliography of Aeronautics: 1932

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    This Bibliography of Aeronautics for 1932 covers the aeronautical literature published from January 1 to December 31, 1932. The first Bibliography of Aeronautics was published by the Smithsonian Institution as volume 55 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections and covered the material published prior to June 30, 1909. Supplementary volumes of the Bibliography of Aeronautics for the subsequent years have been published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The last preceding volume was for the calendar year 1931. As in the previous volumes, citations of the publications of all nations are included in the languages in which these publications originally appeared. The arrangement is in dictionary form with author and subject entry and one alphabetical arrangement. Detail in the matter of subject reference has been omitted on account of the cost of presentation, but an attempt has been made to give sufficient cross-reference for research in special lines.

  4. Bibliography of Aeronautics: 1926

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, Paul

    1928-01-01

    This Bibliography of Aeronautics for 1926 covers the aeronautical literature published from January 1 to December 31, 1926. The first Bibliography of Aeronautics was published by the Smithsonian Institution as volume 55 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections and covered the material published prior to June 30, 1909. Supplementary volumes of the Bibliography of Aeronautics for the subsequent years have been published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The last preceding volume was for the calendar year 1925. As in the previous volumes, citations of the publications of all nations are included in the languages in which these publications originally appeared. The arrangement is dictionary form with author find subject entry, and one alphabetical arrangement. Detail in the matter of subject reference has been omitted on aCC01.mt of the cost of presentation, but an attempt has been made to give sufficient cross reference for research in special lines.

  5. Bibliography of Aeronautics: 1928

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, Paul

    1928-01-01

    This Bibliography of Aeronautics for 1928 covers the aeronautical literature published from January 1 to December 31, 1928. The first Bibliography of Aeronautics was published by the Smithsonian Institution as volume 55 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections and covered the material published prior to June 30, 1909. Supplementary volumes of the Bibliography of Aeronautics for the subsequent years have been published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The last preceding volume was for the calendar year 1927. As in the previous volumes, citations of the publications of all nations are included in the languages in which these publications originally appeared. The arrangement is in dictionary form with author and subject entry, and one alphabetical arrangement. Detail in the matter of subject reference has been omitted on account of the cost of presentation, but an attempt has been made to give sufficient cross reference for research in special lines.

  6. End-of-life care in advanced kidney disease: ethical and legal issues and key challenges for black and minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2014-09-01

    Advances in modern medical technology have gone so far that it is now possible for machinery to keep people alive. To some extent this has led to a misperception in society that death can almost always be postponed because life-sustaining extracorporeal machinery of some sort or another, for example a dialysis machine, can prevent it. However, for some, being kept alive connected to a dialysis machine for four hours three times a week does not represent or even come close to an existence or quality of life they consider valuable. It may even cause unnecessary distress. This may be because they have reached a point at the end of their lives where they would like the focus of their treatment or care to become that which enables them to live as well as possible until they die. In these circumstances treatment and care should properly be that which enables the supportive and palliative care needs of both patient and family to be identified and met throughout the last phase of life and into bereavement. Identifying and acknowledging the importance of such a paradigm shift in the delivery of healthcare, and above all facilitating it, includes taking on the responsibility, incumbent upon us all, to address the ethical issues that are brought into focus. In this paper, I examine some of these issues. I consider the ways in which underlying theoretical ethical principles have informed the development of professional guidance and highlight the dynamic relationship this guidance has with the law. Finally, I demonstrate the ways in which it can be usefully applied to inform and assist clinical decision-making. Key challenges for BAME groups are addressed.

  7. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  8. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  9. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  10. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  11. Vitrification publication bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  12. Integrating Ethics across the Curriculum: A Pilot Study to Assess Students' Ethical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan L.; Mansfield, Nancy Reeves; Sherman, Margaret B.

    2012-01-01

    At Georgia State University (GSU), undergraduate and graduate business students are introduced to ethical theory and decision making in the required legal environment of business course, but ethics instruction in the functional areas is sporadic and uncoordinated. After a broad overview of the history of ethics in the business curriculum in Part…

  13. "Why can't I give you my organs after my heart has stopped beating?" An overview of the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues concerning organ donation after circulatory death in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Alberto; Abelli, Massimo; Azzoni, Giampaolo; Biancofiore, Gianni; Citterio, Franco; Geraci, Paolo; Latronico, Nicola; Picozzi, Mario; Procaccio, Francesco; Riccioni, Luigi; Rigotti, Paolo; Valenza, Franco; Vesconi, Sergio; Zamperetti, Nereo

    2016-03-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of functioning organs for transplantation. Clinical results are promising and public acceptance is quite good in most western countries. Yet, although DCD is widespread in Europe, several problems still persist in Italy as well as in some other countries. This paper aims to describe the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues at stake, bearing in mind the particular situation created by Italian legislation. Currently, as regards DCD, Italy is somewhat different from other countries. Therefore, every effort should be made for the safe and effective implementation of DCD programs: uncontrolled DCD programs should be promoted and encouraged, within the framework of shared and authoritative rules. At the same time, we need to tackle the question of controlled DCD, promoting debate among all involved subjects regarding the fundamental issues of end-of-life care within protocols that best integrate the highest standard of care for the dying and the legitimate interests of those awaiting a life-saving organ. PMID:26372113

  14. An Aleut Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; Wood, John R.

    A selective survey of the available Aleut literature dating from 1802-1973 and published in English, this annotated bibliography (one in a series on Alaska Native groups) is intended as a research tool for those interested in the sociological aspects of the Aleuts and their culture. Section One, designed for quick reference, lists the literature…

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON VERBAL LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VERBAL LEARNING. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE CONDITIONING, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, PROBLEM SOLVING, SEMANTIC SATIATION, STIMULUS DURATION, AND VERBAL…

  16. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  17. Environmental Science Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa Y.

    A comprehensive listing of environmental science information and resources for use by high school and college teachers and students is offered in this bibliography. Books, journal articles, pamphlets, research and technical reports, films, and organizations are classified by topic: astronomy, conservation, earth science, environmental education,…

  18. Halley's Comet: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Ruth S., Comp.

    Included in this bibliography are over 3,200 references to publications on Halley's Comet, its history, orbital motion, and physical characteristics, meteor streams associated with it, preparations for space missions to study it in 1986, and popular reaction to its appearances. Also cited are a few papers that, although they devote little…

  19. Annual Bibliography, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jo B., Comp.

    1999-01-01

    Classified, selected bibliography for Appalachian studies contains approximately 500 entries, published 1997-98, including books, journal articles, government documents, and dissertations. Topics include agriculture, arts and crafts, Civil War, industry and labor, economic conditions and development, education, environment, ethnicity/race,…

  20. Bibliography on Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waserman, Manfred J., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography covers articles and books dealing with oral history published between 1950 and 1970. In addition to works treating oral history as a methodology for historical discovery, the guide includes a separate annotated list of twenty selected books that use oral history material in the development of their themes and…

  1. Conflict Resolution Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnofsky, Norene M., Comp.

    Various theories and approaches to conflict resolution and peace education are presented in the 31 resources listed in this annotated bibliography. It is divided into two sections. Section 1 contains materials designed to help adults become more effective role models for the peaceful resolution of conflict. Topics include parent/child conflicts,…

  2. Energy Education Materials Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This is an annotated bibliography of selected energy education materials. The materials included in this document are indexed according to grade level and according to whether they are background materials or classroom activities. Each of the 100 items listed were evaluated and included into either the "A" list or the "B" list. The "A" list…

  3. Conservation--Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

    Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

  4. Solar Energy Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography lists publications and audiovisual materials devoted to renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water and biomass. A few general texts are included that present concepts fundamental to all energy sources. Materials were selected to be adaptable to classroom, workshops, and training sessions. Also, many do-it-yourself…

  5. PR Bibliography, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray E., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. Categories for this 2000 edition correspond to knowledge needed by public relations undergraduate majors, as determined in a study conducted by the 1999 Commission…

  6. Imaging: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Richard L., II; Cotrell, Howard W.

    Intended for teachers and others interested in exploring and cultivating the processes of mental imagery, this annotated bibliography includes citations from scholarly journals, popular magazines, doctoral dissertations, works on learning disabilities, and how-to books. The following topics are included among the entries listed in the paper: (1)…

  7. Financing Education: Thematic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanandruel, Colette; Lestrade, Sophie

    The third publication of this themic bibliography lists some of the publications on the financing of education included in the archives of EURYDICE's (Education Information Network in the European Community's) European Unit, and is intended to accompany "Key Topics in Education, Volume 1" (June 1999) which covers financial support for students in…

  8. Large Print Bibliography, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

    This bibliography lists materials that are available in large print format from the South Dakota State Library. The annotated entries are printed in large print and include the title of the material and its author, call number, publication date, and type of story or subject area covered. Some recorded items are included in the list. The entries…

  9. Elementary Economics: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, IL.

    Elementary educators have realized in recent years the life-long importance of developing students' economic decision-making skills. Many now include economic education in the curriculum. This annotated bibliography was developed to support and encourage these efforts and to bring to educators' attention some of the excellent materials available…

  10. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  11. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The books in this bibliography have been chosen for those specialists and professionals in the fields of population and family planning who are seeking references either in their own disciplines or in closely related areas. Classification is based on that used by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Annotated entries (182) are compiled under…

  12. Aerospace Bibliography, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aerospace Education Council, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography, intended for elementary and secondary school teachers, their pupils, and general adult readers contains grade level coded lists of books, reference works, periodicals, and teaching aids dealing with astronomy and space flight subjects. The reading material is listed alphabetically by author. The teaching aids in Part…

  13. Bibliography of the Cherokees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Anne K.

    An extensive bibliography of books, government publications, periodical articles, and theses published between 1832 and 1968 has been collected on all phases of Cherokee Indian life. Although the major portion of the listings are concerned with Cherokee history, the document also presents extensive sections on Cherokee foklore (folkways, arts,…

  14. Online Information Retrieval Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1978-01-01

    This is the first update of the bibliography on online information retrieval that was published as a supplement to Vol. 1 of this journal. Entries are divided into seven sections; within each section, they are listed alphabetically by author. Permuted titled (KWIC) and author indexes are included. (Author/JPF)

  15. Media Literacy Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date bibliography of resources available for teaching media literacy. Groups resources into the areas of media education methodology, mass media texts, general background, television, film, the news and medium of print, advertising, gender and the media, popular culture, popular music and rock video, periodicals, and…

  16. Energy Directory and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Richard M.; Hunt, Irmgard

    This publication is written as a reference guide for persons interested in energy conservations, alternative energy sources, and energy conscious lifestyles. It consists of both a directory to organizations that can provide energy information and a bibliography of useful consumer-oriented publications. The directory includes leading private and…

  17. Information Design: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Michael J.; Lisberg, Beth Conney

    2000-01-01

    Presents a 17-item annotated list of essential books on information design chosen by members of the InfoDesign e-mail list. Includes a 113-item unannotated bibliography of additional works, on topics of creativity and critical thinking; visual thinking; graphic design; infographics; information design; instructional design; interface design;…

  18. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  19. Aerospace Bibliography, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This third edition bibliography lists books and teaching aids related to aeronautics and space. Aeronautics titles are limited to aerospace-related research subjects, and books on astronomy to those directly related to space exploration. Also listed are pertinent references like pamphlets, films, film strips, booklets, charts, pictures,…

  20. The Aztecs Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkanyi, Katalin, Comp.

    The library at California State University, San Diego, possesses a great number of works on the Aztecs of Mexico. This bibliography lists 355 of the library's holdings on the Aztecs. However, because of the lack of time and funds, some periodical articles, pamphlets, and booklets on the subject were omitted from this list. The works included deal…