Science.gov

Sample records for bibliothque scientifique nationale

  1. Café Scientifique.

    PubMed

    Grand, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Every month, in 700 or so bars, cafés, pubs, teahouses, shopping centres, community halls, art galleries, libraries, theatres, museums, bookshops ... and a blood donation centre, 40 or so people meet to have a conversation. A conversation that happens to be about science and technology, rather than soap operas or football; this is Café Scientifique.

  2. A Cafe Scientifique for Teens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts

  3. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  4. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  5. Engaging High School Students and Scientists in a Café Scientifique Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Hall, M. K.; Foutz, S.

    2010-12-01

    We have created an informal science program that engages high school age youth in exploring science relevant to their lives with researchers working at the cutting edge of science. The program provides scientists a challenging new audience to share their research and enthusiasm for science and science careers. It gives the youth an opportunity to discover how the often-mundane science they are learning in school is used to push the frontiers in science, with exciting applications in the real world. Our program, a youth-led Café Scientifique (cafenm.org), now in its fourth year, has been successful in attracting and retaining youth as well as attracting scientist-presenters. Modeled after the international Café Scientifique program for adults, we combine a social atmosphere with discussion of controversial or current topics to challenge youth to think about how science affects their lives. We feature short presentations with a high degree of interactivity and discussion during which the scientist expert communicates a single important idea or scientific principle. A good speaker will leave the audience with a dilemma or controversy to discuss, and with further opportunities to learn. Encouraging the presenters to interact frequently with the audience allows them to gauge the audience's engagement and knowledge. Alternatively we also host Cafés that offer more hands-on learning experiences, including extracting DNA from plants, building model fuel cell cars, using Google Earth to spy, and deciphering age, gender, ethnicity, and cause of death from human skeletons. Controversial topics are often presented within a scientific, economic, and social or political framework, because science is only part of the solution. A key element of success is in preparing the presenters for the youth audience. Presenters submit their presentation to the program directors for initial review and receive feedback on length, mechanisms for involving the audience, and clarifying or

  6. Effets potentiels d’un modèle rationnel de prescription sur les dépenses nationales en santé

    PubMed Central

    Littman, Jordan; Halil, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Estimer les économies que pourrait engendrer la mise en œuvre d’un modèle rationnel de prescription pour des classes de médicaments équivalents sur les plans de l’efficacité, de la toxicité et de la commodité. Conception L’Institut canadien d’information sur la santé a fourni des renseignements sur les 10 principales classes de médicaments en fonction des dépenses annuelles qui leur sont attribuables. Ces classes ont été examinées en vue de leur inclusion potentielle dans l’étude selon qu’il était possible de comparer les médicaments à l’intérieur d’une même classe. Lorsqu’à la suite d’une recherche documentaire, une équivalence a été établie en fonction de l’efficacité, de la toxicité et de la commodité des médicaments, les données annuelles sur les prescriptions ont été recueillies à partir de la base de données du Système national d’information sur l’utilisation des médicaments prescrits. Les économies potentielles de coûts ont ensuite été calculées en comparant les parts de marché actuelles avec les parts potentielles futures de ce marché. Contexte Le Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les différences estimées dans les dépenses que produirait un modèle rationnel de prescription. Résultats Une équivalence a été établie sur les plans de l’efficacité, de la toxicité et de la commodité dans les classes de statines, d’inhibiteurs de la pompe à protons, d’inhibiteurs de l’enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine et d’inhibiteurs sélectifs du recaptage de l’angiotensine. Les dépenses annuelles totales dans ces classes se situent à 856 millions $ dans les programmes publics de médicaments et à 1,97 milliard $ environ à l’échelle nationale. Grâce à des prescriptions rationnelles, on estime que les économies annuelles pourraient atteindre 222 millions $ pour les programmes publics et 521 millions $ à l’échelle nationale. Conclusion La

  7. Le management des projets scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, Françoise

    2000-12-01

    We describe in this paper a new approach for the management of scientific projects. This approach is the result of a long reflexion carried out within the MQDP (Methodology and Quality in the Project Development) group of INSU-CNRS, and continued with Guy Serra. Our reflexion was initiated with the study of the so-called `North-American Paradigm' which was, initially considered as the only relevant management model. Through our active participation in several astrophysical projects we realized that this model could not be applied to our laboratories without major modifications. Therefore, step-by-step, we have constructed our own methodology, using to the fullest human potential resources existing in our research field, their habits and skills. We have also participated in various working groups in industrial and scientific organisms for the benefits of CNRS. The management model presented here is based on a systemic and complex approach. This approach lets us describe the multiple aspects of a scientific project specially taking into account the human dimension. The project system model includes three major interconnected systems, immersed within an influencing and influenced environment: the `System to be Realized' which defines scientific and technical tasks leading to the scientific goals, the `Realizing System' which describes procedures, processes and organization, and the `Actors' System' which implements and boosts all the processes. Each one exists only through a series of successive models, elaborated at predefined dates of the project called `key-points'. These systems evolve with time and under often-unpredictable circumstances and the models have to take it into account. At these key-points, each model is compared to reality and the difference between the predicted and realized tasks is evaluated in order to define the data for the next model. This model can be applied to any kind of projects.

  8. Low risk of nevirapine resistance mutations in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Rouet, Francois; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Viho, Ida; Bequet, Laurence; Peytavin, Gilles; Toure, Hassane; Menan, Herve; Leroy, Valeriane; Dabis, Francois; Rouzioux, Christine

    2006-02-15

    The frequency of resistance mutations was estimated in the cohort of Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Ditrame Plus, a study that evaluated the combination of short-course zidovudine (ZDV) plus lamivudine (3TC) and single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) followed by 3 days of postpartum ZDV plus 3TC for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The frequency with which resistance mutations were detected in mothers at week 4 postpartum was 1.14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03%-6.17%) for NVP and 8.33% (95% CI, 3.66%-15.76%) for 3TC. In multivariate analysis, 3TC resistance was associated with a longer duration of ZDV plus 3TC prepartum prophylaxis (P=.009). This regimen, which is feasible in resource-limited settings, prevents most peripartum HIV-1 transmission and minimizes the development of NVP resistance.

  9. Impact of HIV-1 genetic diversity on plasma HIV-1 RNA Quantification: usefulness of the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA second-generation long terminal repeat-based real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test.

    PubMed

    Rouet, François; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Nerrienet, Eric; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Burgard, Marianne; Peeters, Martine; Damond, Florence; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Msellati, Philippe; Ferradini, Laurent; Rukobo, Sandra; Maréchal, Valérie; Schvachsa, Nilda; Wakrim, Lahcen; Rafalimanana, Christian; Rakotoambinina, Benjamin; Viard, Jean-Paul; Seigneurin, Jean-Marie; Rouzioux, Christine

    2007-08-01

    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 has a major impact on the quantification of plasma HIV-1 RNA, representing an increasingly difficult challenge. A total of 898 plasma specimens positive for HIV-1 RNA by commercial assays (Amplicor v1.5; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Alameda, CA or Versant v3.0; Bayer Diagnostics, Emeryville, CA) were tested using the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA second-generation (G2) real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test: 518 samples containing HIV-1 of known subtype, including 88 from 2 subtype panels and 430 harboring B (n = 266) and non-B (n = 164) group M HIV-1 subtypes from patients followed up in 2002 through 2005 at Necker Hospital (Paris, France), and 380 samples from 10 different countries (Argentina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, France, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Morocco, Thailand, and Zimbabwe). HIV-1 RNA values obtained by G2 real-time PCR were highly correlated with those obtained by the Amplicor v1.5 for B and non-B subtypes (R = 0.892 and 0.892, respectively) and for samples from diverse countries (R = 0.867 and 0.893 for real-time PCR vs. Amplicor v1.5 and real-time PCR vs. Versant v3.0, respectively). Approximately 30% of specimens harboring non-B subtypes were underquantified by at least -0.51 log10 in Amplicor v1.5 versus 5% underquantified in G2 real-time PCR. Discrepant results were also obtained with subtype B samples (14% underquantified by Amplicor v1.5 vs. 7% by G2 real-time PCR). Similar percentages were observed when comparing results obtained with the G2 real-time PCR assay with those obtained using the Versant assay. Addressing HIV-1 diversity, continual monitoring of HIV-1 RNA assays, together with molecular epidemiology studies, is required to improve the accuracy of all HIV RNA assays.

  10. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d'équilibre, une séparation de l'énergie libre en énergie libre de volume et en énergie libre de surface devrait donner les mêmes résultats ; par contre les choses deviennent troublantes dès que l'on passe aux coefficients de transport, c'est-à-dire à l'aspect macroscopique de la dynamique moléculaire. Il y a là un écart notable avec les conceptions courantes, ce qui rend très surprenante la lecture de ces articles. On peut mentionner la liste des problèmes théoriques posés par la description phénoménologique qui est celle de cette série d'articles : la généralisation de lois d'échelle en dehors de zones critiques n'est pas absolument nouvelle, par contre la simplicité des lois reliant l'exposant v à la température pose problème ; le sens des temps de relaxation utilisés est sans doute également à préciser. Enfin les modes considérés semblent n'intervenir dans les propriétés thermodynamiques que par un facteur par mode, comme si seulement l'énergie potentielle devait intervenir, les termes cinétiques ne participant pas vraiment aux transitions de phase. Tout cela pose donc problème, et l'on peut se demander si un pareil modèle peut être compatible avec tout ce qui est connu par ailleurs en physique statistique. Mais s'il rend bien compte de beaucoup de résultats expérimentaux, ce sont ces derniers qui seraient en difficulté avec la mécanique statistique. Il a donc semblé préférable de publier le modèle, sa justification expérimentale et de poser quelques problèmes, tant aux théoriciens, qui pourraient expliquer pourquoi un tel modèle rend compte de résultats observés, qu'aux expérimentateurs, qui pourraient reprendre certaines mesures, et délimiter le caractère plus ou moins général du modèle.

  11. NATO granulite conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielzeuf, D.; Vidal, Ph.

    On September 5-9, 1988, 83 participants from 20 different countries gathered in Clermont- Ferrand, France, for the workshop Petrology and Geochemistry of Granulites a nd Related Rocks. All geoscience disciplines were represented. The workshop was cosponsored by Universite Blaise Pascal, UFR Scientifique et Technique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, International Lithosphere Program (working Group 2c), IGCP Project 235, Societe Francaise d e Mineralogie, Ministere de l'Education Nationale (DAGIC), Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres (DGSTD), Conseil Regional d Auvergne , Conseil General du Puy de Dome, Mairie de Clermont-Ferrand.

  12. Analyse de la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie nationale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Yougbaré, Nestor; Kouéta, Fla; Dao; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Lougué, Claudine; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d'analyser la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie na-tionale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence mis en place par le gouvernement du Burkina Faso en 2006. Méthodes Nous avons menée une étude à visée descriptive et analytique comportant un volet ré-trospectif du 01 janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 portant sur les paramètres épidémiologiques, cliniques des nouveau-nés hospitalisés et un volet prospectif du 3 octobre 2011 au 29 février 2012 par une entrevue des accompagnateurs des nouveau-nés et des prestataires des services de santé. Résultats Les hospitalisations ont augmenté de 43,65% entre 2006 à 2010 Le taux de mortalité néo-natale hospitalière qui était de 11,04% a connu une réduction moyenne annuelle de 3,95%. L'entrevue a porté sur 110 accompagnateurs et 76 prestataires. La majorité des prestataires (97,44%) et des ac-compagnateurs (88,18%) étaient informés de la stratégie mais n'avait pas une connaissance exacte de sa définition. Les prestataires (94,74%) ont signalé des ruptures de médicaments, consommables médicaux et des pannes d’ appareils de laboratoire et d'imagerie. Parmi les accompagnateurs (89%) disaient être satisfaits des services offerts et (72,89%) trouvaient les coûts abordables mais évoquaient les difficultés du transport. Conclusion: La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nou-veau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. Conclusion La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nouveau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. PMID:26161166

  13. Etude RICH Nursing. Plus de connaissances et de preuves scientifiques

    PubMed Central

    SCHUBERT, MARIA

    2009-01-01

    L’importance et la validité des résultats de l’étude RICH-Nursing* ont été récemment mises en cause par certains milieux, ce qui a provoqué certaines incertitudes chez les infirmières. Les auteurs reviennent sur l’impact actuel de cette étude et évoquent les perspectives d’avenir. PMID:25221376

  14. A l'écoute de nos instituts scientifiques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrard, J.; Arnould, M.; Demaret, J.; Noels, A.; Vercheval, J.; Crommelynck, D.; Melchior, P.

    The authors give some important events which occurred during the last academic year 1981-1982 in six scientific institutes in Belgium (Groupe de mécanique céleste, Département de Mathématique, Facultés Universitaires de Namur; Institut d'Astronomie, d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles; Institut d'Astrophysique, Université de Liège; l'Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique; Institut Royal Météorologique de Belgique; Observatoire Royal de Belgique).

  15. La CEQ et la Question Nationale et Linguistique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This report addresses the question of whether Canada is really a bilingual, multicultural nation, or a bilingual, monocultural nation, or a bilingual, bicultural nation. The history of Quebec is outlined and a comparison is made between the ethnic and linguistic composition of Quebec and the rest of Canada, showing that the percentage of people of…

  16. Discours didactique scientifique et competence de communication (Didactic Scientific Discourse and Communicative Competence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabut, Helene; And Others

    The situation of foreign students arriving in Paris with no knowledge of French 3 months prior to their enrollment in science and engineering courses gave the impetus for the development of a set of exercises designed to train these students in the listening and writing skills they would need for their courses. Exercises were devised based on…

  17. La Carte du Ciel, histoire et actualité d'un projet scientifique international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, J.

    2008-06-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif analyse la genèse, le déploiement, l'abandon et les résurgences récentes de la Carte du Ciel. Au-delà de son échec avéré, la Carte du Ciel fut en effet le premier projet international astronomique de grande envergure, remarquable notamment par son organisation à l'échelle du globe. Bien plus que par son objet ou les techniques mobilisées pour sa réalisation, c'est par cette vision que la Carte du Ciel ouvre une nouvelle ère pour l'astronomie.

  18. Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte

    Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

  19. L'appropriation du domaine scientifique chez l'eleve togolais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalancette, Lucie

    1998-12-01

    Science and technology are essential to sustainable development. They must be endogenous in nature to reduce the dependency and vulnerability of developing countries. Hence we seek to determine how Togolese students appropriate the field of science. Science education should answer fundamental educational needs by aiming for autonomy and individualization, that is, the skills and attitudes necessary to the resolution of, problems (and thus necessary to creativity), the concept of which includes the production of new ideas and adaptation to change. This basic scientific culture allows citizens to understand socioeconomic and environmental imperatives related to science and technology. This study answers the following questions: (1) How is the appropriation of knowledge by Togolese students favored? (2) What are the representations acquired by Togolese students in the science classroom regarding key research concepts, namely education, culture, science, knowledge and development? The objective of this research is to partially describe the context of science learning in the first cycle of the Second Degree in Togo, a French-language developing country of Africa, and particularly to understand the influence of the sociocultural setting on pedagogy and development. We first present our conception of science teaching, followed by the construction of knowledge in context. This research permits clearer propositions in terms of plausible explanations for the observed relationships among the categories of data. Indeed, the framework of the transmission of knowledge considerably influences the appropriation of the field of science by Togolese students. Science is a mythical and mystical field, still perceived as the "white mans's thing", in spite of favorable attitudes developed by students concerning the application of science and technology in their environment. By way of the favored learning methods (which also represent those of the traditional environment) and curricula (which are exogenous in nature), students formally appropriate scientific knowledge without actually transferring that knowledge outside the school setting. For this study, the validity of the propositions is dependent upon the perceptions of the key research concepts by the subjects. That is why the propositions are supported by the analysis of the Togolese student's answers during interviews, as well as by lectures given by African essayists. This is an a priori exploratory research, characterized by a qualitative methodology. The research concentrates on preliminary description and comprehension. Specifically, the method is based on an interpretive approach, while also being reflexive in nature. Observation data were gathered through documentation, field observations, a group discussion and a questionnaire. The pertinence of this study's results lies in a better understanding of the construction of knowledge in context.

  20. Une approche des textes scientifiques: le "par-coeur" (An Approach to Scientific Texts: "By Heart").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descamps, Jean-Luc

    1980-01-01

    A method is provided for teaching reading comprehension of scientific or technical texts in a foreign language. The method involves analyzing language patterns and using some memorization for terminology. (MSE)

  1. Le Schwyzertutsch 5e langue nationale? (Is Swiss German a Fifth National Language?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, Francoise, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These papers on the subject of the Swiss German language examine the status and attitudes of the Swiss German speaker, the reaction of other linguistic communities to Swiss German, and the necessity and/or possibility of learning Swiss German. The following articles are included: (1) "Le 'Schwyzertutsch': ecran ou lien? (Is Swiss German a Screen…

  2. Diagnostik von Kontingenzerfahrungen in der fruehen Kindheit. Forschungsbericht Rapport Scientifique. Nr. 68. (Methods of Social Contingency Analysis. FB Nr. 68).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrez, Meinrad

    Written in German, this article demonstrates the influence of different types of contingency information on the development of infant's locus of control and causal attribution, and discusses empirical models for calculating contingency parameters of the microsocial environment of infants, toddlers, and preschool children. Models discussed include:…

  3. Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

  4. Economie et enseignement a Madagascar. (Economy and Education in Madagascar.) Financement des systemes educatifs: etudes de cas Nationales 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugon, Philippe

    The purpose of this volume is to analyze the problems of school finance in Madagascar, including those that have arisen in the past decade and those anticipated in the present decade (through 1980). More generally, this book examines past and future connections between the economic and educational systems in Madagascar. The author examines the…

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between astronomers in his days, when his working place at Altona still belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. This paper is followed by a second one by the same author and deals with the correspondence of H. C. Schumacher and H C. Oersted (1777-1851) and shows how intense and diverse their cooperation was. In a subsequent paper, Wolfgang Kokott describes the role of the Astronomisches Jahrbuch (published from 1776 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin), a ranking international publication, with Bode's modest Berlin Observatory serving as a clearinghouse of information originating from virtually all European countries. "Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalisation of Astrophysics" is the title of Theodor Schmidt-Kaler's contribution and presents Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy: establishment of course lectures and a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, stimulations and suggestions for astronomy at high school and for the formation of high school teachers, international organisation, and the planning of a southern observatory. Peter Habison describes the contribution of Leo de Ball (1853-1916, Director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna) to international astronomy. Internationalization in astronomy is also discussed in a following paper by Gudrun Wolfschmidt on the establishment of the Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft, the international Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1863 and finally the International Astronomical Union in 1919. In the second but last paper of the book, Hilmar Duerbeck describes the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere in 1849, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht and Ristenpart, to the middle of the 20th century. The paper also includes the astronomical development at the Universidad Catolica and various international expeditions, which aimed at the observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907. An overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla and Paranal, as well as Las Campanas is also given.

  6. Interpretation d'une Controverse Scientifique: Strategies Argumentatives d'Adolescentes et d'Adolescents Quebecois (Interpretation of a Scientific Controversy: Argument Strategies of Adolescents and Quebecois Adolescents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Sketches out the argumentative strategies used by three 17-year-old boys to interpret the disagreement presented to them. Shows that they were inclined to adduce current ideas about science--framed according to a realist, empiricist epistemology--but that there are grounds for thinking that high school students would be capable of actualizing…

  7. La politique scientifique comme mise en espace-temps de la recherche= Science Policy as Placed in the Space-Time Relationship of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turmel, Andre

    1986-01-01

    The language used by scientists to discuss their work and the social logic underlying scientific research is examined, and viewed from the perspective and as an extension of the space-time continuum that scientists study. (Author/MSE)

  8. De UVX 92 (premier laser X saturé) à UVX 2002 (LASERIX) le laser X devient un outil pour les applications scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, G.; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Dubau, J.; Lagron, J.-C.; Vanbostal, L.

    2003-06-01

    Les lasers X pompés par laser ont vigoureusement progressé au cours des 10 dernières années. Les premiers lasers X, quasistationnaires, furent produits dans des installations laser de très grande puissance principalement destinées à la physique de la fusion inertielle. Aujourd'hui, le pompage transitoire nécessite une énergie de pompe beaucoup plus petite et peut être réalisé dans des installations laser de taille modeste. LASERIX sera une station de travail destinée spécifiquement à la réalisation de lasers X transitoires, à la recherche de nouveaux schémas de lasers X, ainsi qu'au développement de leurs applications; le projet est basé sur une chaîne laser de pompe capable de délivrer 10J en 500ps et 10J en 1ps.

  9. Opportunities for Tomorrow: National Learning Needs Assessment Summary Report = Des Possibilities pour L'Avenir: Rapport Sommaire sur L'Evaluation Nationale des Besoins en Apprentisage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communications, Energy & Paperworkers Union of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Communications, Energy, and Paperworkers Union of Canada assessed literacy learning needs. In focus group discussions, members were asked their perception of such needs in the face of changes in the workplace and society; local union officers (LUOs) were asked how they saw the role of unions in supporting members' literacy learning; employers…

  10. Support for a special symposium to highlight the research of early career women physical chemists at the 2011 fall ACS nationall meeting, Aug 28-Sept

    SciTech Connect

    Geraldine Richmond

    2012-12-19

    The symposium was well attended during the 4-day symposium. The invited speakers were primarily women in early career stage (~4-8 years) with a few senior women and men as invited speakers or session chairs. Included in each day was a Poster Session for graduate students and a lunch in which the turn out was strong and the posters presented encouraged much of dialogue with the invited speakers, guests and others attending the ACS meeting and wanted to discuss the student’s research and meet with the speakers. Most all speakers and participants were very positive about the sessions and expressed that the funding to cover some expenses made it possible for them to attend the conference and the poster session luncheon. There was a total of 51 presenters, below are the speakers and their abstracts, in order presented:

  11. Local network interconnection through a satellite point-to-multipoint link. Ph.D. Thesis - Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 6 Jul. 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, O. Muniz Bandeira

    1986-01-01

    Four architectures to implement a point to multipoint satellite link protocol for communication services offered by the Telecom 1 satellite network are presented. A safe communication service with error correction and flow control facilities is described. It is shown that a time transparent communication system combines simplicity and cost advantages.

  12. Preparing Occupational Therapists for Practice Today and into the Future. National Perspective = Preparer les ergotherapeutes a exercer maintenant et dans l'avenir. Perspective nationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulthard, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for masters' degrees in occupational therapy as the entry-level credential in Canada. Provides the history of occupational therapy education and looks at the current status of professional development, accreditation, the move to masters' degrees and the challenge of change. (Contains 23 references.) (JOW)

  13. The IC1396N proto-cluster at a scale of ~250 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Johnstone, D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wyrowski, F.; Tafalla, M.; Lefloch, B.; Plume, R.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We investigate the mm-morphology of IC 1396 N with unprecedented spatial resolution to analyze its dust and molecular gas properties, and draw comparisons with objects of similar mass. Methods: We have carried out sensitive observations in the most extended configurations of the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer, to map the thermal dust emission at 3.3 and 1.3 mm, and the emission from the J=13_k→ 12k hyperfine transitions of methyl cyanide (CH3CN). Results: We unveil the existence of a sub-cluster of hot cores in IC 1396 N, distributed in a direction perpendicular to the emanating outflow. The cores are embedded in a common envelope of extended and diffuse dust emission. We find striking differences in the dust properties of the cores (β≃ 0) and the surrounding envelope (β≃ 1), very likely testifying to differences in the formation and processing of dust material. The CH3CN emission peaks towards the most massive hot core and is marginally extended in the outflow direction. Based on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (Spain).

  14. Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

    Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

  15. The International Development Research Centre: A Guide for the Canadian University Research Community = Le Centre de recherches pour le developpement international: guide a l'intention des scientifiques des universites Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, George; Wasilewski, Ania, Ed.

    Written in both English and French this is a manual for the Canadian research community. It describes the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and its operations. The main objective of the IDRC is to assist scientists in developing countries to identify and conduct research into long term practical solutions to development problems.…

  16. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  17. Switch to Rilpivirine/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Single-Tablet Regimen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 RNA-Suppressed Patients, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Cazanave, Charles; Reigadas, Sandrine; Mazubert, Cyril; Bellecave, Pantxika; Hessamfar, Mojgan; Le Marec, Fabien; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Peytavin, Gilles; Bruyand, Mathias; Fleury, Hervé; Dabis, François; Neau, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background.  The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virologically suppressed patients who switched to rilpivirine (RPV)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) as a single-tablet regimen (STR). Methods.  A retrospective multicenter cohort study was performed between September 2012 and February 2014 in Bordeaux University Hospital-affiliated clinics. Patients with a plasma HIV viral load (VL) lower than 50 copies/mL and switching to STR were evaluated at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from switch time (M3, M6, M9, M12) for VL and other biological parameters. Change from baseline in CD4 cell counts was evaluated at M6 and M12. Virological failure (VF) was defined as 2 consecutive VL >50 copies/mL. Results.  Three hundred four patients were included in the analysis. Single-tablet regimen switch was proposed to 116 patients with adverse events, mostly efavirenz (EFV)-based (n = 59), and to 224 patients for cART simplification. Thirty of 196 patients with available genotype resistance test results displayed virus with ≥1 drug resistance mutation on reverse-transcriptase gene. After 12 months of follow-up, 93.4% (95.5% confidence interval, 89.9-96.2) of patients remained virologically suppressed. There was no significant change in CD4 cell count. During the study period, 5 patients experienced VF, one of them harboring RPV resistance mutation. Clinical cART tolerability improved in 79 patients overall (29.9%) at M6, especially neurological symptoms related to EFV. Fasting serum lipid profiles improved, but a significant estimated glomerular function rate decrease (-11 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 10(-4)) was observed. Conclusions.  Overall, virologic suppression was maintained in patients after switching to RPV/TDF/ FTC. This STR strategy was associated with improved tolerability. PMID:26034768

  18. Biosimilars: from technical to pharmacoeconomic considerations. 30th Rencontres Nationales de Pharmacologie et Recherche clinique pour l'Innovation et l'Evaluation des Technologies de Santé. Tables rondes.

    PubMed

    Girault, Danièle; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Blachier-Poisson, Corinne; Gary, François; Laloye, Didier; Bergmann, Jean-François; Casadevall, Nicole; Delval, Cécile; De Sahb Berkovitch, Rima; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Gersberg, Marta; Lassale, Catherine; Lechat, Philippe; Le Jeunne, Claire; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Prugnaud, Jean-Louis; Ratignier-Carbonneil, Christelle; Rey-Coquais, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    A biosimilar is a biological medicinal product claimed to be similar to a reference biological medicinal product. Its development plan includes studies comparing it with the reference product in order to confirm its similarity in terms of quality, preclinical safety, clinical efficacy, and clinical safety, including immunogenicity. Biosimilars differ from generics both in their molecular complexity and in the specific requirements that apply to them. Since patents on many biological medicinal products will expire within the next 5 years in major therapeutic areas such as oncology, rheumatology and gastroenterology and as those products are so costly to the French national health insurance system, the availability of biosimilars would have a considerable economic impact. The round table has issued a number of recommendations intended to ensure that the upcoming arrival of biosimilars on the market is a success, in which prescribing physicians would have a central role in informing and reassuring patients, an efficient monitoring of the patients treated with biologicals would be set up and time to market for biosimilars would be speeded up. PMID:25679193

  19. Resultats de l'enquete nationale sur les programmes de formation des enseignants de francais langue seconde au Canada (Results of the National Study for Teacher Education Programs for French Second Language Teachers in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, France; Chinien, Christian; Boutin, Jean-Luc

    The implications of Canada's national study of core French instruction for second language (L2) teacher education in that country are examined. Literature on the study's impact on language teaching philosophy and policy and on French immersion instruction is reviewed, and a survey of 36 Canadian schools of education is reported. The questionnaire…

  20. Biosimilars: from technical to pharmacoeconomic considerations. 30th Rencontres Nationales de Pharmacologie et Recherche clinique pour l'Innovation et l'Evaluation des Technologies de Santé. Tables rondes.

    PubMed

    Girault, Danièle; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Blachier-Poisson, Corinne; Gary, François; Laloye, Didier; Bergmann, Jean-François; Casadevall, Nicole; Delval, Cécile; De Sahb Berkovitch, Rima; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Gersberg, Marta; Lassale, Catherine; Lechat, Philippe; Le Jeunne, Claire; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Prugnaud, Jean-Louis; Ratignier-Carbonneil, Christelle; Rey-Coquais, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    A biosimilar is a biological medicinal product claimed to be similar to a reference biological medicinal product. Its development plan includes studies comparing it with the reference product in order to confirm its similarity in terms of quality, preclinical safety, clinical efficacy, and clinical safety, including immunogenicity. Biosimilars differ from generics both in their molecular complexity and in the specific requirements that apply to them. Since patents on many biological medicinal products will expire within the next 5 years in major therapeutic areas such as oncology, rheumatology and gastroenterology and as those products are so costly to the French national health insurance system, the availability of biosimilars would have a considerable economic impact. The round table has issued a number of recommendations intended to ensure that the upcoming arrival of biosimilars on the market is a success, in which prescribing physicians would have a central role in informing and reassuring patients, an efficient monitoring of the patients treated with biologicals would be set up and time to market for biosimilars would be speeded up.

  1. Switch to Rilpivirine/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Single-Tablet Regimen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 RNA-Suppressed Patients, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Cazanave, Charles; Reigadas, Sandrine; Mazubert, Cyril; Bellecave, Pantxika; Hessamfar, Mojgan; Le Marec, Fabien; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Peytavin, Gilles; Bruyand, Mathias; Fleury, Hervé; Dabis, François; Neau, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background.  The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virologically suppressed patients who switched to rilpivirine (RPV)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) as a single-tablet regimen (STR). Methods.  A retrospective multicenter cohort study was performed between September 2012 and February 2014 in Bordeaux University Hospital-affiliated clinics. Patients with a plasma HIV viral load (VL) lower than 50 copies/mL and switching to STR were evaluated at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from switch time (M3, M6, M9, M12) for VL and other biological parameters. Change from baseline in CD4 cell counts was evaluated at M6 and M12. Virological failure (VF) was defined as 2 consecutive VL >50 copies/mL. Results.  Three hundred four patients were included in the analysis. Single-tablet regimen switch was proposed to 116 patients with adverse events, mostly efavirenz (EFV)-based (n = 59), and to 224 patients for cART simplification. Thirty of 196 patients with available genotype resistance test results displayed virus with ≥1 drug resistance mutation on reverse-transcriptase gene. After 12 months of follow-up, 93.4% (95.5% confidence interval, 89.9-96.2) of patients remained virologically suppressed. There was no significant change in CD4 cell count. During the study period, 5 patients experienced VF, one of them harboring RPV resistance mutation. Clinical cART tolerability improved in 79 patients overall (29.9%) at M6, especially neurological symptoms related to EFV. Fasting serum lipid profiles improved, but a significant estimated glomerular function rate decrease (-11 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 10(-4)) was observed. Conclusions.  Overall, virologic suppression was maintained in patients after switching to RPV/TDF/ FTC. This STR strategy was associated with improved tolerability.

  2. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  3. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa huitième édition à Toulouse, du 3 au 5 septembre 2004, sur le campus de I'INSA. Comme il est de tradition tous les quatre ans, COLOQ était couplé avec Horizons de l'optique, avec en particulier une journée commune dont le programme avait été préparé en concertation par les deux comités scientifiques. Depuis sa création, COLOQ a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les chercheurs des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur les lasers et l'optique quantique au sens large. C'est un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Ces derniers y trouvent l'occasion de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 230 chercheurs et d'une vingtaine d'exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ et de son audience dans les laboratoires et chez les industriels de l'optique. Le programme de COLOQ 8 comportait d'une vingtaine de conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international, et des séances de communications par affiches, occasions privilégiées de rencontres et d'échanges. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international, avec un accent sur des thèmes importants pour la région toulousaine : contrôle cohérent, optique et nanosciences, optique et astronomie, sans oublier la traditionnelle rubrique phénomènes fondamentaux, éclectique pour ne pas dire hétéroclite, mais si représentative d'une des ambitions de COLOQ qui est d'offrir à ses participants une

  4. The impact of qualitative research on gynaecologic oncology guidelines.

    PubMed

    How, Jeffrey Andrew; Abitbol, Jeremie; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter Henri; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-02-01

    Objectif : Les soins offerts aux patientes atteintes d’un cancer comptent une importante composante psychosociale, laquelle a été explorée de façon scientifique par l’intermédiaire de la recherche qualitative. Notre étude avait pour objectif d’évaluer la disponibilité de la recherche qualitative en gynéco-oncologie et d’en mesurer l’intégration aux directives cliniques relevant du domaine de la gynéco-oncologie. Méthodes : Nous avons mené des recherches dans diverses bases de données (Medline, CINHAL, Scopus et Web of Science) en vue de cerner la disponibilité de la recherche qualitative menée au cours des 20 dernières années au sujet des trois cancers gynécologiques les plus prévalents : les cancers de l’endomètre, de l’ovaire et du col utérin. Des directives cliniques nationales et internationales portant sur la prise en charge des cancers gynécologiques ont été sélectionnées au moyen du site Web National Guideline Clearinghouse, du site Web de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada, et du répertoire Standards and Guidelines Evidence de lignes directrices sur le cancer. Une analyse bibliométrique a été utilisée pour déterminer la fréquence des références qualitatives citées dans les directives cliniques en question. Résultats : Nous avons identifié 113 mémoires de recherche qualitative portant sur des cancers gynécologiques qui se centraient sur les effets psychologiques, sur la dynamique sociale et sur les interactions médecin-patiente dans le cadre du traitement anticancéreux et de la récupération. Au sein des 15 directives cliniques nationales et internationales portant sur la prise en charge des cancers gynécologiques que nous avons identifiées, nous avons dénombré un total de 2 272 références; parmi ces dernières, seules trois références citant une recherche qualitative ont été identifiées (0,1 %), et ce, au sein d’une seule directive clinique parmi les 15

  5. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his

  6. Does research through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) courses impact policy and practice?

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Shewade, H D; Tripathy, J P; Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Berger, S Dar; Bissell, K; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Les cours de l'Initiative de Recherche et de Formation Structurées Opérationnelles (SORT IT) sont bien connus pour leurs bons résultats : près de 90% des participants terminent le cours et publient dans des revues scientifiques.Objectif : Evaluer l'impact sur la politique/les pratiques de ces articles de recherche qui ont été le résultat de six cours SORT IT initiés entre juillet 2012 et mars 2013.Schéma : Une étude transversale impliquant des questionnaires auto-administrés envoyés par courriel et des réponses par téléphone/skype/en personne des auteurs principaux et/ou des co-auteurs des articles liés au cours. Une analyse descriptive du contenu des réponses a été réalisée et catégorisée par thèmes.Résultats : Sur 72 participants, 63 (88%) ont terminé le cours. Les résultats du cours ont inclus 81 articles soumis, dont 76 (94%) ont été publiés. Sur les 81 articles publiés évalués, 45 (55%) ont contribué à une modification de la politique et/ou des pratiques : 29 articles ont contribué à une modification de la politique/des pratiques par le gouvernement (20 au niveau national, 4 au niveau sous-national et 5 au niveau hospitalier), 11 à des modifications de politique d'organisations non gouvernementales et cinq à un renforcement de la politique existante. Ces changements allaient de modifications des outils de suivi et d'évaluation à une nouvelle rédaction des directives nationales et à une accélération des politiques existantes.Conclusion : Plus de la moitié des articles du cours SORT IT ont contribué à une modification de la politique et/ou des pratiques. Les évaluations futures devraient inclure des vérifications plus solides et indépendantes des modifications rapportées avec toutes les parties concernées afin d'améliorer leur rigueur et leur richesse.

  7. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  8. ESMC

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-31

    Workshops de 2 jours au Cern: 1.partie: communication scientifique: plusieurs discours suivis de questions et intenses discussions: 1.François de Closet "le progrès scientifique" 2.Gerhard Moosleiter(?) exposé avec dias et questions 3.H.Meyers "comment créer de meilleures conditions en communication scientifique 2.partie: science et communication :présentation des dias et questions. Une Russe de Moscou parle entre autre de la situation actuelle de la presse scientifique en Russie 3.partie: conclusions et rapports de la veille de differents groupes de travail 4.partie:questions avec C.Rubbia et N.Calder et remerciements

  9. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspect, Alain

    2002-06-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa septième édition à Rennes, du 5 au 7 septembre 2001, sur le campus de Beaulieu de l'Université de Rennes I. Cette réunion a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les membres des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur ces sujets. C'est donc un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Une dimension importante de COLOQ est de permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 200 chercheurs et de 18 exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ. Le programme de COLOQ 7 a comporté des conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international et des séances de communications par voie d'affiches. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets d'optique particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international : les télécoms, thème cher à la région Bretagne en particulier, les phénomènes fondamentaux, les nouvelles percées de l'optique en métrologie et mesures ultra-sensibles, sujets privilégiés du laboratoire organisateur, les sources de l'extrême (incluant X et V-UV). Parallèlement à 20 conférences invitées, 130 communications par affiches ont présenté, tout au long du colloque, les plus récents résultats concernant les atomes froids et la métrologie, les télécoms optiques, l'optique non-linéaire et les nouveaux matériaux, les nanostructures et l'optique de champ proche, la physique des lasers, etc. Ce volume spécial du Journal de Physique IV regroupe la presque totalit

  10. Problem of Questioning

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-31

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  11. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  12. Presentation by the scientific and technical commission on the analysis of the events relating to the unexpected ice storm of 5 to 9 January; Presentation a la commission scientifique et technique chargee d`analyser les evenements relatifs (a) la tempete de verglas survenue du 5 au 9 janvier 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The first part of this report contains three presentations in French by directors of Hydro-Quebec regarding the utility`s actions during the January 1998 ice storm and initiatives to reinforce and maintain the power network to avoid ice storm problems in the future. The second part is in a question and answer format and covers the utility`s response to ice storm threats in the following areas: Climate (forecasting of ice storm periods, line design criteria, impact of climatic changes and El Nino, ice data interpretation and measurement, research); structural aspects, including failures of components, towers, and lines; electrical aspects, including consolidation of the transmission system, power system security, burying of installations, conductor de-icing, strategic lines, and manpower use; economic aspects (network improvement, reliability, continuity and maintenance expenditures, interconnections, internal communications, service enhancement programs, work force reduction, strategic plans); and the management of emergency measures, including planning, service restoration priorities, human and material resources management, coordination, communications, and risk analysis.

  13. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  14. Communique: Special Issue on the International Scientific Conference and Exhibit and the 7th Session of the International Co-Ordinating Council for MAB (Paris, Sept. 22-Oct. 2, 1981) = Numero special sur la Conference Scientifique Internationale et Exposition et al 7e session du Counseil International de Coordination du MAB (Paris, du 22 Sept. au 2 Oct. 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communique, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presented are summaries of two separate but closely-related conferences. The International Scientific Conference and Exhibit, organized to mark the 10th anniversary of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), was based on the theme "ecology in practice: establishing a scientific basis for land management." This summary includes: a 10 year…

  15. Optical Disk Technology and the Library. Part 1: The Technology and Its Applications. Part 2: The National Library Videodisc Demonstration Project. Canadian Network Papers Number 9 = Technologie du Videodisque et la Bibliotheque. Premiere partie: La Technologie et ses Applications. Deuxieme partie: Projet de Demonstration du Videodisque a la Bibliotheque Nationale. Documents sur les Reseaux Canadiens Numero 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Roddy; Sonnemann, Sabine S.

    This report is intended to assist Canadian libraries in assessing potential library applications of optical disk technology. Part 1 provides a general outline of the technology and describes a number of library applications and projects. Descriptions are purposely general and illustrative in nature since the technology and its applications are…

  16. Les enarques (dossier) [The People from E.N.A. (Dossier)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Edward C.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts a profile of the Ecole Nationale d'Administration, both from within and from without the institution. Gives two suggestions for helping those who wish to study the E.N.A. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  17. Les bons conseils de la naissance à la maternelle

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Constantin, Evelyn; Carsley, Sarah; Rourke, James; Li, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Donner un aperçu de la version 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR), qui comporte aussi des nouveautés dans son site web et de nouvelles initiatives connexes et qui intègre les données des ouvrages scientifiques récents sur les soins de santé préventifs à l’intention des enfants de 0 à 5 ans. Qualité des données À l’instar des versions antérieures du RPR, la nouvelle édition présente des recommandations identifiées comme se fondant sur des preuves suffisantes, acceptables ou consensuelles, selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs en 2011. Message principal De nouveaux renseignements et des recommandations sont présentés concernant la surveillance de la croissance, la nutrition et la vaccination contre la varicelle, les pneumocoques, les méningocoques et le rotavirus. Il y a maintenant de bonnes données probantes en faveur de l’adaptation canadienne des courbes de croissance de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé, du dépistage universel des problèmes d’audition chez le nouveau-né et du recours à des stratégies de réduction de la douleur liée à la vaccination. On a mis à jour les conseils anticipatoires concernant la sécurité durant le sommeil, la supervision de la santé des enfants en foyer d’accueil, le trouble du spectre de l’alcoolisation fœtale, les facteurs de risque nécessitant le dépistage du plomb et de l’anémie, les soins dentaires et la santé buccale. Parmi les nouvelles rubriques dans le site web du RPR, on peut mentionner une section présentant des ressources pour les parents, des modifications à l’intention de populations particulières, comme les personnes vivant au Nunavut, une version du RPR qui met en évidence en un coup d’œil les modifications à la version de 2009 et une expansion de la fonction d’exploration du RPR accompagnée des hyperliens connexes menant aux renseignements pertinents. On peut

  18. ESMC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Workshops de 2 jours au Cern: 1.partie: communication scientifique: plusieurs discours suivis de questions et intenses discussions: 1.François de Closet "le progrès scientifique" 2.Gerhard Moosleiter(?) exposé avec dias et questions 3.H.Meyers "comment créer de meilleures conditions en communication scientifique 2.partie: science et communication :présentation des dias et questions. Une Russe de Moscou parle entre autre de la situation actuelle de la presse scientifique en Russie 3.partie: conclusions et rapports de la veille de differents groupes de travail 4.partie:questions avec C.Rubbia et N.Calder et remerciements

  19. Preface: Materiaux 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2012-02-01

    , Faculté des Sciences d'El Jadida (Morocco) M.H. BEN GHOZLEN, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) R. BENNACEUR, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) B. BENYOUCEF, Université Abou Bakr Belkaid, Tlemcen (Algeria) M. BEN SALEM, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte (Tunisia) B. BESSAIES, Centre de Recherches et Technologies de l'Energie (Tunisia) H. BOUCHRIHA, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) W. BOUJELBEN, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) A. CHEIKHROUHOU, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) W. CHEIKHROUHOU-KOUBAA, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) R. CHTOUROU, Centre de Recherches et Technologies de l'Energie (Tunisia) M. DEBBABI, Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Monastir (Tunisia) A. DAKHLAOUI, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte (Tunisia) A. DINIA, Université de Strasbourg (France) B. ELJANI, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia) A. ELJAZOULI, Faculté des Sciences Ben Msik, Casablanca (Morocco) Z. FAKHFAKH, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) A. GASMI, Faculté des Sciences d'Annaba (Algeria) A. GHARBI, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) R. GHARBI, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) K. GUIDARA, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) H. GUERMAZI, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d'Ingénieurs de Sfax (Tunisia) S. GUERMAZI, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) M. HADDAD, Faculté des Sciences de Meknès (Morocco) A. HAJ AMARA, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte (Tunisia) D. HAMANA, Faculté des Sciences de Constantine (Algeria) N. KAMOUN, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) S. KADDOUR-CHARFI, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) M. KADDOUR, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) M. KHITOUNI, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) T. MHIRI, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia) Y. MLIK, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques (Tunisia) N. MLIKI, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) A. NJAH, Faculté des Sciences de Gafsa (Tunisia) M. OUESLATI, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia) K

  20. Perrotin et la meilleure mesure française de la vitesse de la lumière

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaert, G.; Blanc, W.

    2012-12-01

    à la fin du 19ème siècle, la détermination de la vitesse de la lumière a fait l'objet d'une controverse scientifique impliquant d'éminents scientifiques français et américains : Alfred Cornu et Hippolyte Fizeau, d'un côté, Simon Newcomb et Albert Michelson de l'autre. Cette controverse prendra fin de façon inattendue avec les deux mesures réalisées en 1898 et 1902 par Henri Perrotin, le directeur de l'Observatoire de Nice.

  1. Introduction to the INIST's activities and its Japan Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Written By André,; Ono, Translated By Shuichi

    In order to provide any user with the best information from all over the world in the field of science and technology, CNRS(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the main french research organization, settled up a highly specialized body named "Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique"(lNIST) which activities are breafly and roughly introduced hereafter. In this purpose, and according to the increasing demand and needs in France for japanese scientific and technical information, a very specialized service called "Japan Unit" was created inside INIST to make anybody easier to reach this particul ar type of information without any knowledge on Japan and japanese language.

  2. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division of Bibliographic Control. Sections on Bibliography, Cataloging, and Classification. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on cataloging and classification which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Online Cataloging at the Bibliotheque Nationale (Francoise Finelli and Serge Salomon, France); (2) "Development of National Press Repertoire in the Condition of Multinational State: Its Trends…

  3. The Computerization of the National Library in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerin, Christian; Bernard, Annick

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization and automation plan of the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, France) that was begun in 1981. Highlights include the method of moving toward computerization; technical choices; the choosing procedure (pre-qualification, bench-mark test); short term and pilot operations; and preparation for the implementation of the…

  4. Unpublished manuscripts of Sophie Germain and a revaluation of her work on Fermat's Last Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Centina, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Published, and discussed, are some manuscripts and a letter of Sophie Germain concerning her work on Fermat's Last Theorem. These autographs, held at Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, at the Moreniana Library, Florence, and at the University Library, Göttingen, contribute to a substantial revaluation of her work on this subject.

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Papers on Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on bibliographic control which were presented at the 1985 conference of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) include: (1) "Retrospective Bibliographic Control: A Program of Action for UAP (Universal Availability of Publications)" (Marcelle Beaudiquez, Bibliotheque Nationale, France); (2) "The National Union Catalog…

  6. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part II: The Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries (Narratives of Development)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the narrative accounts of the beginnings of digital library programs in five European national libraries: Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library. Based on interviews with policy makers and developers of digital…

  7. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  8. Teacher and Administrator Evaluation. Bibliographies in Education. No. 74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Marita

    This annotated bibliography contains 602 references on teacher and administrator evaluation appearing, between May 1975 and September 1981, in: (1) Bibliographie du Quebec (Bibliotheque nationale du Quebec); (2) British Education Index (British Library); (3) Canadian Books in Print (University of Toronto Press); (4) Canadian Education Index; (5)…

  9. Teacher Unionism as Mission and Battle; Success and Crisis in French Teacher Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    In France, the National Education Federation (Federation d'Education Nationale (FEN)) and its major constituent union, the National Union of Elementary and Middle School Teachers (Syndicat National des Instituteurs et des Professeurs d'Enseignment General de College (SNI-PEGC)), are examples of "intelligent trade unions," i.e., unions that hold a…

  10. Langues et education en Afrique noire (Language and Education in Black Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Papers on language and education in Black Africa include: "L'enseignement des et en langues nationales au Zaire. Bilan d'une experience" ("The Teaching of and in National Languages in Zaire. Results of an Experiment") (Andre Mbula Paluku); "Langues et education au Rwanda" ("Languages and Education in Rwanda") (Melchior Kanyamibwa); "Un modele…

  11. International Meeting on Business Start-up (Lille, France, November 26-28, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Africa, Ed.; Peigne, Florence, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    An international meeting explored work on business start-up undertaken jointly by CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) and France's Agence Nationale pour la creation d'entreprise. One opening presentation (Melis) addressed the basic idea underlying the research: to identify and highlight the role of training and…

  12. [Moyse Charas, an apothecary, a physician, as well as the author of "Pharmacopée royale galénique et chymique". The study of his dynasty].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2005-01-01

    New research works conducted at the Archives nationales led to the discovery of numerous documents related to Moyse Charas's progeny and made it possible to complete former studies. Presently the filiation of this famous family of Parisians apothecaries of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is well established. A family tree has been drawn up. PMID:16217892

  13. Computation of low Fronde number turbulent diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreton, D.; Mechitoua, N.; Viollet, P. L.

    This study is related to the development of a model for the computation of pool fires of liquefied natural gas -sponsered by GAZ de FRANCE and SOCIETE NATIONALE d'EXPLORATION d'AQUITAINE-PRODUCTION. -As a first step, low Froude number flames which are similar to pool fires, are simulated.

  14. 78 FR 8130 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    .... Reference: AP078791XX Purpose and Use: Brief description of the purpose of the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured commercial aircraft to Morocco. Brief non-proprietary description of the... Supplier: The Boeing Company Obligor: Compagnie Nationale Royal Air Maroc Guarantor(s): N/A Description...

  15. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    and astronomy have a long common history. Indeed, we are reminded that a century ago, terrestrial and solar helium were identified with one another through spectral lines, while recent studies of nebulae and the interstellar medium provide nice examples of the continuing interplay between spectroscopy and astrophysical models. During the Amsterdam meeting, some astrophysicists deplored that the so-called "traditional term analysis" was disappearing. They should be reassured about the near future owing to three invited papers and a great number of posters on this type of work. We are grateful to the members of the Scientific Committee who helped us to set up the scientific programme and to all the referees who reviewed the manuscripts published in this volume. We thank the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales for financial support. We also thank the Ministère de l'Education Nationale, de l'Enseignement Supérieur, de la Recherche et de l'Insertion Professionnelle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Laboratoire Aimé Cotton for providing travel grants, Further support from SUN Microsystems, Alcatel and Crédit Lyonnais is gratefully acknowledged. The colloquium greatly benefited from the infrastructure of the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon and the cooperation of its staff, especially members of the Département Atomes, Molécules en Astrophysique (DAMAp). The 6th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas is scheduled to be held in Victoria, Canada in 1998.

  16. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  17. Relevé postnatal Rourke 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour la version de 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR) à la suite d’une révision des meilleures données probantes récentes sur le suivi de la santé des nourrissons et des enfants de la naissance jusqu’à l’âge de 5 ans. Qualité des données La qualité des données a été cotée en fonction de l’ancien système de classification du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (jusqu’à 2006) et l’approche de détermination, d’élaboration et d’évaluation des recommandations (GRADE). Message principal De nouveaux faits scientifiques ont été pris en compte dans les recommandations du RPR 2014 en ce qui a trait au suivi de la croissance, à la nutrition, à l’éducation et aux conseils, au développement, à l’examen physique et à l’immunisation. La croissance est surveillée à l’aide des courbes de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé qui ont été révisées en 2014. On devrait introduire les aliments solides en fonction de l’état de préparation du nourrisson et ces produits devraient contenir du fer. Il n’est actuellement plus recommandé de retarder l’introduction des allergènes alimentaires courants pour prévenir les allergies. Il faut promouvoir l’utilisation d’une tasse sans couvercle au lieu d’une tasse à bec dès l’âge de 12 mois. La section sur l’éducation et les conseils porte sur les blessures causées par du mobilier instable, ainsi que l’utilisation d’un siège d’auto orienté vers l’arrière jusqu’à 2 ans. Elle comporte aussi de l’information sur les saines habitudes de sommeil, la prévention de la maltraitance des enfants, la vie saine et active et la sédentarité de la famille, de même que l’hygiène buccale. On a aussi ajouté à cette section une nouvelle catégorie consacrée à la santé environnementale pour tenir compte des effets des dangers environnementaux sur la santé des enfants. Le RPR a recours à une

  18. Eco-hydrology: Groundwater flow and site factors in plant ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klijn, Frans; Witte, Jan-Philip M.

    Résumé En écologie végétale, le site est un concept central. Un site, c'est l'endroit où une espèce végétale ou une communauté de plantes se développe le site assure un ensemble de conditions dans lesquelles elles vivent. Dans un matériau homogène à l'origine, l'écoulement gravitaire d'une nappe influence les conditions du site par l'intermédiaire de la distribution spatiale des nutriments et d'autres composés chimiques associés. Les remontées d'eau peuvent tout spécialement produire et maintenir les conditions du site essentielles pour différentes espèces et communautés de plantes relativement rares. Les écologues ont porté une attention accrue à ces remontées d'eau, en sorte qu'une coopération avec les hydrologues en a résulté, avec l'émergence d'une discipline propre, l'éco-hydrologie, à la limite des deux domaines scientifiques et liée au concept de site. Aux Pays-Bas, une classification des types d'eau, basée sur l'histoire de l'eau souterraine à proximité de la surface, a été mise en oeuvre pour constituer une base nationale de données géographiques sur les remontées d'eau d'intérêt écologique. Des analyses des correspondances des données de cette base, portant sur l'existence de certaines espèces de plantes, montrent que dans les sols sableux pauvres du Pléistocène la remontée d'eau explique très bien la présence de certaines espèces et communautés, alors que, dans les plaines fluviales et les régions de polders à sols argileux riches, l'influence de la remontée d'eau est masquée par l'importance des caractéristiques des sols. En conclusion donc, certaines espèces de plantes peuvent être utilisées comme des indicateurs de la remontée d'eau dans des diagnostiques et des levés de terrain rapides, mais à condition de prendre en permanence des précautions sur les limites de l'approche. Resumen En ecología botánica un concepto de gran importancia es el de emplazamiento, definido como el lugar que

  19. Fleischmann seminar (fusion)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    "pictures, television out, no flash and camera, there will be a press section later on in the council room if Prof. Fleischmann will accept"..le DG C.Rubbia insiste pour cette discussion scientifique de ne pas filmer, autrement de bien quitter la salle, ce qui provoque un petit remue-ménage...

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following papers: "Transformations Accelerees de l'Education Scientifique Pendant la Revolution Francaise" (Jean Dhombres); "Building on the Knowledge of Students and Teachers" (Thomas P. Carpenter & Elizabeth…

  1. Fleischmann seminar (fusion)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-25

    "pictures, television out, no flash and camera, there will be a press section later on in the council room if Prof. Fleischmann will accept"..le DG C.Rubbia insiste pour cette discussion scientifique de ne pas filmer, autrement de bien quitter la salle, ce qui provoque un petit remue-ménage...

  2. Post-Secondary Students' Relationship to People They Consider to Be Scientific Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    This article is situated in contemporary debates about the ways to achieve a scientific literacy that encourages a greater lay participation in public debates and political decision making. Drawing on the notion of "relationship to scientific experts" (in French, "rapport aux experts scientifiques"), I explore the ways in which a group of 3 Quebec…

  3. The Economic Aspect of the Exchange of Duplicates. Time Studies on Books. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejlersen, Rita

    This report of a 10-month study performed at the Institut Danois des Echanges Internationaux de Publications Scientifiques et Litteraires (IDE) on its exchange program for duplicate monographs provides an analysis of the working methods and time spent on the various phases, i.e., acquisition, processing, and distribution. The major function of the…

  4. Memorial I.Rabi

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  5. Press conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Exposés de plusieurs intervenants de la direction et du conseil, comme le Prof.Ramsey, président du conseil sur l'adhésion récente de la Finlande et le "boom" scientifique des pays de l'est.

  6. Indexation Rules for Metallurgy in PASCAL. Original Title: Regles d'Indexation de la Metallurgie'--Technical Note Issued by Informascience--January 1980. Translated by Marie Wallin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Library.

    The indexing rules presented are designed for use with a new French-German database on metallurgy being developed under an agreement by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris) and BAM (Bundesanstalt fur Materialprufung, Berlin). The new database, which will feature multilingual titles and index terms (French-German-English-) and…

  7. Documenting and Researching Endangered Languages: The Pangloss Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michailovsky, Boyd; Mazaudon, Martine; Michaud, Alexis; Guillaume, Séverine; François, Alexandre; Adamou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    The Pangloss Collection is a language archive developed since 1994 at the Langues et Civilisations à Tradition Orale (LACITO) research group of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). It contributes to the documentation and study of the world's languages by providing free access to documents of connected, spontaneous…

  8. Science on the Fairgrounds: From Black to White Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Raichvarg

    2007-01-01

    During the 18th and 19th centuries, numerous "entrepreneurs de spectacles scientifiques"--a new category of "stall-keepers"--travelled around France, displaying their scientific shows to the public. They turned out to be physics demonstrators, magicians, mechanical engineers or curators of museums of anatomy. A general survey…

  9. Memorial I.Rabi

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-01

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  10. Passion Research: A Joint Venture To Interest High School Students in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriere, Francois J.; Abouaf, Madeleine

    1997-01-01

    Describes a joint venture between the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Department of Education in France that was created to allow students to do practical scientific work with the help of a CNRS researcher. Presents two practical projects done by students on organic polymers and on color. Concludes that this increases…

  11. Privacy Laws and Biobanking in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Nils

    2016-03-01

    While the possibility of enacting a sui generis Biobank Act has been debated in Germany at great length, as of yet the country has not implemented any biobankspecific legislation. Instead, oversight is available via a network of research and privacy laws, including those of the European Union. The Nationale Kohorte, Germany's large-scale, population-based epidemiological research biobank, is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and there are currently 108 registered bio-banks throughout Germany. The current system, including the structure and study design of the Nationale Kohorte, privileges the protection of personal information even at the cost of socially desirable research; it remains to be seen if forthcoming legislation will shift this balance.

  12. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  13. [Looking at several fleeting hygiene journals from the 19th Century kept at the National Library of France].

    PubMed

    Anne, Boyer; Cantau, Alina

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigate some ephemeral reviews of private and public hygiene of the 19th century in the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF). They examine the general context of their publication, describe them according to the usual bibliographic criteria, analyse their aims and content, and try to understand why they were so ephemeral. These reviews are in a very poor state and computerisation, they hope, might give them a new life.

  14. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  15. [About two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur belonging to the Academie national de pharmacie].

    PubMed

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    Two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur, dated respectively november 26th 1853 and december 22nd 1853 in Strasbourg, were found in unclassified archives of the Academie nationale de pharmacie - Paris. They are described in the paper. They are related to the prize of F 1500 given to him by the Societe de pharmacie, the previous name of the Academy. This award concerned his famous studies on the racemic or paratartric acid.

  16. The INSU and DMN network of ST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petitdidier, M.; Klaus, V.; Baudin, F.; Crochet, M.; Penazzi, G.; Quinty, P.

    1986-01-01

    Due to their capabilities of measuring wind profiles with good time and height resolution, Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) are well adapted to carry out atmospheric research. In France, a Very High Frequency (VHF) and an Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) ST radar are working for research purposes. The INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers) and the DMN (Direction de la Meteorologie Nationale) networks are discussed.

  17. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    of this very complex system. Subsequently, it will serve to tune this key research facility to the highest possible performance. The VLTI is based on the combination of light (beams) from the telescopes at Paranal. Of these, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes are already in operation - they will soon be joined by three 1.8-m telescopes that can be relocated on rails, cf. PR Photo 43b/99. By means of a system of mirrors, the light from two or more of these telescopes will be guided to the central Interferometric Laboratory , at the center of the observing platform on Paranal. Information about the heart of this complex system, the Delay Lines that are located in the underground Interferometric Tunnel, is available with the recent ESO PR Photos 26a-e/00. The VLTI will later receive other front-line instruments, e.g. AMBER , MIDI and PRIMA. When fully ready some years from now, the VLTI will produce extremely sharp images. This will have a major impact on different types of exciting astronomical observations, e.g.: * the direct discovery and imaging of extra-solar planets comparable to Jupiter, * the discovery and imaging of low-mass stars such as brown dwarfs, * observations of star-forming regions and to better understand the physical processes that give birth to stars, * spectral analysis of the atmospheres of nearby stars, and * imaging the objects of the very core of our Galaxy and the detection of black holes in active nuclei of galaxies. The VINCI test instrument The new instrument, VINCI , will soon be delivered to Paranal by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (Department for Space Research), a joint unit of the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Paris Observatory. VINCI is a functional copy of the FLUOR instrument - now at the IOTA (Infrared Optical Telescope Array) interferometer - that has been upgraded and adapted to the needs of the VLTI. FLUOR was developed by the Département de Recherche

  18. Geoffrey Burbidge : L'art de la critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    Avec pres de cinquante ans de carriere derriere lui, Geoffrey Burbidge n'a rien perdu de son gout du débat et de la controverse. Mondialement reconnu pour ses travaux sur les quasars, il en agace aujourd'hui plus d'un en venant deranger le bel ordonnancement de la cosmologie. Il porte sur le monde scientifique un regard tres critique, condamnant notamment ces chercheurs qui acceptent trop volontiers d'emprunter les chemins tout traces.

  19. International Summer School, ‘ From Genome to Life’

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    This report from the International Summer School ‘From Genome to Life’, held at the Institute d'Etudes Scientifiques de Cargèse in Corsica in July 2002, covers the talks of the invited speakers. The topics of the talks can be broadly grouped into the areas of genome annotation, comparative and evolutionary genomics, functional genomics, proteomics, structural genomics, pharmacogenomics, and organelle genomes, epigenetics and RNA. PMID:18629253

  20. Colloquy to Paul Musset

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    En honneur de Paul Musset il a été décidé de faire plutôt un colloque scientifique à la place d'une cérémonie. Plusieurs personnes temoignent de leurs estime et amitié pour ce physicien et ses activités

  1. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-14

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  2. Science anc Society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    S.P.Worden, membre technique de l'U.S.délégation à Genève pour les négociations sur les armes nucléaires, est physicien, astronome, scientifique et officier de l'armée de l'air. Il parlera des technologies de défense stratégique

  3. Centenarian Einstein

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)

  4. The new role of scientists

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le D.G. Jentschke fait l'introduction et présente le Prof.Kowarsky, spécialiste en microbiologie, physique nucléaire et une des fondateurs du Cern. Il parle entre autre de l'énergie nucléaire (pacifique)et de remise en questions des valeurs scientifiques et techniques

  5. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d’autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  6. Optimierung und Charakterisierung einer transportablen optischen Gitteruhr mit Ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    This thesis deals with the improvement and the characterization of a transportable optical lattice clock with ytterbium. Building on results of former theses from T. Franzen [1] and C. Abou Jadoudeh [2] numerous improvements were needed to increase the overall stability of the whole apparatus. The improved stability should lead to a more accurate characterization of the system and a better mobility. Finally, the apparatus should be transported to the Instituto Nationale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) in Torino (Italy) in the course of the Space Optical Clocks 2 (SOC2) project.(Abridged)

  7. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his

  8. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Werner; Meinnel, Jean

    2003-02-01

    En 1994, l'attribution du prix Nobel à Cliff Shull et Bert Brockhouse pour leurs travaux de pionniers pendant les années 50, concernant tant la diffusion élastique des neutrons que la diffusion inélastique, a été la reconnaissance éclatante de l'importance de la diffusion neutronique pour toute la communauté scientifique.Le grand intérêt du neutron pour la recherche s'appuie principalement sur ses propriétés physiques particulières :- les neutrons utilisés pour la caractérisation de la matière (et fournis en relativement grandes quantités par les réacteurs ou les sources à spallation) disposent de longueurs d'onde et d'énergies correspondant directement aux distances interatomiques et aux énergies d'agitation de la matière. Ainsi, par diffusion neutronique, on peut étudier en même temps la structure et le comportement dynamique de la matière ;- le fait que le neutron soit doué d'un moment magnétique lui permet d'interagir avec tout atome porteur d'un moment magnétique. Ceci permet de caractériser intimement le comportement magnétique de la matière à l'échelle microscopique ;- la possibilité de pouvoir varier facilement le contraste d'un même élément en utilisant ses différents isotopes fait du neutron un outil irremplaçable en chimie et physique du solide ainsi qu'en biologie et matière molle ;- enfin, n'ayant pas de charge électrique, les neutrons peuvent pénétrer la matière sans être absorbés significativement, ce qui rend possible une caractérisation non destructive des contraintes et textures sur de grosses pièces des matériaux.Toutes les qualités des neutrons mentionnées ci-dessus permettent de comprendre l'importance de la diffusion neutronique pour des domaines très nombreux et très différents à la fois en recherche fondamentale mais aussi pour des applications industrielles. L'utilisation de l'outil-neutron demande toutefois non seulement une bonne connaissance des différents mécanismes d

  9. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont

  10. Engaging the Public to Identify Opportunities to Improve Critical Care: A Qualitative Analysis of an Open Community Forum

    PubMed Central

    Potestio, Melissa L.; Boyd, Jamie M.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Heyland, Daren; Oxland, Peter; Doig, Christopher J.; Zygun, Dave; Stelfox, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To engage the public to understand how to improve the care of critically ill patients. Design A qualitative content analysis of an open community forum (Café Scientifique). Setting Public venue in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants Members of the general public including patients, families of patients, health care providers, and members of the community at large. Methods A panel of researchers, decision-makers, and a family member led a Café Scientifique, an informal dialogue between the populace and experts, over three-hours to engage the public to understand how to improve the care of critically ill patients. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. The inductive analysis occurred in three phases: coding, categorizing, and developing themes. Results Thirty-eight members of the public (former ICU patients, family members of patients, providers, community members) attended. Participants focused the discussion and provided concrete suggestions for improvement around communication (family as surrogate voice, timing of conversations, decision tools) and provider well-being and engagement, as opposed to medical interventions in critical care. Conclusions Café participants believe patient and family centered care is important to ensure high-quality care in the ICU. A Café Scientifique is a valuable forum to engage the public to contribute to priority setting areas for research in critical care, as well as a platform to share lived experience. Research stakeholders including health care organizations, governments, and funding organizations should provide more opportunities for the public to engage in meaningful conversations about how to best improve healthcare. PMID:26580406

  11. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priou, Alain; Lupi, Cyril

    2016-11-01

    URSI ("Union radio-scientifique internationale") is a world-level body under the umbrella of the International Council for Science, formerly International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). This scientific society is responsible for stimulating and coordinating, on an international basis, studies, research, applications, scientific exchanges, and communication in the fields of radio science. In 2015, the yearly scientific workshop of URSI-France was focused on the theme "Probing matter with electromagnetic waves". This research area covers all the activities of the various scientific commissions of URSI.

  12. Identification of complex flows in Taylor-Couette counter-rotating cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czarny, O.; Serre, E.; Bontoux, P.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    The transition in confined rotating flows is a topical problem with many industrial and fundamental applications. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Taylor-Couette flow in a finite-length cavity with counter-rotating walls, for two aspect ratios L=5 or L=6. Two complex regimes of wavy vortex and spirals are emphasized for the first time via direct numerical simulation, by using a three-dimensional spectral method. The spatio-temporal behavior of the solutions is analyzed and compared to the few data actually available. c2001 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  13. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  14. What would researchers like to improve in communication initiatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important current trends in astronomy communication has been “change”. The field of astronomy communication has rapidly evolved in just the past few years, as new techniques and technologies have been adopted. Research astronomy has also visibly changed, as automation of survey systems and the launch of new telescopes has produced a tsunami of big data sets. Today, scientists and communicators must work together to navigate the raging waters of this data flood as they strive to keep our tech-savvy society informed. This invited talk will be given by Alain Doressoundiram (Observatoire de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) TBC

  15. The entropy and stability of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, G. W.

    It is shown that among all universes admitting a moment of time symmetry, the Einstein static universe is an extremum (the only homogeneous one) and that this extremum is a local maximum against conformal changes if and only if the solution is stable against the Jeans instability or equivalently if the sound speed exceeds √1/5. Laboratoire Propre du Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, associé à l'Ecole Normale Supérieure et à l'Université de Paris-Sud.

  16. Atrophie cérébrale diffuse au cours d'un syndrome de Goldenhar: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Asani, Yogolelo; Mulenga, Cilundika; Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Mbuyi-Musansayi; Muenze, Kalenga; Borasisi, Chenge; Speeg-Schatz

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas d'un syndrome de Goldenhar non décris dans la littérature chez un nourrisson de 3 mois, de sexe féminin présentant une atrophie cérébrale diffuse. Cette observation permet de décrire cette malformation rare et d'attirer l'attention de l'opinion scientifique à mettre en marche des études poussées afin de comprendre la survenue de cette pathologie. PMID:25767659

  17. [SIGAPS: a software package for the evaluation of medical publications].

    PubMed

    Derancourt, C; Devos, P; Moore, N; Rouvillain, J-L

    2014-01-01

    The "système d'interrogation, de gestion et d'analyse des publications scientifiques" (System for Identification, Management and Analysis of Scientific Publications), or SIGAPS, is an innovative tool of French design that enables the identification and analysis of bibliographic references produced by a given researcher or unit using the Medline database (PubMed). This evaluation takes into account the author's rank of signature and the impact factor of the journal of publication within the discipline in question. The limits are those of the impact factor. Analyses produced by SIGAPS enable financial assessment to be made by hospitals.

  18. Torleif Ericson 60th Birthday

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plusieurs discours à l'occasion du 60me anniversaire de Torleif Ericson, physicien né à Lund (Suède), et remerciements pour son travail et son effort de relier la physique des particules à la physique nucléaire. A la fin de la cérémonie un document scientifique de 400 pages "die Festschrift" lui est remis comme cadeau d'anniversaire avec un grand nombre de contributions d'amis etc...

  19. Memorial V.J.Glaser

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plusieurs orateurs rendent hommage au grand physicien et scientifique Vladimir Jurko Glaser (1924 - 1984) qui travaillait au Ruder Boscovic Institut à Zagreb avant de venir au Cern en 1957 où il trouvait un poste permanent au département de physique théorique. Walter Tearing, Harry Lehmann,Henry Epstein, Jacques Bros et André Martin font des résumés biographiques de leurs collègue et ami en honorant ses grands qualités d'homme et ses remarquables conquêtes de la science et leurs accomplissement.

  20. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas: a loyal friend and a strong supporter of tropical medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014). However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969) was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France), Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications), Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine.

  1. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas: a loyal friend and a strong supporter of tropical medicine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2016-01-01

    Our colleagues at the Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical have been informed of the demise of Professor Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (1937-2014). However, considering that the tribute we paid to him in 2015 - at the 20th anniversary of the Seminário Laveran & Deane sobre Malária - is equally true today, it is worth sharing it with the readers of the RSBMT, in recognition of his many virtues. Pierre Ambroise-Thomas (MD in 1963 and DSc in 1969) was Honorary Professor of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine at the Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble (France), Honorary President of the Académie Nationale de Médecine, member of the Académie Nationale de Pharmacie and Officier dans l'Ordre de La Légion d'Honneur. In addition to his important contributions to tropical medicine and parasitology, working in France during his long and productive career (50 years and 300 publications), Ambroise-Thomas became an admirer and supporter of Brazilian activities related to research, teaching and information in Tropical Medicine. PMID:27598625

  2. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Le jardin comme laboratoire: le rôle des jardins domestiques comme place d’exploration scientifique au cours du XVIII(e) siècleLes jardins du XVIII(e) siècle ont traditionnellement été considérés comme des espaces conçus pour le loisir, et comme représentations du goût, du pouvoir et du statut politiques. Cet article explore au contraire le concept de jardin en tant qu’espace dynamique où peuvent s’exercer expérimentation scientifique et pratique médicale. Cet article rapporte l’étude pilote de deux exemples: les paysages conçus pour la résidence du John Hunter à Earls Court, à Londres, et le jardin de la maison de Edward Jenner à Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Les méthodologies sur l’histoire du jardin ont été mises en place afin d’évaluer à quel point ces jardins domestiques peuvent être considérés comme espaces d’expérimentation.

  3. Liquid catalyst efficiently removes H/sub 2/S from liquid sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Nougayrede, J.; Voirin, R. )

    1989-07-17

    Efficient removal of H/sub 2/S from liquid sulfur can be accomplished by the use of a new liquid catalyst developed by Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production). Designated Aquisulf, the catalyst is used in the sulfur-degassing process the same way ammonia was previously used. H/sub 2/S can, of course, be deadly and the safe handling and shipping of elemental sulfur containing it is a challenge. Before degassing, elemental sulfur, for which the 1987 worldwide demand was about 20 million metric tons, can contain up to 100 ppm H/sub 2/S in Frasch-mined sulfur, and up to 550 ppm in sulfur produced by Claus sulfur recovery processes in refineries and gas processing plants. Lower catalyst quantities needed to achieve specified maximum H/sub 2/S levels in the liquid sulfur product, better sulfur quality, and lower system maintenance costs are the primary advantages provided by the new catalyst.

  4. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  5. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  6. [Grading of soft tissue and bone sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Petersen, I; Wardelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy grading is an essential element in the classification of sarcomas. It correlates with the prognosis of the disease and the risk of metastasis. This article presents the grading schemes for soft tissue, bone and pediatric sarcomas. It summarizes the histological criteria of the Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system and the Pediatric Oncology Group as well as the grading of bone tumors by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Furthermore, the potential relevance of gene expression signatures, the complexity index in sarcoma (CINSARC) and single genetic alterations (p53, MDM2, p16, SWI/SNF, EWSR1 fusions and PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1 fusions) for the prognosis of sarcomas are discussed.

  7. From dipolar to multipolar interactions between ultracold Feshbach molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Lepers, Maxence; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Dulieu, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Using the multipolar expansion of electrostatic and magnetostatic potential energies, we characterize the long-range interactions between two weakly-bound diatomic molecules, taking as an example the paramagnetic Er2 Feshbach molecules which were produced recently. The interaction between atomic magnetic dipoles gives rise to the usual R-3 leading term of the multipolar expansion, where R is the intermolecular distance. We show that additional terms scaling as R-5, R-7 and so on also appear, which are strongly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the molecules. These terms can be seen as effective molecular multipole moments reflecting the spatial extension of the molecules which is non-negligible compared to R. We acknowledge the financial support of the COPOMOL project (ANR-13-IS04-0004) from Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  8. [Grading of soft tissue and bone sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Petersen, I; Wardelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy grading is an essential element in the classification of sarcomas. It correlates with the prognosis of the disease and the risk of metastasis. This article presents the grading schemes for soft tissue, bone and pediatric sarcomas. It summarizes the histological criteria of the Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system and the Pediatric Oncology Group as well as the grading of bone tumors by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Furthermore, the potential relevance of gene expression signatures, the complexity index in sarcoma (CINSARC) and single genetic alterations (p53, MDM2, p16, SWI/SNF, EWSR1 fusions and PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1 fusions) for the prognosis of sarcomas are discussed. PMID:27384333

  9. Shielding ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    The prospect for shielding ultracold dipolar molecules from inelastic and reactive collisions is investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of molecules of experimental interest such as NaRb, NaK, RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO, are considered and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. We acknowledge the financial support of the COPOMOL project (ANR-13-IS04-0004) from Agence Nationale de la Recherche and the ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476.

  10. 42nd Congress of the "Groupe Français des Pesticides" (French Group of Pesticide research--GFP 2012) ENSIP, Poitiers, France, 30 May-1 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Jean-François; Couderchet, Michel; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    The 42nd congress of the "Groupe Français des Pesticides" (French Group of Pesticide research--GFP 2012) took place 30 May-1 June at the "École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Poitiers" (ENSIP), a French generalist engineering grande école in Poitiers. Its focus is on the protection of the environment and is part of the University of Poitiers, one of the oldest universities in Europe. GFP is an annual conference where the latest developments in the field of pesticide research are presented. The topics most commonly discussed mainly concern environmental quality, monitoring, fate, and transfer of pesticides in the environment or risks associated with use of pesticides, but every year a key theme sets the tone. For this 42nd edition, the theme "Innovative strategies for plant protection" was retained.

  11. [National ethics committees and representative democracy: is the new German ethics committee more "democratic"?].

    PubMed

    Dagron, Stéphanie

    2007-01-01

    The bill passed in April 2007 by the German parliament aims to confer democratic legitimacy on the German Ethics Committee (deutscher Ethikrat) which has replaced the former National Ethics Committee (nationaler Ethikrat) set up in 2001. This law results from a wide debate which began in 2005 within the political parties about the role in democracy of the bodies charged with advising the people's representatives in the areas of biotechnology and modern medicine. In this article, the author explains why it was necessary to confer a certain democratic legitimacy on the new Ethics Committee and analyses the relation that exists between the democratic principle, the work of this type of committee and the national institutional structure retained to stimulate the debate and advise the political decision-makers, and even to prepare legislation concerning bioethics. PMID:17902580

  12. Molecular spectroscopy for producing ultracold ground-state NaRb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dajun; Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have successfully created an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state NaRb molecules by two-photon Raman transfer of weakly bound Feshbach molecules. Here we will present the detailed spectroscopic investigations on both the excited and the rovibrational ground states for finding the two-photon path. For the excited state, we focus on the A1Σ+ /b3 Π singlet and triplet admixture. We discovered an anomalously strong coupling between the Ω =0+ and 0- components which renders efficient population transfer possible. In the ground state, the pure nuclear hyperfine levels have been clearly resolved, which allows us to create molecules in the absolute ground state directly with Raman transfer. This work is jointly supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (#ANR-13- IS04-0004-01) and Hong Kong Research Grant Council (#A-CUHK403/13) through the COPOMOL project.

  13. [The frequency of cancer in France: mortality trends since 1950 and summary of the report on the causes of cancer].

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine; Doyon, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, a total number of 149,000 cancer deaths were observed in France, 89,000 in the male population and 60,000 in the female population. Age-standardised mortality rates are decreasing for most cancer sites, at least in recent years, the main exception being lung cancer in the female population which has become the second cause of cancer deaths after breast cancer. The report on the attributable causes of cancer in France from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the French Science and Medical Academies and the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer shows the importance of tobacco alcohol and infections. They are the most important causes of cancer in France, leading respectively to 24 %, 7 % and 4 % of cancer deaths. Cancer prevention is possible as demonstrated by the decrease in tobacco and alcohol consumption in the male population leading to a reduction in the risk of cancer.

  14. The Nagra-DOE Cooperative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Levitch, R.A.; Zuidema, P.

    1993-04-01

    The Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra). Scientists participating in this project explored the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Six joint tasks were defined and are described briefly below. Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 5 were concerned with the characterization of fractured rock. Task 5 in particular was focused on investigations at the Grimsel Underground Laboratory in the Swiss Alps. Tasks 2 and 6 focused on the phenomenology associated with storing radioactive waste underground.

  15. [The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste].

    PubMed

    Chaussade, J P

    1995-03-15

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricité de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality. EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the "Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioadctifs" (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste).

  16. The European "clinical trial" regulation; relationship with the Jardé Act: a Giens workshop.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.

  17. Remote system for subsea wells tested

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1981-05-04

    At its experimental submarine station in the Grondin field offshore the West African state of Gabon, Societe Nationale Elf-Aquitaine has run a series of inspection, repair, and maintenance tests on two producing wells using a robot controlled from the surface. Designed for water depths beyond the range of divers, the TIM robot has a pair of manipulator arms and a rotating telescopic crane installed on a 14 by 7.6 ft carriage. Five television cameras fitted at various spots on the robot allow surface operators to direct TIM in such tasks as (1) installing a jumper pipe between a Christmas tree and the manifold, (2) connecting a jumper electric cable and hydraulic hose, (3) locally operating a safety valve, and (4) removing a guide line. During 104 hr of seabed experience, TIM outperformed divers, particularly in jobs requiring great strength.

  18. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  19. The UT 8 February 2013 Sila-Nunam Mutual Event & Future Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benecchi, Susan D.; Noll, K.; Thirouin, A.; Ryan, E.; Grundy, W.; Verbiscer, A.; Doressoundiram, A.; Hestroffer, D.; Beaton, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Chanover, N.

    2013-10-01

    A mutual event of the Kuiper Belt binary system (79360) Sila-Nunam was observed over 15.47 hours on UT 8 February 2013 by a coordinated effort at four telescopes: Telescopio Nationale Galileo in the Canary Islands, the du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, ARC at Apache Point Observatory and the IRTF on Mauna Kea. It is the first full event observed from start to finish for this binary system. The lightcurve is consistent with two objects of similar, but perhaps not identical, size and albedo. We will present the results from this event and predictions for future events which have been refined by this and other mutual event observations obtained since the events began.

  20. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  1. La supraconductivité a 100 ans !

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    Il y a 100 ans, le 8 avril 1911, une découverte majeure était réalisée : celle de la supraconductivité. La supraconductivité est la caractéristique qu’ont certains métaux et alliages de perdre toute résistance électrique en dessous d’une température donnée. Cette renversante découverte, réalisée de manière presque fortuite par Kammerlingh Onnes de l’Université de Leyde (Pays-Bas) et son étudiant Gilles Holst, a ouvert un nouveau champ de recherche en physique et de fabuleuses perspectives d’applications technologiques. Du point de vue scientifique, la supraconductivité est en effet l’une des rares manifestations de la physique quantique à l’échelle macroscopique.  Du point de vue des retombées techniques, elle est porteuse d’applications majeures dans le domaine de la santé, des communications et de l’énergie. 100 ans après, les physiciens n’ont toujours pas fini d’explorer ce phénomène et ses applications. Le CERN abrite des applications de la supraconductivité à des échelles inédites. L’accélérateur de particules LHC, avec ses milliers d’aimants supraconducteurs répartis sur 27 kilomètres de circonférence, est en effet la plus grande application mondiale de la supraconductivité. Il ne pourrait exister sans elle.  Le CERN fête donc la découverte de la supraconductivité avec une conférence exceptionnelle donnée par Philippe Lebrun. Au cours de cette conférence, l’expérience historique de Kammerlingh Onnes sera reproduite. Philippe Lebrun racontera l’histoire de cette étonnante découverte, en la replaçant dans le contexte scientifique de l’époque. Il racontera les développements scientifiques et les applications du premier siècle de la supraconductivité. Conférence en français Merci de bien vouloir vous inscrire au : +41 22 767 76 76 ou cern.reception@cern.ch

  2. The new final Clinical Skills examination in human medicine in Switzerland: Essential steps of exam development, implementation and evaluation, and central insights from the perspective of the national Working Group.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Christoph; Schirlo, Christian; Balestra, Gianmarco; Bonvin, Raphael; Feller, Sabine; Huber, Philippe; Jünger, Ernst; Monti, Matteo; Schnabel, Kai; Beyeler, Christine; Guttormsen, Sissel; Huwendiek, Sören

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Seit 2011 wird in der Schweiz eine neue nationale Schlussprüfung in Humanmedizin mit einem strukturierten klinisch-praktischen Teil im OSCE Format durchgeführt. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt, aus Sicht der nationalen Arbeitsgruppe, die essentiellen Schritte der Erstellung, Durchführung und Auswertung der Eidgenössischen Prüfung Clinical Skills (EP CS) sowie der jeweils eingesetzten Qualitätssicherungsmassnahmen. Schliesslich werden zentrale Erkenntnisse der vergangenen Jahre vorgestellt. Methodik: Basierend auf den Prinzipien der Aktionsforschung wird die EP CS kontinuierlich weiter entwickelt. Auf der Grundlage systematisch dokumentierter Erfahrungen aus den Vorjahren werden in der Arbeitsgruppe anstehende Fragen diskutiert, daraus resultierende Lösungsansätze konkretisiert (Planung), in der Prüfung umgesetzt (Implementation) und anschliessend evaluiert (Reflexion). Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse sind das Produkt dieses iterativen Vorgehens. Ergebnisse: Die EP CS wird durch Fachexperten aller Fakultäten und Fachrichtungen in einem mehrstufigen Prozess erstellt. Die Prüfung wird dezentral in Deutsch und Französisch durchgeführt und besteht aus zwölf interdisziplinären Stationen pro Kandidat. Als wichtige Qualitätssicherungsmassnahmen haben sich das nationale Review Board (inhaltliche Validierung) und die Treffen der Schauspielpatienten-Trainer (Standardisierung) erwiesen. Die statistischen Auswertungen zeigen eine gute Messzuverlässigkeit und weisen auf die Konstruktvalidität der Prüfung hin. Zu den zentralen Erkenntnissen der vergangenen Jahre gehört, dass die konsequente Umsetzung der Prinzipien der Aktionsforschung zur erfolgreichen Weiterentwicklung der Prüfung beiträgt.Schlussfolgerung: Der zentral koordinierte, kollaborativ-iterative Prozess mit Einbindung von Fachexperten aus allen Fakultäten trägt wesentlich zur Qualität der EP CS bei. Die hier vorgestellten Prozesse und Erkenntnisse können für andere n

  3. Master equation with quantized atomic motion including dipole-dipole interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John

    2016-05-01

    We derive a markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and is relevant for experiments with ultracold trapped atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find analytical formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states and thermal states). In particular, we show that the dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion. The effects predicted should be experimentally observable with Rydberg atoms. FD would like to thank the F.R.S.-FNRS for financial support. FD is a FRIA Grant holder of the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique-FNRS.

  4. Challenges to reestablishment of free-ranging populations of black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Godbey, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) of North America is critically endangered due in part to its extreme specialization on formerly stable and abundant prairie dogs (Cynomys). Its close relative, the Siberian polecat (M. eversmannii) seems to have been subjected to a varying environment that was not conducive to specialization. One source of environmental variation in Asian steppes was plague (caused by Yersina pestis), which was absent from North America. Introduction of plague to North America presents serious challenges to ferret recovery. Partial solutions to other biological and political problems have been found, resulting in improved production in captivity, increased survival post-release, and thriving populations in plague-free South Dakota. ?? 2003 Acade??mie des sciences. Published by E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Seminar Andrej Sacharov

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A l'occasion de son 63me anniversaire 2 orateurs rendent hommage à A.Sacharov, physicien russe et né à Moscou, pour ses accomplissements scientifiques et son courage. A.Sacharov a dénoncé les dangers de la radioactivité et a tenté de persuader les autorités soviétiques de supprimer une série de test après le developpement de la bombe atomique en 1949 et la bombe à hydrogène en 1953 par un groupe de chercheurs soviétiques. Il a obtenu le prix Nobel en 1975.

  6. Café discussions on oral sex, oral cancer, and HPV infection: summative report.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario Augusto

    2010-12-01

    Recent emphasis has been placed on the potential links between oral sex, HPV infection, and oral cancer development. Such links were addressed by researchers, clinicians, and the community during two Café Scientifique discussions in October and November 2008, in Vancouver, Canada. The Cafes gathered panels of experts on oral pathology, dentistry, oncology, social work, and community-based research who interacted with an audience of policy makers, health care administrators, sociologists, sexologists, pharmacists, clinical and social researchers, social workers, technicians, and graduate, undergraduate, and high school students. This commentary summarizes the main points discussed during these two events to encourage a worldwide open dialogue about potential risks for oral cancer beyond tobacco smoking and excessive alcohol consumption as such malignancies have high mortality and morbidity, but are yet preventable diseases. PMID:20054632

  7. Design considerations for solar furnace focal zone apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.H. Jr.; Knasel, T.M.; McDonnell, M.; Gordon, B.; Woods, S.; Malinowski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc. has used the principal solar furnaces in conjunction with its study of the effect of high thermal fluxes and fluences on soil surfaces for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Apparatus to perform these tests has evolved from tests on the furnaces at the White Sands Missile Range, Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta; Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Font Romeu, France; and Kirtland AFB, NM over the past 6 years. The apparatus is still evolving as it is adapted to additional furnaces and to obtain a greater variety of data. The evolution of the apparatus is traced to illustrate the interaction of experiment objectives; furnace capabilities, configuration, and support; apparatus design; data collection; and response to lessons learned.

  8. The new powder diffractometer D1B of the Institut Laue Langevin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Orench, I.; Clergeau, J. F.; Martínez, S.; Olmos, M.; Fabelo, O.; Campo, J.

    2014-11-01

    D1B is a medium resolution high flux powder diffractometer located at the Institut Laue Langevin, ILL. D1B a suitable instrument for studying a large variety of polycrystalline materials. D1B runs since 1998 as a CRG (collaborating research group) instrument, being exploited by the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) and CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain). In 2008 the Spanish CRG started an updating program which included a new detector and a radial oscillating collimator (ROC). The detector, which has a sensitive height of 100mm, covers an angular range of 128°. Its 1280 gold wires provide a neutron detection point every 0.1°. The ROC is made of 198 gadolinium- based absorbing collimation blades, regular placed every 0.67°. Here the present characteristics of D1B are reviewed and the different experimental performances will be presented.

  9. The career paths of women (and men) in French research.

    PubMed

    de Cheveigné, Suzanne

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of perceptions of science careers in the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the main research institution in France. Its aim is to understand the 'glass ceiling' effect, which reduces the proportion of women at the higher levels of the career hierarchy. Long interviews were carried out with men, as well as women, support staff and researchers. Factors such as tension between individual and collective dimensions of research activity, and long-term time-management problems, were identified: these affect both men and women but in different ways. Organizations bear an important responsibility through the way they reinforce or alleviate difficulties that women and men face in contributing to scientific research at all levels.

  10. Georges Lemaître and Stigler's Law of Eponymy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, David L.

    One of the greatest discoveries of modern times is that of the expanding Universe, almost invariably attributed to Hubble (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 15:168, 1929). What is not widely known is that the original treatise by Lemaître (Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles, Sèrie A 47:49, 1927) contained a rich fusion of both theory and of observation. The French paper was meticulously censored when published in English: all discussions of radial velocities and distances, and the very first empirical determination of H 0 , were suppressed. Stigler's law of eponymy is yet again affirmed: no scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer (Merton, American Sociological Review 22(6):635, 1957). An appeal is made for a Lemaître Telescope naming opportunity, to honour the discoverer of the expanding universe.

  11. Recent Sawtooth Studies on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Duccio; Canal, Gustavo; Coda, Stefano; Duval, Basil; Federspiel, Lucia; Felici, Federico; Gnesin, Silvano; Goodman, Timothy; Graves, Jonathan; Halpern, Federico; Janvier, Miho; Kamleitner, Josef; Karpushov, Alexander; Kim, Doohyun; Kim, Kyungjin; Pochelon, Antoine; Reimerdes, Holger; Sauter, Olivier; TCV Team

    2011-10-01

    We report recent studies performed on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable on the sawtooth instability and its relation with Tearing Modes (TMs). The primary long-term aim of this work is to provide understanding of the relation between sawteeth and TMs so that reliable real-time schemes can be devised for combined sawtooth and TM control in burning plasma experiments such as ITER. Hence, our work has focused on studying: dynamical relation between sawtooth crash and subsequent onset of TMs, sometimes leading to disruptions, as a function of the plasma shape and current profile; coupling of the low m/n modes generated at the sawtooth crash; dynamical evolution of the toroidal rotation during sawteeth; real-time control techniques for the sawtooth period using localized electron cyclotron heating and current drive; distribution function of high energy electrons generated at the sawtooth crash. Work partly funded by Fonds National Suisse Recherche Scientifique.

  12. Transport studies in the snowflake divertor in TCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimerdes, H.; Canal, G. P.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Piras, F.; Vijvers, W.; de Temmerman, G.; Zielinski, J.; Tal, B.; Medvedev, S. Y.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2011-10-01

    The transport of heat and particles in a tokamak plasma with a snowflake divertor has been studied in recent TCV experiments. Estimates of the power flux onto the divertor plates are obtained from measurements with multiple infrared cameras and Langmuir probes. The studies include L- and ELMy H-mode plasmas and confirm some of the advantageous properties of the snowflake configuration, such as the distribution of the exhaust power on more strike points than the two that characterize conventional divertor configurations. Modifications of the divertor configuration from single null towards a perfect snowflake (second-order null) show that already near-snowflake configurations lead to an appreciable power flux across the region of weak poloidal magnetic field. This work is partly funded by the Fonds National Suisse de la Recherche Scientifique. LLNL work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. A maximally symmetric no-scale inflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounnas, C.; Quiros, M.

    1985-02-01

    We present an inflationary model, based on maximally symmetric no-scale supergravity models, where the gravitino and inflation scale cosmological problems are solved simultaneously by means of a heavy - but weakly coupled to ordinary matter - gravitino. The gravitino mass is essentially given by the Hubble constant at the inflationary epoch, H≅1012 GeV. The reheating temperature of the universe after inflation is TR≅(1010-1011) GeV and so gravitinos are no longer regenerated. The grand unified theory suffers a rapid phase transition into the SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) phase, during - or at the end of - inflation with dilution of magnetic monopoles. The dynamical determination of the electroweak scale predicts top quark masses between 40 and 50 GeV. Laboratoire Propre du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, associé à l'Ecole Normale Supérieure et à l'Université de Paris-Sud.

  14. Flux limits for high energy cosmic photinos from underground experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayet, P.

    1989-03-01

    Underground experiments, which detect the interactions of atmospheric neutrinos, could also be sensitive to photinos. Using data from the Fréjus and Kamiokande detectors we give upper limits on the possible flux of high-energy relativistic photinos incident on the Earth, as functions of the squark or selectron masses. These limits improve considerably the existing ones, by four to nine orders of magnitude or more, especially for very energetic photinos. Although not yet very constraining, they may be used to eliminate the possibility that high-energy cosmic photinos could contribute significantly to the energy density of the Universe. Laboratoire Propre du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, associé à l'École Normale Supérieure et à l'Université de Paris-Sud.

  15. Allergie respiratoire et “sunko”: une association rare, à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Kangulu, Ignace Bwana; Nzaji, Michel Kabamba

    2014-01-01

    Il est rapporté dans ce texte un cas d'allergie respiratoire ayant fait probablement suite à une consommation d'un tabac sans fumé couramment utilisé en République Démocratique du Congo, le « Sunko ». Une rhinite et un asthme allergiques sont les cas. Cette observation permet d'attirer l'attention du monde scientifique à mettre sur pieds des études concernant la composition et les effets du Sunko pour appréhender cette association, puis d'informer l'opinion sur les dangers que courent les consommateurs de ce type de tabac et de faire la revue de la littérature. PMID:25426218

  16. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-05

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  17. Cell scientist to watch - Virgile Viasnoff.

    PubMed

    Bobrowska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Virgile earned his first degree in soft matter physics at the École Normale Superieure in Paris. He then moved to Johns Hopkins University in the USA to complete a Masters degree, before returning to Paris to pursue his PhD at the École supérieure de physique et de chimie industrielles (ESPCI) in Francois Lequeux's laboratory. In 2006, after two years as a postdoctoral fellow in the group of Amit Meller at Harvard, Vigile started his own lab at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) at ESPCI. Between 2010 and 2011, Virgile spent two years on sabbatical at the Mechanobiology Institute (MBI) at the University of Singapore. He now holds a dual appointment between CNRS and MBI, and his lab in Singapore investigates how the physical and biochemical parameters of the cellular microenvironment regulate cell-cell adhesion and cell fate.

  18. Astronomie et chronoligie chez Newton - arguments astronomiques à l'appui de la chronologie de Newton (Astronomical arguments in Newton's Chronology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2012-12-01

    In his Chronology, Newton uses astronomical "evidence" to support its extreme rejuvenation of ancient times. These elements, having a scientific varnish, provide some credibility to the work. They have been fiercely debated for a century, with a gradual undermining of Newton's assumptions. However, this has not dented the prestige of the English scientist. Dans sa Chronologie, Newton utilise des "preuves" astronomiques pour appuyer son rajeunissement extreme des epoques anciennes. Ces elements, au vernis scientifique, donnent une credibilite certaine a l'ensemble. Ils ont donc ete aprement discutes, les debats sapant petit a petit les hypotheses du savant anglais pour finalement porter un coup mortel a l'ensemble. Cela n'a toutefois pas entame le prestige du savant anglais.

  19. A model for the construction of elementary concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasersfeld, Ernst

    1999-03-01

    In his paper Les épistémologies constructivistes: Un nouveau commencement (Sciences de la Société, n°40, 1997), Jean-Louis Le Moigne poses the question: "Le rêve d'une connaissance autoréférentielle se fondant sur elle-même, est sans doute fascinant … Mais est-il scientifiquement raisonnable?". Building on the work of Jean Piaget, I shall try to show through a developmental analysis of elementary, scientifically relevant concepts, such as `change', `object permanence', `space', and `time', that the notion of the thinking subject's construction of knowledge constitutes a more reasonable foundation for science than the traditional belief in the representation of objective reality.

  20. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities.

  1. Tcoffee@igs: A web server for computing, evaluating and combining multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Poirot, Olivier; O'Toole, Eamonn; Notredame, Cedric

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents Tcoffee@igs, a new server provided to the community by Hewlet Packard computers and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. This server is a web-based tool dedicated to the computation, the evaluation and the combination of multiple sequence alignments. It uses the latest version of the T-Coffee package. Given a set of unaligned sequences, the server returns an evaluated multiple sequence alignment and the associated phylogenetic tree. This server also makes it possible to evaluate the local reliability of an existing alignment and to combine several alternative multiple alignments into a single new one. Tcoffee@igs can be used for aligning protein, RNA or DNA sequences. Datasets of up to 100 sequences (2000 residues long) can be processed. The server and its documentation are available from: http://igs-server.cnrs-mrs.fr/Tcoffee/.

  2. Calcul couple fluide/structure avec ANSYS : étude numérique et expérimentale d'une plaque élastique en contact avec un fluide lourd compressible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, J. F.; Laine, C.; Peseux, B.

    2002-12-01

    Une préoccupation constante de tout industriel est la maîtrise des marges de dimensionnement de ses structures. Le recours aux techniques de calcul scientifique permet en phase de conception détaillée un dimensionnement au plus juste des structures, tout en respectant les différentes contraintes de conception (exigences fonctionnelles, conditions d'environnement, aspects réglementaires). Une meilleure maîtrise des marges passe donc par une meilleure connaissance de l'outil de calcul (précision intrinsèque, mise en œuvre de techniques de calcul plus ou moins élaborées) et la prise en compte d'une réalité physique plus complexe (avec par exemple un couplage entre différents phénomènes physiques) pour une meilleure représentativité du calcul. Une démarche globale de recherche et développement a été mise en place au sein du Service Scientifique et Technique de l'établissement DCN de Nantes Indret pour répondre à ce besoin. Nous présentons ici un exemple d'application pour le calcul de structures en présence de fluide. Cette étude numérique et expérimentale nous permet de valider conjointement le processus de calcul en bureau d'étude et les méthodes de mesure sur site dans le domaine de l'analyse fréquentielle de structures mouillées.

  3. Celestial Treasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Throughout history, the mysterious dark skies have inspired our imaginations in countless ways, influencing our endeavors in science and philosophy, religion, literature, and art. Filled with 380 full-color illustrations, Celestial Treasury shows the influence of astronomical theories and the richness of illustrations in Western civilization through the ages. The authors explore the evolution of our understanding of astronomy and weave together ancient and modern theories in a fascinating narrative. They incorporate a wealth of detail from Greek verse, medieval manuscripts and Victorian poetry with contemporary spacecraft photographs and computer-generated star charts. Celestial Treasury is more than a beautiful book: it answers a variety of questions that have intrigued scientists and laymen for centuries. -- How did philosophers and scientists try to explain the order that governs celestial motion? -- How did geometers and artists measure and map the skies? -- How many different answers have been proposed for the most fundamental of all questions: When and how did Earth come about? -- Who inhabits the heavens--gods, angels or extraterrestrials? No other book recounts humankind's fascination with the heavens as compellingly as Celestial Treasury. Marc Lachièze-Rey is a director of research at the Centre National pour la Récherche Scientifique and astrophysicist at the Centre d'Etudes de Saclay. He is the author of The Cosmic Background Radiation (Cambridge, 1999), and and The Quest for Unity, (Oxford, 1999 ), as well as many books in French. Jean-Pierre Luminet is a research director of the Centre National pour la Rechérche Scientifique, based at the Paris-Meudon observatory. He is the author of Black Holes, (Cambridge 1992), as well as science documentaries for television.

  4. Morocco, Kingdom of the young geologist!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouttemy, Franck

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Morocco is a country of 33 million people where about thirty French schools enroll 32,000 students including a majority of Moroccans. The Rabat Center includes several institutions enrolling 5,700 students aged 10 to 18 years old whose High School René Descartes is directed by the A.E.F.E, "Agency for French Teaching Abroad". Sixteen professors teach S.V.T. "Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre" that focuses on biology and geology. The programs involved are French but the biology-geology colleagues seek to place the teaching of geology in the context of Morocco through the choice of Moroccan examples. (https://sites.google.com/site/aefesvtmaroc/) Morocco's geology lends itself to this approach! The laboratory is equipped with a seismometer in the network "Sismos to School" (https://sites.google.com/a/lycee-descartes.ma/rabt_sismo/home) and we have the equipment necessary for making thin sections of the Moroccan rocks for practical work on a polarizing microscope. We organize several field trips: On a half-day in the region of Rabat, 12-year old pupils of "5ème", learn about reading the landscape and studying sedimentary rocks such as marls and sandstones. On a 3-day excursion in the region of Azrou, the16-year old pupils of "première scientifique" study the tectonic context of formation of mineral resources. A 2-day trip in the region of Oulmès, the17-year old pupils of "terminale scientifique" (the last year in the French system finishing with the "baccalaureate") study continental crust, tectonics and geothermal energy. These field trips will be presented in this poster. Students make field studies: observation, testing, photography, drawing and taking notes. Some works are evaluated during the field trip, others are the subject of home work: preparing a slide show, an audio recording work...

  5. CONFERENCE NOTE: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    The next Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), will be held from 9 to 12 June 1992 at the Centre des Nouvelles Industries et Technologies (CNIT), La Défense, Paris, France. This conference, which is held every two years and whose importance and high level, confirmed by thirty years' experience, are recognized throughout the world, can be considered as a forum in which scientists, metrologists and professionals will have the opportunity to present and compare their research results on fundamental constants, standards and new techniques of precision measurement in the electromagnetic domain. Topics The following topics are regarded as the most appropriate for this conference: realization of units and fundamental constants d.c. a.c. and high voltage time and frequency radio-frequency and microwaves dielectrics, antennas, fields lasers, fibre optics advanced instrumentation, cryoelectronics. There will also be a session on international cooperation. Conference Language The conference language will be English. No translation will be provided. Organizers Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens (SEE). Bureau National de Métrologie (BNM) Sponsors Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Instrumentation & Measurement Society Union Radio Scientifique Internationale United States National Institute of Standards and Technology Centre National d'Etudes des Télécommunications Mouvement Français pour la Qualité, Section Métrologie Comité National Français de Radioélectricité Scientifique Contact Jean Zara, CPEM 92 publicity, Bureau National de Métrologie, 22, rue Monge, 75005 Paris Tel.: (33) 1 46 34 48 16, Fax: (33) 1 46 34 48 63

  6. Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, Stéphane; Therrien, Marie-Christine; Normandin, Julie-Maude

    2010-05-01

    Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal. Stéphane Beauregard M.Sc. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Julie-Maude Normandin Ph.D. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Marie-Christine Therrien Professor École nationale d'administration publique The proposed paper presents preliminary results on the resilience of organizations managing critical infrastructure in the Metropolitan Montreal area (Canada). A resilient city is characterized by a network of infrastructures and individuals capable of maintaining their activities in spite of a disturbance (Godschalk, 2002). Critical infrastructures provide essential services for the functioning of society. In a crisis situation, the interruption or a decrease in performance of critical infrastructures could have important impacts on the population. They are also vulnerable to accidents and cascading effects because on their complexity and tight interdependence (Perrow, 1984). For these reasons, protection and security of the essential assets and networks are one of the objectives of organizations and governments. But prevention and recovery are two endpoints of a continuum which include also intermediate concerns: ensuring organizational robustness or failing with elegance rather than catastrophically. This continuum also includes organizational resilience (or system), or the ability to recover quickly after an interruption has occurred. Wildavsky (1988) proposes that anticipation strategies work better against known problems while resilience strategies focus on unknown problems. Anticipation policies can unnecessarily immobilize investments against risks, while resilience strategies include the potential for a certain sacrifice in the interests of a more long-term survival and adaptation to changing threats. In addition, a too large confidence in anticipation strategies can bring loss of capacity of an

  7. Ending neglect: providing effective childhood tuberculosis training for health care workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Adams, L V; Olotu, R; Talbot, E A; Cronin, B J; Christopher, R; Mkomwa, Z

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Structures de soins de santé à Dar es Salam, Pwani et Arusha, Tanzanie.Objectif : Evaluer les connaissances et pratiques du personnel de santé (HCW) un an après une formation spécifique à la tuberculose de l'enfant (TB).Schéma : Grâce à une enquête standardisée, nous avons interviewé un échantillon de complaisance de HCW offrant des soins à la fois généraux et spécialisés à des enfants.Résultats : Nous avons interviewé 117 HCW dans des dispensaires de TB, des centres de santé maternelle et infantile, des dispensaires pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), des consultations externes et des services de pédiatrie dans 12 établissements. Un total de 81 HCW (62% d'infirmières, 74% de cliniciens) a affirmé avoir bénéficié de la formation nationale relative à la TB de l'enfant. La majorité a répondu correctement aux questions relatives au diagnostic de la TB de l'enfant, à son traitement et à la prise en charge conjointe de la TB et du VIH, quels que soient les antécédents de formation. La plupart ont dit demander en routine des radiographies pulmonaires, un test VIH et une recherche de contacts tuberculeux lors de l'évaluation des enfants. Moins de la moitié des HCW a affirmé recueillir des crachats en routine pour une culture mycobactérienne ou réaliser un test cutané à la tuberculine. La prescription de thérapie préventive par isoniazide (IPT) a été faite trois fois plus souvent par des HCW formés que par ceux qui ne l'avaient pas été (P < 0,05).Conclusion : En général, les connaissances en matière de TB de l'enfant étaient élevées et les pratiques conformes aux directives nationales. L'étude a identifié des lacunes spécifiques en matière de diagnostic, de traitement et d'utilisation de l'IPT afin de mieux cibler les futures formations.

  8. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazière, D.

    2002-04-01

    Faisant suite aux deux précédents colloques "Matériaux pour les machines thermiques" et "Matériaux pour le nucléaire" , le colloque 2001 de l'INSTN intitulé "Matériaux pour les énergies propres" s'est focalisé sur les problèmes de matériaux encore à résoudre dans ce secteur industriel. Le colloque de métallurgie est traditionnellement organisé par des ense ignants du DEA Métallurgie et Matériaux et un comité scientifique choisi chaq ue année en liaison avec le thème traité. Les étudiants de ce DEA, qui est hab ilité entre Paris XI, Paris VI, l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, l'Ecole Centrale de Pari s et l'INSTN, sont invités à participer à ce colloque et aux débats scientifiques qui s'y déroulent. Des conférences invitées à caractère péda gogique permettent d'introduire les différents thèmes abordés qui sont ensuite développés dans des présentations plus novatrices. Cette manifestation a pour ambition de favoriser la rencontre de scientifiques d'horizons divers venant de milieux académiques ou industriels entre eux et avec les étudiants et thésards. Cette 44e édition, dont les comptes rendus sont publiés ici, a fait le point sur les problèmes de matériaux rencontrés lors de la production, du stockage et de la conversion des énergies dites propres en englobant lesprogrès constants des industriels de l'automobile. Ce colloque a réuni, du 26 au 28 juin 2001, 63 participants provenant d'universités ou grandes écoles (18), du CEA (17), du CNRS (10) et de l'industrie ou de centres de recherche associés. L'ensemble des problèmes de matériaux de ce secteur ont été examinés au cours des six sessions ci-dessous : dépollution des gaz d'échappement ; combustion catalytique en production thermique ; nouvelles batteries ; piles à combustibles ; production et stockage d'hydrogène ; production et stockage d'énergie solaire. Vingt huit communications dont vingt deux orales ont illustré les dével oppements en cours. Dix

  9. Démarche pour la mise à niveau d’un secteur de soins pharmaceutiques : le cas de l’hémato-oncologie pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Jean-François; Robelet, Antoine; Therrien, Roxane; Touzin, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Contexte : Bien que le concept de pharmacie clinique ait été développé dans les années soixante, il existe une grande variété de programmes et une grande disparité entre les programmes en clinique externe et en hospitalisation, bénéficiant de la présence d’un pharmacien dans un secteur de soins. Objectif: Éprouver une méthode de mise à niveau des secteurs de soins pharmaceutiques en établissement de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive se déroulant au Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère-enfant de 500 lits. Le secteur de soins pharmaceutiques ciblé pour illustrer la méthode de mise à niveau est l’hématologie-oncologie pédiatrique. La méthode comporte trois étapes, soit une revue de la documentation scientifique, un profil du secteur et une mise à jour du niveau de pratique selon un profil des activités pharmaceutiques dans le secteur avant et après la mise à niveau. Résultats : Au total, 108 articles ont été recensés et 22 ont été retenus à partir d’une recherche dans PubMed. Après une recherche manuelle complémentaire, 36 articles ont finalement été évalués. Parmi les articles retenus, on compte trois lignes directrices, 11 études de développement, une revue de la littérature scientifique, six études pré- et post-interventions et 15 études quasi expérimentales. Bien que les patients de ce secteur ne comptent que pour 5 % des admissions de l’hôpital, la complexité des cas est élevée tant sur le plan de la codification de l’épisode de soins que du potentiel d’intervention pharmaceutique par admission. Conclusion : Il existe peu de données illustrant une démarche de mise à niveau de la pratique dans un secteur de soins pharmaceutiques. Cette étude a éprouvé une méthode de mise à niveau dans un service d’hématologie-oncologie pédiatrique et comporte une revue de la documentation scientifique, un profil du secteur et une description des t

  10. La supraconductivité a 100 ans !

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Il y a 100 ans, le 8 avril 1911, une découverte majeure était réalisée : celle de la supraconductivité. La supraconductivité est la caractéristique qu’ont certains métaux et alliages de perdre toute résistance électrique en dessous d’une température donnée. Cette renversante découverte, réalisée de manière presque fortuite par Kammerlingh Onnes de l’Université de Leyde (Pays-Bas) et son étudiant Gilles Holst, a ouvert un nouveau champ de recherche en physique et de fabuleuses perspectives d’applications technologiques. Du point de vue scientifique, la supraconductivité est en effet l’une des rares manifestations de la physique quantique à l’échelle macroscopique.  Du point de vue des retombées techniques, elle est porteuse d’applications majeures dans le domaine de la santé, des communications et de l’énergie. 100 ans après, les physiciens n’ont toujours pas fini d’explorer ce phénomène et ses applications. Le CERN abrite des applications de la supraconductivité à des échelles inédites. L’accélérateur de particules LHC, avec ses milliers d’aimants supraconducteurs répartis sur 27 kilomètres de circonférence, est en effet la plus grande application mondiale de la supraconductivité. Il ne pourrait exister sans elle.  Le CERN fête donc la découverte de la supraconductivité avec une conférence exceptionnelle donnée par Philippe Lebrun. Au cours de cette conférence, l’expérience historique de Kammerlingh Onnes sera reproduite. Philippe Lebrun racontera l’histoire de cette étonnante découverte, en la replaçant dans le contexte scientifique de l’époque. Il racontera les développements scientifiques et les applications du premier siècle de la supraconductivité. Conférence en français Merci de bien vouloir vous inscrire au : +41 22 767 76

  11. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  12. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutron, Claude; Ferrari, Christophe

    2003-05-01

    It is our pleasure to host the “12th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment” in the city of Grenoble (France), in the heart of the Alps. This is the latest in this successful and popular series of conferences, which previously took place in Toronto (1975), London (1979), Amsterdam (1981), Heidelberg (1983), Athens (1985), New Orleans (1987), Geneva (1989), Edinburgh (1991), Hamburg (1995) and Ann Arbor (2000). Grenoble is one of the major research centres in Europe, with a very large number of researchers in various fields, especially Physics and Chemistry, Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Biology and Medicine, and Earth and Universe Sciences. There are two internationally recognized scientific Universities: Université Joseph Fourier (UJF), and Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG). There are also the main research laboratories of various French and European governmental organizations such as Commissariat à l'énergie Atomique (CEA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut Laue Langevin (ILL), European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and Institut de Radio-Astronomie Millimètrique (IRAM). Finally, there are various hi-tech companies such as Hewlett Packard, ST Microelectronics, Schneider Electric and SGS-Thomson. There is a long tradition of research in the field of heavy metals in the environment, especially at the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement and at the Laboratoire de Géophysique Interne et Tectonophysique. These two volumes contain papers presented both in oral and poster sessions. The papers are not organised in order of presentation, but according to the alphabetical order of the family name of the first author of each paper. It is our pleasure to thank the authors for the excellent level of their submissions. We are also particularly grateful to Isabelle Houlbert and Laurence Castagné for editorial assistance. We would like to take this opportunity to

  13. Diffusion, diffraction des neutrons en temps réel et études réalisées in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnard, O.

    2003-02-01

    La diffusion des neutrons est une technique particulièrement efficace pour l'analyse en temps réel des processus réactionnels dans la matière. La diffraction de neutrons in situ a été développée très tôt sur les sources à haut flux tel que l'Institut Laue Langevin. Ces études nécessitent un flux de neutrons important et un détecteur couvrant un domaine angulaire le plus grand possible. Les neutrons offrent la spécificité d'être très peu absorbés par nombre de matériaux, cette faible absorption fait de la diffusion neutronique un excellent outil pour sonder la matière en volume et de manière non destructive. Cela permet en particulier d'utiliser des environnements d'échantillons complexes tout en conservant un flux raisonnable. La diffusion de neutrons en temps réel est donc très largement utilisée par diverses communautés scientifiques : sciences des matériaux, physiciens, chimistes... L'objet de ce cours est de donner les paramètres importants pour ce type d'étude et d'illustrer le propos à l'aide d'exemples pris dans des domaines scientifiques divers : électrochimie, magnétisme, métallurgie, chimie du solide. Après avoir présenté quelques repères méthodologiques sur les méthodes d'acquisition de données, des exemples montreront le fort potentiel de la diffusion neutronique en temps réel pour l'étude de la matière dans des conditions dynamiques. Enfin, nous donnerons aussi quelques conseils pour la visualisation, le dépouillement et l'analyse de ce type d'expérience. La diffusion des neutrons sur poudre est actuellement très bien adaptée aux études réalisées in situ. Cependant, nous verrons que la faisabilité d'études in situ s'étend à d'autres techniques expérimentales telles que la diffusion des neutrons aux petits angles et même la diffusion sur monocristal qui est en plein renouveau.

  14. Large-scale Periodic Variability of the Wind of the Wolf-Rayet Star WR 1 (HD 4004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chené, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.

    2010-06-01

    We present the results of an intensive photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the WN4 Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 1 = HD 4004. Our broadband V photometry covering a timespan of 91 days shows variability with a period of P = 16.9+0.6 -0.3 days. The same period is also found in our spectral data. The light curve is non-sinusoidal with hints of a gradual change in its shape as a function of time. The photometric variations nevertheless remain coherent over several cycles and we estimate that the coherence timescale of the light curve is of the order of 60 days. The spectroscopy shows large-scale line-profile variability which can be interpreted as excess emission peaks moving from one side of the profile to the other on a timescale of several days. Although we cannot unequivocally exclude the unlikely possibility that WR 1 is a binary, we propose that the nature of the variability we have found strongly suggests that it is due to the presence in the wind of the WR star of large-scale structures, most likely corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which are predicted to arise in inherently unstable radiatively driven winds when they are perturbed at their base. We also suggest that variability observed in WR 6, WR 134, and WR 137 is of the same nature. Finally, assuming that the period of CIRs is related to the rotational period, we estimate the rotation rate of the four stars for which sufficient monitoring has been carried out, i.e., v rot = 6.5, 40, 70, and 275 km s-1 for WR 1, WR 6, WR 134, and WR 137, respectively. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Also based on observations obtained at the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic with is operated by the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec and the Observatoire de

  15. Evaluation d'un scenario d'apprentissage favorisant la mobilisation des habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Samuel F. J.

    Les resultats au Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des eleves (PISA) demontrent que les jeunes neobrunswickois francophones se classent b un niveau significativement inferieur comparaiivement aux eleves anglophones du Nouveau-Brunswick, aux eleves des autres provinces canadiennes et se classent sous la moyenne internationale de tous les pays participants quant b la culture scientifique. L'evaluation de cette culture scientifique est basee sur une serie de savoirs, de savoir-faire et de savoir-etre reliee au processus d'enquete scolaire. Le processus d'enquete scolaire est une approche b l'apprentissage ou les eleves effectuent des recherches d'informations, discutent d'idees et entreprennent des investigations pour augmenter leur comprehension d'un probleme ou d'un sujet. Les recherches demontrent que le processus d'enquete scolaire est rarement une composante pedagogique importante de la salle de classe et les recherches portant sur l'implantation du processus d'enquete scolaire recommandent de rendre ce dernier plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants. Afin de rendre le processus d'enquete plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants, notre recherche porte sur l'evaluation de la valeur pedagogique d'un scenario d'apprentissage (PhaRoboS) concu specialement pour creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions a mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Les retombees de cette evaluation nous permettront d'offrir des pistes de remediations afin d'aider plus d'enseignantes et d'enseignants b creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions b mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Cette evaluation s'est faite a partir d'une methodologie inspiree de l'evaluation pour fin d'amelioration d'un objet pedagogique. L'analyse des donnees qualitatives recueillies aupres des eleves et de leur enseignante d'une ecole francophone du Nouveau-Brunswick semble montrer que

  16. Layering from anticyclonic vortices in a rotating stratified medium with combined salinity and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommeria, Joel; Burin, Michael; Viboud, Samuel

    2015-11-01

    We generate anticyclonic vortices by a fluid source in a rotating and uniformly stratified medium, a laboratory model of long lived vortex lenses in the ocean. Experiments are performed in the large `Coriolis' rotating platform at Grenoble, 13 m in diameter, providing previously unaccessible turbulent regimes. The other novelty is to combine temperature and salinity effects, like in `meddies', vortices formed by intrusion in the Atlantic ocean of warm and salty water from the Mediterranean Sea. For both heated an unheated cases, we observe shear driven instability at the vortex periphery, leading to the emission of material filament from a large-scale m=2 instability. Heated vortices behave much the same way but with two key additions. One, prominent at early times, is that the vortex edge appears serrated around most of its circumference in the upper part of the lens. Two, clearer for later times, a staircase density profile develops above the eddy. We explain this small scale turbulence as thermal convection in the statically unstable density profile resulting from selective vertical diffusion of temperature (while salinity is less diffusive). The resulting turbulent mixing generates horizontal intrusions at the upper part of the vortex, unlike the double-diffusive instability. This work has been funded by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), project `OLA'.

  17. Commercial runs show TiO/sub 2/ Claus catalyst retains activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nougayrede, J.; Philippe, A.; Quesmerel, E.; Vermeersch, R.

    1987-08-10

    Commercial data are given for the CRS 31 Claus catalyst, jointly developed by Rhone Poulenc and Societe Nationale Elf Aquitane (Production) (SNEA). The data confirm laboratory results that show the catalyst's ability to deliver more complete hydrolysis in the first reactor of Claus sulfur recovery plants, and its ability to maintain activity in the second and third reactors. The most important losses in sulfur yields in Claus plants generally come from COS and CS/sub 2/ formed in the thermal steps of the process in the first reactor, and from the low Claus activity of alumina-based catalysts in the second and third reactors. In the first reactor, loaded with alumina-based catalyst, hydrolysis is only partial. Low Claus activity in second and third reactors is caused by the inevitable sulfation of the alumina. Catalytic-activity decrease of aluminas is caused particularly by the presence of oxygen, even in trace amounts, in the Claus gases. Therefore, in the first reactor, the CS/sub 2/ hydrolysis rate is lowered in the subsequent reactors, the H/sub 2/ + SO/sub 2/ conversion significantly drops. The chemical composition of CRS 31, TiO/sub 2/ only, in the same operating conditions, causes a significant improvement in activity because of its increased resistance to sulfation. The economics of the process are given.

  18. Representation-based user interfaces for the audiovisual library of the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Philippe; Joly, Philippe; Lepain, Philippe; Longueville, Veronique

    1995-03-01

    The audiovisual library of the future will be based on computerized access to digitized documents. In this communication, we address the user interface issues which will arise from this new situation. One cannot simply transfer a user interface designed for the piece by piece production of some audiovisual presentation and make it a tool for accessing full-length movies in an electronic library. One cannot take a digital sound editing tool and propose it as a means to listen to a musical recording. In our opinion, when computers are used as mediations to existing contents, document representation-based user interfaces are needed. With such user interfaces, a structured visual representation of the document contents is presented to the user, who can then manipulate it to control perception and analysis of these contents. In order to build such manipulable visual representations of audiovisual documents, one needs to automatically extract structural information from the documents contents. In this communication, we describe possible visual interfaces for various temporal media, and we propose methods for the economically feasible large scale processing of documents. The work presented is sponsored by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France: it is part of the program aiming at developing for image and sound documents an experimental counterpart to the digitized text reading workstation of this library.

  19. Psychosexual development among HIV-positive adolescents in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Aka Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Cacou Adjoua, Marie-Chantal

    2004-05-01

    Some 84,000 children with HIV/AIDS live in Côte d'Ivoire, where very little therapeutic or psychological help is available to them. The Yopougon Child Programme of the "Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida" was launched in Abidjan in October 2000. It provides services for HIV-infected children and psychological consultations for children and their parents. This paper is about the psychosexual development of the HIV-positive adolescents in the Programme, 11 girls and 8 boys aged 13-17, their problems with HIV-related physiological and psychosexual changes, and relationships with their parents. The information was gathered in individual therapy sessions, group discussions and family support sessions. Bodily development was of major importance to these adolescents, particularly among those who had not yet developed secondary sexual characteristics and were shorter and weighed less than their peers. Those who had not achieved puberty were unable to participate in traditional rituals and worried whether they could ever marry or have children. In most cases, adolescents with HIV have been infected by a sexually transmitted virus without having had sexual relations themselves. They need support dealing with their sexual development and sexual feelings, along with medical care, in a context in which HIV infection is a secret, impossible to talk about with their peers.

  20. 3D Model of Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James; Tai, Cheng-Feng; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT) involves instillation of a liquid-surfactant mixture directly into the lung airway tree. Though successful in neonatal applications, its use in adults had early success followed by failure. We present the first mathematical model of 3D SRT where a liquid plug propagates through the tree from forced inspiration. In two separate modeling steps, the plug first deposits a coating film on the airway wall which subtracts from its volume, a ``coating cost''. Then the plug splits unevenly at the airway bifurcation due to gravity. The steps are repeated until a plug ruptures or reaches the tree endpoint alveoli/acinus. The model generates 3D images of the resulting acinar distribution and calculates two global indexes, efficiency and homogeneity. Simulating published literature, the earlier successful adult SRT studies show comparatively good index values, while the later failed studies do not. Those unsuccessful studies used smaller dose volumes with higher concentration mixtures, apparently assuming a well mixed compartment. The model shows that adult lungs are not well mixed in SRT due to the coating cost and gravity effects. Returning to the higher dose volume protocols could save many thousands of lives annually in the US. Supported by NIH Grants HL85156, HL84370 and Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR no. 2010-BLAN-1119-05.

  1. The New Microbiology: a conference at the Institut de France.

    PubMed

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Bierne, Hélène; Ribet, David; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    In May 2012, three European Academies held a conference on the present and future of microbiology. The conference, entitled "The New Microbiology", was a joint effort of the French Académie des sciences, of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and of the British Royal Society. The organizers - Pascale Cossart and Philippe Sansonetti from the "Académie des sciences", David Holden and Richard Moxon from the "Royal Society", and Jörg Hacker and Jürgen Hesseman from the "Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften" - wanted to highlight the current renaissance in the field of microbiology mostly due to the advent of technological developments and allowing for single-cell analysis, rapid and inexpensive genome-wide comparisons, sophisticated microscopy and quantitative large-scale studies of RNA regulation and proteomics. The conference took place in the historical Palais de l'Institut de France in Paris with the strong support of Jean-François Bach, Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie des sciences.

  2. [Coming clinical recommendations: where will the glitazones fit in?].

    PubMed

    Halimi, S

    2005-04-01

    The recommendations for antidiabetic treatment in type 2 diabetes were published by AFSSAPS (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé) in 1999. These recommendations, as well as those published by ANAES (Agence Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Evaluation en Santé), indicate an optimal objective for ("good") glycemic control to be an HbA1c level< or =6,5%. These recommendations include two decision trees, according to body mass index (< 28 kg/m2 or >28 kg/m2). Since their publications, our knowledge on diabetes pathophysiology and evolution from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes, on the progressive decline of pancreatic beta-cell function, and on the close relationships between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have increased and became more precise. Moreover, new approaches emerged, particularly the importance of the metabolic syndrome and the unfavorable role of visceral fat, when intervention studies (DPP, STOP-NIDDM) demonstrate the possibility to delay and/or to prevent type 2 diabetes. Finally, new oral antidiabetic agents (meteglinides and thiazolidinediones), as well as availability of long-acting insulin analogues, lead to the necessity to update current recommendations. This review, presents and discuss these various points, and the questions they generate, which have to be answer to update the therapeutic recommendations for type 2 diabetes. PMID:15959405

  3. Monitoring of climate change in Germany - data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Penda, E.; Mächel, H.; Zimmermann, K.; Kaiser-Weiss, A.; Deutschländer, T.

    2013-08-01

    Germany's national meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) is the responsible authority for monitoring climate change in Germany. To fulfill this task it operates the National Climate Data Centre ("Nationales KlimaDatenZentrum, NKDZ"). The historical and current instrumental measurements and visual observations of DWD's station network are archived, quality-controlled and used to provide aggregated products, as for example daily and monthly means or climate normals. Gridded data are generated and used to derive time series of national and regional averages. Phenological observations and radiosonde data are also part of the data base. In recent years, additional historical data have been digitized to expand the data base. The products are used for informing the public, e.g. as an element of the German climate atlas (http://www.deutscher-klimaatlas.de). One major recent activity was the provision of information for the new climatological reference interval 1981-2010 and an updated climatological analysis based on the newly digitized data.

  4. [Required procedure for nominal data files processing in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Chambon-Savanovitch, C; Dubray, C; Albuisson, E; Sauvant, M P

    2001-12-01

    To date, biomedical research using nominal data files for the data collection, data acquisition or data processing has had to comply with 2 French laws (Law of December, 20, 1988, modified, relating to the protection of patients participating in biomedical research, and the Law of January, 6, 1978, completed by the Law of July 1, 1994 n degrees 94-548, chapter V bis). This later law dictates rules not only for the establishment of nominal data files, but also confer individual rights to filed persons. These regulations concern epidemiological research, clinical trials, drug watch studies and economic health research. In this note, we describe the obligations and specific general and simplified procedure required for conducting biomedical research. Included in the requirements are an information and authorization procedure with the local and national consultative committees on data processing in biomedical research (CCTIRS, Comité Consultatif sur le Traitement de l'Information en Recherche Biomédicale, and CNIL, Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés).

  5. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  6. Inverse turbulent cascade in swarming sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa; Plouraboue, Franck; Inra, Cnrs, Umr, F-37380 Nouzilly, France Team; Université de Toulouse, Inpt, Ups, Imft, Umr 5502, France Team

    2014-11-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small scale turbulence arising where viscosity effects are dominant. We report the first observation of an universal inverse enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of velocity field power-spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in two-dimensional turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures the size of which provides turbulence's integral scale. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-two-dimensional turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interaction and alignment, a state of active matter that we call ``swarming liquid crystal.'' We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation. The implication of multi-scale collective dynamics of sperm's collective motility for fertility assessment is discussed. This work has been supported by the French Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR) in the frame of the Contract MOTIMO (ANR-11-MONU-009-01). We thank Pierre Degond, Eric Climent, Laurent Lacaze and Frédéric Moulin for interesting discussions.

  7. Effect of the band structure in a rigorous two-body model with long-range interactions in 1D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  8. Elastic moduli of hard c-Zr3N4 and η-Ta2N3, a tough self-healing material, via laser ultrasonics and nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerr, Andreas; Chigarev, Nikolay; Bourguille, Judith; Tetard, Florent; Brinza, Ovidiu; Nikitin, Sergey; Lomonosov, Alexey; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2013-06-01

    Bulk and shear moduli (B0 and G0) of the dense polycrystalline oxygen bearing c-Zr3N4 and η-Ta2N3 were determined from the laser ultrasonic (LU) measurements on highly porous samples having the volume fraction porosity of 0.23 and 0.18, respectively. Dense samples of these high-pressure (HP) materials are today not available due to their very high hardness and absence of a densification procedure. Combining the LU data with a numerical analysis of the sample porosity, the ``true'' isotropic moduli were determined to be B0 = 217(20) GPa and G0 = 163(9) GPa, for c-Zr3N4, and B0 = 281(15) GPa and G0 = 123(2) GPa, for η-Ta2N3. For both HP-nitrides the B0 values agree with those obtained earlier via the HP compression measurements in a diamond anvil cell. Also, the self-healing behavior of η-Ta2N3 by mechanical polishing was confirmed by two independent methods. Finally, the results obtained for η-Ta2N3 via the LU method were compared with our nanoindentation measurements. The high G0 value of c-Zr3N4 suggests that this material could vie with γ-Si3N4 for the rank of the third hardest material after diamond and c-BN. Supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (France).

  9. Costless Platform for High Resolution Stereoscopic Images of a High Gothic Facade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Héno, R.; Chandelier, L.; Schelstraete, D.

    2012-07-01

    In October 2011, the PPMD specialized master's degree students (Photogrammetry, Positionning and Deformation Measurement) of the French ENSG (IGN's School of Geomatics, the Ecole Nationale des Sciences Géographiques) were asked to come and survey the main facade of the cathedral of Amiens, which is very complex as far as size and decoration are concerned. Although it was first planned to use a lift truck for the image survey, budget considerations and taste for experimentation led the project to other perspectives: images shot from the ground level with a long focal camera will be combined to complementary images shot from what higher galleries are available on the main facade with a wide angle camera fixed on a horizontal 2.5 meter long pole. This heteroclite image survey is being processed by the PPMD master's degree students during this academic year. Among other type of products, 3D point clouds will be calculated on specific parts of the facade with both sources of images. If the proposed device and methodology to get full image coverage of the main facade happen to be fruitful, the image acquisition phase will be completed later by another team. This article focuses on the production of 3D point clouds with wide angle images on the rose of the main facade.

  10. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists).

  11. [Nursing minimum data sets (NMDS) - a literature review relating to objective and data elements].

    PubMed

    Ranegger, Renate; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2014-12-01

    Hintergrund: Um den prognostizierten Wandel im Pflegebereich begleiten zu können, wird seit langem die Forderung nach einer einheitlichen Datenbasis gestellt, auf deren Grundlage Pflegedaten von Leistungsanbietern transparent abgebildet werden können. In Österreich fehlt bis dato eine Empfehlung, welche Pflegedaten als «Basisdaten» dokumentiert werden müssen, wodurch eine nationale Vergleichbarkeit von Pflegedaten erschwert wird. Internationale Entwicklungen von Nursing Minimum Data Sets (NMDS) weisen darauf hin, dass Pflegedaten adäquat abgebildet werden können. Ziel der vorgestellten systematischen Literaturanalyse ist es, den aktuellen Wissensstand über NMDS zu erheben und eine strukturierte Beschreibung von NMDS zu entwickeln, welche vor allem die erfassten Datenelemente und die zugehörigen Zielsetzungen der NMDS-Verwendung dokumentieren kann. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 70 Publikationen zum Thema NMDS in die Literaturübersicht eingeschlossen. Die Analyse der vorgestellten acht NMDS ergab sechs zentrale Zielsetzungen und sechs übergeordnete Datenelemente. Zu den identifizierten sechs Zielsetzungen gehören: Beschreibung der Pflegepraxis, Verteilung finanzieller Mittel, Benchmarking, Personaleinsatzplanung, Trendanalysen und Qualitätssicherung. Die identifizierten sechs Datenelemente umfassen betriebliche Daten, demografische Daten, Pflegediagnosen, -interventionen, -ergebnisse (Qualitätsindikatoren) und Pflegeintensität (klinische Daten). Diskussion: Es hat sich gezeigt, dass kein klarer Zusammenhang zwischen den Zielsetzungen und Datenelementen der untersuchten minimalen Pflegedatensätzen vorliegt.

  12. Kal-Haiti a Research Database for Risks Management and Sustainable Reconstruction in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giros, A.; Fontannaz, D.; Allenbach, B.; Treinsoutrot, D.; De Michele, M.

    2012-07-01

    Following the 12th January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche has funded a project named KAL-Haiti which aims at gathering remote sensing imagery as well as in-situ and exogenous data into a knowledge base. This database, seen as a shareable resource, can serve as a basis for helping the reconstruction of the country, but also as a reference for scientific studies devoted to all phases of risk management. The project main outcome will be a geo-referenced database containing a selection of remotely sensed imagery acquired before and after the disastrous event supplemented with all relevant ancillary data, and enriched with in-situ measurements and exogenous data. The resulting reference database is freely available for research and for reconstruction tasks. It is strongly expected that users will also become contributors by sharing their own data production, thus participating to the growth of the initial kernel. The database will also be enriched with new satellite images, monitoring the evolution of the Haitian situation over the next 10 years.

  13. Influence of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) density on the production of canola (Crucifera: Brassicacae).

    PubMed

    Sabbahi, Rachid; De Oliveira, Domingos; Marceau, Jocelyn

    2005-04-01

    Pollination is an essential step in the seed production of canola, Brassica napus L. It is achieved with the assistance of various pollen vectors, but particularly by the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Although the importance of pollination has been shown for the production of seed crops, the need to introduce bee hives in canola fields during flowering to increase oil seed yield has not yet been proven. With the purpose of showing this, hives of A. mellifera were grouped and placed in various canola fields in the Chaudière-Appalaches and Capitale-Nationale regions (nine fields; three blocks with three treatments; 0, 1.5, and 3 hives per hectare). A cage was used to exclude pollinators and bee visitations were observed in each field. After the harvest, yield analyses were done in relation to the bee density gradient created, by using pod set, number of seeds per plant, and weight of 1000 seeds. Results showed an improvement in seed yield of 46% in the presence of three honey bee hives per hectare, compared with the absence of hives. The introduction of honey bees contributed to production and consequently, these pollinators represented a beneficial and important pollen vector for the optimal yield of canola.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement by the Goertler vortices developed on a wall with a finite thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Peixinho, Jorge; Kahouadji, Lyes

    2013-11-01

    Görtler vortices appear in a flow over a concave wall as a result of centrifugal instability [Saric, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 379 (1994)]. They may have a strong influence on heat transfer [Momayez et al., Int. J. heat Mass transfer 47, 3783 (2004)]. The purpose of this work is to model heat transfer by Görtler vortices using a weakly nonlinear analysis of Smith &-Haj- Hariri [Phys. Fluids A 5, 2815 (1993)]. We have investigated the coupling of the convective heat transfer by the stationary vortices with the heat conduction inside the solid wall. The finite thickness and thermal conductivity of the wall enter into the boundary conditions of the problem through the ratio δ of the wall thickness to the boundary layer thickness and through the ratio K of the thermal conductivities of the fluid and the wall. The parametric dependence Nu (δ , K) of the Nusselt number is performed and it is shown that found the heat transfer is quite well modified by these two parameters. The local thermal stress can be estimated in order to analyze the effects on ageing of the wall material. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the french Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), through the program ``Investissements d'Avenir'' (ANR-10-LABX-09-01), LabEx EMC3.

  15. A French-speaking speech-language pathology program in West Africa: transfer of training between Minority and Majority World countries.

    PubMed

    Topouzkhanian, Sylvia; Mijiyawa, Moustafa

    2013-02-01

    In West Africa, as in Majority World countries, people with a communication disability are generally cut-off from the normal development process. A long-term involvement of two partners (Orthophonistes du Monde and Handicap International) allowed the implementation in 2003 of the first speech-language pathology qualifying course in West Africa, within the Ecole Nationale des Auxiliaires Medicaux (ENAM, National School for Medical Auxiliaries) in Lome, Togo. It is a 3-year basic training (after the baccalaureate) in the only academic training centre for medical assistants in Togo. This department has a regional purpose and aims at training French-speaking African students. French speech-language pathology lecturers had to adapt their courses to the local realities they discovered in Togo. It was important to introduce and develop knowledge and skills in the students' system of reference. African speech-language pathologists have to face many challenges: creating an African speech and language therapy, introducing language disorders and their possible cure by means other than traditional therapies, and adapting all the evaluation tests and tools for speech-language pathology to each country, each culture, and each language. Creating an African speech-language pathology profession (according to its own standards) with a real influence in West Africa opens great opportunities for schooling and social and occupational integration of people with communication disabilities.

  16. [Molecular biology methods in immunohematology].

    PubMed

    Tournamille, C

    2013-05-01

    The molecular basis of almost all antigens of the 33 blood group systems are known. These knowledge and the advent of the PCR technology have allowed the DNA-based genotyping in order to predict the presence or absence of a blood group antigen on the cell membrane of red blood cells. DNA genotyping is required in cases where red blood cells patient cannot be used for serological typing either after a recent transfusion or because of the presence of autoantibodies on the red blood cells. Numerous DNA assays are available to detect any nucleotide polymorphism on the genes encoding blood group antigens. The technologies have improved to answer quickly to any case of transfusion emergency and to limit the risk of DNA contamination in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. Some technologies are ready for high-throughput blood group genotyping. They will be used in the future to obtain a fully typed blood group card of each donor but also to detect blood donors with rare phenotypes to register them to the Banque Nationale de Sang de Phénotype Rare (BNSPR). PMID:23587623

  17. Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women.

    PubMed

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415

  18. Proposal for laser cooling of rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Hong, Ye; Wyart, Jean-François; Lepers, Maxence

    2016-05-01

    The efficiency of laser cooling relies on the existence of an almost closed optical-transition cycle in the energy spectrum of the considered species. In this respect, rare-earth elements exhibit many transitions which are likely to induce noticeable leaks from the cooling cycle. In this work, to determine whether laser cooling of singly ionized erbium Er+ is feasible, we have performed accurate electronic-structure calculations of energies and spontaneous-emission Einstein coefficients of Er+, using a combination of ab initio and least-squares-fitting techniques. We identify five weak closed transitions suitable for laser cooling, the broadest of which is in the kilohertz range. For the strongest transitions, by simulating the cascade dynamics of spontaneous emission, we show that repumping is necessary, and we discuss possible repumping schemes.We expect our detailed study on Er+ to give good insight into the laser cooling of neighboring ions such as Dy+. Supported by ``Agence Nationale de la Recherche'' (ANR), under the project COPOMOL (Contract No. ANR-13-IS04-0004-01).

  19. LNG scene; Qatar's export plans intensify; sale of Columbia's U. S. terminal in doubt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement.

  20. Spatial organization of cilia tufts governs airways mucus transport: Application to severe asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelloufi, Mustapha Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2014-11-01

    We study the coupling between both density and spatial repartition of beating cilia tufts, and the coordinated transport of mucus in an in-vitro epithelial model. We use a fully differentiated model epithelium in air liquid interface (ALI) obtained from endo-bronchial biopsies from healthy subjects and patients with asthma. The asthma phenotype is known to persist in the model. Mucus transport is characterized by the trajectories and velocities of microscopic beads incorporated in the mucus layer. When the beating cilia tufts density is higher than dc = 11/100 × 100 μm2 a spherical spiral coordinated mucus transport is observed over the whole ALI chamber (radius = 6 mm). Below dc, local mucus coordinated transport is observed on small circular domains on the epithelium surface. We reveal that the radii of these domains scale with the beating cilia tufts density with a power 3.7. Surprisingly, this power law is independent on cilia beat frequency, concentration and rheological properties of mucus for healthy subject and patient with asthma. The rotating or linear mucus transport is related to dispersion of the cilia tufts on the epithelium surface. We show that impaired mucus transport observed in severe asthma model epithelia is due to a drastic lack and dysfunction of cilia tufts. The author acknowledges the support of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under reference ANR-13-BSV5-0015-01.

  1. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  2. Dioxin and dl-PCB exposure from food: the German LExUKon project.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Markus A; Lindtner, Oliver; Blume, Katrin; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Schneider, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCB) exposure from food were estimated using new food consumption data from the recent German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II). Based on these comprehensive data, information on the consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was derived. Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in food were compiled from the German Food Monitoring Programme (GFMP), the German Dioxin Database, other German authority programmes, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature covering the years 2000-2010. By multiplication with consumption data, estimates of intake from food were determined. The main food groups contributing most to the intake of the general public are dairy products (including milk), meat and fish (including seafood), followed - due to high consumption - by the main group vegetables. The combined intake of PCDD/F and dl-PCB (as toxic equivalents - TEQ) from food was estimated to be 2.11/1.53 pg kg(-1) bw and day and 3.56/2.85 pg kg(-1) bw and day (upper/lower bound) for average and high-end consumers, respectively. The estimated intake of average consumers is close to a reference value derived by the Scientific Committee on Food in 2001. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification (upper/lower bound ratio) and some foods not considered due to the lack of contamination data. PMID:24405321

  3. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  4. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  5. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  6. A model for evaluating radiological impacts on organisms other than man for use in post-closure assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Thorn, M C; Kelly, M; Rees, J H; Sánchez-Friera, P; Calvez, M

    2002-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and dosimetric models have been developed that allow the computation of dose rates to a wide variety of plants and animals in the context of the deep geological disposal of solid radioactive wastes. These dose rates can be compared with the threshold dose rates at which significant deleterious effects have been observed in field and laboratory observations. This provides a general indication of whether effects on ecosystems could be observable, but does not quantify the level of those effects. To address this latter issue, two indicator organisms were identified and exposure-response relationships were developed for endpoints of potential interest (mortality in conifers and the induction of skeletal malformations in rodents irradiated in utero). The bioaccumulation, dosimetry and exposure-response models were implemented and used to evaluate the potential significance of radionuclide releases from a proposed deep geological repository for radioactive wastes in France. This evaluation was undertaken in the context of a programme of assessment studies being performed by the Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (ANDRA).

  7. The Aeroclipper: A new instrument for quasi-Lagrangian measurements at the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvel, J. P.; Reverdin, G.; Pichon, T.; Vargas, A.

    The Aeroclipper is a new balloon developed by CNES. The Aeroclipper is a balloon equipped with a cable extended by a guide-rope in contact with the surface of the ocean. The balloon is vertically stabilised at a given height (currently 40 to 60m above the sea surface) and move on quasi-Lagrangian trajectories depending on the surface wind. LMD (Laboratoire de Méteorologie Dynamique), LodyC (Laboratoire d'océanographie physique et de Climatologie) and ENSTA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées) developed an instrumentation adapted to this new measurement system. This instrumentation is distributed on one atmospheric gondola and one oceanic gondola. The aim is to measure surface physical parameters (Air and sea surface temperatures, sea surface salinity, wind, pressure and humidity) and to derive turbulent fluxes of moisture, heat and momentum. The Aeroclippers will give legs of the different parameters at a relatively high spatial resolution and thus information on the perturbation of these parameters at mesoscale. A first test of the full system will be performed from Banyuls (France) during spring 2004. The first scientific use of the Aeroclipper is planned in February 2005 in the Indian Ocean South of the Equator in link with the pilot phase of the Vasco (Variability of the Atmosphere at the intra-Seasonal time scale and Coupling with the Ocean) experiment.

  8. "Applied science": a phrase in search of a meaning.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The term "applied science," as it came to be popularly used in the 1870s, was a hybrid of three earlier concepts. The phrase "applied science" itself had been coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1817, translating the German Kantian term "angewandte Wissenschaft." It was popularized through the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, which was structured on principles inherited from Coleridge and edited by men with sympathetic views. Their concept of empirical as opposed to a priori science was hybridized with an earlier English concept of "practical science" and with "science applied to the arts," adopted from the French. Charles Dupin had favored the latter concept and promoted it in the reconstruction of the Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Métiers. The process of hybridization took place from the 1850s, in the wake of the Great Exhibition, as a new technocratic government favored scientific education. "Applied science" subsequently was used as the epistemic basis for technical education and the formation of new colleges in the 1870s.

  9. Comparison of the Explantation Rate of Poly Implant Prothèse, Allergan, and Pérouse Silicone Breast Implants within the First Four Years after Reconstructive Surgery before the Poly Implant Prothèse Alert by the French Regulatory Authority

    PubMed Central

    Leduey, Alexandre; Mazouni, Chafika; Leymarie, Nicolas; Alkhashnam, Heba; Sarfati, Benjamin; Garbay, Jean-Rémi; Gaudin, Amélie; Kolb, Frédéric; Rimareix, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Background. In March 2010, ANSM (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Medicament), the French Medical Regulatory Authority, withdrew Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants from the market due to the use of non-medical-grade silicone gel. The aim of this study was to compare the removal rate (and reasons thereof) of breast implants produced by different manufacturers before the ANSM alert. Materials and Methods. From October 2006 to January 2010, 652 women received 944 implants after breast cancer surgery at the Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Center, Paris (France). The complications and removal rates of the different implant brands used (PIP, Allergan, and Pérouse) were evaluated and compared. Results. PIP implants represented 50.6% of the used implants, Allergan 33.4%, and Pérouse 16%. The main reasons for implant removal were patient dissatisfaction due to aesthetic problems (43.2%), infection (22.2%), and capsular contracture (13.6%). Two years after implantation, 82% of Pérouse implants, 79% of PIP, and 79% of Allergan were still in situ. There was no difference in removal rate among implant brands. Conclusion. Before the ANSM alert concerning the higher rupture rate of PIP breast implants, our implant removal rate did not predict PIP implant failure related to the use of nonapproved silicone gel. PMID:26543648

  10. Prognostic relevance of a novel proliferation marker, Ki-S11, for soft-tissue sarcoma. A multivariate study.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, P.; Kellner, U.; Chassevent, A.; Collin, F.; Bonichon, F.; Parwaresch, R.; Coindre, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    In 132 soft-tissue sarcomas and 52 benign soft-tissue tumors, cellular proliferation was examined by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies Ki-S11 (Ki-67 antigen) and Ki-S1 (topoisomerase II alpha) and by flow cytometric analysis of the S-phase fraction (SPF). Malignant tumors were graded histologically according to the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system. Patient age, sex, tumor location, histological type, and DNA ploidy were considered as additional prognostic variables. Consistent immunoreactivity was seen in approximately 95% of the cases, and determination of SPF was possible in approximately 60% Ki-S11 and Ki-S1 immunolabeling indices correlated in a linear manner. All proliferation parameters yielded significant differences between benign and malignant tumors. Ki-S11 and Ki-S1 immunoreactive scores also co-varied significantly with SPF, mitotic count, and histopathological grade. In univariate analysis, immunohistochemical proliferation indices, histopathological grade, mitotic count, and SPF were predictive of overall survival and the development of metastases. In multivariate analysis, immunolabeling scores of proliferation markers, grade, and SPF emerged as independent predictors of global survival and systemic progression. We conclude that the immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation, being more readily performable and more easily assessable than the equally relevant S phase fraction, may add appreciable information to the current prognostic models for soft-tissue sarcoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176393

  11. An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years) - 9th INTEGRAL Workshop and celebration of the 10th anniversary of the launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 9th INTEGRAL workshop "An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years)" took place from 15 to 19 October 2012 in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Bibliothèque François Mitterrand). The workshop was sponsored by ESA, CNES and other French and European Institutions. During this week, and in particular on 17 October 2012, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the launch of the INTEGRAL mission. The main goal of this workshop was to present and to discuss (via invited and contributed talks and posters) latest results obtained in the field of high-energy astrophysics using the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory INTEGRAL, as well as results from observations from other ground- and space-based high-energy observatories and from associated multi-wavelength campaigns. Contributions to the workshop covered the following scientific topics: - X-ray binaries (IGR sources, black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs) - Isolated neutron stars (gamma-ray pulsars, magnetars) - Nucleo-synthesis (SNe, Novae, SNRs, ISM) and gamma-ray lines (511 keV) - Galactic diffuse continuum emission (including Galactic Ridge) - Massive black holes in AGNs, elliptical galaxies, nucleus of the Galaxy - Sky surveys, source populations and unidentified gamma-ray sources - Cosmic background radiation - Gamma-ray bursts - Coordinated observations with other ground- and space-based observatories - Science data processing and analysis (posters only) - Future instruments and missions (posters only)

  12. Comparison of the Explantation Rate of Poly Implant Prothèse, Allergan, and Pérouse Silicone Breast Implants within the First Four Years after Reconstructive Surgery before the Poly Implant Prothèse Alert by the French Regulatory Authority.

    PubMed

    Leduey, Alexandre; Mazouni, Chafika; Leymarie, Nicolas; Alkhashnam, Heba; Sarfati, Benjamin; Garbay, Jean-Rémi; Gaudin, Amélie; Kolb, Frédéric; Rimareix, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Background. In March 2010, ANSM (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Medicament), the French Medical Regulatory Authority, withdrew Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants from the market due to the use of non-medical-grade silicone gel. The aim of this study was to compare the removal rate (and reasons thereof) of breast implants produced by different manufacturers before the ANSM alert. Materials and Methods. From October 2006 to January 2010, 652 women received 944 implants after breast cancer surgery at the Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Center, Paris (France). The complications and removal rates of the different implant brands used (PIP, Allergan, and Pérouse) were evaluated and compared. Results. PIP implants represented 50.6% of the used implants, Allergan 33.4%, and Pérouse 16%. The main reasons for implant removal were patient dissatisfaction due to aesthetic problems (43.2%), infection (22.2%), and capsular contracture (13.6%). Two years after implantation, 82% of Pérouse implants, 79% of PIP, and 79% of Allergan were still in situ. There was no difference in removal rate among implant brands. Conclusion. Before the ANSM alert concerning the higher rupture rate of PIP breast implants, our implant removal rate did not predict PIP implant failure related to the use of nonapproved silicone gel. PMID:26543648

  13. The mysterious fate of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

    PubMed

    Oertling, Sarita B; Marlin, Robert O; Goldman, Armond S

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the holdings at Bibliothèque Nationale de France and Musée du Pasteur Institut à Paris, major parts of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur are in four institutions in the United States - Reynolds Historical Library at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama; Burndy Library on the History of Science and Technology at Huntington Library in San Marino, California; Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at University of Texas in Austin, Texas; and Truman G Blocker History of Medicine Collections, The Moody Medical Library, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. The circuitous paths that led each part of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur to their present locations were traced and the lives of key individuals in medicine, science and the humanities who obtained these valuable documents were recounted. The documents in each institution were discussed and a plan was considered to make them accessible to scholars who wish to further explore the life of Louis Pasteur.

  14. Turbulent Flows Driven by the Mechanical Forcing of an Ellipsoidal Container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael; Grannan, Alexander; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Aurnou, Jonathan; Irphe Team; Spinlab Team

    2015-11-01

    We present a combination of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations modelling geophysically relevant mechanical forcings. Libration and tides correspond to the periodic perturbation of a body's rotation rate and shape, and are both due to gravitational interactions with orbiting companions. Such mechanical forcings can convey a fraction of the rotational energy available and generate intense turbulence in the fluid interior of satellites and planets. We investigate the fluid motions inside a librating or tidally deformed triaxial ellipsoidal container filled with an incompressible fluid. In both cases, the turbulent flow is driven by the elliptic instability which is a triadic resonance between two inertial modes and the base flow. We characterize the transition to turbulence as triadic resonances develop while also investigating both intermittent and sustained regimes. It is shown that the flow is largely independent of the properties of the mechanical forcing, hinting at a possible universal behaviour of the saturated elliptical instability. The existence of such intense flows may play an important role in understanding the thermal and magnetic evolution of celestial bodies. This work was funded by the French Agence Nationale pour la Recherche and the National Science Foundation Geophysics Program.

  15. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff. PMID:16530349

  16. [The congress of the French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutics celebrate in Nancy, 20 April 2016, 40 years of French Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres!].

    PubMed

    Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Mallaret, Michel; Sgro, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In 1976, the Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres were created in France to collect and analyze adverse drug reactions. Even if they have, to date, managed and transmitted more than 583,000 adverse drug reactions to the French and international health authorities, the missions of these university hospital structures supervised by clinical pharmacologists are not limited to this activity. They also provide a consulting and diagnostic aid for drug diseases. Their other main mission is information about drugs and their proper use for health professionals and patients on any matter relating to medicines. These queries are used to adjust and focus the training of health professionals in prevention of drug risks and improvement of drug use. Beside signal detection and identification of alerts, the 31 Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres collaborate with the French Drug Agency (Agence nationale de sécurité du medicament et des produits de santé [ANSM]) by achieving expertise on drugs and participation in various working groups and committees. Finally, Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres participate in scientific advancement through research and publication activities.

  17. Degree of Equivalence of Realizations of the Triple Points of Argon and Oxygen Between NIS and LNE-Cnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. G.; Hermier, Y.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation for the degree of equivalence of realizations of the triple points of argon and oxygen between the "National Institute of Standards -Egypt (NIS)" and "Institut Nationale de Métrologie - France (LNE-Cnam)." The investigation was carried out through measurements of the argon and oxygen triple points (83.8058 K and 54.3584 K, respectively), as defining fixed points on the ITS-90 that are used in the calibration of capsule standard platinum resistance thermometers. The main objective of this work was to compare the realizations of both of the fixed-point cells and to establish the degree of equivalence between the two laboratories. As defined by the MRA, the degree of equivalence between two measurements (each consisting of a measured value and its uncertainty is expressed by the difference between the measured values, , and the expanded pair uncertainty of this difference . Two cells, containing argon and oxygen, which had been fabricated and filled at LNE-Cnam, were used as artifacts exchanged between the two laboratories. The comparison measurements revealed temperature differences of 0.28 mK and 0.39 mK with expanded pair uncertainties of 0.66 mK and 0.74 mK for the argon and oxygen points, respectively. A detailed description of the equipment used in the two laboratories and an analysis of the comparison results will be presented in this paper.

  18. Rapport sur l'état du patrimoine astronomique dans les observatoires français de la fin du XIXè siècle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, E.; Pécontal, E.

    2012-12-01

    Suite au colloque sur la sauvegarde du patrimoine astronomique organisé par le MAEE et la SAF, sous l'égide de l'UNESCO, qui a conduit à l'adoption de la Déclaration de Paris, les directeurs d'observatoires institutionnels qui étaient absents du colloque ont ressenti le besoin de discuter de ces conclusions prises en leur nom. L'initiative d'organiser une réunion des directeurs des Observatoires des Sciences de l'Univers (OSU) à ce sujet le 30 janvier 2012 a été prise par François Vernotte, directeur de l'Observatoire de Besançon. Le présent compte-rendu de visite résulte d'une initiative spontanée d'Emmanuel Pécontal, astronome responsable du Patrimoine à l'observatoire de Lyon, et d'Evelyne Damm, membre de la Commission Nationale de classement des Monuments Historiques (CNMH) et élue à la communauté d'agglomération des Portes de l'Essonne oû est sis l'observatoire de Camille Flammarion.

  19. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists). PMID:23842668

  20. L'Education relative a l'environnement: La representation sociale d'educatrices et d'educateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Elizabeth

    Cette recherche, qui prend appui sur la theorie des representations sociales, a tente de comprendre le phenomene de l'Education relative a l'environnement (ERE) au Quebec. Pour ce faire, j'ai choisi de m'interesser aux points de vue sur le sujet de neuf enseignantes et enseignants d'ecologie oeuvrant dans des ecoles (contexte formel) et de dix animatrices et animateurs oeuvrant dans des centres d'interpretation (contexte non formel). L'analyse narrative de leurs discours recueillis lors d'entrevues individuelles semi-structurees a permis de montrer que la mise en forme et la mise en pratique de l'ERE tendent a s'inscrire dans le prolongement d'une conception essentiellement ecologique de l'environnement et d'une conception plutot mecaniste et sensualiste de l'education, c'est-a-dire comme une simple affaire de transmission de connaissances scientifiques et d'eveil d'acuite sensorielle. Cette analyse a egalement permis de montrer que les educatrices et les educateurs retravaillent ces conceptions pour composer avec les moments et les lieux singuliers de leurs pratiques. Ce faisant, ils innovent et soulevent des questions a propos de la teneur des conceptions ou definitions standardisees de l'ERE. Cette recherche permet ainsi d'eclairer l'aspect a la fois traditionnel et potentiellement innovateur de la representation sociale de l'ERE d'educatrices et d'educateurs de terrain.

  1. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories.

    PubMed

    Ainouche, Abdelkader; Bétermier, Mireille; Chandler, Mick; Cordaux, Richard; Cristofari, Gaël; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Pascale; Panaud, Olivier; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Vieira, Cristina; Vitte, Clémentine

    2012-10-30

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21-24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference's goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. CHAIR OF THE ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE: Jean-Marc Deragon ORGANIZERS: Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte.

  2. The Canadian Cluster Comparison Project: weak lensing masses and SZ scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Henk; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris

    2012-12-01

    The Canadian Cluster Comparison Project is a comprehensive multi-wavelength survey targeting 50 massive X-ray selected clusters of galaxies to examine baryonic tracers of cluster mass and to probe the cluster-to-cluster variation in the thermal properties of the hot intra-cluster medium. In this paper we present the weak lensing masses, based on the analysis of deep wide field imaging data obtained using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The final sample includes two additional clusters that were located in the field-of-view. We take these masses as our reference for the comparison of cluster properties at other wavelengths. In this paper we limit the comparison to published measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. We find that this signal correlates well with the projected lensing mass, with an intrinsic scatter of 12 ± 5 per cent at ˜r2500, demonstrating it is an excellent proxy for cluster mass. Based on observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the University of Hawaii.

  3. Patrick Couvreur: inspiring pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Stanwix, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    Patrick Couvreur speaks to Hannah Stanwix, Managing Comissioning Editor: Professor Patrick Couvreur received his pharmacy degree from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) in 1972. He holds a PhD in pharmaceutical technology from the same university and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Zürich, Switzerland). Since 1984, Professor Couvreur has been Full Professor of Pharmacy at the Paris-Sud University (Paris, France) and was holder of the Chair of Innovation Technologique at the prestigious Collège de France (Paris, France). He has published more than 450 peer-reviewed articles and has an H-index of 73, with over 19,000 citations. Professor Coureur has been recognized by numerous national and international awards, including the 2004 Pharmaceutical Sciences World Congress Award, the prestigious Host Madsen Medal, the Prix Galien, the European Pharmaceutical Scientist Award 2011 from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the Médaille de l'Innovation from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and recently the European Inventor Award 2013 from the European Patent Office.

  4. Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

    L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

  5. Autisme et douleur – analyse bibliographique

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2010-01-01

    La présente analyse bibliographique a pour objectif de réaliser un bilan des travaux publiés dans le champ de la douleur et de l’autisme. L’article aborde, dans un premier temps, les études publiées concernant les modes d’expression de la douleur observés dans cette population. Différentes hypothèses permettant d’expliquer les particularités expressives des personnes avec autisme sont ensuite passées en revue : excès d’endorphines, particularités dans le traitement sensoriel, déficit sociocommunicatif. Cette analyse bibliographique aborde, pour terminer, la question de l’évaluation et de la prise en compte de la douleur chez les personnes avec autisme. Les auteurs concluent à l’absence d’homogénéité des résultats des études publiées et au besoin de poursuivre les recherches afin de parvenir à des données consensuelles sur un domaine d’étude encore peu exploité au plan scientifique. Sur un plan clinique, l’approfondissement des connaissances dans ce domaine devrait permettre de mettre au point des outils d’évaluation de la douleur et d’ainsi en assurer une meilleure prise en charge au quotidien. PMID:20808970

  6. Plasma membrane NADH oxidase of maize roots responds to gravity and imposed centrifugal forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, E.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NADH oxidase activities measured with excised roots of dark-grown maize (Zea mays) seedlings and with isolated plasma membrane vesicles from roots of dark-grown maize oscillated with a regular period length of 24 min and were inhibited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic [correction of dichorophenoxyacetic] acid. The activities also responded to orientation with respect to gravity and to imposed centrifugal forces. Turning the roots upside down resulted in stimulation of the activity with a lag of about 10 min. Returning the sections to the normal upright position resulted in a return to initial rates. The activity was stimulated reversibly to a maximum of about 2-fold with isolated plasma membrane vesicles, when subjected to centrifugal forces of 25 to 250 x g for 1 to 4 min duration. These findings are the first report of a gravity-responsive enzymatic activity of plant roots inhibited by auxin and potentially related to the gravity-induced growth response. c2001 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  7. Follow-up of a report of a potential linkage for schizophrenia on chromosome 22q12-q13.1: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, A.E.; Lasseter, V.K.; Wolyniec, P.

    1994-03-15

    A collaboration involving four groups of investigators (Johns Hopkins University/Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Medical College of Virginia/The Health Research Board, Dublin; Institute of Psychiatry, London/University of Wales, Cardiff; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris) was organized to confirm results suggestive of a schizophrenia susceptibility locus on chromosome 22 identified by the JHU/MIT group after a random search of the genome. Diagnostic, laboratory, and analytical reliability exercises were conducted among the groups to ensure uniformity of procedures. Data from genotyping of 3 dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms (at the loci D22S268, IL2RB, D22S307) for a combined replication sample of 256 families, each having 2 or more affected individuals with DNA, were analysed using a complex autosomal dominant model. This study provided no evidence for linkage or heterogeneity for the region 22q12-q13 under this model. We conclude that if this region confers susceptibility to schizophrenia, it must be in only a small proportion of families. Collaborative efforts to obtain large samples must continue to play an important role in the genetic search for clues to complex psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. [Charles Gerhardt's life and work].

    PubMed

    Blondel-Mégrelis, Marika

    2008-05-01

    Charles Gerhardt's life and work is rather well-known thanks to Grimaux and Tiffeneau. His reform of the equivalents, his classification, his obtention of organic acid anhydrids and his famous Treatise of Organic Chemistry. His active collaboration to the Revue scientifique et industrielle du Docteur Quesneville, the creation of his Comptes-Rendus des Travaux de Chimie. Are not so often quoted. Thanks to his translations and reviews, German chemical advancements became well known in France Gerhardt was Liebig's translator for almost all his life, even through the fluctuations of their personal relation. He was the representative of German chemistry in France. With Auguste Laurent, with whom he is constantly associated, things need to be examined precisely. Laurent and Gerhardt, friends at a moment, cannot be confounded. Though they worked together for some years, they were not engaged in a similar project. Besides an experimentalist, Laurent was essentially a theorician of chemistry, whereas Gerhardt refused to think about atoms and arrangements. Formulas have to describe relations between facts, in no case anything about arrangements. For posterity however, Gerhardt will be, on the same level as Laurent, the creator of modern chemistry doctrines. PMID:19069201

  9. Communicating Air Pollution Science to the Public and Politicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. At the beginning of the 21st century, both, the public and politicians still find the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers. These issues hence have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Cafe Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist. Here, we present some examples of evolving best practice in the European Network of Excellence on Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT).

  10. Communicating air pollution science to the public and politicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.; Schuepbach, E.

    2006-12-01

    Air pollution of the 21^st century is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. Both the public and politicians finds the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution that concern lay people and policy makers and hence, they have to be presented in a clear and simple way so that informed judgements can be made. Traditionally, the media was the main way to disseminate scientific discovery, but novel methods for engaging scientists in the transfer of scientific know-how to politicians and the general public have emerged in recent years. Scientists receive relatively little training in the area of communication, and often find engaging in more public debates difficult. These including V.I.P. meetings, Public Open Forum, Café Scientifique and various games and role plays. Such outreach events expose us to new challenges, and the skills required to communicate to non-scientists become an increasingly important part of being a scientist.

  11. Identification of More Interstellar C60+ Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G. A. H.; Bohlender, D. A.; Maier, J. P.; Campbell, E. K.

    2015-10-01

    Based on gas-phase laboratory spectra at 6 K, Campbell et al. confirmed that the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 9632.7 and 9577.5 Å are due to absorption by the fullerene ion {{{C}}}60+. They also reported the detection of two other, weaker bands at 9428.5 and 9365.9 Å. These lie in spectral regions heavily contaminated by telluric water vapor lines. We acquired CFHT ESPaDOnS spectra of HD 183143 close to the zenith and chopped with a nearby standard to correct for the telluric line absorption which enabled us to detect a DIB at 9365.9 Å of relative width and strength comparable to the laboratory absorption. There is a DIB of similar strength and FWHM at 9362.5 Å. A stellar emission feature at 9429 Å prevented detection of the 9428.5 Å band. However, a CFHT archival spectrum of HD 169454, where emission is absent at 9429 Å, clearly shows the 9428.5 Å DIB with the expected strength and width. These results further confirm {{{C}}}60+ as a DIB carrier. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  12. Le sevrage de l’allaitement

    PubMed Central

    Grueger, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’allaitement exclusif assure une alimentation optimale aux nourrissons jusqu’à l’âge de six mois. Par la suite, les nourrissons ont besoin d’aliments complémentaires pour répondre à leurs besoins nutritionnels. C’est alors que le sevrage commence. Le sevrage désigne le processus graduel d’introduction d’aliments complémentaires au régime du nourrisson, tout en poursuivant l’allaitement. Il n’y a pas de moment universellement accepté ou scientifiquement démontré pour mettre un terme à l’allaitement. Le moment et le processus de sevrage doivent être adaptés par la mère et l’enfant. Le sevrage peut être soudain ou graduel, prendre plusieurs semaines ou plusieurs mois, être dirigé par l’enfant ou par la mère. Les médecins doivent orienter et soutenir les mères tout au long du processus de sevrage. Le présent document remplace le document de principes sur le sevrage qu’a publié la Société canadienne de pédiatrie en 2004.

  13. A new Raman-N2 lidar dedicated to air quality survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, P.; Chazette, P.; Lardier, M.; Raut, J.-C.; Sauvage, L.

    2010-05-01

    The Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) have developed the Lidar Aérosols UltraViolet Aéroporté (LAUVA). The new version of this prototype is now commercialized with success under license by the LEOSPHERE Company with the name EZ LIDAR®. This eye-safe lidar is based on a Nd:YAG laser giving pulses of 16 mJ at 355 nm with a frequency of 20 Hz. The CEA and LEOSPHERE have recently upgraded this instrument into a three detection channels lidar measuring the two elastic cross-polarizations and the Raman-N2 backscatter signal at 387 nm. It is able to retrieve aerosol optical properties (extinction, backscatter coefficients and depolarization ratio) and atmospheric structures (boundary layer height and clouds) with a resolution of 1.5 m along the line-of-sight in analog mode and 15 m in photon-counting mode. This new lidar is particularly well-adapted to air quality survey thanks to a full overlap reached at ~150 m. This compact (90x50x20 cm) and light (less than50 kg) instrument has been integrated into the Mobile Aerosol Station (MAS) onboard a small truck and enables mobile measurements. We will here present and analyze some results obtained around Paris area with this Raman-N2 lidar.

  14. The Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory as a user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debray, F.; Jongbloets, H.; Joss, W.; Martinez, G.; Mossang, E.; Picoche, J. C.; Plante, A.; Rub, P.; Sala, P.; Wyder, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory (GHMFL), run jointly by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France) and the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (MPG, Germany) is a leading laboratory pursuing research in the highest static magnetic fields technically feasible. The laboratory maintains strong in-house research activities and partly operates as a user facility for qualified external researchers. It has developed highly sophisticated instrumentation for specific use under high magnetic fields, including transport, magnetization, visible and infrared optical measurements at low temperatures and/or high pressures, EPR and NMR investigations in high magnetic fields. The laboratory delivers around 5000 h of magnet time per year. Access for users to the high magnetic field facility is supported by the European Union, in the framework of the Human Potential Program : “Transnational Access to Major Research Infrastructures”.We give an overview of the technical aspects of the facility and of the laboratory activities as a facility over the last few years. The general organization of the user community and repartition between countries will also be reviewed.

  15. The 6-9 day wave and rainfall modulation in northern Africa during summer 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkam, David

    2003-09-01

    Zonal and meridional wind components and geopotential height from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model analyses and daily rainfall data from the Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM) are used to study westward propagating 6-9 day waves and rainfall modulation in northern Africa during summer 1981. The 6-9 day wave structure is determined using a composite method. In this structure, there are two vortices of opposite circulation on either side of the latitude 12.5°N. The rainfall maxima are associated with cyclonic vortices and the rainfall minima with anticyclonic vortices, coinciding with the minima and the maxima of geopotential height anomalies, respectively. The composite variability shows that the 6-9 day wave is associated with positive rainfall anomalies in West Africa in the band of latitude 7.5°-17.5°N, in the western part of the area around Senegal and Guinea and in the center toward Lake Chad. The rainfall anomalies are linked to the zonal wind anomalies, and the increase in rainfall is associated with large modulation of the African Easterly Jet zonal wind component, mainly in the cyclonic circulation. The main zones of decreasing rainfall appear north of 17.5°-20°N, toward Sudan, and south of 8°N, near Ivory Coast.

  16. 25th Birthday Cern- Restaurant

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cérémonie du 25ème anniversaire du Cern avec plusieurs orateurs et la présence de nombreux autorités cantonales et communales genevoises et personnalités, directeurs généraux, ministres, chercheurs.... Le conseiller féderal et chef du département des affaires étrangères de la confédération Monsieur Pierre Aubert prend la parole pour célébrer à la fois les résultats très remarquables de la coopération internationale en matière scientifique, mais aussi la volonté politique des états européens de mettre en commun leurs ressources pour faire oeuvre d'avenir. Un grand hommage est aussi donné aux deux directeurs disparus, les prof.Bakker et Gregory.

  17. Astronomy at the University of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, D. P.

    2000-12-01

    Unisa is the largest correspondence university in Africa and the only South African university currently offering a BSc in Astronomy. The astronomy modules can be included in any standard BSc Physics programme. Besides using the radio and optical telescopes at HartRAO and SAAO, Unisa also has its own Observatory on the main campus equipped with modern instrumentation for training students and doing niche research projects. Unisa est la plus importante université d'enseignement par correspondance en Afrique et la seule université d'Afrique du Sud qui forme des licenciés ès sciences (BSc) en Astronomie. Les modules d'astronomie peuvent être inclus dans tout programme standard de Physique pour BSc. En plus d'utiliser les télescopes radio et optiques à HartRAO et SAAO, Unisa a aussi sur le campus principal son propre Observatoire équipé d'une instrumentation moderne pour la formation des étudiants et pour mener à bien des projets de recherche dans des niches scientifiques modernes.

  18. Micromechanical Study of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velikov, P. A.; Stchapov, N. P.; Lorenz, W. F.

    1945-01-01

    The Institut Scientifique Experimental des Transports at Moscow established toward the end of 1925 had since its inception included in its program the study of the mechanism of plastic deformation and the problems associated with it with reference to the materials of the means of transport. Before the program thus determined upon could be carried out, it was necessary to adopt a method of research, or, more exactly, a system of such methods. Because of the modest equipment of the laboratory of the recently established institute, the choice of any particular method was determined not only by the advantages it offered but also by the resources available. As a result of a series of studies and investigations, a method was determined upon which in this paper will be denoted as the micromechanical method. The underlying basis of this method is already known. As will be seen from the description that follows, the micromechanical method is merely a combination of the micrographic study of plastic deformations with mechanical tests on small specimens. It is a well-known fact that a number of investigators have largely employed and still are employing these two procedures and have thereby obtained good results. The authors of the present paper have found it useful to combine the two methods, by making the two studies simultaneously on the sane specimen.

  19. A variety of radars designed to explore the hidden structures and properties of the Solar System's planets and bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, Valérie

    2016-11-01

    Since the very first observations of the Moon from the Earth with radar in 1946, radars are more and more frequently selected to be part of the payload of exploration missions in the Solar System. They are, in fact, able to collect information on the surface structure of bodies or planets hidden by opaque atmospheres, to probe the planet subsurface or even to reveal the internal structure of a small body comet nucleus. A brief review of radars designed for the Solar System planets and bodies' exploration is presented in the paper. This review does not aim at being exhaustive but will focus on the major results obtained. The variety of radars that have been or are currently designed in terms of frequency or operational modes will be highlighted. xml:lang="fr" Une revue non exhaustive des radars scientifiques développés pour l'exploration des planètes et autres corps du système solaire est présentée dans cet article. Quelques résultats majeurs sont présentés. L'accent est mis sur la variété des radars qui ont été et sont actuellement conçus en terme de fréquence ou de mode opératoire en fonction des contraintes de la mission et des objectifs visés.

  20. Modelisation et analyse de la reflectance de couverts forestiers de resineux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Richard A.

    Une analyse de la reflectance de couverts forestiers de resineux constitue l'essentiel de ce projet de recherche. L'objectif pricipal de la demarche scientifique choisie vise a apporter des explications sur l'influence de l'architecture de la foret et des processus d'interaction entre l'eclairement solaire incident et le couvert forestier pour decrire les patrons de reflectance, tel que vue par un capteur numerique. La strategie de recherche s'opere en quatre etapes, c'est-a-dire (1) l'etude des patron radiometriques de couronnes d'arbres, (2) la comprehension du regime de lumiere dans le couvert, (3) la mesure et l'intetgration de l'architecture du couvert de l'echelle regionale jusqu'a la description detaillee de l'arbre et (4) la simulation et la validation des images numeriques a fine resolution spatiale (autour de 50 cm). Ces travaux ont fait ressortir les parametres directeurs pour expliquer la reflectance des couverts forestiers de resineux, donc de fournir une clarification du probleme dans son ensemble.

  1. Performance of Wielandt-Streckeisen STS-1 seismometers in the tidal domain—preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, R.; Florsch, N.; Hinderer, J.; Rouland, D.

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this work is to show that STS-1 seismometers are able to provide a signal with a very long period vertical component which can be used for Earth tide studies provided a number of recording conditions are improved. We use data from the GEOSCOPE network for BNG (Bangui, Central African Republic), MBO (M'bour, Senegal), CRZF (Crozet, TAAF (Terres Australes et Antarctiques FranDçaises), Indian Ocean), ECH (Echery, France) and PAF (Port-aux-FranDçais, Kerguelen, TAAF, Indian Ocean) stations operated by the Ecole et Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (EOPGS) and Institut FranDçais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM). These data are analysed with a least-squares adjustment method to fit the Earth tidal waves, and the results for these stations are compared. Special attention is paid to the comparison of results from ECH with those from the superconducting gravimeter of Strasbourg (J-9). For several stations used in this study (CRZF, MBO and ECH) the results are promising, but they are disappointing for others (PAF and BNG). We did not find any clear reason for such a difference in quality. We propose some improvements that will enable researchers to achieve a better recording of this long-period signal and obtain higher-quality data allowing gravimetric studies from global seismological networks.

  2. Glorious Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2000-12-01

    Stargazers who may have missed the last total solar eclipse of the 20th century this past summer have just been given another chance to observe this "once in a lifetime" occurrence. Inside Glorious Eclipses they will find startling images and rich personal accounts that fully capture this event and other recent eclipses. The book will also insure that readers will not miss another eclipse in the next 60 years! Specially designed in a beautiful, large format, the volume portrays eclipses of all kinds--lunar, solar, and those occurring elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond. Brunier and Luminet have gathered together all aspects of eclipses, and carefully selected a host of lavish images. The authors detail the history of eclipses, the celestial mechanics involved, their observation, and scientific interest. Personal accounts of recent eclipses are also included as well as all relevant information about forthcoming eclipses up to 2060. Complete with NASA maps and data, Glorious Eclipses is the ultimate source for all those interested in these remarkable (and rare) celestial events. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photo-journalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. Jean-Pierre Luminet is an astrophysicist at the Paris-Meudon Observatory and director of research at the Centre pour la Recherche Scientifique. He is the author of many popular astronomy books, including Black Holes (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

  3. Post-Secondary Students' Relationship to People They Consider to Be Scientific Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2011-03-01

    This article is situated in contemporary debates about the ways to achieve a scientific literacy that encourages a greater lay participation in public debates and political decision making. Drawing on the notion of "relationship to scientific experts" (in French, "rapport aux experts scientifiques"), I explore the ways in which a group of 3 Quebec post-secondary students describe the relationships they hold toward people whom they consider to be scientific experts, as revealed during a project in which they investigated the controversy surrounding cellular telephone use. To this end, I scrutinize how the members of the group go about describing scientific experts and picture a prospective face-to-face discussion with a scientific expert. The data come from a case study (conducted over a 15-week period). The findings show that the group maintains a relationship of intimidation by scientific experts, in which the latter are depicted in terms of their knowledge and qualifications. Accordingly, the group was overawed not only by the accumulation of knowledge held and produced by scientific experts but also by the latter's research experience and the high social recognition they occasionally enjoyed. Similarly, the group describes a prospective face-to-face discussion with a doctor or a researcher in terms of an impersonal, intimidating encounter during which its members' learning and comprehension in relation to the controversy are assumed to be unequal to the task. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  4. Science on the Fairgrounds: From Black to White Magic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Raichvarg

    2007-06-01

    During the 18th and 19th centuries, numerous "entrepreneurs de spectacles scientifiques" — a new category of "stall-keepers" — travelled around France, displaying their scientific shows to the public. They turned out to be physics demonstrators, magicians, mechanical engineers or curators of museums of anatomy. A general survey of these shows is not easy because we have but few documents to consider. Through a various set of texts and pictures, we'll try to understand the general philosophy of these shows: the wonder, the novelty and the surprising are the key-ideas which prevail and not only the idea that these shows mostly deliver knowledge. But above all, we will see that these shows played an important part in popularizing the 19th century scientific achievement as well as achieving the 18th century goal of the Enlightenment. Finally, we may question and discuss the 21st century answer to the question of science understood as entertainment: "science'tainment" as we say: "info'tainment"!

  5. Recommendations for European health data protection legislation.

    PubMed

    Callens, S; Nys, H

    1996-01-01

    In year 1 of the SEISMED project, the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven coordinated the inventory and analysis of medical personal data protection legislation in Europe. A report on legal issues of medical data protection legislation in Europe was written by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique (Paris) and the University College Dublin. This report served as a basis for a second important legal deliverable, i.e. the Health Informatics Deontology Code. In this third and final report, we take into account the results of the other two legal reports and we formulate recommendations for the national and European legislator. This report analyses critically the upcoming privacy directive. We propose several recommendations which should be taken into account by the European and national legislator. We focused quite extensively on the use of medical data for research purposes. We had several reasons to do this. One of them is the fact that the use of medical data for research purposes is very popular, in particular now the health care sector is becoming more and more 'standardized' by using computers, networksystems and telematics. Legislation is therefore needed. Moreover, the use of medical data for research purposes involves the transfer of data from one Member State to another. Therefore, a harmonized legislation is really needed. We hope that the recommendations we propose, will be taken into consideration by the European legislator.

  6. The Two Central Stars of NGC 1514: Can They Actually Be Related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, Roberto H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Urbaneja, Miguel A.

    2016-10-01

    The central star of the planetary nebula NGC 1514 is among the visually brightest central stars in the sky (V = 9.5). It has long been known to show a composite spectrum, consisting of an A-type star and a much hotter star responsible for the ionization of the surrounding nebula. These two stars have always been assumed to form a binary system. High-resolution spectrograms obtained with Espadons at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Maunakea have allowed us to measure good radial velocities for both stars: they differ by 13 ± 2 km s-1. The stellar velocities were unchanged after 500 days. We have also estimated the metallicity of the cooler star. Combining these data with other information available in the literature, we conclude that, unless all the published nebular radial velocities are systematically wrong, the cooler star is just a chance alignment, and the two stars are not orbiting each other. The cooler star cannot have played any role in the formation of NGC 1514. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAM Observation Logs (IRAM 1991-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Neri, R.; Sievers, A.

    2008-04-01

    The Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) was founded in 1979 and is operated as a French-German-Spanish collaboration. Its partner institutes are the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), the MPG (Max Planck Gesellschaft, Germany), and the IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain). The principal activity of IRAM is the study of cold matter (molecular gas and dust) in the solar system, in our Galaxy, and out to cosmological distances in order to determine its composition, density, mass, temperature, and kinematics. IRAM operates two observatories at millimeter wavelengths which are open to the international astronomical community: The 30-m single-dish telescope on Pico Veleta (2850m), Spain, and the six-antenna interferometer on the Plateau de Bure (2550m) in France. Both sites are at high altitude to reduce the absorption by water vapor. The observatories are supported by the IRAM offices and laboratories in Granada and Grenoble. The observation log included here concerns the Plateau de Bure site, and summarizes the observations made there from December 1990. The observations log of the 30-m single-dish telescope covers a period starting in January 2009. This log was produced using a header archive, a collaborative effort between IRAM and IAA/CSIC. (4 data files).

  8. On the performance of updating Stochastic Dynamic Programming policy using Ensemble Streamflow Prediction in a snow-covered region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Pascal, C.; Leconte, R.

    2014-12-01

    Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) is known to be an effective technique to find the optimal operating policy of hydropower systems. In order to improve the performance of SDP, this project evaluates the impact of re-updating the policy at every time step by using Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP). We present a case study of the Kemano's hydropower system on the Nechako River in British Columbia, Canada. Managed by Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA), this system is subject to large streamflow volumes in spring due to important amount of snow depth during the winter season. Therefore, the operating policy should not only maximize production but also minimize the risk of flooding. The hydrological behavior of the system is simulated with CEQUEAU, a distributed and deterministic hydrological model developed by the Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE) in Quebec, Canada. On each decision time step, CEQUEAU is used to generate ESP scenarios based on historical meteorological sequences and the current state of the hydrological model. These scenarios are used into the SDP to optimize the new release policy for the next time steps. This routine is then repeated over the entire simulation period. Results are compared with those obtained by using SDP on historical inflow scenarios.

  9. Lessons learnt from the 15 years experience of the French case in the field of HLLL waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, G.

    2007-07-01

    Year 2006 has been marked in France by the vote in the Parliament of the Planning Act of 28 June, 2006, concerning the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. This vote was the achievement of a 15 years research programme performed as required by the previous Research Law of 1991, also known as the Bataille Law, from the name of Christian Bataille, MP, who drafted it and monitored its enforcement as a member of the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment (Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Techniques - OPECST). At that time a stepwise approach to siting was introduced in the process. It included the study of several alternatives to the geological disposal of long lived high level radioactive waste. Those alternatives have been thoroughly studied and assessed before the Government decided to submit the bill to the Parliament. Experience has been gained not only on the scientific and technical aspects, but also in the field of decision making process, also called now governance. However, not only the results of the research programme were decisive in preparing the bill, but also of major importance were the industrial experience of ANDRA and the rigorous programme management along all those years. Main lessons learnt from the experience are given in this paper. (authors)

  10. Meeting IYA Goals for Diverse Planetarium and Science Museum Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. M.; Carney, K. E.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) in 2009 provides the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, Illinois with a chance to bring astronomy into the city of Chicago and beyond. The Adler serves diverse audiences in the Chicagoland area and elsewhere. Each audience has unique needs to be taken into account when designing for IYA. The Adler has created a suite of programs for IYA that addresses a number of topical strands, tailored for the many audiences that Adler serves. Adler has found synergy between some existing programs designed for these audiences and IYA thematic strands. One advantage of this is that it increases the likelihood of program sustainability. The authors will outline some of Adler's program plans to date from person-to-person community outreach programs such as Café Scientifique programs, to a citizen science light pollution observation program, to programs within the institution, such as a new temporary exhibit about the roles of telescopes in our understanding of the cosmos. The presenters will focus on the range of programming and how they bring together IYA topics as well as addressing the needs of our identified audiences.

  11. L'opération de la Carte du Ciel dans les contextes institutionnel et technique de l'astronomie française à la fin du XIXe siècle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guet Tully, F.; Sadsaoud, H.; de La Noë, J.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre analyse le contexte institutionnel français dans lequel naît la Carte du Ciel. Dans les années 1880, le régime républicain réorganise totalement la recherche astronomique. À Paris, l'instrumentation est totalement renouvelée sous l'impulsion de Maurice Loewy. En province, les efforts de décentralisation permettent un accroissement significatif des arsenaux techniques de Marseille et Toulouse, ainsi que l'édification des établissements de Besançon, Lyon et Bordeaux. À Alger, la station astronomique créée sous le second Empire est transformée en un observatoire particulièrement dynamique grâce à l'implication de Charles Trépied. Ce panorama des établissements astronomiques permet de cerner les enjeux institutionnels et scientifiques qui concourent à l'engagement des observatoires de Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Alger dans l'entreprise de la Carte du Ciel.

  12. Redistribution of annexin in gravistimulated pea plumules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Rafati, D. S.; Bolton, R. J.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of gravistimulation on annexin localization in etiolated pea plumule shoots. In longitudinal sections, an asymmetric annexin immunostaining pattern was observed in a defined group of cells located just basipetal to apical meristems at the main shoot apex and at all of the axillary buds, an area classically referred to as the leaf gap. The pattern was observed using both protein-A-purified anti-annexin and affinity-purified anti-annexin antibodies for the immunostaining. A subset of the cells with the annexin staining also showed an unusually high level of periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their cell walls. Prior to gravistimulation, the highest concentration of annexin was oriented toward the direction of gravity along the apical end of these immunostained cells. In contrast, both at 15 and 30 min after gravistimulation, the annexin immunostain became more evenly distributed all around the cell and more distinctly cell peripheral. The asymmetry along the lower wall of these cells was no longer evident. In accord with current models of annexin action, we interpret the results to indicate that annexin-mediated secretion in the leaf gap area is preferentially toward the apical meristem prior to gravistimulation, and that gravistimulation results in a redirection of this secretion. These data are to our knowledge the first to show a correlation between the vector of gravity and the distribution of annexins in the cells of flowering plants. c 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  13. Frontiers of QCD with Precision nPDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusina, Aleksander; Lyonnet, Florian; Olness, Fredrick I.; Schienbein, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Searches for new physics will increasingly depend on identifying deviations from precision Standard Model (SM) predictions. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) will necessarily play a central role in this endeavor as it provides the framework for the parton model. However, as we move to higher orders and into extreme kinematic regions, we begin to see the full complexities of the QCD theory. Recent theoretical developments improve our ability to analyze both proton and nuclear PDFs across the full kinematic range. These developments are incorporated into the new nCTEQ15 PDFs, and we review these developments with respect to future measurements, and identify areas where additional effort is required. Based on work in collaboration with D. B. Clark, E. Godat, T. Ježo, C. Keppel, K. Kovařík, J.G. Morfín, P. Nadolsky, J.F. Owens, & J.Y. Yu. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-04ER41299, and by Projet international de cooperation scientifique PICS05854 between France and the U.S.

  14. A Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(A2)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrian Honegger

    1999-12-01

    During summer 1997 experiment 394-018 measured the deuteron tensor polarization in D(e,e'd) scattering in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. In a momentum transfer range between 0.66 and 1:8 (GeV=c){sup 2}, with slight changes in the experimental setup, the collaboration performed six precision measurements of the deuteron structure function A(Q{sup 2}) in elastic D(e,e'd) scattering . Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence in the High Momentum Spectrometer and the recoil polarimeter POLDER, respectively. At every kinematics H(e,e') data were taken to study systematic effects of the measurement. These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older data sets and put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Commissariat 'a l'Energie Atomique, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and the K.C. Wong Foundation.

  15. The Ethiopian initiative to build sustainable capacity for operational research: overview and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, E; Assefa, D; Rusen, I D; Dlodlo, R A; Shimeles, E; Kebede, B; Fiseha, D; Tsegaye, F; Leimane, I; Teklai, Y; Dacombe, R; Aseffa, A

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : La recherche opérationnelle programmatique joue un rôle majeur dans la lutte contre la tuberculose (TB). En 2012, le ministère éthiopien de la santé a lancé une initiative de renforcement des capacités en recherche opérationnelle (OR).Objectif : Développer des capacités pérennes d'OR en Ethiopie dans le cadre d'une initiative s'étalant sur plusieurs années.Schéma : L'initiative a été élaborée en collaboration avec des experts régionaux, nationaux et internationaux. Des équipes représentant les régions d'Ethiopie ont réalisé une OR relative aux priorités nationales et régionales. Un programme de formation de mentors domestiques a été inclus afin d'exploiter l'expertise locale et d'accroitre la pérennité. La capacité existante a été renforcée grâce à un financement compétitif offrant aux chercheurs du domaine de la TB un soutien financier et technique. Le fonctionnement du comité de concertation éthiopien sur la recherche relative à la TB a également bénéficié d'un soutien. Les comités d'éthique régionaux ont été renforcés ou créés lorsqu'ils n'existaient pas.Résultats : Cinquante-deux personnes ont été formées et ont réalisé 13 projets d'OR, dont six ont été publiés à ce jour. De plus, huit protocoles ont été soutenus par des subventions. Les comités d'éthique ont été renforcés dans toutes les régions.Conclusion: L'initiative a formé des participants de toutes les régions et ceux-ci ont terminé avec succès toutes les étapes du processus d'OR. Le succès de ce programme peut être attribué à une approche sous forme de travail d'équipe, à un apprentissage sur le tas, au programme intégré de mentors et à une forte appropriation nationale.

  16. Evidence mapping for decision making: feasibility versus accuracy - when to abandon high sensitivity in electronic searches.

    PubMed

    Buchberger, Barbara; Krabbe, Laura; Lux, Beate; Mattivi, Jessica Tajana

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Evidence Mapping ist eine vergleichsweise neue methodische Herangehensweise, die für die Entwicklung von Forschungsfragen und Entscheidungen über deren Relevanz oder Priorität hilfreich sein kann. Allerdings stellt die Menge der heutzutage zur Verfügung stehenden Daten eine Herausforderung für Wissenschaftler dar, die zum Teil mit Ergebnissen von Datenbankrecherchen konfrontiert sind, die über 30.000 identifizierte Literaturstellen für ein erstes Screening umfassen.Ziele: Zur Überprüfung der Eignung des Themas „Diabetes und Fahrerlaubnis“ als Fragestellung für eine evidenzbasierte nationale klinische Leitlinie wurde ein Evidence Mapping durchgeführt. Darüber hinaus wurde eine hoch sensitive mit einer hoch spezifischen Suchstrategie verglichen.Methoden: Auf der Basis eines systematischen Reviews waren die Datenbankrecherchen auf den Zeitraum von 2002 bis heute begrenzt sowie auf deutsche und englische Publikationen.Ergebnisse: Aufgrund der stark fokussierten Fragestellung und der Begrenzungen ergab die hoch sensitive Recherche eine handhabbare Menge von Literaturstellen, die ausreichend Evidenz enthielten, um die Fragestellung nach der Eignung des Themas für eine evidenzbasierte Leitlinie positiv beantworten zu können. Unter Anwendung der hoch spezifischen Suchstrategie wurde eine Reduktion der Literaturstellen um 25% erreicht, mit der 88% der relevanten Literaturstellen identifiziert werden konnten.Schlussfolgerung: Um eine Übersicht über ein Forschungsgebiet zu erlangen, ist im Gegensatz zu systematischen Reviews, die zur Reduktion von Bias die Darstellung der vollständigen, identifizierbaren Evidenz enthalten müssen, keine Recherche von größter Genauigkeit erforderlich. Unter Berücksichtigung dieses methodischen Unterschieds kann unter Anwendung einer hoch spezifischen Recherche anstelle einer hoch sensitiven eine große Menge zu bearbeitender, aber überflüssiger Informationen vermieden werden.

  17. Development and validation of a quantitative competitive ELISA for potency testing of equine anti rabies sera with other potential use.

    PubMed

    Korimbocus, Jehanara; Dehay, Nicolas; Tordo, Noël; Cano, François; Morgeaux, Sylvie

    2016-06-14

    In case of a bite by a rabies infected animal, the World Health Organisation recommends a prophylactic treatment including the administration of Human Rabies Immunoglobulins (HRIGs) or highly purified F(ab')2 fragments produced from Equine Rabies Immunoglobulin (F(ab')2 - ERIGs). According to international regulation, quality control of F(ab')2 - ERIGs lots requires potency testing by the in vivo Mouse Neutralisation Test (MNT) prior marketing. However, the strategy of the 3Rs (Reduce, Refine, Replace) for animal testing required by the European Directive encourages the replacement of the in vivo potency test by an in vitro assay. In this context, a competitive ELISA method (c-ELISA) has been developed by the Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé where F(ab')2 - ERIGs are in competition with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the trimeric native form of the rabies glycoprotein. After a full validation study, the c-ELISA has been applied to commercial batches of F(ab')2 - ERIGs. A correlation study with the MNT demonstrated a similarity between the two methods (r=0.751). Moreover, the c-ELISA method which does not need any species specific reagent has been applied to HRIGs potency testing as an alternative method to Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT), thus avoiding the handling of live rabies virus in BSL3 containment. In conclusion, the c-ELISA has shown its potential to replace MNT and possibly RFFIT for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin. After optimisation it may be used for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin in any animal species, notably for rabies immunogenicity assay in mice.

  18. Lipid intake in children under 3 years of age in France. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Briend, A; Legrand, P; Bocquet, A; Girardet, J-P; Bresson, J-L; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M L; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2014-04-01

    Lipids are an important source of energy for young children and play a major role in the development and functioning of nervous tissue. Essential fatty acids and their long-chain derivatives also fulfill multiple metabolic functions and play a role in the regulation of numerous genes. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail [ANSES]) have recently recommended a minimum daily intake in preformed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs): arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mother's milk remains the only reference, but the large variability in its DHA content does not guarantee that breastfed children receive an optimal DHA intake if the mother's intake is insufficient. For children fed with infant formulas, ARA and DHA intake is often below the recommended intake because only one-third of infant formulas available on the market in France are enriched in LC-PUFAs. For all children, linoleic acid (LA) intake is on average higher than the minimal recommended values. The consequences of these differences between intake and recommended values are uncertain. A cautious attitude is to come close to the current recommendations and to advise sufficient consumption of DHA in breastfeeding women. For bottle-fed children, infant formulas enriched in LC-PUFAs and with moderate levels of LA should be preferred. LC-PUFA-rich fish should be consumed during breastfeeding, and adapted vegetable oils when complementary foods are introduced.

  19. The Mysterious sdO X-ray Binary BD+37°442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.; Geier, S.; Irrgang, A.; Schneider, D.; Barbu-Barna, I.; Mereghetti, S.; La Palombara, N.

    2014-04-01

    Pulsed X-ray emission in the luminous, helium-rich sdO BD +37°442 has recently been discovered (La Palombara et al. 2012). It was suggested that the sdO star has a neutron star or white dwarf companion with a spin period of 19.2 s. After HD 49798, which has a massive white dwarf companion spinning at 13.2 s in an 1.55 day orbit, this is only the second O-type subdwarf from which X-ray emission has been detected. We report preliminary results of our ongoing campaign to obtain time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using the CAFE instrument at Calar Alto observatory and SARG at the Telescopio Nationale Galileo. Atmospheric parameters were derived via a quantitative NLTE spectral analysis. The line fits hint at an unusually large projected rotation velocity. Therefore it seemed likely that BD +37°442 is a binary similar to HD 49798 and that the orbital period is also similar. The level of X-ray emission from BD +37°442 could be explained by accretion from the sdO wind by a neutron star orbiting at a period of less than ten days. Hence, we embarked on radial velocity monitoring in order to derive the binary parameters of the BD+37°442 system and obtained 41 spectra spread out over several month in 2012. Unlike for HD 49798, no radial velocity variations were found and, hence, there is no dynamical evidence for the existence of a compact companion yet. The origin of the pulsed X-ray emission remains as a mystery.

  20. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  1. [Parcours de femmes. Opinion survey carried out among women treated for gynecologic and breast cancers and their medical care teams].

    PubMed

    Serin, D; Pujol, H; Schraub, S; Chevalier, H

    1998-06-01

    The opinion survey "Parcours de femmes" initiated in partnership with Bristol-Myers Squibb was conducted by la Ligue nationale contre le cancer between November 1993 and May 1995 and by Sofres Institute. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge of experience of feminine cancers, both by patients and by different treatment teams. Two thousand eight hundred and seventy-four women treated for one of these diseases answered anonymously on a form with sixty-eight questions. Eighty-one individual interviews gave the opinion of the general practitioners and specialists concerned, as well as nursing and hospital staff, pharmacists, health leaders in the private or public fields. The results of this opinion survey highlight and confirm needs, deficiencies, and aspirations of everyone involved. The data show the importance of information, explanations and dialogue at every stage of the disease. The data specify the lines of support to be developed: calming distress, stimulating hope and the will to recover. They also indicate a need for psychological support outside the family and the medical environment as well as for treatment teams. The necessity to improve the hospital environment as well as access to maternal aid during and after treatment to make reinsertion easier are also demonstrated. Apart from associations and help services (such as home care), institutionals do not all have the same sensitivity expect to this pathology. Many people consider it has nothing specific in comparison to other pathologies or to other women in difficulties. They reject the idea of implementing specific measures and valorize research and prevention actions. PMID:9752285

  2. Low prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with tuberculosis in Cotonou, Benin.

    PubMed

    Ade, S; Affolabi, D; Agodokpessi, G; Wachinou, P; Faïhun, F; Toundoh, N; Békou, W; Makpenon, A; Ade, G; Anagonou, S; Harries, A D

    2015-06-21

    Cadre : Les trois Centres de Dépistage et de Traitement de la Tuberculose (TB) de Cotonou, Bénin.Objectif : Déterminer la prévalence du diabète sucré (DM) parmi les patients tuberculeux à Cotonou.Méthode : Etude transversale avec enrôlement successif de tous les patients tuberculeux traités depuis au moins 2 semaines entre juin et juillet 2014, et mesure de leur glycémie à jeun. Le diagnostic de DM était retenu sur la base d'une glycémie veineuse à jeun ⩾ 7 mmol/l ou d'un antécédent de DM rapporté par le patient.Résultat : Au total, 159 patients étaient inclus : 114 nouveaux cas de TB pulmonaire à microscopie positive, 5 nouveaux cas de TB pulmonaire à microscopie négative, 8 cas de TB extrapulmonaire, 21 cas de retraitement à germes sensibles et 11 cas de TB multirésistante. D'eux, respectivement 31 (19%), 18 (11%) et 10 (6%) étaient co-infectés, fumeurs et hypertendus. Il y avait huit patients (5%) intolérants au glucose et trois (1.9%) diabétiques, dont un nouvellement diagnostiqué.Conclusion : A Cotonou, le DM ne semble pas être un facteur de risque majeur de développement d'une TB-maladie. Une étude à l'échelle nationale s'avère nécessaire pour cerner l'ampleur de cette affection parmi les tuberculeux dans tout le pays.

  3. Douleurs et conflits : Approche comparative et implications pour la qualité des soins en fin de vie

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Verloo, Henk; Rapin, Charles-Henri; Chastonay, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Le conflit serait-il à l’organisation ce que la douleur est à un organisme ? OBJECTIFS: Explorer les similitudes et les differences entre les douleurs et les conflits dans les contextes de soins de fin de vie. Mieux comprendre le rôle des conflits dans la qualité de ces soins. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Méthode comparative et réflexive autour des politiques de prise en charge des douleurs et des conflits dans les systèmes de soins. RÉSULTATS: Les conflits et les douleurs présentent de nombreuses similitudes de par leur identité, leur typologie, leur prévalence, leur fonction d’alerte, leurs coûts économiques et sociaux, le déni ou l’occultation qui les entourent et les obstacles à leur prise en charge adéquate. À l’inverse, des différences apparaissent dans la prise en charge des douleurs comparée à celle des conflits. Ces différences portent sur l’existence des programmes de prévention et de lutte sur les scènes nationale et internationale, la mise en œuvre des activités de recherche et de formation et la visibilité sociale. Pour les conflits, cette mise en œuvre n’existe pas encore. CONCLUSION: Les décideurs en clinique et en santé publique devraient intégrer les conflits comme un indicateur de la qualité des soins et élaborer des politiques pertinentes en matière de santé. PMID:19714268

  4. HIV type-1 group O infection in Gabon: low prevalence rate but circulation of genetically diverse and drug-resistant HIV type-1 group O strains.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Florian; Boué, Vanina; Butel, Christelle; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Sica, Jeanne; Zamba, Chantal; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Rouet, François

    2013-07-01

    The goals of this study conducted in Gabon were to determine the prevalence rate of HIV-1 group O (HIV-1/O) infections and to characterize the genetic diversity of HIV-1/O strains as well as implications on antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance. During 2010-2011, 1,176 samples from HIV-positive subjects were tested at the CIRMF (Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville) retrovirology laboratory using an in-house serotyping assay. Plasma HIV-1/O RNA viral loads (VL) were determined using the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay. After full genome sequencing, drug resistance patterns were analyzed using two different algorithms (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales and Stanford). Overall, four subjects (0.34%) were diagnosed as HIV-1/O infected. One subject, untreated by ARVs, died 2 months after HIV-1/O diagnosis. One was lost to follow-up. Two additional patients, treated with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens, showed CD4 counts <200/mm(3) and VL results of 101,000 and 10,050 cp/ml. After full-length genome sequencing of these two strains, we found a wide range of natural polymorphism in the protease (≥15 substitutions) and gp41 (N42D mutation) genes, as well as in the gag and gag-pol cleavage sites. No resistance mutation was detected in the integrase gene. These two strains harbored the Y181C mutation making them resistant to NNRTIs. M41L, M184V, and T215Y mutations were also found for one strain, making it resistant to all NRTIs by the Stanford algorithm. Even if HIV-1/O infection is low in Gabon, an accurate diagnosis and a reliable virological follow-up are required in Central Africa to optimize ARV treatments of HIV-1/O-infected patients.

  5. Protoplanetary disk formation and evolution models: DM Tau and GM Aur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Guillot, T.

    2002-09-01

    We study the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks using an axisymmetric turbulent disk model. We compare model results with observational parameters derived for the DM Tau and GM Aur systems. These are relatively old T Tauri stars with large and massive protoplanetary disks. Early disk formation is studied in the standard scenario of slowly rotating isothermal collapsing spheres and is strongly dependent on the initial angular momentum and the collapse accretion rate. The viscous evolution of the disk is integrated in time using the classical Alpha prescription of turbulence. We follow the temporal evolution of the disks until their characteristics fit the observed characteristics of DM Tau and GM Aur. We therefore obtain the set of model parameters that are able to explain the present state of these disks. We also study the disk evolution under the Beta parameterization of turbulence, recently proposed for sheared flows on protoplanetary disks. Both parameterizations allow explaining the present state of both DM Tau and GM Aur. We infer a value of Alpha between 5x10-3 to 0.02 for DM Tau and one order of magnitude smaller for GM Aur. Values of the Beta parameter are in accordance with theoretical predictions of Beta around 2x10-5 but with a larger dispersion on other model parameters, which make us favor the Alpha parameterization of turbulence. Implications for planetary system development in these systems are presented. In particular, GM Aur is a massive and slowly evolving disk where conditions are very favorable for planetesimal growth. The large value of present disk mass and the relatively small observed accretion rate of this system may also be indicative of the presence of an inner gas giant planet. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by Programme Nationale de Planetologie. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doctoral fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  6. Reptiles with dermatological lesions: a retrospective study of 301 cases at two university veterinary teaching hospitals (1992-2008).

    PubMed

    White, Stephen D; Bourdeau, Patrick; Bruet, Vincent; Kass, Philip H; Tell, Lisa; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2011-04-01

    This retrospective study reviews the medical records of 301 reptiles with dermatological lesions that were examined at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (VMTH-UCD) and the Unité de Dermatologie-Parasitologie-Mycologie, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Nantes (UDPM-ENVN) from 1 January 1992 to 1 July 2008. The most common reptile groups differed between the two hospitals, with lizards being the most common at the VMTH-UCD and chelonians at the UDPM-ENVN. At the VMTH-UCD, boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), ball pythons (Python regius) and other Python species were over-represented, and box turtles (Terrapene carolina) were under-represented in the dermatological lesion caseload. When institutional data were combined, 47% of all reptiles at both institutions with confirmed or suspected cases of sepsis had petechiae, with the highest association seen in chelonians at 82%. Dependent on institution and reptile group, from 29% to 64% of the cases had underlying husbandry issues. Sixty-two per cent of all cases were alive at final status. Veterinarians treating reptiles with skin disease should be aware of the following: (i) that boa constrictors and Python species may be predisposed to dermatological lesions; (ii) that client education is important for proper husbandry; and (iii) that there is a possible association between petechiae and sepsis, especially in chelonians. The conjectural association between certain skin lesions and sepsis remains to be confirmed by systematically derived data that demonstrate a causal relationship between the two.

  7. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    PubMed

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. PMID:27590973

  8. The FORCLIM Eco-Physiological Growth Model for Planktic Foraminifera: a new Tool to Reconstruct Ecological Niches, Abundance and Potential Depth and Season of Growth for Fossil Foraminifera Species in Ocean Sediment Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, F.; Labeyrie, L.; Michel, E.; Lea, D.; Spero, H. J.; Forclim, M. O.

    2007-12-01

    Paleocean hydrological reconstructions derived from planktic foraminifera isotopic ratios (δ18O and δ13C) or trace element ratio (Mg/Ca) are poorly constrained, for lack of precise knowledge on seasonality and water depth of test formation. This is particularly limiting for reconstruction of the thermocline characteristics. Various calibrations have been published, based on statistical correlation with core tops fossil fauna, sediment traps or plankton net collection. We present here what we think is the first eco-physiological model reproducing the growth of different foraminifera species in function of environmental parameter. By reproducing the main physiological rates of foraminifera (nutrition, respiration, symbiotic photosynthesis), this model estimates their growth in function of temperature, light availability and food concentration. The model is now calibrated for the species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (dextral and sinistral forms), Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globigerinella siphonifera and Orbulina universa. Most of the model parameters are derived from newly performed experimental observations or from published data and only the influence of food concentration (in a Chl a basis) was calibrated with field observations. Using satellite data, the model predict the seasonal distribution of dominant foraminifer species over 576 field observations worldwide with efficiency higher than 60%. Moreover, the growth rate estimated for each foraminifera species can be used as an abundance indicator which allows prediction of the season and water depth at which most of the population has developed. This offers larges perspectives for both actual understanding of foraminifera role in the carbon/carbonate ocean cycle and for better quantification of paleoceanographic proxies. Forclim is a program supported by the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche and Institut National des Sciences de l

  9. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  10. Orbit determination support of the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon operational orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanzle, A. F.; Rovnak, J. E.; Bolvin, D. T.; Doll, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    The Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX/Poseidon) mission is designed to determine the topography of the Earth's sea surface over a 3-year period, beginning shortly after launch in July 1992. TOPEX/Poseidon is a joint venture between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the French Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is NASA's TOPEX/Poseidon project center. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) will nominally be used to support the day-to-day orbit determination aspects of the mission. Due to its extensive experience with TDRSS tracking data, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will receive and process TDRSS observational data. To fulfill the scientific goals of the mission, it is necessary to achieve and maintain a very precise orbit. The most stringent accuracy requirements are associated with planning and evaluating orbit maneuvers, which will place the spacecraft in its mission orbit and maintain the required ground track. To determine if the FDF can meet the TOPEX/Poseidon maneuver accuracy requirements, covariance analysis was undertaken with the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS). The covariance analysis addressed many aspects of TOPEX/Poseidon orbit determination, including arc length, force models, and other processing options. The most recent analysis has focused on determining the size of the geopotential field necessary to meet the maneuver support requirements. Analysis was undertaken with the full 50 x 50 Goddard Earth Model (GEM) T3 field as well as smaller representations of this model.

  11. Field seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness: evaluation of the screening method using different sources of data during the 2010/2011 French influenza season.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandra; Souty, Cecile; Grisoni, Marie-Lise; Mosnier, Anne; Hanslik, Thomas; Daviaud, Isabelle; Varesi, Laurent; Kerneis, Solen; Carrat, Fabrice; Blanchon, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    Thanks to the screening method, we estimated among target groups the 2010/2011 field vaccine effectiveness (FVE) against laboratory confirmed influenza cases seen in general practice. We also compared the values of FVE estimations obtained by using three sources of the population vaccination coverage (VC) based on three different methodologies: (1) administrative data from the main social security scheme (Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés--CNAMTS) covering about 85% of the French population, (2) a cross-sectional national telephone survey in the general population, and (3) a declarative survey in the population seen in a one-day general practitioner (GP) consultations. The FVE estimates among target groups were stratified by age (< 65 y old with reported chronic illness; ≥65 y old and overall). Using the VC of the CNAMTS, the FVE of the 2010/2011 seasonal trivalent vaccine against laboratory confirmed infection with any influenza virus was 59% (95% Confidence Interval, 17 to 81). It was 85% (17 to 99) and 50% (-16 to 80) for A(H1N1)pdm09 and B influenza infections, respectively. The values of FVE using the influenza VC obtained in a sample of the general population and of the population of GPs' patients were 73% (45 to 87) and 82% (63 to 92), respectively. We estimated a moderate influenza FVE in preventing confirmed influenza viruses in target groups by using the VC of the CNAMTS. We also observed that the screening method generates FVE values dependent on the choice of the source of VC and thus should be used cautiously. PMID:23811610

  12. Atmospheric Measurements by Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Wu, Tao; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Fertein, Eric; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Weixiong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Since the last decade, atmospheric environmental monitoring has benefited from the development of novel spectroscopic measurement techniques owing to the significant breakthroughs in photonic technology from the UV to the infrared spectral domain [1]. In this presentation, we will overview our recent development and applications of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy techniques for in situ optical monitoring of chemically reactive atmospheric species (such as HONO, NO3, NO2, N2O5) in intensive campaigns [2] and/or in smog chamber studies [3]. These field deployments demonstrated that modern photonic technologies (newly emergent light sources combined with high sensitivity spectroscopic techniques) can provide a useful tool to improve our understanding of tropospheric chemical processes which affect climate, air quality, and the spread of pollution. Experimental detail and preliminary results will be presented. Acknowledgements. The financial support from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under the NexCILAS (ANR-11-NS09-0002) and the CaPPA (ANR-10-LABX-005) contracts is acknowledged. References [1] X. Cui, C. Lengignon, T. Wu, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez,L. Croisé, W. Chen, et al., "Photonic Sensing of the Atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 113 (2012) 1300-1316 [2] T. Wu, Q. Zha, W. Chen, Z. XU, T. Wang, X. He, "Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 in Hong Kong", Atmos. Environ. 95 (2014) 544-551 [3] T. Wu, C. Coeur-Tourneur, G. Dhont,A. Cassez, E. Fertein, X. He, W. Chen,"Application of IBBCEAS to kinetic study of NO3 radical formation from O3 + NO2 reaction in an atmospheric simulation chamber", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 133 (2014)199-205

  13. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  14. Prototype pushing robot for emplacing vitrified waste canisters into horizontal disposal drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, L.; Seidler, W.K.; Bosgiraud, J.M.; Guenin, J.J.; Devaux, P.

    2007-07-01

    Within the French Underground Disposal concept, as described in ANDRA's (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) Dossier 2005, the Pushing Robot is an application envisaged for the emplacement (and the potential retrieval) of 'Vitrified waste packages', also called 'C type packages'. ANDRA has developed a Prototype Pushing Robot within the framework of the ESDRED Project (Engineering Studies and Demonstration of Repository Design) which is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the sixth EURATOM Research and Training Framework Programme (FP6) on nuclear energy (2002 - 2006). The Rationale of the Pushing Robot technology comes from various considerations, including the need for (1) a simple and robust system, capable of moving (and potentially retrieving) on up to 40 metres (m), a 2 tonne C type package (mounted on ceramic sliding runners) inside the carbon steel sleeve constituting the liner (and rock support) of a horizontal disposal cell, (2) small annular clearances between the package and the liner, (3) compactness of the device to be transferred from surface to underground, jointly with the package, inside a shielding cask, and (4) remote controlled operations for the sake of radioprotection. The initial design, based on gripping supports, has been replaced by a 'technical variant' based on inflatable toric jacks. It was then possible, using a test bench, to check that the Pushing Robot worked properly. Steps as high as 7 mm were successfully cleared by a dummy package pushed by the Prototype.. Based on the lessons learned by ANDRA's regarding the Prototype Pushing Robot, a new Scope of Work is being written for the Contract concerning an Industrial Scale Demonstrator. The Industrial Scale Demonstration should be completed by the end of the second Quarter of 2008. (authors)

  15. Characteristics of energy intake under-reporting in French adults.

    PubMed

    Berta Vanrullen, Isabelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Bertaut, Aurélie; Dufour, Ariane; Dallongeville, Jean

    2014-04-14

    Energy intake under-reporting (UR) is a concern in nutritional epidemiological studies, as it may distort the relationships between dietary habits and health. Although UR is known to be associated with certain characteristics, few studies have investigated them in France. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of UR in French adults. UR was defined according to Goldberg's classification. A sample of 1567 adults was drawn from the nationally representative French dietary survey (Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2 2006-7). Food intake (7 d record), dietary habits, socio-economic status, region of residence, sedentary behaviour and weight perception variables were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between UR and a number of covariates. The overall prevalence of UR was 22.5%, similar in men and women. In both sexes, UR was positively associated with overweight and protein intake and inversely associated with age. In women, UR was associated with eating lunch in the office, poor perception of diet quality and sedentary behaviour and was inversely associated with educational level, residence in the Paris region, cereal product intake and eating lunch in a friend's or family member's home. In men, UR was positively associated with a history of slimming and inversely associated with dairy product intake and eating lunch at a staff canteen. In conclusion, UR is prevalent in French adults and is associated with several different characteristics. It is important to take account of UR when investigating diet-disease associations in adults. PMID:24330816

  16. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    PubMed

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones.

  17. Cadmium exposure from food: the German LExUKon project.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Markus A; Lindtner, Oliver; Blume, Katrin; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Schneider, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a very toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II) with about 20 000 participants (15 371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Based on these comprehensive data, information on the consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was generated. Cadmium concentrations in food were compiled from the German food monitoring programme, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature, covering the years from 1993 to 2008, and were multiplied with consumption data to obtain estimates of cadmium intake from food. Consumption-weighted mean cadmium concentrations per main food group were highest for cereals, followed by oily seeds & fruits, and vegetables. Due to both high consumption and considerable occurrence of cadmium, cereals and vegetables contributed most to the intake of the general public, followed by the main groups beverages, fruits & nuts, and dairy products (including milk). Cadmium intake from food was estimated to be 1.46 and 2.35 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for average and high-end consumers, respectively. This corresponds to 58% for average and 95% for high-end consumers, respectively, of a reference value derived from a recent health risk evaluation performed by EFSA, using the benchmark approach. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification and some foods not considered due to lacking occurrence data. In conclusion, the estimated cadmium intake of the German population from food is still close to health-based reference values. Further efforts to reduce cadmium intake are required. PMID:24645975

  18. 'ENVIRONMENTAL AKALISM' AND THE WAR ON FILTH: THE PERSONIFICATION OF SANITATION IN URBAN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Manton, John

    2013-11-01

    Dans les villes du Nigeria comme dans une grande partie de l'Afrique, les pratiques d'assainissement au niveau des zones, des quartiers et des rues inscrivent, dans des schémas de circulation et d'interaction autour des déchets, non seulement les espoirs et les craintes des résidents urbains et des gestionnaires, mais aussi les aspirations et les échecs encodés dans les histoires nationales et régionales post-coloniales. Confronté à de nombreuses difficultés comme l'interaction des stratégies de zonage coloniales racistes, la rapidité de l'expansion urbaine post-coloniale, le retrait des services publics qui a accompagné la vague de programmes de libéralisation des années 1980, le caractère de plus en plus abject du contrat social et la précarité persistante de la vie et de l'activité économiques, l'assainissement de l'environnement urbain au Nigeria peine depuis longtemps à suivre le rythme de la dynamique historique des métropoles émergentes du pays. En suivant les activités d'une cohorte d'inspecteurs et de bénévoles du ministère de l'Environnement et des ressources en eau de l’État d'Oyo, cet article examine la politique de la performance et de la coercition qui entoure la Journée de l'assainissement de l'environnement organisée tous les mois à Ibadan, sur fonds d'intensification des tensions politiques lors de la saison électorale en 2011.

  19. Measuring IVDF through high-aspect holes in pulsed ICP plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Dubois, Jerome; Bezard, Philippe; Mourey, Odile; Petit-Etienne, Camille; Vallier, Laurent; Despiau-Pujo, Emilie; Joubert, Olivier; Sadeghi, Nader

    2015-09-01

    Plasma etching of high aspect-ratio (AR) structures is challenging. Several issues originate from the ion angular distribution: the feature sidewalls are bombarded by energetic ions and the ion flux at the bottom of the features is reduced. In ICP reactors at low pressure, this angular dispersion is due to two effects: the finite transverse velocity component of the ions when they enter the sheath region (i.e. the ion temperature Ti in plasma bulk) and charging effect of the feature sidewalls. To analyze those effects, we have measured the IVDF at the wafer surface in an industrial ICP reactor (AMAT) by using Semion multigrid ion energy analyzers. The plasma is operated in different chemistries (Ar, He, H2 and CF4) both in CW and pulsed mode. To analyze ion transport through high AR holes, we place 0.4 mm thick capillary plates with holes of AR 16, 8 and 4 in front of the RFA analyzer, which then probe IVDF at the exit of these holes. The results show that the ion flux drops dramatically when the AR is increased. By comparing the measured IVDF with an analytical model which calculates the transmission of a hole as a function of its AR and of Ti we concluded that Ti is about 3000 K. Charging effects are also observed and are shown to reduce significantly the ion energy at the feature bottom but with a ``minor'' effect on the ion flux and shape of the IVDF. We will discuss electropositive versus electronegative gases, pulsing and the role of ion mass on charging. This project is funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche in the frame of the project clean GRAPH (ANR-13-BS09-0019).

  20. Development and validation of a quantitative competitive ELISA for potency testing of equine anti rabies sera with other potential use.

    PubMed

    Korimbocus, Jehanara; Dehay, Nicolas; Tordo, Noël; Cano, François; Morgeaux, Sylvie

    2016-06-14

    In case of a bite by a rabies infected animal, the World Health Organisation recommends a prophylactic treatment including the administration of Human Rabies Immunoglobulins (HRIGs) or highly purified F(ab')2 fragments produced from Equine Rabies Immunoglobulin (F(ab')2 - ERIGs). According to international regulation, quality control of F(ab')2 - ERIGs lots requires potency testing by the in vivo Mouse Neutralisation Test (MNT) prior marketing. However, the strategy of the 3Rs (Reduce, Refine, Replace) for animal testing required by the European Directive encourages the replacement of the in vivo potency test by an in vitro assay. In this context, a competitive ELISA method (c-ELISA) has been developed by the Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé where F(ab')2 - ERIGs are in competition with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the trimeric native form of the rabies glycoprotein. After a full validation study, the c-ELISA has been applied to commercial batches of F(ab')2 - ERIGs. A correlation study with the MNT demonstrated a similarity between the two methods (r=0.751). Moreover, the c-ELISA method which does not need any species specific reagent has been applied to HRIGs potency testing as an alternative method to Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT), thus avoiding the handling of live rabies virus in BSL3 containment. In conclusion, the c-ELISA has shown its potential to replace MNT and possibly RFFIT for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin. After optimisation it may be used for the quantification of rabies immunoglobulin in any animal species, notably for rabies immunogenicity assay in mice. PMID:27151880

  1. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork.

  2. Using Remotely Piloted Aircraft System to Study the Evolution of the Boundary Layer Related to Fog Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. C.; Cayez, G.; Ronflé-Nadaud, C.; Albrand, M.; Dralet, J. P.; Momboisse, G.; Nicoll, K.; Seity, Y.; Bronz, M.; Hattenberger, G.; Gorraz, M.; Bustico, A.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, the scientific community has embraced the use of RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft system) as a tool to improve observations of the Earth's surface and atmospheric phenomena. The use of small RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) in atmospheric research has increased because of their relative low-cost, compact size and ease of operation. Small RPAS are especially adapted for observing the atmospheric boundary layer processes at high vertical and temporal resolution. To this end, CNRM, ENAC, and ENM have developed the VOLTIGE (Vecteurs d'Observation de La Troposphere pour l'Investigation et la Gestion de l'Environnement) program to study the life cycle of fog with multiple, small RPAS. The instrumented RPAS flights have successfully observed the evolution of the boundary layer and dissipation of fog events. In addition, vertical profiles from the RPAS have been compared with Météo France forecast models, and the results suggest that forecast models may be improved using high resolution and frequent in-situ measurements. Within the VOLTIGE project, a flying-wing RPAS with four control surfaces was developed to separate elevator and aileron controls in order to reduce the pitch angle envelope and improve turbulence and albedo measurements. The result leads to a small RPAS with the capability of flying up to two hours with 150 grams of payload, while keeping the hand-launch capability as a constraint for regular atmospheric research missions. High frequency data logging has been integrated into the main autopilot in order to synchronize navigation and payload measurements, as well as allowing an efficient sensor-based navigation. The VOLTIGE program also encourages direct participation of students on the advancement of novel observing systems for atmospheric sciences, and provides a step towards deploying small RPAS in an operational network. VOLTIGE is funded by the Agence Nationale de Recherche (ANR-Blanc 2012) and supported by Aerospace

  3. Le défi de la recherche sur les médicaments et du traitement des enfants au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les enfants ont toujours été des « orphelins thérapeutiques ». De nombreux médicaments n’ont pas fait l’objet d’études auprès des enfants et des adolescents ou leur utilisation n’est pas autorisée officiellement auprès d’eux, ce qui crée un défi constant en matière d’élaboration et de définition de pharmacothérapies à la sécurité et l’efficacité optimales au sein du groupe d’âge pédiatrique. Depuis dix ans, des réseaux ont germé aux États-Unis et en Europe afin d’accroître la recherche sur les médicaments dans ce groupe, mais aucune évolution comparable ne s’observe au Canada. Le présent document de principes expose le contexte de la situation canadienne et contient des recommandations qui tiennent compte de deux besoins pressants : plus de recherches sur les médicaments axées sur les enfants et les adolescents canadiens, y compris un financement dédié à de telles recherches, et plus d’effectifs pour mener des études ciblées. Ces initiatives devraient être entreprises en collaboration, sur les scènes nationale et internationale, et inclure des démarches stratégiques et novatrices afin de régler les problèmes et enjeux éthiques uniques que présente la recherche sur les médicaments au sein de cette population.

  4. Vigie Ciel a collaborative project to study fireballs and organise meteorite recoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Lewin, E.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Rotaru, M.; Labenne, L.; Julien, J. F.; Linares, M.; Steinhausser, A.; Rault, J. L.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-10-01

    Research on fireballs and meteorites has always been of interest to the public, due to the beauty of shooting stars in the night sky and to the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. A fireball observation network called FRIPON [1] (Colas et al, 2015) is currently being setup, funded by ANR (Agence Nationale pour la Recherche). It will cover France with 100 cameras and is expected to be operational for the end of 2015. FRIPON will detect fireballs and hence allow us to define meteorite strewn fields within 24h, so that meteorite searches can be launched very early on. Because of the need to search all over France, including in private land, it is important that the general public be aware of our project and be willing to help or participate. Indeed, as the main goal of FRIPON is to recover fresh meteorites (within a few days), our aim is to be able to organize a search with at least 50 persons to scan an area of a few km2 within a week. Help from the public would hence be most helpful but it is also important to have an operational and trained research team. This project thus appears as a unique occasion to involve the public in a scientific project while promoting informal scientific education. This prompted us to set up Vigie-Ciel, a citizen science network centered on meteorite recovery. FRIPON is an open network based on open-source software, it will accept citizenrun cameras. In addition to fireballs, it will allow scientists and Vigie-Ciel participants to study anything that can be observed by all-sky cameras: bird migrations, bats, clouds, lightning, etc. The data will be freely available to all.

  5. Hailstorm forecast from stability indexes in Southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; Dessens, Jean; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Berthet, Claude; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting hailstorms is a difficult task because of their small spatial and temporal scales. Over recent decades, stability indexes have been commonly used in operational forecasting to provide a simplified representation of different thermodynamic characteristics of the atmosphere, regarding the onset of convective events. However, they are estimated from vertical profiles obtained by radiosondes, which are usually available only twice a day and have limited spatial representativeness. Numerical models predictions can be used to overcome these drawbacks, providing vertical profiles with higher spatiotemporal resolution. The main objective of this study is to create a tool for hail prediction in the southwest of France, one of the European regions where hailstorms have a higher incidence. The Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA) maintains there a dense hailpad network in continuous operation, which has created an extensive database of hail events, used in this study as ground truth. The new technique is aimed to classify the spatial distribution of different stability indexes on hail days. These indexes were calculated from vertical profiles at 1200 UTC provided by WRF numerical model, validated with radiosonde data from Bordeaux. Binary logistic regression is used to select those indexes that best represent thermodynamic conditions related to occurrence of hail in the zone. Then, they are combined in a single algorithm that surpassed the predictive power they have when used independently. Regression equation results in hail days are used in cluster analysis to identify different spatial patterns given by the probability algorithm. This new tool can be used in operational forecasting, in combination with synoptic and mesoscale techniques, to properly define hail probability and distribution. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the CEPA González Díez Foundation and the University of Leon for its

  6. The Teen Science Café Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Teen Cafè' phenomenon grew out of an NSF-funded experiment to bring the Cafè Scientifique model for engagement of the public with science and scientists to high school teenagers. Cafè Scientifique New Mexico (cafènm.org), now in its seventh year, has proven highly popular with high school teens for much the same reason as for adult Cafè programs: the blend of socializing in an attractive venue and interaction with a scientist on an interesting science topic. Teen Cafés also include exploration of the topic with hands-on activities. The success of the model has led to the creation of the national Teen Science Cafè Network (teensciencecafe.org. This first year of the new program, four 'Founding Members' of the Network-- in Florida, Colorado, North Carolina, and the St. Louis, Missouri region--started up Teen Cafè programs. Each applied the model with a unique flair appropriate to local institutions and demographics. Each Member in the Network runs Cafès in multiple local venues. We are now gearing up for our second year, and the Network is growing. Our Teen Cafè topics have covered a very wide range, from belly-button biodiversity to cyber-security to patterns of mega-earthquakes to a day in the life of a teen dolphin to corals on acid to emergency room medicine to alternative fuel cars. Presenters have come from a great variety of local institutions. Though they are popular with teens because they are fun and interesting, our evaluations have demonstrated that the programs are having a significant impact on participating teens' understanding of the nature of science, the work that scientists do, and the importance of science to their daily lives. We are also having success in training scientists to communicate effectively with this public audience. Presenters report strong satisfaction with their resulting quality of science communication. A surprising number have reported that their experience with the program has led them to think in a new way about

  7. Obscured and powerful AGN and starburst activities at z ~ 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polletta, M.; Omont, A.; Berta, S.; Bergeron, J.; Stalin, C. S.; Petitjean, P.; Giorgetti, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Srianand, R.; McCracken, H. J.; Pei, Y.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2008-12-01

    vicinity of the nucleus. Evidence of moderate, AGN-driven radio activity is also found in both sources. Based on the estimated stellar and black hole masses, the two sources lie on the local M_BH{-}M_bulge relation. To remain on this relation as they evolve, their star formation rate has to decrease or stop. Our results support evolutionary models that invoke radio feedback such as the star formation quenching mechanism, and suggest that such a mechanism might play a major role also in powerful AGNs. This paper makes use of observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO program No. 079.A-0522(A), and at the IRAM 30 m-Telescope. IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain). Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  8. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozelot, J.-P.; Bijaoui, A.

    2002-03-01

    Ce livre reprend pour l'essentiel des cours qui ont été dispensées lors de deux Écoles thématiques réalisées avec le concours du CNRS. La première fait partie du cycle des Écoles d'Astrophysique Solaire d'Oléron (F), dont le succès est grandissant dans la communauté concernée. La seconde s'est tenue spécifiquement à La Grande Motte près de Montpellier (F). L'objectif de ces Écoles, qui se sont tenues à une année d'intervalle, était de donner aux chercheurs concernés, qu'ils soient du secteur des Sciences de l'Univers ou de celui des Sciences pour l'Ingénieur, une formation aux nouvelles méthodes d'analyses de données, afin de leur faire bien comprendre l'intérêt de ces nouveaux outils pour la résolution de leurs problèmes scientifiques. En effet, les chercheurs disposent d'une quantité de plus en plus grande d'informations obtenues grâce aux très nombreux observatoires spatiaux et au sol. Pour l'analyse de ces données, des logiciels complexes ont été mis au point et distribués dans les laboratoires. Grâce au réseau, chacun peut extraire d'une banque de données les signaux ou les images observées, les réduire avec des programmes disposant d'une documentation élaborée et obtenir des résultats scientifiques pertinents. Mais les chercheurs sont souvent limités dans leurs connaissances pour aborder les problèmes d'analyse des données, et ils sont perplexes devant le choix de l'algorithme a utiliser. L'analyse des données est une discipline vaste, ayant justement pour tâche de permettre l'extraction des informations pertinentes des observations. La formation à ces méthodes contemporaines, formation qui a été proposée et est relatée dans ce livre, permet à chacun de mieux concevoir sa stratégie d'analyse pour pouvoir ainsi choisir les programmes de manière judicieuse. Cet ouvrage, novateur, se veut d'offrir de nouvelles idées et d'ouvrir de nouvelles voies. Il est divisé en trois grandes parties qui permettent au

  9. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une étude de la portée des données empiriques, entre 1980 et 2009, concernant les soins primaires aux adultes victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LME). Sources des données Une recension dans des revues révisées par des pairs de1980 à 2009 à l’aide de CINAHL, PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts et Social Work Abstracts. Sélection des études La recherche électronique au moyen de mots-clés a permis de cerner 42 articles sur les soins primaires et les LME. Des critères d’inclusion ont servi à réduire la liste à un ensemble de 21 articles publiés en anglais qui portaient sur un échantillon de plus de 3 et présentaient une analyse empirique. Synthèse Environ 90 % des personnes atteintes d’une LME ont identifié leur médecin de famille comme étant leur docteur habituel; 63 % avaient un spécialiste des LME. Les personnes vivant à long terme avec une LME développent des rubriques complexes pour naviguer dans leurs systèmes de soins de santé personnels. Les données scientifiques ne sont pas unanimes quant à l’efficacité des programmes d’intervention directe pour le maintien de la santé et la prévention des complications à la suite d’une LME. Les données appuient cependant le suivi périodique par une équipe spécialisée et un bilan de santé annuel complet. La recherche fait valoir un fort degré d’uniformité dans l’identification des problèmes les plus courants soulevés par les personnes atteintes d’une LME en soins primaires, dont la plupart concernent l’incapacité, plus précisément les complications secondaires, comme la dysfonction intestinale ou vésicale et la douleur. Il existe aussi de bonnes données probantes à l’effet que de nombreux problèmes de santé généraux exigent de l’attention dans une telle population, comme les problèmes de la densité osseuse, la dépression et les questions entourant la santé sexuelle et la reproduction. Il y a

  10. Crosstalk: public cafés as places for knowledge translation concerning health care research.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Jule, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of public cafés as a model for knowledge translation and community engagement. We base our discussion on a public café series organized around the theme of access to health care and held in three neighborhoods in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The cafés were part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Café Scientifique program. Our purposes for this series of cafés were threefold: (a) to provide a site of communication to connect research with members of the public, (b) to build a network among participants based on common connections to the local community, and (c) to explore through discussion how gendered and raced perspectives concerning access to health care may influence the lived experiences of Canadians today. We intended to promote an intergroup conversation, based on the assumption that people of First Nations descent, newcomers to Canada (whether through immigration or resettlement), and settlers (such as Euro-Canadians) would all benefit from hearing each other's perspectives on access to health care, as well as presentations by invited academics about their research on access to health care. A form of "crosstalk" emerged in the cafés, mediated by gender and ethnicity, where social differences and geographical distances between various groups were not easily bridged, and yet where opportunity was created for inclusive dialogic spaces. We conclude that knowledge translation is not easily accomplished with the café format, at least not with the type of critical knowledge we were aiming to translate and the depth of engagement we were hoping for. Our experiences highlighted three strategies that facilitate knowledge translation: relationships and shared goals; involvement of policymakers and decision makers; and tending to social relations of power. PMID:24992638

  11. [The international man-media Tessékéré (OHMi) Observatory: a research tool to study the complexity of arid ecosystems in Sahel].

    PubMed

    Guissé, Aliou; Boëtsch, Gilles; Ducourneau, Axel; Goffner, Deborah; Gueye, Lamine

    2013-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems. PMID:23916202

  12. The Pulsar/White Dwarf/Planet System in M4: Improved Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Harvey B.; Ibata, Rodrigo; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Huber, Mark

    2003-11-01

    A young and undermassive white dwarf has been identified as the possible companion to the millisecond pulsar PSR B1620-26 in M4. This association is important since it then helps constrain the mass of the third body in the system to be of order a few times that of Jupiter. The presence of this planet in M4 has critical implications for planetary formation mechanisms in metal-poor environments such as globular clusters and the early universe. The identification of the white dwarf is purely via the agreement in position between it and the pulsar and was limited by the accuracy of the pointing of the H ubble Space T elescope, which is +/-0.7". We have redetermined the position of the white dwarf using ground-based data tied to the USNO-B1.0 catalog and find that the pulsar and white dwarf are now coincident to within 0.12"+/-0.13", further strengthening the case for an association between the two. We have also attempted to improve the proper-motion measurement of the white dwarf by a maximum likelihood analysis of the stellar positions measured over a baseline of 5 years. While the errors are reduced by almost a factor of 6 from our previous work, we still have not resolved the cluster's intrinsic dispersion in proper motion. Thus, the proper motion of the white dwarf with respect to the cluster itself is still not known, although it is very small and is within 2 σ of that of the cluster's internal dispersion. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  13. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P < 0.05). The percentage increase during hibernation was more in free cholesterol (57%) than in esterified cholesterol (27%). Analysis of subclasses of serum phospholipids showed that choline containing phospholipids, i.e., sphingomyelin (SPG) (14%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (76%), are the major phospholipids in the serum of bear. The minor phospholipids included 8% of phosphatidylserine (PS) + phosphatidylinositol (PI), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was only 2% of the total phospholipids. A comparison of phospholipid subclasses showed that PC, PS + PI and SPG were significantly increased, while PE was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the hibernating state as compared with the active state in black bears. These results suggest that the catabolism of phospholipids and cholesterol is decreased during hibernation in black bears, leading to their increased levels in the hibernating state as compared with the active state. In summary, our results indicate that serum cholesterol and phospholipid fractions (except PE) are increased during hibernation in bears. It is proposed that the increase of these lipids may be due to the altered metabolism of lipoproteins that are responsible for the clearance of the lipids. ?? 2002 E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS and Socie??te?? franc??aise de biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  14. European Virtual Atomic And Molecular Data Center - VAMDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Sahal-Brechot, S.; Kovacevic, A.; Jevremovic, D.; Popovic, L. C.

    2010-07-01

    Reliable atomic and molecular data are of great importance for different applications in astrophysics, atmospheric physics, fusion, environmental sciences, combustion chemistry, and in industrial applications from plasmas and lasers to lighting. Currently, very important resources of such data are highly fragmented, presented in different, nonstandardized ways, available through a variety of highly specialized and often poorly documented interfaces, so that the full exploitation of all their scientific worth is limited, hindering research in many topics like e.g. the characterization of extrasolar planets, understanding the chemistry of our local solar system and of the wider universe, the study of the terrestrial atmosphere and quantification of climate change; the development of the fusion rersearch, etc. The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (http://www.vamdc.eu, VAMDC) is an European Union funded FP7 project aiming to build a secure, documented, flexible and interoperable e-science environment-based interface to existing atomic and molecular data. It will also provide a forum for training potential users and dissemination of expertise worldwide. Partners in the Consortium of the Project are: 1) Centre National de Recherche Scientifique - CNRS (Paris, Reims, Grenoble, Bordeaux, Dijon, Toulouse); 2) The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Cambridge - CMSUC; 3) University College London - UCL; 4) Open University - OU; (Milton Keynes, England); 5) Universitaet Wien - UNIVIE; 6) Uppsala Universitet - UU; 7) Universitaet zu Koeln - KOLN; 8) Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - INAF (Catania, Cagliari); 9) Queen's University Belfast - QUB; 10) Astronomska Opservatorija - AOB (Belgrade, Serbia); 11) Institute of Spectroscopy RAS - ISRAN (Troitsk, Russia); 12) Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Institute of Technical Physics - RFNC-VNIITF (Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia; 13) Institute of Atmospheric Optics - IAO (Tomsk, Russia

  15. Testing the chemical tagging technique with open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.; Asplund, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Feltzing, S.; González-Hernández, J. I.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Korn, A. J.; Marino, A. F.; Montes, D.; San Roman, I.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tautvaišienė, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today. Aims: The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound. Methods: Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach allows us to evaluate the viability and efficiency of the chemical tagging technique. Results: We found that stars at different evolutionary stages have distinct chemical patterns that may be due to NLTE effects, atomic diffusion, mixing, and biases. When separating stars into dwarfs and giants, we observed that a few open clusters show distinct chemical signatures while the majority show a high degree of overlap. This limits the recovery of co-natal aggregates by applying the chemical tagging technique. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement if more elements are included and models are improved. Based on observations obtained at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and on public data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under requests number 81252 and 81618.

  16. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.

  17. Homogeneous spectroscopic parameters for bright planet host stars from the northern hemisphere . The impact on stellar and planetary mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Mortier, A.; Tsantaki, M.; Adibekyan, V.; Delgado Mena, E.; Israelian, G.; Rojas-Ayala, B.; Neves, V.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: In this work we derive new precise and homogeneous parameters for 37 stars with planets. For this purpose, we analyze high resolution spectra obtained by the NARVAL spectrograph for a sample composed of bright planet host stars in the northern hemisphere. The new parameters are included in the SWEET-Cat online catalogue. Methods: To ensure that the catalogue is homogeneous, we use our standard spectroscopic analysis procedure, ARES+MOOG, to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. These spectroscopic stellar parameters are then used as input to compute the stellar mass and radius, which are fundamental for the derivation of the planetary mass and radius. Results: We show that the spectroscopic parameters, masses, and radii are generally in good agreement with the values available in online databases of exoplanets. There are some exceptions, especially for the evolved stars. These are analyzed in detail focusing on the effect of the stellar mass on the derived planetary mass. Conclusions: We conclude that the stellar mass estimations for giant stars should be managed with extreme caution when using them to compute the planetary masses. We report examples within this sample where the differences in planetary mass can be as high as 100% in the most extreme cases. Based on observations obtained at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées and the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France (Run ID L131N11 - OPTICON_2013A_027).

  18. Art & Astronomie - impressions celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2015-10-01

    Ce livre revisite l'histoire de l'art dans ce qu'elle a de plus universel : son rapport au ciel. De l'Orient à l'Occident, de l'Antiquité à l'époque contemporaine, du classique au plus inattendu, il crée un espace singulier où se mêlent art et science, un musée imaginaire croisant sensibilité intime et compréhension du Cosmos, un jeu sans cesse réinventé...; car il n'y a pas une seule manière de regarder les étoiles. Bien sûr, le ciel possède un énorme pouvoir évocateur, une force inspiratrice à nulle autre pareille, mais l'inspiration n'est pas la seule des relations entre l'art et l'astronomie. En effet, les artistes peuvent apporter leur grain de sel aux révolutions scientifiques, tandis que l'astronomie peut aider à comprendre certaines œuvres. Avec près de 600 illustrations, cet ouvrage n'a pas pour but d'égrener la liste exhaustive des représentations de ciel étoilé, clair de lune, ambiance crépusculaire ou soleil de midi, mais plutôt d'aborder les multiples relations entre l'art et la science. Il s'agit d'une invitation à un voyage aux frontières mouvantes et incertaines des plus belles réalisations de l'esprit humain.

  19. The magnetic field of the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae star HD 190073

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala, C.; Alecian, E.; Donati, J.-F.; Wade, G. A.; Landstreet, J. D.; Böhm, T.; Bouret, J.-C.; Bagnulo, S.; Folsom, C.; Silvester, J.

    2007-01-01

    Context: The general context of this paper is the study of magnetic fields in the pre-main sequence intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars. Magnetic fields are likely to play an important role in pre-main sequence evolution at these masses, in particular in controlling the gains and losses of stellar angular momentum. Aims: The particular aim of this paper is to announce the detection of a structured magnetic field in the Herbig Ae star HD 190073, and to discuss various scenarii for the geometry of the star, its environment and its magnetic field. Methods: We have used the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at CFHT in 2005 and 2006 to obtain high-resolution, high signal-to-noise circular polarization spectra which demonstrate unambiguously the presence of a magnetic field in the photosphere of this star. Results: Nine circular polarization spectra were obtained, each one showing a clear Zeeman signature. This signature is suggestive of a magnetic field structured on large scales. The signature, which corresponds to a longitudinal magnetic field of 74± 10 G, does not vary detectably on a one-year timeframe, indicating either an azimuthally symmetric field, a zero inclination angle between the rotation axis and the line of sight, or a very long rotation period. The optical spectrum of HD 190073 exhibits a large number of emission lines. We discuss the formation of these emission lines in the framework of a model involving a turbulent heated region at the base of the stellar wind, possibly powered by magnetic accretion. Conclusions: .This magnetic detection contributes an important new observational discovery which will aid our understanding of stellar magnetism at intermediate masses. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, S.; Naseem, S.; Ishaq, A.; Maaza, M.; Bhatti, M. T.; Wan, D.

    2016-04-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H+ ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H+ ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H+ ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H+ ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H+ ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H+ ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. Project supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the French Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, iThemba-LABS, the UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), the Abdus Salam ICTP via the Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

  1. Near-infrared Thermal Emission Detections of a Number of Hot Jupiters and the Systematics of Ground-based Near-infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Jayawardhana, Ray; Cushing, Michael; Moutou, Claire; Lafreniere, David; Johnson, John Asher; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Deleuil, Magali; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K CONT-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  2. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Maai, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-11-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundaç ao de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  3. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  4. Submillimeter Galaxies at z ~ 2: Evidence for Major Mergers and Constraints on Lifetimes, IMF, and CO-H2 Conversion Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Smail, I.; Neri, R.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Cox, P.; Omont, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Greve, T.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genel, S.; Lutz, D.; Swinbank, A. M.; Shapley, A. E.; Erb, D. K.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Baker, A. J.

    2008-06-01

    We report subarcsecond resolution IRAM PdBI millimeter CO interferometry of four z ~ 2 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), and sensitive CO(3-2) flux limits toward three z ~ 2 UV/optically selected star-forming galaxies. The new data reveal for the first time spatially resolved CO gas kinematics in the observed SMGs. Two of the SMGs show double or multiple morphologies, with complex, disturbed gas motions. The other two SMGs exhibit CO velocity gradients of ~500 km s-1 across <=0.2'' (1.6 kpc) diameter regions, suggesting that the star-forming gas is in compact, rotating disks. Our data provide compelling evidence that these SMGs represent extreme, short-lived "maximum" star-forming events in highly dissipative mergers of gas-rich galaxies. The resulting high-mass surface and volume densities of SMGs are similar to those of compact quiescent galaxies in the same redshift range and much higher than those in local spheroids. From the ratio of the comoving volume densities of SMGs and quiescent galaxies in the same mass and redshift ranges, and from the comparison of gas exhaustion timescales and stellar ages, we estimate that the SMG phase duration is about 100 Myr. Our analysis of SMGs and optically/UV selected high-redshift star-forming galaxies supports a "universal" Chabrier IMF as being valid over the star-forming history of these galaxies. We find that the 12CO luminosity to total gas mass conversion factors at z ~ 2-3 are probably similar to those assumed at z ~ 0. The implied gas fractions in our sample galaxies range from 20% to 50%. Based on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  5. The BNM-LPTF software for the frequency comparison of atomic clocks by the carrier phase of the GPS signal.

    PubMed

    Taris, F; Uhrich, P; Petit, G; Jiang, Z; Barillet, R; Hamouda, F

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the software and equipment used at the Laboratoire Primaire du Temps et des Frequences du Bureau National de Metrologie (BNM-LPTF), Paris, France. Two H-masers in short baseline, one located at the BNM-LPTF and the other at the Laboratoire de l'Horloge Atomique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-LHA), Orsay, France, were computed in parallel with the BNM-LPTF software and with the BERNESE V 4.1 software. The comparison of the results issued from both computations shows an agreement within 100 ps (1 sigma). In addition, comparisons with the BNM-LPTF software were made over 10 days with the H-masers located at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany, and another at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, United Kingdom. The data collected show that a modulation with an amplitude of 50 ps and a period of 700-800 ps affects the equipment of the NPL. In addition, these comparisons show that the noise of the instruments together with the environmental conditions at the PTB was higher than that of the NPL and the BNM-LPTF during the observation period. The best relative frequency stability obtained, in the BNM-LPTF/NPL comparison, is about 3x10(-15) for averaging periods between 6x10(4) s and 3x10(5) s. This result is in good agreement with the expected stability of H-masers. It demonstrates that the noise brought by the GPS carrier phase measurements can be averaged out at this level.

  6. A Burger, a Beer, and a Side of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehe, B. R.; Landsberg, R. H.; Wyatt, R. J.; Turner, M. S.

    2008-11-01

    Science cafés (a.k.a. café scientifiques) engage unconventional adult audiences and help researchers hone their communication skills in a relaxed and fun setting. Typically held in restaurants and pubs, science cafés provide a comfortable place for the public to speak with a scientist. National and local evaluations of the café format indicate that café are an effective way to engage adult audiences (especially non-scientists). Continued media coverage also demonstrates that something about them captures the public's imagination. This paper is based on an interactive oral presentation about organizing, presenting, and partnering with science café to bring IYA themes (and other current research) directly to new audiences. Real world examples from experienced café organizers and presenters provide an overview of what a science café is, how to start one, and how to use the format to draw attention to astronomy topics. The discussion includes suggestions for tapping into the existing national and international community of cafés (there are more than 60 in the U.S. alone), and information about free outreach resources. Break-out exercises in the original oral presentation were designed to help prepare participants to: find a suitable venue, advertise, work with café speakers, and foster the inclusive conversation that is the hallmark of a science café. Participants also learned about the impacts that can be expected from a science café, including benefits to audiences, café presenters, and hosting organizations. The overall goal of the original oral presentation was to stimulate a discussion about strategies for facilitating face-to-face communication between scientists and lay audiences.

  7. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). On the recovery of the count-in-cell probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Di Porto, C.; Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; de la Torre, S.; Marinoni, C.; Guzzo, L.; Moscardini, L.; Cappi, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2016-04-01

    We compare three methods to measure the count-in-cell probability density function of galaxies in a spectroscopic redshift survey. From this comparison we found that, when the sampling is low (the average number of object per cell is around unity), it is necessary to use a parametric method to model the galaxy distribution. We used a set of mock catalogues of VIPERS to verify if we were able to reconstruct the cell-count probability distribution once the observational strategy is applied. We find that, in the simulated catalogues, the probability distribution of galaxies is better represented by a Gamma expansion than a skewed log-normal distribution. Finally, we correct the cell-count probability distribution function from the angular selection effect of the VIMOS instrument and study the redshift and absolute magnitude dependency of the underlying galaxy density function in VIPERS from redshift 0.5 to 1.1. We found a very weak evolution of the probability density distribution function and that it is well approximated by a Gamma distribution, independently of the chosen tracers. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  8. The Rise Time of Type Ia Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.; Sullivan, M.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aubourg, E.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Filiol, M.; Le Borgne, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.

    2006-10-01

    We compare the rise times of nearby and distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as a test for evolution using 73 high-redshift spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia from the first 2 years of the 5 year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and published observations of nearby SNe. Because of the ``rolling'' search nature of the SNLS, our measurement is approximately 6 times more precise than previous studies, allowing for a more sensitive test of evolution between nearby and distant SNe. Adopting a simple t2 early-time model (as in previous studies), we find that the rest-frame B rise times for a fiducial SN Ia at high and low redshift are consistent, with values 19.10+0.18-0.17(stat)+/-0.2(syst) and 19.58+0.22-0.19 days, respectively; the statistical significance of this difference is only 1.4 σ. The errors represent the uncertainty in the mean rather than any variation between individual SNe. We also compare subsets of our high-redshift data set based on decline rate, host galaxy star formation rate, and redshift, finding no substantive evidence for any subsample dependence. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  9. Sharing is Winning: Cooperative Learning about Atmospheric Composition Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2010-09-01

    This contribution presents evolving good practice in disseminating the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists as established in ACCENT. The promotion of early-career scientists, and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues addressed by the "Training and Education" programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). Dissemination avenues include a virtual knowledge train carrying the wealth of high-quality scientific learning material developed with experts involved in the ACCENT network. Learning opportunities on current research in atmospheric composition change in Europe were also created during face-to-face training workshops. Real-life examples of pressing air quality issues were addressed in meetings with stakeholder groups that offered opportunities for mutual learning in inspiring partnerships. In order to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change across Europe, activities were organized with the general public (e.g., Café Scientifique), where the participating early-career scientists were confronted with questions from lay people. For interested teachers, didactic translations of compact overviews on air quality science topics developed in ACCENT offer links with the typical European science curriculum and go beyond school book content. Some of the educational events, methods and tools are described in a booklet published in 2009 ("We Care for Clean Air!", ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6). The electronic version and all training material can be downloaded from www.accent-network.org/portal/education - a valuable resource for teachers and learners around the globe.

  10. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  11. Gas Phase Absorption Spectroscopy of C+60 and C+70 in a Cryogenic Ion Trap: Comparison with Astronomical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.; Gerlich, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Bohlender, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent low-temperature laboratory measurements and astronomical observations have proved that the fullerene cation {{{C}}}60+ is responsible for four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). These absorptions correspond to the strongest bands of the lowest electronic transition. The gas phase spectrum below 10 {{K}} is reported here for the full wavelength range encompassed by the electronic transition. The absorption spectrum of {{{C}}}70+, with its origin band at 7959.2 {{\\mathringA }}, has been obtained under similar laboratory conditions. Observations made toward the reddened star {HD} 183143 were used in a specific search for the absorption of these fullerene cations in diffuse clouds. In the case of {{{C}}}60+, one further band in the astronomical spectrum at 9348.5 \\mathringA is identified, increasing the total number of assigned DIBs to five. Numerous other {{{C}}}60+ absorptions in the laboratory spectrum are found to lie below the astronomical detection limit. Special emphasis is placed on the laboratory determination of absolute absorption cross-sections. For {{{C}}}60+ this directly yields a column density, N({{{C}}}60+), of 2× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-2 in diffuse clouds, without the need to rely on theoretical oscillator strengths. The intensity of the {{{C}}}70+ electronic transition in the range 7000-8000 Å is spread over many features of similar strength. Absorption cross-section measurements indicate that even for a similar column density, the individual absorption bands of {{{C}}}70+ will be too weak to be detected in the astronomical spectra, which is confirmed giving an upper limit of 2 {{m\\mathringA }} to the equivalent width. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  12. Weak magnetic field, solid-envelope rotation, and wave-induced N-enrichment in the SPB star ζ Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briquet, M.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Leroy, B.; de Batz, B.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: The main-sequence B-type star ζ Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods: We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL; Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from ζ Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results: ζ Cas exhibits a polar field strength Bpol of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar field observed so far in a massive main-sequence star. Surface differential rotation is ruled out by our observations and the field of ζ Cas is strong enough to enforce rigid internal rotation in the radiative zone according to theory. Thus, the star rotates as a solid body in the envelope. Conclusions: We therefore exclude rotationally induced mixing as the cause of the surface N-enrichment. We discuss that the transport of chemicals from the core to the surface by internal gravity waves is the most plausible explanation for the nitrogen overabundance at the surface of ζ Cas. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France.

  13. Chemical profiling and classification of illicit heroin by principal component analysis, calculation of inter sample correlation and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Esseiva, Pierre; Anglada, Frederic; Dujourdy, Laurence; Taroni, Franco; Margot, Pierre; Pasquier, Eric Du; Dawson, Michael; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2005-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were utilised to validate illicit drug classification in the profiling method used at "Institut de Police Scientifique" of the University of Lausanne (IPS). This method established links between samples using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and calculation of a correlation value between samples. Heroin seizures sent to the IPS laboratory were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) to separate the major alkaloids present in illicit heroin. Statistical analysis was then performed on 3371 samples. Initially, PCA was performed as a preliminary screen to identify samples of a similar chemical profile. A correlation value was then calculated for each sample previously identified with PCA. This correlation value was used to determine links between drug samples. These links were then recorded in an Ibase((R)) database. From this database the notion of "chemical class" arises, where samples with similar chemical profiles are grouped together. Currently, about 20 "chemical classes" have been identified. The normalised peak areas of six target compounds were then used to train an ANN to classify each sample into its appropriate class. Four hundred and sixty-eight samples were used as a training data set. Sixty samples were treated as blinds and 370 as non-linked samples. The results show that in 96% of cases the neural network attributed the seizure to the right "chemical class". The application of a neural network was found to be a useful tool to validate the classification of new drug seizures in existing chemical classes. This tool should be increasingly used in such situations involving profile comparisons and classifications.

  14. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Compant La Fontaine, A.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} 2{ital nd} {ital Workshop} {ital on} {ital Separation} {ital Phenomena} {ital in} {ital Liquids} {ital and} {ital Gases}, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii {ital et} {ital al}., Plasma Phys. Rep. {bold 19}, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number {ital k}{sub {ital z}} is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the {ital k}{sub {ital z}} spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field {ital B}{sub 0}, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope {sup 44}Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Influence of Aeration and of Pantothenate on Growth Yields of Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Belaïch, Jean-Pierre; Senez, Jacques C.

    1965-01-01

    Belaïch, Jean-Pierre (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France), and Jacques C. Senez. Influence of aeration and of pantothenate on growth yields of Zymomonas mobilis. J. Bacteriol. 89:1195–1200. 1965.—The growth yields and rates of Zymomonas mobilis were measured in aerobic and anaerobic cultures on glucose medium containing yeast extract, amino acids, or ammonium chloride as the nitrogen source. In the absence of yeast extract, pantothenate was required. The growth yield and rate of the cultures in synthetic (amino acids) or minimal (NH4Cl) medium supplemented with pantothenate corresponded only to about one-half the “normal” values obtained in the presence of yeast extract, suggesting a situation of energetically uncoupled growth. Attempts to restore normal growth by the addition of various compounds were unsuccessful. Aeration of the cultures resulted in a partial oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetate, but did not modify the growth yield nor the division time. Both aerobic and anaerobic cells, however, contained cytochrome c and a cytochrome oxidase of the a2 type, which was completely inhibited by 10−4m cyanide. In anaerobically grown cells, an additional cytochrome of the b type was present. The absence of a Pasteur effect suggests that the transfer of electrons by the respiratory chain of Z. mobilis may not be coupled with oxidative phosphorylation. Aeration had no effect on the catalase content of the cells. As shown by C14-glucose incorporation, 2 to 3% of the glucose metabolized was assimilated by the cells in both synthetic and rich complex medium. No intracellular glycogen nor poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was accumulated when growth was limited by nitrogen or by phosphate in the presence of excess glucose. PMID:14292985

  16. The matter distribution in z ~ 0.5 redshift clusters of galaxies. II. The link between dark and visible matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucail, G.; Foëx, G.; Pointecouteau, E.; Arnaud, M.; Limousin, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present an optical analysis of a sample of 11 clusters built from the EXCPRES sample of X-ray selected clusters at intermediate redshift (z ~ 0.5). With a careful selection of the background galaxies, we provide the mass maps reconstructed from the weak lensing by the clusters. We compare them with the light distribution traced by the early-type galaxies selected along the red sequence for each cluster. The strong correlations between dark matter and galaxy distributions are confirmed, although some discrepancies arise, mostly for merging or perturbed clusters. The average M/L ratio of the clusters is found to be M/Lr = 160 ± 60 in solar units (with no evolutionary correction), in excellent agreement with similar previous studies. No strong evolutionary effects are identified, although the small sample size reduces the significance of the result. We also provide a individual analysis of each cluster in the sample with a comparison between the dark matter, the galaxies, and the gas distributions. Some of the clusters are studied in the optical for the first time. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgBased on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This research also used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency. Also based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  17. [The international man-media Tessékéré (OHMi) Observatory: a research tool to study the complexity of arid ecosystems in Sahel].

    PubMed

    Guissé, Aliou; Boëtsch, Gilles; Ducourneau, Axel; Goffner, Deborah; Gueye, Lamine

    2013-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.

  18. First Zeeman Doppler Imaging of a Cool Star Using all Four Stokes Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in active cool stars, but they are in general complex and weak. Current Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) studies of cool star magnetic fields chiefly employ circular polarization observations because linear polarization is difficult to detect and requires a more sophisticated radiative transfer modeling to interpret. But it has been shown in previous theoretical studies, and in the observational analyses of magnetic Ap stars, that including linear polarization in the magnetic inversion process makes it possible to correctly recover many otherwise lost or misinterpreted magnetic features. We have obtained phase-resolved observations in all four Stokes parameters of the RS CVn star II Peg at two separate epochs. Here we present temperature and magnetic field maps reconstructed for this star using all four Stokes parameters. This is the very first such ZDI study of a cool active star. Our magnetic inversions reveal a highly structured magnetic field topology for both epochs. The strength of some surface features is doubled or even quadrupled when linear polarization is taken into account. The total magnetic energy of the reconstructed field map also becomes about 2.1-3.5 times higher. The overall complexity is also increased as the field energy is shifted toward higher harmonic modes when four Stokes parameters are used. As a consequence, the potential field extrapolation of the four Stokes parameter ZDI results indicates that magnetic field becomes weaker at a distance of several stellar radii due to a decrease of the large-scale field component. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  19. A 10-h period revealed in optical spectra of the highly variable WN8 Wolf-Rayet star WR 123

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chené, A.-N.; Foellmi, C.; Marchenko, S. V.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Ballereau, D.; Chauville, J.; Zorec, J.; Poteet, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: What is the origin of the large-amplitude variability in Wolf-Rayet WN8 stars in general and WR123 in particular? A dedicated spectroscopic campaign targets the ten-hour period previously found in the high-precision photometric data obtained by the MOST satellite. Methods: In June-August 2003 we obtained a series of high signal-to-noise, mid-resolution spectra from several sites in the λλ 4000-6940 Å domain. We also followed the star with occasional broadband (Johnson V) photometry. The acquired spectroscopy allowed a detailed study of spectral variability on timescales from ~5 min to months. Results: We find that all observed spectral lines of a given chemical element tend to show similar variations and that there is a good correlation between the lines of different elements, without any significant time delays, save the strong absorption components of the Hei lines, which tend to vary differently from the emission parts. We find a single sustained periodicity, P ~ 9.8 h, which is likely related to the relatively stable pulsations found in MOST photometry obtained one year later. In addition, seemingly stochastic, large-amplitude variations are also seen in all spectral lines on timescales of several hours to several days. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Concil of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based also on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory, under programme ID 271.D-5025.Photometric data presented in Fig. 1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/530/A151

  20. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Le Dr Charles Zeanah est titulaire de la chaire de psychiatrie Mary K. Sellars-Polchow, professeur de pédiatrie clinique et vice-président de la pédopsychiatrie au département de psychiatrie et des sciences du comportement de la faculté de médecine de l’Université Tulane, à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Il est également directeur général de l’institut de la santé mentale des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants de Tulane. Il est récipiendaire de nombreux prix, notamment le prix de prévention Irving Phillips (AACAP), la mention élogieuse présidentielle pour sa recherche et son leadership exceptionnels en santé mentale des nourrissons (American Orthopsychiatric Association), le prix d’excellence clinique Sarah Haley Memorial (International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies), le prix de recherche en pédopsychiatrie Blanche F. Ittelson (APA), et le prix Serge Lebovici Award soulignant les contributions internationales à la santé mentale des nourrissons (World Association for Infant Mental Health). Le Dr Zeanah est fellow distingué de l’AACAP, fellow distingué de l’APA et membre du conseil d’administration de Zero to Three. Il est l’éditeur scientifique de Handbook of Infant Mental Health (3e édition) qui est considéré comme étant le manuel de pointe et la référence de base du domaine de la santé mentale des nourrissons.

  1. Effect of Feeding On The Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Composition In The Tissues and Skeleton of The Zooxanthellate Coral Stylophora Pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud-Vaganay, S.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Sambrotto, R.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Jaubert, J.

    and J.-P. Gattuso4 1Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint Martin, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco 2Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W/ P.O. Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964 U.S.A 3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Laboratoire mixte CNRS- CEA, F-91180 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France 4Observatoire Océanologique, Laboratoire d'Océanographie, CNRS-UPMC, BP 28, F- 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex, France The effect of feeding on the carbon isotopic composition of zooxanthellae, animal tissue and skeleton was investigated in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Two sets of corals were grown with filtered seawater under controlled conditions. One group of colonies was fed with Artemia nauplii and compared to a control group that was starved. Fed corals exhibited higher concentrations of chlorophyll protein calcification rates than starved colonies. The net photosynthetic rate was higher in starved than in fed corals, whereas dark respiration was not significantly different. The average ? C value of Artemia nauplii used for feeding was -12. ? C was 13 13 significantly heavier in zooxanthellae than in animal tissues, for both fed (-10.1vs. -11.7) and starved colonies (-10.9vs. -13.2). Isotopic data reflected the incorporation of Artemia carbon into the coral tissue in that the ? C was 13 significantly heavier in fed than in starved colonies (-11.7 to -13.2 respectively), although there was no difference in the ? C of the zooxanthellae fraction. Skeletal 13 ? C was similar in fed and starved colonies (mean = -4.6). Skeletal ? O 13 18 composition was, however, significantly different between the two treatments (-4.24 to -4.05 for fed and starved colonies respectively). These data are used to establish a conceptual model of the carbon flow between the various compartments of a symbiotic coral.

  2. Spectroscopy of brown dwarf candidates in IC 348 and the determination of its substellar IMF down to planetary masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Duchêne, G.; Bouy, H.; Maschberger, T.; Hudelot, P.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Brown dwarfs represent a sizable fraction of the stellar content of our Galaxy and populate the transition between the stellar and planetary mass regime. There is, however, no agreement on the processes responsible for their formation. Aims: We have conducted a large survey of the young, nearby cluster IC 348, to uncover its low-mass brown dwarf population and have studied the cluster properties in the substellar regime. Methods: Deep optical and near-IR images taken with MegaCam and WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) were used to select photometric candidate members. A spectroscopic follow-up of a large fraction of the candidates was conducted to assess their youth and membership. Results: We confirmed spectroscopically 16 new members of the IC 348 cluster, including 13 brown dwarfs, contributing significantly to the substellar census of the cluster, where only 30 brown dwarfs were previously known. Five of the new members have a L0 spectral type, the latest-type objects found to date in this cluster. At 3 Myr, evolutionary models estimate these brown dwarfs to have a mass of ~13 MJup. Combining the new members with previous census of the cluster, we constructed the initial mass function (IMF) complete down to 13 MJup. Conclusions: The IMF of IC 348 is well fitted by a log-normal function and we do not see evidence for variations of the mass function down to planetary masses when compared to other young clusters. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, and MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  3. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  4. Meeting IYA Goals for Diverse Science Center and Planetarium Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols Yehling, Michelle; Carney, K.

    2008-05-01

    The International Year of Astronomy provides the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, IL with a chance to bring astronomy into the greater Chicagoland area. 1) The presenters will outline Adler's program plans to date, from community outreach programs such as Café Scientifique and citizen science light pollution observations, to programs within the institution, like a temporary exhibit about how telescopes have shaped our understanding of the cosmos. The presenters will focus on the range of programming and how this suite of programs brings together IYA topical threads, addressing sustainability and the needs of our audiences. 2) How do we know that the IYA programs we design actually work for our audiences? How do we assess and improve our work? This session will introduce participants to the "backwards design” process through which Adler educators create experiences that begin with focused goals. Facilitators will take participants through the Adler's evaluation planning method that uncovers what we want to know about our educational programs and experiences. Tools for program design and evaluation will be shared. 3) Facilitators will present for discussion three activities that have been designed and evaluated for one of our audiences, the museum-going family. Workshop participants are invited to critique and discuss these activities, their rationale, their fit with identified audience and institutional needs, and IYA thematic strands. Participants will share any ideas they have for adaptation of these activities for other audiences in their own settings. 4) Finally, all of the educational design and evaluation tools, program descriptions, and lesson plans will be compiled into an electronic document. Participants are encouraged to bring program description examples and/or activity lesson plans that can be incorporated into the document to provide an IYA "workbook". This workbook will be sent to all interested session participants by no later than July 31, 2008.

  5. Evidence for an Accretion Origin for the Outer Halo Globular Cluster System of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Irwin, M. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A. W.; Ibata, R. A.; Chapman, S. C.; Lewis, G. F.

    2010-07-01

    We use a sample of newly discovered globular clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) in combination with previously cataloged objects to map the spatial distribution of globular clusters in the M31 halo. At projected radii beyond ≈30 kpc, where large coherent stellar streams are readily distinguished in the field, there is a striking correlation between these features and the positions of the globular clusters. Adopting a simple Monte Carlo approach, we test the significance of this association by computing the probability that it could be due to the chance alignment of globular clusters smoothly distributed in the M31 halo. We find that the likelihood of this possibility is low, below 1%, and conclude that the observed spatial coincidence between globular clusters and multiple tidal debris streams in the outer halo of M31 reflects a genuine physical association. Our results imply that the majority of the remote globular cluster system of M31 has been assembled as a consequence of the accretion of cluster-bearing satellite galaxies. This constitutes the most direct evidence to date that the outer halo globular cluster populations in some galaxies are largely accreted. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  6. Density Variations in the NW Star Stream of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Richer, Harvey B.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Chapman, Scott; Fardal, Mark; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Lewis, G. F.; Navarro, Julio F.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Valls-Gabaud, David

    2011-04-01

    The Pan Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS) CFHT Megaprime survey of the M31-M33 system has found a star stream which extends about 120 kpc NW from the center of M31. The great length of the stream, and the likelihood that it does not significantly intersect the disk of M31, means that it is unusually well suited for a measurement of stream gaps and clumps along its length as a test for the predicted thousands of dark matter sub-halos. The main result of this paper is that the density of the stream varies between zero and about three times the mean along its length on scales of 2-20 kpc. The probability that the variations are random fluctuations in the star density is less than 10-5. As a control sample, we search for density variations at precisely the same location in stars with metallicity higher than the stream [Fe/H] = [0, -0.5] and find no variations above the expected shot noise. The lumpiness of the stream is not compatible with a low mass star stream in a smooth galactic potential, nor is it readily compatible with the disturbance caused by the visible M31 satellite galaxies. The stream's density variations appear to be consistent with the effects of a large population of steep mass function dark matter sub-halos, such as found in LCDM simulations, acting on an approximately 10 Gyr old star stream. The effects of a single set of halo substructure realizations are shown for illustration, reserving a statistical comparison for another study. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime / MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  7. Crosstalk: public cafés as places for knowledge translation concerning health care research.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Jule, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of public cafés as a model for knowledge translation and community engagement. We base our discussion on a public café series organized around the theme of access to health care and held in three neighborhoods in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The cafés were part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Café Scientifique program. Our purposes for this series of cafés were threefold: (a) to provide a site of communication to connect research with members of the public, (b) to build a network among participants based on common connections to the local community, and (c) to explore through discussion how gendered and raced perspectives concerning access to health care may influence the lived experiences of Canadians today. We intended to promote an intergroup conversation, based on the assumption that people of First Nations descent, newcomers to Canada (whether through immigration or resettlement), and settlers (such as Euro-Canadians) would all benefit from hearing each other's perspectives on access to health care, as well as presentations by invited academics about their research on access to health care. A form of "crosstalk" emerged in the cafés, mediated by gender and ethnicity, where social differences and geographical distances between various groups were not easily bridged, and yet where opportunity was created for inclusive dialogic spaces. We conclude that knowledge translation is not easily accomplished with the café format, at least not with the type of critical knowledge we were aiming to translate and the depth of engagement we were hoping for. Our experiences highlighted three strategies that facilitate knowledge translation: relationships and shared goals; involvement of policymakers and decision makers; and tending to social relations of power.

  8. Vertical abundance stratification in the blue horizontal branch star HD 135485

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalack, V. R.; Leblanc, F.; Bohlender, D.; Wade, G. A.; Behr, B. B.

    2007-05-01

    Context: It is commonly believed that the observed overabundances of many chemical species relative to the expected cluster metallicity in blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars appear as a result of atomic diffusion in the photosphere. The slow rotation of BHB stars (with T_eff > 11 500 K), typically v sin{i} < 10 km s-1, is consistent with this idea. Aims: In this work we search for observational evidence of vertical chemical stratification in the atmosphere of HD 135485. If this evidence exists, it will demonstrate the importance of atomic diffusion processes in the atmospheres of BHB stars. Methods: We undertake an extensive abundance stratification analysis of the atmosphere of HD 135485, based on recently acquired high resolution and S/N CFHT ESPaDOnS spectra and a McDonald-CE spectrum. Results: Our numerical simulations show that nitrogen and sulfur reveal signatures of vertical abundance stratification in the stellar atmosphere. It appears that the abundances of these elements increase toward the upper atmosphere. This fact cannot be explained by the influence of microturbulent velocity, because oxygen, carbon, neon, argon, titanium and chromium do not show similar behavior and their abundances remain constant throughout the atmosphere. It seems that the iron abundance may increase marginally toward the lower atmosphere. This is the first demonstration of vertical abundance stratification of metals in a BHB star. Based on observations made with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the University of Hawaii and on observations made with Echelle Spectrograph on the McDonald Observatory 2.1-m Otto Struve Telescope. Full Table 2 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Science outreach on tap: insights and practices from three years ofDartmouth Science Pubs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, R. L.; Serrell, N.; Tobery, C. E.; Riordan, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The "Cafe Scientifique" (or "Science Cafe") has existed around theworld for decades. In an informal setting, one or more scientistsengage with a lay audience, typically over refreshments of some kind.These Science Cafes have taken many formats and taken place in manyvenues. Some feature a single presenter, some multiple; somecongregate in large venues, some small; some restrict the use of thepowerpoint slides, some do not.Our team at Dartmouth has hosted "Science Pubs" for three years. OurScience Pub takes place in a local pub, from 5-7pm on a weekday once amonth. We choose a theme for a pub and select three presenters. Thecomposition of our panel varies, but we generally have at least onefaculty member and one "less-academic" member, such as a town plannerwhen discussing hurricanes or an organic farmer when discussingpesticides. Often we include a graduate student in the panel. ThePub takes place in three "acts": 1) the presenters each give a briefintroduction to thier take on the topic, usually 10-15 minutes,extemporaneous with no slides, 2) the "wedding reception" phase, whichis a break during which the presenters circulate to the pub tables,answering questions and chatting with the attendees informally, and 3)reconvening for a more 'formal' question and answer period duringwhich the presenters answer questions from the audience.Here, we outline the format that makes up a Dartmouth Science Pub andshare insignts and lessons learned. Among many findings, we havelearned: 1) a group of three presenters makes for a lively discussion,as often presenters 'riff' off one another's points, 2) it is cruicalto have a facilitator, to 'run the show', freeing the sciencepresenters to concentrate on thier audience engagement, and 3) a shortmeeting ahead of time with the presenters is simple and very importantin creating a smooth event, and serves to help the presenters 'codeswitch' and adapt language, in lieu of a formal 'training'.

  10. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d

  11. Interdisciplinary and transboundary approach of geohistorical reconstruction of the floods in the Rhine Graben (1400 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Brice; Ansel, Romain; Guerrouah, Ouarda; With, Lauriane; -Chenel, Karine Dietrich; Vitoux, Marie-Claire; Glaser, Rudiger; Drescher, Axel; Himmelsbach, Iso

    2010-05-01

    Because of its turbulent history, Alsace is one of French regions where the historic floods are the most underestimated. The damages connected to the wars (on 1870, 1914 - 1918, 1939 - 1945), the particular classification of archives and, especially, their writing in German during several periods of the recent history, is rebuffing numerous specialists Located in the same geographical area (the Rhine Graben), but by the other side of the the border constituted by the Rhine, the land of Bade is, him too, confronted with the problem of the misunderstanding of the historic floods, because of the destructions of the war also, but especially because of the harmful absence, for archives production, of a strong centralized state until the German unification after 1870. Hence the idea to set up a interdisciplinary French - German research program, to establish compared floods chronologies over several centuries in the Rhine Graben, both in France and in Germany, by associating historians, geographers, anthropologists and specialists of the languages from the universities of Mulhouse (France) and Freiburg in Breisgau (Germany). This program (called "TRANSRISK" 2008 - 2010), financed by the « Agence Nationale de la Recherche » and the « Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft , has multiple objectives: - filling the gaps in the knowledge of the floods in France and in Germany - building a common geohistory of the floods - optimizing the prevention and the information about the floods, thanks to the classification, the reconstruction and the mapping of the extreme phenomena - understanding the role of rivers developments responsible for an different floods evolution on both sides of the Rhine - contributing to the implementation of flood risk observatories on a French - German basis - contributing to define a common interdisciplinary vocabulary on risks (and a french - german - english glossary ). These works join the logic of the "European Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment

  12. Long Period (LP) volcanic earthquake source location at Merapi volcano by using dense array technics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxian, Jean Philippe; Budi Santoso, Agus; Laurin, Antoine; Subandriyo, Subandriyo; Widyoyudo, Wiku; Arshab, Ghofar

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, Merapi shows unusual activity compared to last decades. Powerful phreatic explosions are observed; some of them are preceded by LP signals. In the literature, LP seismicity is thought to be originated within the fluid, and therefore to be representative of the pressurization state of the volcano plumbing system. Another model suggests that LP events are caused by slow, quasi-brittle, low stress-drop failure driven by transient upper-edifice deformations. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of LP events is fundamental for better understanding the physical processes occurring in the conduit, as well as for the monitoring and the improvement of eruption forecasting. LP events recorded at Merapi have a spectral content dominated by frequencies between 0.8 and 3 Hz. To locate the source of these events, we installed a seismic antenna composed of 4 broadband CMG-6TD Güralp stations. This network has an aperture of 300 m. It is located on the site of Pasarbubar, between 500 and 800 m from the crater rim. Two multi-parameter stations (seismic, tiltmeter, S-P) located in the same area, equipped with broadband CMG-40T Güralp sensors may also be used to complete the data of the antenna. The source of LP events is located by using different approaches. In the first one, we used a method based on the measurement of the time delays between the early beginnings of LP events for each array receiver. The observed differences of time delays obtained for each pair of receivers are compared to theoretical values calculated from the travel times computed between grid nodes, which are positioned in the structure, and each receiver. In a second approach, we estimate the slowness vector by using MUSIC algorithm applied to 3-components data. From the slowness vector, we deduce the back-azimuth and the incident angle, which give an estimation of LP source depth in the conduit. This work is part of the Domerapi project funded by French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (https

  13. High time to use rapid tests to detect multidrug resistance in sputum smear-negative tuberculosis in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Rusovich, V; Kumar, A M V; Skrahina, A; Hurevich, H; Astrauko, A; de Colombani, P; Tayler-Smith, K; Dara, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Le Belarus (Europe de l'Est) est confronté à une épidémie de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). En 2012, les patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif ont bénéficié en priorité de diagnostics moléculaires pour confirmer une TB-MDR, tandis que les patients atteints de TBP à frottis négatif (SN-PTB) ont bénéficié de méthodes conventionnelles qui retardaient souvent le diagnostic de TB-MDR de 2 à 4 mois.Objectif : Déterminer la proportion de TB-MDR parmi les patients SN-PTB enregistrés en 2012, ainsi que les facteurs cliniques et démographiques associés.Schéma : Etude de cohorte rétrospective basée sur des données émanant de tout le pays grâce au registre électronique national de la TB.Résultats : Sur 5377 cas de TB enregistrés, 2960 (55%) étaient des SN-PTB. Parmi ces derniers, 1639 (55%) avaient une culture positive, dont 768 (47%) avaient une TB-MDR : 33% (363/1084) nouveaux cas et 73% (405/555) patients déjà traités préalablement. La notion de traitement antérieur, l'âge, la région, la résidence en milieu urbain, le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le fait d'être retraité étaient indépendamment associés à la TB-MDR.Conclusion : Près de la moitié des patients SN-PTB à culture positive ont une TB-MDR, et dans les cas de retraitement, on arrive à plus de sept patients sur dix. La décision politique nationale d'extension des diagnostics moléculaires rapides à tous les patients TBP, y compris les patients SN-PTB, semble donc justifiée. Il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures afin d'assurer la mise en œuvre de cette priorité urgente, en raison des implications d'un diagnostic retardé à la fois pour les patients et en termes de santé publique.

  14. Screening difficult-to-reach populations for tuberculosis using a mobile medical unit, Punjab India.

    PubMed

    Binepal, G; Agarwal, P; Kaur, N; Singh, B; Bhagat, V; Verma, R P; Satyanarayana, S; Oeltmann, J E; Moonan, P K

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : En Inde, la Mission nationale santé a fourni une unité médicale mobile (MMU) par district dans l'état du Penjab afin d'offrir des services de soins de santé primaires aux populations difficilement accessibles.Objectifs : Déterminer le nombre de patients présumés atteints de la tuberculose (TB) et le nombre de cas de TB détectés et traités parmi les patients qui ont utilisé les services de la MMU de mai à décembre 2012 dans le district de Mohali de l'état du Penjab, Inde.Méthodes : Une étude transversale a été réalisée et l'étude des registres des consultations, du laboratoire, de la radiologie et des services de TB de la MMU a permis de compter le nombre de personnes présumées atteintes de TB et le nombre de personnes ayant eu un diagnostic de TB.Résultats : Un total de 8346 patients ont fréquenté la MMU, dont 663 (8%) avaient des symptômes suggérant une TB. Parmi ces derniers, 540 (81%) ont bénéficié d'une recherche de TB pulmonaire grâce à un examen de l'expectoration ou à une radiographie pulmonaire. Au total, 58 (11%) patients ont eu des preuves cliniques ou biologiques de TB pulmonaire, dont 21 (36%) ont mis en route un traitement de la tuberculose.Conclusion : Comme les MMU font partie intégrante du système de santé publique général, ces unités ont le potentiel de détecter les cas de TB parmi les populations « difficiles à atteindre ». De plus amples recherches sont requises afin d'optimiser le diagnostic de la TB dans les MMU pour accélérer la mise en route du traitement de la TB.

  15. Telemedicine: what framework, what levels of proof, implementation rules.

    PubMed

    Zannad, Faiez; Maugendre, Philippe; Audry, Antoine; Avril, Carole; Blaise, Lucile; Blin, Olivier; Burnel, Philippe; Falise-Mirat, Béatrice; Girault, Danièle; Giri, Isabelle; Goehrs, Jean-Marie; Lassale, Catherine; Le Meur, Roland; Leurent, Pierre; Ratignier-Carbonneil, Christelle; Rossignol, Patrick; Satonnet, Evelyne; Simon, Pierre; Treluyer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of telemedicine was formalised in France in the 2009 "Hospital, patients, health territories" (loi hôpital, patients, santé, territoire) law and the 2010 decree through which it was applied. Many experiments have been carried out and the regulatory institutions (Ministry, Regional Health Agency [Agence régionale de santé, ARS], French National Health Authority [Haute autorité de santé, HAS], etc.) have issued various guidance statements and recommendations on its organisation and on the expectations of its evaluation. With this background, the round table wanted to produce recommendations on different areas of medical telemonitoring (the role of telemonitoring, the regulatory system, the principles for assessment, methods of use and conditions for sustained and seamless deployment). Whilst many studies carried out on new medical telemonitoring approaches have led to the postulate that it offers benefit, both clinically and in terms of patient quality of life, more information is needed to demonstrate its impact on the organisation of healthcare and the associated medico-economic benefit (criteria, methods, resources). Similarly, contractual frameworks for deployment of telemonitoring do exist, although they are complicated and involve many different stakeholders (Director General fo the Care Offering [Direction générale de l'offre de soins, DGOS], ARS, HAS, Agency for Shared Health Information Systems [Agence des systèmes d'information partagés de santé, ASIP], French National Data Protection Commission [Commission nationale informatique et libertés, CNIL], French National Medical Council [Conseil national de l'Ordre des médecins, CNOM], etc.) that would benefit from a shared approach and seamless exchange between the partners involved. The current challenge is also to define the conditions required to validate a stable economic model in order to promote organisational change. One topical issue is placing the emphasis on its evaluation and

  16. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate (OPP), in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Scientific Committee On Consumer Safety Sccs; Bernauer, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707-65-8 as preservatives are regulated in Annex V/7 of the Cosmetics Regulation (EC) n. 1223/2009 at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). In February 2013, the Commission received a risk assessment submitted by the French Agency ANSM (Agence nationale de sécurité des médicaments et des produits de santé) which rose concerns about the use of o-Phenylphenol as preservatives in cosmetic products. In the context of the ANSM report (Evaluation du risque lié à l'utilisation de l'orthophénylphénol CAS n. 90-43-7 dans les produits cosmétiques) o-Phenylphenol has been identified as likely to be an endocrine disruptor. The report concludes that the maximum authorised concentration (currently of 0.2%) of o-Phenylphenol for use as a preservative should be revised due to low margin of safety. In January 2014, in response to a call for data on o-Phenylphenol by the Commission, Industry submitted a safety dossier in order to defend the current use of o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707- 65-8 as preservatives in cosmetic formulations at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in leave-on cosmetic products is not safe. Also, in view of further exposures including noncosmetic uses (see Anses, 2014), the maximum concentration of o-Phenylphenol in leave-on cosmetic products should be lowered. However, the proposed maximum use concentration of up to 0.15% by the applicant can be considered safe. The use of o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in rinse-off cosmetic products is considered safe. Based on the information provided, no conclusions of safe use can be drawn for Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate. In vitro data indicate an absent or very weak binding affinity of OPP to the oestrogen

  17. Leiomyosarcome de la langue: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El jahd, Lahcen; Barhmi, Ismail; Tazi, Nabil; Rouadi, Sami; Abada, Reda; Roubal, Mohammed; janah, Abdelaziz; Mahtar, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le léiomyosarcome primitif de la langue est une tumeur rare qui se développe aux dépens des fibres musculaires lisses. Le diagnostic est souvent difficile, fondé sur des caractéristiques immuno-histologiques particulières. L'objectif de ce travail est de décrire le profil épidémiologique, clinique, thérapeutique et évolutif du léiomyosarcome à travers un cas et une revue de la littérature. Nous rapportons le cas d'un homme âgé de 26 ans, sans antécédents pathologique particuliers, consultant pour une tuméfaction de la langue mobile évoluant depuis 2 ans. Une biopsie de la masse a été réalisée. L’étude anatomopathologique et immunohistochimique a confirmé le diagnostic d'un léiomyosarcome de la langue. L'IRM de la langue a objectivé un processus lesionnel intéressant la portion mobile et antérieur de la langue. Une exérèse de la masse a été réalisée. L'examen histologique a montré la présence d'un large néoplasme de 6 cm compatible à un léiomyosarcome peu différencié de la langue, de garde II selon la Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC). Une radiothérapie externe sur la cavité buccale avec une dose de 65 Gy a été réalisée. Le patient a présenté 2 mois après la fin du traitement une adénopathie latéro-cervicale haute gauche (territoire II), il a bénéficié d'un curage ganglionnaire fonctionnel intéressant les territoires I, II et III puis réadressé en radiothérapie. Le léiomyosarcome de la langue est très rare surtout chez le sujet jeune. La chirurgie et la radiothérapie sont les armes thérapeutiques majeures. Le pronostic est très mauvais, Les facteurs les plus importants sont les marges d'exérèse et le grade. PMID:26600908

  18. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate (OPP), in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Scientific Committee On Consumer Safety Sccs; Bernauer, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707-65-8 as preservatives are regulated in Annex V/7 of the Cosmetics Regulation (EC) n. 1223/2009 at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). In February 2013, the Commission received a risk assessment submitted by the French Agency ANSM (Agence nationale de sécurité des médicaments et des produits de santé) which rose concerns about the use of o-Phenylphenol as preservatives in cosmetic products. In the context of the ANSM report (Evaluation du risque lié à l'utilisation de l'orthophénylphénol CAS n. 90-43-7 dans les produits cosmétiques) o-Phenylphenol has been identified as likely to be an endocrine disruptor. The report concludes that the maximum authorised concentration (currently of 0.2%) of o-Phenylphenol for use as a preservative should be revised due to low margin of safety. In January 2014, in response to a call for data on o-Phenylphenol by the Commission, Industry submitted a safety dossier in order to defend the current use of o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707- 65-8 as preservatives in cosmetic formulations at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in leave-on cosmetic products is not safe. Also, in view of further exposures including noncosmetic uses (see Anses, 2014), the maximum concentration of o-Phenylphenol in leave-on cosmetic products should be lowered. However, the proposed maximum use concentration of up to 0.15% by the applicant can be considered safe. The use of o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in rinse-off cosmetic products is considered safe. Based on the information provided, no conclusions of safe use can be drawn for Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate. In vitro data indicate an absent or very weak binding affinity of OPP to the oestrogen

  19. Behaviour of nuclides and U-series disequilibrium in clayey sediments: application to the Late Jurassic record from the eastern Paris basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, J.; Négrel, Ph.; Innocent, C.; Brulhet, J.

    2003-04-01

    We present a record of U-series disequilibrium covering the Callovo-Oxfordian-Thitonian times of the Late Jurassic carbonated platform from the eastern part of the Paris basin. The Callovo-Oxfordian clayey layer is the potential host rock for reconnaissance work carried out by Andra (e.g., Agence Nationale de Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs) in eastern France, the objective of which is the designing and building of an underground research laboratory to study the aptitude of the clay-marl Callovo-Oxfordian layer for the storage of radioactive wastes. We analyse U and Th trace elements on both the labile fraction (extracted by cold HCl) and the total bulk sediments. The Th contents are extremely low in the Oxfordian shelf reef carbonates (<10 ppb) with respect to the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian clayey marls and the Callovian-Oxfordian argilites (up to 10 ppm). In contrast, the uranium contents are much more homogenous (1 ppm ±0.8) along the section. With respect to bulk concentrations, the nuclide contents in the labile component are particularly low in the Callovian-Oxfordian argilites. This behaviour suggests that given the extremely low permeability of the rock, any groundwater circulation of solutes could only have taken place by diffusion - a very slow mechanism that favours water-rock interactions. For U-series analyses (measured by alpha-spectrometry), a total of 43 bulk-rock samples were preferentially microdrilled from the fine-grained lithologies, although the heterogeneity of carbonate facies within sections necessitated occasional sampling of coarser grained lithologies. Within the carbonate-rich part (Oxfordian to Tithonian) of the section, the 234U/238U ratios slightly fluctuate from secular equilibrium and are interpreted as preferential 234U-solution processes related to groundwater circulation. Preferential removal of 234U in this zone is also indicated by some 230Th/234U activity ratios higher than unity. In contrast, most of the samples from the

  20. Collaborative activities and treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Huyen, T T T; Nhung, N V; Shewade, H D; Hoa, N B; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Le programme national tuberculose (TB) au Viet Nam et à Ho Chi Minh ville (HCMC).Objectifs : Déterminer 1) au niveau national entre 2011 et 2013, la relation entre le test pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), l'utilisation des interventions TB-VIH et les mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB parmi les patients TB-VIH, et 2) à HCMC en 2013, les caractéristiques des patients associées à un mauvais résultat.Schéma : Une étude écologique revoyant les données nationales agrégées et une étude de cohorte rétrospective dans HCMC.Résultats : Au niveau national, le test VIH est passé de 58% à 68% chez les patients tuberculeux et le traitement antirétroviral (ART) est passé chez les patients TB-VIH de 54% à 63% entre 2011 et 2013. Les mauvais résultats du traitement chez les patients TB-VIH ont augmenté de 24% à 27%, largement à cause des transferts (de 5% à 9%) et des décès. Les régions du Nord et des Highlands ont montré une faible utilisation des interventions TB-VIH. A HCMC, 303 (27%) patients TB-VIH sur 1110 ont eu un mauvais résultat avec un risque plus élevé observé parmi ceux qui avaient déjà eu un traitement de TB, ceux dont le diagnostic de VIH précédait l'apparition de la TB et ceux qui n'avaient jamais bénéficié du traitement par cotrimoxazole et de l'ART.Conclusion : En dépit de meilleurs taux de tests VIH et d'interventions TB-VIH, près de 26% des patients TB-VIH ont de mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB. Les facteurs de prédiction d'un risque plus élevé de mauvais résultats doivent être pris en compte si le Viet Nam souhaite mettre fin à l'épidémie de TB d'ici 2030.

  1. Telemedicine: what framework, what levels of proof, implementation rules.

    PubMed

    Zannad, Faiez; Maugendre, Philippe; Audry, Antoine; Avril, Carole; Blaise, Lucile; Blin, Olivier; Burnel, Philippe; Falise-Mirat, Béatrice; Girault, Danièle; Giri, Isabelle; Goehrs, Jean-Marie; Lassale, Catherine; Le Meur, Roland; Leurent, Pierre; Ratignier-Carbonneil, Christelle; Rossignol, Patrick; Satonnet, Evelyne; Simon, Pierre; Treluyer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of telemedicine was formalised in France in the 2009 "Hospital, patients, health territories" (loi hôpital, patients, santé, territoire) law and the 2010 decree through which it was applied. Many experiments have been carried out and the regulatory institutions (Ministry, Regional Health Agency [Agence régionale de santé, ARS], French National Health Authority [Haute autorité de santé, HAS], etc.) have issued various guidance statements and recommendations on its organisation and on the expectations of its evaluation. With this background, the round table wanted to produce recommendations on different areas of medical telemonitoring (the role of telemonitoring, the regulatory system, the principles for assessment, methods of use and conditions for sustained and seamless deployment). Whilst many studies carried out on new medical telemonitoring approaches have led to the postulate that it offers benefit, both clinically and in terms of patient quality of life, more information is needed to demonstrate its impact on the organisation of healthcare and the associated medico-economic benefit (criteria, methods, resources). Similarly, contractual frameworks for deployment of telemonitoring do exist, although they are complicated and involve many different stakeholders (Director General fo the Care Offering [Direction générale de l'offre de soins, DGOS], ARS, HAS, Agency for Shared Health Information Systems [Agence des systèmes d'information partagés de santé, ASIP], French National Data Protection Commission [Commission nationale informatique et libertés, CNIL], French National Medical Council [Conseil national de l'Ordre des médecins, CNOM], etc.) that would benefit from a shared approach and seamless exchange between the partners involved. The current challenge is also to define the conditions required to validate a stable economic model in order to promote organisational change. One topical issue is placing the emphasis on its evaluation and

  2. Les campagnes de dépistage du VIH, une stratégie efficace pour l’accès universel à la prévention et au traitement ? L’expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563

  3. [From Crex mutualisation to clinical audit].

    PubMed

    Debouck, F; Petit, H-B; Lartigau, E

    2010-10-01

    In mid-2004, following a Mission nationale d'expertise et d'audits hospitaliers (MeaH) proposal, three voluntary cancer centres started setting up a safety procedure in radiotherapy. Their work made it possible to single out the need to continue elaborating a repository, aiming at a "minimal written reference", to take into account the human factor as one of the four families of factors contributing to a systemic deviation and to build collectively, in radiotherapy departments, the experience feedback committee (comité de retour d'expérience [Crex]). Formalizing a comité de retour d'expérience is unavoidable in any safety-management system (SMM or MGS). The comité de retour d'expérience enables every active member of a department to listen to any of the events of the month (incidents and precursors), to select the event which will be under scrutiny for the next systemic analysis (Orion(©) method) and above all to choose the most appropriate correcting action and ensure its proper implementation. That approach has been approved and then acknowledged by the Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN) before being extended to the other radiotherapy departments. The use of the comité de retour d'expérience, which is a safety management tool, should not be limited to a local circle of insiders, but shared to benefit everybody. Putting comité de retour d'expérience together - a move that was hoped for and brought up as soon as the tool was created - is now being implemented. Several initiatives have already permitted to assess its collective interest; other steps have yet to be taken to enable a true collective sharing of experience. On this basis, the definition of quality/safety practices in radiotherapy will allow the professionals to implement clinical audits in 2012. PMID:20729118

  4. The physics, performance and predictions of the PEGASES ion-ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanesland, Ane

    2014-10-01

    . This work received financial state aid managed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche under the reference ANR-2011-BS09-40 (EPIC) and ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 (Plas@Par).

  5. Evaluation de la sécurité du circuit des médicaments anticancéreux dans un hôpital régional en Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Jihène; El Ghardallou, Meriam; Bougmiza, Iheb; Henchiri, Besma; Limam, Manel; Mejdoub, Rim; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parmi les événements indésirables, ceux liés au circuit des médicaments occupent une place importante et risquent de causer un préjudice grave aux patients. Dans ce contexte, nous avons mené cette étude dans l'optique de décrire et d’évaluer le circuit des médicaments anticancéreux dans un hôpital régional tunisien. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude évaluative du risque lié aux médicaments anticancéreux, type « visite de risque » menée sur une période de 15 jours au cours de l'année 2014 au service de cancérologie de l'hôpital régional de Gafsa (Tunisie). Cette méthode d’évaluation est inspirée de celle conduite par le projet « SECURIMED » développé par le Comité de Coordination de l'Evaluation Clinique et de la Qualité en Aquitaine (CCECQA), en France. Résultats Dans notre étude, l'observation du circuit des médicaments anticancéreux a révélé certaines insuffisances. On a noté que la répartition des missions des différents acteurs est sujette parfois à des glissements de tâches. Un manque important ainsi que une inadéquation aux normes au niveau des équipements nécessaires pour la préparation et la protection des professionnels manipulant ces médicaments ont été également décelés. Conclusion La sécurisation du circuit des médicaments devrait être une priorité inscrite dans l'ensemble des démarches nationales et partagée par tous les intervenants et ce dans l'optique d'atteindre un objectif prémium: la qualité de la prise en charge globale et la sécurité des patients. PMID:27200135

  6. Mise à jour sur la prévention et le dépistage selon l’âge à l’intention des médecins de soins primaires canadiens

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tawnya; Bouchard, Manon; Mavriplis, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire la synthèse des meilleures lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes concernant la prévention et le dépistage chez les adultes canadiens selon l’âge. Qualité des données Les recommandations du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs représentent la source principale des renseignements et sont complétées par les recommandations pertinentes du Preventive Services Task Force des États-Unis lorsque celles du Groupe d’étude canadien étaient inaccessibles ou désuètes. Les guides de pratique des principales organisations nationales axées spécifiquement sur une maladie ou une spécialité ont aussi fait l’objet d’une révision pour prendre en compte les données factuelles les plus récentes. Message principal Les interventions de dépistage recommandées selon l’âge et le sexe sont présentées dans un tableau de synthèse où est mise en évidence la qualité des données à l’appui de ces recommandations. Un exemple de modèle à suivre dans les dossiers médicaux électroniques ou sur papier est aussi proposé. Conclusion Qu’il s’agisse d’une visite consacrée à la prévention ou d’une occasion saisie autrement de faire du counseling et du dépistage de prévention chez leurs patients, les médecins de soins primaires peuvent se servir de cette synthèse des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour maximiser leur efficience et prévenir d’importantes omissions ou des dépistages inutiles.

  7. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  8. Genotypic resistance profiles of HIV-2-treated patients in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Charlotte; Eholié, Serge; Anglaret, Xavier; Bertine, Mélanie; Rouzioux, Christine; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Messou, Eugène; Minga, Albert; Damond, Florence; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Dabis, François; Peytavin, Gilles; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the virological response, genotypic resistance profiles, and antiretroviral plasma concentrations in HIV-2 antiretroviral-treated (antiretroviral therapy, ART) patients in Côte d‘Ivoire. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among HIV-2 patients receiving ART. Plasma HIV-2 viral load was performed using the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales (ANRS) assay. Protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed using in-house methods and antiretroviral plasma concentrations were assessed using ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Results One hundred and forty-five HIV-2-treated patients were enrolled with a median CD4+ cell count of 360 cells/µl (interquartile range, IQR = 215–528). Median duration of ART was 4 years (IQR = 2–7) and 74% of patients displayed viral load less than 50 copies/ml. Median plasma HIV-2 RNA among patients with viral load more than 50 copies/ml was 3016 copies/ml (IQR = 436–5156). Most patients (84%) received a lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. HIV-2 resistance mutations to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were detected in 21 of 25 (84%) and 20 of 29 (69%) samples, respectively. The most prevalent nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations were M184I/V (90%), Q151M (24%), and S215F/Y (24%). The most prevalent protease inhibitor resistance mutations were V47A (60%) and I54M (30%). Median CD4+ cell counts were 434 cells/µl (292–573) and 204 cells/µl (122–281) in patients with viral load less than 50 copies/ml and those exhibiting virological failure (P < 0.0001), respectively. The proportions of patients with adequate antiretroviral plasma concentrations were 81 and 93% in patients displaying virological failure and in those with viral load less than 50 copies/ml, respectively (P = 0.046), suggesting good treatment adherence. Conclusion We observed adequate drug

  9. Alfred Vulpian and Jean-Martin Charcot in each other's shadow? From Castor and Pollux at La Salpêtrière to neurology forever.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Walusinski, Olivier; Moulin, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    While Alfred Vulpian (1826-1887) is not completely forgotten, he cannot match the uninterrupted celebrity which Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) still enjoys today. After becoming interne (residents) at the same institute in 1848, both were involved in shaping the cradle of what would become modern neurology. Both started work as chiefs at a La Salpêtrière service on January 1, 1862, making common rounds and studies, with several common publications. While their friendship remained 'for life', as stated by Charcot at Vulpian's funeral, their career paths differed. Vulpian progressed quicker and higher, being appointed full professor and elected at the Académie Nationale de Médecine and the Académie des Sciences several years before Charcot, as well as becoming dean of the Paris Faculty of Medicine. These positions also enabled him to support his friend Charcot in getting appointed full clinical professor and becoming the first holder of the chair of Clinique des Maladies du Système Nerveux in 1882. Before studying medicine, Vulpian had worked in physiology with Pierre Flourens, and his career always remained balanced between physiology and neurology, with remarkable papers. He introduced Charcot to optic microscopy during their La Salpêtrière years, indirectly helping him to become his successor to the chair of pathological anatomy in 1872. While Vulpian succeeded so well in local medical affairs, Charcot spent his time building up a huge clinical service and a teaching 'school' at La Salpêtrière, which he never left for over 31 years until his death. This 'school' progressively became synonymous with clinical neurology itself and perpetuated the master's memory for decades. Vulpian never had such support, although Jules Déjerine was his pupil and Joseph Babinski was his interne before becoming Charcot's chef de clinique (chief of staff) in 1885. This unusual switch in Parisian medicine contributed to Charcot's unaltered celebrity over more than a century

  10. Genotypic Resistance Analysis of the Virological Response to Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir in Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients in CONTEXT and TRIAD Clinical Trials▿

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Katlama, Christine; Yeni, Patrick; Raffi, Francois; Antoun, Zeina; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Calvez, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutations associated with virological response (VR) to fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) in 113 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients randomized in both CONTEXT and TRIAD clinical trials and receiving the same dose (700/100 mg twice daily) of FPV/r. The impact of each protease mutation on the VR to FPV/r, defined as the decrease in HIV RNA at week 12, was investigated with nonparametric analyses. A step-by-step procedure was done using a Jonckheere-Terpstra (JT) test that retains the group of mutations most strongly associated with the VR. Mutations at the following 14 codons were associated with a reduced VR to FPV/r: 10, 15, 33, 46, 54, 60, 62, 63, 72, 73, 82, 84, 89, and 90. The JT procedure led to selecting the CONTEXT/TRIAD genotypic set of mutations, I15V, M46I/L, I54L/M/V, D60E, L63P/T, and I84V, as providing the strongest association with the VR (P = 1.45 × 10−11). In the nine patients with zero mutations within this set, the median decrease in HIV RNA was −2.63 log copies/ml, and was −2.22 (n = 45), −1.50 (n = 26), −0.58 (n = 23), −0.47 (n = 6), −0.13 (n = 3), and 0.04 (n = 1) log copies/ml in those with one, two, three, four, five, and six mutations, respectively. This study identified six mutations associated with VR to FPV/r. Some of these mutations are shared with the current FPV/r Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) resistance score, which has been cross-validated in the CONTEXT/TRIAD data set, suggesting that the current ANRS FPV/r score is a useful tool for the prediction of VR to FPV/r in PI-experienced patients. PMID:18852278

  11. Navigating the maze of requirements for obtaining approval of non-interventional studies (NIS) in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Ziel: Dieser Artikel soll über die Komplexität und unerwartete regulatorische Anforderungen bei multinationalen und multizentrischen, nicht-interventionellen Studien (NIS) in der Europäischen Union aufklären.Methoden: Die Internetseiten der zuständigen nationalen Behörden, Ethikkommissionen (EK) und Datenschutzbehörden wurden konsultiert, um Vorschriften und Richtlinien zum Genehmigungsverfahren von NIS in den verschiedenen Mitgliedstaaten der EU zu finden.Ergebnis: Viele zusätzliche Hürden wurden identifiziert, die weder offengelegt noch deutlich in den jeweiligen Verordnungen/Richtlinien für NIS beschrieben waren. Obwohl die Genehmigung durch die nationale Behörde für NIS grundsätzlich nicht erforderlich ist, wird in vielen Ländern dennoch empfohlen die geplante NIS – vor dem EK-Antrag – der nationalen Behörde anzuzeigen, um die Bestätigung zu erhalten, dass die geplante NIS nicht in die Kategorie „interventionelle Studie“ fällt. Zudem ist in einigen Ländern eine Probandenversicherung erforderlich. In vielen Ländern, in denen multizentrische NIS geplant sind, bedarf es zusätzlich zur Zustimmung der zentralen Ethikkommission auch noch die zustimmende Bewertung aller lokalen Ethikkommissionen, denn ein zentrales EK-Gutachten wird nicht als ausreichend betrachtet. Die Anforderungen an EK-Dokumente und an Gebühren für die Einreichung variieren stark unter allen Mitgliedsstaaten. Zusätzliche Genehmigungen von den Datenschutzbehörden und Versicherungsgesellschaften sind in einigen Ländern einzuholen.Schlussfolgerung: Das Genehmigungsverfahren für multizentrische und multinationale NIS ist zeitaufwendig, vor allem wegen des Mangels an Transparenz und den unterschiedlichen regulatorischen Anforderungen der Mitgliedsstaaten. Die EU-Rechtsvorschriften zur Pharmakovigilanz und die neue EU-Verordnung Nr. 536/2014 über klinische Studien sind zwar ein Schritt nach vorn bei der Schaffung eines Rechtsrahmens für PASS (post-authorisation safety

  12. TN International and ITS operational feedback regarding the decommissioning of obsolete casks dedicated to the transport and/or storage of nuclear raw materials, fuel and used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Bimet, F.; Rennesson, N.

    2008-07-01

    Within the AREVA group, TN International is a major actor regarding the design of casks and transportation for the nuclear cycle. In the early 2005, TN International has started the project of decommissioning some of its own equipment and was hence the first company ever in the AREVA Group to implement this new approach. In order to do so, TN International has based this project by taking into account the AREVA Sustainable Development Charter, the French regulatory framework, the ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - National Agency for the radioactive waste management) requirements and has deployed a step by step methodology such as radiological characterization following a logical route. The aim was to define a standardized process with optimized solutions regarding the diversity of the cask's fleet. As a general matter, decommissioning of nuclear casks is a brand new field as the nuclear field is more familiar with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and/or nuclear power plant. Nevertheless existing workshops, maintenance facilities, measurements equipments and techniques have been exploited and adapted by TN International in order to turn an ambitious project into a permanent and cost-effective activity. The decommissioning of the nuclear casks implemented by TN International regarding its own needs and the French regulatory framework is formalized by several processes and is materialized for instance by the final disposal of casks as they are or in ISO container packed with cut-off casks and big bags filled with crushed internal cask equipments, etc. The first part of this paper aims to describe the history of the project that started with a specific environmental analysis which took into account the values of AREVA as regards the Sustainable Development principles that were at the time and are still a topic of current concern in the world. The second part will deal with the definition, the design and the implementation of the

  13. Séroprévalence de l’AgHBs chez la femme enceinte dans le centre du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Khalki, Hanane; Benbella, Imane; louzi, Lhoussaine

    2016-01-01

    La transmission materno-fœtale du virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est un problème qui préoccupe toujours les autorités sanitaires à travers le monde et suscite la mise en place de mesures préventives renforcées. Le statut réplicatif du virus chez la mère séropositive, évalué par la positivité de l'AgHbe et le taux de la charge virale, conditionne le risque de contamination qui est plus important en période péri-natale. Les mères porteuses chroniques du VHB constituent un véritable réservoir de la transmission verticale de cette infection. Nous avons étudié, à travers cette enquête sur 1120 femmes enceintes Marocaines, la séroprévalence de l'AgHBs qui était de 2,35%, dans le but d'alimenter les données nationales sur ce sujet. Parmi ces femmes séropositives pour l'AgHBs, 79,1% avaient un AgHBe négatif et ont bénéficié d'une recherche moléculaire qui s'est révélée positive dans 89,4% des cas. La vaccination de la femme en âge de procréer est l'un des piliers majeurs de la prévention de la transmission verticale du VHB, seulement 2,4% de nos patientes étaient vaccinées. Ceci relève l'intérêt du dépistage au cours de la grossesse, qui doit se focaliser sur la sensibilisation à la vaccination de femmes séronégatives, et le suivi par biologie moléculaire des mères séropositives dans le but d'instaurer un traitement prophylactique adéquat. PMID:27795784

  14. Aspects épidémiologiques des fractures de membres liées à l'exercice de la fonction militaire au Togo

    PubMed Central

    Akpoto, Yao Messanvi; Abalo, Anani; Gnandi-pio, Faré; Sonhaye, Lantam; Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Sama, Hamza Doles; Assenouwe, Sarakawabalo; Lamboni, Damessane; Amavi, Kossigan Adodossi; Adam, Saliou; Kpelao, Essossinam; Tengue, Kodjo; Songne-Gnamkoulamba, Badjona

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude était de déterminer la fréquence des fractures de membres liées à l'exercice de la fonction militaire au sein des Forces de Défense et de Sécurité en milieu africain en vue de ressortir l'impact des différentes circonstances de survenue. Nous avons entrepris une étude rétrospective descriptive allant du 1er janvier 2004 au 31 décembre 2013. Elle a concerné les agents des forces de défense et de sécurité traités pour des fractures de membres au cours de cette période. Sept cent quatre (704) cas de fractures de membres ont été dénombrés. L’âge moyen des patients était de 30,57 ans avec des extrêmes de 19 et 55 ans. La prédominance masculine était nette (95,71%). L'Armée de Terre (51,05%) et la Gendarmerie Nationale (38,86%) étaient les plus représentées. Les hommes du rang étaient majoritaires (43,08%), suivis des sous-officiers (32,59%). La fréquence annuelle des fractures de membres en rapport avec la profession militaire était de 63 cas. Les fractures de jambe étaient les lésions les plus recensées (32,96%). Les Formations et les stages militaires ont été les circonstances de survenue les plus rencontrées (42,60%), suivies des accidents de la circulation (39,43%). La perte des journées de service liée à ces lésions était estimée à 14009 jours par an. Les fractures de jambes occupent le premier rang des fractures de membres en rapport avec l'exercice de la profession militaire. Les formations-stages militaires et les accidents de la voie publique en sont les deux grandes circonstances de survenue. PMID:27081434

  15. L'intervention de Castaing dans le traitement chirurgical de l'instabilité chronique latérale de la cheville (à propos d'une série continue de 52 cas)

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Jalal; Mojib, Rifi; Mezghani, Sami; Jaeger, Jean Henri

    2014-01-01

    L'instabilité chronique de la cheville est l'une des évolutions possibles dans l'histoire naturelle de l'entorse aigüe de cheville. Elle représente 10% à 30% des séquelles d'entorses. Le traitement chirurgical est réservé aux patients ayant une instabilité de cheville persistante après rééducation à l'origine d'une gêne invalidante. La technique de ligamentoplastie utilisant le court fibulaire selon Castaing est la plus répondue en France. La simplicité du geste et ses bons résultats nous ont incités à poursuivre cette voie. Il s'agit d´une étude rétrospective à propos de 52 patients ayant bénéficié d'une ligamentoplastie au court fibulaire selon Castaing entre Janvier 2000 et Décembre 2010. Le recul minimum était d'un an. L’évaluation des patients reposait sur le score de Karlson et le “Ankle score” Molander et Olerud. Les patients sont satisfaits ou très satisfaits de l'intervention dans 80% des cas revus. Les résultats fonctionnels de nos patients sont comparables à ceux publiés dans la littérature. Le prélèvement du transplant du court fibulaire ne semble pas avoir de retentissement sur la stabilité de la cheville. Les patients conservent une éversion du pied satisfaisante avec une force comparable au côté opposé. L’évolution arthrosique de la cheville ne semble pas significative après cette chirurgie. Le point faible de notre étude est le nombre des patients perdus de vue, cela est lié à la jeunesse de la population opérée et au recrutement du service d'envergure nationale. PMID:25469182

  16. An Evaluation Model for a Multidisciplinary Chronic Pelvic Pain Clinic: Application of the RE-AIM Framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Innie; Money, Deborah; Yong, Paul; Williams, Christina; Allaire, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : La douleur pelvienne chronique (DPC) est un trouble prévalent, débilitant et coûteux. Bien que des lignes directrices nationales et des données empiriques soutiennent l’utilisation d’un modèle de soins multidisciplinaires pour les patientes qui présentent des DPC, les cliniques canadiennes offrant un tel modèle sont peu nombreuses. Le BC Women’s Centre for Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis a été créé pour répondre à ce besoin et un intérêt a été manifesté à l’endroit des effets de ce modèle de soins sur le fardeau de la maladie en Colombie-Britannique. Nous avons cherché à créer une approche envers son évaluation en utilisant le cadre de référence RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) pour déterminer les effets de ce modèle de soins et pour orienter le processus décisionnel clinique et la formulation de politiques en la matière. Méthodes : Le cadre d’évaluation RE-AIM a été appliqué pour nous permettre d’envisager les diverses dimensions des effets du BC Centre. Les mesures proposées, les sources de données et les stratégies de gestion des données pour cette approche à méthodes mixtes ont été identifiées. Résultats : Les cinq dimensions des effets ont été prises en considération aux niveaux personnel et organisationnel, et des indicateurs correspondants ont été proposés pour en permettre l’intégration dans l’infrastructure de données existante, en vue de faciliter la collecte des données et l’évaluation précoce du programme. Conclusion : Le cadre RE-AIM peut être appliqué à l’évaluation d’une clinique multidisciplinaire visant la douleur pelvienne chronique. Cela permettra la tenue d’une meilleure évaluation des effets de modèles novateurs de soins chez les femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes chroniques.

  17. Characterization of Heat Waves in the Sahel and associated mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Boutheina; Pohl, Benjamin; Moron, Vincent; Rome, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Large efforts are made to investigate the heat waves (HW) in developed countries because of their devastating impacts on society, economy and environment. This interest increased after the intense event over Europe during summer 2003. However, HWs are still understudied over developing countries. This is particularly true in West Africa, and especially in the Sahel, where temperatures recurrently reach critical values, such as during the 2010 HW event. Understanding the Sahelian HWs and associated health risks constitute the main objective of ACASIS, a 4-year project funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Our work contributes to this project and aims at characterizing the Sahelian HWs and understanding the mechanisms associated with such extreme events. There is no universal definition of a HW event, since it is highly dependent on the sector (human health, agriculture, transport...) and region of interest. In our case, a HW is defined when the heat index of the day and of the night exceeds the 90th percentile for at least 3 consecutive days (Rome et al. 2016, in preparation). This index combines temperature and relative humidity in order to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature (definition adapted from Steadman, 1979). Intrinsic properties of Sahelian HW are analyzed from the Global Summary of the Day (GSOD) synoptic observations and ERA-interim reanalyses over 1979-2014 during boreal spring seasons (April-May-June), the warmest period of the year in the Central Sahel. ERA-interim captures well the observed interannual variability and seasonal cycle at the regional scale, as well as the 1979-2014 increasing linear trend of springtime HW occurrences in the Sahel. Reanalyses, however, overestimate the duration, spatial extent of HW, and underestimate their intensity. For both GSOD and ERA-interim, we show that, over the last three decades, Sahelian HWs tend to become more frequent, last longer, cover larger areas and reach higher

  18. Fixedwing UAV soundings of the boundary layer during the ScaleX 2015 summer campaign in southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Andreas; Groos, Alexander; Petersen, Erik; Bischoff, Julian; Szogs, Sebastian; Beck, Christoph; Hähner, Jörg; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    In order to examine the potential to close the local water cycle budget and to evaluate models on different scales (among other aims) a fleet of 6 fixed wing UAVs has been operated by the Institute for Geography and the Institute for Informatics of the University of Augsburg during the ScaleX measurement campaign of the KIT/IMK-IFU (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie/Institut für Meteorologie und Klimatologie, Garmisch Partenkirchen). The site is located in southern Germany in a rural, hilly landscape at a small catchment tributing to the Ammersee and equipped with several ground based and remote sensing hydrological instruments. In order to complement these instruments by in situ measurements of the boundary layer, three intensive observation periods (IOPs) for taking temperature and humidity profiles took place, each with a different set up in order to evaluate optimal operation modes. The UAVs are all operated by the open hardware Apogee autopilot and sensor controller developed by ENAC (Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile, Toulouse) operated by the PPRZ open source software package. The first IOP (30.06.-01.07.2015) was an experiment to cover a small site of 500 by 500 meters (well-apointed with hydrological instruments) in a 24 hours period as dense as possible. Thus three simultaneous helical profile flights (radius 70 m) have been run at each full hour around three different centres with heights ranging up to 1000 m above ground level (with special permissions). During a second IOP (15.07.2015) it has been tried to increase the frequence of profile flights up to 2 flights per hours between 7:30 and 14:00 CEST. These soundings have been accompanied by flyovers of a manned ultra light aircraft of the IMK-IFU. Finally a third experiment (06.08.2015) tried to evaluate longer flights (up to 55 minutes) of two UAVs at constant levels of 300 and 500 m above ground level between 6:00 and 14:00 CEST in order to cover the early diurnal cycle even more constantly

  19. [Cost of multiple sclerosis in France].

    PubMed

    Fromont, A; Lehanneur, M-N; Rollot, F; Weill, A; Clerc, L; Bonithon Kopp, C; Binquet, C; Moreau, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the 30 chronic conditions specifically listed by the French healthcare system as a long-term disease (affections de longue durée [ALD]) for which the main health insurance fund (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés [CNAMTS]) provides full (100%) coverage of healthcare costs. The CNAMTS insures 87% of the French population (52,359,912 of the 60,028,292 inhabitants). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the direct and indirect medical costs of MS among the entire population insured by the CNAMTS in France in 2004. The CNAMTS provided us with access to the ALD database of patients with MS that contains different MS-related expenditures made in 2004. We calculated the overall direct and indirect cost of MS and the cost per patient and per item of expenditure. In 2004, 49,413 patients were registered on the ALD list for MS. Direct cost for MS patients was 469,719,967 €. The direct cost per patient and per year was 9,506 € with variations between regions (French administrative divisions) ranging from 10,800 € in northeastern France (Champagne-Ardenne) to 8,217 € in western France (Pays de la Loire). The different items of expenditure were treatments (44.5%), hospitalization (27.9%), nursing care (5.8%), physiotherapy (5.7%), transport (4%), biology (1.1%), and other (1.5%). During the course of the disease, the overall cost of MS increased slowly during the first 15 years (from 8,000 to 11,000 €), but dramatically the last year of life (23,410 €). The costs of immunomodulator treatments were higher during the first six years after registration on the ALD list. Conversely, physiotherapy costs increased linearly with time during the course of MS. Indirect costs were an estimated 116 million euros in 2004. A disability pension (8,918 € per patient) was perceived by 9,430 patients (19.1%) and a daily allowance (3,317 € per patient) by 9,894 patients (20%). In France, MS has an important

  20. Development of the Canadian Physiotherapy Assessment of Clinical Performance: A New Tool to Assess Physiotherapy Students' Performance in Clinical Education.

    PubMed

    Mori, Brenda; Brooks, Dina; Norman, Kathleen E; Herold, Jodi; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2015-08-01

    Objectif : Créer le premier projet d'outil canadien d'évaluation de la formation clinique des étudiants en physiothérapie. Phase 1: dégager un consensus sur les éléments constituants du nouvel outil, le nombre et l'emplacement des encadrés servant aux commentaires et l'échelle d'évaluation; Phase 2: explorer l'apparence et la validité du contenu du projet d'outil. Méthodes : On a utilisé, au cours de la Phase 1, la méthode Delphi et, au cours de la Phase 2, des entrevues cognitives menées auprès de nouveaux diplômés et de formateurs cliniques, ainsi que des entrevues détaillées menées auprès de spécialistes de l'éducation clinique et de la mesure. Résultats : On a dégagé un consensus sur la première version du nouvel outil au cours du cycle 3 du processus Delphi, que 21 participants ont terminé. On a réalisé des entrevues avec 13 formateurs cliniques, 6 nouveaux diplômés et 7 experts. Les nouveaux diplômés et les formateurs cliniques ont pu interpréter l'outil avec précision, qu'ils croyaient pouvoir appliquer à une expérience d'éducation clinique récente, et ont suggéré des améliorations. Les spécialistes ont fourni des conseils marquants. Conclusions : La première version d'un nouvel outil d'évaluation de la formation clinique des étudiants en physiothérapie, l'évaluation du rendement clinique (ERC) en physiothérapie canadienne, a été mis au point et fera l'objet d'autres améliorations et essais, y compris d'une consultation nationale des intervenants. Les données tirées de la Phase 2 contribueront à l'élaboration du module d'éducation en ligne.

  1. A Canadian survey of postgraduate education in Aboriginal women's health in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Jumah, Naana Afua; Wilson, Don; Shah, Rajiv

    2013-07-01

    Objectif : Évaluer les connaissances des résidents canadiens en obstétrique-gynécologie en matière de santé des femmes autochtones (SFA) et leur expérience dans ce domaine (y compris une auto-évaluation de la compétence), et déterminer la capacité des directeurs de programme de résidence d’offrir un curriculum en SFA et d’évaluer les ressources disponibles en vue de soutenir cette initiative. Méthodes : Des sondages destinés aux résidents et aux directeurs de programme ont été distribués dans tous les programmes de résidence agréés en obstétrique-gynécologie du Canada. Le sondage destiné aux résidents comptait 20 questions à choix multiple couvrant quatre domaines clés : connaissances générales au sujet des peuples autochtones du Canada; les effets du système de pensionnat; l’expérience clinique en SFA; et une auto-évaluation de la compétence en SFA. Le sondage destiné aux directeurs de programme comptait une évaluation du contenu du curriculum en SFA et des ressources disponibles en vue de soutenir ce curriculum. Résultats : Les résidents détiennent peu de connaissances préalables au sujet de la SFA et des déterminants de la santé, et sont conscients de ces lacunes. Ils s’intéressent à la SFA et reconnaissent l’importance de pouvoir disposer d’une formation dans ce domaine pour leurs activités professionnelles à venir. Les directeurs de programme soutiennent l’élaboration d’un curriculum en SFA, mais ne détiennent pas les ressources nécessaires pour offrir un curriculum exhaustif dans ce domaine et tireraient avantage de la disponibilité d’un curriculum standardisé. Conclusion : La mise sur pied d’une initiative nationale en ce qui concerne l’élaboration d’un curriculum pourrait constituer une façon efficace de faciliter l’offre d’une formation en SFA, tout en atténuant la nécessité pour chacun des programmes de chercher à obtenir des ressources à cette fin.

  2. Vaccination: Developing and implementing a competency-based-curriculum at the Medical Faculty of LMU Munich

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, B.; Reuter, S.; Taverna, M.; Fischer, M. R.; Schelling, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Germany medical students should gain proficiency and specific skills in the vaccination field. Especially important is the efficient communication of scientific results about vaccinations to the community, in order to give professional counseling with a complete overview about therapeutic options. Aim of the project: The aim of this project is to set up a vaccination-related curriculum in the Medical Faculty at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. The structure of the curriculum is based on the National catalogue for competency-based learning objectives in the field of vaccination (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielekatalog Medizin NKLM). Through this curriculum, the students will not only acquire the classical educational skills concerning vaccination in theory and practice, but they will also learn how to become independent in the decision-making process and counseling. Moreover, the students will become aware of consequences of action related to this specific topic. Methods: According to defined guidelines, an analysis was performed on courses, which are currently offered by the university. A separate analysis of the NKLM was carried out. Both analyses identified the active courses related to the topic of vaccination as well as the NKLM learning objectives. The match between the topics taught in current courses and the NKLM learning objectives identified gaps concerning the teaching of specific content. Courses were modified in order to implement the missing NKLM learning objectives. Results: These analyses identified 24 vaccination-related courses, which are currently taught at the University. Meanwhile, 35 learning objectives on vaccination were identified in the NKLM catalogue. Four of which were identified as not yet part of the teaching program. In summary, this interdisciplinary work enabled the development of a new vaccination-related curriculum, including 35 learning objectives, which are now implemented in regular teaching

  3. The Use of Meteosat Second Generation Satellite Data Within A New Type of Solar Irradiance Calculation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R. W.; Beyer, H. G.; Cros, S.; Dagestad, K. F.; Dumortier, D.; Ineichen, P.; Hammer, A.; Heinemann, D.; Kuhlemann, R.; Olseth, J. A.; Piernavieja, G.; Reise, C.; Schroedter, M.; Skartveit, A.; Wald, L.

    1-University of Oldenburg, 2-University of Appl. Sciences Magdeburg, 3-Ecole des Mines de Paris, 4-University of Bergen, 5-Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat, 6-University of Geneva, 7-Instituto Tecnologico de Canarias, 8-Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, 9-German Aerospace Center Geostationary satellites such as Meteosat provide cloud information with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Such satellites are therefore not only useful for weather fore- casting, but also for the estimation of solar irradiance since the knowledge of the light reflected by clouds is the basis for the calculation of the transmitted light. Additionally an the knowledge of atmospheric parameters involved in scattering and absorption of the sunlight is necessary for an accurate calculation of the solar irradiance. An accurate estimation of the downward solar irradiance is not only of particular im- portance for the assessment of the radiative forcing of the climate system, but also necessary for an efficient planning and operation of solar energy systems. Currently, most of the operational calculation schemes for solar irradiance are semi- empirical. They use cloud information from the current Meteosat satellite and clima- tologies of atmospheric parameters e.g. turbidity (aerosols and water vapor). The Me- teosat Second Generation satellites (MSG, to be launched in 2002) will provide not only a higher spatial and temporal resolution, but also the potential for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as ozone, water vapor and with restrictions aerosols. With this more detailed knowledge about atmospheric parameters it is evident to set up a new calculation scheme based on radiative transfer models using the retrieved atmospheric parameters as input. Unfortunately the possibility of deriving aerosol in- formation from MSG data is limited. As a cosequence the use of data from additional satellite instruments ( e.g. GOME/ATSR-2) is neeeded. Within this

  4. Forest structures retrieval from LiDAR onboard ULA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Following the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the assessment of forest carbon stock is one of the main elements for a better understanding of the carbon cycle and its evolution following the climate change. The forests sequester 80% of the continental biospheric carbon and this efficiency is a function of the tree species and the tree health. The airborne backscatter LiDAR onboard the ultra light aircraft (ULA) can provide the key information on the forest vertical structures and evolution in the time. The most important structural parameter is the tree top height, which is directly linked to the above-ground biomass using non-linear relationships. In order to test the LiDAR capability for retrieving the tree top height, the LiDAR ULICE (Ultraviolet LIdar for Canopy Experiment) has been used over different forest types, from coniferous (maritime pins) to deciduous (oaks, hornbeams ...) trees. ULICE works at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight between 15 and 75 cm. According to the LiDAR signal to noise ratio (SNR), two different algorithms have been used in our study. The first algorithm is a threshold method directly based on the comparison between the LiDAR signal and the noise distributions, while the second one used a low pass filter by fitting a Gaussian curve family. In this paper, we will present these two algorithms and their evolution as a function of the SNR. The main error sources will be also discussed and assessed for each algorithm. The results show that these algorithms have great potential for ground-segment of future space borne LiDAR missions dedicated to the forest survey at the global scale. Acknowledgements: the canopy LiDAR system ULICE has been developed by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique). It has been deployed with the support of CNES (Centre National d'Etude Spariales) and ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint for logistical help

  5. The chemical composition of TS 01, the most oxygen-deficient planetary nebula. AGB nucleosynthesis in a metal-poor binary star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Morisset, C.; Tovmassian, G.; Rauch, T.; Richer, M. G.; Peña, M.; Szczerba, R.; Decressin, T.; Charbonnel, C.; Yungelson, L.; Napiwotzki, R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Jamet, L.

    2010-02-01

    -France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407.

  6. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, M.; Ferrari, A.; Aime, C.

    This book reports the proceedings of the third Journées d'Imagerie à Très Haute Dynamique et Détection d'Exoplanètes (Days on High Contrast Imaging and Exoplanets Detection) that were held in Nice and Fréjus in May, 16th 19th, 2005, with the joint efforts of the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, the Collège de France, and the Laboratoire Universitaire d'Astrophysique de Nice of the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis. The first and second Journées led to the publications of Volumes 8 and 12 of EAS Publications Series sharing the common title “Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging”. Volume 8, subtitled “From Planetary Systems to Active Galactic Nuclei” collected 33 papers covering the very large domain of applications of High Contrast Imaging, from protoplanetary disks to AGNs. Volume 12, subtitled “Instrumentation for Coronagraphy and Nulling Interferometry” collected 29 papers dealing with technical aspects of the various experiments (apodisation, coronagraphy, nulling) that can lead to exoplanetographs, i.e. instruments able to directly record the light coming from planets orbitings stars other than the Sun. The present edition, third of these series on High Contrast Imaging, focuses on the aspects of image processing related to coronagraphy and nulling. Technologies in competition are numerous, either from the point-of-view of the methods (coronagraphy, nulling, traditional interferometry, interferometry with densified pupils, etc.), the spectral domain (observations from the visible to 10 μm), or the instrumentation (ground-based with the support of adaptive optics vs. space-born). Which techniques and instruments are the most efficient for a given astronomical objective? The answer to this question must definitely also take into account the data processing retained for each instrument and a precise analysis of the related signal-to-noise ratio. This school gathered basic lessons on

  7. Formation and ridging of flaw leads in the eastern Canadian Beaufort Sea. Special Session C06 on: “Physical, biological and biogeochemical processes associated with young thin ice types”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsenberg, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Formation and ridging of flaw leads in the eastern Canadian Beaufort Sea. Simon Prinsenberg1 and Yves Graton2 1Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada P.O. Box1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2, Canada prinsenbergs@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca 2Inst. National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, INRS-ETE University of Quebec at Quebec City, Quebec yvesgratton@eteinrs.ca During the winter of 2008, the flaw lead south of Banks Island repeatedly opened and closed representing an elongated region where periodically the large ice growth stimulates the densification of the surface layer due to salt rejection and instigates a local circulation pattern that will affect the biological processes of the region. Helicopter-borne sensors were available to monitor the aftermath of one of the rapid closing of the flaw lead into extensive elongated rubble field using a Canadian Ice breaker, CCGS Amundsen, as a logistic base. After the wind reversed a new open flaw lead 20km wide restarting a new flaw lead formation cycle. Ice thickness and surface roughness data were collected from the rubble field and adjacent open flaw lead with an Electromagnetic-Laser system. The strong wind event of April 4-5 2009 generated a large linear 1.5km wide ice rubble field up to 8-10m thick when the 60cm thick, 18km wide flaw lead was crunched into land-fast by the 1.5m thick offshore pack ice. It is expected that during rapid ice growth in a flaw lead, salt rejection increase the density of the surface water layer producing a surface depression (Low) and cyclonic circulation. In contrast at depth, the extra surface dense water produces a high in the horizontal pressure field and anti-cyclonic circulation which remains after the rapid ice growth within the flaw lead stops. One of such remnants may have been observed during the CFL-IPY winter survey.

  8. The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, M.; Pacher, C.; Alléaume, R.; Barreiro, C.; Bouda, J.; Boxleitner, W.; Debuisschert, T.; Diamanti, E.; Dianati, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fasel, S.; Fossier, S.; Fürst, M.; Gautier, J.-D.; Gay, O.; Gisin, N.; Grangier, P.; Happe, A.; Hasani, Y.; Hentschel, M.; Hübel, H.; Humer, G.; Länger, T.; Legré, M.; Lieger, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Lorünser, T.; Lütkenhaus, N.; Marhold, A.; Matyus, T.; Maurhart, O.; Monat, L.; Nauerth, S.; Page, J.-B.; Poppe, A.; Querasser, E.; Ribordy, G.; Robyr, S.; Salvail, L.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.; Stucki, D.; Suda, M.; Tamas, C.; Themel, T.; Thew, R. T.; Thoma, Y.; Treiber, A.; Trinkler, P.; Tualle-Brouri, R.; Vannel, F.; Walenta, N.; Weier, H.; Weinfurter, H.; Wimberger, I.; Yuan, Z. L.; Zbinden, H.; Zeilinger, A.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present the quantum key distribution (QKD) network designed and implemented by the European project SEcure COmmunication based on Quantum Cryptography (SECOQC) (2004-2008), unifying the efforts of 41 research and industrial organizations. The paper summarizes the SECOQC approach to QKD networks with a focus on the trusted repeater paradigm. It discusses the architecture and functionality of the SECOQC trusted repeater prototype, which has been put into operation in Vienna in 2008 and publicly demonstrated in the framework of a SECOQC QKD conference held from October 8 to 10, 2008. The demonstration involved one-time pad encrypted telephone communication, a secure (AES encryption protected) video-conference with all deployed nodes and a number of rerouting experiments, highlighting basic mechanisms of the SECOQC network functionality. The paper gives an overview of the eight point-to-point network links in the prototype and their underlying technology: three plug and play systems by id Quantique, a one way weak pulse system from Toshiba Research in the UK, a coherent one-way system by GAP Optique with the participation of id Quantique and the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology (formerly ARCAustrian Research Centers GmbH—ARC is now operating under the new name AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH following a restructuring initiative.), an entangled photons system by the University of Vienna and the AIT, a continuous-variables system by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and THALES Research and Technology with the participation of Université Libre de Bruxelles, and a free space link by the Ludwig Maximillians University in Munich connecting two nodes situated in adjacent buildings (line of sight 80 m). The average link length is between 20 and 30 km, the longest link being 83 km. The paper presents the architecture and functionality of the principal networking agent—the SECOQC node module, which enables the authentic

  9. Crazy heart: kinematics of the "star pile" in Abell 545

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Richtler, T.; West, M. J.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Lloyd-Davies, E.; Schuberth, Y.

    2011-04-01

    des Science de l'Univers of the Centre Natio nal de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  10. The XMM-LSS survey: optical assessment and properties of different X-ray selected cluster classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Mazure, A.; Pierre, M.; Sprimont, P. G.; Libbrecht, C.; Pacaud, F.; Clerc, N.; Sadibekova, T.; Surdej, J.; Altieri, B.; Duc, P. A.; Galaz, G.; Gueguen, A.; Guennou, L.; Hertling, G.; Ilbert, O.; Le Fèvre, J. P.; Quintana, H.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J. P.; Akiyama, M.; Aussel, H.; Chiappetti, L.; Detal, A.; Garilli, B.; Lebrun, V.; Lefèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Melin, J. B.; Ponman, T. J.; Ricci, D.; Tresse, L.

    2011-02-01

    Context. XMM and Chandra opened a new area for the study of clusters of galaxies not only for cluster physics, but also for the detection of faint and distant clusters that were inaccessible with previous missions. Aims: This article presents 66 spectroscopically confirmed clusters (0.05 ≤ z ≤ 1.5) within an area of 6 deg2 enclosed in the XMM-LSS survey. Almost two thirds have been confirmed with dedicated spectroscopy only and 10% have been confirmed with dedicated spectroscopy supplemented by literature redshifts. Methods: Sub-samples, or classes, of extended-sources are defined in a two-dimensional X-ray parameter space allowing for various degrees of completeness and contamination. We describe the procedure developed to assess the reality of these cluster candidates using the CFHTLS photometric data and spectroscopic information from our own follow-up campaigns. Results: Most of these objects are low-mass clusters, hence constituting a still poorly studied population. In a second step, we quantify the correlations between the optical properties such as richness or velocity dispersion and the cluster X-ray luminosities. We examine the relation of the clusters to the cosmic web. Finally, we review peculiar compact structures in the surveyed area such as very distant clusters and fossil groups. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations collected at TNG (La Palma, Spain), Magellan (Chile), and at ESO Telescopes

  11. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  12. Magnetic fields of young solar twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Hackman, T.; Lehtinen, J.

    2016-09-01

    telescope at La Silla (Chile), under the program ID 091.D-0836. Also based on observations obtained at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL, Pic du Midi, France) of the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory, which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.

  13. Cosmological Constraints from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladders, Michael D.; Yee, H. K. C.; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Hoekstra, Henk; Hall, Patrick B.; Infante, Leopoldo

    2007-01-01

    Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  14. Magnetic field topology of τ Scorpii. The uniqueness problem of Stokes V ZDI inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    field topology ambiguous. Stokes Q and U spectropolarimetric observations represent the only way of breaking the degeneracy of surface magnetic field models. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  15. HD 18078: A very slowly rotating Ap star with an unusual magnetic field structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, G.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Pyper, D. M.; Adelman, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    -France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated from the summit of Maunakea by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; and at the 6-m telescope BTA of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences.Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A85

  16. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de

  17. Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs μ des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs κ des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

  18. Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokalp, Iskender

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions R. Thimothée, C. Chauveau, F. Halter, I Gökalp Institut de Combustion, Aérothermique, Réactivité et Environnement (ICARE), CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2, France This paper presents and discusses recent results on two-phase flame propagation experiments we carried out with mono-sized ethanol droplet aerosols under microgravity conditions. Fundamental studies on the flame propagation in fuel droplet clouds or sprays are essential for a better understanding of the combustion processes in many practical applications including internal combustion engines for cars, modern aircraft and liquid rocket engines. Compared to homogeneous gas phase combustion, the presence of a liquid phase considerably complicates the physico-chemical processes that make up combustion phenomena by coupling liquid atomization, droplet vaporization, mixing and heterogeneous combustion processes giving rise to various combustion regimes where ignition problems and flame instabilities become crucial to understand and control. Almost all applications of spray combustion occur under high pressure conditions. When a high pressure two-phase flame propagation is investigated under normal gravity conditions, sedimentation effects and strong buoyancy flows complicate the picture by inducing additional phenomena and obscuring the proper effect of the presence of the liquid droplets on flame propagation compared to gas phase flame propagation. Conducting such experiments under reduced gravity conditions is therefore helpful for the fundamental understanding of two-phase combustion. We are considering spherically propagating two-phase flames where the fuel aerosol is generated from a gaseous air-fuel mixture using the condensation technique of expansion cooling, based on the Wilson cloud chamber principle. This technique is widely recognized to create well-defined mono-size droplets

  19. Evidence for major mergers of galaxies at 2 ≲ z < 4 in the VVDS and VUDS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasca, L. A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Wang, P.-W.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Tresse, L.; Bardelli, S.; Contini, T.; Charlot, S.; Cucciati, O.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Salvato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2014-05-01

    -0791. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Teaching About The Nexus of Energy, Water and Climate Through Traditional Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. K.; Mayhew, M. A.; Kaminsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    Getting to a sustainable energy economy, while conserving water resources and mitigating climate change, will involve myriad choices. Thus, it is important that the American public have an improved science-based understanding to form a strong basis for decision-making and to understand the trade-offs. To address this need, we are developing compelling, resource management style games that convey the intimate inter-relationships among energy demand, water consumption, and climate change and the importance of these inter-relationships to society. We have developed a card game with the help of professional game developer and an advisory group consisting of high school students and scientists involved with different aspects of energy-climate-water research as well as experts from the energy utilities and regulatory sectors. We have developed the card game based on real world data on energy production and consumption, regional climate information, and knowledge of emerging technologies that would mitigate the demand for energy, consumption of water with energy production, or climate change. The game is being played within the setting of our Cafe Scientifique program, now in its fifth year of serving high school age teens. One of the important aspects of the game is to find the right balance of energy output for various sources, water use by these sources, and amount of "pollution" generated (CO2 impacting climate, but also other kinds, such a radioactive waste and ground water contamination). Each player acts as "governor" of a specific region of the country, and no region has an a priori advantage. At the same time, it is important that the energy-water-pollution values we use correspond as closely as possible to real-world values. Data gathered from a combination of focus groups, surveys, and observations strongly suggest that this game, grounded in real life problems, stimulates authentic, meaningful learning. There is also some evidence that if games, such as this

  1. CSI 2264: Characterizing Accretion-burst Dominated Light Curves for Young Stars in NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Baglin, Annie; Alencar, Silvia; Rebull, Luisa; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Venuti, Laura; Turner, Neal J.; Carpenter, John; Plavchan, Peter; Findeisen, Krzysztof; Carey, Sean; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouvier, Jerome; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Whitney, Barbara; Barrado, David; Vrba, Frederick J.; Covey, Kevin; Herbst, William; Furesz, Gabor; Aigrain, Suzanne; Favata, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    program 088.C-0239. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. MegaCam is a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  2. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    configurations is presented. Future research will focus on the design of an adapted radar antenna for that application to optimize living tree trunk tomography. This research is funded by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, Belgium) and benefits from networking activities carried out within the EU COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  3. COSBO: The MAMBO 1.2 Millimeter Imaging Survey of the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, F.; Carilli, C.; Aravena, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Voss, H.; Smolcic, V.; Jahnke, K.; Scoville, N.; Blain, A.; Menten, K. M.; Lutz, D.; Brusa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Capak, P.; Mobasher, B.; Lilly, S.; Thompson, D.; Aussel, H.; Kreysa, E.; Hasinger, G.; Aguirre, J.; Schlaerth, J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2007-09-01

    Astronomical Observatory of Japan; XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope operated by the National Research Council of Canada, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France and the University of Hawaii.

  4. HN Peg B: A Test of Models of the L to T Dwarf Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Saumon, D.; Albert, Loic; Cushing, Michael C.; Liu, Michael C.; Luhman, K. L.; Marley, M. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Roellig, Thomas L.; Allers, K. N.

    2008-08-01

    Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  5. Dynamical Properties of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies and a Universal Star Formation Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Lehnert, M.; Lutz, D.; Nesvadba, N.; Shapiro, K. L.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.; Verma, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Erb, D. K.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    , 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 077.A-0576, 078.A-0600, and 079.A-0341 and on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  6. Starburst activity in the host galaxy of the z =2.58 quasar J1409+5628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, A.; Cox, P.; Pety, J.; Carilli, C. L.; Bertoldi, F.; Momjian, E.; Omont, A.; Petitjean, P.; Petric, A. O.

    2004-08-01

    We report the detection of CO emission from the optically luminous, radio-quiet quasar J140955.5+562827 (hereafter J1409+5628), at a redshift zCO =2.583. We also present VLA continuum maps and VLBA high spatial resolution observations at 1.4 GHz. Both the CO(3->2) and CO(7->6) emission lines are detected using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. The 3->2/7->6 line luminosity ratio is about 1/3, indicating the presence of warm and dense molecular gas with an estimated mass of 6 × 1010 M⊙. The infrared-to-CO luminosity ratio LFIR/L'CO(1->0) ≈ 500 L⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, comparable to values found for other high-z sources where CO line emission is seen. J1409+5628 is detected using the VLA with a 1.4 GHz rest-frame luminosity density of 4.0 × 1025 W Hz-1. The rest-frame radio to far-infrared ratio, q, has a value of 2.0 which is similar to the values found in star forming galaxies. At the 30 mas resolution of the VLBA, J1409+5628 is not detected with a 4σ upper limit to the surface brightness of 0.29 mJy beam-1. This implies a limit to the intrinsic brightness temperature of 2 × 105 K at 8 GHz, typical for nuclear starbursts and more than two orders of magnitude fainter than typical radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Both the properties of the CO line emission and the radio emission from J1409+5628 are therefore consistent with those expected for a star forming galaxy. In J1409+5628 young massive stars are the dominant source of dust heating, accounting for most of the infrared luminosity. The massive reservoir of molecular gas can sustain the star formation rate of a few 1000 M⊙ yr-1 implied by the far-infrared luminosity for about 10 million years. This paper is based on observations obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is funded by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  7. Detections of CO Molecular Gas in 24 μm Bright ULIRGs at z ~ 2 in the Spitzer First Look Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lin; Tacconi, L. J.; Fiolet, N.; Sajina, A.; Omont, A.; Lutz, D.; Zamojski, M.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Dasyra, K. M.

    2010-05-01

    the Institute for Radioastronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain).

  8. Designing a new post-hole seismological station on Antarctica inlandsis (Concordia station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Maggi, A.; Leveque, J. J.; Thore, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    of ice.The drilling will be carried out by the French drilling facility C2FN (Centre de Carottage et de Forage National) of the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), and the is planned for the 2018-2019 summer season.

  9. Weak Lensing Calibrated M-T Scaling Relation of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS Fieldsstarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettula, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Taylor, J. E.; Spinelli, P. F.; Tanaka, M.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Koekemoer, A.

    2013-11-01

    are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the National Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, TERAPIX, and the University of Hawaii.

  10. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.Table A.1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A17

  11. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of

  12. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, H. D.; Cunningham, N. J.; Gustafsson, M.; Bally, J.; Lemaire, J.-L.; Favre, C.; Field, D.

    2012-04-01

    coincidence. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  13. A Burger, A Beer, and A Side of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehe, Ben; Landsberg, R. H.; Wyatt, R. J.; Turner, M. S.

    2008-05-01

    Science Cafés (aka Café Scientifiques) engage unconventional adult audiences and help researchers hone their communication skills in a relaxed and fun setting. Typically held in restaurants and pubs, Science Cafés provide a comfortable place for the public to speak with a scientist. National and local evaluations of the Café format indicate that cafes are an effective way to engage adult audiences (especially non-scientists). Continued media coverage also demonstrate that something about them captures the public's imagination. Join us for an interactive session about organizing, presenting and partnering with Science Cafés to bring IYA themes (and other current research) directly to new audiences. Real world examples from experienced Café organizers and presenters will provide an overview of what a Science Café is, how to start one and how to use the format to draw attention to astronomy topics. The discussion will include suggestions for tapping into the existing national and international community of Cafés (there are more than 60 in the US alone), and information about free outreach resources. Break-out exercises will help prepare you to: find a suitable venue, advertise, work with café speakers, and foster the inclusive conversation that is the hallmark of a Science Café. Participants will also learn about the impacts that can be expected from a Science Café including benefits to audiences, Café presenters, and hosting organizations. The overall goal of this session is to stimulate a discussion about strategies for facilitating face-to-face communication between scientists and lay audiences. Participants will have the opportunity to create their own promotional plan for a Café event, including the important process of framing a topic to grab public attention, and developing strategies for reaching new target audiences. Substantial time will be allowed for participants to discuss how the Science Café format might be adapted for their specific

  14. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapie utilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zeggwagh, Ali Amine; Lahlou, Younes; Bousliman, Yassir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dans le but d'étudier l'aspect toxicologique des plantes médicinales utilisées en médecine traditionnelle, une étude ethnobotanique a été réalisée à la ville de Fès au centre du Maroc. Méthodes Ont été inclus dans l'étude tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une prescription par l'herboriste de plantes à visée thérapeutique. La discussion de nos résultats s'est faite sur la base d'une revue de la littérature avec identification des principales plantes toxiques utilisées en phytothérapie au Maroc. L'approche bibliographique a permis de compléter les informations. Résultats L'âge moyen des patients traités par des plantes (38 femmes, 32 hommes) était de 35 ± 18 ans. L'enquête ethnobotanique à révélé que la majorité des plantes médicinales étaient utilisées contre les affections urinaires (21%), suivi des maladies de l'appareil digestif (19.6%) et des maladies rhumatologiques (18.2%). Le nombre de plantes prescrits par l'herboriste a été de 53 dont 5 sont potentiellement toxiques. L'identification taxonomique des plantes prescrites a recensé 30 familles dont les plus représentées sont les Lamiaceae (23.33%), les Apiaceae (13,33%) et les Asteraceae (10%). La prescription des plantes considérées comme toxiques a concerné 7,1% des consultants traités par les plantes médicinales. Aucune complication inhérente aux plantes prescrites n'a été déplorée. Conclusion Malgré les résultats encourageants de notre enquête sur le compte de la phytothérapie, la pratique de la phytothérapie est laissée à la vulgarisation et à l'oubli scientifique, législatif et universitaire. PMID:23734270

  15. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  16. The remarkably unremarkable global abundance variations of the magnetic Bp star HD 133652

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    . Based in part on our own observations made with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes under the ESO programme 086.D-0449(A). It is also based in part on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Universe of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii.

  17. Using Games To Explore The Nexus of Climate, Energy, and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. K.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a set of card games to teach teens and adults about the interdependency of energy demand, water consumption, and climate change, which we term the nexus of energy, water, and climate. The latest game challenges players to construct arguments around issues related to the nexus, such as the benefits of carbon sequestration or the negative impacts of consuming corn biofuel. The game has been through several rounds of playtesting, both with teens and adults, and in formal and informal learning environments, such as our ongoing teen Cafe Scientifique program (www.cafenm.org). The card game consists of two types of cards, "Challenge" and "Policy." Each round, one player acting as the Judge draws a Challenge card and reads the adjective—for example, dangerous, clean, catastrophic, awesome— and its definition displayed on the card. The other players hold Policy cards containing 3 or 4 facts related to nexus concepts. For example, the Algae bio-diesel fuel policy card contains the fact, "Algae can produce 100 times more fuel per acre that any other biofuel crop". A fact on the Tight shale gas policy card reads, "Chemicals used in 'fracking' can contaminate water supplies." Using the facts on a single Policy card, each player constructs an argument aligned with the adjective—and presents it to the Judge. This requires players to synthesize the given facts and any prior knowledge about the topic into a coherent argument. As players make their arguments, everyone is challenged to think about the nuances and implications of the myriad choices we have in balancing the needs for water and energy resources with the challenge of minimizing climate change. The Judge decides which player makes the policy argument that best aligns with the adjective, and that player wins the round. Players take turns being the Judge. The first player to win three rounds wins the game. The game has been well received by both teen and adult audiences. It is a highly social game

  18. An investigation of the magnetic properties of the classical Be star ω Ori by the MiMeS Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Petit, V.; ud-Doula, A.; Wade, G. A.; Landstreet, J.; de Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Huat, A.-L.

    2012-11-01

    hosts a stable, organized (fossil) magnetic field that is responsible for the observed phenomena, but with a strength that is below our current detection threshold. Of these three scenarios, we consider the second one (dynamo process) as highly unlikely, whereas the other two should be falsifiable with intense monitoring. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii and observations obtained with the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL), Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France.

  19. High-resolution mapping of soil moisture at the field scale using ground-penetrating radar for improving remote sensing data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambot, Sébastien; Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Phuong Tran, Anh; Nottebaere, Martijn; Leonard, Aline; Defourny, Pierre; Neyt, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    was not available before. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office in the frame of the Stereo II programme - project SR/00/159 (SENSAR)and the FNRS (Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium), and has benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar".

  20. SALT2: using distant supernovae to improve the use of type Ia supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Baumont, S.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Antilogus, P.; Aubourg, E.; Bazin, G.; Bronder, J.; Filiol, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ripoche, P.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2007-04-01

    Aims:We present an empirical model of type Ia supernovae spectro-photometric evolution with time. Methods: The model is built using a large data set including light-curves and spectra of both nearby and distant supernovae, the latter being observed by the SNLS collaboration. We derive the average spectral sequence of type Ia supernovae and their main variability components including a color variation law. The model allows us to measure distance moduli in the spectral range 2500-8000 Å with calculable uncertainties, including those arising from variability of spectral features. Results: Thanks to the use of high-redshift SNe to model the rest-frame UV spectral energy distribution, we are able to derive improved distance estimates for SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.8Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486). Based on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2003B-Q-9, and GS-2003B-Q-8) obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and

  1. The VIMOS VLT deep survey. The K-band follow-up in the 0226-04 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporin, S.; Iovino, A.; Bolzonella, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; de la Torre, S.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Walcher, C. J.

    2008-04-01

    We present a new K_s-band survey that represents a significant extension to the previous wide-field K_s-band imaging survey within the 0226-04 field of the VIMOS-VLT deep survey (VVDS). The new data add ~458 arcmin2 to the previous imaging program, thus allowing us to cover a total contiguous area of ~600 arcmin2 within this field. Sources were identified both directly on the final K-band mosaic image and on the corresponding, deep χ^2-g'r'i' image from the CFHT Legacy Survey in order to reduce contamination, while ensuring compilation of a truly K-selected catalogue down to the completeness limit of the K_s-band. The newly determined K_s-band magnitudes are used in combination with the ancillary multiwavelength data for determining accurate photometric redshifts. The final catalogue totals ~52 000 sources, out of which ~4400 have a spectroscopic redshift from the VVDS first epoch survey. The catalogue is 90% complete down to KVega = 20.5 mag. We present K_s-band galaxy counts and angular correlation function measurements down to this magnitude limit. Our results are in good agreement with previously published work. We show that using K magnitudes to determine photometric redshifts significantly lowers the incidence of catastrophic errors. The data presented in this paper are publicly available through the CENCOS database. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, La Silla, Chile, programme 075.A-0752(A), on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, programme 070.A-9007(A), and on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products

  2. The weak magnetic field of the O9.7 supergiant ζOrionisA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouret, J.-C.; Donati, J.-F.; Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Marcolino, W.; Lanz, T.; Howarth, I. D.

    2008-09-01

    We report here the detection of a weak magnetic field of 50-100G on the O9.7 supergiant ζOrionisA (ζOriA), using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with NARVAL at the 2-m Télescope Bernard Lyot atop Pic du Midi (France). ζOriA is the third O star known to host a magnetic field (along with θ1OriC and HD191612), and the first detection on a `normal' rapidly rotating O star. The magnetic field of ζOriA is the weakest magnetic field ever detected on a massive star. The measured field is lower than the thermal equipartition limit (about 100G). By fitting non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres to our spectra, we determined that ζOriA is a 40Msolar star with a radius of 25Rsolar and an age of about 5-6Myr, showing no surface nitrogen enhancement and losing mass at a rate of about 2 × 10-6Msolaryr-1. The magnetic topology of ζOriA is apparently more complex than a dipole and involves two main magnetic polarities located on both sides of the same hemisphere; our data also suggest that ζOriA rotates in about 7.0d and is about 40° away from pole-on to an Earth-based observer. Despite its weakness, the detected magnetic field significantly affects the wind structure; the corresponding Alfvén radius is however very close to the surface, thus generating a different rotational modulation in wind lines than that reported on the two other known magnetic O stars. The rapid rotation of ζOriA with respect to θ1OriC appears as a surprise, both stars having similar unsigned magnetic fluxes (once rescaled to the same radius); it may suggest that the subequipartition field detected on ζOriA is not a fossil remnant (as opposed to that of θ1 OriC and HD191612), but the result of an exotic dynamo action produced through magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL), operated by the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France

  3. Nonequilibrium dynamics in chemical systems A brief account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolis, G.; Baras, F.

    1985-12-01

    During the period of September 3 to 7, 1984 a symposium on “Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Chemical Systems” was organized by the Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal in Bordeaux, France. It was supported, primarily, by the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and attended by about 90 participants from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Israël, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Poland, Tchekoslovakia, Spain, United Kingdom, United States and Zimbabwe. A list of topics and speakers is found in the table below. Two highly successful conferences centered on nonlinear phenomena in chemical systems far from equilibrium had already been organized by the Bordeaux group in the past. The first of them [1], held in September 1978, was dominated by the theme that nonequilibrium can act as a source of order. Sustained oscillations and bistability were the two principal phenomena studied from this point of view. Thanks to the systematic utilization of the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) the study of open systems could finally be realized. Reliable state diagrams were thus produced, notably by the Bordeaux group, in which one could identify the transition points to new states. The Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction and its variants were the main vehicle on which these new ideas could be illustrated. The second Bordeaux conference [2], held in September 1981, was largely dominated by the major progress that had just marked two vital areas of this field: the discovery of new classes of chemical oscillators; and the invasion of chaotic dynamics in chemistry. These themes also dominated the first Gordon Conference on Chemical Oscillations held in New Hampshire in July 1982. In contrast to its two predecessors, the third Bordeaux conference held in September 1984 was not dominated by a single central theme. New questions were raised in situations in which until very recently things were considered to be perfectly clear. Simple,

  4. The french involvement in Mars sample return program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counil, J.; Bonneville, R.; Rocard, F.

    The French scientific community is involved in planetary exploration for more than thirty years, at the beginning mainly in cooperation with the former USSR (e.g. missions Phobos 1 and 2 in the 80's), then through ESA (Mars - Express). In 97, following the success of the US Pathfinder mission, NASA proposed to CNES to participate to the first Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. This idea created a tremendous excitation in the French scientific community and CNES took the decision to contribute to the MSR program. Conscious that only the very best laboratories will be selected to analyse Mars samples, the French ministry of Research has created in May 99, the CSEEM (Comité Scientifique pour l'Etude des Echantillons Martiens). This Committee mandated to coordinate the national endeavour, has released late 99 an AO aimed at implementing a national preparatory program to Mars samples analysis. More than 40 proposals have been submitted involving more than 450 scientists from around 60 French labs. Most of these proposals are interdisciplinarity jointly submitted by planetologists, mineralogists, geochemists, astrobiologists and biologists. The first stage of this preparatory program is on going and will last until mid-2003. Amongst the priorities of the preparatory program are development of dedicated instrumentation, capability of analysing as small as possible samples, measurements integration; rock-macromolecule interaction; bacteria behaviour under Martian conditions; sample transportation under quarantine conditions, etc In the late 90's, the French participation to the NASA led 2003-2005 MSR mission was mainly consisting in a sample return orbiter to be launched by an Ariane V rocket. This contribution to MSR was one of the two priorities of the CNES Mars Exploration Program named PREMIER together with the NetLander network. Unfortunately late 99, due the failure of the two NASA missions MPL and MCO, a rearchitecture of the program has been decided and the first

  5. Atelier d'astronomie X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballet, J.; Barret, D.

    2001-01-01

    L'astronomie X connait aujourd'hui une de ses périodes les plus actives et les plus fastes, après le lancement de Chandra et XMM-Newton, et alors que Beppo SAX et Rossi XTE sont toujours en orbite. L'extraordinaire complémentarité de ces satellites est telle que leur domaine d'utilisation est extrêmement vaste, couvrant des étoiles jeunes aux toujours énigmatiques sursauts γ, en passant bien entendu par les trous noirs accrétants dans les binaires X ou dans les noyaux actifs de galaxies. L'atelier fut organisé selon quatre thèmes les étoiles, les phénomènes explosifs, les binaires X et les noyaux actifs de galaxies. Les résultats qui y furent présentés, pour chacun de ces thèmes témoignent de la superbe qualité des données obtenues. En particulier l'accès à la haute résolution spectrale (réseaux) en rayons X marque un pas important. Les présentations plus théoriques ont montré que parallèlement des progrès significatifs sont réalisés dans la physique de l'accrétion autour des objets compacts. Les actes de l'atelier donnent un panorama représentatif des progrès réalisés récemment par l'astronomie X, aussi bien du point de vue observationnel que théorique. Ces actes de colloque sont aussi l'occasion de rappeler l'historique et ce que furent les activités scientifiques de notre GdR au moment ou il doit s'intègrer au GdR PCHE et au PNPS. Enfin, pour toutes informations complémentaires concernant l'atelier: http://www.cesr.fr/~barret/adj/vg.html Ce site donne accès en particulier à la plupart des présentations (transparents).

  6. La physique nucléaire en astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, M.; Samyn, M.

    é nucléaire. Bien que des progrès considérables ont été réalisés dans cette exploration, nous mettons en évidence que bien du travail reste à faire et qu'une meilleure compréhension mutuelle entre physiciens nucléaires et astrophysiciens ne pourrait manquer d'être la source de nouvelles et exaltantes aventures scientifiques.

  7. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  8. Weak lensing mass reconstruction of the galaxy cluster Abell 209

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Haines, C. P.; Radovich, M.; Mercurio, A.; Becciani, U.

    2007-05-01

    , the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  9. The low-mass population of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Bouy, H.; Marmo, C.; Albert, L.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Star formation theories are currently divergent regarding the fundamental physical processes that dominate the substellar regime. Observations of nearby young open clusters allow the brown dwarf (BD) population to be characterised down to the planetary mass regime, which ultimately must be accommodated by a successful theory. Aims: We hope to uncover the low-mass population of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud and investigate the properties of the newly found brown dwarfs. Methods: We used near-IR deep images (reaching completeness limits of approximately 20.5 mag in J and 18.9 mag in H and Ks) taken with the Wide Field IR Camera (WIRCam) at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) to identify candidate members of ρ Oph in the substellar regime. A spectroscopic follow-up of a small sample of the candidates allows us to assess their spectral type and subsequently their temperature and membership. Results: We select 110 candidate members of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud, from which 80 have not previously been associated with the cloud. We observed a small sample of these and spectroscopically confirm six new brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from M6.5 to M8.25. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made at the ESO La Silla and Paranal Observatory under program 083.C-0092. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, and obtained from the SMOKA, which is operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Research supported by the Marie Curie Research Training Network CONSTELLATION under grant No. MRTN-CT- 2006-035890.Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via

  10. Young T-dwarf candidates in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, A. S. M.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Marmo, C.; Albert, L.; Bouy, H.

    2009-12-01

    Context: The determination of the lower-end of the initial mass function (IMF) provides strong constraints on star formation theories. Aims: We report here on a search for isolated planetary-mass objects in the 3 Myr-old star-forming region IC 348. Methods: Deep, narrowband CH4off and CH4on images were obtained with CFHT/WIRCam over 0.11 sq. deg. in the central part of IC 348 to identify young T-dwarfs from their 1.6 μm methane absorption bands. Results: We report three faint T-dwarf candidates with CH4on-CH4off colours >0.4 mag. Extinction was estimated for each candidate and lies in the range AV ~ 5-12 mag. Comparisons with T-dwarf spectral models, and colour/colour and colour/magnitude diagrams, reject two of the three candidates because of their extreme z'-J blueness. The one remaining object is not thought to be a foreground field dwarf because of a number density argument and also its strong extinction AV ~ 12 mag, or thought to be a background field T-dwarf which would be expected to be much fainter. Models and diagrams give this object a preliminary T6 spectral type. Conclusions: With a few Jupiter masses, the young T-dwarf candidate reported here is potentially amongst the youngest, lowest mass objects detected in a star-forming region so far. Its frequency is consistent with the extrapolation of current lognormal IMF estimates down to the planetary mass domain. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the “University of Hawaii. Research supported by the Marie Curie Research Training Network CONSTELLATION” under grant no. MRTN-CT-2006-035890.

  11. Teens Discovering Science in the News: An Opportunity for Scientists to Communicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Michelle; Mayhew, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Teens Discussing Science in the News: An Opportunity for Scientists to Communicate We have developed a program directed by teens and for teens to discuss current science and technology topics in the news. Modeled after the international Café Scientifique program for adults, we combine a social atmosphere with discussion of controversial topics to challenge teens to think about how science affects their lives. Our approach is for short story telling presentations during which the speaker identifies a single important idea and scientific principle to communicate. A good speaker will leave the audience with a dilemma or controversy to discuss, and with further opportunities to learn. A good speaker does not take him/herself too seriously and will work to fully engage the audience on the things that they can relate to. We integrate trivia quizzes at the beginning or the presenter questions the audience about assumptions they have about the topic. These techniques allow the presenter to gauge the knowledge level of the audience, while keeping them engaged and processing new information. We incorporate hands on learning from building model fuel cell cars, to analyzing the science in popular movies, to using Google Earth and remote sensing imagery to spy. Controversial topics such as geoengineering the climate, the role of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, the future of hydrogen fuel cells/cars, carbon sequestration, and the nexus of water, climate and energy are often presented within a scientific, economic and social or political framework because science is only part of the solution. What we have learned is that teens begin to see science everywhere in their lives. We commonly hear the youth say - I did not know that is what geoscientists did! They learn to appreciate and can put the science they learn in school within a more relevant context. They like the challenge of finding solutions, but turn off to presentations on topics that seem to have no good solutions

  12. Ingredients for protist coexistence: competition, endosymbiosis and a pinch of biochemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johann P; Hauzy, Céline; Hulot, Florence D

    2012-01-01

    1. The interaction between mutualism, facilitation or interference and exploitation competition is of major interest as it may govern species coexistence. However, the interplay of these mechanisms has received little attention. This issue dates back to Gause, who experimentally explored competition using protists as a model [Gause, G.F. (1935) Vérifications expérimentales de la théorie mathématique de la lutte pour la vie. Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles, 277]. He showed the coexistence of Paramecium caudatum with a potentially allelopathic species, Paramecium bursaria. 2. Paramecium bursaria hosts the green algae Chlorella vulgaris. Therefore, P. bursaria may benefit from carbohydrates synthesised by the algae. Studying endosymbiosis with P. bursaria is possible as it can be freed of its endosymbiont. In addition, C. vulgaris is known to produce allelochemicals, and P. bursaria may benefit also from allelopathic compounds. 3. We designed an experiment to separate the effects of resource exploitation, endosymbiosis and allelopathy and to assess their relative importance for the coexistence of P. bursaria with a competitor that exploits the same resource, bacteria. The experiment was repeated with two competitors, Colpidium striatum or Tetrahymena pyriformis. 4. Results show that the presence of the endosymbiont enables the coexistence of competitors, while its loss leads to competitive exclusion. These results are in agreement with predictions based on resource equilibrium density of monocultures (R*) supporting the idea that P. bursaria's endosymbiont is a resource provider for its host. When P. bursaria and T. pyriformis coexist, the density of the latter shows large variation that match the effects of culture medium of P. bursaria. Our experiment suggests these effects are because of biochemicals produced in P. bursaria culture. 5. Our results expose the hidden diversity of mechanisms that underlie competitive interactions. They thus support

  13. Weak lensing study of 16 DAFT/FADA clusters: Substructures and filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Clowe, Douglas; Durret, Florence; Adami, Christophe; Acebrón, Ana; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Márquez, Isabel; Guennou, Loic; Sarron, Florian; Ulmer, Mel

    2016-05-01

    While our current cosmological model places galaxy clusters at the nodes of a filament network (the cosmic web), we still struggle to detect these filaments at high redshifts. We perform a weak lensing study for a sample of 16 massive, medium-high redshift (0.4 Scientifique (CNRS) of

  14. Revival of the "Sun Festival": An educational and outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, Luca

    2016-10-01

    In ancient times, past civilisations used to celebrate both the winter and summer solstices, which represented key moments in the periodical cycle of seasons and agricultural activities. In 1904, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion, the engineer Gustave Eiffel, the science writer Wilfrid de Fonvielle and the Spanish astronomer Josep Comas i Solà decided to celebrate the summer solstice with a festival of science, art and astronomical observations opened to the public at the Eiffel tower in Paris. For ten consecutive years (1904-1914) on the day of the summer solstice, the "Sun Festival" (Fête du Soleil in French) included scientific and technological lectures and demostrations, celestial observations, music, poetry, danse, cinema, etc. This celebration was interrupted by the First World War, just to resume in Barcelona, Spain, between 1915 and 1937, and in Marseille, France, in the 1930s. It was the founders' dream to extend this celebration to all cities in France and elsewhere.It is only during the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, to our knowledge, that the "Sun Festival" was given another chance in France, thanks to the joint effort of several scientific and cultural centers (Centres de Culture Scientifique, Technique et Industrielle, CCSTI) and the timely support of the European Space Agency (ESA). In this occasion again, the festival was characterized by the combination of science, art and technological innovation around a common denominator: our Sun!We have recently revived the idea of celebrating the summer solstice with a "Sun Festival" dedicated to scientific education and outreach about our star and related topics. This project started last year in Aix-les-Bains, France, with the "Sun and Light Festival" (2015 was the International Year of Light), attended by about 100 people. This year's second edition was in Le Bourget-du-Lac, France. Following the COP21 event, the specific theme was the "Sun and Climate Festival", and we had about 250

  15. Discovery of an extremely weak magnetic field in the white dwarf LTT 16093 = WD 2047+372

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Martin, A.; Valyavin, G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Magnetic fields have been detected in several hundred white dwarfs, with strengths ranging from a few kG to several hundred MG. Only a few of the known fields have a mean magnetic field modulus below about 1 MG. Aims: We are searching for new examples of magnetic white dwarfs with very weak fields, and trying to model the few known examples. Our search is intended to be sensitive enough to detect fields at the few kG level. Methods: We have been surveying bright white dwarfs for very weak fields using spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), the European Southern Observatory, and the Russian Special Astrophysical Observatory. We discuss in some detail tests of the WHT spectropolarimeter ISIS using the known magnetic strong-field Ap star HD 215441 (Babcock's star) and the long-period Ap star HD 201601 (γ Equ). Results: We report the discovery of a field with a mean field modulus of about 57 kG in the white dwarf LTT 16093 = WD 2047+372. The field is clearly detected through the Zeeman splitting of Hα seen in two separate circularly polarised spectra from two different spectropolarimeters. Zeeman circular polarisation is also detected, but only barely above the 3σ level. Conclusions: The discovery of this field is significant because it is the third weakest field ever unambiguously discovered in a white dwarf, while still being large enough that we should be able to model the field structure in some detail with future observations. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and

  16. Interior rotation of a sample of γ Doradus stars from ensemble modelling of their gravity-mode period spacings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.

    2016-10-01

    Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.

  17. The mass function of IC 4665 revisited by the UKIDSS Galactic Clusters Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; de Wit, W.-J.; Carraro, G.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Hambly, N. C.

    2011-08-01

    , the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.Full Tables A.1, B.1, and C.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/532/A103

  18. S-COSMOS: The Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope ACS 2 deg2 COSMOS Field I: Survey Strategy and First Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Surace, J. A.; Frayer, D. T.; Sheth, K.; Helou, G.; Brooke, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Yan, L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Fall, S. M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, M. C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Urry, C. M.; Williams, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    Observatory, which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the National Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, TERAPIX, and the University of Hawaii.

  19. Toward Understanding the B[e] Phenomenon: V. Nature and Spectral Variations of the MWC 728 Binary System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Zharikov, S. V.; Danford, S.; Manset, N.; Korčáková, D.; Kříček, R.; Šlechta, M.; Omarov, Ch. T.; Kusakin, A. V.; Kuratov, K. S.; Grankin, K. N.

    2015-08-01

    We report the results of a long-term spectroscopic monitoring of the FS CMa type object MWC 728. We found that it is a binary system with a B5 ve ({T}{eff} = 14,000 ± 1000 K) primary and a G8 iii type ({T}{eff} ˜ 5000 K) secondary. Absorption line positions of the secondary vary, with a semi-amplitude of ˜20 km s-1 and a period of 27.5 days. The system’s mass function is 2.3 × 10-2 {M}⊙ , and its orbital plane is ˜13°-15° tilted from the plane of the sky. The primary’s v{sin}i˜ 110 km s-1, combined with this tilt, implies that it rotates at a nearly breakup velocity. We detected strong variations of the Balmer and He i emission-line profiles on timescales from days to years. This points to a variable stellar wind of the primary in addition to the presence of a circum-primary gaseous disk. The strength of the absorption-line spectrum, along with the optical and near infrared (IR) continuum, suggest that the primary contributes ˜60% of the V-band flux, the disk contributes ˜30%, and the secondary contributes ˜10%. The system parameters, along with the interstellar extinction, suggest a distance of ˜1 kpc, that the secondary does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the companions’ mass ratio is q ˜ 0.5. Overall, the observed spectral variability and the presence of a strong IR-excess are in agreement with a model of a close binary system that has undergone a non-conservative mass-transfer. of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii as well as on observations obtained at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope of the McDonald Observatory (Texas, USA), 2.1 m of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional San Pedro Martir (Baja California, Mexico), 2 m telescope of the Ondřejov Observatory, Czech Republic, and 0.81 m telescope of the Three College Observatory, North Carolina, USA.

  20. The extremely rapid rotational braking of the magnetic helium-strong star HD 37776

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulášek, Z.; Krtička, J.; Henry, G. W.; Zverko, J.; Žižåovský, J.; Bohlender, D.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Janík, J.; Božić, H.; Korčáková, D.; Zejda, M.; Iliev, I. Kh.; Škoda, P.; Šlechta, M.; Gráf, T.; Netolický, M.; Ceniga, M.

    2008-07-01

    the star's rotation, at least in its surface layers, due to the momentum loss through events or processes in the extended stellar magnetosphere. Based in part on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. Une version québécoise du Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2)—Outil d'évaluation des commotions cérébrales dans le sport 2 : Québec (SCAT2-Qc)

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jami; Boyer-Rémillard, Marie-Eve; Pilon-Piquette, Michael; McKinley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Objectif : traduire le Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) dans la langue française parlée au Québec et en vérifier l'acceptabilité pour la population québécoise francophone. Méthodologie : le processus de traduction de la version originale du SCAT2 a fait appel à une variante de la méthode de traduction et d'adaptation d'outils proposée par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé. Une traduction parallèle a d'abord été réalisée. Ensuite, un comité a révisé cette traduction parallèle dans le but de produire une version préliminaire du SCAT2-Qc. Puis, on a procédé à une rétrotraduction parallèle, que l'on a comparée à la version originale. La version préliminaire a été modifiée. Pour parvenir à la version finale, on a intégré les suggestions et les commentaires formulés par deux sujets sains lors de l'essai de l'outil, et lors de la comparaison du SCAT2-Qc à la version française existante par trois réviseurs du domaine de la santé. On a ensuite testé la version finale du SCAT2-Qc auprès de douze sujets sains pour en vérifier l'acceptabilité. Résultats : les douze sujets sains n'ont eu aucun problème de compréhension en utilisant le SCAT2-Qc. Conclusion : les différentes étapes de traduction ont permis de créer le SCAT2-Qc. Son contenu ayant été validé, il peut à présent être utilisé dans le milieu sportif et scientifique québécois. PMID:24396168

  2. Aspects descriptifs du VIH/SIDA chez les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus suivis au Centre de Traitement Agréé de Bafoussam - Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Djomassi, Lucienne Dempouo; Monebenimp, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La littérature scientifique dispose de très peu de données relatives à l’épidémiologie du VIH chez les sujets âgés en Afrique subsaharienne. Au Cameroun, les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de l'infection par le VIH chez les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus ne sont pas documentées. Méthodes Dans une étude de cohorte rétrospective et une enquête transversale, nous avons comparé les caractéristiques clinico-biologiques et la survie post thérapeutique des patients âgés de 50 ans et plus, sous traitement antirétroviral au Centre de Traitement Agrée de Bafoussam - Cameroun, aux adultes plus jeunes. Résultats L’âge moyen était de 39 ans, les extrêmes étant 17 et 88 ans. Les sujets âgés de 50 ans et plus représentaient 14,1% des cas. Les plus âgés étaient moins bien informés sur les modes de transmission du virus (p = 0,04). Leur séropositivité au VIH était le plus souvent découverte au décours d'une infection opportuniste (p = 0,02). La fréquence de comorbidité était significativement plus élevée chez les personnes âgées de 50 ans et plus (p < 10-5). Nous n'avons pas retrouvé une association statistiquement significative entre l'observance thérapeutique et l’âge (p = 0,83). La survie post-thérapeutique n’était pas significativement liée à l’âge (p = 0,81). Conclusion Les sujets âgés ne sont pas à l'abri du VIH. La promotion du dépistage et les programmes d’éducation sanitaire relatifs au VIH/SIDA devraient être renforcés au sein de cette communauté déjà affaiblie par le poids de l’âge, afin de réduire l'incidence du SIDA et de leur assurer prise en charge précoce. PMID:23133707

  3. Suivi prospectif sur 5 ans des tentatives de suicide en population clinique dans la région de Fès, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Aarab, Chadya; Elghazouani, Fatima; Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Au Maroc, les tentatives de suicide (TS) demeurent un sujet mal évalué à cause de considérations socioculturelles et l'absence d'approche longitudinale. L'objectif principal était d’évaluer le devenir des suicidants après 5ans au centre universitaire psychiatrique de Fès, les objectifs secondaires étaient l'estimation de la prévalence des TS, préciser les étiologies les plus fréquentes, et établir une corrélation entre les paramètres sociodémographiques, cliniques et évolutifs. Etude prospective à visée transversale et longitudinale, incluant les suicidants vus à l'hôpital psychiatrique de Fès, avec un suivi longitudinal sur 5ans. L’évaluation a été faite par un hétéro-questionnaire et le Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) cherchant le trouble psychiatrique sous jacent. On a recruté 105 patients suicidants, 62% des femmes, l’âge moyen est de 29,23ans. La prévalence des tentatives de suicide est de 3% sur l'ensemble des consultants à l’établissement. Les troubles de l'humeur, psychotiques et de personnalité ont occupé respectivement 37,6%, 27,7%, et 25,7% des cas. La récidive suicidaire a été notée chez 54% des patients, était significativement corrélée à la vie solitaire (P: 0,039) et à la présence d'antécédents familiaux de TS (P: 0,046). L'utilisation de moyens violents était significativement fréquente chez les patients psychotiques. Après 5ans, 32 patients ont répondu à notre appel. Le taux de récidive était de 15%. On a noté trois cas de décès dont deux suicides confirmés. Les résultats confirment les données de la littérature scientifique avec certaines particularités cliniques et évolutives. PMID:25478042

  4. Description and validation of a streamflow assimilation system for a distributed hydrometeorological model over France. Impacts on the ensemble streamflow forecasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Martin, E.; Mahfouf, J. F.; Massart, S.; Ricci, S.; Regimbeau, F.; Habets, F.

    2009-09-01

    SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) is a distributed hydro-meteorological model used at Météo-France to predict soil water content and river streamflows. In order to produce a more accurate initial state for the ensemble streamflow forecasts systems based on SIM, an assimilation system is developed at Météo-France. This assimilation system uses past streamflow measurements in order to assess the best initial state of soil water content of the model for ensemble streamflow prediction. The data assimilation system is developed with a modular software (PALM, from the Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique, CERFACS), and is based on the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) method. Data from a maximum of 186 gauge stations are assimilated over France, as well as for single stations, than for embedded stations networks. The first part of the study focuses on the selection of the best model variables for the assimilation process : root zone layer only, root zone and deep layers taken together, and finally taken apart. Two versions of the physics in SIM, including or not an exponential profile of hydraulic conductivity in the soil, are tested for each one of the three configurations. A set of classical hydrological scores are performed on a 18-month period in order to describe the performances of the experiments. This work showed a significant improvement of the Nash criteria and a decrease of the root mean square error for the configuration using the exponential profile of hydraulic conductivity in the soil and with the state variable including the root zone and deep layers taken together. The assimilation system seems more efficient for floods than for low flows. The second part of the work is about the impact of the assimilated initial states of the model on two ensemble streamflow prediction systems (ESPS) based on SIM and the ECMWF EPS and the Météo-France PEARP EPS. The scores are assessed on the same 18-month period, and validated

  5. On the nature of faint low surface brightness galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Pelló, R.; Ulmer, M. P.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Durret, F.; Mazure, A.; Picat, J. P.; Scheidegger, R.

    2009-02-01

    Context: This project is the continuation of our study of faint Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (fLSBs) in one of the densest nearby (z = 0.023) galaxy regions known, the Coma cluster. Aims: Our goal is to improve our understanding of the nature of these objects by comparing the broad band spectral energy distribution with population synthesis models, in order to infer ages, dust extinction and spectral characteristics. Methods: The data were obtained with the MEGACAM and CFH12K cameras at the CFHT. We used the resulting photometry in 5 broad band filters (u*, B, V, R, and I) that included new u*-band data to fit spectral models. With these spectral fits we inferred a cluster membership criterium, as well as the ages, dust extinctions, and photometric types of these fLSBs. Results: We show that about half of the Coma cluster fLSBs have a spectral energy distribution well represented in our template library (best fit fLSBs, BF) while the other half present a flux deficit at ultraviolet wavelengths (moderately good fit fLSBs, MGF). Among the BF fLSBs, ~80% are probably part of the Coma cluster based on their spectral energy distribution. BF fLSBs are relatively young (younger than 2.3 Gyr for 90% of the sample) non-starburst objects. The later their type, the younger the fLSBs are. A significant part of the BF fLSBs are quite dusty objects (1/3 have AV greater than 1.5). BF fLSBs are low stellar mass objects (the later their type the less massive they are), with stellar masses comparable to globular clusters for the faintest ones. Their characteristics are partly correlated with infall directions, confirming the disruptive origin for at least part of them. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of

  6. The 2011 Periastron Passage of the Be Binary δ Scorpii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Pasechnik, A. V.; Manset, N.; Carciofi, A. C.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Ribeiro, J.; Fernando, A.; Garrel, T.; Knapen, J. H.; Buil, C.; Heathcote, B.; Pollmann, E.; Mauclaire, B.; Thizy, O.; Martin, J.; Zharikov, S. V.; Okazaki, A. T.; Gandet, T. L.; Eversberg, T.; Reinecke, N.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system δ Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 ± 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 Å line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M ⊙) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the Hα line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R ⊙. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that δ Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40° with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations. This paper is partially based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii, the 2.2 m MPG telescope operated at ESO/La Silla under program IDs 086.A-9019 and 087.A-9005, the IAC80 telescope in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide

  7. Testing the theory of colliding winds: the periastron passage of 9 Sagittarii. I. X-ray and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Blomme, R.; Nazé, Y.; Spano, M.; Mahy, L.; Gosset, E.; Volpi, D.; van Winckel, H.; Raskin, G.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.

  8. Discovery of secular variations in the atmospheric abundances of magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.

    2014-01-01

    on observations made with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes under the ESO programmes 072.D-0410(A) and 086.D-0449(A). It is also based in part on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii.

  9. Two spotted and magnetic early B-type stars in the young open cluster NGC 2264 discovered by MOST and ESPaDOnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Zwintz, K.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.; Lorenz, D.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Barnes, T. G.; Thoul, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia with the assistance of the University of Vienna.Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  10. La stimulation magnétique transcrânienne (SMT) dans la recherche fondamentale et clinique en neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasives telles que la Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne (SMT) sont largement utilisées pour établir des inférences causales sur les relations entre cerveau et comportement. Des applications cliniques basées sur la SMT ont également été développées pour traiter des affections neurologiques ou psychiatriques comme la dépression, la dystonie, la douleur, les acouphènes ou les séquelles d’accident vasculaire cérébral. État des connaissances La SMT fonctionne en induisant de manière non invasive et de manière focale des courants électriques dans des régions corticales, modulant ainsi leur niveau d’activité de façon variable suivant la fréquence, le nombre d’impulsions, les intervalles et la durée de stimulation utilisés. S’agissant du cortex moteur, on sait par exemple que les patterns d’impulsions de SMT à basse fréquence ou ceux délivrées de manière continue tendent à déprimer l’activité locale, tandis que la SMT à haute fréquence et discontinus tend à la potentialiser. Outre ses effets locaux, la SMT peut aussi avoir des effets à distance sur les régions cérébrales, véhiculés par les connections anatomiques et qui dépendent de l’efficacité et du signe de ces connexions. Perspectives Dans le domaine de la recherche fondamentale et des applications thérapeutiques, l’utilisation efficace de la SMT requiert, cependant, la compréhension approfondie de ses principes opérationnels, de ses risques, de ses potentialités et de ses limites. Dans cet article, nous présentons les principes par lesquels opèrent les méthodes de stimulation cérébrale non invasive, et en particulier la SMT. Conclusion À l’issue de sa lecture, le lecteur sera en mesure de discuter de façon critique les études scientifiques et cliniques utilisant la SMT, ainsi que de concevoir des applications SMT suivant une hypothèse a priori dans le domaine de la recherche en

  11. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars in NGC 2264 with Stochastically Varying Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Turner, Neal J.; Carpenter, John; Carey, Sean; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; McGinnis, Pauline; Sousa, Alana; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Barrado, David; Vrba, Frederick J.; Covey, Kevin; Herbst, William; Gillen, Edward; Medeiros Guimarães, Marcelo; Bouy, Herve; Favata, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    . MegaCam is a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  12. The Globular Cluster NGC 2419: A Crucible for Theories of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, R.; Sollima, A.; Nipoti, C.; Bellazzini, M.; Chapman, S. C.; Dalessandro, E.

    2011-09-01

    . M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This paper was also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  13. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    , C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P. and Lagroix, F., 2009, Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for the determination of natural versus anthropogenic input, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., doi:10.1029/2009GC002544. Tessier, L., Bonté, P., Mouchel, J.M., Lefevre, I., Sogon, S., Ayrault, S., Le Cloarec, M.F., 2003, Transport et characterisation des matieres en suspension dans le basin de la Seine : Identification des signatures naturelles et anthropiques, 14èmes Journées Scientifiques de l'Environnement : l'Eau, la Ville, la Vie, Créteil : France 2003. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/20/30/84/PDF/4-JSE-2003-Manuscrit-Tessier-HAL-2008-01-08.pdf

  14. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  15. Magnetic field topology of the unique chemically peculiar star CU Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Lüftinger, T.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    ) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.

  16. Search for surface magnetic fields in Mira stars. First detection in χ Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lèbre, A.; Aurière, M.; Fabas, N.; Gillet, D.; Herpin, F.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Petit, P.

    2014-01-01

    its passage through the atmosphere. Without such an amplification by the shock, the magnetic field strength would have been too low to be detected. For the first time, we also report strong Stokes Q and U signatures (linear polarization) centered on the zero velocity (i.e., on the shock front position). They seem to indicate that the radial direction would be favored by the shock during its propagation throughout the atmosphere. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, USR5026) at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi, operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.

  17. γ Pegasi: testing Vega-like magnetic fields in B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Monin, D.; Leroy, B.; Mathis, S.; Bohlender, D.

    2014-02-01

    . These scenarios should thus be revised. Our results also provide strong constraints for stellar evolution models. Based on observations obtained at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory.Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. The magnetic field of the double-lined spectroscopic binary system HD 5550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, E.; Tkachenko, A.; Neiner, C.; Folsom, C. P.; Leroy, B.

    2016-05-01

    Ap component hosts a dipolar field inclined with the rotation axis at an angle β = 156 ± 17 ° and a polar strength Bd = 65 ± 20 G. The field strength is the weakest known for an Ap star. Based on the BinaMIcS Large Programme (PI: C. Neiner, runID: L131N02) obtained at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.

  19. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). I. Introduction to the Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Peng, Eric W.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Boselli, A.; Mei, Simona; Erben, Thomas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Durrell, Patrick R.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Puzia, Thomas H.; Emsellem, Eric; Balogh, Michael L.; Blakeslee, John P.; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Vollmer, Bernd; Kavelaars, J. J.; Woods, David; Ball, Nicholas M.; Boissier, S.; Courteau, Stéphane; Ferriere, E.; Gavazzi, G.; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hudelot, P.; Huertas-Company, M.; Liu, Chengze; McLaughlin, Dean; Mellier, Y.; Milkeraitis, Martha; Schade, David; Balkowski, Chantal; Bournaud, Frédéric; Carlberg, R. G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hoekstra, Henk; Peng, Chien; Sawicki, Marcin; Simard, Luc; Taylor, James E.; Tully, R. Brent; van Driel, Wim; Wilson, Christine D.; Burdullis, Todd; Mahoney, Billy; Manset, Nadine

    2012-05-01

    des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France and the University of Hawaii.

  20. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey-Infrared (NGVS-IR). I. A New Near-Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-Infrared Globular Cluster Selection Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Mei, Simona; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hudelot, Patrick; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Balogh, Michael L.; Boselli, Alessandro; Bournaud, Frédéric; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Chapman, Scott C.; Durrell, Patrick; Eigenthaler, Paul; Emsellem, Eric; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gwyn, Stephen; Huertas-Company, Marc; Ilbert, Olivier; Jordán, Andrés; Läsker, Ronald; Licitra, Rossella; Liu, Chengze; MacArthur, Lauren; McConnachie, Alan; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mellier, Yannick; Peng, Chien Y.; Raichoor, Anand; Taylor, Matthew A.; Tonry, John L.; Tully, R. Brent; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-01-01

    stellar systems in and around Virgo galaxies. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, and the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. Combining Strong and Weak Gravitational Lensing in Abell 1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, Marceau; Richard, Johan; Jullo, Eric; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Fort, Bernard; Soucail, Geneviève; Elíasdóttir, Árdís; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ellis, Richard S.; Smail, Ian; Czoske, Oliver; Smith, Graham P.; Hudelot, Patrick; Bardeau, Sébastien; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Knudsen, Kirsten K.

    2007-10-01

    Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Also based on observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (programs 9289 and 10150) obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. [About the relationship between medicine and social sciences: the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems or Carrel Foundation (1941-1945)].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1994-01-01

    Nobel Prize winner for medicine in 1912, author of a widely acclaimed best seller which was published in English and in French in 1935, Man, the Unknown, Alexis Carrel was Regent of the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems from 1942 to 1944, during the Second World War in France. The Foundation, known as the "Carrel Foundation", was created as a financially autonomous public establishment with full legal status and had a dual mission: to stkudy "all possible means of safeguarding, improving and developing the French population" (1) and to "synthesize efforts undertaken by its own members or by others and to develop the science of man" (2). Considering its short official existence and the exceptional circumstances of the period, the scientific work of the Foundation is impressive: the demographical analyses undertaken by R. Gessain, P. Tincent, and J. Bourgeois; the pioneer work of J. Sutter in nutrition; J. Merlet's work on group settings; the Gallup polls undertaken by J. Stoetzel's team; and the work and publications of the F. Perroux Department of Bio-Sociology, without failing to mention the study carried out on a group of one hundred thousand children. Amongst the effects of the Foundation, one must mention the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) and with it, the establishment of one of the most active and productive research groups in the Social and Human Sciences in France. There are other initiatives and activities which form part of the Foundation's inheritance: the creation in 1947 by Dr A. Gros, former Vice-regent of the Foundation, of the group of "Advisers in Synthesis"; the jkoint creation ten years later by D Gros and G. Berger of the group and the publication "Prospective"; the wide multidisciplinary study undertaken by the (DGRST) "Délégation Générale à la Recherche Scientifique et Technique" undertaken in 1960 thanks to the initiative of R. Gessain and of J. Sutter; and the Monaco Forums on Social Sciences, not to

  3. L’identification et traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie

    PubMed Central

    Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; Marchand, André; Landry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Renseigner les médecins de première ligne au sujet de l’identification précoce, du diagnostic et du traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie (TP/A). QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Les données et recommandations présentées proviennent d’une recension des écrits scientifiques réalisée via les banques de données PsycLIT, PsyINFO et MEDLINE (1985 à 2006) en utilisant les descripteurs panic disorder, psychotherapy, psychosocial treatment, treatment et pharmacotherapy. Les recommandations formulées par les auteurs s’appuient sur des données probantes provenant d’études d’excellente qualité. Les informations concernant le diagnostic et l’évaluation du TP/A proviennent d’études épidémiologiques récentes, de consensus et d’opinions d’experts. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE Le TP/A est un trouble psychiatrique souvent rencontré en médecine de première ligne, mais il est fréquemment sous-diagnostiqué et sous-traité. L’identification précoce de ce trouble demande une attention particulière aux symptômes médicalement inexpliqués et, le cas échéant, le médecin doit utiliser des questions spécifiques permettant d’identifier d’éventuelles attaques de panique et de cerner leur signification pour le patient. Le traitement de premier choix pour ce trouble est une psychothérapie d’orientation cognitivo-comportementale administrée par un psychologue ou un psychiatre spécialisé. Si de telles ressources ne sont pas disponibles, le médecin peut opter pour un traitement psychopharmacologique. CONCLUSION Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle central dans l’identification et le traitement des patients souffrant d’un TP/A. PMID:17934032

  4. The Rise Time of Normal and Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Conley, A.; Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Fourmanoit, N.; Graham, M. L.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02+0.18 - 0.28 (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s <= 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57+0.47 - 0.50 (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s <= 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03+0.81 - 1.37 (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M ⊙ of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada

  5. Photometry of supernovae in an image series: methods and application to the SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, P.; El Hage, P.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Betoule, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fourmanoit, N.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We present a technique to measure lightcurves of time-variable point sources on a spatially structured background from imaging data. The technique was developed to measure lightcurves of SNLS supernovae in order to infer their distances. This photometry technique performs simultaneous point spread function (PSF) photometry at the same sky position on an image series. Methods: We describe two implementations of the method: one that resamples images before measuring fluxes, and one which does not. In both instances, we sketch the key algorithms involved and present the validation using semi-artificial sources introduced in real images in order to assess the accuracy of the supernova flux measurements relative to that of surrounding stars. We describe the methods required to anchor these PSF fluxes to calibrated aperture catalogs, in order to derive SN magnitudes. Results: We find a marginally significant bias of 2 mmag of the after-resampling method, and no bias at the mmag accuracy for the non-resampling method. Given surrounding star magnitudes, we determine the systematic uncertainty of SN magnitudes to be less than 1.5 mmag, which represents about one third of the current photometric calibration uncertainty affecting SN measurements. The SN photometry delivers several by-products: bright star PSF flux measurements which have a repeatability of about 0.6%, as for aperture measurements; we measure relative astrometric positions with a noise floor of 2.4 mas for a single-image bright star measurement; we show that in all bands of the MegaCam instrument, stars exhibit a profile linearly broadening with flux by about 0.5% over the whole brightness range. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS

  6. What happens after participants complete a Union-MSF structured operational research training course?

    PubMed

    Guillerm, N; Tayler-Smith, K; Berger, S D; Bissell, K; Kumar, A M V; Ramsay, A; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Huit cours de recherche opérationnelle (OR) structurée achevés de L'Union et Médecins sans Frontières pour des participants de pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire. On ignore si les participants continuent à pratiquer la recherche opérationnelle après avoir suivi le cours.Objectifs : Déterminer 1) les activités de recherche des participants et de leurs institutions après la fin du cours ; 2) l'influence des bourses de recherche sur ces activités ; et 3) les activités des collègues n'ayant pas assisté au cours, stratifiées par sexe, région et statut professionnel.Schéma : Une enquête par questionnaire auto-administré envoyée par e-mail.Résultats : Sur 83 participants qui ont terminé le cours, 76 (92%) ont répondu au questionnaire. Après la fin du cours, 47 (62%) participants ont réalisé de nouveaux projets de recherche, 38 (50%) ont publié des articles (comparés à 25 [33%] qui en avaient publié avant le cours), 42 (55%) ont exposé des affiches ou présenté des résumés oraux lors de conférences, 33 (43%) ont été facilitateurs lors de cours suivants, 29 (38%) ont revu des articles scientifiques, 25 (33%) ont obtenu un financement ultérieur pour le recherche opérationnelle et 55 (72%) ont affirmé que leurs institutions étaient impliquées dans la mise en œuvre de recherche ou de renforcement des capacités. Les participants au cours ont eu une meilleure performance que les autres. Parmi ces derniers, les hommes et les participants venant d'Asie ont eu de meilleurs résultats que les femmes et les participants venant d'Afrique (P < 0,05).Conclusion : Une proportion significative de participants a continué à réaliser des recherches opérationnelles après la fin du cours. Ces constatations sont encourageantes en termes d'impact à long terme de ce modèle de renforcement des capacités.

  7. A Wide-Field Photometric Survey for Extratidal Tails Around Five Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Ho-Il; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2010-02-01

    Wide-field deep g'r'i' images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular clusters M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3°. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of a tidal bridge-like feature and an envelope structure around the pair of globular clusters M53 and NGC 5053. The observed radial surface density profiles of target clusters have a deviation from theoretical King models, for which the profiles show a break at 0.5-0.7rt , extending the overdensity features out to 1.5-2rt . Both radial surface density profiles for different angular sections and azimuthal number density profiles confirm the overdensity features of tidal tails around the five metal-poor globular clusters. Our results add further observational evidence that the observed metal-poor halo globular clusters originate from an accreted satellite system, indicative of the merging scenario of the formation of the Galactic halo. Based on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. This is part of the

  8. The Large-scale Structure of the Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy. I. Global Stellar Density, Morphology and Metallicity Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Irwin, Michael J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Babul, Arif; Bernard, Edouard J.; Chapman, Scott C.; Collins, Michelle; Fardal, Mark; Mackey, A. D.; Navarro, Julio; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Rich, R. Michael; Tanvir, Nial; Widrow, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    such simulations must now be able to reproduce in quantitative detail. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  9. PAndAS' CUBS: Discovery of Two New Dwarf Galaxies in the Surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dubinski, John; Babul, Arif; Chapman, Scott; Fardal, Mark; Lewis, Geraint F.; Navarro, Julio; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-11-01

    the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  10. PAndAS' Progeny: Extending the M31 Dwarf Galaxy Cabal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jenny C.; Irwin, Mike J.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Chapman, Scott C.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Rich, R. Michael

    2011-05-01

    seemingly in conflict with the predictions of cosmological simulations. Based on observations obtained with the MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  11. Extremely Red Objects in Two Quasar Fields at z ~ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; McGrath, Elizabeth; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2006-10-01

    We present an investigation of the properties and environments of bright extremely red objects (EROs) found in the fields of the quasars TXS 0145+386 and 4C 15.55, both at z~1.4. There is marginal evidence from Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) imaging for hot cluster gas with a luminosity of a few 1044 ergs s-1 in the field of 4C 15.55. The TXS 0145+386 field has an upper limit at a similar value, but it also clearly shows an overdensity of faint galaxies. None of the EROs are detected as X-ray sources. For two of the EROs that have spectral energy distributions and rest-frame near-UV spectra that show that they are strongly dominated by old stellar populations, we determine radial surface brightness profiles from adaptive optics images. Both of these galaxies are best fit by profiles close to exponentials, plus a compact nucleus comprising ~30% of the total light in one case and 8% in the other. Neither is well fit by an r1/4-law profile. This apparent evidence for the formation of massive ~2×1011 disks of old stars in the early universe indicates that at least some galaxies formed essentially monolithically, with high star formation rates sustained over a few 108 yr and without the aid of major mergers. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; on data obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which is operated for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; and on data obtained at the the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, which is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M

  12. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High-Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Christian; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Doyon, René

    2008-01-01

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground- and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follow a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil, this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fixed separation from the point-spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and noncoronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level (CL). In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding CL as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckle noise, a detection threshold up to 3 times higher is required to obtain a CL equivalent to that at 5 σ for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested on data acquired by simultaneous spectral differential imaging with TRIDENT and by angular differential imaging with NIRI. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. Finally, a power law is derived to predict the 1 - 3 × 10-7 CL detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of

  13. Atoms of Silence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Hubert

    1985-09-01

    In the grand tradition of popular exposition, astrophysicist Hubert Reeves explains current scientific understanding of the deepest mysteries of the universe in terms that will excite, stimulate, and educate the nonscientific reader. When it was first published in France in 1981, this book quickly became a best-seller and was avidly embraced by the popular press. The reviewer for L'Express, for example, wrote that "Reeves turns astrophysics into an epic saga, a metaphysical fresco, a story in the fullest sense of the word. [He can do this] because he forgets to be a professor. Facing the sky, his eternal home, he recounts the titanic struggle of primordial forces that, over the course of billions of years, formed the cosmos and all it contains...." The book falls into three broad sections. The first explores the implications of the discovery that the universe does indeed have a history - that the night sky that so excites our wonder is not static but has both a beginning and an end. The second uncovers the layers of evolution that comprise that history, from the cosmic phase in the first few moments of the universe when energy first transformed itself into matter, to the biological phase when matter transformed itself into life. The third goes behind the scenes of the universal drama to examine such basic concepts as time, energy, and chance. Reeves' style is metaphorical, determinedly naive, and even slightly anthropomorphic. Music becomes a metaphor for all of the orderliness in the universe that might just as easily have been cosmic "noise" if there had been no guiding principles at work. To understand those guiding principles, and to gain a fuller appreciation of the music that they produce, is` the goal of this enlightening and poetic book. Hubert Reeves was born in Montreal and educated in Canada and the United States. Since 1966 he has been director of research at France's Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique while continuing research at the Centre d

  14. We Care for Clean Air! The Contribution of ACCENT to Education and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, Eva; Brimblecombe, Peter; Gross, Krisjanis; Jacobs, Mark J.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Slini, Theodora; Übelis, Arnolds; Uherek, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    A new booklet on: "We Care for Clean Air! Motivating the Next Generation of Atmospheric Scientists" (ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6) as recently published by the education community in ACCENT (www.accent-network.org/portal/education) is presented. Promoting creative and innovative researchers and teachers and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues in ACCENT "Training and Education" (T&E). During the 5-year programme, a wealth of educational events (e.g., workshops) and programmes (e.g., "ACCENT FAR EAST") were organized and tools developed for teachers and learners at Universities and Schools around the globe. Activities such as National ACCENT Days or Cafés Scientifiques also targeted stakeholders, policy makers and the general public to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change to a common level across Europe. The volume introduces the integrated learning environment, high-quality tools and methods for air quality and climate change science education created by ACCENT T&E, and provides an overview on the unbiased scientific information that has been didactically translated based on knowledge available from ongoing research projects.The core messages are that (i) the translation of complex issues in atmospheric composition and climate change science to non-scientists should be scientifically acceptable and that (ii) scientists should stay in control of the translation process. After the publication of the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, ACCENT intensified its efforts to reach greater visibility and distribute the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists in the World Wide Web. For example, a Special Issue of the "Global Change Magazine for Schools" on IPCC 2007 contains a compact introduction to the basics of global warming for direct application in the classroom, also focusing on uncertainties and

  15. Guide de pratique clinique pour les lésions cérébrales traumatiques légères et les symptômes persistants

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Shawn; Bayley, Mark; McCullagh, Scott; Velikonja, Diana; Berrigan, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge des lésions cérébrales traumatiques légères (LCTL) et les symptômes persistants post-commotion (SPPC) afin de renseigner et d’orienter les médecins qui prennent en charge des patients qui se remettent d’une LCTL. Qualité des données On a effectué une recherche des guides de pratique clinique existants portant sur les LCTL et une synthèse critique des ouvrages scientifiques évaluant le traitement des SPPC. Étant donné la rareté des conseils sur la prise en charge des SPPC dans les travaux sur les lésions cérébrales traumatiques, une deuxième recherche documentaire a été faite pour recenser les guides de pratique clinique et les synthèses critiques concernant la prise en charge de ces symptômes communs dans la population en général. On a convoqué des professionnels de la santé provenant de différentes disciplines et régions du Canada et de l’étranger à une conférence consensuelle d’experts pour examiner les lignes directrices et les données probantes existantes et élaborer un guide complet pour la prise en charge des LCTL et des SPPC. Message principal À l’aide d’un processus Delphi modifié, on a produit 71 recommandations portant sur le diagnostic et la prise en charge des LCTL et des SPPC. De plus, on a inclus dans le guide de nombreuses ressources et des outils pour faciliter la mise en œuvre des recommandations. Conclusion Un guide de pratique clinique a été élaboré pour aider les professionnels de la santé à fournir des soins fondés sur les données probantes et les pratiques exemplaires à la population complexe de personnes qui ont des SPPC à la suite d’une LCTL.

  16. Le Laboratoire de Mécanique Appliquée Raymond Chaléat a 40 ans !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comité D'Organisation Du Colloque Ime 2002, Le

    2002-12-01

    Le LMARC a été créé par Raymond Chaléat dans les locaux de l'École Nationale d'Horlogerie (a présent Lycée Technique Jules Haag).L'équipe de recherche était alors constituée de 2 enseignants-chercheurs (Raymond Chaléat et Gérard Lallement) et d'un technicien (Bernard Prêtre). Les travaux de recherche se situaient naturellement dans le domaine de la chronométrie et en particulier dans la mécanique non linéaire analytique inhérente à la montre en fonctionnement. En effet, Raymond Chaléat fut l'élève, puis le collaborateur du Professeur Jules Haag, mathématicien et mécanicien, lui-même élève de Poincarré.Le LMARC a étendu ses activités avec l'arrivée de Claude Oudet, puis de Claude Oytana à la rhéologie des matériaux solides qui est devenue plus tard l'Équipe Propriétés Mécaniques des Matériaux. En parallèle, G. Lallement a créé une équipe Vibrations devenue à ce jour Dynamique des Structures. À ce jour, le Laboratoire compte plus de 110 personnes dont 40 doctorants.Il a depuis diversifié ses activités avec 3 nouvelles équipes tournées vers la Modélisation et la Mise en Forme des Matériaux, les Micromachines et la Biomécanique et les Mécanismes. Il a su également prendre toute sa place au sein de l'Institut des Microtechniques de Franche-Comté en contribuant à plusieurs thèmes.Notre Laboratoire a été l'un des premiers laboratoires associé au CNRS (4ème) et a toujours été rattaché à l'Université de Franche-Comté (Présidence par C. Oytana de 1996 a 2001) par l'entremise de I'UFR Sciences et Techniques. Il a toujours maintenu des liens forts avec I'ENSMM (École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques) d'une part par ses enseignants-chercheurs et d'autre part deux de ses directeurs, Raymond Chaléat et actuellement Jean-Claude Gelin.En plus de ses relations constantes avec l'industrie régionale, le LMARC a développé des actions contractuelles avec de grands groupes tels que EDF

  17. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörgen Stevefelt, Henri Bachau Et

    2003-06-01

    'impulsions attosecondes qui permettra d'explorer la matière à l'echelle de temps atomique. En même temps la caractérisation de ces impulsions nécessite la conception de techniques nouvelles d'analyse du signal aux temps ultra brefs.L'intéret particulier du colloque UVX est de réunir les communautés de scientifiques qui vont des chercheurs s'intéressant aux processus fondamentaux à ceux travaillant dans les domaines les plus appliqués, voire industriels. Une caractéristique marquante de notre discipline est la rapidité avec laquelle les progrès réalisés dans les laboratoires de recherche sont diffusés vers les applications industrielles. Il est donc important de maintenir un bon équilibre entre les recherches a caractères fondamental et appliqué dans les laboratoires.Nous tenons remercier les membres du comité d'organisation, le comité scientifique et les différents partenaires, institutionnels et industriels, qui par leur soutien ont permis que le colloque UVX puisse se dérouler. Ce colloque a été parrainé par les départements des Sciences Physiques et Mathématiques (SPM) et des Sciences pour l'Ingénieur (SPI) du CNRS, la Délégation Générale de l'Armement (DGA), le CEA DRECAM, le CEA DAM, le Conseil Géneral de Charente Maritime, l'Université de Bordeaux I, la Société Française d'optique, le Groupement de Recherche “SAXO" du CNRS et la société Air Liquide.

  18. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona

  19. The XMM-Newton SSC survey of the Galactic plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebot Gómez-Morán, A.; Motch, C.; Barcons, X.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Cropper, M.; Grosso, N.; Guillout, P.; Hérent, O.; Mateos, S.; Michel, L.; Osborne, J. P.; Pakull, M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Pye, J. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Rosen, S. R.; Schwope, A. D.; Watson, M. G.; Webb, N.

    2013-05-01

    small contribution of close main sequence or evolved binaries. We find other interesting objects such as cataclysmic variables (d ~ 0.6-2 kpc), low luminosity high mass stars (likely belonging to the class of γ-Cas-like systems, d ~ 1.5-7 kpc), T Tauri and Herbig-Ae stars. A handful of extragalactic sources located in the highest Galactic latitude fields could be optically identified. For the 20 fields observed with the EPIC pn camera, we have constructed log N(>S) - log S curves in the soft and hard bands. In the soft band, the majority of the sources are positively identified with active coronae and the fraction of stars increases by about one order of magnitude from b = 60° to b = 0° at an X-ray flux of 2 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. The hard band is dominated by extragalactic sources, but there is a small contribution from a hard Galactic population formed by CVs, HMXB candidates or γ-Cas-like systems and by some active coronae that are also detected in the soft band. At b = 0° the surface density of hard sources brighter than 1 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 steeply increases by one order of magnitude from l = 20° to the Galactic centre region (l = 0.9°). Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla and Paranal, Chile under programmes Nos 69.D-0143, 70.D-0227, 71.D-0296, 71.D-0552. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire de Haute Provence which is operated by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France. Tables 8-33 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc

  20. Prescrire du cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir des conseils préliminaires sur la prescription de cannabis fumé pour la douleur chronique avant la publication de lignes directrices officielles. Qualité des données Nous avons examiné les ouvrages scientifiques sur l’efficacité analgésique du cannabis fumé et les dommages causés par la consommation de cannabis à des fins médicales et récréatives. Nous avons élaboré des recommandations concernant les indications et les contre-indications du cannabis fumé, les précautions à prendre et son dosage et nous avons classé les recommandations en fonction du niveau des données probantes. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II (études observationnelles bien effectuées) et de niveau III (opinion d’experts). Message principal Le cannabis fumé pourrait être indiqué chez des patients souffrant de douleurs neuropathiques sévères qui n’ont pas répondu à des essais suffisants de cannabinoïdes pharmaceutiques et d’analgésiques standards (données probantes de niveau II). Le cannabis fumé est contre-indiqué chez les patients de 25 ans ou moins (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui font actuellement ou ont fait par le passé une psychose ou encore ont de forts antécédents familiaux de psychose (données probantes de niveau II); ceux qui ont ou ont eu un problème de consommation de cannabis (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont un problème actuel de toxicomanie ou d’alcoolisme (données probantes de niveau III); ceux qui ont une maladie cardiovasculaire ou respiratoire (données probantes de niveau III); ou celles qui sont enceintes ou planifient une grossesse (données probantes de niveau II). Il devrait être utilisé avec précaution par les patients qui fument du tabac (données probantes de niveau II), qui sont à risque accru de maladies cardiovasculaires (données probantes de niveau III), qui ont des troubles d’anxiété ou de l’humeur (données probantes de niveau II) ou

  1. Spectroscopy of Luminous z > 7 Galaxy Candidates and Sources of Contamination in z > 7 Galaxy Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Jullo, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; LeFloch, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Tanaguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Willott, C. J.

    2011-04-01

    Administration and made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation; the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA; the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the U.K; the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the National Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, TERAPIX and the University of Hawaii; the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; the 30 m telescope of the Institute for Radioastronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM), which is funded by the German Max-Planck-Society, the French CNRS, and the Spanish National Geographical Institute.

  2. Utilizing the International GeoSample Number Concept during ICDP Expedition COSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Ulbricht, Damian; Gorgas, Thomas; Elger, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the International GeoSample Number (IGSN) was introduced to uniquely identify and register geo-related sample material, and make it retrievable via electronic media (e.g., SESAR - http://www.geosamples.org/igsnabout). The general aim of the IGSN concept is to improve accessing stored sample material worldwide, enable the exact identification, its origin and provenance, and also the exact and complete citation of acquired samples throughout the literature. The ICDP expedition COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides, http://cosc.icdp-online.org) prompted for the first time in ICDP's history to assign and register IGSNs during an ongoing drilling campaign. ICDP drilling expeditions are using commonly the Drilling Information System DIS (http://doi.org/10.2204/iodp.sd.4.07.2007) for the inventory of recovered sample material. During COSC IGSNs were assigned to every drill hole, core run, core section, and sample taken from core material. The original IGSN specification has been extended to achieve the required uniqueness of IGSNs with our offline-procedure. The ICDP name space indicator and the Expedition ID (5054) are forming an extended prefix (ICDP5054). For every type of sample material, an encoded sequence of characters follows. This sequence is derived from the DIS naming convention which is unique from the beginning. Thereby every ICDP expedition has an unlimited name space for IGSN assignments. This direct derivation of IGSNs from the DIS database context ensures the distinct parent-child hierarchy of the IGSNs among each other. In the case of COSC this method of inventory-keeping of all drill cores was done routinely using the ExpeditionDIS during field work and subsequent sampling party. After completing the field campaign, all sample material was transferred to the "Nationales Bohrkernlager" in Berlin-Spandau, Germany. Corresponding data was subsequently imported into the CurationDIS used at the aforementioned core storage

  3. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-10-01

    De nombreux pays s'efforcent d'élaborer et de mettre en œuvre des stratégies pour contrôler les hôpitaux à l'échelle nationale. C'est un défi de taille, en particulier pour les pays à faible revenu, qui disposent de peu de ressources pour effectuer des mesures et des comptes-rendus. Nous avons analysé l'expérience qui a consisté à élaborer et mettre en œuvre un système national de contrôle des performances de 130 hôpitaux publics en Éthiopie. Des observations participatives ont révélé que ce système de contrôle a entraîné une communication plus systématique des données sur les performances aux bureaux régionaux de la santé et au gouvernement fédéral de la part des hôpitaux, a amélioré la transparence concernant les performances de ces derniers et a permis d'élaborer plusieurs projets d'amélioration de la qualité. L'élaboration et la mise en œuvre de ce système, qui ont nécessité des investissements et des soutiens techniques et politiques, n'auraient pas été possibles sans d'importantes capacités de gestion dans les hôpitaux. Il peut être utile, aux premiers stades de la conception et de la mise en œuvre, d'évaluer de manière approfondie l'ouverture au changement du secteur de la santé ainsi que son souhait de placer au premier plan la qualité des services hospitaliers. Cette évaluation peut s'appuyer sur des entretiens avec des informateurs clés, sur la collecte de données au sujet des établissements de santé et des ressources humaines, ou encore sur une discussion avec des partenaires universitaires. Le fait d'associer des partenaires et des donateurs à l'objectif d'amélioration de la qualité visé par le gouvernement peut permettre de renforcer son acceptabilité ainsi que le soutien politique en la matière. Cela peut permettre de faire converger les ressources de façon stratégique vers un même effort national, plutôt que de les éparpiller dans des dizaines de projets potentiellement concurrents

  4. Turkey BILSAT-1: a Case Study for the Surrey Know-How Transfer and Training Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, Nadeem; Murat Leloglu, Ugur; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Surrey has established itself over the past 18 years as a world leader in providing hands-on spacecraft engineering training through its Small Satellite Engineering Know-How Transfer and Training (`KHTT') programme. This 18- month course runs alongside the construction of a microsatellite executed through SSTL, and strikes a balance between classroom-based teaching and total immersion within professional engineering teams. Hands-on training is provided covering the entire satellite engineering process, from mission and subsystem design, through module manufacture, assembly and integration, to qualification and flight model environmental tests, launch and commissioning. SSTL's experience in providing the KHTT programme has resulted in a well-defined course structure that yet retains the ability to accommodate individual customer requirements. The programme also takes full advantage of SSTL's intrinsic link with the Surrey Space Centre (`SSC') at the University of Surrey, offering a range of MSc and PhD research programmes pursuing common research interests of both SSTL and the customer, and in many cases complementing the development of either the customer's satellite or their future plans for an evolved space capability. Throughout 2002, three KHTT programmes have run in parallel at SSTL. A team of 11 engineers from the Centre Nationale des Techniques Spatiales in Algeria have now reached completion of their programme with Alsat-1, the first enhanced microsatellite of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (`DMC'). In December 2001, 15 engineers from the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology in Nigeria arrived at SSTL and are now midway through their programme with Nigeriasat-1, the second enhanced microsatellite of the DMC. Thirdly, arriving slightly earlier in August 2001, a team from Tubitak-Bilten in Turkey commenced their KHTT programme with BILSAT-1, a high-capability enhanced microsatellite also contributing to the DMC, and are due to continue through

  5. Le domaine des co-infections et des maladies concomitantes du Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des IRSC : lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge et le traitement de la co-infection par le VIH et l’hépatite C chez les adultes

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Mark; Giguère, Pierre; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : De 20 % à 30 % des Canadiens qui vivent avec le VIH sont co-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), lequel est responsable d’une morbidité et d’une mortalité importantes. La prise en charge du VIH et du VHC est plus complexe en raison de l’évolution accélérée de la maladie hépatique, du choix et des critères d’initiation de la thérapie antirétrovirale et du traitement anti-VHC, de la prise en charge de la santé mentale et des toxicomanies, des obstacles socioéconomiques et des interactions entre les nouvelles thérapies antivirales à action directe du VHC et les antirétroviraux OBJECTIF : Élaborer des normes nationales de prise en charge des adultes co-infectés par le VHC et le VIH dans le contexte canadien. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Le Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada a réuni un groupe d’experts possédant des compétences cliniques en co-infection par le VIH et le VHC pour réviser les publications à jour ainsi que les lignes directrices et les protocoles en place. Après une vaste sollicitation afin d’obtenir des points de vue, le groupe de travail a approuvé des recommandations consensuelles, qu’il a caractérisées au moyen d’une échelle de qualité des preuves fondée sur la classe (bienfaits par rapport aux préjudices) et sur la catégorie (degré de certitude). RÉSULTATS : Toutes les personnes co-infectées par le VIH et le VHC devraient subir une évaluation en vue de recevoir un traitement du VHC. Les personnes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’entreprendre un traitement du VHC devraient être soignées pour le VIH afin de ralentir l’évolution de la maladie hépatique. La norme de traitement du VHC de génotype 1 est un régime comprenant de l’interféron pégylé et de la ribavirine dosée en fonction du poids, associés à un inhibiteur de la protéase du VHC. Pour les génotypes 2 ou 3, une bithérapie classique est recommandée pendant 24 semaines s

  6. Tangafric: a software for the estimation of textural and hydraulic properties in shallow aquifers from well logs in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Bonomi, Tullia; Fava, Francesco; Hamidou, Barry; Hamidou Khane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Wade, Souleye; Colombo, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Background In order to increase access to drinking water in Africa there is more and more interest in the promotion of manual drilling techniques, without need of expensive drilling equipment, but they can be applied only in those areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions: thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and shallow groundwater level. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling at national level in Africa is a crucial activity and local institutions and UNICEF are implementing specific programs for its promotion, but the limitation in available data concerning shallow hydrogeological aquifers are limited. The research has been developed in the project "Use of remote sensing and terrain modeling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa and support low cost water supply", within the scientific cooperation between the University of Milano-Bicocca, Universite' Cheick Anta Diop (Dakar Senegal) , SNAPE - Service Nationale de Points d'Eau (Conakry Guinea), UNICEF Senegal and UNICEF Guinea. The project is funded by NERC (National Environmental Research Council, UK). Objective of the research: The presented work is only the starting point of the project aiming to elaborate an automatic procedures to manage and improve the existing database of borehole logs in Senegal and Guinea for the interpretation of shallow hydrogeological conditions and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling, in two pilot areas: Louga (Northwestern Senegal) and Faranah/Kankan (Eastern Guinea). Within the objective of the project is also considered the integration of Remote Sensing to support hydrogeological interpretation, especially where borehole logs are not present. Methodology Focus is to create a hydrogeological database, TANGAFRIC, to organize, codify and elaborate hydrogeological data. The metodology derives from the software TANGRAM (www.tangram.samit.unimib.it) produced by the University of Milano Bicocca, with innovative aspect of stratigraphic

  7. Influence of mycorhization and soil organic matters on lead and antimony transfers to vegetables cultivated in urban gardens: environmental and sanitary consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierart, Antoine; Braud, Armelle; Lebeau, Thierry; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2014-05-01

    The European Environment Agency estimates that c.a. 250 000 sites required clean up and that about 100 000 ha could have been contaminated by metals in Europe. Numerous remediation techniques have been therefore tested and phytoremediation appears as a sustainable and low cost in situ technique particularly for large-scale remediation of polluted arable soils. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are already used in phytoextraction or phytostabilisation of many metal(loid)s (GU ET AL., 2013, SHARMA AND SHARMA, 2013). However, while plant inoculation with AMF will mostly result of an increase of the plant biomass, the response for lead accumulation in shoots is contrasted (LEBEAU ET AL., 2008). Furthermore, nothing is actually known for Sb transfer to plants phytoremediation-assisted AMF. Yet recently, many researches concern the accumulation of Sb in the environment, its (eco)toxicity and the risk of bioaccumulation in vegetables (FENG ET AL., 2013), especially in some China areas where Sb mining activities have widely contaminated arable lands (WU ET AL., 2011). Our research project, which is part of a national program for urban gardens (JASSUR, http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr), focused on polluted soils in associative urban gardens with both geogenic and anthropogenic origins for Pb and Sb. The impact of Pb and Sb on AMF density and diversity was studied using morphological and biomolecular approaches. The role of AMF symbiosis with Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Pb and Sb compartmentalization, speciation and phytoavailability was investigated. The influence of soil organic matters on these processes was examined. Eventually, the part of metal(loid)s available for humans in case of ingestion of lettuces unfit for human consumption (FOUCAULT ET AL., 2013; XIONG ET AL., 2013) will be assessed in relation with the influence of AMF symbiosis and organic matter. Key Words: Mycorrhiza, Antimony, Compartmentation, Speciation, Edible Plants, Urban Agriculture

  8. Self-Employment among Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in Canada.

    PubMed

    Waite, Sean; Denier, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    This study presents novel evidence on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-employment. Using data from the 2001 and 2006 Census of Canada and the 2011 Canadian National Household Survey, we explore the propensity for self-employment among same- and opposite-sex couples. We examine the demographic, human capital, and family characteristics of coupled gay men and lesbians relative to their coupled heterosexual counterparts to offer potential mechanisms generating differences in rates of self-employment. Our analysis further considers occupational variability in the likelihood of self-employment. We find that gay men are less likely and lesbians more likely than heterosexuals to be self-employed; however, there is significant variation across occupations. Gay men are more likely to be self-employed in arts and culture, sales and service, and natural and applied sciences, but less likely in business, finance, and health-related occupations. Lesbians are much more likely to be self-employed in health-related occupations, natural and applied sciences, and arts and culture. Marriage and having children are significant predictors of self-employment for coupled heterosexual women but not lesbians. Cette étude présente des évidences empiriques concernant la relation entre l'orientation sexuelle et le travail indépendant. Utilisant des données provenant du Recensement du Canada de 2001 et de 2006, ainsi que l'Enquête nationale auprès des ménages (ENM) de 2011, nous explorons la tendance du travail indépendant parmi les couples de même sexe et ceux de sexe opposé. Ainsi, nous examinons les caractéristiques démographiques, du capital humain et familiales des couples gais et lesbiens par rapport à leurs homologues hétérosexuels, afin de démontrer une corrélation entre l'orientation sexuelle et la probabilité d'être travailleur indépendant - une causation qui nous semble évident et que nous analysons plus en profondeur. Nous concluons d

  9. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  10. A multi-scale analysis of in-situ precipitation data across the Sahelian Gourma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, Françoise; Frappart, Frédéric; Hiernaux, Pierre; Kergoat, Laurent; Mougin, Eric; Arjounin, Marc; Koité, Mohamed; Lebel, Thierry; Bock, Olivier; Meynadier, Rémi

    2010-05-01

    Droughts and floods are recurrent features of the Sahelian climate, which is also characterized by a very large variability of rainfall, in both space and time. The present study focuses on the Malian Gourma (2°W-1°E, 14.5°N-17.5°N), located in the Central Sahel, where the very large majority of rainfall events occur between June and September, during the West African monsoon. Rainfall is analysed with two complementary in-situ datasets: (i) daily rainfall series from 25 stations covering the period 1900-2007, and provided by the Direction Nationale de la Météorologie of Mali, and (ii) high-frequency rainfall data provided by a network of about 20 tipping bucket rain gauges, starting in 2005 - these rain gauges have been installed for the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), see Frappart et al. (2009) for additional information. The Gourma displays a particularly marked meridional gradient, with annual rainfall decreasing from about 500 mm at 14°N to 150 mm at 17.5°N. In line with previous studies focused on the Sahel, the area also displays a strong decadal variability, with the same succession of wet (1950-1969) and dry decades (1970-2007). The decrease of annual rainfall is explained by a reduction in the number of the rainy days in southern Gourma, but a decrease in both the number of rainy days and the daily rainfall in northern and central Gourma. This latter result contrasts with some studies focused on more southern areas. It may involves an influence of the distance from the inter-tropical discontinuity. The length of the rainy season has varied since the 1950s with two episodes of shorter rainy seasons: during the drought of the 1980s and also since 2000. However, this second episode is characterized by an increase in the daily rainfall, which suggests an intensification of rainfall events in the more recent years. High-frequency data show that most rainfall is produced by intense convective events whose characteristics are

  11. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: the size of the problem and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Dara, Masoud; van Gemert, Wayne; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Évaluer le problème de la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MR) sur le territoire biélorusse et explorer les facteurs de risque associés. MÉTHODES: Au cours d'une enquête nationale menée en 2010-2011, 1420 cas de tuberculose (TB) ont été dépistés et 934 cas nouveaux ainsi que 410 cas précédemment traités ont été jugés conformes aux critères d'inclusion. Des isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis provenant de chaque patient admissible ont été testés pour leur sensibilité envers les médicaments antituberculeux. Des informations sociocomportementales ont été recueillies lors d'entretiens basés sur un questionnaire structuré. RÉSULTATS: La TB-MR a été détectée dans respectivement 32,3% et 75,6% des cas nouveaux et des cas traités antérieurement, et 11,9% des 612 patients porteurs de la TB-MR présentaient une forme de tuberculose ultrarésistante (TB-UR). Un historique de traitement antérieur pour la TB représentait le principal facteur de risque indépendant pour la TB-MR (rapport des cotes, RC: 6,1; intervalle de confiance à 95%, IC: 4,8 à 7,7). Les autres facteurs de risque indépendants comprenaient l'infection par le virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) (RC: 2,2; IC à 95%: 1,4 à 3,5), l’âge <35 ans (RC: 1,4 ; IC à 95%: 1,0 à 1,8), un historique d'emprisonnement (RC: 1,5; IC à 95%: 1,1 à 2,0), une invalidité suffisante pour empêcher le travail (RC: 1,9 ; IC à 95%: 1,2 à 3,0), l’alcoolisme (RC: 1,3; IC à 95%: 1,0 à 1,8) et le tabagisme (RC: 1,5; IC à 95%: 1,1 à 2,0). CONCLUSION: La TB-MR est très fréquente chez les patients atteints de tuberculose en Bélarus. Les nombreux facteurs de risque identifiés pour la TB-MR et la convergence entre l’épidémie de TB-MR et l'infection par le VIH exigent non seulement de renforcer la collaboration entre les programmes antituberculeux et de lutte contre le VIH, mais aussi la mise en œuvre de mesures innovantes pour accélérer la d

  12. Evaluation de la tenue du partogramme dans une maternité universitaire

    PubMed Central

    Limam, Manel; Zedini, Chekib; El Ghardallou, Meriem; Mellouli, Menel; Bougmiza, Iheb; Sahli, Jihène; Khairi, Hédi; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya Nabli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mortalité maternelle est un problème majeur de santé mondiale. Une grande proportion de ces décès serait évitable par des soins adéquats, une aide à l'accouchement, la disponibilité des soins d'urgence et l'utilisation des outils d'aide à la décision tels que le partogramme. L'objectif était d’évaluer l’écart entre ce qui est censé être fait et ce qui est fait réellement pour les différents paramètres situés dans le partogramme au sein d'une maternité de 3ème niveau et élaborer des recommandations pour la mise en place d'un plan d'action. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective par audit clinique, effectuée sur un échantillon de 400 dossiers obstétricaux des parturientes ayant accouchées dans la maternité du CHU Farhat Hached durant l'année 2011. Le référentiel utilisé est celui réalisé par l'Agence Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Evaluation en Santé en l'an 2000, concernant la qualité de la tenue du partogramme. Résultats La majorité des critères d’évaluation portant sur la présentation du partogramme était conforme. Deux critères concernant la variété de la présentation et le rythme cardiaque fœtal étaient non conformes parmi ceux portant sur la surveillance du fœtus. Plusieurs critères en rapport avec la surveillance de la mère étaient non conformes. Aucun des critères portant sur les traitements administrés et les marqueurs d’évènements n'est conforme. Les critères portant sur la naissance et la surveillance immédiate qui étaient non conformes sont: le début des efforts expulsifs, le mode d'accouchement, l’état du périnée, la délivrance et la révision utérine. Conclusion La véritable démarche de l'audit clinique se doit d'aller au-delà du recueil et de l'analyse des données, le but final étant l'amélioration des pratiques. PMID:26516400

  13. Integrating antiretroviral therapy into antenatal care and maternal and child health settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Hoos, David; Beqiri, Alba; Lorenz-Dehne, Karl; McClure, Craig; Duncombe, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Déterminer si l'intégration de la thérapie antirétrovirale (TAR) dans les établissements de soins prénataux (ESP) et de santé maternelle et infantile (SMI) pourrait améliorer les résultats du programme et la santé du patient. MÉTHODES: Les auteurs ont systématiquement recherché via PubMed, Embase, African Index Medicus et LILACS des essais contrôlés randomisés, des études de cohorte prospectives et des études de cohorte rétrospectives comparant les résultats des cliniques ESP ou SMI ayant ou n'ayant pas intégré la TAR. Les résultats pris en compte comprenaient la couverture, la participation et la rétention de la TAR, ainsi que la mortalité et la transmission du virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). RÉSULTATS: Quatre études répondaient aux critères d'inclusion. Toutes ont été menées dans des cliniques ESP. Une participation accrue des femmes enceintes à la TAR a été observée dans les cliniques ESP qui l’avaient intégrée (risque relatif, RR: 2,09; intervalle de confiance IC à 95%: 1,78 à 2,46; I: 15%). Une couverture plus importante de la TAR a également été notée dans ces cliniques (RR: 1,37; IC à 95%: 1,05 à 1,79; I: 83%). Les analyses de sensibilité ont révélé une tendance à la prévalence nationale de l'infection par le VIH pour expliquer l'hétérogénéité de la taille de l'effet de l'intégration de la TAR sur sa couverture (P = 0,13). La rétention de la TAR était similaire dans les cliniques ESP avec ou sans intégration de la TAR. CONCLUSION: Bien que peu de données aient été disponibles, l'intégration de la TAR dans les cliniques ESP semblait entraîner une augmentation des taux de participation et de couverture de la TAR. Les taux de rétention de la TAR restent semblables à ceux qui sont observés dans les modèles de référence.

  14. FOREWORD: Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch-Miramond, Lydie; Montemerie, Thierry

    1984-01-01

    present proceedings aim at giving an up-to-date overview of X-ray astronomy, and may be taken also as a kind of "status report" on European projects in the field. As such, it should hopefully be useful to the astronomical community at large. But it is certainly worthwhile to recall that the Workshop (hence, this volume) would not have been possible without the help of many people, especially on location, in the city of Nice. The organizers received a competent and dedicated help from the Observatoire de Nice (interesting absorption effects could be seen while ascending the Mont-Gros in the fog — and also during the lunch under the Grande Coupole!), from the "Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale", which provided a convenient and modern building to hold the Workshop, and from the City of Nice, which arranged a magnificent — if rainy — cocktail party at the Villa Massha. Thanks are also due to all our sponsors for financial help. We want to thank more particularly Pr Raymond Michard, Director of the Observatoire de Nice, and several other people there: Françoise Bely-Dubau, Danièle Benotto, Renata Feldmann, Paul Faucher. In Saclay and during the Workshop, we all appreciated the efficient collaboration of Claudine Belin and Raymonde Boschiero, while after the Workshop, Nils Robert Nilsson was of great help as Manuscript Editor for these proceedings. In spite of the poor weather, already alluded to — and which turned out to be the worst over all France for decades — and thanks to the cooperation of all, we do think it was really...— a Nice Workshop.

  15. Cross Sections for the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides with Protons up to 400 MeV for the Interpretation of Cosmic-Ray-produced Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiekel, Th.; Rosel, R.; Herpers, U.; Bodemann, R.; Leya, I.; Gloris, M.; Michel, R.; Dittrich, B.; Kubik, P.; Suter, M.

    1993-07-01

    Integral excitation functions of the cosmogenic nuclides are the basic requirement for the interpretation of interactions between cosmic ray particles and extraterrestrial and terrestrial matter. Together with the knowledge of primary and secondary particle fields inside an irradiated body, model calculations can be developed to interpret abundances of cosmogenic nuclides in dependencies of the irradiation history of the irradiated body and of the cosmic particle ray itself. The quality of those model calculations depends on the quality of the available cross-section database, which is neither comprehensive nor reliable for the most important nuclides like the long-lived radionuclides (i.e., 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca) and the stable rare gas isotopes. For a systematic investigation in this field of science we carried out several irradiation experiments with protons in the energy region between 45 MeV and 400 MeV at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland) and the Laboratoire Nationale Saturne (Saclay, France) using the stacked foil technique. We included 21 different target elements with Z between 6 and 79 (C, N as Si3N4, O as SiO2, Mg, Al, Si, Ca as CaC2H2O4, Ti, V, Mn as Mn/Ni alloy, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr as SrF2, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Ba as Ba containing glass and Au) in our experiments. The proton fluxes were monitored via the reaction 27Al(p,3p3n)22Na using the evaluated data of [1]. Residual nuclides were measured by X-, gamma-, and after a chemical separation by accelerator mass spectrometry. In order to check the quality of our experimental procedures we included some target elements in our new experiments for which consistent excitation functions have already been determined [2,3,4]. Our new data show excellent agreement with the earlier measurements. We measured cross sections for more than 120 different reactions. Here we report on the results for target elements with Z up to 28. The exsisting database of experimental excitation functions for the production

  16. [Pre-hospital management of adults with life-threatening emergencies].

    PubMed

    Wattel, Francis; Dubois, François

    2012-01-01

    , fewer voluntary firemen, hospital reorganization, tight funding, difficulties of medical dispatching, and the varying skills of "first-on-the-scene "emergency workers. Grievances include late emergency responses, inappropriate medical care, and dispatching to the wrong facility. This raises the question of equal opportunity for all in a country with widely varying geographic features and population density. Improvement in the system's efficiency will require a series of objectives to be met in varied and complementary--Enhanced functional coordination, by speeding up the deployment of the ANTARES digital radio-frequency transmission network (Adaptation Nationale des Transmissions Aux Risques Et aux Secours).--Implementation of a network of emergency services with varying degrees of emergency healthcare management related to the technical nature of the facilities. Three levels of emergency healthcare must be made available: level 1 is provided by local hospitals, level 2 includes support facilities available in general hospitals (not necessarily the nearest hospital), and level 3 provides specialized healthcare in large and/or training hospitals with specialized departments. Life-threatening emergency situations are to be handled by level 2 or 3 facilities. Specific facilities must be selected as reference centers. In France, the ARS (Agences Régionales de Santé) is in charge of this procedure, as it provide funding for healthcare continuity--Reducing inequalities in access to emergency care. This will involve improving the network of SDIS brigades, making local medical facilities more responsive, delegating more medical procedures, on-site telemedicine, providing more helicopters equipped with healthcare facilities, more automated external defibrillators, and more dedicated neuro-vascular units.--First aid training must be made widely available. The French National Academy of Medicine has approved ten recommendations regarding organization and facilities.

  17. Cosmogenic Beryllium Production from Ocean Sediment Sequences Help to Construct Accurate Records of the Geodynamo Variation at the Millennial to Million Year Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Ménabréaz, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Demory, F.; Guillou, V.; Arnold, M.; Vidal, L.

    2013-12-01

    The possible contribution of the axial precession to the energy of the geodynamo was recently reintroduced by theoretical and experimental studies. It is supported by relative paleointensity stacks and deep sea floor magnetization records documenting series of geomagnetic dipole lows (GDL) with recurrence at periods ranging from 30 to 120 kyr, and intriguing phase relationships with obliquity variations and δ18O records (e.g. Fuller, 2006; Thouveny et al. 2008). Yet, these time-series are presently not precise and complete enough to validate this fundamental and debated relationship. The MAG-ORB project funded by the French "Agence nationale de la Recherche" aims at reconstructing the series of GDL over the last Ma, by coupling -on the very same sedimentary sequences- the reconstructions of paleomagnetic variations, cosmogenic10Be production variations and δ18O isotope variations. Recent results (e.g. Ménabréaz et al., 2012, 2013) demonstrate that 10Be overproduction events are systematically induced by the GDL linked with excursions and reversals -as awaited from the theoretical and empirical non linear inverse relationship established between the magnetic moment value and the penetration rate of cosmic rays and particles. The calibration of the authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signals using absolute Virtual (axial) Dipole Moment values allowed us to construct 10Be-derived Geomagnetic Dipole Moment records over the last millennium, the last 60 ka and the last Ma, allowing to assess the robustness of the GDL series by a method completely independent from rock and paleo-magnetic methods. These records are comparable with individuals RPI records obtained from the same cores, and with global RPI stacks (e.g. GLOPIS, SINT 800 and PISO-1500). Since the Beryllium atoms are adsorbed on the settling silicate particles, the measured 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of cosmogenic isotope overproductions accurately indicate the exact stratigraphic position of the GDL in the sedimentary

  18. Experiencing Health Advocacy During Cervical Cancer Awareness Week: A National Initiative for Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents.

    PubMed

    Posner, Glenn; Finlayson, Sarah; Luna, Vilma; Miller, Dianne; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2015-07-01

    aider nos résidents à répondre à leurs exigences en matière de PS, peut être mis en œuvre à l’échelle nationale. D’autres spécialités pourraient utiliser ce module pour incorporer la PS dans leurs programmes respectifs.

  19. Contribution de l'altimetrie satellitaire a l'etude de la variabilite du niveau d'eau du Delta interieur du fleuve Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telly Diepkile, Adama

    measurements were then corrected to bring them in the same altimetry reference level as Topex/Poseidon, thereby producing time series of 17 years (1992-2009). Following this analysis, we proposed a waveform retracking algorithm that integrates the backscattering coefficient to the time scale of penetration of the radar pulse in a medium with a presence of vegetation. The idea here is to consider the heterogeneity of a medium such as the Delta, which can be covered with vegetation. For this, we introduce into the equation of the waveform, the backscattering coefficient estimated from the so called water cloud model, to create a new algorithm called retracking algorithm of water cloud. This algorithm was applied to the Envisat and OSTM/Jason-2 data. The results of the algorithm were validated with in situ measurements of the Direction Nationale de l'Hydraulique du Mali and also with measurements acquired during a campaign of data collection conducted between August and October 2009. The observed differences are generally small (<+/- 1 m). The retracking algorithm of water cloud was compared to other existing algorithms. It shows a strong correlation with Ice-1 (R 2 = 0,84). Finally, we analyzed the influence of precipitation on the variations of the altimetry-derived water levels. Three sources of precipitations from satellite measurements and reanalysis data were considered in three catchments (basin Fouta Djallon in upstream, Bani basin and the inner basin in Mali). The analysis reveals the importance of precipitations, particularly in the basin of Fouta Djallon. Approximately 70% of sites analyzed in the Delta show a relatively strong correlation (R2 > 0,40) with the cumulative precipitations in the basins considered. Keywords : Remote Sensing, Satellite altimetry, Continental waters, Water level, Long term analysis, Inner Delta of Niger River, Water-cloud model, Envisat, Topex/Poseidon.

  20. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leray, E; Moreau, T; Fromont, A; Edan, G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in

  1. Transforming Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Tertiary Hospitals in Ghana: An Integrated Approach for Systems Change.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Rohit; Iracane, Sarah; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel; Bryce, Fiona; Floyd, Liz; Kallam, Brianne; Olufolabi, Adeyemi; Van Zeyl, Romeck; Owen, Medge

    2015-10-01

    Objectif : Au Ghana, les établissements de recours régionaux reçoivent, de par leur nature, un nombre disproportionné de cas obstétricaux et néonataux exposés à des risques élevés; par conséquent, ces établissements comptent des taux de mortalité plus élevés que la moyenne nationale. Les volumes élevés et la complexité des cas font en sorte que ces établissements ont à faire face à des défis cliniques, opérationnels et de direction particuliers. Dans de telles situations, l’amélioration des issues nécessite la mise en œuvre d’une approche intégrée visant à renforcer le système dans sa globalité. Méthodes : Le renforcement des compétences cliniques, la formation en amélioration de la qualité et la consolidation des compétences propres au leadership sont des outils qui ont tous été utilisés, avec un certain succès, pour améliorer les issues maternelles et néonatales. Nous présentons ici un modèle, ayant été adapté au contexte particulier des hôpitaux de recours tertiaires, qui favorise la mise en œuvre simultanée de ces trois outils, de façon à ce que l’interaction complexe entre les conditions cliniques, les contraintes en matière de ressources et les facteurs organisationnels qui affectent la vie des mères et des enfants puisse être envisagée dans son ensemble. Ce modèle utilise des données locales pour identifier les éléments associés à l’obtention de piètres issues maternelles et néonatales, pour ensuite créer un programme intégré de formation axé sur des approches permettant d’aborder ces éléments. En fonction de ce programme de formation, des projets d’amélioration de la qualité sont mis en œuvre pour modifier les processus cliniques ou opérationnels appropriés, ou pour renforcer le leadership organisationnel. Résultats : Dans le cadre de sa mise à l’essai au sein de l’un des plus importants hôpitaux de recours du Ghana, ce modèle a été bien reçu et a permis une

  2. Contribution of Paleomagnetic and Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Records to Solve the Question of Orbital Constraint on the Geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Ménabréaz, L.; Bourles, D. L.; Demory, F.; Guillou, V.; Arnold, M.; Magorb Team

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of axial precession to the geodynamo energy budget recently rebounded with the demonstrations through theoretical and experimental studies that its amount of energy had been underestimated, while on the contrary the energy required to disturb the geodynamo was overestimated (e.g. Vanyo, 2004, Roberts et Wu, 2005, Tilgner 2005). Paleomagnetic tests of such an hypothesis remain yet highly controversial because relative paleointensity reconstructions are suspected of paleoenvironmental biases. Many available indicators [i) depositional remanent magnetization of sediment (paleodirections and paleointensity), ii) magnetization of the deep sea floor basalts, iii) geochemical records of cosmogenic nuclides production rates] however converge to produce a robust series of geomagnetic dipole lows related to paleomagnetic excursions of the last Ma. These series evidence periodicities in the 30 kyr-120 kyr range and present phase relationships with obliquity variations and δ18O records. Yet, such paleomagnetic time series are presently not precise and complete enough to firmly validate such fundamental but still hypothetic relationship. To further contribute solving this issue, the MAG-ORB project, funded for a 4 years period by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche, aims at reconstructing the time series of the geomagnetic dipole lows over the last 2 Ma using paleomagnetism coupled with cosmogenic nuclide 10Be and lithogenic 9Be isotopes measurements on sedimentary cores from mid and low latitudes, i.e. where the geomagnetic modulation of the cosmic ray penetration is the most efficient. New results (Ménabréaz et al., 2011; 2012; Ménabréaz, 2012) confirm and complete former results (Carcaillet et al., 2003; 2004) to demonstrate that over the last 1.2 Ma the excursions and reversals, and their respective relative paleointensity lows, are accompanied by significant enhancements of the cosmogenic 10Be production rate, pointing out a global collapse of

  3. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  4. Mixing against culture vs mixing against nature: ontologization of prohibited interethnic relationships.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Alessandra; Pérez, Juan A; Ravenna, Marcella; Navarro-Pertusa, Esperanza

    2009-02-01

    qui vivent en contact les uns avec les autres d'intergir ensemble. Le processus d'ontologisation consiste à séparer quelques humains de leur propre espèce et de les ancrer dans un autre environnement, celui des animaux, à titre d'exemple. Nous proposons que ce qui est sous-jacent au fameux slogan «égaux mais distincts» est la représentation sociale de mélange inter-racial comme un phénomène «contre-nature». Il est prédit qu'une relation sexuelle entre des gens de différentes «races» amènerait à un plus grand degré d'ontologisation et en tant que tel, ce mélange sera expliqué en termes de pensée biologistique, à l'instar d'une nature instinctuelle ou une impulsion animale atavistique. Une expérimentation (N = 360) présente le cas d'une femme qui, même si elle est déjà dans une relation stable, elle est infidèle à son partenaire. Dans un devis 2×3, l'identité ethno-nationale de cette femme (endogroupe-espagnol/italien vs. exogroupe-sénégalais) et l'identité ethno-nationale de ses amants (endogroupe-espagnol/italien vs. exogroupe-roumain vs. exogroupe-sénégalais) ont été manipulées. En général, les résultats soutiennent l'hypothèse de l'ontologisation mieux dans les condition inter-raciales plutôt que le favoritisme de l'endogroupe coutumier et/ou le biais de la discrimination de l'exogroupe. Ensuite, nous poursuivons en discutant la manière dont la façon de penser biologistique permet une différentiation au niveau humain, en termes de groupes culturels et de groupes naturels, dans des «races», de manière à ce qu'une relation sexuelle inter-raciale est vue comme une preuve d'une impulsion sauvage et irrépressible qui peut stigmatiser les gens impliqués dans ces relations. En el presente artículo se discute la teoría de la ontologización: representaciones sociales que prevenien la fusión entre los miembros de grupos minoritarios o mayoritarios que viven en contacto unos con otros. El proceso de ontologizaci

  5. Mixing against culture vs mixing against nature: ontologization of prohibited interethnic relationships.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Alessandra; Pérez, Juan A; Ravenna, Marcella; Navarro-Pertusa, Esperanza

    2009-02-01

    qui vivent en contact les uns avec les autres d'intergir ensemble. Le processus d'ontologisation consiste à séparer quelques humains de leur propre espèce et de les ancrer dans un autre environnement, celui des animaux, à titre d'exemple. Nous proposons que ce qui est sous-jacent au fameux slogan «égaux mais distincts» est la représentation sociale de mélange inter-racial comme un phénomène «contre-nature». Il est prédit qu'une relation sexuelle entre des gens de différentes «races» amènerait à un plus grand degré d'ontologisation et en tant que tel, ce mélange sera expliqué en termes de pensée biologistique, à l'instar d'une nature instinctuelle ou une impulsion animale atavistique. Une expérimentation (N = 360) présente le cas d'une femme qui, même si elle est déjà dans une relation stable, elle est infidèle à son partenaire. Dans un devis 2×3, l'identité ethno-nationale de cette femme (endogroupe-espagnol/italien vs. exogroupe-sénégalais) et l'identité ethno-nationale de ses amants (endogroupe-espagnol/italien vs. exogroupe-roumain vs. exogroupe-sénégalais) ont été manipulées. En général, les résultats soutiennent l'hypothèse de l'ontologisation mieux dans les condition inter-raciales plutôt que le favoritisme de l'endogroupe coutumier et/ou le biais de la discrimination de l'exogroupe. Ensuite, nous poursuivons en discutant la manière dont la façon de penser biologistique permet une différentiation au niveau humain, en termes de groupes culturels et de groupes naturels, dans des «races», de manière à ce qu'une relation sexuelle inter-raciale est vue comme une preuve d'une impulsion sauvage et irrépressible qui peut stigmatiser les gens impliqués dans ces relations. En el presente artículo se discute la teoría de la ontologización: representaciones sociales que prevenien la fusión entre los miembros de grupos minoritarios o mayoritarios que viven en contacto unos con otros. El proceso de ontologizaci

  6. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XIII. The Luminosity and Mass Function of Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster and the Contribution from Disrupted Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben; Roediger, Joel; McConnachie, Alan W.; Durrell, Patrick R.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Blakeslee, John P.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Boissier, S.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Emsellem, Eric; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Mihos, J. Christopher; Navarro, Julio F.; Peng, Eric W.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Taylor, James E.; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-06-01

    satellites, α = ‑1.21 ± 0.05, which is only 1.7σ shallower than measured in the core of the Virgo Cluster. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  7. The Evolution of the Number Density of Large Disk Galaxies in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. T.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Scarlata, C.; Feldmann, R.; Kampczyk, P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Scoville, N.; Kneib, J.-P.; Leauthaud, A.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Capak, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Porciani, C.; Renzini, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Sheth, K.

    2007-09-01

    observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA; the European Southern Observatory, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii.

  8. New Constraints on the Evolution of the Stellar-to-dark Matter Connection: A Combined Analysis of Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing, Clustering, and Stellar Mass Functions from z = 0.2 to z =1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Bundy, Kevin; Behroozi, Peter S.; Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; George, Matthew R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Benson, Andrew; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.; Capak, Peter; Cortês, Marina; Ilbert, Olivier; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Le Fèvre, Oliver; Lilly, Simon; McCracken, Henry J.; Salvato, Mara; Schrabback, Tim; Scoville, Nick; Smith, Tristan; Taylor, James E.

    2012-01-01

    naturally lead to downsizing in the sites of star formation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results in the context of popular quenching models, including disk instabilities and active galactic nucleus feedback. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc., and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the National Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, TERAPIX, and the University of Hawaii.

  9. A new window of exploration in the mass spectrum: strong lensing by galaxy groups in the SL2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, M.; Cabanac, R.; Gavazzi, R.; Kneib, J.-P.; Motta, V.; Richard, J.; Thanjavur, K.; Foex, G.; Pello, R.; Crampton, D.; Faure, C.; Fort, B.; Jullo, E.; Marshall, P.; Mellier, Y.; More, A.; Soucail, G.; Suyu, S.; Swinbank, M.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tu, H.; Valls-Gabaud, D.; Verdugo, T.; Willis, J.

    2009-08-01

    find σ_SIS ˜ 500 km s-1 with large error bars and an upper limit of ~900 km s-1 for the whole sample (except for the highest redshift structure whose velocity dispersion is consistent with that of a galaxy cluster). The mass-to-light ratio for the sample is found to be M/Li ~ 250 (solar units, corrected for evolution), with an upper limit of 500. This compares with mass-to-light ratios of small groups (with σ_SIS ˜ 300 km s-1) and galaxy clusters (with σ_SIS > 1000 km s-1), thus bridging the gap between these mass scales. The group sample released in this paper will be complemented with other observations, providing a unique sample to study this important intermediate mass range in further detail. Appendix A is only available in electronic form via http://www.aanda.org Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 10876 and 11289.

  10. High-resolution abundance analysis of HD 140283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Korotin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    . Based on observations within Brazilian time at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; Progr. ID 11AB01.Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A86

  11. Détermination du profil de modulation des réseaux holographiques de phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechahougui, S.; Harthong, J.; Medjahed, A.

    1993-12-01

    The complete knowledge of the geometrical and physic-chemical parameters of a periodically modulated volume material, permits the determination of the diffraction picture. Such a purely mathematical and numerical determination is of great scientific and technological interest. The modulation profile (given by its Fourier coefficients) is one of these parameters. It can be determinated a posteriori only by the measurement of the different diffracted intensities at different orders. Starting from this idea, we can achieve a new method (theoritically exact) which permits the study of the diffraction of an electromagnetic plane wave by a dielectric grating. This method leads to the numerical treatment of ordinary differential equation with variable by periodic coefficients. The method is presented here for the classical case of a wave with electric polarization parallel to the grating. For the analysis of the modulation profile, we have considered realistic models of profiles, contrary to the current models, which have only a numerical existence. In order to achieve our experimental work, we have developed two experimental set-up: the first for the recording and the second for the analysis of diffractive elements. The whole set-up can be directed with the aid of a software from a personal computer. The validity of results are discussed. La connaissance parfaite des paramètres géométriques et physico-chimiques d'un matériau de volume modulé périodiquement, donne une bonne connaissance de la figure de diffraction. Celle-ci a une grande importance scientifique et technologique. Le profil de modulation (donné par ses coefficients de Fourier) est l'un de ces paramètres qui ne peut être déterminé a posteriori qu'à partir de la répartition d'intensité entre les différents ordres. A partir de cette idée, nous avons établi une méthode exacte permettant l'étude de la diffraction d'une onde plane électromagnétique par un réseau diélectrique, qui conduit au

  12. Simulation of the transfer of hydrocarbons in unconfined aquifer in tropical zone: the case of benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Kouamé, Kan Jean

    2016-04-01

    of two layers. The first layer is composed of clay sands and the second layer of coarse sands with the hydraulic conductivity respectively 1.10-5 and 5.10-4 m / s. The simulation of 400 mg / l of benzene for 50 years in transient state shows that the plume infiltrates down to 105 m, very closed to the saturated zone. References Bosca, C., (2002). Groundwater law and administration of sustainable development, Medit Mag, Science, Training & Technology 2, 13-17. Boubakar A. H. (2010). Aquifères superficiels et profonds et pollution urbaine en Afrique : Cas de la communauté urbaine de Niamey (Niger). Brassington R., (2007). Field hydrogeology. The geological field guide series. 264p. Foster S. S. D., (2001). The interdependence of groundwater and urbanisation in rapidly developing cities. Urban water 3(185-192). Gilli E., Mangan C and Mudry J. (2012). Hydrogéologie : Objets, méthodes, applications. 3 ème édition Dunod. 340p. Jourda J. P. (1987). Contribution à l'étude géologique et hydrogéologique de la région du Grand Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université scientifique, technique et médicale de Grenoble, 319 p. Kouamé K. J. (2007). Contribution à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eaux (GIRE) du District d'Abidjan (Sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) : Outils d'aide à la décision pour la prévention et la protection des eaux souterraines contre la pollution, Thèse de doctorat unique de l'Université de Cocody, 229p.

  13. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  14. PREFACE: The Joint 16th Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases--5th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.

    2003-11-01

    The first joint meeting of the Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG), the International Conference on Reactive Plasmas (ICRP) and the Symposium on Plasma Processing (SPP) was held in Grenoble, France between 14 and 18 July 2002. ESCAMPIG is an important biennial European event at which academics and industrialists working in low temperature plasma science meet. ICRP and SPP are Japanese triennial and annual meetings covering the entire field of reactive plasmas: generation, diagnostics and modelling of plasmas and their interaction with surfaces, and their applications. This ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was organized under the sponsorship of the European Physical Society (EPS), the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP), University Joseph Fourier (UJF) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). The scientific scope of this joint conference was focused on both experimental and theoretical aspects of physics of ionized gases and on its industrial applications. It covered the following topics: bullet atomic and molecular processes in plasmas bullet particle energy distribution functions bullet discharge physics: sheathes, transport processes and modelling bullet plasma diagnostics bullet laser and particle beam assisted plasma processes bullet physical basis of plasma chemistry and plasma--surface interactions bullet production and control of reactive plasmas bullet etching, deposition and cleaning bullet environmental and other applications. The ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was attended by 379 scientists from 26 countries. 22 invited papers were presented. Most of these papers are published in this special issue. In addition, 16 contributed papers were selected by the joint International Scientific Committee (ISC) for oral presentation as a `hot topic'. Beside this, two workshops were held on `Recent developments in plasma monitoring for microelectronics', organized by Professor H

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Measuring non-linear galaxy bias at z ~ 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Porto, C.; Branchini, E.; Bel, J.; Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Marinoni, C.; Moscardini, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Martizzi, D.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Viel, M.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2016-10-01

    , under programmes 182.A-0886 (LP) at the Very Large Telescope, and also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://vipers.inaf.it/

  16. Combining strong lensing and dynamics in galaxy clusters: integrating MAMPOSSt within LENSTOOL. I. Application on SL2S J02140-0535

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, T.; Limousin, M.; Motta, V.; Mamon, G. A.; Foëx, G.; Gastaldello, F.; Jullo, E.; Biviano, A.; Rojas, K.; Muñoz, R. P.; Cabanac, R.; Magaña, J.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Adame, L.; De Leo, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    simultaneous fit lowers the error in the mass estimate by 0.34 dex, when compared to the SL model, and in 0.15 dex when compared to the dynamical method. Conclusions: The combination of SL and dynamics tools yields a more accurate probe of the mass profile of SL2S J02140-0535 up to r200. However, there is tension between the best elliptical SL model and the best spherical dynamical model. The similarities in shape and alignment of the centroids of the total mass, light, and intracluster gas distributions add to the picture of a non-disturbed system. SL2S: Strong Lensing Legacy Survey.Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/IRFU, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at Terapix available at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Also based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, VLT (FORS 2) data, and XMM data.

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidzon, I.; Cucciati, O.; Bolzonella, M.; De Lucia, G.; Zamorani, G.; Arnouts, S.; Moutard, T.; Ilbert, O.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bel, J.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; de la Torre, S.; Di Porto, C.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Granett, B. R.; Guennou, L.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2016-02-01

    observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  18. Artificial snowmaking and potential water conflicts in mountain resorts. The case of Avoriaz (Haute-Savoie, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnier, E.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    . During winter 2010-2011, insufficient snowfall resulted in large-scale production of artificial snow, thereby considerably weakening the water resource. The poor contribution made by precipitation at the end of the winter and during summer did not enable these reserves to be refilled. In November 2011, reserves were insufficient to start snowmaking production. The lake level was very low and was disturbing the drinking water supply. Without precipitation at the beginning of winter the situation would have been catastrophic for the winter season. In conclusion, this study shows that resource sharing is a risky situation and can cause water deficits punctually. Reference Miquel, G. 2003. Rapport sur la qualité de l'eau et de l'assainissement en France. Office parlementaire d'évaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques, Paris, 195 p.

  19. An analysis of the rapidly rotating Bp star HD 133880

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bohlender, D.; Lim, J.; Wong, K.; Drake, S.; Linsky, J.

    2012-06-01

    detect information about the magnetosphere of HD 133880. However, radio emission data at both 3 and 6 cm suggest that the magnetospheric plasma is held in rigid rotation with the star by the magnetic field and further supported against collapse by the rapid rotation. Subtle differences in the shapes of the optically thick radio light curves at 3 and 6 cm suggest that the large-scale magnetic field is not fully axisymmetric at large distances from the star. Based in part on observations made with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes under ESO programmes 082.D-0061(A), 083.D-0034(A), 085.D-0296(A) and 086.D-0449(A), obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. It is also based in part on observations carried out at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Ophiuchus: An optical view of a very massive cluster of galaxies hidden behind the Milky Way ⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durret, F.; Wakamatsu, K.; Nagayama, T.; Adami, C.; Biviano, A.

    2015-11-01

    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations performed with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.A-0016(C). Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (programme 2009B-0340 on SOI/SOAR), which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France.Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/583/A124