Sample records for biceps tendon tear

  1. The distal biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T

    2013-04-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures continue to be an important injury seen and treated by upper extremity surgeons. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis has been placed on techniques that limit complications or improve initial tendon-to-bone fixation strength. Recently, basic science research has expanded the knowledge base regarding the biceps tendon structure, footprint anatomy, and biomechanics. Clinical data have further delineated the results of conservative and surgical management of both partial and complete tears in acute or chronic states. The current literature on the distal biceps tendon is described in detail. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomic findings and complications after surgical treatment of chronic, partial distal biceps tendon tears: a case cohort comparison study.

    PubMed

    Ruch, David S; Watters, Tyler Steven; Wartinbee, Daniel A; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Mithani, Suhail K

    2014-08-01

    To describe pertinent anatomic findings during repair of chronic, partial distal biceps tendon tears and to compare the complications of surgery with a similar cohort of acute, complete tears. Group 1 included 14 patients (15 elbows) with partial tears managed operatively an average of 10 months from onset of injury or symptoms. Group 2 included a matched cohort of 16 patients (17 elbows) treated for complete, acute tears an average of 19 days from injury. A retrospective review of all 30 patients focused on demographic data, intraoperative findings, and postoperative complications. A single, anterior incision was used in all cases with multiple suture anchors or a bicortical toggling button for fixation of the repair. We evaluated 27 men and 3 women with an average age of 55 years (group 1) and 48 years (group 2). Intratendinous ganglion formation at the site of rupture of the degenerative tendon was observed in 5 cases of partial tears and none of the complete tears. Partial tears involved the lateral aspect or short head of the biceps tendon insertion in all cases. Postoperative complications included lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve neuritis in 8 group 1 patients and 6 group 2 patients and transient posterior interosseus nerve palsy in 3 group 1 patients. Partial distal biceps tendon ruptures showed a consistent pattern of pathology involving disruption of the lateral side of the tendon insertion involving the small head of the biceps. Degenerative intratendinous ganglion formation was present in one third of cases. Repair of chronic, partial distal biceps tendon injuries may have a higher incidence of posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve palsies. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subscapularis tendon tears

    PubMed Central

    Lenart, Brett A.; Ticker, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been under-recognised until recently. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosis. A directed physical examination, including the lift-off, belly-press and increased passive external rotation can help identify tears of the subscapularis. All planes on MR imaging should be carefully evaluated to identify tears of the subscapularis, retraction, atrophy and biceps pathology. Due to the tendency of the tendon to retract medially, acute and traumatic full-thickness tears should be repaired. Chronic tears without significant degeneration should be considered for repair if no contraindication exists. Arthroscopic repair can be performed using a 30-degree arthroscope and a laterally-based single row repair; one anchor for full thickness tears ⩽ 50% of tendon length and two anchors for those ⩾ 50% of tendon length. Biceps pathology, which is invariably present, should be addressed by tenotomy or tenodesis. Timing of post-operative rehabilitation is dictated by the size of the repair and the security of the repair construct. The stages of rehabilitation typically involve a period of immobilisation followed by range of movement exercises, with a delay in active internal rotation (IR) and strengthening in IR. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:484–495. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.170015 PMID:29387471

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the long head of the biceps tendon: benefit of coplanar image.

    PubMed

    Lin, Anderson; Ting, Julius; Lee, Kwo-Whei

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate coplanar imaging of the long head of the biceps tendon. We retrospectively compared coronal oblique magnetic resonance images aligned with the principal supraspinatus tendon and with the intra-articular biceps tendon in 21 patients. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for lesions depicted, including superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) tears. Arthroscopic findings were reviewed. Coronal oblique images aligned with intra-articular biceps tendon depicted 18 (86%) of 21 coplanar intra-articular biceps tendons. Coplanar images identified 6 cases of tendinosis, 1 tear, 3 intra-articular ruptures, and 20 (95.2%) of 21 exact origins of the tendon. Arthroscopy revealed 18 SLAP tears. The detection of SLAP lesions between both coronal oblique magnetic resonance images was significantly different (P = 0.007). Advantages included imaging of the intra-articular biceps tendon with least partial-volume effects, definition of SLAP lesions and the tendinous origin at the supraglenoid tubercle, depiction of intra-articular bicipital ruptures, and increased sensitivity and specificity for intra-articular lesions.

  5. Simultaneous acute rotator cuff tear and distal biceps rupture in a strongman competitor.

    PubMed

    George, Michael S

    2010-04-01

    Acute rotator cuff tear is commonly associated with tearing of the proximal biceps tendon, but has never been reported to occur simultaneously with a distal biceps tendon rupture. A 38-year-old right-hand-dominant strongman competitor attempted a 300-pound overhead axle press and experienced immediate pain in the right shoulder and elbow. He had no known systemic risk factors for tendon ruptures including hyperparathyroidism, hemodialysis, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis, statin medications, fluoroquinolones, and steroid use.Right shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a full-thickness supraspinatus tear with 3 cm of retraction. There was minimal fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus on the sagittal cuts consistent with acute rupture. The subscapularis was intact. The long head of the biceps tendon had mild medial subluxation but was completely within the bicipital groove. Right elbow MRI showed a complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Thirteen days after his injury, the patient underwent arthroscopic supraspinatus repair and proximal biceps tenodesis. Distal biceps tendon repair was performed using the modified 2-incision muscle-splitting technique. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was pain free and had returned to full activity including weightlifting but had not returned to strongman competition.This is the first report of simultaneous acute full thickness ruptures of the rotator cuff and distal biceps tendon. This case report underscores the importance of a complete physical examination and a high index of suspicion for additional concomitant injuries, particularly in athletes with unusually high stresses to the body. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Surgical treatment of partial biceps tendon ruptures at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Dellaero, David T; Mallon, William J

    2006-01-01

    We present the treatment and results of a consecutive series of 7 patients (mean age, 42.7 years) with partial ruptures of the distal biceps tendon. All injuries occurred as the result of either heavy labor or weightlifting. Diagnosis in all cases was made with magnetic resonance imaging. After failure of conservative therapy, the patients were treated with repair of the distal biceps tendon. Mean follow-up was 30.6 months (range, 25-39 months). Results were uniformly good, with all patients satisfied with the outcome. All patients maintained their preoperative range of motion, with none reporting significant postoperative pain. The only complication was transient neurapraxias of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in 2 cases. We conclude that patients presenting with chronic pain in the cubital fossa should be evaluated for possible partial biceps tendon tear. If the diagnosis of partial tendon tear is made, surgical repair is a safe and effective method of treatment.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of 3T conventional shoulder MRI in the detection of the long head of the biceps tendon tears associated with rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ro Woon; Choi, Soo-Jung; Lee, Man Ho; Ahn, Jae Hong; Shin, Dong Rock; Kang, Chae Hoon; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance (DP) of 3T (3 Tesla field strength) conventional shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) tears in association with rotator cuff tendon tears. This study included 80 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff tendon tears. Two radiologists independently evaluated the preoperative 3T shoulder MRI for the presence of LHBT tears. The DP of MRI was evaluated using the results of arthroscopy as the reference standard. We also evaluated the DP of several MR signs of LHBT in detection of partial LHBT tears. Arthroscopic examination revealed 35 partial and 5 complete tears. According to the results of evaluation by reviewers 1 and 2, shoulder MRI exhibited sensitivities of 77.14 and 80 % and specificities of 71.11 and 73.33 % in detection of partial LHBT tears and sensitivities of 80 and 100 % and a specificity of 100% (both) in detection of complete LHBT tears. In detecting partial LHBT tears, increased T2 signal intensity of the LHBT exhibited high sensitivities (reviewers 1 and 2; 82.85 and 80 %, respectively) and the presence of intratendinous defects or C-signs exhibited the highest specificities (reviewers 1 and 2; 95.55 and 93.33 %, respectively), followed by abnormalities in shape and outer margins of the LHBT (reviewers 1 and 2; 91.11 and 82 %; 91.11 and 86.66 %, respectively). Non-contrast-enhanced 3T shoulder MRI is potentially highly accurate in detection of complete LHBT tears, but moderately accurate in detection of partial LHBT tears.

  8. Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Military Medicine Radiology Corner, 2006 Radiology Corner Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture Contributors: CPT Michael...treatment of a 56-year-old man with complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon . The mechanism of injury, symptoms, and findings at physical...be used in pre-operative planning. Introduction Rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively uncommon injury, but delayed diagnosis may

  9. Re-rupture rate of primarily repaired distal biceps tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Hinchey, John W; Aronowitz, Jessica G; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F

    2014-06-01

    Distal biceps tendon rupture is a common injury, and primary repair results in excellent return of function and strength. Complications resulting from distal biceps tendon repairs are well reported, but the incidence of re-ruptures has never been investigated. A search of the Mayo Clinic's Medical/Surgical Index was performed, and all distal biceps tendon repairs from January 1981 through May 2009 were identified. All patients who completed 12 months or more of follow-up were included. All charts were reviewed and patients contacted as necessary to identify a re-rupture. We also investigated the situation causing the re-rupture. We identified a total of 190 distal biceps tendon ruptures that underwent repair and met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 190 repairs, 172 (90.5%) were performed by the Mayo modification of the Boyd-Anderson 2-incision technique. Bilateral ruptures occurred in 13 patients (7.3%). Six primary ruptures (3.2%) occurred in women, 4 of the 6 being partial ruptures. Partial ruptures were found to be statistically more common than complete ruptures in women (P = .05). We identified 3 re-ruptures (1.5%), all occurring within 3 weeks of the index surgery. The re-rupture rate after primary repair of the distal biceps tendon is low at 1.5% and occurs within 3 weeks of index repair. This appears to be due to patient compliance and excessive force placed on repairs. We also found the incidence of women who sustain a distal biceps tendon tear to be 3.2%, with partial tears being statistically more common than complete ruptures. Level IV, case series, treatment study Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Rare Case of Massive Rotator Cuff Tear and Biceps Tendon Rupture with Posterior Shoulder Dislocation in a Young Adult - Surgical Decision-making and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Soon, En Loong; Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah Bin Abd; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in the context of shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon in the young adult (<40 years) and if reported are more commonly described in association with acute traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocations. They have rarely been described with posterior dislocations, regardless of patient age. This is the 1st case reported in the context of posterior dislocations, where a triad of biceps tendon rupture, posterior dislocation, and RCTs was observed during surgery. It provides an important reminder to readers about certain injuries commonly overlooked during the assessment of an acute traumatic shoulder. Case Report: We report an atypical case of a massive RCT involving a 34-year-old Asian male who landed on his outstretched hand after falling off a bicycle. A tear involving the supraspinatus and subscapularis was visualized during surgery, along with long head of biceps (LHB) tendon rupture. This was after an initial failure to achieve closed reduction of the posteriorly dislocated left shoulder. Conclusion: It is easy to miss the posterior instability, the associated RCTs or the biceps tendon injuries. Biceps tendon rupture should be a consideration when one is unable to reduce a posteriorly dislocated shoulder. The interposed torn LHB tendon trapped within the glenohumeral joint was the likely physical block in the initial failure to achieve closed reduction. With timely diagnosis, prudent physical examination, early imaging and surgery, and excellent results can potentially be achieved to return a young patient to full functionality. PMID:28819610

  11. Lacertus Fibrosus Versus Achilles Allograft Reconstruction for Distal Biceps Tears: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Murthi, Anand M; Ramirez, Miguel A; Parks, Brent G; Carpenter, Shannon R

    2017-12-01

    The bicipital aponeurosis, or lacertus fibrosus, can potentially be used as a reconstruction graft in chronic distal biceps tendon tears. To evaluate construct stiffness, load to failure, and failure mechanism with lacertus fibrosus versus Achilles allograft for distal biceps tendon reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen matched cadaveric pairs of elbows were used. Three centimeters of the distal biceps tendon was resected. Specimens were randomized to the lacertus fibrosus or Achilles tendon group. In one group, the lacertus fibrosus was released from its distal attachment and then tubularized and repaired intraosseously to the radius. In the other group, an Achilles tendon graft was sutured to the biceps muscle and repaired to the ulna. The prepared radii were rigidly mounted at a 45° angle on a load frame. The proximal biceps muscle was secured in a custom-fabricated cryogenic grip. Displacement was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer mounted at the radius-soft tissue junction and in the muscle- or muscle allograft-tissue junction proximal to the repair. Specimens were loaded at 20 mm/min until failure, defined as a 3-mm displacement at the radius-soft tissue junction. No significant difference was found in mean load to failure between the lacertus fibrosus and Achilles tendon group (mean ± SD, 20.2 ± 5.5 N vs 16.89 ± 4.54 N; P = .18). Stiffness also did not differ significantly between the lacertus fibrosus and Achilles tendon group (12.3 ± 7.1 kPa vs 10.5 ± 5.7 kPa; P = .34). The primary mode of failure in the lacertus fibrosus group was suture pullout from the tissue at the musculotendinous junction (7 of 10). In the Achilles group, failures were observed at the muscle-allograft interface (3) and the allograft-bone (radial tuberosity) interface (3), and 3 suture failures were observed. The button fixation did not fail in any specimens. The mean stiffness and load-to-failure values were not significantly

  12. Evidence of sympathetic innervation and α1-adrenergic receptors of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon.

    PubMed

    Tosounidis, Theodoros; Hadjileontis, Constantine; Triantafyllou, Christos; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Kafanas, Antonios; Kontakis, George

    2013-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the sympathetic innervation of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon LHB via immunohistochemical staining for protein S-100 and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in patients with complex proximal humerus fractures, in individuals with chronic biceps tendinosis in the setting of large rotator cuff tears (RC), and in cadaveric samples with no previously reported shoulder pathology. We investigated the presence of sympathetic innervation and α1-adrenergic receptors of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHB) in patients with complex proximal humerus fractures and individuals with chronic biceps tendinosis in the setting of large rotator cuff tears (RC). The correlation of morphological features with immunohistochemical evidence of neural element presence was also investigated. Forty-one LHB tendon specimens were examined. Seventeen were harvested from patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures, 14 were from individuals with biceps tendinosis in the context of a large RC tear, and ten were from cadaveric controls with no previous shoulder pathology. Histologic examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of the protein S-100, neuropeptide Y, and α1-adrenergic receptors, as well as to characterize the potential neural differentiation of tendon cells. A strong correlation between the expression of NPY/S-100, α1-adrenergic/S-100, and α1-adrenergic/NPY was found. The LHB tendon has sympathetic innervation and α1-adrenergic receptors in acute and chronic pathological conditions. Our results provide useful guidance on the management of tendinosis and the handling of the LHB in hemiarthroplasties for fractures.

  13. Hypertrophy of the extra-articular tendon of the long head of biceps correlates with the location and size of a rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Sugaya, H; Matsuki, K; Miyauchi, H; Matsumoto, M; Tokai, M; Onishi, K; Hoshika, S; Ueda, Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hypertrophy of the extra-articular tendon of the long head of biceps (LHB) in patients with a rotator cuff tear. The study involved 638 shoulders in 334 patients (175 men, 159 women, mean age 62.6 years; 25 to 81) with unilateral symptomatic rotator cuff tears. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the LHB tendon in the bicipital groove was measured pre-operatively in both shoulders using ultrasound. There were 154 asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in the contralateral shoulder. Comparisons were made between those with a symptomatic tear, an asymptomatic tear and those with no rotator cuff tear. In the affected shoulders, the CSAs were compared in relation to the location and size of the rotator cuff tear. The mean CSA was 21.0 mm 2 (4 to 71) in those with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, 19.9 mm 2 (4 to 75) in those with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear and 14.1 mm 2 (5 to 43) in those with no rotator cuff tear. The mean CSA in patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears was significantly larger than in those with no rotator cuff tear (p < 0.001). In the affected shoulders, there were significant differences between patients with more than a medium sized posterosuperior cuff tear and those with an antero-superior cuff tear. Regardless of the symptoms, there was significant hypertrophy of the extra-articular LHB tendon in patients with a rotator cuff tear. The values were significantly related to the size of the tear. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:806-11. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. Is nonoperative management of partial distal biceps tears really successful?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Tyler M; Wong, Justin C; Lazarus, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    The current treatment of partial distal biceps tears is a period of nonoperative management, followed by surgery, if symptoms persist. Little is known about the success rate and outcomes of nonoperative management of this illness. We identified 132 patients with partial distal biceps tears through an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code query of our institution's database. Patient records were reviewed to abstract demographic information and confirm partial tears of the distal biceps tendon based on clinical examination findings and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventy-four patients completed an outcome survey. In our study, 55.7% of the contacted patients who tried a nonoperative course (34 of 61 patients) ultimately underwent surgery, and 13 patients underwent immediate surgery. High-need patients, as defined by occupation, were more likely to report that they recovered ideally if they underwent surgery, as compared with those who did not undergo surgery (odds ratio, 11.58; P = .0138). For low-need patients, the same analysis was not statistically significant (P = .139). There was no difference in satisfaction scores between patients who tried a nonoperative course before surgery and those who underwent immediate surgery (P = .854). An MRI-diagnosed tear of greater than 50% was a predictor of needing surgery (odds ratio, 3.0; P = .006). This study has identified clinically relevant information for the treatment of partial distal biceps tears, including the following: the failure rate of nonoperative treatment, the establishment of MRI percent tear as a predictor of failing nonoperative management, the benefit of surgery for the high-need occupational group, and the finding that nonoperative management does not negatively affect outcome if subsequent surgery is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Augmentation of Distal Biceps Repair With an Acellular Dermal Graft Restores Native Biomechanical Properties in a Tendon-Deficient Model.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Christine; Sethi, Paul; Macken, Craig; Wei, David; Kowalsky, Marc; Mirzayan, Raffy; Pauzenberger, Leo; Dyrna, Felix; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2017-07-01

    The majority of distal biceps tendon injuries can be repaired in a single procedure. In contrast, complete chronic tears with severe tendon substance deficiency and retraction often require tendon graft augmentation. In cases with extensive partial tears of the distal biceps, a human dermal allograft may be used as an alternative to restore tendon thickness and biomechanical integrity. Dermal graft augmentation will improve load to failure compared with nonaugmented repair in a tendon-deficient model. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-six matched specimens were organized into 1 of 4 groups: native tendon, native tendon with dermal graft augmentation, tendon with an attritional defect, and tendon with an attritional defect repaired with a graft. To mimic a chronic attritional biceps lesion, a defect was created by a complete tear, leaving 30% of the tendon's width intact. The repair technique in all groups consisted of cortical button and interference screw fixation. All specimens underwent cyclical loading for 3000 cycles and were then tested to failure; gap formation and peak load at failure were documented. The mean (±SD) load to failure (320.9 ± 49.1 N vs 348.8 ± 77.6 N, respectively; P = .38) and gap formation (displacement) (1.8 ± 1.4 mm vs 1.6 ± 1.1 mm, respectively; P = .38) did not differ between the native tendon groups with and without graft augmentation. In the tendon-deficient model, the mean load to failure was significantly improved with graft augmentation compared with no graft augmentation (282.1 ± 83.8 N vs 199.7 ± 45.5 N, respectively; P = .04), while the mean gap formation was significantly reduced (1.2 ± 1.0 mm vs 2.7 ± 1.4 mm, respectively; P = .04). The mean load to failure of the deficient tendon with graft augmentation (282.1 N) compared with the native tendon (348.8 N) was not significantly different ( P = .12). This indicates that the native tendon did not perform differently from the grafted deficient tendon. In a tendon

  16. Paralabral rupture of the proximal biceps tendon from light weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kyle E; Solomon, Daniel J

    2008-12-01

    Rupture of the long head of the biceps is usually seen in older adults, in conjunction with rotator cuff tears or tenosynovitis secondary to chronic subacromial impingement; it is rarely seen as a result of trauma. We present the case of a young active patient who denied prodromal symptoms but ruptured the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHB) while performing 25-pound biceps curls. Upon examination, the patient was noted to have a readily apparent biceps defect and decreased strength. He was brought to the operating room, where open subpectoral tenodesis of the LHB was performed. At the 6-week follow-up evaluation, the patient had regained full range of motion. By 6 months, he had regained his previous strength. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a LHB rupture in a young healthy man with no prodromal symptoms.

  17. Morphology of the Lesser Tuberosity and Intertubercular Groove in Patients With Arthroscopically Confirmed Subscapularis and Biceps Tendon Pathology.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shaan H; Small, Kirstin M; Sinz, Nathan J; Higgins, Laurence D

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate for an association between the morphology of the lesser tuberosity and intertubercular groove and subscapularis tendon tears and biceps tendon pathology. Sixty-six patients with arthroscopically confirmed subscapularis tendon tears were compared with 59 demographically matched control patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography arthrography examination of the shoulder. Measurements of the lesser tuberosity and intertubercular groove included maximum depth of the intertubercular groove, intertubercular groove depth at the midpoint of the glenoid, lesser tuberosity length, length from the top of the humeral head to the point of maximum depth of the intertubercular groove, length from the top of the humeral head to the top of the lesser tuberosity, and medial wall angle and depth. Patients with subscapularis tears showed a significantly decreased depth of the intertubercular groove at the mid glenoid (P = .01), shorter length of the lesser tuberosity (P = .002), and greater distance from the top of the humeral head to the top of the lesser tuberosity (P = .02). There was a trend toward a decreased medial wall angle (P = .07) and greater distance from the top of the humeral head to the point of maximum intertubercular groove depth (P = .06). Patients with biceps tendon pathology showed a significantly decreased depth of the intertubercular groove at the mid glenoid (P = .001), shorter length of the lesser tuberosity (P = .0003), greater distance from the top of the humeral head to the top of the lesser tuberosity (P = .01), and decreased medial wall angle (P = .01) and depth (P = .03). There are several morphologic factors related to the lesser tuberosity and intertubercular groove that are associated with both subscapularis tendon tears and biceps tendon pathology. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Good isometric and isokinetic power restoration after distal biceps tendon repair with anchors.

    PubMed

    Suda, Arnold J; Prajitno, Julia; Grützner, Paul A; Tinelli, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Distal biceps brachii tendon rupture can lead to 30-40% power loss of elbow flexion and up to 50% of forearm supination. Re-fixation of the distal biceps brachii tendon is recommended to warrant an adequate quality of the patient's life. This study reports the isometric and isokinetic results after anchor re-fixation 2.5 years after surgery. Between 2007 and 2010, 69 patients with distal biceps brachii tendon tear underwent a suture anchor reattachment. During the follow-up examination, a questionnaire and DASH score were filled in, the circumferences of the arm were measured, range of motion was collected, and different trials were conducted at the BTE Primus RS™ (Baltimore Therapeutic Equipment) on both arms. 49 patients (71%) were reinvestigated with a follow-up of 32 months (11-58 months). A significant difference was found in the ability of elbow flexion between the affected arm and the opposite side as well as in pronation and supination. In elbow flexion and extension as well as in pronation and supination of the forearm, the strength was significantly diminished. 32 months after surgical re-fixation of the distal biceps brachii tendon rupture, strength in all exercises is marginally reduced in comparison to the opposite arm. Re-fixation of the distal biceps brachii tendon is an adequate method to return the range of motion and the strength in the elbow joint to an almost normal level and that gives rise to a high level of patient satisfaction. Level III, case-control study.

  19. Proximal Biceps Tendonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... teens, biceps tendonitis is usually an overuse injury. Baseball pitchers, swimmers, tennis players, and people who have ... But if you swim or play tennis or baseball, that might not be an option! If your ...

  20. Relationship between subscapularis tears and injuries to the biceps pulley.

    PubMed

    Godenèche, Arnaud; Nové-Josserand, Laurent; Audebert, Stéphane; Toussaint, Bruno; Denard, Patrick J; Lädermann, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between long head of the biceps brachii (LHBT) lesions and subscapularis tears. The hypothesis was that a bicipital pulley might remain intact, even in the case of a subscapularis tear. Between 2010 and 2011, all patients who had a primary arthroscopic repair of a subscapularis tear were potentially included in this prospective study. The outcome of interest was the prevalence and type of arthroscopic lesions of the LHBT and bicipital pulley. Furthermore, the supposed pathomechanics of injury and the treatment proposed (conservative, pulley repair, tenodesis, tenotomy, etc.) was recorded. The following baseline characteristics were assessed: age, sex, shoulder side, and limb dominance. Of the 218 patients, the superior glenohumeral ligament/coracohumeral ligament (SGHL/CHL) complex was normal in 54 patients (25%), stretched in 84 patients (39%), and absent in 77 patients (35%). Below the SGHL/CHL complex in the bicipital groove, the medial wall of the LHBT sheath was normal in 25%, partially torn in 39%, and completely torn in 35%. In 25 of the 218 patients (11%), a pathologic LHBT with an intact SGHL/CHL complex was observed. In these cases, the medial wall of the bicipital sheath was torn in 92%. The biceps pulley system, including the SGHL/CHL complex and subscapularis tendon, merits recognition as an important anatomical structure, and its lesions contribute to shoulder pathology. The subscapularis tendon is very important for the stability of the LHBT and should be included in the pulley system. In cases of a tear associated with a lesion of the SGHL/CHL complex, the LHBT is nearly always unstable and pathologic. II.

  1. Arthroscopic release of the long head of the biceps tendon: functional outcome and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anne M; Drakos, Mark C; Fealy, Stephen; Taylor, Samuel A; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    Treatment of chronic, refractory biceps tendinitis remains controversial. The authors sought to evaluate clinical and functional outcomes of arthroscopic release of the long head of the biceps tendon. In specific cases of refractory biceps tendinitis, site-specific release of the long head of the biceps tendon may yield relief of pain and symptoms. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with biceps tendinitis underwent arthroscopic release of the long head of the biceps tendon as an isolated procedure or as part of a concomitant shoulder procedure over a 2-year period. Patients were not excluded for concomitant shoulder abnormality, including degenerative joint disease, rotator cuff tears, Bankart lesions, or instability. Nine of 40 patients had an isolated arthroscopic release of the biceps tendon. At a minimum of 2 years, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; the University of California, Los Angeles; and the L'Insalata shoulder questionnaires as well as ipsilateral and contralateral metrics were used for evaluation. The L'Insalata; University of California, Los Angeles; and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores were 77.6, 27.6, and 75.6, respectively. Seventy percent had a Popeye sign at rest or during active elbow flexion; 82.7% of men and 36.5% of women had a positive Popeye sign (P < .05); 68% were rated as good, very good, or excellent. No patient reported arm pain at rest distally or proximally; 38% of patients complained of fatigue discomfort (soreness) isolated to the biceps muscle after resisted elbow flexion. Arthroscopic release of the long head of the biceps tendon is an appropriate and reliable intervention for patients with chronic, refractory biceps tendinitis. Cosmetic deformity presenting as a positive Popeye sign and fatigue discomfort were the primary complaints. Although tenotomy is not the ideal intervention for patients of all ages with various shoulder abnormalities, data suggest that it may be an

  2. Does Additional Biceps Augmentation Improve Rotator Cuff Healing and Clinical Outcomes in Anterior L-Shaped Rotator Cuff Tears? Clinical Comparisons With Arthroscopic Partial Repair.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Sang; Lee, Juyeob; Kim, Rag Gyu; Ko, Young-Won; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2017-11-01

    The repair of anterior L-shaped tears is usually difficult because of the lack of anterior rotator cuff tendon to cover the footprint. The biceps tendon is usually exposed from the retracted anterolateral corner of the torn tendon and can be easily used to augment rotator cuff repair. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study compared the clinical outcomes of the biceps augmentation technique with those of partial tendon repair for the arthroscopic treatment of large anterior L-shaped rotator cuff tears to evaluate the role of additional biceps augmentation in tendon healing. We hypothesized that the biceps augmentation technique would lead to a lower rotator cuff tendon retear rate and provide satisfactory functional outcomes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 64 patients with anterior L-shaped rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (31 patients) underwent repair of an anterior L-shaped tear combined with biceps augmentation, and group B (33 patients) had a partially repaired tendon whose footprint was exposed after repair without undue tension on the retracted tendon. Clinical evaluations were performed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, muscle strength, visual analog scale for pain, and patient satisfaction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for tendon integrity at 6 months postoperatively. The mean period of follow-up was 29.1 ± 3.5 months (range, 24-40 months). The mean ASES and Constant scores significantly improved from 52.8 ± 10.6 and 43.2 ± 9.9 preoperatively to 88.2 ± 6.9 and 86.8 ± 6.2 at final follow-up in group A ( P < .001) and from 53.0 ± 11.8 and 44.3 ± 11.3 preoperatively to 87.4 ± 7.2 and 87.9 ± 7.3 at final follow-up in group B ( P < .001). Overall muscle strength (given as % of the other side's strength) significantly increased from preoperatively to final follow-up in group A (forward flexion [FF]: 62.0 ± 8

  3. Distal biceps tendon rupture reconstruction using muscle-splitting double-incision approach

    PubMed Central

    Tarallo, Luigi; Mugnai, Raffaele; Zambianchi, Francesco; Adani, Roberto; Catani, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical and functional results after repair of distal biceps tendon tears, following the Morrey’s modified double-incision approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with distal rupture of biceps brachii treated between 2003 and 2012 in our Orthopedic Department with muscle-splitting double-incision technique. Outcome measures included the Mayo elbow performance, the DASH questionnaire, patient’s satisfaction, elbow and forearm motion, grip strength and complications occurrence. RESULTS: At an average 18 mo follow-up (range, 7 mo-10 years) the average Mayo elbow performance and DASH score were respectively 97.2 and 4.8. The elbow flexion range was 94%, extension was -2°, supination was 93% and pronation 96% compared with the uninjured limb. The mean grip strength, expressed as percentage of respective contralateral limb, was 83%. The average patient satisfaction rating on a Likert scale (from 0 to 10) was 9.4. The following complications were observed: 3 cases of heterotopic ossification (6.4%), one (2.1%) re-rupture of the tendon at the site of reattachment and 2 cases (4.3%) of posterior interosseous nerve palsy. No complication required further surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: This technique allows an anatomic reattachment of distal biceps tendon at the radial tuberosity providing full functional recovery with low complication rate. PMID:25133147

  4. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis: a new technique using bioabsorbable interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Pascal; Krishnan, Sumant G; Coste, Jean-Sebastien; Walch, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    To report a new technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis using bioabsorbable interference screw fixation and the early results. Prospective, nonrandomized study. The principle of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis is simple: after biceps tenotomy, the tendon is exteriorized and doubled on a suture; the biceps tendon is then pulled into a humeral socket (7 or 8 mm x 25 mm) drilled at the top of the bicipital groove, and fixed using a bioabsorbable interference screw (8 or 9 mm x 25 mm) under arthroscopic control. 43 patients treated with this technique between 1997 and 1999 were followed-up for at least 1 year. The technique was indicated in 3 clinical situations: (1) with arthroscopic cuff repair (3 cases), (2) in case of isolated pathology of the biceps tendon with an intact cuff (6 cases), and (3) as an alternative to biceps tenotomy in patients with massive, degenerative and irreparable cuff tears (34 cases). The biceps pathology was tenosynovitis (4 cases), prerupture (15 cases), subluxation (11 cases), and luxation (13 cases). The absolute Constant score improved from 43 points preoperatively to 79 points at review (P <.005). There was no loss of elbow movement and biceps strength was 90% of the strength of the other side. Two patients, operated on early in the series, presented with a rupture of the tenodesis. In both cases the bicipital tendon was very friable and the diameter of the screw proved to be insufficient (7 mm). No neurologic or vascular complications occurred. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis using bioabsorbable screw fixation is technically possible and gives good clinical results. This technique can be used in cases of isolated pathologic biceps tendon or a cuff tear. A very thin, fragile, almost ruptured biceps tendon is the technical limit of this arthroscopic technique.

  5. Surgical treatment for partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon using palmaris longus tendon graft: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kousuke; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2018-03-08

    We report a case of a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon that was surgically treated using a palmaris longus tendon graft. A 58-year-old man complained of increasing pain with resisted elbow flexion and supination in the antecubital fossa. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the irregularity of a distal attachment of the biceps brachii and peripheral signal changes. We diagnosed a partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon. Because conservative treatment failed, surgical treatment was performed through a single anterior approach. The insertion of the tendon was partially ruptured at the radial tuberosity. After the involved site was debrided, the palmaris longus tendon was grafted with suture anchors to reinforce the remaining tendon. Postoperative immobilization was not performed, and all moves were freed after 3 weeks. At the 6-year postoperative follow-up, the patient no longer experienced pain and returned to his original job without any limitations. Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of the bicipital groove in tendopathy of the long biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, M; Branner, S; Refior, H J

    1999-01-01

    Long biceps tendon disease is often underrated but plays an important role in anterior shoulder pain. We studied prospectively the anatomy of the bicipital groove and its relationship to clinical symptoms. Sixty-seven consecutive patients were investigated by mutual ultrasonography and radiographs of the intertubercular groove. All images were scrutinized for biceps tendon status (ultrasonography) and groove anatomy (radiography). Thirty-seven patients (21 male, 16 female, average age 48 years) had chronic anterior shoulder pain, and 30 patients (16 male, 14 female, average age 46 years) served as a control group. In 28 shoulders we found sonographic signs of tendovaginitis, and in 14 we found degenerative changes. The mean age of patients with pathologic conditions of the long biceps tendon was 40 years, significantly lower than that of the complete study group. The x-ray films revealed a great variation in the medial and total opening angle of the groove, whereas width, depth, and humeral head diameter showed sex-related differences. Radiologic signs of groove degeneration correlated in 43.6% with biceps tendon disease on the sonogram. Our study revealed statistically significant correlations between groove anatomy and long biceps tendon disease, which should be considered more while shoulder problems are evaluated.

  7. Location of Rotator Cuff Tear Initiation: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of 191 Shoulders.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeung Yeol; Min, Seul Ki; Park, Keun Min; Park, Yong Bok; Han, Kwang Joon; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2018-03-01

    Degenerative rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are generally thought to originate at the anterior margin of the supraspinatus tendon. However, a recent ultrasonography study suggested that they might originate more posteriorly than originally thought, perhaps even from the isolated infraspinatus (ISP) tendon, and propagate toward the anterior supraspinatus. Hypothesis/Purpose: It was hypothesized that this finding could be reproduced with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose was to determine the most common location of degenerative RCTs by using 3-dimensional multiplanar MRI reconstruction. It was assumed that the location of the partial-thickness tears would identify the area of the initiation of full-thickness tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective analysis was conducted including 245 patients who had RCTs (nearly full- or partial-thickness tears) at the outpatient department between January 2011 and December 2013. RCTs were measured on 3-dimensional multiplanar reconstruction MRI with OsiriX software. The width and distance from the biceps tendon to the anterior margin of the tear were measured on T2-weighted sagittal images. In a spreadsheet, columns of consecutive numbers represented the size of each tear (anteroposterior width) and their locations with respect to the biceps brachii tendon. Data were pooled to graphically represent the width and location of all tears. Frequency histograms of the columns were made to visualize the distribution of tears. The tears were divided into 2 groups based on width (group A, <10 mm; group B, <20 and ≥10 mm) and analyzed for any differences in location related to size. The mean width of all RCTs was 11.9 ± 4.1 mm, and the mean length was 11.1 ± 5.0 mm. Histograms showed the most common location of origin to be 9 to 10 mm posterior to the biceps tendon. The histograms of groups A and B showed similar tear location distributions, indicating that the region approximately 10 mm posterior to

  8. Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon repair: case report.

    PubMed

    Storti, Thiago Medeiros; Paniago, Alexandre Firmino; Faria, Rafael Salomon Silva

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare clinical entity, seldom reported in the literature and with unclear therapeutic setting. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old white man who suffered a simultaneous bilateral rupture while working out. When weightlifting with elbows at 90° of flexion, he suddenly felt pain on the anterior aspect of the arms, coming for evaluation after two days. He presented bulging contour of the biceps muscle belly and ecchymosis in the antecubital fossa, extending distally to the medial aspect of the forearm, as well as a marked decrease of supination strength and pain in active elbow flexion. MRI confirmed the rupture with retraction of the distal biceps bilaterally. The authors opted for performing the tendon repairs simultaneously through the double incision technique and fixation to the bicipital tuberosity with anchors. The patient progressed quite well, with full return to labor and sports activities, being satisfied with the result after two years of surgery. In the literature search, few reports of simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps were retrieved, with only one treated in the acute phase of injury. Therefore, the authors consider this procedure to be a good option to solve this complex condition.

  9. Isolation and characterization of 2 new human rotator cuff and long head of biceps tendon cells possessing stem cell-like self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Conforti, Erika; Piccoli, Marco; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Cirillo, Federica; Masuzzo, Pamela; Tringali, Cristina; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Gagliano, Nicoletta; Anastasia, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Stem cell therapy is expected to offer new alternatives to the traditional therapies of rotator cuff tendon tears. In particular, resident, tissue-specific, adult stem cells seem to have a higher regenerative potential for the tissue where they reside. Rotator cuff tendon and long head of the biceps tendon possess a resident stem cell population that, when properly stimulated, may be induced to proliferate, thus being potentially usable for tendon regeneration. Controlled laboratory study. Human tendon samples from the supraspinatus and the long head of the biceps were collected during rotator cuff tendon surgeries from 26 patients, washed with phosphate-buffered saline, cut into small pieces, and digested with collagenase type I and dispase. After centrifugation, cell pellets were resuspended in appropriate culture medium and plated. Adherent cells were cultured, phenotypically characterized, and then compared with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), as an example of adult stem cells, and human dermal fibroblasts, as normal proliferating cells with no stem cell properties. Two new adult stem cell populations from the supraspinatus and long head of the biceps tendons were isolated, characterized, and cultured in vitro. Cells showed adult stem cell characteristics (ie, they were self-renewing in vitro, clonogenic, and multipotent), as they could be induced to differentiate into different cell types--namely, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and skeletal muscle cells. This work demonstrated that human rotator cuff tendon stem cells and human long head of the biceps tendon stem cells can be isolated and possess a high regenerative potential, which is comparable with that of BMSCs. Moreover, comparative analysis of the sphingolipid pattern of isolated cells with that of BMSCs and fibroblasts revealed the possibility of using this class of lipids as new possible markers of the cell differentiation status. Rotator cuff and long head of the biceps tendons contain a stem cell

  10. Spontaneous rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon in a woman with hypothyroidism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, K; Roupas, N D; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Theodoraki, S; Tsintoni, A; Kyriazopoulou, V

    2016-01-13

    Tendinitis can be a presenting complaint in hypothyroidism, with symptomatic relief being obtained by appropriate management of the primary thyroid deficiency. To the best of our knowledge no other cases of spontaneous rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon during uncontrolled hypothyroidism have yet been reported. This case report describes an unusual case of spontaneous rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon in a 48-year-old white woman with severe hypothyroidism. She described experiencing a sudden sharp pain and an audible pop in her right shoulder while using her personal computer. On physical examination she was positive for Yergason's sign and a subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scan showed complete rupture of the long head of her biceps tendon. Laboratory tests revealed significantly elevated thyrotropin levels (>100 μIU/ml) and very low levels of both triiodothyronine (0.17 ng/ml) and free thyroxine (0.18 ng/dl). She was switched to a different thyroxin regimen with a progressive dosage increment. She declined surgical re-anchorage of the tendon but despite the discreet Popeye sign, her overall strength and shoulder function were satisfactory. After 2 months, she was found to be clinically euthyroid, having normal thyroid function tests (thyrotropin 2.95 μIU/mL, free thyroxine 1.07 ng/dl). At her last follow-up visit, 1 year post-injury, she reported nearly normal shoulder function in her daily activities and had a constant shoulder score of 93 points. The role of thyroid hormones in the synthesis and degeneration of collagen and in the proliferation and apoptosis of human tenocytes is discussed, providing a possible mechanism whereby hypothyroidism may lead to tendon tears. This report may have a greater impact among different subspecialties as it presupposes a high degree of awareness from internists, endocrinologists and orthopedic surgeons.

  11. Partial supraspinatus tears are associated with tendon lengthening.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Buck, Florian M; Farshad, Mazda; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Gerber, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Tendon tear may result in muscular retraction with the loss of contractile amplitude and strength of the rotator cuff muscles. Currently, neither a validated method of measuring supraspinatus tendon length nor normal values are known. It was therefore the purpose of this study to measure the normal length of the supraspinatus tendon and to determine whether partial tears are associated with changes in tendon length. MR examinations of 49 asymptomatic volunteers and 37 patients with arthroscopically proven, isolated partial tears of the supraspinatus tendon were compared. The ratio of the extramuscular tendon length to the distance between the footprint and the glenoid surface was calculated (TL/FG ratio). Tendon length measurements were taken by two independent readers at the bursal and articular surfaces at the anterior, the central and the posterior parts of the tendon. TL/FG ratios at the bursal surface of tendons with partial tears were significantly higher than those in the control group [anterior: 0.78 ± 0.20 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15 (p < 0.05); central: 0.61 ± 0.13 vs. 0.52 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05); posterior: 0.57 ± 0.15 vs. 0.52 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05)]. At the articular surface, differences were significant only anteriorly [0.60 ± 0.13, vs. 0.54 ± 0.10 (p < 0.05)]. A cut-off TL/FG ratio of 0.63 for measurements at the bursal surface in the center of the tendon achieved a sensitivity of 46 % and a specificity of 92 % for the identification of partial cuff tearing. A reproducible method for measurement of extramuscular supraspinatus tendon length is described. Partial tearing of the supraspinatus tendon is associated with significant tendon lengthening, suggesting failure in continuity, and this is most reliably measured on the bursal surface. III.

  12. Does partial tear repair of adjacent tendons improve the outcome of supraspinatus tendonfull-thickness tear reinsertion?

    PubMed

    Nich, C; Dhiaf, N; Di Schino, M; Augereau, B

    2014-11-01

    Partial tearing of the infraspinatus and/or subscapularis tendon(s) is frequently associated with supraspinatus full-thickness tears. However, limited data regarding its influence on supraspinatus surgical repair is available. Our aim was to assess the functional and anatomical outcomes of open repair of supraspinatus full-thickness tears combined with adjacent partial tearing, comparatively to a control. We retrospectively identified 22 patients (22 shoulders) with a partial tear, most of them being a delamination tear, of the infraspinatus and/or subscapularis tendons associated with a complete detachment of the supraspinatus tendon. Twenty-seven patients (27 shoulders) treated for an isolated complete detachment of the supraspinatus tendon by open repair served as controls. The mean age was 58 years. A proximalized trans-osseous reinsertion of the supraspinatus tendon was combined with a curettage-closure of the delamination tear. Patients were evaluated with standardized MRI at last follow-up. At a mean of 75-month follow-up, the presence of a partial tear of either infraspinatus or subscapularis, or both, did not influence function and healing rates of supraspinatus tendon repair. Conversely to the control, when a retear occurred, the functional score tended to worsen. Preoperatively, fatty muscular degeneration was more pronounced when a partial tear was present. Fatty degeneration worsened regardless of repair healing. Open reinsertion of a supraspinatus full-thickness tear associated with a thorough treatment of partial tear of adjacent tendons led to optimal functional and anatomical mid term outcomes. Our results suggest the presence of a partial tear of adjacent tendons could be associated with poorer function in case of supraspinatus tendon re-rupture. Level III case-control study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Return to Overuse Activity Following an Isolated Supraspinatus Tendon Tear on Adjacent Intact Tendons and Glenoid Cartilage in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Gray, Chancellor F.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that can alter shoulder mechanics and may lead to damage of intact joint tissues. These injuries are of particular concern in populations who perform tasks requiring repetitive overhead activity (e.g., athletes and laborers) and who are likely to return to aggressive pre-injury activity levels despite limited understanding of the potentially damaging effects on the remaining tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the mechanical properties of the remaining intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse activity to create a tendinopathic condition followed by detachment of the supraspinatus tendon and were then randomized into two groups: continued overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed throughout the 8 weeks prior to euthaniasia, and properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that shoulder function was not compromised in the return to overuse group. However, alterations of the glenoid cartilage and biceps tendon properties occurred. Our results help define the contributory roles of common mechanical injury mechanisms and provide a framework by which physicians could better prescribe long-term treatment strategies for patients. PMID:23280495

  14. Effect of return to overuse activity following an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear on adjacent intact tendons and glenoid cartilage in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Reuther, Katherine E; Thomas, Stephen J; Sarver, Joseph J; Tucker, Jennica J; Lee, Chang-Soo; Gray, Chancellor F; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2013-05-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that can alter shoulder mechanics and may lead to damage of intact joint tissues. These injuries are of particular concern in populations who perform tasks requiring repetitive overhead activity (e.g., athletes and laborers) and who are likely to return to aggressive pre-injury activity levels despite limited understanding of the potentially damaging effects on the remaining tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the mechanical properties of the remaining intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse activity to create a tendinopathic condition followed by detachment of the supraspinatus tendon and were then randomized into two groups: continued overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed throughout the 8 weeks prior to euthaniasia, and properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that shoulder function was not compromised in the return to overuse group. However, alterations of the glenoid cartilage and biceps tendon properties occurred. Our results help define the contributory roles of common mechanical injury mechanisms and provide a framework by which physicians could better prescribe long-term treatment strategies for patients. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Biomechanical Cadaveric Evaluation of Partial Acute Peroneal Tendon Tears.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Emilio; Wagner, Pablo; Ortiz, Cristian; Radkievich, Ruben; Palma, Felipe; Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo

    2018-06-01

    No clear guideline or solid evidence exists for peroneal tendon tears to determine when to repair, resect, or perform a tenodesis on the damaged tendon. The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanical behavior of cadaveric peroneal tendons artificially damaged and tested in a cyclic and failure mode. The hypothesis was that no failure would be observed in the cyclic phase. Eight cadaveric long leg specimens were tested on a specially designed frame. A longitudinal full thickness tendon defect was created, 3 cm in length, behind the tip of the fibula, compromising 66% of the visible width of the peroneal tendons. Cyclic testing was initially performed between 50 and 200 N, followed by a load-to-failure test. Tendon elongation and load to rupture were measured. No tendon failed or lengthened during cyclic testing. The mean load to failure for peroneus brevis was 416 N (95% confidence interval, 351-481 N) and for the peroneus longus was 723 N (95% confidence interval, 578-868 N). All failures were at the level of the defect created. In a cadaveric model of peroneal tendon tears, 33% of remaining peroneal tendon could resist high tensile forces, above the physiologic threshold. Some peroneal tendon tears can be treated conservatively without risking spontaneous ruptures. When surgically treating a symptomatic peroneal tendon tear, increased efforts may be undertaken to repair tears previously considered irreparable.

  16. Primary repair of retracted distal biceps tendon ruptures in extreme flexion.

    PubMed

    Morrey, Mark E; Abdel, Matthew P; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F

    2014-05-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures may have tendinous retraction, making primary repair difficult and calling into question the need for graft reconstruction. The decision for when to primarily fix or augment high-flexion repairs has not been addressed. We hypothesized high-flexion repairs would have good outcomes without graft augmentation. The purpose of this study was to examine allograft use and outcomes of distal biceps tendon ruptures requiring repair in greater than 60° of flexion. This was a retrospective case-control study 188 distal biceps tendon repairs; of these, 19 chronic and 4 acute cases were identified with repairs of >60° of flexion using a 2-incision technique. Graft need, complications, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score to assess function, were examined with a record review. Patients were surveyed regarding return to work and subjective satisfaction. A control group matched for surgeon, chronicity, and age, but without a high-flexion repair, was compared with cases by using the Student paired t test. Graft augmentation was used in 1 patient with poor tendon quality. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 100 for all 23 patients, with extension/flexion range of motion from 3° to 138°. All were subjectively "very satisfied/satisfied," with full work return, yet 3 reported mild fatigability. There were 4 complications: 3 transient lateral antebrachial cutaneous neurapraxias and 1 rerupture at the myotendinous junction after retrauma. Differences between cases and controls were not statistically significant. Contracted distal biceps tendons may be reliably reattached to their anatomic insertion with up to 90° of elbow flexion. This lessens the need for reconstruction in such circumstances. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between chronic pathologies of the supraspinatus tendon and the long head of the biceps tendon: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Alonso, Lucía; Chamorro-Moriana, Gema; Jiménez-Rejano, José Jesús; López-Tarrida, Patricio; Ridao-Fernández, Carmen

    2014-11-18

    Chronic supraspinatus tendinopathy is a common clinical problem that causes functional and labor disabilities in the population. It is the most frequent cause of shoulder pain. This pathology may be frequently associated to the affectation of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT), the main stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint together with the supraspinatus. The main aim of this work is to study the prevalence of lesions in LHBT associated to the chronic pathology of the supraspinatus tendon. A systematic review was carried out between May to July 2013 in the electronic databases: CINAHL, WOK, Medline, Scopus, PEDro, IME (CSIC) and Dialnet. The keywords used were: 1) in English: chronic, supraspinatus "long head of the biceps tendon", biceps, rotator cuff, tendinosis, tendinopathy, evaluation, examination; 2) in Spanish: supraespinoso, biceps, tendinopatía. Inclusion criteria of the articles included subjects with a previously diagnosed chronic pathology of rotator cuff (RC) without previous surgery or any other pathologies of the shoulder complex. The total number of articles included in the study were five. The results show an epidemiological relationship between both tendons. The age of the subjects included in the review was between 35 and 80 years, and some of the studies seem to indicate that the tendinopathy is more frequent in men than in women. The sample size of the studies varies according to the design, the highest being composed of 229 subjects, and the minimum of 28. Not all the articles selected specify the diagnostic testing, though the ones most normally used are arthroscopy, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and assessment tests. The percentage of associated lesions of LHBT and supraspinatus tendon is between 78.5% and 22%, with a major prevalence in the studies with a smaller sample. The review of literature corroborates an association between the chronic pathology of the supraspinatus tendon and LHBT due to the epidemiological data. In

  18. Supraspinatus tendinosis associated with biceps brachii tendon displacement in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Boel A; Gavin, Patrick R; Lahmers, Kevin K

    2005-11-01

    A 4-year-old spayed female Australian Cattle Dog (Blue Heeler) was evaluated because of right forelimb lameness of 5 months' duration. Orthopedic evaluation revealed signs of pain localized to the cranial aspects of both shoulder joints. Via magnetic resonance imaging, the mass of the supraspinatus tendon insertion in both shoulder joints was increased, compared with findings in cadavers of clinically normal dogs; additional imaging procedures revealed that, compared with clinically normal tendons, the tendon had increased signal intensity that was consistent with increased fluid content. The increased supraspinatus tendon mass in each shoulder joint was associated with medial displacement of the biceps brachii tendon, which was more severe in the right limb. Arthroscopic evaluations of both shoulder joints revealed no abnormalities. The dog underwent surgery, and the abnormal parts of the tendons were resected. The most prominent finding on histologic examination of excised tissues was severe myxomatous degeneration. The lameness resolved, and at 22 months after surgery, the dog was reported to have had no recurrence of lameness. The clinical signs and histologic appearance of the tendons in this dog strongly resemble findings associated with tendinosis in humans. Decompression of the biceps brachii tendon may have contributed to the successful outcome after surgery in this dog. Supraspinatus tendinosis should be considered among the differential diagnoses in dogs with uni- or bilateral forelimb lameness.

  19. Proximal Long Head Biceps Rupture: A Predictor of Rotator Cuff Pathology.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Marcin; Kohut, Kevin; Sabzevari, Soheil; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Lin, Albert

    2018-04-01

    To investigate whether acute rupture of the proximal long head biceps is a harbinger of disease of the nearby supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons. A retrospective chart review from February 1, 2008, to August 31, 2016, was performed at our institution identifying patients who presented with an acute (<12-week) history of "Popeye" deformity of the distal biceps and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the affected shoulder. MRI images were then reviewed in duplicate to determine supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon tear incidence, size, chronicity, and depth. The association between rotator cuff status and acute long head biceps rupture as well as patient age, sex, smoking status, hand dominance, and history of diabetes mellitus or trauma was then evaluated. A total of 116 patients were included in this study (mean age: 61.9 ± 10.9 years). A significant proportion (n = 99; incidence: 85%) were found to have some degree of supraspinatus or subscapularis tendon tearing on MRI (P < .001). These patients were also found to be significantly older compared with those with an intact rotator cuff (mean age 63.3 ± 10.7 vs 54.2 ± 9.2; P = .001). Full thickness rotator cuff tears were significantly more likely to involve the supraspinatus as opposed to the subscapularis (incidence: 44% and 21%; P = .002). Despite the expected association of rotator cuff disease with increasing patient age, the results of this study also affirm the hypothesis that inflammation in the rotator cuff interval signaled by rupture of the long head of biceps is a harbinger of rotator cuff disease. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion regarding concomitant anterosuperior rotator cuff pathology in patients presenting with acute long head of biceps rupture. Early evaluation with advanced imaging should be strongly considered. Level IV, case series. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Coracohumeral Distance in Shoulders With Traumatic and Degenerative Subscapularis Tendon Tears.

    PubMed

    Balke, Maurice; Banerjee, Marc; Greshake, Oliver; Hoeher, Juergen; Bouillon, Bertil; Liem, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    A reduced coracohumeral distance (CHD) is thought to be responsible for subcoracoid impingement. This only accounts for degenerative tendon tears. In traumatic tears, the subcoracoid space should be normal. The CHD in patients with traumatic subscapularis tendon tears is larger than that in patients with degenerative tears and does not differ from patients with an intact subscapularis tendon. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 83 patients with arthroscopically certified subscapularis tendon tears were included in the study. Forty-four patients had degenerative causes (group 1), and 39 had traumatic causes (group 2). The control group consisted of 20 patients with traumatic supraspinatus tendon tears and arthroscopically proven, intact subscapularis tendons (group 3). On preoperative axial magnetic resonance imaging, the distance between the CHD was measured, and the values of the 3 groups were compared using the t test. The mean (±SD) CHD in patients with degenerative subscapularis tendon tears was 8.6 ± 2.0 mm (range, 4.0-13.2 mm) and was significantly (P = .0003) smaller than that in patients with traumatic tears (10.2 ± 2.0 mm; range, 6.6-16.2 mm) or controls (10.4 ± 1.8 mm; range, 6.8-14.0 mm). The CHD of controls and patients with traumatic tears did not differ significantly (P = .7875). A CHD of less than 6 mm only occurred in patients with degenerative subscapularis tendon tears. The hypothesis that the CHD in patients with degenerative subscapularis tendon tears is significantly smaller than that in patients with traumatic tears or intact subscapularis tendons was confirmed. The CHD in patients with traumatic tears does not differ from that in controls. A CHD of less than 6 mm only occurs in patients with degenerative subscapularis tendon tears. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Repair of distal biceps tendon rupture with the Biotenodesis screw.

    PubMed

    Khan, W; Agarwal, M; Funk, L

    2004-04-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries with only around 300 cases reported in the literature. Current management tends to favour anatomical reinsertion of the tendon into the radial tuberosity, especially in young and active individuals. These injuries are commonly repaired using either a single anterior incision with suture anchors or the Boyd-Anderson dual incision technique. We report the use of a bioabsorbable interference screw for the repair of distal biceps tendon rupture using a minimal incision technique. In this technique the avulsed tendon and a bioabsorbable screw are secured in a drill hole on the radial tuberosity using whip stitch and fibre wire sutures according to Biotenodesis system guidelines. The technique described requires minimal volar dissection that is associated with a reduced number of synostosis and posterior interosseous nerve injuries. The bioabsorbable interference screw has all the advantages of being biodegradable and has been shown to have greater pullout strength than suture anchors. It is also a reasonable alternative to titanium screws in terms of primary fixation strength. The strong fixation provided allows early active motion and return to previous activities as seen in our case.

  2. Diagnosis of long head of biceps tendinopathy in rotator cuff tear patients: correlation of imaging and arthroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Rol, Morgane; Favard, Luc; Berhouet, Julien

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this prospective study was to assess the reliability of pre-operative cross-sectional imaging for the diagnosis of long head of biceps (LHB) tendinopathy in patients with a rotator cuff tear. Cross-sectional imaging with MRI or CT arthrography data from 25 patients operated upon because of a rotator cuff tear between 1 October 2015 and 1 April 2016 was analysed by one experienced orthopaedic surgeon, one experienced radiologist and one orthopaedic resident. The analysis consisted of determining whether the LHB was present, the extrinsic tendon abnormalities (dislocation, tendon coverage) and intrinsic abnormalities (fraying, inflammation, degeneration). These findings were then compared to intra-operative arthroscopy findings, which were used as the benchmark. The interobserver correlation between the three different examiners for the cross-sectional imaging analysis as well as the correlation between the imaging and arthroscopy data were determined. The correlation between the imaging and arthroscopy data was the highest (80%) for the determination of LHB dislocation from the bicipital groove. The other diagnostic elements (subluxation, coverage and tendon degeneration) were difficult to discern with preoperative imaging, and correlated poorly with the arthroscopy findings (45% to 65%). The interobserver correlation was moderate to strong for the diagnosis of extrinsic tendon abnormalities. It was low to moderate for intrinsic abnormalities. Except for LHB dislocation, pre-operative imaging is not sufficient to make a reliable diagnosis of LHB tendinopathy. Arthroscopy remains the gold standard for the management of LHB tendinopathy, as diagnosed intra-operatively.

  3. The Size of the Radial Tuberosity is Not Related to the Occurrence of Distal Biceps Tendon Ruptures: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kodde, Izaäk F; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Mulder, Paul G H; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic changes at the radial tuberosity have traditionally been related to distal biceps tendon degeneration and rupture. From supination to pronation of the forearm, the space available for the distal biceps tendon between de lateral ulna and radial bicipital tuberosity (RBT) decreases by almost 50%. A hypertrophic change at the radial tuberosity further reduces this space with impingement of the distal biceps tendon as a result. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the size of the RBT plays a role in the pathophysiology of distal biceps tendon ruptures. Twenty-two consecutive patients with a surgically proven distal biceps tendon rupture were matched to controls, in a 1:1 ratio. The size of the RBT was expressed as a ratio of the maximum diameter of the radius at the RBT to the diameter of the diaphysis just distal to the RBT (RD ratio), measured on standard radiographs of the elbow. The RD ratio of patients and matched controls were compared. The mean RD ratio in control group was 1.25 and not significantly different from the mean 1.30 in the group of patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture. Each 0.1 point increase in RD ratio results in an estimated 60% increase of the rupture odds, which was not significant either. Based on the RD ratio on conventional radiographs of the elbow, there was no significant difference in RBT size between patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture and matched controls without biceps tendon pathology.

  4. Degeneration of the long biceps tendon: comparison of MRI with gross anatomy and histology.

    PubMed

    Buck, Florian M; Grehn, Holger; Hilbe, Monika; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Manzanell, Silvana; Hodler, Jürg

    2009-11-01

    The objective of our study was to relate alterations in biceps tendon diameter and signal on MR images to gross anatomy and histology. T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-saturated, and proton density-weighted fat-saturated spin-echo sequences were acquired in 15 cadaveric shoulders. Biceps tendon diameter (normal, flattened, thickened, and partially or completely torn) and signal intensity (compared with bone, fat, muscle, and joint fluid) were graded by two readers independently and in a blinded fashion. The distance of tendon abnormalities from the attachment at the glenoid were noted in millimeters. MRI findings were related to gross anatomic and histologic findings. On the basis of gross anatomy, there were six normal, five flattened, two thickened, and two partially torn tendons. Reader 1 graded nine diameter changes correctly, missed two, and incorrectly graded four. The corresponding values for reader 2 were seven, one, and five, respectively, with kappa = 0.75. Histology showed mucoid degeneration (n = 13), lipoid degeneration (n = 7), and fatty infiltration (n = 6). At least one type of abnormality was found in each single tendon. Mucoid degeneration was hyperintense compared with fatty infiltration on T2-weighted fat-saturated images and hyperintense compared with magic-angle artifacts on proton density-weighted fat-saturated images. MRI-based localization of degeneration agreed well with histologic findings. Diameter changes are specific but not sensitive in diagnosing tendinopathy of the biceps tendon. Increased tendon signal is most typical for mucoid degeneration but should be used with care as a sign of tendon degeneration.

  5. The structure of the insertions of the tendons of biceps brachii, triceps and brachialis in elderly dissecting room cadavers.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Newell, R L; Evans, E J; Ralphs, J R; Pemberton, D J

    1992-01-01

    The terminal portions of the tendon of brachialis, and the distal tendons of biceps brachii and triceps, were compared by routine histology. All tendons came from elderly dissecting room cadavers. There were pronounced quantitative differences between the 3 tendons in (1) the thickness of the attachment-zone fibrocartilage, (2) the thickness of cortical calcified tissue, and (3) the percentage of bone to marrow. There was significantly more uncalcified fibrocartilage at the attachment of biceps than at the other sites, reflecting greater range of movement of the tendon at this site. The thickness of cortical calcified tissue and the percentage of bone to marrow were significantly greater at the attachment of brachialis than either biceps or triceps. The large quantities of bone at the attachment of brachialis may be related more to the importance of the coronoid process in buttressing the elbow joint than to any special requirement for large amounts of calcified tissue at the tendon attachment. Near its attachment zone, the biceps tendon splits into superficial and deep laminae that are distinct from the macroscopic subdivision of this tendon. It is suggested that the lamination may facilitate the movements of pronation and supination. In support of this, the deep portion of the superficial lamina contained fibrocartilage where it rubbed against the attachment-zone of the deep lamina. In one body, the fibrocartilage of the biceps attachment-zone was subject to degenerative changes, including cell clumping and matrix fissuring. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1506288

  6. Biceps-Related Physical Findings Are Useful to Prevent Misdiagnosis of Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy as a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Eiichiro; Shigematsu, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuya; Egawa, Takuya; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Koizumi, Munehisa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2018-02-01

    Case-control study. The aim of the present study was to identify physical findings useful for differentiating between cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) and rotator cuff tears to prevent the misdiagnosis of CSA as a rotator cuff tear. CSA and rotator cuff tears are often confused among patients presenting with difficulty in shoulder elevation. Twenty-five patients with CSA and 27 with rotator cuff tears were enrolled. We included five physical findings specific to CSA that were observed in both CSA and rotator cuff tear patients. The findings were as follows: (1) weakness of the deltoid muscle, (2) weakness of the biceps muscle, (3) atrophy of the deltoid muscle, (4) atrophy of the biceps muscle, and (5) swallow-tail sign (assessment of the posterior fibers of the deltoid). Among 25 CSA patients, 10 (40.0%) were misdiagnosed with a rotator cuff tear on initial diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of each physical finding were as follows: (1) deltoid weakness (sensitivity, 92.0%; specificity, 55.6%), (2) biceps weakness (sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 100%), (3) deltoid atrophy (sensitivity, 96.0%; specificity, 77.8%), (4) biceps atrophy (sensitivity, 88.8%; specificity, 92.6%), and (5) swallow-tail sign (sensitivity, 56.0%; specificity, 74.1%). There were statistically significant differences in each physical finding. CSA is likely to be misdiagnosed as a rotator cuff tear; however, weakness and atrophy of the biceps are useful findings for differentiating between CSA and rotator cuff tears to prevent misdiagnosis.

  7. Prevalence of triceps tendon tears on MRI of the elbow and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Koplas, Monica C; Schneider, Erika; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-05-01

    Triceps tendon injuries are reported to be very rare. To our knowledge, there have been no studies describing its prevalence or injury patterns on MR imaging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of triceps injuries based on a large series of consecutive MR examinations. Clinical correlation was obtained. From 801 consecutive elbow MR examinations over a 15-year period, 28 patients with 30 triceps tendon injuries were identified and graded as partial tendon tear and complete tendon tear. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, cause of tears, and management. The prevalence of triceps tendon injuries was 3.8%. There were 5 women and 23 men with partial or complete tears (mean age: 46.6 years; range: 2.7 to 75.1 years). The most common injury was partial tear, found in 18 patients. There were 10 patients with 12 complete tears (2 had re-torn following surgical repair). A tear was suspected in 12 out 28 (43%) patients prior to the MRI. The most common presenting symptom was pain. The most common cause was athletic injury (8 patients [29%], including weightlifting [2 patients]). Tendon tear was found to be a complication of infection in 6 patients, and in 3 patients the tears were a complication of steroid use. Thirteen tendon tears were surgically repaired (8 of these were complete tears). Triceps tendon injury is not as rare as commonly reported and may often be clinically underdiagnosed.

  8. Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures repaired using an endobutton technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dacambra, Mark P; Walker, Richard Ea; Hildebrand, Kevin A

    2013-08-23

    The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern. A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a 'pop' on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later. Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures successfully treated with a single

  9. Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures repaired using an endobutton technique: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The simultaneous rupture of both distal biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity that is difficult to treat and can have poor outcomes. A variety of treatment and rehabilitation options exist and have been reported for single sided and staged bilateral repairs, but none have described an approach for acute bilateral ruptures. Repairing distal biceps tendon ruptures using a single anterior incision and a cortical suspensory button technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. We present a report of our surgical approach using an endobutton technique and rehabilitation algorithm for this unusual injury pattern. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute onset bilateral elbow pain while lifting a large sheet of drywall off the ground. He initially felt a ‘pop’ on the right and almost immediately felt another on the left after having to quickly shift the weight. He was unable to continue working and sought medical attention. His pain was predominantly in his bilateral antecubital fossae and he had significant swelling and ecchymoses. His clinical examination demonstrated no palpable tendon, a retracted biceps muscle belly, and clear supination weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures with retraction on both sides. After discussion with our patient, we decided that both sides would be repaired using a single anterior incision with endobutton fixation, first his right followed by his left six weeks later. Conclusion Overall, our patient did very well and had returned to full manual work by our last follow-up at 30 months. Although he was never able to return to competitive recreational hockey and was left with mild lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve dysesthesias on his right, he felt he was at 85% of his premorbid level of function. We describe what we believe to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of simultaneous bilateral distal biceps

  10. Distal biceps reconstruction using an Achilles tendon allograft, transosseous EndoButton, and Pulvertaft weave with tendon wrap technique for retracted, irreparable distal biceps ruptures.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Flannery, Olivia; Watts, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    Distal biceps ruptures can result in ongoing pain and weakness when treated nonoperatively. If retraction of the tendon renders primary repair impossible, reconstruction using a graft is recommended. The current literature includes a variety of techniques with studies reporting small patient numbers. The aim of this study was to report the results of a larger cohort of patients using a technique modified from those previously described in the literature. Twenty-one consecutive male patients underwent distal biceps reconstruction through 2 small anterior incisions using an Achilles tendon allograft that was fixed distally using a transosseous EndoButton and secured proximally using a Pulvertaft weave and tendon wrap. The mean age was 44 years, and the mean time to surgery was 25 months (range, 2-96 months). Functional outcomes were collected prospectively. The mean preoperative Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score (11 patients) was 1.9 (range, 0-4.5). The mean postoperative Oxford Elbow Score, QuickDASH score, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score were 44.7 (range, 35-48), 4 (range, 0-20.5), and 92.9 (range, 70-100), respectively, at a mean follow up of 15 months (range, 6-35 months). The mean postoperative QuickDASH score was significantly improved compared with preoperatively (P < .001). All patients were satisfied and all returned to their previous level of activity. There were 2 transient lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve paresthesias, and 2 patients had a 5° extension lag. There were no other complications. Achilles allograft reconstruction of retracted irreparable distal biceps ruptures provides consistently good results with few complications using this technique. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy fails to fully evaluate the biceps-labral complex.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samuel A; Khair, M Michael; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Pearle, Andrew D; Baret, Nikolas J; Newman, Ashley M; Dy, Christopher J; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the limits of diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy and determine the prevalence and frequency of hidden extra-articular "bicipital tunnel" lesions among chronically symptomatic patients. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy with percutaneous tagging of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) during maximal tendon excursion. The percentage of visualized LHBT was calculated relative to the distal margin of subscapularis tendon and the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon. Then, a retrospective review of 277 patients who underwent subdeltoid transfer of the LHBT to the conjoint tendon were retrospectively analyzed for lesions of the biceps-labral complex. Lesions were categorized by anatomic location (inside, junctional, or bicipital tunnel). Inside lesions were labral tears. Junctional lesions were LHBT tears visualized during glenohumeral arthroscopy. Bicipital tunnel lesions were extra-articular lesions hidden from view during standard glenohumeral arthroscopy. Seventy-eight percent of LHBT were visualized relative to the distal margin of the subscapularis tendon and only 55% relative to the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon. No portion of the LHBT inferior to the subscapularis tendon was visualized. Forty-seven percent of patients had hidden bicipital tunnel lesions. Scarring was most common and accounted for 48% of all such lesions. Thirty-seven percent of patients had multiple lesion locations. Forty-five percent of patients with junctional lesions also had hidden bicipital tunnel lesions. The only offending lesion was in the bicipital tunnel for 18% of patients. Diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy fails to fully evaluate the biceps-labral complex because it visualizes only 55% of the LHBT relative to the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon and did not identify extra-articular bicipital tunnel lesions present in 47% of chronically

  12. Rupture Following Biceps-to-Triceps Tendon Transfer in Adolescents and Young Adults With Spinal Cord Injury:

    PubMed Central

    Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326

  13. Triceps tendon tear in a middle-aged weightlifter.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Joseph M; Aberle, Curtis J; Escobar, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man who was evaluated by a physical therapist for a chief complaint of posterior right elbow pain. The patient routinely participated in weightlifting activities and reported a sudden onset of triceps weakness and posterior elbow pain while performing clap push-ups 3 days prior. A physician assistant ordered radiographs, which were initially interpreted as normal, and routine magnetic resonance imaging for the right elbow. Following examination by a physical therapist, due to concern for a triceps tendon tear, the previously ordered magnetic resonance imaging was expedited, which revealed a partial triceps tendon tear with partial tendon retraction medially.

  14. Acute Tears of the Tibialis Posterior Tendon Following Ankle Sprain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lyle T; Dunaway, Linda J; Lundeen, Gregory A

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic tears of the tibialis posterior (TP) tendon following an ankle sprain are rare. The purpose of this study was to report our case series of TP tendon tears following an ankle sprain. Patients with persistent TP tendon pain after an ankle sprain were retrospectively identified over a 4-year period and reviewed. A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretations by a radiologist and surgeon was made. Patients failing conservative management underwent operative repair of the TP tendon tear and concomitant pathology. Failure of the index surgery was defined as TP tendinosis, which was treated with excision and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer. Outcomes were measured with the Foot Function Index (FFI) and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scores. Thirteen patients were found to have a TP tendon tear following an ankle sprain. The incidence for TP tears with sprains presented to our clinic was 1.04%. MRI identified TP tendon pathology in 4 patients by a radiologist review and in 11 patients by a surgeon review. The most common concomitant pathology was a talar osteochondral defect in 13 of 13 patients and ligament instability in 12 of 13 patients (5/13 lateral, 3/13 medial, 4/13 multidirectional instability). Four of 13 patients failed the index surgery. Of the 9 remaining patients, 4 had clinical follow-up at an average of 4.6 years postoperatively. The average FFI subscale scores were the following: pain, 40.4; disability, 28.9; and activity, 23.6. The average AOFAS hindfoot score was 68.8. Despite being rare, a TP tendon tear should be included in the differential diagnosis for persistent medial-sided pain following an ankle sprain. MRI findings can be subtle. Associated pathology was very common and likely confounded the diagnosis and outcomes. Patients should be counseled on the possibility of poor outcomes and long-term pain. Level IV, case series.

  15. Rupture of the distal biceps brachii tendon: conservative treatment versus anatomic reinsertion--clinical and radiological evaluation after 2 years.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, Claudio; Marinelli, Mario; De Cupis, Vincenzo

    2007-10-01

    Distal biceps tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury. It commonly occurs in the dominant extremity of middle-aged men during an excessive eccentric tension as the arm is forced from a flexed position, while it is rarely observed during sport activities. Many techniques, including non-operative and surgical option, have been described for the treatment of a ruptured distal biceps tendon, but there is still considerable controversy about the management of choice. Nine patients affected with traumatic distal tendon ruptures of the biceps brachii were followed-up for a minimum of 24 months. Five patients underwent surgery (two-incision technique) and four patients were treated conservatively. Tendon readaptation to its origin was done by a suture metal anchor. Outcome was evaluated based on the physical examination, radiographic analysis and the SECEC elbow score. The SECEC elbow score results show that every single item result is in favour of surgical treatment. On measurements of motion, we found a slight flexion-extension deficit in two patients, but reduced supination in six patients and reduced pronation in four. Two patients had postoperative dysfunction of the deep branch of the radial nerve. Radiographic examination showed heterotopic bone formation on the radial tuberosity around the presumed insertion of the reattached tendon in 2 of 5 patients and ectopic ossification more proximally in the area of the biceps muscle Our findings confirm the view that anatomic repair of distal biceps tendon rupture provides consistently good results and early anatomic reconstruction can restore strength and endurance for the elbow.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Currently Fails to Fully Evaluate the Biceps-Labrum Complex and Bicipital Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samuel A; Newman, Ashley M; Nguyen, Joseph; Fabricant, Peter D; Baret, Nikolas J; Shorey, Mary; Ramkumar, Prem; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for biceps-labrum complex (BLC) lesions, including the extra-articular bicipital tunnel. A retrospective review of 277 shoulders with chronic refractory BLC symptoms that underwent arthroscopic subdeltoid transfer of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) to the conjoint tendon was conducted. Intraoperative lesions were categorized as "inside" (labral tears and dynamic LHBT incarceration), "junctional" (LHBT partial tears, LHBT subluxation, and biceps chondromalacia), or "bicipital tunnel" (extra-articular bicipital tunnel scar/stenosis, loose bodies, LHBT instability, and LHBT partial tears) based on anatomic location. Attending radiologist-generated MRI reports were graded dichotomously as positive or negative for biceps and labral damage and then compared with intraoperative findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for MRI with respect to intraoperative findings. With regard to inside lesions, MRI had an overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for labrum lesions of 77.3%, 68.2%, 57.3%, and 84.5% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of MRI for junctional lesions were 43.3%, 55.6%, 73.1%, and 26.0%, respectively. For the bicipital tunnel, MRI had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 50.4%, 61.4%, 48.7%, and 63.0%, respectively. MRI was unreliable for ruling out BLC lesions among chronically symptomatic patients, including when the bicipital tunnel was affected. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Monteiro, J; Sarmento, M

    2016-12-08

    Knowledge regarding the likelihood of propagation of supraspinatus tears is important to allow an early identification of patients for whom a conservative treatment is more likely to fail, and consequently, to improve their clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for propagation of posterior, central, and anterior full-thickness tears of different sizes using the finite element method. A three-dimensional finite element model of the supraspinatus tendon was generated from the Visible Human Project data. The mechanical behaviour of the tendon was fitted from experimental data using a transversely isotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The full-thickness tears were simulated at the supraspinatus tendon insertion by decreasing the interface area. Tear sizes from 10% to 90%, in 10% increments, of the anteroposterior length of the supraspinatus footprint were considered in the posterior, central, and anterior regions of the tendon. For each tear, three finite element analyses were performed for a supraspinatus force of 100N, 200N, and 400N. Considering a correlation between tendon strain and the risk of tear propagation, the simulated tears were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by evaluating the volume of tendon for which a maximum strain criterion was not satisfied. The finite element analyses showed a significant impact of tear size and location not only on the magnitude, but also on the patterns of the maximum principal strains. The mechanical outcome of the anterior full-thickness tears was consistently, and significantly, more severe than that of the central or posterior full-thickness tears, which suggests that the anterior tears are at greater risk of propagating than the central or posterior tears. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of partial-thickness tears in ligaments and tendons by Stokes-polarimetry imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; John, Raheel; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2008-02-01

    A Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system utilizes an algorithm developed to construct degree of polarization (DoP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination. Partial-thickness tears of turkey tendons were imaged by the SPI system in order to examine the feasibility of the system to detect partial-thickness rotator cuff tear or general tendon pathology. The rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides a way to analyze different tissue types which may be sensitive to IPA variations. Degree of linear polarization (DoLP) images revealed collagen fiber structure, related to partial-thickness tears, better than standard intensity images. DoLP images also revealed structural changes in tears that are related to the tendon load. DoLP images with red-wavelength-filtered incident light may show tears and related organization of collagen fiber structure at a greater depth from the tendon surface. Degree of circular polarization (DoCP) images exhibited well the horizontal fiber orientation that is not parallel to the vertically aligned collagen fibers of the tendon. The SPI system's DOLP images reveal alterations in tendons and ligaments, which have a tissue matrix consisting largely of collagen, better than intensity images. All polarized images showed modulated intensity as the IPA was varied. The optimal detection of the partial-thickness tendon tears at a certain IPA was observed. The SPI system with varying IPA and spectral information can improve the detection of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears by higher visibility of fiber orientations and thereby improve diagnosis and treatment of tendon related injuries.

  19. Simultaneous bilateral distal biceps tendon rupture during a preacher curl exercise: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rokito, Andrew S; lofin, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a rare injury, the overwhelming majority occurring in the dominant arm of males during the fourth to sixth decades of life. Simultaneous bilateral rupture of the distal biceps tendon is an extremely rare occurrence, with only three cases reported in the literature. This unusual injury occurred in a recreational weightlifter during a preacher curl exercise. In this particular case, a 6-week delay in presentation necessitated a staged procedure in which a primary repair was feasible in one elbow, while reconstruction using allograft tissue was required in the contralateral elbow. Satisfactory results for both elbows were achieved, with return to weightlifting by one year following surgery.

  20. Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Restoring Joint Kinematics by Tendon Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Moulton, Samuel G.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfers can be a surgical treatment option in managing younger, active patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the use of tendon transfers to treat massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and to summarize clinical outcomes. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: Latissimus dorsi transfers have been used for many years in the management of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with good reported clinical outcomes. It can be transferred without or with the teres major (L’Episcopo technique). Many surgical techniques have been described for latissimus dorsi transfer including single incision, double incision, and arthroscopically assisted transfer. Transfer of the pectoralis major tendon is the most common tendon transfer procedure performed for anterosuperior rotator cuff deficiencies. Several surgical techniques have been described, however transfer of the pectoralis major beneath the coracoid process has been found to most closely replicate the force vector that is normally provided by the intact subscapularis. Conclusion: Tendon transfers can be used successfully in the management of younger patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and minimal glenohumeral arthritis. Improvements in clinical outcomes scores and range of motion have been demonstrated. This can delay arthroplasty, which is of particular importance for younger patients with high functional demands. PMID:27708730

  1. Multidisciplinary approach to the persistent double distal tendon of the biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Marc; de la Fuente, Javier; Martinoli, Carlo; Blasi, Juan; Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Domingo, Tomás; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate the ultrasound (US) appearance of the persistent double or bifid distal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle with anatomical and histological data. This will provide a new model to study the pathological distal biceps brachii tendon (DBBT). The DBBT of 20 cadaveric elbows were examined with linear array broadband US transducers (frequency band 14-6 MHz) using an anterior approach. Trypan blue dye was injected underneath the paratenon under US guidance in 16 specimens. After they were dissected, five of them were processed to obtain histological slices stained with hematoxylin-eosin and antiserum to protein S100. At US, the DBBT is a tendon in which the fascicles are organized in two different hyperechoic components separated by a hyperechoic septum related to the endotenon. The endotenon is lax, flexible, and makes folding and gliding of the two portions feasible. The DBBT is surrounded by a hyperechoic paratenon adjacent to the tendon surface, which is only differentiable by US when dye is interposed between such structures. The connective septum of endotenon located between the two main components of the DBBT is responsible for the US image of two separate tendons and functionally enables it to work as two separate entities, thus allowing respective folding and gliding. The paratenon surrounding the lacertus fibrosus and the DBBT plays an important stabilization role, enabling them to change shape and arrangement during joint motion. It is also an important conduit for nerves and blood vessels.

  2. A novel remaining tendon preserving repair technique leads to improved outcomes in special rotator cuff tear patterns.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Sang; Kim, Rag Gyu; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2018-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify the tear pattern that could be anatomically repaired by preserving the remaining tendon on footprint and evaluate clinical outcomes of patients who underwent remaining tendon preserving cuff repair. Of 523 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair, 41 (7.8%) patients had repairable rotator cuff tear while preserving the remaining tendon. Among them, 31 patients were followed-up for more than 2 years, including 26 patients with posterior L-shaped tear and 5 patients with transtendinous tear patterns. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using ASES and Constant score, SANE score for patient satisfaction, and VAS for pain. MRI was taken for tendon integrity 6 months postoperatively. Of the 31 patients, 11 (35.5%) had previous injury history before rotator cuff tear, including 7 (26.9%) of the 26 patients with posterior L-shaped tear and 4 (80%) of the 5 patients with transtendinous tear. The average size of preoperative cuff tear was 17.8 ± 6.8 mm in anterior-to-posterior direction and 15.2 ± 5.1 mm in medial-to-lateral direction. ASES and Constant score, SANE score, and VAS for pain were significantly (p < 0.001) improved after remaining tendon preserving rotator cuff repair. Rotator cuff tendons of 22(84.6%) patients with posterior L-shaped tear and 4(80%) patients with transtendinous tear patterns were healed. Patients who underwent rotator cuff repair with preservation of the remaining tendon on the footprint obtained satisfactory functional outcomes. Rotator cuff tears in patients who had posterior L-shaped tear extending between supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons or transtendinous tear pattern with substantial remaining tendon could be repaired using remaining tendon preserving repair technique. Anatomic reduction of torn cuff tendon without undue tension could be achieved using the remaining tendon preserving repair technique.

  3. Gene expression profiles of changes underlying different-sized human rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Salma; Xia, Zhidao; Thakkar, Dipti; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Progressive cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to age and disease severity have been demonstrated in rotator cuff tendon tears. Larger rotator cuff tears demonstrate structural abnormalities that potentially adversely influence healing potential. This study aimed to gain greater insight into the relationship of pathologic changes to tear size by analyzing gene expression profiles from normal rotator cuff tendons, small rotator cuff tears, and large rotator cuff tears. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 28 human rotator cuff tendons using microarrays representing the entire genome; 11 large and 5 small torn rotator cuff tendon specimens were obtained intraoperatively from tear edges, which we compared with 12 age-matched normal controls. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for validation. Torn rotator cuff tendons demonstrated upregulation of a number of key genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase 3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25; a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 12, 15, and 22; and aggrecan. Amyloid was downregulated in all tears. Small tears displayed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 5. Chemokines and cytokines that may play a role in chemotaxis were altered; interleukins 3, 10, 13, and 15 were upregulated in tears, whereas interleukins 1, 8, 11, 18, and 27 were downregulated. The gene expression profiles of normal controls and small and large rotator cuff tear groups differ significantly. Extracellular matrix remodeling genes were found to contribute to rotator cuff tear pathogenesis. Rotator cuff tears displayed upregulation of a number of matrix metalloproteinase (3, 10, 12, 13, 15, 21, and 25), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM 12, 15, and 22) genes, and downregulation of some interleukins (1, 8, and 27), which play important roles in chemotaxis. These gene products may potentially have a role as biomarkers of failure of healing or therapeutic targets to improve tendon

  4. Comparison of Clinical and Structural Outcomes by Subscapularis Tendon Status in Massive Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Nam, Dae Jin; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-09-01

    The subscapularis tendon is essential in maintaining normal glenohumeral biomechanics. However, few studies have addressed the outcomes of tears extending to the subscapularis tendon in massive rotator cuff tears. To assess the clinical and structural outcomes of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 122 consecutive patients with massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Overall, 122 patients were enrolled (mean age, 66 years; mean follow-up period, 39.5 months). Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on subscapularis tendon status: intact subscapularis tendon (I group; n = 45), tear involving less than the superior one-third (P group; n = 35), and tear involving more than one-third of the subscapularis tendon (C group; n = 42). All rotator cuff tears were repaired; however, subscapularis tendon tears involving less than the superior one-third in P group were only debrided. Pain visual analog scale, Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores and passive range of motion were measured preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Rotator cuff integrity, global fatty degeneration index, and occupation ratio were determined via magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. We identified 37 retears (31.1%) based on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Retear rate in patients in the C group (47.6%) was higher than that in the I group (22.9%) or P group (20.0%) ( P = .011). Retear subclassification based on the involved tendons showed that subsequent subscapularis tendon retears were noted in only the C group. The improvement in clinical scores after repair was statistically significant in all groups but not different among the groups. Between-group comparison showed significant differences in preoperative external rotation ( P = .021). However, no statistically

  5. Bridging Graft in Irreparable Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: Autogenic Biceps Graft versus Allogenic Dermal Patch Graft

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sung Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Few comparative studies have reported on the use of biologic grafts for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of arthroscopic bridging graft in irreparable massive rotator cuff tears using an autogenic long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) or an allogenic dermal patch (ADP). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 24 patients treated using the LHBT (group I) and eight patients with complete rupture of the LHBT treated using an ADP (group II) since 2011. Preoperative Goutallier's fatty degeneration, range of motion (ROM), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score were assessed and healing failure was evaluated at 1 year after surgery by ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results The mean fatty degeneration in groups I and II was 3.9 and 3.6 for the supraspinatus (p = 0.288), 2.7 and 2.9 for the infraspinatus (p = 0.685), 0.9 and 1.3 for the subscapularis (p = 0.314), and 1.3 and 3.0 for the teres minor (p = 0.005), respectively. Subscapularis tears were found in 8 patients (33.3%) in group I and in 7 patients (87.5%) in group II (p = 0.023). Mean ROMs and functional scores improved significantly in group I (forward flexion: 121.7° to 153.3°, p = 0.010; external rotation: 32.7° to 52.7°, p = 0.001; external rotation at 90°: 63.3° to 74.5°, p = 0.031; internal rotation: T10.5 to T9.3, p = 0.045; VAS: 7.0 to 1.1, p < 0.001; ASES score: 45.4 to 81.6, p = 0.028; and Quick DASH score: 50.0 to 14.2, p = 0.017), whereas only VAS showed significant improvement in group II (from 5.9 to 2.0, p = 0.025) and ROMs and other functional scores increased without statistical significance in the group. Healing failure was found in 13 patients (54.2%) in group I and in 6 patients (75.0%) in group II (p = 0.404). Conclusions The surgeon should prudently choose surgical options for irreparable massive

  6. Bridging Graft in Irreparable Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: Autogenic Biceps Graft versus Allogenic Dermal Patch Graft.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung Min; Oh, Joo Han

    2017-12-01

    Few comparative studies have reported on the use of biologic grafts for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of arthroscopic bridging graft in irreparable massive rotator cuff tears using an autogenic long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) or an allogenic dermal patch (ADP). We retrospectively reviewed 24 patients treated using the LHBT (group I) and eight patients with complete rupture of the LHBT treated using an ADP (group II) since 2011. Preoperative Goutallier's fatty degeneration, range of motion (ROM), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score were assessed and healing failure was evaluated at 1 year after surgery by ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging. The mean fatty degeneration in groups I and II was 3.9 and 3.6 for the supraspinatus ( p = 0.288), 2.7 and 2.9 for the infraspinatus ( p = 0.685), 0.9 and 1.3 for the subscapularis ( p = 0.314), and 1.3 and 3.0 for the teres minor ( p = 0.005), respectively. Subscapularis tears were found in 8 patients (33.3%) in group I and in 7 patients (87.5%) in group II ( p = 0.023). Mean ROMs and functional scores improved significantly in group I (forward flexion: 121.7° to 153.3°, p = 0.010; external rotation: 32.7° to 52.7°, p = 0.001; external rotation at 90°: 63.3° to 74.5°, p = 0.031; internal rotation: T10.5 to T9.3, p = 0.045; VAS: 7.0 to 1.1, p < 0.001; ASES score: 45.4 to 81.6, p = 0.028; and Quick DASH score: 50.0 to 14.2, p = 0.017), whereas only VAS showed significant improvement in group II (from 5.9 to 2.0, p = 0.025) and ROMs and other functional scores increased without statistical significance in the group. Healing failure was found in 13 patients (54.2%) in group I and in 6 patients (75.0%) in group II ( p = 0.404). The surgeon should prudently choose surgical options for irreparable massive rotator cuff tears, especially

  7. Relationship of Tear Size and Location to Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H. Mike; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Keener, Jay D.; Galatz, Leesa M.; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles may have detrimental effects on both anatomical and functional outcomes following shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tear geometry and muscle fatty degeneration in shoulders with a deficient rotator cuff. Methods: Ultrasonograms of both shoulders of 262 patients were reviewed to assess the type of rotator cuff tear and fatty degeneration in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. The 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear underwent further evaluation for tear size and location. The relationship of tear size and location to fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was investigated with use of statistical comparisons and regression models. Results: Fatty degeneration was found almost exclusively in shoulders with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Of the 251 shoulders with a full-thickness tear, eighty-seven (34.7%) had fatty degeneration in either the supraspinatus or infraspinatus, or both. Eighty-two (32.7%) of the 251 full-thickness tears had a distance of 0 mm between the biceps tendon and anterior margin of the tear. Ninety percent of the full-thickness tears with fatty degeneration in both muscles had a distance of 0 mm posterior from the biceps, whereas only 9% of those without fatty degeneration had a distance of 0 mm. Tears with fatty degeneration had significantly greater width and length than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). Tears with fatty degeneration had a significantly shorter distance posterior from the biceps than those without fatty degeneration (p < 0.0001). The distance posterior from the biceps was found to be the most important predictor for supraspinatus fatty degeneration, whereas tear width and length were found to be the most important predictors for infraspinatus fatty degeneration. Conclusions: Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is closely associated with tear size and

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Tenotomy of Biceps Tendon: Technical Feasibility on Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Mauri, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Aliprandi, Alberto; Secchi, Francesco; Sardanelli, Francesco; Randelli, Pietro Simone

    2016-10-01

    We tested the technical feasibility of ultrasound-guided percutaneous tenotomy of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) in cadavers. Both shoulders of two fresh cadavers were scanned anteriorly to evaluate the extra-articular portion of the LHBT. Under ultrasound monitoring, a scalpel was advanced obliquely up to touch the superficial medial side of the LHBT, cutting it until the tendon was not visible anymore. Ultrasound evaluation was repeated after the procedure, and anatomic dissection was performed. The procedure was 100% feasible: four cuts were made to completely sever the tendon; the duration was less than 1 min. Skin incision measured 5 mm in two cases and 6 mm in two cases. Anatomic dissection confirmed complete tendon cut in all cases with proximal and distal tendon stumps very close to each other. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous LHBT tenotomy was 100% technically feasible in cadavers with a quick procedure and minimal cutaneous incision. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Delayed repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures is successful: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, John; Grewal, Ruby; King, Graham J W; Athwal, George S

    2017-06-01

    The literature has shown an increased complication rate with a delay to surgical repair of acute distal biceps tendon ruptures; however, little has been documented regarding the outcome of delayed repairs. This case-control study compared a study cohort of delayed (>21 days) distal biceps tendon repairs with a control cohort repaired acutely (<21 days). Sixteen delayed repair cases were reviewed and matched with acute controls (1:3) based on repair technique, age, and workers' compensation status. The delayed cohort was reviewed and completed isometric strength testing and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire; Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation; and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow questionnaire. The time to surgery averaged 37 ± 12 days in the delayed cohort versus 10 ± 6 days in the acute cohort. Complications occurred in 63% of patients in the delayed cohort versus 29% in the acute cohort (P = .04); however, 90% of the delayed cohort's complications consisted of transient paresthesias. Follow-up scores on the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow questionnaire were not statistically different between cohorts (P > .37, P > .22, and P > .46, respectively). Despite a high rate of initial complications, patients treated with distal biceps tendon repair after a delay (>21 days) can expect similar functional outcomes to those treated acutely. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. US appearance of partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears: Application of the string theory. Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Guerini, H; Fermand, M; Godefroy, D; Feydy, A; Chevrot, A; Morvan, G; Gault, N; Drapé, J L

    2012-02-01

    The supraspinatus tendon is composed of 5 different layers consisting of intertwining bundles. On a front portion of the tendon, the layers become coated bundles which insert on the trochanter. At the insertion, the superficial or bursal surface of the tendon corresponding to the tendon fibers in contact with the subacromial bursa can be distinguished from the deep surface corresponding to the fibers in contact with the glenohumeral joint. A tendon tear may involve partial or total disruption of the tendon fibers and is called full-thickness tear if it affects the entire tendon, and partial-thickness tear if it involves only part of the tendon. Partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon include lesions of the superficial, deep and central surface or tendon delamination.A contrast enhanced examination requires injection of contrast agent into the joint (arthrography followed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to study the deep surface, and injection into the subacromial bursa (bursography followed by CT) to study the superficial surface. MRI and ultrasound (US) examination allow the study of these different tendon layers without the use of contrast agent (which is not possible at CT).

  11. Acute distal biceps tendon rupture--a new surgical technique using a de-tensioning suture to brachialis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C J; Bansal, R; Pimpalnerkar, A

    2006-09-01

    Acute distal biceps rupture is a devastating injury in the young athlete and surgical repair offers the only chance of a full recovery. We report a new surgical technique used in 14 cases of acute distal tendon rupture in which the 'suture anchor technique' and a de-tensioning suture was employed. In this procedure the distal end of the biceps is re-attached to the radial tuberosity using a sliding whip stitch suture and the proximal part of the distal tendon repair attached to the underlying brachialis muscle with absorbable sutures. This restores correct anatomical alignment and isometric pull on the distal tendon and de-tensions the repair in the early post-operative period, allowing early rehabilitation and an early return to activity. In all cases patients regained a full pre-injury level of sporting activity at a mean period of 6.2 months (2-9 months).

  12. Endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Yeh, Wen-Lin; Tsai, Min-Chien; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chan, Yi-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    We developed a technique for endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon tears. Nineteen patients with acute Achilles tendon tears were prospectively recruited into the study. All patients (18 male, 1 female) had sports-related injuries. Preoperative diagnosis was made from patient history, physical examination, and sonography. The average patient age was 38.7 years, and follow-up averaged 24 months. All patients received endoscopy-assisted percutaneous Achilles tendon repair with modified Bunnell sutures passed by bird beak and No. 5 Ethibond under direct visualization using 4.0-mm arthroscopy. Results were evaluated by physical examination, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All 19 patients achieved tendon healing. All patients were evaluated by sonography, and the tendons of 16 patients were imaged using MRI to evaluate the extent of healing. Final dorsiflexion was 16 degrees and plantar flexion 26 degrees, and 95% of the patients (18/19) returned to their previous level of sporting activity. One patient developed a superficial infection, and 2 patients had postoperative sural nerve injury with numbness for 1 month. There were no other major complications. Endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon allowed good tendon healing and return to sports at 6 months. Sural nerve injury during surgery was a potential complication of this procedure. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  13. REHABILITATION OF A SURGICALLY REPAIRED RUPTURE OF THE DISTAL BICEPS TENDON IN AN ACTIVE MIDDLE AGED MALE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Stephen P.; LaFontaine, Tom; Scheussler, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete rupture of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii is relatively rare and there is little information to guide therapists in rehabilitation after this injury. The purposes of this case report are to review the rehabilitation concepts used for treating such an injury, and discuss how to modify exercises during rehabilitation based on patient progression while adhering to physician recommended guidelines and standard treatment protocols. Case Presentation: The patient was an active 38‐year old male experienced in weight‐training. He presented with a surgically repaired right distal biceps tendon following an accident on a trampoline adapted with a bungee suspension harness. The intervention focused on restoring range of motion and strengthening of the supporting muscles of the upper extremity without placing undue stress on the biceps brachii. Outcomes: The patient was able to progress from a moderate restriction in ROM to full AROM two weeks ahead of the physician's post‐operative orders and initiate a re‐strengthening protocol by the eighth week of rehabilitation. At the eighth post‐operative week the patient reported no deficits in functional abilities throughout his normal daily activities with his affected upper extremity. Discussion: The results of this case report strengthen current knowledge regarding physical therapy treatment for a distal biceps tendon repair while at the same time providing new insights for future protocol considerations in active individuals. Most current protocols do not advocate aggressive stretching, AROM, or strengthening of a surgically repaired biceps tendon early in the rehabilitation process due to the fear of a re‐rupture. In the opinion of the authors, if full AROM can be achieved before the 6th week of rehabilitation, initiating a slow transition into light strengthening of the biceps brachii may be possible. Level of evidence: 4‐Single Case report PMID:23316429

  14. A review of surgical repair methods and patient outcomes for gluteal tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Bucher, Thomas A; Ball, Simon V; Janes, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hip imaging and surgical findings have demonstrated that a common cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is gluteal tendon tears. Conservative measures are initially employed to treat GTPS and manage gluteal tears, though patients frequently undergo multiple courses of non-operative treatment with only temporary pain relief. Therefore, a number of surgical treatment options for recalcitrant GTPS associated with gluteal tears have been reported. These have included open trans-osseous or bone anchored suture techniques, endoscopic methods and the use of tendon augmentation for repair reinforcement. This review describes the anatomy, pathophysiology and clinical presentation of gluteal tendon tears. Surgical techniques and patient reported outcomes are presented. This review demonstrates that surgical repair can result in improved patient outcomes, irrespective of tear aetiology, and suggests that the patient with "trochanteric bursitis" should be carefully assessed as newer surgical techniques show promise for a condition that historically has been managed conservatively.

  15. No prosthetic management of massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Cesari, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    A massive rotator cuff tear is not necessarily irreparable. Number of tendons involved, muscle-tendon unit quality, and decreased acromionhumeral distance (AHD) are as important as tear size in determining reparability of lesion. Massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears cannot be anatomically repaired to the bone and are a common source of pain and disability even in middle-aged patients. In these patients when conservative management has failed, it is possible to perform different surgical techniques. A functional repair can help to restore the horizontal force couple of the cuff on the humeral head and to increase the AHD. Debridement of irreparable tears and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis can have a role in low functional demand patients but results deteriorate over time. Recently, several commercially available tissue-engineered biological and synthetic scaffolds have been developed to augment rotator cuff repairs. The aim is to provide a mechanical improvement in case of poor quality tissue at time zero and give a support to have a better cuff healing. In selected cases, the scaffold can be used also to bridge tendon defect. Patients who not have pseudoparalysis, cuff tear arthropathy and with intact deltoid function can benefit from tendon transfers with satisfactory outcomes. These different procedures should be chosen for each patient with selected criteria and after a satisfactory explanation about the really possible expectation after surgery. PMID:27582930

  16. Editorial Commentary: A No-Difference Study That May Make a Difference in the Treatment of Disorders of the Shoulder Biceps Brachii Tendon.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2017-01-01

    Biceps tenodesis for disorders of the biceps brachii is frequently performed; nevertheless the optimum procedure, and particularly the level of tenodesis either above the pectoralis major tendon or inferior to the tendon, is yet to be determined. Both have purported advantages. Studies that do not find a difference in outcomes between the 2 groups in the publishing vernacular are sometimes referred to as no-difference investigations and are slightly less likely to be published, known as publication bias. This may be the rare "no-difference" investigation that makes a difference in the treatment of the biceps brachii. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Arthroscopic double-row reconstruction of high-grade subscapularis tendon tears].

    PubMed

    Plachel, F; Pauly, S; Moroder, P; Scheibel, M

    2018-04-01

    Reconstruction of tendon integrity to maintain glenohumeral joint centration and hence to restore shoulder functional range of motion and to reduce pain. Isolated or combined full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears (≥upper two-thirds of the tendon) without both substantial soft tissue degeneration and cranialization of the humeral head. Chronic tears of the subscapularis tendon with higher grade muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and static decentration of the humeral head. After arthroscopic three-sided subscapularis tendon release, two double-loaded suture anchors are placed medially to the humeral footprint. Next to the suture passage, the suture limbs are tied and secured laterally with up to two knotless anchors creating a transosseous-equivalent repair. The affected arm is placed in a shoulder brace with 20° of abduction and slight internal rotation for 6 weeks postoperatively. Rehabilitation protocol including progressive physical therapy from a maximum protection phase to a minimum protection phase is required. Overhead activities are permitted after 6 months. While previous studies have demonstrated superior biomechanical properties and clinical results after double-row compared to single-row and transosseous fixation techniques, further mid- to long-term clinical investigations are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. The severity of the long head biceps tendinopathy in patients with chronic rotator cuff tears: macroscopic versus microscopic results.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Ting; Jou, I-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Su, Fong-Chin; Su, Wei-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the histopathology of the long head of biceps (LHB) tendon and correlated the findings with the macroscopic appearances of the LHB and the size of rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in patients with chronic RCTs. We compared biopsy specimens from LHBs in 34 patients with chronic RCTs and grossly normal LHBs in 8 patients undergoing shoulder hemiarthroplasty (controls). Duration of preoperative symptoms, the severity of RCTs, and macroscopic appearance of LHBs were recorded, classified, and compared with the histologic grading and apoptosis index of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated biotin-deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays of LHBs. In the RCT group, there were 8 partial-thickness tears with 5 macroscopic LHB lesions, 12 full-thickness tears with 8 macroscopic LHB lesions, and 14 massive tears with 13 macroscopic LHB lesions. There were 6 LHB subluxations. However, the macroscopic grading and the symptom duration were not correlated with the severity of the histology. In patients with massive tears, no matter what the macroscopic appearance of the LHB, the proportion of end-stage (grade 4) histologic LHB tendinopathy significantly increased (85.7%, P < .05) compared with patients with other types of RCTs. There was a consistently high incidence of advanced LHB histology (grade 3 or higher) in each classification of RCTs (75.0%-100.0%). The 8 patients in the control group showed milder histopathology (grade 1 or 2). The apoptosis index significantly increased as the tendinopathy progressed (P < .05). The macroscopic pathology of LHB may not fully reflect the severity of tendinopathy, and the coexisting size of RCTs plays a role in the severity of LHB tendinopathy. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-11-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit's activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  20. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. Significance The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. PMID:26371340

  1. Posterior Displacement of Supraspinatus Central Tendon Observed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Useful Preoperative Indicator of Rotator Cuff Tear Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Updegrove, Gary F; Armstrong, April D; Mosher, Timothy J; Kim, H Mike

    2015-11-01

    To characterize the orientation of the normal supraspinatus central tendon and describe the displacement patterns of the central tendon in rotator cuff tears using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method. We performed a retrospective MRI and chart review of 183 patients with a rotator cuff tear (cuff tear group), 52 with a labral tear but no rotator cuff tear (labral tear group), and 74 with a normal shoulder (normal group). The orientation of the supraspinatus central tendon relative to the bicipital groove was evaluated based on axial MRI and was numerically represented by the shortest distance from the lateral extension line of the central tendon to the bicipital groove. Tear size, fatty degeneration, and involvement of the anterior supraspinatus were evaluated to identify the factors associated with orientation changes. The mean distance from the bicipital groove to the central tendon line was 0.7 mm and 1.3 mm in the normal group and labral tear group, respectively. Full-thickness cuff tears involving the anterior supraspinatus showed a significantly greater distance (17.7 mm) than those sparing the anterior supraspinatus (4.9 mm, P = .001). Fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus was significantly correlated with the distance (P = .006). Disruption of the anterior supraspinatus and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus were independent predictors of posterior displacement. The supraspinatus central tendon has a constant orientation toward the bicipital groove in normal shoulders, and the central tendon is frequently displaced posteriorly in full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the anterior leading edge of the supraspinatus. The degree of posterior displacement is proportional to tear size and severity of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle. A simple and quick assessment of the central tendon orientation on preoperative MRI can be a useful indicator of tear characteristics, potentially providing insight into the intraoperative

  2. Distal biceps tendon history, updates, and controversies: from the closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons meeting-2015.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Savoie, Felix H; Steinmann, Scott P; Hausman, Michael; Voloshin, Ilya; Morrey, Bernard F; Sotereanos, Dean G; Bero, Emily H; Brown, Brandon T

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the distal biceps anatomy, mechanics, and biology during the last 75 years has greatly improved the physician's ability to advise and to treat patients with ruptured distal tendons. The goal of this paper is to review the past and current advances on complete distal biceps ruptures as well as controversies and future directions that were discussed and debated during the closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons meeting in 2015. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal origins of the long head of the biceps tendon can lead to rotator cuff pathology: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alan L; Gates, Cameron H; Link, Thomas M; Ma, C Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Previous case reports have highlighted various anomalous origins of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) that do not originate from the superior glenoid labrum or supraglenoid tubercle. Yet, these cases were all reported as incidental findings and were not thought to cause any significant shoulder pathology. We present the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical treatment of two cases where aberrant intra-articular origins of the long head of the biceps tendon from the anterior edge of the supraspinatus tendon may have contributed to symptomatic rotator cuff pathology. Arthroscopy confirmed MR findings of partial articular-sided supraspinatus lesions in close proximity to the anomalous origins and treatment with tenodesis of the LHBT successfully relieved symptoms. Although rare occurrences with subtle and potentially misleading imaging findings, it is important to be aware of aberrant origins of the LHBT that may contribute to concomitant rotator cuff pathology.

  4. Endoscopic repair of tears of the superficial layer of the distal triceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Heikenfeld, Roderich; Listringhaus, Rico; Godolias, Georgios

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results after endoscopic repair of partial superficial layer triceps tendon tears. Fourteen patients treated surgically between July 2005 and December 2012 were studied prospectively for 12 months. Indication for surgery was a partial detachment of the triceps tendon from the olecranon that was proved by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in all cases. Ten of these patients had chronic olecranon bursitis. All patients were treated with endoscopic surgery including bursectomy and repair of the distal triceps tendon with double-loaded suture anchors. Clinical examination of the patients as well as functional and subjective scores (Mayo Elbow Performance Index [MEPI], Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score [Quick DASH]) were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 and 12 months. An isokinetic strength measurement and MRI were performed preoperatively and 12 months after surgery. All 14 patients were completely evaluated. The MEPI and Quick DASH Score improved significantly after the repair at all postoperative examinations. The MEPI gained 29 points, up to 96 points at last follow-up (P < .05), and the Quick DASH Score went down 15.6 points after 12 months to 4.5 points (P < .05). Maximum extension power improved 55.8%, up to 94.7% at last follow-up compared with the contralateral side. Using MRI, we found one reruptured partial tear of the triceps tendon that did not require revision surgery. Although triceps tendon ruptures are generally uncommon, partial superficial tears might be more common than previously described. Once the diagnosis is made, endoscopic repair is a method leading to good clinical results with improved function of the affected elbow. Endoscopic repair of superficial tears of the triceps tendon is able to restore function and strength and leads to excellent clinical results after 1 year. Strength recovers to nearly that of the contralateral side, and serious complications appear to

  5. Latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable subscapularis tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sang Won; Kim, Ji Young; Yi, Seung Hoon; Baek, Chang Hee

    2018-06-01

    There are several tendon transfers for reconstruction of irreparable subscapularis tears. The latissimus dorsi (LD) could be used because its direction and function are similar to those of the subscapularis. We performed LD transfers for irreparable subscapularis tears and evaluated clinical outcomes. The study enrolled 24 consecutive patients who underwent LD transfers. Clinical and functional outcomes were evaluated using the Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, pain visual analog scale, and range of shoulder motion preoperatively and at last follow-up. The lift-off and belly-press tests were performed to assess subscapularis integrity and function. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively to evaluate tendon integrity. Mean Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and pain scores improved from 46 ± 6 to 69 ± 5 (P < .001), from 40 ± 3 to 70 ± 5 (P < .001), and from 6 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 (P = .006), respectively. The mean range of motion for forward elevation and internal rotation increased from 135° ± 17° to 166° ± 15° (P = .016) and from L5 to L1 (P = .010), respectively. Improvement in the range of motion for external rotation was not significant (51° ± 7° to 68° ± 7°; P = .062). At final follow-up, the belly-press test results were negative for 18 of 24 patients, and the lift-off test results were negative for 16 of 20 patients. No complications related to tendon transfer, including axillary and radial nerve injuries, were found. No retearing of the transferred LD was observed. LD transfer resulted in pain relief and restoration of shoulder range of motion and function. LD transfer could be considered an effective and safe salvage treatment for irreparable subscapularis tears. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Etiology and pathophysiology of tendon ruptures in sports.

    PubMed

    Kannus, P; Natri, A

    1997-04-01

    Of all spontaneous tendon ruptures, complete Achilles tendon tears are most closely associated with sports activities (1-3). Schönbauer (3) reported that 75% of all ruptures of the Achilles tendon are related to sports. In Plecko & Passl (2) the number was 60%. In our material of 430 cases, the number of sports-related Achilles ruptures was very similar (62%), while only 2% of ruptures of other tendons were sports-related (P < 0.001) (1). Also, the majority of Achilles reruptures occurred in sports. The ruptures occurred most often in soccer (34%), track and field (16%) and basketball (14%). The distribution of Achilles ruptures according to different sports varies considerably from country to country, according to the national sport traditions. For example, in northern and middle Europe, soccer, tennis, track and field, indoor ball games, downhill skiing, and gymnastics are the most common; and in North America, football, basketball, baseball, tennis and downhill skiing dominate the statistics (1, 2, 4). In sports, some Achilles ruptures are not spontaneous or degeneration-induced but may occur as a consequence of the remarkably high forces that are involved in the performance (2). Ruptures in the high jump or triple jump are good examples. In such cases, failure in the neuromuscular protective mechanisms due to fatigue or disturbed co-ordination can frequently be found. The spontaneous complete rupture of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff does not occur very frequently in sports. Those sports that include high-energy throwing movements, such as American and Finnish baseball, American football, rugby and discuss and javelin throwing, may, however, produce this injury. Partial tears and inflammations of the rotator cuff complex are much more frequent in throwing sports. The complete rupture of the proximal long head of the biceps brachii tendon is rare among competitive and recreational athletes. In our material, under 2% of these ruptures were

  7. Isolated Subscapularis Repair in Irreparable Posterosuperior Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Involving the Subscapularis Tendon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Choi, Yun-Rak; Jung, Min; Lee, Won-Yong; Chun, Yong-Min

    2017-05-01

    No previous study has examined whether isolated subscapularis tendon repair in irreparable posterosuperior massive rotator tears involving the subscapularis tendon in relatively young patients without arthritis can yield satisfactory outcomes. We hypothesized that this procedure would produce favorable outcomes in patients who might otherwise be candidates for reverse arthroplasty. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This retrospective study included 24 patients in their 50s and 60s, without shoulder arthritis, who underwent arthroscopic isolated subscapularis repair for an irreparable massive rotator cuff tear involving the subscapularis tendon. Preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, subjective shoulder values (SSVs), University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, subscapularis strength (modified bell-press test; maximum of 5), and shoulder active range of motion (ROM) were assessed. Postoperative magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) was performed 6 months postoperatively to assess structural integrity of the repaired subscapularis. At a mean 34.8 months (range, 24-49 months) of follow-up, VAS pain scores (improved from 7.1 to 2.5), SSVs (33.3 to 75.2), ASES scores (35.9 to 76.0), UCLA shoulder scores (11.6 to 24.8), subscapularis strength, and ROM were significantly improved compared with preoperative measurements ( P < .001). Subscapularis muscle strength improved from 3.7 to 4.2 ( P < .001). For active ROM, forward flexion and internal rotation improved significantly ( P < .001); however, external rotation exhibited no significant improvement. Follow-up MRA was performed in 22 patients (92%) and showed retear of the repaired subscapularis in 6 (27% of the 22). Isolated repair of the subscapularis tendon in irreparable massive rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis tendon yielded satisfactory short-term outcomes and structural integrity in patients in

  8. Clinical results of a surgical technique using endobuttons for complete tendon tear of pectoralis major muscle: report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We herein describe a surgical technique for the repair of complete tear of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon using endobuttons to strengthen initial fixation. Methods Five male patients (3 judo players, 1 martial arts player, and 1 body builder) were treated within 2 weeks of sustaining complete tear of the PM tendon. Average age at surgery and follow-up period were 28.4 years (range, 23-33) and 28.8 months (range, 24-36). A rectangular bone trough (about 1 × 4 cm) was created on the humerus at the insertion of the distal PM tendon. The tendon stump was introduced into this trough, and fixed to the reverse side of the humeral cortex using endobuttons and non-absorbable suture. Clinical assessment of re-tear was examined by MRI. Shoulder range of motion (ROM), outcome of treatment, and isometric power were measured at final follow-up. Results There were no clinical re-tears, and MRI findings also showed continuity of the PM tendon in all cases at final follow-up. Average ROM did not differ significantly between the affected and unaffected shoulders. The clinical outcomes at final follow-up were excellent (4/5 cases) or good (1/5). In addition, postoperative isometric power in horizontal flexion of the affected shoulder showed complete recovery when compared with the unaffected side. Conclusions Satisfactory outcomes could be obtained when surgery using the endobutton technique was performed within 2 weeks after complete tear of the PM tendon. Therefore, our new technique appears promising as a useful method to treat complete tear of the PM tendon. PMID:21955511

  9. Relationship between implant use, operative time, and costs associated with distal biceps tendon reattachment.

    PubMed

    Grant, John A; Bissell, Benjamin; Hake, Mark E; Miller, Bruce S; Hughes, Richard E; Carpenter, James E

    2012-11-01

    The suture anchor and transosseous drill hole techniques for reattachment of the distal biceps tendon to the radius have been found to have similar clinical and biomechanical outcomes. However, a comparison of the cost effectiveness of these techniques is lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of suture anchors decreases operative time enough to offset the additional cost of the implants. The records of all patients undergoing a distal biceps tendon reattachment were reviewed to determine the method of fixation, operative time, and associated surgical costs. Two surgeons used a technique of fixing the tendon directly to the bone (transosseous group), whereas 3 surgeons used suture anchors. Given the standard nature of the surgical procedure (other than the fixation technique), only the costs that differed between the 2 groups were included. Surgical center costs were obtained from the local outpatient surgical center in 2011 US dollars. Five surgeons treated 70 men (mean age, 45.9±9.2 years). Mean time from injury to surgery was 14 days. Mean operative times for the transosseous and suture anchor groups were 97.6±14.9 and 95.8±25.8 minutes, respectively (P=.74). Two anchors were used in 79% of the anchor cases. The use of anchors cost $474.33 more per patient. However, this value is sensitive to the cost of the individual anchors, intersurgeon variation in operative time, and per-minute value of saved operative time. No operative time was saved with the use of suture anchors. This cost comparison framework can be used to evaluate the balance in surgical resource use due to implant cost vs savings in operative time. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Endoscopic-assisted Distal Biceps Footprint Repair.

    PubMed

    Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures have been treated successfully with a variety of techniques; however, no current technique is able to restore the biceps to its native footprint on the ulnar surface of the radial tuberosity. We describe a technique, using an endobutton that better recreates the anatomic distal biceps footprint. This is likely to better restore absoloute and repetitive supination strength, which is not reliably achieved with current techniques.

  11. Arthroscopic tenodesis versus tenotomy of the long head of biceps tendon in simultaneous rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Meraner, Dominik; Sternberg, Christoph; Vega, Jordi; Hahne, Julia; Kleine, Michael; Leuzinger, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. While the role of the rotator cuff seems to be well known, the clinical significance of the biceps tendon for shoulder function has still been a subject of controversy. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between tenodesis or tenotomy in simultaneous rotator cuff repair. For this retrospective study 53 consecutive patients (25f/28m, Ø age 58 years) undergoing arthroscopic double row rotator cuff reconstruction and suture bridge repair were included. The LHB was treated with tenodesis (n = 24) or tenotomy (n = 29). Clinical examination was carried out for all patients after an average of 34 months (range 27–38) following arthroscopic surgery. The Constant score, level of pain, range of motion in flexion and abduction, and isometric force for the operated and healthy shoulder in flexion and abduction were recorded. Patients in the tenodesis and tenotomy group reached similar good result regarding the Constant score (86.6 ± 11.9 vs. 81.3 ± 12.2; P = 0.120), pain (median 0, range 0–8 vs. Median 0, range 0–10; P = 0.421), and range of motion (flexion: median 180°, range 90°–180° vs. median 180°, range 90°–180°; P = 0.833; abduction: median 180°, range 90°–180° vs. median 180°, range 120°–180°; P = 0.472). Postoperative popeye sign was found only in one patient (1.9 %). At the time of postoperative follow-up, no patient reported cramping of the biceps. Isometric forces in abduction of the tenotomy group (mean 4.7 ± 2.9 kg; maximum 5.5 ± 2.8 kg) was significant lower compared to the tenodesis group (mean 6.6 ± 3.0 kg, P = 0.019; maximum 7.7 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.007) and compared to healthy shoulders (mean 6.1 ± 3.0 kg P = 0.004; maximum 7.4 ± 3.1 kg, P = 0.001), all other measurements were similar. According to our results arthroscopic biceps tenodesis and tenotomy are valuable procedures in simultaneous rotator cuff repair regarding function

  12. Extraarticular variants of the long head of the biceps brachii: a reminder of embryology.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Emmanuel A; Barbaix, Erik J; Van Hoonacker, Petrus; Berghs, Bart M

    2008-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the long head of the biceps tendon are rare and have been described in the literature mainly dealing with anatomy and embryology. Because most basic embryologic research on this topic was conducted before 1966, a literature search was performed from archived anatomy textbooks and manuscript references. These data were compared with the scarce case descriptions of developmental anomalies of the long head of the biceps tendon. An additional case illustration from our own experience was provided. From the literature, it appears that during the embryologic phase of development, a staged migration of the long head of the biceps tendon occurs from a position between the fibrous capsule and synovial layer to an intraarticular position. Recent anatomic and arthroscopic case reports have shown that interruption of this migration can occur in any of these stages. Given the recent increase in arthroscopic shoulder surgery, anomalies of the long head of the biceps tendon will be encountered more frequently. Knowledge of their existence and origin can help in evaluating unexpected anatomic variations or the absence of the biceps tendon in preoperative medical imaging or during an arthroscopic procedure.

  13. Intracapsular origin of the long head of the biceps tendon with glenoid avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Bonnaig, Nicolas; Zbojniewicz, Andrew

    2011-11-09

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a history of recurrent glenohumeral dislocations involving her right dominant shoulder. Physical examination suggested physiologic hyperlaxity and anterior instability. Magnetic resonance arthrography demonstrated an anomalous intracapsular origin of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT), with normal-appearing LHBT in the intertubercular groove. Diagnostic arthroscopy confirmed the absence of the LHBT attachment on the superior labrum. Instead, the LHBT originated from the capsule of the shoulder joint. Diagnostic arthroscopy also revealed glenoid avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments (GAGL) lesion as a tear in the anterior-inferior capsule near its insertion on the glenoid and labrum. An arthroscopic anterior capsulolabral repair was performed with rotator interval closure by imbrication of superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments. A retrospective review of the magnetic resonance arthrogram identified irregularity and interposition of contrast between the capsule and the anterior-inferior labrum that was reproduced in the abduction-external rotation view corresponding with the GAGL lesion seen at arthroscopy. At 12 months postoperatively, the patient demonstrated full range of motion and no signs of instability. This case report helps to raise awareness about 2 rare shoulder lesions: the anomalous origin of LHBT and the GAGL lesion. Diagnosing such lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging may aid in operative planning and avoid unexpected intraoperative findings. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Achilles Tendonitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost impossible. Achilles tendonitis is a very common running injury. But it can also affect basketball players, dancers, ... Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Running Repetitive Stress Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries ...

  15. Does immediate elbow mobilization after distal biceps tendon repair carry the risk of wound breakdown, failure of repair, or patient dissatisfaction?

    PubMed

    Smith, James R A; Amirfeyz, Rouin

    2016-05-01

    Rehabilitation protocols after distal biceps repair are highly variable, with many surgeons favoring at least 2 weeks of immobilization. Is this conservative approach necessary to protect the repair? This was a consecutive series of 22 distal biceps tendon repairs in which a cortical button system was used. Patients were encouraged to mobilize their elbow actively from the day of surgery. Physiotherapy commenced at 3 weeks, with strengthening exercises when full range of movement (ROM) was achieved. The primary outcome measured was the clinical integrity of the repaired tendon. Secondary outcomes comprised wound or nerve complication, elbow ROM, and patient-reported outcome measures (the 11-item version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand, Mayo Elbow Performance Index, and Oxford Elbow Score). All patients were male, and the dominant arm was repaired in 60%. Mean age was 40.6 years (range, 27-62 years), and mean time to surgery was 17 days (range, 5-99 days). Mean follow-up was 16.6 months (range, 3.8-29 months). All tendons were clinically intact at time of review. No wound breakdown occurred. Mean extension was -6° (range, -10° to 10°), and flexion was 144° (range, 135°-150°). All patients achieved full pronosupination. ROM was equivalent to the uninjured arm (P = .7). The mean 11-item version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 2.7 (range, 0-15.9), the Mayo Elbow Performance Index was 97.8 (range, 70-100), and the Oxford Elbow Score was 46.9 (range, 43-48) at the latest follow-up. One-third of patients experienced a transient sensory neurapraxia. Immediate mobilization after biceps tendon repair with a cortical button is possible, and in this series was not associated with failure of the repair, wound breakdown, or patient dissatisfaction. However, this series emphasizes the high incidence of nerve complication that can be associated with the single transverse incision technique. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and

  16. Pain and the pathogenesis of biceps tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raney, Elise B; Thankam, Finosh G; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-01-01

    Biceps tendinopathy is a relatively common ailment that typically presents as pain, tenderness, and weakness in the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii. Though it is often associated with degenerative processes of the rotator cuff and the joint, this is not always the case, thus, the etiology remains considerably unknown. There has been recent interest in elucidating the pathogenesis of tendinopathy, since it can be an agent of chronic pain, and is difficult to manage. The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate relevant published research that reflects the current understanding of pain and how it relates to biceps tendinopathy. A review of the literature was conducted to create an organized picture of how pain arises and manifests itself, and how the mechanism behind biceps tendinopathy possibly results in pain. Chronic pain is thought to arise from neurogenic inflammation, central pain sensitization, excitatory nerve augmentation, inhibitory nerve loss, and/or dysregulation of supraspinal structures; thus, the connections of these theories to the ones regarding the generation of biceps tendinopathy, particularly the neural theory, are discussed. Pain mediators such as tachykinins, CGRP, and alarmins, in addition to nervous system ion channels, are highlighted as possible avenues for research in tendinopathy pain. Recognition of the nociceptive mechanisms and molecular of biceps tendinopathy might aid in the development of novel treatment strategies for managing anterior shoulder pain due to a symptomatic biceps tendon. PMID:28670360

  17. Sonographic evaluation of the shoulder in asymptomatic elderly subjects with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Abate, Michele; Schiavone, Cosima; Salini, Vincenzo

    2010-12-07

    The prevalence of rotator cuff tears increases with age and several studies have shown that diabetes is associated with symptomatic shoulder pathologies. Aim of our research was to evaluate the prevalence of shoulder lesions in a population of asymptomatic elderly subjects, normal and with non insulin - dependent diabetes mellitus. The study was performed on 48 subjects with diabetes and 32 controls (mean age: 71.5 ± 4.8 and 70.7 ± 4.5, respectively), who did not complain shoulder pain or dysfunction. An ultrasound examination was performed on both shoulders according to a standard protocol, utilizing multiplanar scans. Tendons thickness was greater in diabetics than in controls (Supraspinatus Tendon: 6.2 ± 0.09 mm vs 5.2 ± 0.7 mm, p < 0.001; Biceps Tendon: 4 ± 0.8 mm vs 3.2 ± 0.4 mm, p < 0.001). Sonographic appearances of degenerative features in the rotator cuff and biceps were more frequently observed in diabetics (Supraspinatus Tendon: 42.7% vs 20.3%, p < 0.003; Biceps Tendon: 27% vs 7.8%, p < 0.002).Subjects with diabetes exhibited more tears in the Supraspinatus Tendon (Minor tears: 15 (15.8%) vs 2 (3.1%), p < 0.03; Major tears: 15 (15.8%) vs 5 (7.8%), p = ns), but not in the long head of Biceps. More effusions in subacromial bursa were observed in diabetics (23.9% vs 10.9%, p < 0.03) as well as tenosynovitis in biceps tendon (33.3% vs 10.9%, p < 0.001).In both groups, pathological findings were prevalent on the dominant side, but no difference related to duration of diabetes was found. Our results suggest that age - related rotator cuff tendon degenerative changes are more common in diabetics.Ultrasound is an useful tool for discovering in pre - symptomatic stages the subjects that may undergo shoulder symptomatic pathologies.

  18. Arthroscopic assisted tendon reconstruction for triangular fibrocartilage complex irreparable tears.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, R; Atzei, A

    2017-05-01

    We report our 11-year experience of performing arthroscopically assisted triangular fibrocartilage complex reconstruction in the treatment of chronic distal radio-ulnar joint instability resulting from irreparable triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries. Eleven patients were treated. Three skin incisions were made in order to create radial and ulna tunnels for passage of the tendon graft, which is used to reconstruct the dorsal and palmar radio-ulnar ligaments, under fluoroscopic and arthroscopic guidance. At a mean follow-up of 68 months all but one had a stable distal radio-ulnar joint. Pain and grip strength, Mayo wrist score, Disability of the Arm Hand and Shoulder and patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation scores improved. The ranges of forearm rotation remained largely unchanged. Complications included an early tendon graft tear, two late-onset graft ruptures, one ulna styloid fracture during surgery and persistent wrist discomfort during forearm rotation requiring tendon graft revision in one case. An arthroscopic assisted approach for triangular fibrocartilage complex reconstruction appears safe and produces comparable results with the open technique. IV.

  19. The influence of superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) repair on restoring baseline glenohumeral translation and increased biceps loading after simulated SLAP tear and the effectiveness of SLAP repair after long head of biceps tenotomy.

    PubMed

    Patzer, Thilo; Habermeyer, Peter; Hurschler, Christof; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Wellmann, Mathias; Kircher, Joern; Schofer, Markus D

    2012-11-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown increased glenohumeral translation and loading of the long head biceps (LHB) tendon after superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears. This may explain some of the typical clinical findings, including the prevalence of humeral chondral lesions, after SLAP lesions. The first hypothesis was that SLAP repair could restore the original glenohumeral translation and reduce the increased LHB load after SLAP lesions. The second hypothesis was that SLAP repair after LHB tenotomy could significantly reduce the increased glenohumeral translation. Biomechanical testing was performed on 21 fresh frozen human cadaveric shoulders with an intact shoulder girdle using a sensor-guided industrial robot to apply 20 N of compression in the joint and 50 N translational force at 0°, 30°, and 60° of abduction. LHB loading was measured by a load-cell with 5 N and 25 N preload. Type IIC SLAP lesions were created arthroscopically, and a standardized SLAP repair was done combined with or without LHB tenotomy. No significant difference of glenohumeral translation and increased LHB load in SLAP repair compared with the intact shoulder was observed under 5 N and 25 LHB preload, except for anterior translation under 25 N LHB preload. After LHB tenotomy after SLAP lesions, no significant difference of translation was observed with or without SLAP repair. SLAP repair without associated LHB tenotomy helps normalize glenohumeral translation and LHB loading. The stabilizing effect of the SLAP complex is dependent on the LHB. After biceps tenotomy, SLAP repair does not affect glenohumeral translation. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tendon retraction with rotator cuff tear causes a decrease in cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Shoji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Amari, Rui; Wada, Keizo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles have been reported as negative prognostic indicators after rotator cuff repair. Although the Y-shaped view is widely used for measuring the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle, the contribution of retraction of the torn tendon as well as muscle atrophy must be considered. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cross-sectional area and tendon retraction or size of the tear. This study included 76 shoulders that were evaluated arthroscopically for the presence and size of tears. Cross-sectional areas of rotator cuff muscles were measured from the Y-shaped view to 3 more medial slices. The occupation ratio and tangent sign were evaluated on the Y-shaped view. The retraction of torn tendon was also measured on the oblique coronal images. On the Y-shaped view, the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus and the occupation ratio decreased in conjunction with the increase in tear size. A significant decrease in cross-sectional area was noted only in large and massive tears on more medial slices from the Y-shaped view. Significant decreases in the cross-sectional area of the infraspinatus were observed in large and massive tears on all images. A negative correlation was found between tendon retraction and cross-sectional area, which was strongest on the Y-shaped view. To avoid the influence of retraction of the supraspinatus tendon, sufficient medial slices from the musculotendinous junction should be used for evaluation of muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visualization of the extra-articular portion of the long head of the biceps tendon during intra-articular shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Festa, Anthony; Allert, Jesse; Issa, Kimona; Tasto, James P; Myer, Jonathan J

    2014-11-01

    To quantify the amount of the extra-articular long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) seen during intra-articular shoulder arthroscopy by pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe through an anterior portal while viewing through a standard posterior portal. Intra-articular shoulder arthroscopy was performed on 10 forequarter cadaveric specimens. The extra-articular portion of the LHBT was evaluated by pulling the tendon into the joint with an arthroscopic probe inserted through an anterior portal. The tendon was marked at the pulley insertion on the humerus with a vascular clip before and after the tendon was pulled into the joint. An open deltopectoral approach was performed, and the amount of extra-articular tendon visualized was calculated as an absolute amount and in relation to nearby anatomic structures. An additional 1.9 cm (range, 1.4 to 2.6 cm) of extra-articular LHBT was viewed by pulling the tendon into the joint with an arthroscopic probe through an anterior portal during shoulder arthroscopy. This represented 30.8% of the extra-articular portion of the tendon, 47.7% of tendon in the bicipital groove, and 76.3% of the tendon that lies under the area from the pulley insertion to the distal edge of the transverse humeral ligament. During intra-articular shoulder arthroscopy, the extra-articular portion of the LHBT is incompletely visualized by pulling the tendon into the joint with a probe placed through an anterior portal while viewing through a standard posterior portal. An additional extra-articular portion of the LHBT may be viewed by pulling the tendon into the joint with an arthroscopic probe during shoulder arthroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute distal biceps rupture in an adolescent weightlifter on chronic steroid suppression: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ding, David Y; LaMartina, Joey A; Zhang, Alan L; Pandya, Nirav K

    2016-09-01

    Distal biceps tendon ruptures are uncommon events in the adult population and exceedingly rare in the adolescent population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and only report of a distal biceps tendon rupture in an adolescent with a history of chronic corticosteroid suppression. We present a case of a 17-year-old male on chronic corticosteroid suppression who underwent a successful distal biceps tendon repair after an acute rupture following weightlifting. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient reports full range of motion and strength, and is able to return to his preinjury activity level with sports and weightlifting. Acute distal biceps ruptures are uncommon injuries in the pediatric population, but may occur in conjunction with chronic corticosteroid use. Anatomic repair, when possible, can restore function and strength. level IV, case report.

  3. Achilles or biceps tendon rupture in women and men with type 2 diabetes: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, Julia; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that diabetes causes alterations in tendon collagen structure, but evidence on how such findings translate into clinical practice is scarce. We aimed to analyze the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a matched case-control analysis using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cases (n=7895) were aged 30-89years and had an incident diagnosis of Achilles- or biceps tendon rupture between 1995 and 2013. In multivariable logistic regression analyses we compared the odds of tendon rupture between patients with or without type 2 diabetes, in men and women separately, and taking into account diabetes severity (HbA1c), duration, and antidiabetic drug treatment. Within 165 (7.1%) female cases with type 2 diabetes, odds ratios (ORs) were increased with poorer diabetes control (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.20-3.41, HbA1c ≥9% [≥75mmol/mol]), longer disease duration (OR 1.60, 95% CI 0.93-2.74, ≥10years), and current insulin use (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.30-3.90, ≥20 prescriptions). Among 372 (6.7%) male cases, there was no effect of type 2 diabetes on the risk of tendon rupture. Our results suggest that the risk of tendon ruptures may be increased in women with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, but not in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sonographic evaluation of the shoulder in asymptomatic elderly subjects with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of rotator cuff tears increases with age and several studies have shown that diabetes is associated with symptomatic shoulder pathologies. Aim of our research was to evaluate the prevalence of shoulder lesions in a population of asymptomatic elderly subjects, normal and with non insulin - dependent diabetes mellitus. Methods The study was performed on 48 subjects with diabetes and 32 controls (mean age: 71.5 ± 4.8 and 70.7 ± 4.5, respectively), who did not complain shoulder pain or dysfunction. An ultrasound examination was performed on both shoulders according to a standard protocol, utilizing multiplanar scans. Results Tendons thickness was greater in diabetics than in controls (Supraspinatus Tendon: 6.2 ± 0.09 mm vs 5.2 ± 0.7 mm, p < 0.001; Biceps Tendon: 4 ± 0.8 mm vs 3.2 ± 0.4 mm, p < 0.001). Sonographic appearances of degenerative features in the rotator cuff and biceps were more frequently observed in diabetics (Supraspinatus Tendon: 42.7% vs 20.3%, p < 0.003; Biceps Tendon: 27% vs 7.8%, p < 0.002). Subjects with diabetes exhibited more tears in the Supraspinatus Tendon (Minor tears: 15 (15.8%) vs 2 (3.1%), p < 0.03; Major tears: 15 (15.8%) vs 5 (7.8%), p = ns), but not in the long head of Biceps. More effusions in subacromial bursa were observed in diabetics (23.9% vs 10.9%, p < 0.03) as well as tenosynovitis in biceps tendon (33.3% vs 10.9%, p < 0.001). In both groups, pathological findings were prevalent on the dominant side, but no difference related to duration of diabetes was found. Conclusions Our results suggest that age - related rotator cuff tendon degenerative changes are more common in diabetics. Ultrasound is an useful tool for discovering in pre - symptomatic stages the subjects that may undergo shoulder symptomatic pathologies. PMID:21138564

  5. Common Peroneal Nerve Palsy with Multiple-Ligament Knee Injury and Distal Avulsion of the Biceps Femoris Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Takeshi; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Takata, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A multiple-ligament knee injury that includes posterolateral corner (PLC) disruption often causes palsy of the common peroneal nerve (CPN), which occurs in 44% of cases with PLC injury and biceps femoris tendon rupture or avulsion of the fibular head. Approximately half of these cases do not show functional recovery. This case report aims to present a criteria-based approach to the operation and postoperative management of CPN palsy that resulted from a multiple-ligament knee injury in a 22-year-old man that occurred during judo. We performed a two-staged surgery. The first stage was to repair the injuries to the PLC and biceps femoris. The second stage involved anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The outcomes were excellent, with a stable knee, excellent range of motion, and improvement in the palsy. The patient was able to return to judo competition 27 weeks after the injury. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a return to sports following CPN palsy with multiple-ligament knee injury. PMID:26064740

  6. Reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon tear using Polyvinylidene fluoride sutures and patellar screw fixation: A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Sellei, R M; Bauer, E; Hofman, M; Kobbe, P; Lichte, P; Garrison, R L; Pape, H C; Horst, K

    2015-12-01

    Acute quadriceps tendon tears are infrequent injuries requiring surgical treatment. Improved stability after surgical repair may allow for earlier weight-bearing and range of motion. Therefore, a new implant was tested and compared with the "gold standard", using transosseous sutures. Quadriceps tendon tears were constructed using a cadaveric model of 12 fresh matched-pair specimens (aged 61-97; mean age: 82 years). The biomechanical testing compared non-absorbable suture anchors (Polyvinylidene fluoride) versus transosseous absorbable sutures (Polydioxanon). Following anatomic reconstruction, the repaired specimens were loaded until they failed (testing machine: Hounsfield H10KM, Redhill, United Kingdom; maximum force: 1000 N; load speed: 25 mm/min; maximum test length: 150 mm; pre-load: 5 N). Values for load until tear displacement, maximum load until complete failure of the construct (pullout or breakage of the sutures or anchors) and stiffness of the reconstruction were recorded. The stiffness found in the Polyvinylidene fluoride reconstruction (mean 9.83 N/mm) (standard deviation (SD) 7.75) showed a significant increase compared to the Polydioxanon reconstruction (mean 6.66 N/mm (SD 3.32); P=0.045). Transosseous fixation showed comparable results to the suture anchor system. There was no significant difference found in the maximum load to tear displacement (PVDF: 290.88 N (SD 106.01) vs. PDS: 266.75 N (SD 82.61); P=0.358). Using the Polyvinylidene fluoride thread showed comparable results to the established method in reconstruction of ruptured quadriceps tendon. Stiffness of the Polyvinylidene fluoride thread reconstruction was even greater than Polydioxanon thread. Improved stiffness may facilitate healing and is suggested as clinical relevance in reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate-Platelet-Rich Plasma on Tendon-Derived Stem Cells and Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jeong; Song, Da Hyun; Park, Jong Wook; Park, Silvia; Kim, Sang Jun

    2017-05-09

    Bone marrow aspirate concentrates (BMACs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are good sources to control the differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs), but there has been no study about the effect of the BMAC-PRP complex on TDSCs and tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMAC-PRP on the TDSCs and to find the therapeutic effect of BMAC-PRP on the rotator cuff tendon tear. The chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of TDSCs decreased, but the adipogenic potential of TDSCs revealed no significant difference when they were cocultured with BMAC-PRP. Cell proliferation was significantly greater in TDSCs cocultured with BMAC-PRP than in TDSCs. The degree of wound closure (percentage) was different between TDSCs and TDSCs with BMAC-PRP. There was no significant difference in expression of collagen type I and type III in immunocytochemical staining in the presence of BMAC-PRP. Initial visual analog scale (VAS) score was 5.8 ± 1.9, which changed to 5.0 ± 2.3 at 3 weeks and 2.8 ± 2.3 at 3 months after the BMAC-PRP injection (p < 0.01). The American Shoulder Elbow Surgeon score changed from 39.4 ± 13.0 at baseline to 52.9 ± 22.9 at 3 weeks and 71.8 ± 19.7 at 3 months after the injection (p < 0.01). The initial torn area of the rotator cuff tendon was 30.2 ± 24.5 mm2, and this area was reduced to 22.5 ± 18.9 mm2 at 3 months, but the change was not significant (p > 0.05). The data indicate that BMAC-PRP enhances the proliferation and migration of TDSCs and prevents the aberrant chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of TDSCs, which might provide a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic benefits of BMAC-PRP for rotator cuff tendon tear.

  8. Effect of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate-Platelet-Rich Plasma on Tendon-Derived Stem Cells and Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Jeong; Song, Da Hyun; Park, Jong Wook; Park, Silvia; Kim, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow aspirate concentrates (BMACs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are good sources to control the differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs), but there has been no study about the effect of the BMAC–PRP complex on TDSCs and tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMAC–PRP on the TDSCs and to find the therapeutic effect of BMAC–PRP on the rotator cuff tendon tear. The chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of TDSCs decreased, but the adipogenic potential of TDSCs revealed no significant difference when they were cocultured with BMAC–PRP. Cell proliferation was significantly greater in TDSCs cocultured with BMAC–PRP than in TDSCs. The degree of wound closure (percentage) was different between TDSCs and TDSCs with BMAC–PRP. There was no significant difference in expression of collagen type I and type III in immunocytochemical staining in the presence of BMAC–PRP. Initial visual analog scale (VAS) score was 5.8±1.9, which changed to 5.0±2.3 at 3 weeks and 2.8±2.3 at 3 months after the BMAC–PRP injection (p<0.01). The American Shoulder Elbow Surgeon score changed from 39.4±13.0 at baseline to 52.9±22.9 at 3 weeks and 71.8±19.7 at 3 months after the injection (p<0.01). The initial torn area of the rotator cuff tendon was 30.2±24.5 mm2, and this area was reduced to 22.5±18.9 mm2 at 3 months, but the change was not significant (p > 0.05). The data indicate that BMAC–PRP enhances the proliferation and migration of TDSCs and prevents the aberrant chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of TDSCs, which might provide a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic benefits of BMAC–PRP for rotator cuff tendon tear. PMID:28105983

  9. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER DISTAL BICEPS BRACHII REPAIR: A CASE SERIES.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Christine L; Morris, Tim; Otto, Charissa; Zerella, Tanisha; Semmler, John G; Human, Taaibos; Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-12-01

    To investigate outcomes after surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture and the influence of arm dominance on isokinetic flexion and supination results. While relatively uncommon, rupture of the distal biceps tendon can result in significant strength deficits, for which surgical repair is recommended. The purpose of this study was to assess patient reported functional outcomes and muscle performance following surgery. A sample of 23 participants (22 males, 1 female), who had previously undergone surgical repair of the distal biceps tendon, were re-examined at a minimum of one year after surgery. Biodex isokinetic elbow flexion and supination testing was performed to assess strength (as measured by peak torque) and endurance (as measured by total work and work fatigue). The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and Mayo Elbow Performance Scale (MEPS) were used to assess participants' subjectively reported functional recovery. At a mean of 7.6 years after surgical repair, there were no differences between the repaired and uninvolved elbows in peak torque ( p  = 0.47) or total work ( p  = 0.60) for flexion or supination. There was also no difference in elbow flexion work fatigue ( p  = 0.22). However, there was significantly less work fatigue in supination, which was likely influenced by arm dominance, as most repairs were to the dominant arm, F (1,22)=5.67, p  = 0.03. The long-term strength of the repaired elbow was similar to the uninvolved elbow after surgery to the distal biceps tendon. Endurance of the repaired elbow was similar in flexion but greater in supination, probably influenced by arm dominance. Retrospective case series. Level 4.

  10. Effects of bone marrow aspirate concentrate and platelet-rich plasma on patients with partial tear of the rotator cuff tendon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Jun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sun Jeong; Song, Da Hyun

    2018-01-03

    We compared the clinical course of rotator cuff tears between rotator cuff exercise and bone marrow aspirate concentration (BMAC)-platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection to identify the therapeutic effects of BMAC-PRP on partial tear of the rotator cuff tendon. Twenty-four patients with partial tear of the rotator cuff tendon participated in this study. Twelve patients underwent extraction of BMACs and PRP and received the injection of BMAC-PRP at the tear site under ultrasound guidance. Twelve patients in the control group were asked to perform the rotator cuff exercise for 3 months. Visual analog scale (VAS) and manual muscle test (MMT) scores of the supraspinatus muscle were measured, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score was recorded before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after injection. Tear size was measured by the greatest longitudinal tear length. The change in the VAS differed between groups at 3 months (P = 0.039) but not at 3 weeks (P = 0.147). The ASES scores in the BMAC-PRP group changed from 39.4 ± 13.0 to 54.5 ± 11.5 at 3 weeks and 74.1 ± 8.5 at 3 months while those in the control group changed from 45.9 ± 12.4 to 56.3 ± 12.3 at 3 weeks (P = 0.712) and 62.2 ± 12.2 at 3 months (P = 0.011). The tear size decreased at 3 weeks or 3 months after the BMAC-PRP injection but was not significantly different from that in the control group. BMAC-PRP improved pain and shoulder function in patients with partial tear of the rotator cuff tendon. The patients were registered in the institutional board registry of Samsung Medical Center (registry number 2014-07-173 ).

  11. Distal biceps brachii tendon repair: a systematic review of patient outcome determination using modified Coleman methodology score criteria.

    PubMed

    Nyland, John; Causey, Brandon; Wera, Jeff; Krupp, Ryan; Tate, David; Gupta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This systematic literature review evaluated the methodological research design quality of studies that evaluated patient outcomes following distal biceps brachii tendon repair and developed evidence-based recommendations for future patient clinical outcomes research. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria, and using "biceps brachii", "tendon", "repair" and "outcome assessment" search terms, the CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and MEDLINE databases were searched from January 1960-October 2015. The modified Coleman methodology score (MCMS) served as the primary outcome measure. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed for composite and component MCMS and for patient outcome assessment methodology use frequency. A total of 93 studies were evaluated. Overall MCMS was low (57.1 ± 14). Only 12 (12.9 %) had prospective cohort or randomized controlled trial designs. There was a moderate relationship between publication year and MCMS (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001). Although 61 studies (65.6 %) had adequate surgical descriptions, only 3 (3.2 %) had well-described rehabilitation. Of 2253 subjects, only 39 (1.7 %) were women. Studies published after 2008 had higher MCMS scores than studies published earlier (61.3 ± 10 versus 52.9 ± 16, P = 0.003). Although overall research study methodological scores improved on average since 2008, generally low MCMS scores, retrospective designs, lack of eccentric elbow flexor or supinator strength testing, and poorly described surgical and rehabilitation descriptions remain commonplace. These findings decrease clinical study validity and generalizability. III.

  12. Outcome of Lateral Transfer of the FHL or FDL for Concomitant Peroneal Tendon Tears.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Jeffrey D; Campbell, John T; Jeng, Clifford L; Short, Kelly W; Myerson, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant tears of the peroneus longus and brevis tendons are rare injuries, with literature limited to case reports and small patient series. Only 1 recent study directly compared the results of single-stage lateral deep flexor transfer, and no previous series objectively evaluated power and balance following transfer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, and objective power and balance data following single-stage flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfers for treatment of concomitant peroneus longus and brevis tears. Over an 8-year period (2005-2012), 9 patients underwent lateral transfer of the FHL or FDL tendon for treatment of concomitant peroneus longus and brevis tears. All but 1 patient underwent additional procedures to address hindfoot malalignment or other contributing deformity at the time of surgery. Mean age was 56.9 years, and average body mass index was 27.9. Lateral transfer of the FHL was performed in 5 patients, and FDL transfer performed in 4 with mean follow-up 35.7 months (range: 11-94). Eight of 9 patients completed SF-12 and Foot Function Index (FFI) scores, and 7 returned for range of motion (ROM) and manual strength testing of the involved and normal extremities. These 7 patients also completed force plate balance tests, in addition to peak force and power testing on a PrimusRS machine with a certified physical therapist. All patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. Mean SF-12 physical and mental scores were 32 and 55, respectively; mean FFI total score was 56.7. No postoperative infections were noted. Two patients continued to utilize orthotics or braces, and 2 patients reported occasional pain with weightbearing activity. Three patients noted mild paresthesias in the distribution of the sural nerve and 2 demonstrated tibial neuritis. All patients demonstrated 4/5 eversion strength in the involved extremity. Average loss of inversion and

  13. Conservative treatment of a proximal full-thickness biceps brachii muscle tear in a special operations soldier.

    PubMed

    Helton, Matthew S

    2014-04-01

    A transection of the short head of the biceps brachii muscle is an uncommon injury seen among outpatient sports physical therapy clinics. The highest rate of occurrence and the majority of literature that discusses this specific injury are related to US military parachuting. The purpose of this case report is to outline the episode of care from 2 days after the injury through 6 months of conservative treatment, which consisted of therapeutic exercise, manual therapy, and cryotherapy, within an outpatient sports physical therapy clinic in a military setting. This case report outlines the initial evaluation, diagnostic imaging, treatment, and 6-month follow-up measures for a 23-year-old male patient who sustained a static line injury resulting in a full-thickness tear of his biceps brachii muscle and a partial tear of the coracobrachialis muscle. The individual described in this case report reported having no functional limitations in regard to his job and leisure activities or any pain at his 6-month follow-up, with a score of 0% noted on his Shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire (QuickDASH). Isokinetic testing revealed a 39.1% decrease in elbow flexion peak torque and a 60.8% decrease in elbow flexion total work output at this same follow-up interval. In determining the appropriate course of treatment for this injury type, conservative physical therapy intervention should be considered as a viable treatment option, as there have been no decisive studies to suggest superior outcomes with other methods such as surgical correction. It is further recommended that research be conducted in an effort to prevent such injuries from occurring, as this mechanism of injury has proven to be much higher among the US military population compared with other military populations.

  14. Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: A Modified Technique Using Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Villacis, Diego; Merriman, Jarrad; Wong, Karlton; Rick Hatch, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a well-established method for the treatment of posterosuperior massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. We propose using an arthroscopically assisted technique that avoids insult to the deltoid. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, an L-shaped incision is made along the anterior belly of the latissimus muscle and then along the posterior axillary line. The latissimus and teres major are identified and separated. The tendon insertion of the latissimus is isolated, and a FiberWire traction suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is placed, facilitating dissection of the muscle to the thoracodorsal neurovascular pedicle and subsequent mobilization. The interval deep to the deltoid and superficial to the teres minor is developed into a subdeltoid tunnel for arthroscopic tendon transfer. The latissimus tendon is then transferred and stabilized arthroscopically to the lateral aspect of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus footprints by multiple suture anchors. PMID:23767006

  15. Mapping the articular contact area of the long head of the biceps tendon on the humeral head.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brent J; Byram, Ian R; Lathrop, Ray A; Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position (P = 0.002) with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders (rho = 1, P = 0.017) as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area (rho = 0.97, P = 0.005). The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver.

  16. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER DISTAL BICEPS BRACHII REPAIR: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Tim; Otto, Charissa; Zerella, Tanisha; Semmler, John G; Human, Taaibos; Phadnis, Joideep; Bain, Gregory I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate outcomes after surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture and the influence of arm dominance on isokinetic flexion and supination results. Background/Purpose While relatively uncommon, rupture of the distal biceps tendon can result in significant strength deficits, for which surgical repair is recommended. The purpose of this study was to assess patient reported functional outcomes and muscle performance following surgery. Methods A sample of 23 participants (22 males, 1 female), who had previously undergone surgical repair of the distal biceps tendon, were re-examined at a minimum of one year after surgery. Biodex isokinetic elbow flexion and supination testing was performed to assess strength (as measured by peak torque) and endurance (as measured by total work and work fatigue). The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and Mayo Elbow Performance Scale (MEPS) were used to assess participants' subjectively reported functional recovery. Results At a mean of 7.6 years after surgical repair, there were no differences between the repaired and uninvolved elbows in peak torque (p = 0.47) or total work (p = 0.60) for flexion or supination. There was also no difference in elbow flexion work fatigue (p = 0.22). However, there was significantly less work fatigue in supination, which was likely influenced by arm dominance, as most repairs were to the dominant arm, F(1,22)=5.67, p = 0.03. Conclusion The long-term strength of the repaired elbow was similar to the uninvolved elbow after surgery to the distal biceps tendon. Endurance of the repaired elbow was similar in flexion but greater in supination, probably influenced by arm dominance. Study design Retrospective case series Level of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27904798

  17. Biomechanical Effects of Acromioplasty on Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Supraspinatus Tendon Tears.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Kahn, Timothy; Goldberg, Iliya; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2016-01-01

    Acromioplasty is increasingly being performed for both reparable and irreparable rotator cuff tears. However, acromioplasty may destroy the coracoacromial arch, including the coracoacromial ligament, consequently causing a deterioration in superior stability even after superior capsule reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acromioplasty on shoulder biomechanics after superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable supraspinatus tendon tears. The hypothesis was that acromioplasty with superior capsule reconstruction would decrease the area of subacromial impingement without increasing superior translation and subacromial contact pressure. Controlled laboratory study. Seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were evaluated using a custom shoulder testing system. Glenohumeral superior translation, the location of the humeral head relative to the glenoid, and subacromial contact pressure and area were compared among 4 conditions: (1) intact shoulder, (2) irreparable supraspinatus tendon tear, (3) superior capsule reconstruction without acromioplasty, and (4) superior capsule reconstruction with acromioplasty. Superior capsule reconstruction was performed using the fascia lata. Compared with the intact shoulder, the creation of an irreparable supraspinatus tear significantly shifted the humeral head superiorly in the balanced muscle loading condition (without superior force applied) (0° of abduction: 2.8-mm superior shift [P = .0005]; 30° of abduction: 1.9-mm superior shift [P = .003]) and increased both superior translation (0° of abduction: 239% of intact [P = .04]; 30° of abduction: 199% of intact [P = .02]) and subacromial peak contact pressure (0° of abduction: 308% of intact [P = .0002]; 30° of abduction: 252% of intact [P = .001]) by applying superior force. Superior capsule reconstruction without acromioplasty significantly decreased superior translation (0° of abduction: 86% of intact [P = .02]; 30° of abduction: 75

  18. MRI findings associated with luxatio erecta humeri.

    PubMed

    Krug, David K; Vinson, Emily N; Helms, Clyde A

    2010-01-01

    Luxatio erecta humeri is a rare type of inferior glenohumeral dislocation with a unique radiographic appearance; however, the magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with this dislocation have not been described in the radiology literature. The purpose of this study is to identify magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with this uncommon type of glenohumeral dislocation. The magnetic resonance imaging features of four patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of luxatio erecta humeri were reviewed retrospectively by two musculoskeletal-trained radiologists. The reported mechanism of injury in all four patients was falling. The MR imaging examinations were evaluated for the presence of rotator cuff and biceps tendon pathology, glenoid labrum pathology, joint capsule and glenohumeral ligament injury, fractures and bone marrow contusions, articular cartilage injury, and joint effusions. All four patients demonstrated pathology of the glenohumeral joint. Three of the four patients demonstrated rotator cuff tears, including large full thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in two patients, and small full thickness tear of the supraspinatus tendon with partial thickness tear of the infraspinatus tendon in the third patient. In the two patients with large full thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons, one patient demonstrated tearing of the subscapularis tendon with dislocation of a partially torn long head of the biceps tendon, and the second patient demonstrated full thickness tearing of the intra-articular biceps tendon. All four patients demonstrated injuries to the glenoid labrum and both anterior and posterior bands of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Contusions or fractures of the humeral head were seen in two of the patients. Three of the four patients demonstrated cartilage abnormalities including a focal cartilage defect in the anterior inferior glenoid in one patient, and cartilage surface

  19. Physical examination tests and imaging studies based on arthroscopic assessment of the long head of biceps tendon are invalid.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert W; Saithna, Adnan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether glenohumeral arthroscopy is an appropriate gold standard for the diagnosis of long head of biceps (LHB) tendon pathology. The objectives were to evaluate whether the length of tendon that can be seen at arthroscopy allows visualisation of areas of predilection of pathology and also to determine the rates of missed diagnoses at arthroscopy when compared to an open approach. A systematic review of cadaveric and clinical studies was performed. The search strategy was applied to MEDLINE, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. All relevant articles were included. Critical appraisal of clinical studies was performed using a validated quality assessment scale. Five articles were identified for inclusion in the review. This included both clinical and cadaveric studies. The overall population comprised 18 cadaveric specimens and 575 patients. Out of the five included studies, three reported the length of LHB tendon visualised during arthroscopy and four reported the rate of missed LHB diagnosis. Cadaveric studies showed that the use of a hook probe allowed arthroscopic visualisation of between 34 and 48 % of the overall length of the LHB. In the clinical series, the rate of missed diagnoses at arthroscopy when compared to open exploration ranged between 33 and 49 %. Arthroscopy allows visualisation of only a small part of the extra-articular LHB tendon. This leads to a high rate of missed pathology in the distal part of the tendon. Published figures for sensitivities and specificities of common physical examination and imaging tests for LHB pathology that are based on arthroscopy as the gold standard are therefore invalid. In clinical practice, it is important to note that a "negative" arthroscopic assessment does not exclude a lesion of the LHB tendon as this technique does not allow visualisation of common sites of distal pathology. IV.

  20. Increased muscle belly and tendon stiffness in patients with Parkinson's disease, as measured by myotonometry.

    PubMed

    Marusiak, Jarosław; Jaskólska, Anna; Budrewicz, Sławomir; Koszewicz, Magdalena; Jaskólski, Artur

    2011-09-01

    Based on Davis's law, greater tonus of the muscle belly in individuals with Parkinson's disease can create greater tension in the tendon, leading to structural adjustment and an increase in tendon stiffness. Our study aimed to separately assess passive stiffness in the muscle belly and tendon in medicated patients with Parkinson's disease, using myotonometry. We tested 12 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 healthy matched controls. Passive stiffness of muscle belly and tendon was estimated by myotonometry, electromyography, and mechanomyography in relaxed biceps and triceps brachii muscles. Compared with controls, patients with Parkinson's disease had higher stiffness in the muscle belly and tendon of the biceps brachii and in the tendon of the triceps brachii. In patients with Parkinson's disease, there was a positive correlation between muscle belly stiffness and parkinsonian rigidity in the biceps brachii. Patients with Parkinson's disease have higher passive stiffness of the muscle belly and tendon than healthy matched controls. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Distal Triceps Tendon Injuries.

    PubMed

    Keener, Jay D; Sethi, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    Acute triceps ruptures are an uncommon entity, occurring mainly in athletes, weight lifters (especially those taking anabolic steroids), and following elbow trauma. Accurate diagnosis is made clinically, although MRI may aid in confirmation and surgical planning. Acute ruptures are classified on an anatomic basis based on tear location and the degree of tendon involvement. Most complete tears are treated surgically in medically fit patients. Partial-thickness tears are managed according to the tear severity, functional demands, and response to conservative treatment. We favor an anatomic footprint repair of the triceps to provide optimal tendon to bone healing and, ultimately, functional outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct Lentiviral-Cyclooxygenase 2 Application to the Tendon-Bone Interface Promotes Osteointegration and Enhances Return of the Pull-Out Tensile Strength of the Tendon Graft in a Rat Model of Biceps Tenodesis

    PubMed Central

    Wergedal, Jon E.; Stiffel, Virginia; Lau, Kin-Hing William

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine if direct application of the lentiviral (LV)-cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) vector to the tendon-bone interface would promote osteointegration of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy was chosen for investigation because a similar COX2 gene transfer strategy promoted bony bridging of the fracture gap during bone repair, which involves similar histologic transitions that occur in osteointegration. Briefly, a 1.14-mm diameter tunnel was drilled in the mid-groove of the humerus of adult Fischer 344 rats. The LV-COX2 or βgal control vector was applied directly into the bone tunnel and onto the end of the tendon graft, which was then pulled into the bone tunnel. A poly-L-lactide pin was press-fitted into the tunnel as interference fixation. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 5, or 8 weeks for histology analysis of osteointegration. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy enhanced neo-chondrogenesis at the tendon-bone interface but with only marginal effect on de novo bone formation. The tendon-bone interface of the LV-COX2-treated tenodesis showed the well-defined tendon-to-fibrocartilage-to-bone histologic transitions that are indicative of osteointegration of the tendon graft. The LV-COX2 in vivo gene transfer strategy also significantly enhanced angiogenesis at the tendon-bone interface. To determine if the increased osteointegration was translated into an improved pull-out mechanical strength property, the pull-out tensile strength of the LV-COX2-treated tendon grafts was determined with a pull-out mechanical testing assay. The LV-COX2 strategy yielded a significant improvement in the return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft after 8 weeks. In conclusion, the COX2-based in vivo gene transfer strategy enhanced angiogenesis, osteointegration and improved return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft. Thus, this strategy has great potential to be developed into an effective therapy to

  3. Locations of lesser tuberosity cysts and their association with subscapularis, supraspinatus, and long head of the biceps tendon disorders.

    PubMed

    Celikyay, Fatih; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Deniz, Caglar; Inal, Sermet; Gokce, Erkan; Acu, Berat

    2015-12-01

    Humeral head cysts are not uncommon in individuals with rotator cuff disorders. The cysts are usually considered an indicator of rotator cuff pathologies; however, they may have different meanings in different regions. To determine the frequency of cysts within and adjacent to the lesser tuberosity and the relationship between these cysts and subscapularis, supraspinatus, and long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) disorders. We retrospectively reviewed 760 consecutive shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Among these MRIs, we selected a group of patients with cysts located around the lesser tuberosity. The study population was also divided into two subgroups, patients with cysts within the lesser tuberosity and those with cysts adjacent to the lesser tuberosity. In addition to the number and size of cysts, the MRI appearance of the tendons was evaluated. Eighty-one (10.7%) patients had cysts within and/or adjacent to the lesser tuberosity, 34 (42%) patients had cysts within the lesser tuberosity, and 47 (58%) patients had cysts adjacent to it. LHBT and subscapularis tendon disorders were significantly related to more than one cyst. In a univariate analysis, cysts within the lesser tuberosity were significantly associated with LHBT and subscapularis tendon disorders; however, multivariate analyses showed that only LHBT disorders were significantly associated with cysts within the lesser tuberosity. Cysts within the lesser tuberosity were less common than cysts adjacent to it. LHBT and subscapularis tendon disorders were more frequently found in patients with more than one cyst within and/or adjacent to the lesser tuberosity. In addition, cysts within the lesser tuberosity were associated with LHBT disorders. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  4. The effects of chronic unloading and gap formation on tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of massive rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Shah, Shivam A.; Sato, Eugene J.; Ward, Samuel R.; Havlioglu, Necat; Galatz, Leesa M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pre-repair rotator cuff chronicity on post-repair healing outcomes using a chronic and acute multi-tendon rat rotator cuff injury model. Full-thickness dual tendon injuries (supra- and infraspinatus) were created unilaterally in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and left chronically detached for 8 or 16 weeks. After chronic detachment, tears were repaired and acute dual tendon injuries were created and immediately repaired on contralateral shoulders. Tissue level outcomes for bone, tendon, and muscle were assessed 4 or 8 weeks after repair using histology, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and biochemical assays. Substantial gap formation was seen in 35% of acute repairs and 44% of chronic repairs. Gap formation negatively correlated with mechanical and structural outcomes for both healing time points regardless of injury duration. Bone and histomorphometry, as well as biomechanics, were similar between acute and chronic injury and repair regardless of chronicity and duration of healing. This study was the first to implement a multi-tendon rotator cuff injury with surgical repair following both chronic and acute injuries. Massive tear in a rodent model resulted in gap formation regardless of injury duration which had detrimental effects on repair outcomes. PMID:24243733

  5. The effects of chronic unloading and gap formation on tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of massive rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Shah, Shivam A; Sato, Eugene J; Ward, Samuel R; Havlioglu, Necat; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pre-repair rotator cuff chronicity on post-repair healing outcomes using a chronic and acute multi-tendon rat rotator cuff injury model. Full-thickness dual tendon injuries (supra- and infraspinatus) were created unilaterally in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and left chronically detached for 8 or 16 weeks. After chronic detachment, tears were repaired and acute dual tendon injuries were created and immediately repaired on contralateral shoulders. Tissue level outcomes for bone, tendon, and muscle were assessed 4 or 8 weeks after repair using histology, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and biochemical assays. Substantial gap formation was seen in 35% of acute repairs and 44% of chronic repairs. Gap formation negatively correlated with mechanical and structural outcomes for both healing time points regardless of injury duration. Bone and histomorphometry, as well as biomechanics, were similar between acute and chronic injury and repair regardless of chronicity and duration of healing. This study was the first to implement a multi-tendon rotator cuff injury with surgical repair following both chronic and acute injuries. Massive tear in a rodent model resulted in gap formation regardless of injury duration which had detrimental effects on repair outcomes. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Retrospective Evaluation of Anatomical Reinsertion of the Distal Biceps Brachii Tendon Using an ACL TightRope® RT with a Titanium Cortical Button and Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Suture: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Jarosław; Kentel, Maciej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Reichert, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Various surgical techniques for treating distal biceps brachii tendon injury have been described, and to date there is no consensus regarding the preferred fixation method for the anatomic reinsertion of the ruptured tendon. The aim of the study was to clinically and functionally evaluate the upper limb after surgical anatomic reinsertion of the distal biceps brachii tendon using an ACL TightRope® RT with a titanium cortical button and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture, and to assess postoperative complications. The sample comprised 3 patients. Clinical examination (history, measurements of the active range of forearm motion, arm circumference, the maximum isometric forearm supination and flexion muscle torque), pain evaluation (on a visual analogue scale [VAS]) and functional assessment (the Mayo Elbow Performance Index [MEPI] and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [DASH]) were carried out. Complications were documented. The results of the range of motion measurements, arm circumferences and normalized isometric torque values of the muscle groups being studied were comparable in the involved and uninvolved limbs. The MEPI (x = 95.00 ± 10.42) and Quick DASH (x = 8.66 ± 18.04) scores revealed very good results. The VAS results were close to no pain (x = 3.33 ± 5.77 mm). No complications were noted. The preliminary comprehensive clinical and functional assessment of the upper limb justify the clinical use of the ACL TightRope® RT with a titanium cortical button and UHMWPE suture in surgical anatomic reinsertion of the distal biceps brachii tendon. The early results with a small sample were encouraging, but studies with a larger number of cases and longer follow-up are needed.

  7. Oral and inhaled glucocorticoid use and risk of Achilles or biceps tendon rupture: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, Julia; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2015-01-01

    Tendinotoxicity of glucocorticoids (GC) has been shown, but evidence on how this translates into clinical practice remains scarce. To explore the association between oral or inhaled GC use and the risk of Achilles or biceps tendon rupture (ATR/BTR). We identified patients aged 18 to 89 years with incident ATR or BTR (1995-2013) for a matched (1:4) case-control analysis using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We stratified oral GC use by indication, timing and duration of use, continuous versus intermittent use, cumulative dose, and average daily dose. We stratified inhaled GC use by timing and number of prescriptions. Among 8,202 cases, we observed increased odds ratios (ORs) around 3.0 for continuous oral GC use, which declined shortly after therapy cessation (similarly across indications). Odds ratios increased with average daily dose (≥ 10 mg/day, OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.32-7.08) and were elevated after one cycle of high-dose oral GC (≥ 20 mg/day). There was no effect of inhaled GC at any level of exposure. Our results provide evidence that oral GC therapy increases the risk of tendon rupture in a dose-response relationship. A single short-term high-dose GC treatment course may be sufficient transiently to increase the risk of tendon rupture.

  8. Arthroscopic Repair of Massive Cuff Tears With Large Subscapularis Tendon Ruptures (Lafosse III/IV): A Prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Controlled Case Series of 26 Cases With a Minimum Follow-up of 1 Year.

    PubMed

    Grueninger, Patrick; Nikolic, Nikola; Schneider, Joerg; Lattmann, Thomas; Platz, Andreas; Chmiel, Corinne; Meier, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    To prospectively assess arthroscopic repair of massive cuff tears (MCT) in a highly selective patient group with large subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears by means of clinical results and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Between April 2009 and December 2010, 26 patients with MCT were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Only lesions involving a large tear of the SSC tendon (Lafosse III or IV) in combination with a complete tear of the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon and a tear of at least the anterior third of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon were included. Minimum follow-up was 1 year. Pre- and postoperative assessment included a standardized clinical examination, subjective patient outcome, and MRI (structural integrity, fatty muscle infiltration, and muscular mass). Mean follow-up was 17 months (range, 12 to 34 months). MRI was performed in 25 patients. In 21 (84%) the cuff repair was intact. A partial retear of the SSC was found in 2 patients (8%). In 2 patients (8%) a full-thickness retear of the posterosuperior cuff was observed (1 SSP, 1 SSP/ISP). A significant increase of the muscle mass and decrease of fatty infiltration was observed for the SSC and SSP but not for the ISP. The mean Constant-Murley score improved from 36 to 86 points (P < .001) with all its subscores as well (P < .001). Muscular strength improved for the SSC (4.9 v 3.0, P < .001), SSP (4.6 v 2.9, P < .001), and ISP (4.8 v 3.4, P < .001). Overall patient satisfaction was high (3.6 ± 0.8). Arthroscopic repair of MCT involving the ISP, SSP, and large tears of the SSC provides a reliable tendon healing, in particular for the SSC tendon, combined with good functional results. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C

    2016-10-01

    Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective case series. One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients demonstrating a positive Trendelenburg sign

  10. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS

    PubMed Central

    Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. Purpose To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Study Design Prospective case series. Methods One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. Results No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients

  11. Ultrasonographic Findings of the Shoulder in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Comparison with Physical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Ho; Seo, Young-Il

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify the ultrasonographic (US) abnormalities and 2) to compare the findings of physical examination with US findings in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with shoulder pain. We studied 30 RA patients. Physical examination was performed systemically as follows: 1) area of tenderness; 2) range of passive and active shoulder motion; 3) impingement tests; 4) maneuvers for determining the location of the tendon lesions. US investigations included the biceps, the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendons; the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa; and the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints. Thirty RA patients with 35 painful and 25 non-painful shoulders were examined. The range of motion affected the most by shoulder pain was abduction. The most frequent US finding of shoulder joint was effusion in the long head of the biceps tendon. Among the rotator cuff tendons, subscapularis was the most frequently involved. Tendon tear was also common among non-painful shoulders. Physical examination used for the diagnosis of shoulder pain had low sensitivity and specificity for detecting abnormalities in the rheumatoid shoulder joint. In conclusion, US abnormalities showed frequent tendon tears in our RA patients. Physical examination had low sensitivity and specificity for detecting rotator cuff tear in the rheumatoid shoulder joint. PMID:17728506

  12. The Risk of Achilles or Biceps Tendon Rupture in New Statin Users: A Propensity Score-Matched Sequential Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, Julia; Layton, J Bradley; Mundkur, Mallika; Meier, Christian; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-12-01

    Case reports and pharmacovigilance data reported cases of tendon ruptures in statin users, but evidence from observational studies is scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to assess the association between new statin use and tendon rupture. We performed a propensity score (PS)-matched sequential cohort study, using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Patients aged ≥45 years with at least one new statin prescription between 1995 and 2014 were PS-matched within 2-year entry blocks to patients without a statin prescription during the block. We followed patients until they had a recorded Achilles or biceps tendon rupture, completed 5 years of follow-up, or were censored for change in exposure status or another censoring criterion. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), applying Cox proportional hazard analyses in the overall cohort (crude and multivariable) and in the PS-matched cohort. We performed subgroup analyses by sex, age, treatment duration, and statin dose. We observed a crude HR of 1.32 (95 % CI 1.21-1.44) in the overall cohort, which attenuated after multivariable adjustment (HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.92-1.12) and after PS-matching (HR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.84-1.08). Crude HRs were higher in women than in men, but remained around null in both sexes after multivariable adjustment and PS-matching. Subgroup analyses by age, treatment duration, and statin dose revealed null results across all subgroups. The results of this cohort study suggest that statin use does not increase the risk of tendon rupture, irrespective of gender, age, statin dose, or treatment duration.

  13. Tendon injuries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa

    2017-01-01

    Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182

  14. Light microscopic histology of supraspinatus tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Ruzzini, Laura; Rabitti, Carla; Morini, Sergio; Maffulli, Nicola; Forriol, Francisco; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2007-11-01

    We analysed the morphological features of the human surgical specimens of supraspinatus tendon from patients with rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 31 subjects (21 men and 10 women; mean age 51 years, range 38-64) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and from five male patients who died of cardiovascular events (mean age, 69.6 years). Histological examination was performed using Haematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's Trichrome and Van Gieson's connective tissue stain. The specimens were examined twice by the same examiner under white light and polarized light microscopy. Particular effort was made to assess any evidence of the changes associated with tendinopathy. Within each specific category of tendon abnormalities, the chi-square test showed significant differences between the control and ruptured tendons (P < 0.05). Using the kappa statistics, the agreement between the two readings ranged from 0.57 to 0.84. We found thinning and disorientation of collagen fibres and chondroid metaplasia to be more pronounced on the articular side of the specimens from patients with rotator cuff tear (P < 0.05). The present study provides a description of the histological architecture of human surgical specimens of normal supraspinatus tendon from patients with rotator cuff tears and demonstrates more frequent tendon changes on the articular side of the rotator cuff.

  15. Partial rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy for the treatment of patients with massive cuff tears and retained overhead elevation: midterm outcomes with a minimum 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R; Santoni, Brandon G

    2016-11-01

    A subset of patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears present with retained overhead elevation and pain as their primary complaint. Our aim was to evaluate the outcomes of partial arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with biceps tenotomy and to report the failure rate of this procedure for patients with >5 years of follow-up. Thirty-four patients underwent partial rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy for treatment of a massive rotator cuff tear. Patients had preoperative active forward elevation >120° and no radiographic evidence of glenohumeral arthritis. Patients were followed up clinically and radiographically, and 28 patients had a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. Failure was defined as an American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score of <70, loss of active elevation >90°, or revision to reverse shoulder arthroplasty during the study period. Patients demonstrated improvements in average preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (46.6 to 79.3 [P < .001]) and Simple Shoulder Test scores (5.7 to 9.1 [P < .001]) along with decrease in visual analog scale for pain scores (6.9 to 1.9 [P < .001]). No significant change in forward elevation (168° to 154° [P = .07]), external rotation (38° to 39° [P = 1.0]), or internal rotation (84% to 80% [P = 1.0]) was identified; 36% of patients had progression of the Hamada stage. The failure rate was 29%; 75% of patients were satisfied with their index procedure. Partial rotator cuff repair and biceps tenotomy for patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears with retained overhead elevation and pain as the primary complaint produced reasonable outcomes at midterm follow-up of at least 5 years. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears: tendon quality as a prognostic factor for repair integrity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Jae Yoon; Yoon, Jong Pil; Lyu, Seong Hwa; Rhee, Sung Min; Oh, Se Bong

    2015-03-01

    The healing failure rate is high for partial-thickness or small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. To retrospectively evaluate and compare outcomes after arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears and factors affecting rotator cuff healing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in the study were 55 consecutive patients (mean age, 57.9 ± 7.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair for high-grade partial-thickness (n = 34) and small full-thickness (n = 21) rotator cuff tears. The study patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) at least 6 months postoperatively, and their functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up (>24 months). All partial-thickness tears were repaired after being converted to full-thickness tears; thus, the repair process was almost the same as for small full-thickness tears. The tendinosis of the torn tendon was graded from the MRI images using a 4-point scale, and the reliabilities were assessed. The outcomes between high-grade partial-thickness tears that were converted to small full-thickness tears and initially small full-thickness tears were compared, and factors affecting outcomes were evaluated. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities of the tendinosis grade were good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.706 and 0.777, respectively). Failure to heal as determined by CTA was observed in 12 patients with a high-grade partial-thickness tear (35.3%; complete failure in 4 and partial failure in 8) and in 3 patients with a small full-thickness tear (14.3%; complete failure in 1 and partial failure in 2). The patients with high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed a higher tendinosis grade than did those with small full-thickness tears (P = .014), and the severity of the tendinosis was related to the failure to heal (P = .037). Tears with a higher tendinosis grade

  17. A lateral meniscus tear incarcerated behind the popliteus tendon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Mark S; Drew, Jacob M; Osuch, Daniel B; Metzmaker, Jeff

    2010-10-01

    A 51-year-old male, sustained an injury to his left knee after being pinned between his motorcycle and a road barrier. In the ER, the patient complained of medial knee pain, and had a significant joint effusion. MRI demonstrated an ACL injury, medial meniscal tear, bone bruising and impaction at the lateral femoral condyle and tibial plateau, and a tear of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus that was displaced behind the popliteus. Unfortunately, the patient also presented with a deep vein thrombosis and thus could not proceed to the operating room for two months. During this time, scar tissue developed around the lateral meniscus. The purpose of this report is to present an unusual variant of a common injury pattern previously unreported where the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus became incarcerated behind the popliteus tendon and was left in place. It is likely that our patient will develop osteoarthritis in the future, but considering the circumstances he received a favorable early clinical outcome. Early recognition and a mobile fragment are essential restoring a patient's original anatomical features and achieving an optimal clinical outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. National Rugby League athletes and tendon tap reflex assessment: a matched cohort clinical study.

    PubMed

    Maurini, James; Ohmsen, Paul; Condon, Greg; Pope, Rodney; Hing, Wayne

    2016-11-04

    Limited research suggests elite athletes may differ from non-athletes in clinical tendon tap reflex responses. In this matched cohort study, 25 elite rugby league athletes were compared with 29 non-athletes to examine differences in tendon reflex responses. Relationships between reflex responses and lengths of players' careers were also examined. Biceps, triceps, patellar and Achilles tendon reflexes were clinically assessed. Right and left reflexes were well correlated for each tendon (r S  = 0.7-0.9). The elite rugby league athletes exhibited significantly weaker reflex responses than non-athletes in all four tendons (p < 0.005). Biceps reflexes demonstrated the largest difference and Achilles reflexes the smallest difference. Moderate negative correlations (r S  = -0.3-0.6) were observed between reflex responses and lengths of players' careers. Future research is required to further elucidate mechanisms resulting in the observed differences in tendon reflexes and to ensure clinical tendon tap examinations and findings can be interpreted appropriately in this athletic population.

  19. Disorders of the long head of the biceps: tenotomy versus tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Ursolino, André Petry Sandoval; Ramos, Vinicius Ferreira Lima; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Tenor Júnior, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Miguel Pereira da

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of the long head of biceps tendon are common in clinical practice. Their causes could be degenerative, inflammatory, instability (subluxation or luxation) or traumatic. They are generally associated to other diseases of the shoulder, mainly rotator cuff injuries. Currently, there is controversy in the literature regarding the indications for surgical treatment and the choice of the best technique for each case, due to the possibility of esthetic deformity, loss of muscle strength, and residual pain. The objective of this study was to identify the indications for surgical treatment, the best surgical technique, and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique described in the orthopedic literature for the treatment of long head of biceps tendon injuries. A revision of the orthopedic medical literature on the following databases: Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME), Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar, comprising articles published in the period from 1991 to 2015.

  20. Bilateral Patellar Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Kamienski, Mary

    The knee is the most complex and largest joint in the body. Injuries to any part of this joint affect the entire body. There are multiple injuries that can occur to the knee, with the most common being ligament and meniscus tears. A not-so-common injury to the knee is a patellar tendon rupture. A bilateral patellar tendon rupture is extremely rare. A case study of a 43-year-old man who sustained a bilateral patellar tendon rupture while playing softball is used to present this devastating injury. This discussion includes the incidence and diagnosis of the tear, surgical repair, as well as a description of the comprehensive rehabilitation process necessary to allow the patient to return to normal physical activity. Risks and complications of this surgery and the expected outcomes are also presented.

  1. Arthroscopic treatment options for irreparable rotator cuff tears of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Anley, Cameron M; Chan, Samuel KL; Snow, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears remains a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons with the final treatment option in many algorithms being either a reverse shoulder arthroplasty or a tendon transfer. The long term results of these procedures are however still widely debated, especially in younger patients. A variety of arthroscopic treatment options have been proposed for patients with an irreparable rotator cuff tear without the presence of arthritis of the glenohumeral joint. These include a simple debridement with or without a biceps tenotomy, partial rotator cuff repair with or without an interval slide, tuberplasty, graft interposition of the rotator cuff, suprascapular nerve ablation, superior capsule reconstruction and insertion of a biodegradable spacer (Inspace) to depress the humeral head. These options should be considered as part of the treatment algorithm in patients with an irreparable rotator cuff and could be used as either as an interim procedure, delaying the need for more invasive surgery in the physiologically young and active, or as potential definitive procedures in the medically unfit. The aim of this review is to highlight and summarise arthroscopic procedures and the results thereof currently utilised in the management of these challenging patients. PMID:25405083

  2. Measuring Regional Changes in Damaged Tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Catherine Kayt Vincent

    Mechanical properties of tendon predict tendon health and function, but measuring these properties in vivo is difficult. An ultrasound-based (US) analysis technique called acoustoelastography (AE) uses load-dependent changes in the reflected US signal to estimate tissue stiffness non-invasively. This thesis explores whether AE can provide information about stiffness alteration resulting from tendon tears both ex vivo and in vivo. An ex vivo ovine infraspinatus tendon model suggests that the relative load transmitted by the different tendon layers transmit different fractions of the load and that ultrasound echo intensity change during cyclic loading decreases, becoming less consistent once the tendon is torn. An in vivo human tibialis anterior tendon model using electrically stimulated twitch contractions investigated the feasibility of measuring the effect in vivo. Four of the five subjects showed the expected change and that the muscle contraction times calculated using the average grayscale echo intensity change compared favorably with the times calculated based on the force data. Finally an AE pilot study with patients who had rotator cuff tendon tears found that controlling the applied load and the US view of the system will be crucial to a successful in vivo study.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Caires dos Santos, Leonardo; Martins de Oliveira, Adrielle; Santoro Belangero, Paulo; Antônio Figueiredo, Eduardo; Cohen, Carina; de Seixas Alves, Felipe; Hiromi Yanaguizawa, Wânia; Vicente Andreoli, Carlos; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Cohen, Moises

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common orthopedic condition. Metalloproteinases (MMP) and their inhibitors (TIMP) seem to play a role in the development of joint injuries and in the failure of tissue healing. However, the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression in tendons are still unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and microRNAs regulation, are involved in the dynamic control of gene expression. Here, the mRNA expression and DNA methylation status of MMPs (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, and MMP14) and TIMPs (TIMP1-3) and the expression of miR-29 family members in ruptured supraspinatus tendons were compared with non-injured tendons of individuals without this lesion. Additionally, the gene expression and methylation status at the edge of the ruptured tendon were compared with macroscopically non-injured rotator cuff tendon samples from the anterior and posterior regions of patients with tendon tears. Moreover, the possible associations between the molecular alterations and the clinical and histologic characteristics were investigated. Dysregulated expression and DNA methylation of MMP and TIMP genes were found across the rotator cuff tendon samples of patients with supraspinatus tears. These alterations were influenced at least in part by age at surgery, sex, smoking habit, tear size, and duration of symptoms. Alterations in the studied MMP and TIMP genes may contribute to the presence of microcysts, fissures, necrosis, and neovascularization in tendons and may thus be involved in the tendon healing process. In conclusion, MMPs and their inhibitors are regulated by epigenetic modifications and may play a role in rotator cuff tears. PMID:28902861

  4. Persistence of deep-tendon reflexes during partial cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Pizza, Fabio; Lopez, Régis; Antelmi, Elena; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2018-05-01

    Deep-tendon reflexes are abolished during generalized cataplexy, but whether this is the case in partial cataplexy currently remains unknown. Partial cataplexy may mimic other neurologic/psychiatric phenomena, and knowledge of the reflexes status may provide information for differential diagnosis. We assessed whether deep-tendon reflexes are persistent during partial cataplexy. Five drug-free patients with typical diagnoses of narcolepsy and clear-cut partial cataplexy were diagnosed in Reference Narcolepsy Centers in France and Italy. Biceps and patellar reflexes were elicited by physicians in charge and video-documented during cataplexy. Reflexes were assessed several times for each patient in different conditions and for various localizations of cataplexy. The absence of tendon reflexes and complete loss of muscle tone during generalized cataplexy was confirmed, but the persistence of those reflexes during several partial cataplectic attacks at different ages, gender, localization of cataplexy (upper limbs, face) and reflexes (biceps, patellar) in drug-naive or withdrawal conditions was documented. The persistence of tendon reflexes during several partial cataplexy episodes contrasts with their absence during generalized cataplexy. This discovery has clinical implications: the persistence of tendon reflexes does not rule out cataplexy diagnosis for partial attacks, whereas their transient abolishment or persistence during generalized attacks indicates cataplexy or pseudocataplexy, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Kristopher G; Brodsky, James W

    2014-04-01

    There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. A 5-year retrospective review of all patients with peroneal tendon tears identified 12 patients operatively treated for peroneus longus tendon tears with associated pathology of the os peroneum, and in whom there was a viable peroneus brevis. All patients were treated with an operative procedure consisting of excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Mean age was 51.5 (range, 33 to 73) years, including 7 males and 5 females. Operative and radiographic records were reviewed to characterize the nature of the peroneus longus tears and associated pathology. Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot, SF-36 questionnaires, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were compiled and patient records were reviewed for complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 63.3 (range, 12 to 114) months. All of the patients had an os peroneum associated with a complex, irreparable tear of the peroneus longus tendon. The peroneus longus was typically enlarged, fibrotic, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. In 8 patients, the peroneus longus tendon tear was associated with a fracture of the os peroneum, and in 4 patients with an enlarged and entrapped os peroneum which prevented movement at the cuboid tunnel. Of the 12 patients, 9 had partial tears of the peroneus brevis, which were treated with debridement and suture repair. AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from a preoperative mean of 61

  6. [Bursitis with severe tendon and muscle necrosis on the lateral stifle area in cattle].

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Räber, M; Sydler, T; Muggli, E; Hässig, M; Guscetti, F

    2011-11-01

    In 21 animals, chronic swelling on the lateral aspect of the stifle also known as «perigonitis», «stable-syndrome» or «bursitis bicipitalis femoris» were evaluated. Ultrasonography showed increased fluid in the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle and structural changes in the tendons, muscles, subcutis and fasciae. Soft tissue swelling and an irregular contour of the lateral tibial condyle were typical signs on radiographs. Macroscopic changes were found at the insertion of the biceps femoris muscle, the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle, the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle, the origin of muscles on the lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial condyle. They mainly consisted of tendon and muscle tissue necrosis with granulation tissue. Histology revealed areas of coagulation necrosis in tendons and ligaments, in which occasionally Onchocerca spp. were seen. The severity of lesions correlated well with the clinical signs, which were associated with a poor prognosis in advanced cases.

  7. Use of Ultrasound to Monitor Biceps Femoris Mechanical Adaptations after Injury in a Professional Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Galanis, Nikiforos; Chrysanthou, Chrysanthos; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the use of ultrasound to monitor changes in the long head of the biceps femoris (BF) architecture of aprofessional soccer player with acute first-time hamstring strain. The player followed a 14 session physiotherapy treatment until return to sport. The pennation angle and aponeurosis strain of the long head of the biceps femoris (BF) were monitored at 6 occasions (up until 1 year) after injury. The size of the scar / hematoma was reduced by 63.56% (length) and 67.9% (width) after the intervention and it was almost non-traceable one year after injury. The pennation angle of the fascicles underneath the scar showed a decline of 51.4% at the end of the intervention while an increase of 109.2% of the fascicles which were closer to deep aponeurosis was observed. In contrast, pennation angle of fascicles located away from the injury site were relatively unaffected. The treatment intervention resulted in a 57.9% to 77.3% decline of maximum strain per unit of MVC moment and remained similar one year after the intervention. This study provided an example of the potential use of ultrasound-based parameters to link the mechanical adaptations of the injured muscle to specific therapeutic intervention. Key pointsChanges in fascicle orientation after biceps femoris mild tear were reduced after a 28 day intervention and remained similar one year after injury.Tendon/aponeurosis strain per unit of moment of force decreased during the course of the therapeutic intervention.Future studies could utilize ultrasonography to monitor mechanical responses after various types of hamstring injury and interventions in order to improve criteria for a safe return to sport.

  8. Ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft with interference screw fixation for minimally invasive reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, N; Del Buono, A; Loppini, M; Denaro, V

    2014-10-01

    Minimally invasive ipsilateral semitendinosus reconstruction of large chronic tears aims to be advantageous for the patient in terms of plantar flexion recovery, anthropometric measures, fast return to daily and sport activity, is safe, with low donor site co-morbidities, low risks of wound complications and neurovascular injuries. Tendon gaps greater than 6 cm and in cases of revision surgery (rerupture). Diabetes, vascular diseases, previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using ipsilateral semitendinosus tendon graft. The semitendinosus tendon is harvested through an incision in the medial aspect of the popliteal fossa, and the proximal stump is exposed and mobilized through an incision performed 2 cm proximal and medial to the palpable tendon gap. We repeat the same steps distally, approaching the distal stump of the tendon through a 2.5 cm longitudinal incision made 2 cm distal and just anterior to the lateral margin of the distal stump. Through the distal incision, we expose the Kager's space and the postero-superior corner of the osteotomized calcaneum. We drill a bone tunnel into the calcaneum from dorsal to plantar using a cannulated headed reamer. The semitendinosus tendon graft is passed into the proximal stump through a medial-to-lateral small incision, its two ends are moved distally, and finally it is pulled down and shuttled through the bone tunnel. The construct is fixed to the calcaneum using an interference screw. Immobilization in a below the knee plaster cast with the foot in plantar flexion for 2 weeks, weight bearing on the metatarsal heads as tolerated, use elbow crutches, and keep the knee flexed. At 2 weeks, plaster removed, and rehabilitative exercises started, walker cast allowed. Between 2008 and 2010, the procedure was performed on 28 consecutive patients (21 men and 7 women, median age 46 years). At the 2-year follow-up, average ATRS scores significantly improved (p < 0.0001) compared to average preoperative

  9. Evaluation of the Subscapularis Tendon Tears on 3T Magnetic Resonance Arthrography: Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of T1-Weighted Spectral Presaturation with Inversion-Recovery and T2-Weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoseok; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Yusuhn; Oh, Joo Han; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik

    2018-01-01

    To compare the T1-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion-recovery sequences (T1 SPIR) with T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences (T2 TSE) on 3T magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in the evaluation of the subscapularis (SSC) tendon tear with arthroscopic findings as the reference standard. This retrospective study included 120 consecutive patients who had undergone MRA within 3 months between April and December 2015. Two musculoskeletal radiologists blinded to the arthroscopic results evaluated T1 SPIR and T2 TSE images in separate sessions for the integrity of the SSC tendon, examining normal/articular-surface partial-thickness tear (PTTa)/full-thickness tear (FTT). Diagnostic performance of T1 SPIR and T2 TSE was calculated with arthroscopic results as the reference standard, and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared using the McNemar test. Interobserver agreement was measured with kappa (κ) statistics. There were 74 SSC tendon tears (36 PTTa and 38 FTT) confirmed by arthroscopy. Significant differences were found in the sensitivity and accuracy between T1 SPIR and T2 TSE using the McNemar test, with respective rates of 95.9-94.6% vs. 71.6-75.7% and 90.8-91.7% vs. 79.2-83.3% for detecting tear; 55.3% vs. 31.6-34.2% and 85.8% vs. 78.3-79.2%, respectively, for FTT; and 91.7-97.2% vs. 58.3-61.1% and 89% vs. 78-79.3%, respectively, for PTTa. Interobserver agreement for T1 SPIR was almost perfect for T1 SPIR (κ = 0.839) and substantial for T2 TSE (κ = 0.769). T1-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion-recovery sequences is more sensitive and accurate compared to T2 TSE in detecting SSC tendon tear on 3T MRA.

  10. [New arthroscopic portal for performing tenotomy/tenodesis procedures on the long head of the biceps brachii tendon].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-de la O, Jorge; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham Guadalupe; Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Vílchez-Cavazos, Félix; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is the standard technique for performing procedures involving the intertubercular groove. Current techniques continue to produce excessive soft tissue manipulation and neurovascular injury. A cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted on a cohort of 24 shoulders following the standard surgical protocol and using punch dissection. The neurovascular structures with risk of damage by the standard lateral portal were evaluated during the study to establish a secure area for a new arthroscopic portal. Finally, the safety of the new proposed site was evaluated. The presence of 24 venous structures, with a mean diameter was 1.05mm (SD: 0.71) was documented. A tendency was observed in locating these structures in the lower half of the dissecting field for the left shoulders and a hypovascular area between the 7 and 10hours circle dissected relative to the right shoulder. The new site was determined at a point 1.5 cm anterolateral to the anterolateral border of the acromion at an angle of 60° degrees to the horizontal axis of the acromion and towards the intertubercular groove of the humerus. The methodology used in this study is innovative, reproducible and applicable for the study of all existing shoulder arthroscopic portals procedures, as well as any joint. The results provided by this study will be helpful for clinicians to improve tenotomy/tendon tenodesis procedures of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. How does a cadaver model work for testing ultrasound diagnostic capability for rheumatic-like tendon damage?

    PubMed

    Janta, Iustina; Morán, Julio; Naredo, Esperanza; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Uson, Jacqueline; Möller, Ingrid; Bong, David; Bruyn, George A W; D Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Filippucci, Emilio; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Terslev, Lene; González, Jorge Murillo; Mérida, José Ramón; Carreño, Luis

    2016-06-01

    To establish whether a cadaver model can serve as an effective surrogate for the detection of tendon damage characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we evaluated intraobserver and interobserver agreement in the grading of RA-like tendon tears shown by US, as well as the concordance between the US findings and the surgically induced lesions in the cadaver model. RA-like tendon damage was surgically induced in the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) and tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) of ten ankle/foot fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Of the 20 tendons examined, six were randomly assigned a surgically induced partial tear; six a complete tear; and eight left undamaged. Three rheumatologists, experts in musculoskeletal US, assessed from 1 to 5 the quality of US imaging of the cadaveric models on a Likert scale. Tendons were then categorized as having either no damage, (0); partial tear, (1); or complete tear (2). All 20 tendons were blindly and independently evaluated twice, over two rounds, by each of the three observers. Overall, technical performance was satisfactory for all items in the two rounds (all values over 2.9 in a Likert scale 1-5). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for US grading of tendon damage was good (mean κ values 0.62 and 0.71, respectively), with greater reliability found in the TAT than the TPT. Concordance between US findings and experimental tendon lesions was acceptable (70-100 %), again greater for the TAT than for the TPT. A cadaver model with surgically created tendon damage can be useful in evaluating US metric properties of RA tendon lesions.

  12. Biceps muscle fatty infiltration and atrophy. A midterm review after arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of the biceps.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Brutty, Mike; Wang, Allan; Wambeek, Nicholas D K; Campbell, Peter; Halliday, Michael J C; Ackland, Timothy R

    2015-03-01

    Pathology of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is commonly treated by tenotomy. High levels of clinical function and patient satisfaction are reported in the short-term. The purpose of this study was to investigate the midterm effects of tenotomy on biceps fatty infiltration and atrophy in active working-age male patients. Twenty-five men (mean age, 57 years) were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 6.7 years after tenotomy. Bilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and fatty infiltration of the biceps was assessed relative to the ipsilateral triceps. Seventeen participants had an intact contralateral LHB tendon. To assess atrophy, anterior muscle compartment volume was measured by serial cross-sectional area measurements on MRI. The tenotomized side was then compared to the healthy side in these 17 participants. Clinical scores were obtained using the QuickDASH and Oxford Elbow Score, and the occurrence of a Popeye sign and residual pain were recorded. Good clinical function was maintained at a mean follow-up time of 6.7 years (range, 4 to 10 years) (QuickDASH score of 7.1; standard error [SE], 1.8) and Oxford Elbow Score of 97.9 [SE 1.2]). Eleven of the 25 participants had a Popeye deformity. Four participants showed signs of fatty infiltration, and all were minor (grade 1). The mean decrease in total volume of the anterior musculature was 3.6%. In participants without a Popeye deformity, it was 3.3%, whereas it was 4.1% in participants with a Popeye sign (P = .8). In the midterm, LHB tenotomy in active men of working age does not result in fatty degeneration or substantial atrophy in the anterior musculature of the arm. Clinical function remains good. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Young Cheol; Jee, Sukkyung

    2015-06-01

    Indirect magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is a non-invasive method for shoulder imaging. However, there are no studies that have examined the diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears in a large patient population. To assess the diagnostic performance of indirect fast spin-echo (FSE) MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears at 3.0 T. A total of 149 patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. Two musculoskeletal radiologists evaluated images from each patient for the presence of supraspinatus-infraspinatus (SSP-ISP) or subscapularis (SSC) tendon tears. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the overall diagnostic performance and detection rates for SSP-ISP and SSC tendon tears were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of readers I and II for the diagnosis of SSP-ISP tendon tears were 94% and 95%, 89% and 85%, and 93% and 93%, respectively. The sensitivity of imaging for detection of SSP-ISP tendon tears by readers I and II were 100% and 100% for full-thickness tears and 84% and 86% for partial-thickness tears, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of readers I and II for the diagnosis of SSC tendon tears were 80% and 76%, 89% and 93%, and 85% and 85%, respectively. Indirect MR arthrography is useful for the detection of SSP-ISP and SSC tendon tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Does a critical rotator cuff tear stage exist?: a biomechanical study of rotator cuff tear progression in human cadaver shoulders.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Han; Jun, Bong Jae; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2011-11-16

    It is unknown at which stage of rotator cuff tear the biomechanical environment is altered. The purpose of this study was to determine if a critical rotator cuff tear stage exists that alters glenohumeral joint biomechanics throughout the rotational range of shoulder motion, and to evaluate the biomechanical effect of parascapular muscle-loading. Eight cadaver shoulders were used with a custom testing system. Four progressive rotator cuff tear stages were investigated on the basis of footprint anatomy. Three muscle-loading conditions were examined: rotator cuff only; rotator cuff with deltoid muscle; and rotator cuff, deltoid, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Testing was performed in the scapular plane with 0°, 30°, and 60° of shoulder abduction. The maximum internal and external rotations were measured with 3.4 Nm of torque. The position of the humeral head apex with respect to the glenoid was calculated with use of a MicroScribe 3DLX digitizing system throughout the rotational range of motion. The abduction capability was determined as the abduction angle achieved with increasing deltoid load. Tear of the entire supraspinatus tendon significantly increased maximum external rotation and significantly decreased abduction capability with higher deltoid loads (p < 0.05). Tear of the entire supraspinatus tendon and half of the infraspinatus tendon significantly shifted the humeral head apex posteriorly at the midrange of rotation and superiorly at maximum internal rotation (p < 0.05). Loading the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles decreased the amount of humeral head elevation due to deltoid loading. Tear of the entire supraspinatus tendon was the critical stage for increasing rotational range of shoulder motion and for decreased abduction capability. Further tear progression to the infraspinatus muscle was the critical stage for significant changes in humeral head kinematics. The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles played an

  15. Sensitivity of physical examination versus arthroscopy in diagnosing subscapularis tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Faruqui, Sami; Wijdicks, Coen; Foad, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of physical examination in the detection of subscapularis tendon tears and compare it with the gold standard of arthroscopy to determine whether clinical examination can reliably predict the presence of subscapularis tendon tears. This was a retrospective analysis of 52 patients (52 shoulders) who underwent arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repairs between September 2008 and April 2012. Positive findings on any combination of the belly press, lift-off, and bear hug tests constituted a positive physical examination result. There was a positive finding on physical examination in 42 of 52 patients. The sensitivity of the physical examination as a whole was 81%. The literature has shown that the belly press, bear hug, and lift-off tests are specific to the subscapularis tendon. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the sensitivity of these 3 separate clinical tests as a composite. Knowledge regarding the sensitivity of the subscapularis-specific physical examination as a composite can lead practitioners to implement all 3 components, even when 1 test has a negative finding, thus promoting a more thorough physical examination. Because unrepaired subscapularis tendon tears can result in poor outcomes in the repair of other rotator cuff tendons, a complete physical examination would be beneficial to patients with shoulder pathology. The authors conclude that physical examination, when performed consistently by an experienced practitioner, can reliably predict the presence of subscapularis tendon tears.

  16. Stem Cell Applications in Tendon Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of morbidity and a significant health burden on society. Tendons are structural tissues connecting muscle to bone and are prone to tearing and tendinopathy, an overuse or degenerative condition that is characterized by failed healing and cellular depletion. Current treatments, for tendon tear are conservative, surgical repair or surgical scaffold reconstruction. Tendinopathy is treated by exercises, injection therapies, shock wave treatments or surgical tendon debridement. However, tendons usually heal with fibrosis and scar tissue, which has suboptimal tensile strength and is prone to reinjury, resulting in lifestyle changes with activity restriction. Preclinical studies show that cell therapies have the potential to regenerate rather than repair tendon tissue, a process termed tenogenesis. A number of different cell lines, with varying degrees of differentiation, have being evaluated including stem cells, tendon derived cells and dermal fibroblasts. Even though cellular therapies offer some potential in treating tendon disorders, there have been few published clinical trials to determine the ideal cell source, the number of cells to administer, or the optimal bioscaffold for clinical use. PMID:22448174

  17. Enhanced Tendon-to-Bone Healing of Chronic Rotator Cuff Tears by Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao Ning; Yang, Cheol-Jung; Kim, Ji Eui; Du, Zhen Wu; Ren, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Hong Yu; Kim, Kyung Ok

    2018-01-01

    Background To evaluate the influence of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) on tendon-to-bone healing in a rabbit rotator cuff model and to characterize the composition of growth factors in BMAC. Methods In this in vivo study, 40 rabbits were allocated into five groups: control (C), repair + saline (RS), repair + platelet-rich plasma (PRP; RP), repair + BMAC (RB) and repair + PRP + BMAC (RPB). A tear model was created by supraspinatus tendon transection at the footprint. Six weeks after transection, the torn tendon was repaired along with BMAC or PRP administration. Six weeks after repair, shoulder samples were harvested for biomechanical and histological testing. Ten rabbits were used for processing PRP and BMAC, followed by analysis of blood cell composition and the levels of growth factors in vitro. Results The ultimate load-to-failure was significantly higher in RPB group compared to RS group (p = 0.025). BMAC-treated groups showed higher values of biomechanical properties than RS group. The histology of BMAC-treated samples showed better collagen fiber continuity and orientation than RS group. BMAC contained significantly higher levels of the several growth factors than PRP. Conclusions Locally administered BMAC enhanced tendon-to-bone healing and has potential for clinical applications. PMID:29564054

  18. Prevalence and Role of a Low-Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly in Patients With Peroneal Tendon Pathologic Features: A Potential Source of Tendon Subluxation.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Roya; Squire, Chad; Wassell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A peroneus brevis low-lying muscle belly (LLMB) is a rare anomaly. A few published studies have supported the presence of this anomaly as an etiology for a peroneal tendon tear. However, the association between a peroneus brevis LLMB and tendon subluxation has not been well explored. In the present retrospective study, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings of 50 consecutive patients undergoing primary peroneal tendon surgery during a 5-year period were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared with the intraoperative findings for identifying peroneal tendon disease were investigated. The presence of associated peroneal tendon pathologic features in patients with and without a peroneus brevis LLMB was also compared. The sensitivity of MRI was high for identifying peroneal tenosynovitis (81.58%) and tear (85.71%). Although the sensitivity of MRI for detecting a peroneus brevis LLMB (3.23%) and tendon subluxation (10.00%) was low, MRI had high specificity at 94.74% and 100%, respectively. Intraoperatively, a peroneus brevis LLMB was seen in 62.00% of the patients with chronic lateral ankle pain and was associated with 64.52% of the patients with tenosynovitis, 29.03% of those with tendon subluxation, and 80.65% of those with a peroneus brevis tendon tear. Although the presence of a peroneus brevis LLMB did not show any statistically significant association with peroneus brevis tendon subluxation, of the 10 patients with intraoperatively observed tendon subluxation, 9 had a concomitant peroneus brevis LLMB. More studies with larger patient populations are needed to better investigate the role of a peroneus brevis LLMB as a mass-occupying lesion resulting in peroneal tendon subluxation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Injuries of the peroneal tendons : Often overlooked].

    PubMed

    Klos, K; Knobe, M; Randt, T; Simons, P; Mückley, T

    2017-12-01

    Injuries of the peroneal tendons are rare and often overlooked. Typical pathologies are tendinitis, tears and dislocation. Accompanying injuries are fractures. They are often associated with instability in the ankle and rearfoot deformities; therefore, these pathologies should be excluded or taken into consideration in the treatment. The clinical examination is crucial for the diagnosis. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are very helpful; however, the true extent of the tendon pathology is often first seen during surgery. Bony injuries and deformities are assessed radiographically and by computed tomography (CT). Although conservative treatment is generally used at the beginning of therapy, progression is more likely to occur in the case of tears; therefore, the correct timing for an operative therapy should not be missed. Dislocations are the domain of operative therapy. Acute tendinitis, on the other hand, is usually accessible to conservative therapy if it is not the result of a gross deformity. Rehabilitation after operative treatment is demanding and prolonged especially after operative therapy of peroneal tendon tears. The results to be expected appear promising.

  20. Inflamed shoulder tendons (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tearing and inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder muscles can occur in sports which require the ... pitching, swimming, and lifting weights. Most often the shoulder will heal if a break is taken from ...

  1. Rat supraspinatus muscle atrophy after tendon detachment.

    PubMed

    Barton, Elisabeth R; Gimbel, Jonathan A; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2005-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common tendon disorders found in the healthy population. Tendon tears not only affect the biomechanical properties of the tendon, but can also lead to debilitation of the muscles attached to the damaged tendons. The changes that occur in the muscle after tendon detachment are not well understood. A rat rotator cuff model was utilized to determine the time course of changes that occur in the supraspinatus muscle after tendon detachment. It was hypothesized that the lack of load on the supraspinatus muscle would cause a significant decrease in muscle mass and a conversion of muscle fiber properties toward those of fast fiber types. Tendons were detached at the insertion on the humerus without repair. Muscle mass, morphology and fiber properties were measured at one, two, four, eight, and 16 weeks after detachment. Tendon detachment resulted in a rapid loss of muscle mass, an increase in the proportion of fast muscle fibers, and an increase in the fibrotic content of the muscle bed, concomitant with the appearance of adhesions of the tendon to surrounding surfaces. At 16 weeks post-detachment, muscle mass and the fiber properties in the deep muscle layers returned to normal levels. However, the fiber shifts observed in the superficial layers persisted throughout the experiment. These results suggest that load returned to the muscle via adhesions to surrounding surfaces, which may be sufficient to reverse changes in muscle mass.

  2. Bone mineralization changes of the glenoid in shoulders with symptomatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yohei; Yokoya, Shin; Akiyama, Yuji; Mochizuki, Yu; Ochi, Mitsuo; Adachi, Nobuo

    2018-06-06

    Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry (CTO) is a method to analyze the stress distribution in joints by measuring the subchondral bone density. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineralization changes of the glenoid in shoulders with rotator cuff tears by CTO and to evaluate whether rotator cuff tears are associated with stress changes in the glenoid. In total, 32 patients, who were diagnosed with unilateral rotator cuff tears and underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, were enrolled in this study. They underwent CT scanning of both shoulders pre-operatively and the glenoid was evaluated using CTO. Hounsfield units (HU) in seven areas of the glenoid were compared between the affected and unaffected sides. The central area of the glenoid on the affected side had significantly lower HU than on the unaffected side among all patients. Focusing on the rotator cuff tear size and the subscapularis tendon, only patients with larger cuff tears or with subscapularis tendon tears showed significantly lower HU in the central area of the affected side. This study showed a decrease in bone mineralization density in the central glenoid in shoulders with rotator cuff tear. This change was observed in the case of larger cuff tears and subscapularis tendon tears. Our results help clarify the changes in stress distribution in the shoulder joint caused by symptomatic rotator cuff tears.

  3. Surgical repair of chronic patellar tendon rupture in total knee replacement with ipsilateral hamstring tendons.

    PubMed

    Spoliti, Marco; Giai Via, Alessio; Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its reconstruction in patients with chronic ruptures is technically demanding. This article reports the results of surgical reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA using autologous hamstring tendons. Nine TKA patients (six women and three men) (mean age at index surgery 68 years) with chronic patellar tendon tears underwent reconstruction with ipsilateral hamstrings tendon, leaving the distal insertion in situ. The clinical diagnosis was supported by imaging (anterior-posterior and 30° flexion lateral radiographs). Insall-Salvati index, range of motion, and leg extension test were recorded preoperatively and at last follow-up. The modified Cincinnati rating system and the Kujala score were administered. The patients sustained the patellar tendon tear an average of 8 weeks before the procedure. At final follow-up of 4 years (range 2-8 years), the median of extension lag was 5° (range 0°-15°; DS = 5). The median of post-operative Insall-Salvati index was 1.4 (range 1.3-1.8; SD = 0.15; p = 0.002) compared to the preoperative index of 1.7 (range 1.5-2.2; SD = 0.23). The mean modified Cincinnati and Kujala scores significantly increased compared with the preoperative ones (p < 0.01). At final follow-up, all patients were able to walk without brace or aids, and they were satisfied with the procedure. Based on our retrospective study of nine patients, reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA with autologous hamstring tendons is feasible and safe, and provides good functional recovery. Case series, Level IV.

  4. [Anterior dislocation of the popliteus tendon].

    PubMed

    Martinez Molina, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Review the most relevant aspects of the posterolateral corner anatomy of the knee, based on the analysis of papers that throughout the years have made important contributions to the knowledge of these structures. Last et al rejected the idea that the popliteal tendon is an isolated structure, suggesting rather that its variants are closely linked to other anatomical structures. The studies by Tria et al contributed the features of the tendon as it attaches to the lateral condyle, just to mention a couple of examples. This is the case of a 48 year-old female patient with a knee injury caused by an external rotation mechanism. Clinical features included pain, a protruding sensation in the lateral aspect of the knee, and voluntary pseudoblocking resulting from external rotation maneuvers. Knee arthroscopy was performed and dislocation of the popliteal tendon anterior to the lateral condyle was diagnosed, besides a longitudinal tear. The tendon was repositioned, radiofrequency was applied to both the tendon and the popliteal hiatus, and the former was kept in place with a plaster cast worn for 6 weeks. Even though the isolated tear or avulsion of the tendon has already been reported, the dislocation or instability of the popliteal tendon as it relates to the lateral femoral condyle has apparently not been approached yet. As we did in this case, other authors have also confirmed the diagnosis arthroscopically, Naver in 1985, Rose in 1988, and Burstein in 1990.

  5. Arthroscopic-Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Massive, Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: Technique and Short-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Pseudoparalysis.

    PubMed

    Kanatlı, Ulunay; Özer, Mustafa; Ataoğlu, Muhammet Baybars; Öztürk, Burak Yağmur; Gül, Orkun; Çetinkaya, Mehmet; Ayanoğlu, Tacettin

    2017-05-01

    To describe a modified technique for arthroscopic-assisted transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon in a selected group of patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears and pseudoparalysis and to evaluate its short-term results. Fifteen patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears and pseudoparalysis treated by arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer were included. The mean patient age was 61.53 ± 6.24 years (range, 52-71 years). Patients were assessed with physical examination, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Score and Constant-Murley score, as well as visual analog scale score at a mean follow-up of 26.4 ± 2.58 months (range, 24-31 months). At final follow-up, mean UCLA score increased to 27.47 ± 6.31 compared with the preoperative UCLA score of 6.53 ± 2.1 (P < .001). Constant-Murley score was 21 ± 7.41 and 59.73 ± 13.62 (P < .001), visual analog scale pain score was 7.47 ± 1.06 and 2.47 ± 0.91 (P < .001), active forward flexion was 58° ± 21.11° and 130° ± 30.05° (P < .001), active abduction was 51° ± 21.64° and 129.67° ± 25.45° (P < .001), and active external rotation was 13.33° ± 21.68° and 32° ± 18.03° (P < .001) preoperatively and postoperatively, respectively. Mean acromiohumeral distance was 3.13 ± 1.40 mm preoperatively, whereas it was 5.67 ± 1.67 mm postoperatively (P < .001). No significant complications requiring a revision surgery was observed during the final follow-up. The modified technique of arthroscopic-assisted transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon is a feasible, minimally invasive option for the surgical treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears in a subset of patients with pseudoparalysis. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quadriceps tendon injuries in national football league players.

    PubMed

    Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D

    2013-08-01

    Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There

  7. Radial Artery Coursing Behind the Biceps Brachii Tendon: Significance for the Transradial Catheterization and a Clinically Oriented Classification of the Radial Artery Variations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jelev, L., E-mail: ljelev@abv.bg; Surchev, L.

    2008-09-15

    In routine clinical practice the variations of the radial artery are the main reason for technical failure during transradial catheterization. If these variations are well documented, however, they do not represent a problem in the transradial approach. Therefore, we report here a rare case of the radial artery which is very strange but potentially valuable for the clinical practice: it arises at a right angle from the brachial artery and passes behind the biceps brachii tendon. Based on our findings and on an extensive literature review, we propose for the first time a clinically oriented classification of the variations ofmore » the radial artery. This classification is related to the catheterization success at the usual access site of the radial artery at the wrist.« less

  8. Should massive rotator cuff tears be reconstructed even when only partially repairable?

    PubMed

    Godenèche, Arnaud; Freychet, Benjamin; Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Clechet, Julien; Carrillon, Yannick; Saffarini, Mo

    2017-07-01

    (1) To evaluate midterm functional outcomes of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears and (2) to determine the prognostic factors that could influence outcome. The hypothesis was that both partial and complete repairs would result in equivalent improvement of clinical score. From a prospective series of 525 rotator cuff repairs, we analysed records of the 73 patients who were treated for massive tears. The median follow-up was 41 months (range 29-55), and functional outcome was evaluated using the Constant score, shoulder strength, and subjective shoulder value. The median CS improved from 34 points to 81 points (p < 0.001). The scores were better for both types of two-tendon tears, posterosuperior (83, n = 33) and anterosuperior (85, n = 13) (n.s.), than for three-tendon tears (74, n = 27) (p < 0.001). The scores were also better when fatty infiltration was of stage I (84, n = 28) than of stage II (78, n = 34) (p < 0.001) or stage III (74, n = 11) (p = 0.04). The scores were only slightly higher for completely reparable tears (81.5, n = 50) than for partially reparable tears (79, n = 23) (n.s.). Ultrasonic examination revealed incomplete healing, in 10 of the 50 completely repaired tears, and in 11 of the 23 partially repaired tears. The results of the present study compare favourably with those in recent literature and confirm the hypothesis that both partial and complete repairs of massive rotator cuff tears produce equivalent improvements of Constant scores. The clinical relevance of these observations is that even if repairs of two-tendon tears result in superior functional outcomes, repairs of three-tendon tears produce equivalent 'relative' improvement that grants sufficient patient satisfaction and autonomy. Comparative case series, Level IV.

  9. A Comparison of Open and Endoscopic Repair of Full-Thickness Tears of the Gluteus Medius Tendon at a Minimum of 2 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Nawabi, Danyal H.; Wentzel, Catherine; Ranawat, Anil S.; Bedi, Asheesh; Kelly, Bryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Historically, tears of the gluteus medius tendon were repaired via an open approach yielding excellent outcomes. With the advent of hip arthroscopy, endoscopic techniques have been developed to repair abductor tears which have shown favorable early outcomes. The open technique may still be preferred for large tears with retraction (>4cm), but there is a paucity of data comparing open and endoscopic approaches. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of open and endoscopic repair of full-thickness tears of the gluteus medius tendon. We hypothesized that the outcomes of the two approaches would be similar but that the open technique would have shorter surgical times. Methods: Between March 2010 and June 2012, 1267 patients (1518 hips) undergoing a hip preservation procedure were prospectively entered into a registry. From this cohort, we identified 27 patients (30 hips) that had undergone repair of the gluteus medius tendon with a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Nine patients (9 hips) had an open repair and 18 patients (21 hips) had an endoscopic repair. Patient-reported outcome scores, including the Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and the Sport-specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Surgery time was obtained using operating room records. The femoral neck shaft angle (FNSA) and lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) were measured on preoperative radiographs. Continuous and categorical variables were compared between endoscopic and open abductor repair patients using independent-samples t-tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests (as appropriate), respectively. Given the limited sample size, no adjusted or matched analyses were performed. Results: The mean age (±SD) of the open and endoscopic groups was 62.0 ± 9.9 years and 51.6 ± 13.6 years respectively (p=0.05). There were 6 females (67%) in the open group and 17 females (94

  10. Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Correlate With Sleep Disturbance?

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bryan A; Hull, Brandon R; Kurth, Alexander B; Kukowski, Nathan R; Mulligan, Edward P; Khazzam, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    Many patients with rotator cuff tears suffer from nocturnal shoulder pain, resulting in sleep disturbance. To determine whether rotator cuff tear size correlated with sleep disturbance in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with a diagnosis of unilateral full-thickness rotator cuff tears (diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a visual analog scale (VAS) quantifying their shoulder pain, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire. Shoulder MRI scans were analyzed for anterior-posterior tear size (mm), tendon retraction (mm), Goutallier grade (0-4), number of tendons involved (1-4), muscle atrophy (none, mild, moderate, or severe), and humeral head rise (present or absent). Bivariate correlations were calculated between the MRI characteristics and baseline survey results. A total of 209 patients with unilateral full-thickness rotator cuff tears were included in this study: 112 (54%) female and 97 (46%) male (mean age, 64.1 years). On average, shoulder pain had been present for 24 months. The mean PSQI score was 9.8, and the mean VAS score was 5.0. No significant correlations were found between any of the rotator cuff tear characteristics and sleep quality. Only tendon retraction had a significant correlation with pain. Although rotator cuff tears are frequently associated with nocturnal pain and sleep disruption, this study demonstrated that morphological characteristics of full-thickness rotator cuff tears, such as size and tendon retraction, do not correlate with sleep disturbance and have little to no correlation with pain levels.

  11. Surgical Treatment for Failure of Repair of Patellar and Quadriceps Tendon Rupture With Ipsilateral Hamstring Tendon Graft.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.

  12. Effect of the Interposition of Calcium Phosphate Materials on Tendon-Bone Healing During Repair of Chronic Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Peng, Lingjie; Xie, Guoming; Li, Dingfeng; Zhao, Jinzhong; Ning, Congqin

    2014-08-01

    biodegradability. At early time points after the RC repair, CPS bioceramic significantly increased the area of fibrocartilage at the tendon-bone interface compared with the control and HA groups. Moreover, CPS and HA bioceramics had significantly improved collagen organization. Biomechanical tests indicated that the CPS and HA groups have greater ultimate load to failure and stiffness than the control group at 4 and 8 weeks, and the CPS specimens exhibited the maximum ultimate load to failure, stiffness, and stress of the healing enthesis. Both CPS and HA bioceramics aid in cell attachment and proliferation and accelerate new bone formation, and CPS bioceramic has a more prominent effect on tendon-to-bone healing. Local application of CPS and HA bioceramic at the tendon-bone interface shows promise in improving healing after rotator cuff tear repair. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. Mental Health Has a Stronger Association with Patient-Reported Shoulder Pain and Function Than Tear Size in Patients with Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Suter, Thomas; Potter, Michael Q; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2016-02-17

    Patient-reported outcome measures have increasingly accompanied objective examination findings in the evaluation of orthopaedic interventions. Our objective was to determine whether a validated measure of mental health (Short Form-36 Mental Component Summary [SF-36 MCS]) or measures of tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging were more strongly associated with self-assessed shoulder pain and function in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were prospectively enrolled. Patients completed the Short Form-36, visual analog scales for shoulder pain and function, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) instrument at the time of diagnosis. Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging examinations were reviewed to document the number of tendons involved, tear size, tendon retraction, and tear surface area. Age, sex, body mass index, number of medical comorbidities, smoking status, and Workers' Compensation status were recorded. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models were calculated to identify associations with baseline shoulder scores. The SF-36 MCS had the strongest correlation with the visual analog scale for shoulder pain (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.48; p < 0.001), the visual analog scale for shoulder function (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.33; p < 0.001), the SST (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.37; p < 0.001), and the ASES score (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.51; p < 0.001). Tear severity only correlated with the visual analog scale for shoulder function; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.19 for tear size (p = 0.018), 0.18 for tendon retraction (p = 0.025), 0.18 for tear area (p = 0.022), and 0.20 for the number of tendons involved (p = 0.011). Tear severity did not correlate with other scores in bivariate correlations (all p > 0.05). In all multivariate models, the SF-36 MCS had the

  14. Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Ohzono, Hiroki; Gotoh, Masafumi; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Honda, Hirokazu; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Okawa, Takahiro; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is associated not only with postoperative retear but also with postoperative muscle weakness; therefore, fatty changes in the muscles may affect the clinical outcome even in patients with these tears who have intact tendons after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). To evaluate the effect of fatty infiltration on the clinical outcome in patients with intact tendons after arthroscopic repair of large/massive cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. One hundred fifty-five consecutive patients with large/massive rotator cuff tears underwent ARCR. Of these, 55 patients (mean ± SD age, 64.4 ± 9.1 years) in whom intact tendons after surgery were confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging at final follow-up (mean ± SD, 2.5 ± 1.4 years) were included in this study. Depending on their University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score at the final follow-up, they were assigned to either the unsatisfactory group (score ≤27; n = 12) or the satisfactory group (score >27; n = 43). Various clinical parameters affecting the clinical outcome were examined through univariate and multivariate analyses. The UCLA score of all patients significantly improved from 18.1 ± 4.4 points preoperatively to 29.8 ± 4.5 points postoperatively ( P < .0001). The mean preoperative UCLA scores were not significantly different between the satisfactory and unsatisfactory groups ( P = .39). Multivariate analysis showed that the preoperative Goutallier stages of the infraspinatus (odds ratio [OR], 8.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-52.0; P = .016) and/or subscapularis (OR, 7.53; 95% CI, 1.58-35.9; P = .011) were significantly associated with outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a cutoff value of Goutallier stage 1 in both muscles, with area under the curve values of 0.79 (sensitivity 91% and specificity 51%) and 0.84 (sensitivity 100% and specificity 54%) in the infraspinatus and subscapularis

  15. Peroneal tendon disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O’Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries. Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers. Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus. A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments. Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047 PMID:28736620

  16. Peroneal tendon disorders.

    PubMed

    Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O'Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries.Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers.Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus.A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments.Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion.The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047.

  17. Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo

    2017-07-01

    The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.

  18. Graft Utilization in the Bridging Reconstruction of Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lewington, Matthew R; Ferguson, Devin P; Smith, T Duncan; Burks, Robert; Coady, Catherine; Wong, Ivan Ho-Bun

    2017-11-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder. Because of the difficulty in managing massive rotator cuff tears and the inability of standard techniques to prevent arthropathy, surgeons have developed several novel techniques to improve outcomes and ideally alter the natural history. To systematically review the existing literature and analyze reported outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of using a bridging graft reconstruction technique to treat large to massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. Systematic review. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL was employed with the key terms "tear," "allograft," and "rotator cuff." Eligibility was determined by a 3-phase screening process according to the outlined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data in relation to the primary and secondary outcomes were summarized. The results were synthesized according to the origin of the graft and the level of evidence. Fifteen studies in total were included in this review: 2 comparative studies and 13 observational case series. Both the biceps tendon and the fascia lata autograft groups had significantly superior structural integrity rates on magnetic resonance imaging at 12-month minimum follow-up when compared with their partial primary repair counterparts (58% vs 26%, P = .036; 79% vs 58%, P < .05), respectively. Multiple noncomparative case series investigating allografts, xenografts, and synthetic materials for bridging reconstruction of large to massive rotator cuff tears demonstrated high structural healing rates (74%-90%, 73%-100%, and 60%-90%, respectively). Additionally, both comparative studies and case series demonstrated a general improvement of patients' functional outcome scores. Using a graft for an anatomic bridging rotator cuff repair results in improved function on objective testing and may be functionally better than nonanatomic or partial repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears. Allograft or xenograft

  19. Evaluation of Outcome of Models at Fort Bliss, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    15 Sex: M Age: 36 DOB: 5-13-55 Date of Injury: 8-2-91 Formal report received: 6-9-91 Injury: Shoulder strain, rotator cuff tear, and biceps tendon...right rotator cuff . COP: 2 days RTW: Returned to transitional work for two weeks, then to full duty. Job: mason Troop Clinic/WBAMC: All treatment was...flexor tendons of the right wrist; bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome; bilateral tendinitis . COP: 13 days RTW: Return to partial duty after COP. Reassigned

  20. Central Tendon Injuries of Hamstring Muscles: Case Series of Operative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari

    2018-02-01

    As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures.

  1. Central Tendon Injuries of Hamstring Muscles: Case Series of Operative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lempainen, Lasse; Kosola, Jussi; Pruna, Ricard; Puigdellivol, Jordi; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari

    2018-01-01

    Background: As compared with injuries involving muscle only, those involving the central hamstring tendon have a worse prognosis. Limited information is available regarding the surgical treatment of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings. Purpose: To describe the operative treatment and outcomes of central tendon injuries of the hamstrings among athletes. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eight athletes (6 top level, 2 recreational) with central hamstring tendon injuries underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. The indication for surgery was recurrent (n = 6) or acute (n = 2) central hamstring tendon injury. All patients followed the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and return to play was monitored. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging found a central tendon injury in all 3 hamstring muscles (long head of the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus) with disrupted tendon ends. In acute and recurrent central tendon injuries, full return to play was achieved at 2.5 to 4 months. There were no adverse events during follow-up. Conclusion: Central tendon injuries of the hamstrings can be successfully repaired surgically after acute and recurrent ruptures. PMID:29479545

  2. Relationship of ABO Blood Type on Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Han-Dong; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with various diseases. A relationship between Achilles tendon ruptures and blood type O has been reported, although its pathogenesis was not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study describing the relationship between blood type and rotator cuff tendon tears. To determine whether patients with rotator cuff tear had a greater prevalence of blood type O than those without rotator cuff tear. A cross-sectional study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. A total of 316 subjects with shoulder pain were included and divided into "tear" and "no-tear" groups according to ultrasonographic examination. ABO blood group, gender, dominant arm, smoking history, trauma history, and age were compared between the 2 groups and the odds ratios of these factors were evaluated by logistic regression. The tear group (38.6%) had more instances of blood type O than the healthy population (27.2%; P = .002). The adjusted odds ratio for rotator cuff tear for blood type O to non-O was 2.38 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.42). The odds ratios for rotator cuff tears for smoking, major trauma history, minor trauma history, and age were 2.08, 3.11, 2.29, and 1.06, respectively. Patients with rotator cuff tears were more likely to have blood type O. The odds ratios of factors for rotator cuff tears were high in the following order: major trauma history, blood type O, minor trauma history, and age. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [The operative treatment of the degenerative rupture of the anterior tibialis tendon].

    PubMed

    Schneppendahl, J; Gehrmann, S V; Stosberg, U; Regenbrecht, B; Windolf, J; Wild, M

    2010-05-01

    A degenerative tear of the anterior tibial tendon is a rare event compared to other tendons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional results after surgical refixation. In a retrospective study, we report the functional outcome of five consecutive operatively treated patients suffering from a tear close to the insertion site of the anterior tibial tendon. All patients were assessed postoperatively, the AOFAS and Richter scores were obtained and the range of motion in the ankle joint was evaluated. Preoperatively all patients presented with a significant walking impairment due to a reduced active dorsiflexion, so the decision for surgical refixation was made. In all cases an MRI scan was performed preoperatively. Postoperative immobilisation without weight-bearing was done for six weeks. All patients returned to their former activity level, were satisfied with the postoperative result and had a normal gait in the follow-up examination. The range of motion was equal on both sides, the median AOFAS score was 86 and the median Richter score was 90 out of 100. There were no postoperative complications. Untreated tears of the anterior tibial tendon lead to significant impairment of the ankle joint and deformities of the foot. There is no consensus about the treatment with recommendations for operative and non-operative treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The surgical reconstruction of the tendon leads to a restored function of the ankle joint and allows a normal gait and is therefore desirable. Due to the loss of function and the good results after surgical treatment in our study, the non-operative treatment is not advisable. Surgical repair of degenerative tears of the anterior tibial tendon leads to very good functional results and high patient satisfaction.

  4. Minimally invasive reconstruction of chronic achilles tendon ruptures using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft and interference screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures represent more than 40% of all tendon ruptures requiring surgical management. About 20% of acute Achilles tendon tears are not diagnosed at the time of injury and become chronic, necessitating more complicated management than fresh injuries. Several techniques for the reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon have been described, but the superiority of one technique over the others has not been demonstrated. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft will result in improvement of the overall function with a low rate of complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2008 and 2010, the authors prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients (21 men and 7 women; median age, 46 years) with chronic closed ruptures of the Achilles tendon who had undergone reconstruction with a free semitendinosus tendon graft. They assessed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), maximum calf circumference, and isometric plantarflexion strength before surgery and at the last follow-up. Outcome of surgery and rate of complications were also recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 31.4 months. The overall result of surgery was excellent/good in 26 (93%) of 28 patients. The ATRS improved from 42 (range, 29-55) to 86 (range, 78-95) (P < .0001). In the operated leg, the maximum calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength were significantly improved after surgery (P < .0001); however, their values remained significantly lower than those of the opposite side (P < .0001). All patients were able to walk on tiptoes and returned to their preinjury working occupation. No infections were recorded. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft provides a significant improvement of symptoms and function, although calf

  5. Can Grafts Provide Superior Tendon Healing and Clinical Outcomes After Rotator Cuff Repairs?

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yohei; Dávalos Herrera, Diego Alejandro; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Boorman, Richard S.; Thornton, Gail M.; Lo, Ian K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears commonly retear. To improve healing rates, a number of different approaches have been utilized, including the use of grafts, which may enhance the biomechanical and biologic aspects of the repair construct. However, the outcomes after the use of grafts are diverse. Purpose: To systematically review the literature for large to massive rotator cuff tears to determine whether the use of grafts generally provides superior tendon healing and clinical outcomes to the repairs without grafts. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed. Clinical studies comparing the repairs with (graft group) and without grafts (control group) were included and analyzed. The primary outcome was tendon healing on either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. The secondary outcome measures included visual analog scale for pain, University of California at Los Angles (UCLA) score, and forward elevation range. Differences between groups in all outcome measures were statistically analyzed. Results: Six comparative studies (level of evidence 2 or 3) with 13 study groups were included. A total of 242 repairs in the graft group (mean age, 62.5 ± 4.6 years) and 185 repairs in the control group (mean age, 62.5 ± 5.0 years) were analyzed. The graft types utilized included autograft (fascia lata) in 1 study, allograft (human dermis) in 2 studies, xenograft (bovine pericardium, porcine small intestine submucosa) in 2 studies, synthetic graft (polypropylene) in 1 study, and a combination of autograft (the long head of biceps) and synthetic graft (polypropylene) in 1 study. The overall mean follow-up time was 28.4 ± 9.0 months. When 1 or 2 studies/study groups were excluded due to practical or statistical reasons, the graft group demonstrated significantly improved healing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.58-3.90; P < .0001) and all clinical outcome measures at

  6. Restoration of Neuromuscular Control During The Pitch After Operative Treatment Of Slap Tears

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter Nissen; Cip, Johannes; Trombley, Robert; Monson, Brett; Wimmer, Markus; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in overhead throwers. Treatment outcomes remain unpredictable with a large percentage of atheletes unable to return to sport. Persistent pain from the LHB (long head biceps) has been postulated as etiology of failure following repair. Previous authors have hypothesized that maximal stress is placed upon the biceps anchor during the cocking phase and that SLAP tears likely occur during this phase. We hypothesized that operative treatment of SLAP tears with repair or tenodesis would result in persistent alterations in neuromuscular control of the biceps during the overhand pitch post-operatively. Methods: We evaluated the activity of the biceps muscle in the overhand pitching motion and correlate this activity with throwing phase in healthy collegiate and semi-professional pitchers, collegiate pitchers status-post SLAP repair, and collegiate pitchers status-post biceps tenodesis. Patients were at least one year post-operative and had returned to pitching with a painless shoulder. Subjects pitched from a regulation-sized mound while surface electrodes collected electromyographic (sEMG) signals at 1500 Hz from the long- and short-heads of the biceps (LHBM and SHBM respectively), the deltoid, the infraspinatus, and the latissimus dorsi. Motion analysis data was captured at 120 Hz with a 14-camera three-dimensional markerless motion analysis system. At least five pitches were performed by each subject. sEMG data was then normalized to maximal manual muscle testing and then divided into previously described pitching phases (wind-up, stride, cocking, acceleration, deceleration, follow-through). Results: Eighteen pitchers participated: 7 normals, 6 status-post SLAP repair, and 5 status-post tenodesis. While no significant differences were observed in mean LHBM, SHBM, deltoid, infraspinatus, or latissimus activity between normals, pitchers status-post SLAP repair

  7. Biomechanics of the Proximal Radius Following Drilling of the Bicipital Tuberosity to Mimic Cortical Button Distal Biceps Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Lien, John R; Brunfeldt, Alexander; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2018-05-01

    A fracture through the proximal radius is a theoretical concern after cortical button distal biceps fixation in an active patient. The permanent, nonossified cortical defect and medullary tunnel is at risk during a fall eliciting rotational and compressive forces. We hypothesized that during simulated torsion and compression, in comparison with unaltered specimens, the cortical button distal biceps repair model would have decreased torsional and compressive strength and would fracture in the vicinity of the bicipital tuberosity bone tunnel. Sixteen fourth-generation composite radius Sawbones models were used in this controlled laboratory study. A bone tunnel was created through the bicipital tuberosity to mimic the exact bone tunnel, 8 mm near cortex and 3.2 mm far cortex, made for the BicepsButton distal biceps tendon repair. The radius was then prepared and mounted on either a torsional or compression testing device and compared with undrilled control specimens. Compression tests resulted in average failure loads of 9015.2 N in controls versus 8253.25 N in drilled specimens ( P = .074). Torsional testing resulted in an average failure torque of 27.3 Nm in controls and 19.3 Nm in drilled specimens ( P = .024). Average fracture angle was 35.1° in controls versus 21.1° in drilled. Gross fracture patterns were similar in compression testing; however, in torsional testing all fractures occurred through the bone tunnel in the drilled group. There are weaknesses in the vicinity of the bone tunnel in the proximal radius during biomechanical stress testing which may not be clinically relevant in nature. In cortical button fixation, distal biceps repairs creates a permanent, nonossified cortical defect with tendon interposed in the bone tunnel, which can alter the biomechanical properties of the proximal radius during compressive and torsional loading.

  8. Learning curve of office-based ultrasonography for rotator cuff tendons tears.

    PubMed

    Ok, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Jung-Man; Yoo, Tae-Wook

    2013-07-01

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography and MR arthrography (MRA) imaging in detecting of rotator cuff tears with arthroscopic finding used as the reference standard. The ultrasonography and MRA findings of 51 shoulders that underwent the arthroscopic surgery were prospectively analysed. Two orthopaedic doctors independently performed ultrasonography and interpreted the findings at the office. The tear size measured at ultrasonography and MRA was compared with the size measured at surgery using Pearson correlation coefficients (r). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false-positive rate were calculated for a diagnosis of partial-and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The kappa coefficient was calculated to verify the inter-observer agreement. The sensitivity of ultrasonography and MRA for detecting partial-thickness tears was 45.5 and 72.7 %, and that for full-thickness tears was 80.0 and 100 %, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonograpy and MRA for detecting partial-thickness tears was 45.1 and 88.2 %, and that for full-thickness tears was 82.4 and 98 %, respectively. Tear size measured based on ultrasonography examination showed a poor correlation with the size measured at arthroscopic surgery (r = 0.21; p < 0.05). However, tear size estimated by MRA showed a strong correlation (r = 0.75; p < 0.05). The kappa coefficient was 0.47 between the two independent examiners. The accuracy of office-based ultrasonography for beginner orthopaedic surgeons to detect full-thickness rotator cuff tears was comparable to that of MRA but was less accurate for detecting partial-thickness tears and torn size measurement. Inter-observer agreement on the interpretation was fair. These results highlight the importance of the correct technique and experience in operation of ultrasonography in shoulder joint. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  9. The Use of an Intra-Articular Depth Guide in the Measurement of Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Michael J.; More, Kristie D.; Sohmer, Stephen; Nelson, Atiba A.; Sciore, Paul; Boorman, Richard; Hollinshead, Robert; Lo, Ian K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the conventional method for determining the percentage of partial thickness rotator cuff tears to a method using an intra-articular depth guide. The clinical utility of the intra-articular depth guide was also examined. Methods. Partial rotator cuff tears were created in cadaveric shoulders. Exposed footprint, total tendon thickness, and percentage of tendon thickness torn were determined using both techniques. The results from the conventional and intra-articular depth guide methods were correlated with the true anatomic measurements. Thirty-two patients were evaluated in the clinical study. Results. Estimates of total tendon thickness (r = 0.41, P = 0.31) or percentage of thickness tears (r = 0.67, P = 0.07) using the conventional method did not correlate well with true tendon thickness. Using the intra-articular depth guide, estimates of exposed footprint (r = 0.92, P = 0.001), total tendon thickness (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and percentage of tendon thickness torn (r = 0.88, P = 0.004) correlated with true anatomic measurements. Seven of 32 patients had their treatment plan altered based on the measurements made by the intra-articular depth guide. Conclusions. The intra-articular depth guide appeared to better correlate with true anatomic measurements. It may be useful during the evaluation and development of treatment plans for partial thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears. PMID:23533789

  10. Returning to Overuse Activity Following a Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus Tear Leads to Joint Damage in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Evans, Elisabeth F.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Ilkhani-Pour, Sarah; Gray, Chancellor F.; Voleti, Pramod; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Large rotator cuff tears (supraspinatus and infraspinatus) are common in patients that perform overhead activities (laborers, athletes). In addition, following large cuff tears, these patients commonly attempt to return to pre-injury activity levels. However, there is a limited understanding of the damaging effects on the uninjured joint tissues when doing so. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of returning to overuse activity following a supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear on shoulder function and the structural and biological properties of the intact tendons and glenoid cartilage. Forty rats underwent four weeks of overuse followed by detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons and were then randomized into two groups: return to overuse or cage activity. Ambulatory measurements were performed over time and structural and biologic properties of the adjacent tendons and cartilage were evaluated. Results demonstrated that animals returning to overuse activity did not have altered shoulder function but despite this, did have altered cartilage and tendon properties. These mechanical changes corresponded to altered transcriptional regulation of chondrogenic genes within cartilage and tendon. This study helps define the mechanical and biologic mechanisms leading to joint damage and provides a framework for treating active cuff tear patients. PMID:23764174

  11. A functional-anatomical approach to the spine-pelvis mechanism: interaction between the biceps femoris muscle and the sacrotuberous ligament.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, J P; Vleeming, A; Snijders, C J; Stoeckart, R

    1993-10-01

    Summary. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is often overlooked as a possible cause of low back pain. This is due to the use of reductionistic anatomical models. From a kinematic point of view, topographic anatomical models are generally inadequate since they categorize pelvis, lower vertebral column and legs as distinct entities. This functional-anatomical study focuses on the question whether anatomical connections between the biceps femoris muscle and the sacrotuberous ligament are kinematically useful. Forces applied to the tendon of the biceps femoris muscle, simulating biceps femoris muscle force, were shown to influence sacrotuberous ligament tension. Since sacrotuberous ligament tension influences sacroiliac joint kinematics, hamstring training could influence the sacroiliac joint and thus low back kinematics. The clinical implications with respect to 'short' hamstrings, pelvic instability and walking are discussed.

  12. Mechanisms of tendon injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Parks, William C.; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon disorders are common and lead to significant disability, pain, healthcare cost, and lost productivity. A wide range of injury mechanisms exist leading to tendinopathy or tendon rupture. Tears can occur in healthy tendons that are acutely overloaded (e.g., during a high speed or high impact event) or lacerated (e.g., a knife injury). Tendinitis or tendinosis can occur in tendons exposed to overuse conditions (e.g., an elite swimmer’s training regimen) or intrinsic tissue degeneration (e.g., age-related degeneration). The healing potential of a torn or pathologic tendon varies depending on anatomic location (e.g., Achilles vs. rotator cuff) and local environment (e.g., intrasynovial vs. extrasynovial). Although healing occurs to varying degrees, in general healing of repaired tendons follows the typical wound healing course, including an early inflammatory phase, followed by proliferative and remodeling phases. Numerous treatment approaches have been attempted to improve tendon healing, including growth factor- and cell-based therapies and rehabilitation protocols. This review will describe the current state of knowledge of injury and repair of the three most common tendinopathies-- flexor tendon lacerations, Achilles tendon rupture, and rotator cuff disorders-- with a particular focus on the use of animal models for understanding tendon healing. PMID:25641114

  13. Superior Labral Anterior-Posterior (SLAP) Tears in the Military.

    PubMed

    Rossy, William; Sanchez, George; Sanchez, Anthony; Provencher, Matthew T

    Given the notable physical demands placed on active members of the military, comprehension of recent trends in management and outcomes of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears in this patient population is critical for successful treatment. Electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, were reviewed for the years 1985 through 2016. Database review. Level 5. Active members of the military are at increased risk of sustaining shoulder injuries, particularly SLAP tears. Recent trends in management of SLAP lesions have shifted toward operative intervention. In the correct patient population, repairs of superior labrum tears demonstrate improved function and pain. Surgical repair of SLAP tears, especially in young and active military personnel, is supported. Military personnel are at greater risk of suffering a SLAP tear in comparison with their civilian counterparts. Surgical repair of these lesions is advocated in this subpopulation when the patient is younger than approximately 36 years of age, and if older, biceps tenodesis is likely superior.

  14. A practical, evidence-based, comprehensive (PEC) physical examination for diagnosing pathology of the long head of the biceps.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Samuel; Krill, Michael K; Amoo-Achampong, Kelms; Kwon, KiHyun; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Clinical examination of the shoulder joint has gained attention as clinicians aim to use an evidence-based examination of the biceps tendon, with the desire for a proper diagnosis while minimizing costly imaging procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a decision tree analysis that enables the development of a clinical algorithm for diagnosing long head of biceps (LHB) pathology. A literature review of Level I and II diagnostic studies was conducted to extract characteristics of clinical tests for LHB pathology through a systematic review of PubMed, Medline, Ovid, and Cochrane Review databases. Tests were combined in series and parallel to determine sensitivities and specificities, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined for each combination using a subjective pretest probability. The "gold standard" for diagnosis in all included studies was arthroscopy or arthrotomy. The optimal testing modality was use of the uppercut test combined with the tenderness to palpation of the biceps tendon test. This combination achieved a sensitivity of 88.4% when performed in parallel and a specificity of 93.8% when performed in series. These tests used in combination optimize post-test probability accuracy greater than any single individual test. Performing the uppercut test and biceps groove tenderness to palpation test together has the highest sensitivity and specificity of known physical examinations maneuvers to aid in the diagnosis of LHB pathology compared with diagnostic arthroscopy (practical, evidence-based, comprehensive examination). A decision tree analysis aides in the practical, evidence-based, comprehensive examination diagnostic accuracy post-testing based on the ordinal scale pretest probability. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Repair of Achilles tendon rupture and early rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Brambila, H A; Cristiani, D G; Tinajero, E C; Burgos-Elías, V

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of Achilles tendon tear has increased worldwide. Several factors have been described that help explain the mechanism of injury. The treatment of choice continues to be surgery; conservative treatment is reserved for patients with a high morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment consists of an open or percutaneous technique. In both modalities we try to achieve prompt mobilization of the operated tendon to obtain better and quicker healing. This prospective study describes our experience with 35 patients enrolled from February 2004 to August 2010. They were treated with open repair, physical rehabilitation and active ankle mobilization before the second postoperative week, and with colchicine. We obtained satisfactory results. Patients recovered complete mobility approximately at postoperative week 6, and from weeks 8 to 10 they could resume their daily work activities and participate in sports and recreational activities. Patients were assessed according to the ATRS classification to measure their clinical results. We had no infections or other major complications. We conclude that the open surgical repair of Achilles tendon tear, prompt mobility, and colchicine provide good results.

  16. Does autologous leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma improve tendon healing in arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears?

    PubMed

    Charousset, Christophe; Zaoui, Amine; Bellaïche, Laurence; Piterman, Michel

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the use of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) in patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears. A comparative cohort of patients with large or massive rotator cuff tears undergoing arthroscopic repair was studied. Two consecutive groups of patients were included: rotator cuff repairs with L-PRP injection (group 1, n = 35) and rotator cuff repairs without L-PRP injection (group 2, n = 35). A double-row cross-suture cuff repair was performed by a single surgeon with the same rehabilitation protocol. Patients were clinically evaluated with the Constant score; Simple Shoulder Test score; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score; and strength measurements by use of a handheld dynamometer. Rotator cuff healing was evaluated by postoperative MRI using the Sugaya classification (type 1 to type 5). We prospectively evaluated the 2 groups at a minimum 2-year follow-up. The results did not show differences in cuff healing between the 2 groups (P = .16). The size of recurrent tears (type 4 v type 5), however, was significantly smaller in group 1 (P = .008). There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrent tear rate (types 4 and 5) between the 2 groups (P = .65). There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 in terms of University of California, Los Angeles score (29.1 and 30.3, respectively; P = .90); Simple Shoulder Test score (9.9 and 10.2, respectively; P = .94); Constant score (77.3 and 78.1, respectively; P = .82); and strength (7.5 and 7.0, respectively; P = .51). In our study the use of autologous L-PRP did not improve the quality of tendon healing in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of large or massive rotator cuff tears based on postoperative MRI evaluation. The only significant advantage was that the L-PRP patients had smaller iterative tears. However, the functional outcome was similar in

  17. Peroneus Brevis Attrition & Longitudinal Split Tear without Subluxation and Associated Hypertrophy of Peronal Tubercle" - Treatment of an Uncommon Lesion.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Singh, Varun; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Peroneus brevis tendinitis with its attritional longitudinal split rupture without any subluxation from peroneal groove and associated enlarged peroneal tubercle is un common presentation. A 40 year old female presented with moderate swelling and tenderness over the lateral and dorso-lateral aspect of left ankle with history of old trauma to ankle with swelling, persistant pain and difficulty in walking. On physical examination during passive eversion and inversion the excursion of the peroneal tendons was painful. Most tender point was just posterior to the tip of the fibula. During surgery we found the intact superior peroneal ligament with both peroneal tendons placed at normal site without subluxation, tendon sheath was inflamed and swollen, on further dissection we could see the attrition of inner surface of the peroneus brevis and a 2 cm longitudinal split tear of the same. Although rare but peroneus brevis tendon attrition and tear can occur without subluxation from peronal groove. Refractory ankle pain on lateral aspect presenting with on and off swelling should arise suspicion of peroneal tendon tear. Correct diagnosis and proper surgical repair can produce excellent results.

  18. Superior labrum anterior to posterior tears and glenohumeral instability.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mandeep S; Arciero, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Cadaver experiments and clinical studies suggest that the superior labrum-biceps complex plays a role in glenohumeral stability. Superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears can be present in acute and recurrent glenohumeral dislocations and contribute to glenohumeral instability. Isolated SLAP tears can cause instability, especially in throwing athletes. Diagnosing a SLAP tear on the basis of the clinical examination alone is difficult because of nonspecific history and physical examination findings and the presence of coexisting intra-articular lesions. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the imaging study of choice for diagnosing SLAP tears; however, arthroscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Arthroscopy is the preferred technique for the repair of a type II SLAP tear and its variant types (V through X) in acute glenohumeral dislocations and instability in younger populations. Clinical outcome studies report a low recurrence of glenohumeral instability after the arthroscopic repair of a SLAP tear in addition to a Bankart repair. Long-term follow-up studies and further advances in arthroscopic fixation techniques will allow a better understanding and improvement in outcomes in patients with SLAP tears associated with glenohumeral instability.

  19. Ten-year clinical and anatomic follow-up after repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears: influence of the subscapularis.

    PubMed

    Nové-Josserand, Laurent; Collin, Philippe; Godenèche, Arnaud; Walch, Gilles; Meyer, Nicolas; Kempf, Jean-Francois

    2017-10-01

    Anterosuperior rotator cuff tears are more frequent than expected. We report the results of a 10-year follow-up study after repair. Our hypothesis was that the extent of the subscapularis tear influenced the prognosis. The study population consisted of all 138 patients who underwent surgery in 14 participating centers in 2003 for full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff with lesions in the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendons. The patients were divided into 2 groups, depending on whether the subscapularis lesion affected only the superior half of the tendon (group A) or extended into the lower half (group B). Ninety-two patients (56 ± 7 years; 71 in group A and 21 in group B) were available for follow-up after 10 years (127 ± 16 months) with magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate tendon healing and muscle condition. The mean Constant scores were 59 ± 16 before surgery and 77 ± 14 at follow-up (P = 1.7 × 10 -12 ). The retear rates were 25% for the supraspinatus and 13.5% for the subscapularis tendon. The clinical results for group A patients were better than those for group B. Severe fatty infiltration was observed more frequently in the subscapularis than in the supraspinatus muscle (27% vs. 12% of cases). Supraspinatus healing influenced subscapularis healing and fatty infiltration. Repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears is satisfactory at 10 years, particularly if the subscapularis tear is not extensive. An extensive subscapularis tear is a negative prognosis factor. Postoperatively, fatty infiltration of the subscapularis muscle was frequently observed despite tendon healing. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Degree of Knee Extension Does Not Affect Postoperative Stability or Subsequent Graft Tear Rate After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Patellar Tendon Autograft.

    PubMed

    Benner, Rodney W; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2016-04-01

    There is concern that high degrees of hyperextension may lead to an increase in graft laxity or graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients with a high degree of hyperextension will have a higher rate of graft tear/failure and lower subjective scores after surgery compared with patients with less knee extension. Cohort study, Level of evidence, 2. Of 2329 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft between 1998 and 2008, there were 625 patients who met the inclusion criteria of having primary ACL surgery, no bilateral ACL injuries, no existing osteoarthritis, and having either ≥6° of knee hyperextension before and after surgery (group A: n = 318; mean hyperextension, 8° ± 2° [range, 6°-15°]) or ≤3° of knee hyperextension before and after surgery (group B: n = 307; mean hyperextension, 0° ± 3° [range, 3° hyperextension to -4° short of 0° neutral]). KT-1000 arthrometer manual maximum difference between knees, range of motion measurements, and subjective follow-up with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Cincinnati Knee Ratings Scale (CKRS) surveys were used to evaluate results. Subsequent graft tear related to specific injury within 5 years of surgery was recorded. Graft failure was defined as a KT-1000 manual maximum difference of >5 mm. Follow-up was obtained from 278 (87%) in group A and 275 (90%) in group B at a mean of 4.1 ± 1.1 years after surgery. The KT-1000 arthrometer manual maximum difference between knees was 2.0 ± 1.4 in group A and 2.1 ± 1.6 in group B (P = .701). Subsequent ACL graft tear/failure occurred in 22 patients (6.9%) in group A and 30 patients (9.8%) in group B (P = .246). Further subanalysis showed that the graft tear/failure rate was 6 of 81 (7.4%) for patients with ≥10° of hyperextension versus 16 of 237 (6.8%) for patients with 6° to 9° of hyperextension. There was no difference in IKDC or CKRS scores between groups after surgery (P

  1. Classification of ulnar triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. A treatment algorithm for Palmer type IB tears.

    PubMed

    Atzei, A; Luchetti, R; Garagnani, L

    2017-05-01

    The classical definition of 'Palmer Type IB' triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, includes a spectrum of clinical conditions. This review highlights the clinical and arthroscopic criteria that enable us to categorize five classes on a treatment-oriented classification system of triangular fibrocartilage complex peripheral tears. Class 1 lesions represent isolated tears of the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex without distal radio-ulnar joint instability and are amenable to arthroscopic suture. Class 2 tears include rupture of both the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex and proximal attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea. Class 3 tears constitute isolated ruptures of the proximal attachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea; they are not visible at radio-carpal arthroscopy. Both Class 2 and Class 3 tears are diagnosed with a positive hook test and are typically associated with distal radio-ulnar joint instability. If required, treatment is through reattachment of the distal radio-ulnar ligament insertions to the fovea. Class 4 lesions are irreparable tears due to the size of the defect or to poor tissue quality and, if required, treatment is through distal radio-ulnar ligament reconstruction with tendon graft. Class 5 tears are associated with distal radio-ulnar joint arthritis and can only be treated with salvage procedures. This subdivision of type IB triangular fibrocartilage complex tear provides more insights in the pathomechanics and treatment strategies. II.

  2. Posterolateral complex knee injuries: magnetic resonance imaging with surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, D J; Theodorou, S J; Fithian, D C; Paxton, L; Garelick, D H; Resnick, D

    2005-05-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of injuries of the posterolateral aspect of the knee and to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of MRI in the assessment of these injuries. The MRI studies of 14 patients (mean age 33 years) with trauma to the posterolateral aspect of the knee were retrospectively reviewed, and the imaging findings were correlated with those of surgery. In all patients, MRI showed an intact iliotibial (ITB) band. MRI showed injury to the biceps tendon in 11 (79%), the gastrocnemius tendon in 1 (7%)), the popliteus tendon in 5 (36%), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 14 (100%) patients. Tear of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was seen in 11 (79%) patients and tear of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 4 (29%) patients. With routine MRI, visualization of the popliteofibular or fabellofibular ligaments was incomplete. On MRI, the lateral meniscus and the medial meniscus were torn with equal frequency (n = 4; 29%). Osteochondral defects were seen in 5 (36%) cases and joint effusion in all 14 (100%) cases on MRI. Using surgical findings as the standard for diagnosis, MRI proved 86% accurate in the detection of injury to the ITB band, the biceps tendon (93%), the gastrocnemius tendon (100%), the popliteus tendon (86%), the LCL (100%), the ACL (79%), the PCL (86%), the lateral meniscus (90%), the medial meniscus (82%), and the osteochondral structures (79%). Surgical correlation confirmed the MRI findings of joint effusion in all cases. MRI is well suited for demonstrating the presence and extent of injuries of the major structures of the posterolateral complex of the knee, allowing characterization of the severity of injury.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Ishihara, Yoko; Bui, Christopher N H; Alavekios, Damon; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2015-02-01

    Articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears are common injuries in throwing athletes. The superior shoulder capsule beneath the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons works as a stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. To assess the effect of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair on shoulder biomechanics. The hypothesis was that shoulder laxity might be changed because of superior capsular plication in transtendon repair of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Controlled laboratory study. Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested by using a custom shoulder-testing system at the simulated late-cocking phase and acceleration phase of throwing motion. Maximum glenohumeral external rotation angle, anterior translation, position of the humeral head apex with respect to the glenoid, internal impingement area, and glenohumeral and subacromial contact pressures were measured. Each specimen underwent 3 stages of testing: stage 1, with the intact shoulder; stage 2, after creation of articular-sided partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons; and stage 3, after transtendon repair of the torn tendons by using 2 suture anchors. Articular-sided partial-thickness tears did not significantly change any of the shoulder biomechanical measurements. In the simulated late-cocking phase, transtendon rotator cuff repair resulted in decreased maximum external rotation angle by 4.2° (P = .03), posterior shift of the humeral head (1.1-mm shift; P = .02), decreased glenohumeral contact pressure by 1.7 MPa (56%; P = .004), and decreased internal impingement area by 26.4 mm(2) (65%; P < .001) compared with values in the torn shoulder. In the acceleration phase, the humeral head shifted inferiorly (1.2-mm shift; P = .03 vs torn shoulder), and glenohumeral anterior translation (1.5-mm decrease; P = .03 vs torn shoulder) and subacromial contact pressure (32% decrease; P = .004 vs intact shoulder) decreased

  4. Evaluation of cartilage degeneration in a rat model of rotator cuff tear arthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Erik J.; Bodendorfer, Blake M.; Laron, Dominique; Wong, Jason; Kim, Hubert T.; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Rotator cuff tears are the most common injury seen by shoulder surgeons. Many late stage rotator cuff tear patients develop glenohumeral osteoarthritis as a result of torn cuff tendons, termed cuff tear arthropathy. However, the mechanisms of cuff tear arthropathy have not been fully established. It has been hypothesized that a combination of synovial and mechanical factors contribute equally to the development of cuff tear arthropathy. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of this model in investigating cuff-tear arthropathy. Methods We utilized a rat model which accurately reflects rotator cuff muscle degradation after massive rotator cuff tears through either infraspinatus and supraspinatus tenotomy or suprascapular nerve transection. Using a Modified-Mankin Scoring System (MMS), we found significant glenohumeral cartilage damage following both rotator cuff tenotomy and suprascapular nerve transection after only 12 weeks. Results Cartilage degeneration was similar between groups, and was present on both the humeral head and the glenoid. Denervation of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles without opening the joint capsule caused cartilage degeneration similar to that found in the tendon transection group. Conclusions These results suggest that altered mechanical loading after rotator cuff tears is the primary factor in cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff tears. Clinically, understanding the process of cartilage degeneration after rotator cuff injury will help guide treatment decisions in the setting of rotator cuff tears. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Animal Model PMID:23664745

  5. Atelocollagen Enhances the Healing of Rotator Cuff Tendon in Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Sam; Lee, Jun-Keun; Yoo, Ji-Chul; Woo, Sang-Hun; Kim, Ga-Ram; Kim, Ju-Won; Choi, Nam-Yong; Kim, Yongdeok; Song, Hyun-Seok

    2017-07-01

    Failure of rotator cuff healing is a common complication despite the rapid development of surgical repair techniques for the torn rotator cuff. To verify the effect of atelocollagen on tendon-to-bone healing in the rabbit supraspinatus tendon compared with conventional cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. A tear of the supraspinatus tendon was created and repaired in 46 New Zealand White rabbits. They were then randomly allocated into 2 groups (23 rabbits per group; 15 for histological and 8 for biomechanical test). In the experimental group, patch-type atelocollagen was implanted between bone and tendon during repair; in the control group, the torn tendon was repaired without atelocollagen. Each opposite shoulder served as a sham (tendon was exposed only). Histological evaluation was performed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Biomechanical tensile strength was tested 12 weeks after surgery. Histological evaluation scores of the experimental group (4.0 ± 1.0) were significantly superior to those of the control group (7.7 ± 2.7) at 12 weeks ( P = .005). The load to failure was significantly higher in the experimental group (51.4 ± 3.9 N) than in the control group (36.4 ± 5.9 N) ( P = .001). Histological and biomechanical studies demonstrated better results in the experimental group using atelocollagen in a rabbit model of the supraspinatus tendon tear. Atelocollagen patch could be used in the cuff repair site to enhance healing.

  6. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  7. Glenohumeral Instability Related to Special Conditions: SLAP Tears, Pan-labral Tears, and Multidirectional Instability.

    PubMed

    Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Svoboda, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    Glenohumeral instability is one of the more common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians, especially in young, active athletes. The associated anatomy of the glenohumeral joint (the shallow nature of the glenoid and the increased motion it allows) make the shoulder more prone to instability events as compared with other joints. Although traumatic dislocations or instability events associated with acute labral tears (ie, Bankart lesions) are well described in the literature, there exists other special shoulder conditions that are also associated with shoulder instability: superior labrum anterior/posterior (SLAP) tears, pan-labral tears, and multidirectional instability. SLAP tears can be difficult to diagnose and arthroscopic diagnosis remains the gold standard. Surgical treatment as ranged from repair to biceps tenodesis with varying reports of success. Along the spectrum of SLAP tears, pan-labral tears consist of 360-degree injuries to the labrum. Patients can present complaining of either anterior or posterior instability alone, making the physical examination and advanced imaging a crucial component of the work up of the patients. Arthroscopic labral repair remains a good initial option for surgical treatment of these conditions. Multidirectional instability remains one of the more difficult conditions for the sports medicine physician to diagnose and treat. Symptoms may only be reported as vague pain versus frank instability making the diagnoses particularly challenging, especially in a patient with overall joint laxity. Conservative management to include physical therapy is the mainstay initial treatment in patients without an identifiable structural abnormality. Surgical management of this condition has evolved from open to arthroscopic capsular shifts with comparable results.

  8. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo M; Ward, Samuel R; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tears present a clinical challenge, often with poor outcomes after surgical repair. Degenerative changes to the muscle, tendon, and bone are thought to hinder healing after surgical repair; additionally, the ability to overcome degenerative changes after surgical repair remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing outcomes of muscle, tendon, and bone after tendon repair in a model of chronic rotator cuff disease and to compare these outcomes to those of acute rotator cuff injuries and repair. The hypothesis was that degenerative rotator cuff changes associated with chronic multitendon tears and muscle unloading would lead to poor structural and mechanical outcomes after repair compared with acute injuries and repair. Controlled laboratory study. Chronic rotator cuff injuries, induced via detachment of the supraspinatus (SS) and infraspinatus (IS) tendons and injection of botulinum toxin A into the SS and IS muscle bellies, were created in the shoulders of rats. After 8 weeks of injury, tendons were surgically reattached to the humeral head, and an acute, dual-tendon injury and repair was performed on the contralateral side. After 8 weeks of healing, muscles were examined histologically, and tendon-to-bone samples were examined microscopically, histologically, and biomechanically and via micro-computed tomography. All repairs were intact at the time of dissection, with no evidence of gapping or ruptures. Tendon-to-bone healing after repair in our chronic injury model led to reduced bone quality and morphological disorganization at the repair site compared with acute injuries and repair. SS and IS muscles were atrophic at 8 weeks after repair of chronic injuries, indicating incomplete recovery after repair, whereas SS and IS muscles exhibited less atrophy and degeneration in the acute injury group at 8 weeks after repair. After chronic injuries and repair, humeral heads had decreased total mineral density and an altered

  9. Autologous tenocyte implantation into shoulder tendon pathology in an elite swimmer.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Laura M; Blanch, Peter; Young, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The use of novel bioengineer treatment techniques such as Autologous Tenocyte Implantation (ATI) have shown promising improvements in both pain ratings and functional outcomes in elbow, gluteal and shoulder tendon pathology. This case will review the injury timeline of ATI intervention in an elite male swimmer with subscapularis tendon pathology and investigate whether ATI has a concomitant healing effect associated with improved functional outcomes. A palmaris longus tendon biopsy was performed and cells were expanded by in-vitro culture. Autologous tenocytes were injected into the subscapularis site identified. Three blinded radiologists reported on pre and post shoulder MRIs using the same 3T MRI protocol. A validated rating scale for severity of tendinopathy (0-3) and degree of tear (0-3) was used and hand-held Dynamometry (HHD) strength was recorded. Independent blinded radiology review demonstrated a significant reduction in tear size and improved tendon morphology. IR strength on HHD returned to baseline strength levels post ATI (231-253N) 6 weeks post intervention. The athlete returned to full training (volume and intensity) pain free and international level competition at 4 months post ATI. An athlete who had previously undergone unsuccessful conservative management demonstrated significant improvement in function and in tendon morphology post intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The clinical and radiological results of arthroscopic versus arthroscopy assisted mini-open repair of rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Muhammed Sefa; Sezer, Hasan Basri; Eren, Osman Tuğrul; Armağan, Raffi; Kanar, Muharrem

    2017-01-01

    In this study we reported retrospectively the comperative clinical and radiological results of the two most common surgical procedures in rotator cuff tear repair of shoulder, the golden standart arthroscopic and alternative arthroscopically assisted mini-open surgery. We included 58 patients who admitted to our clinic for rotator cuff tear and treated surgically between january 2013 and august 2015. The two groups were composed of arthroscopically treated 29 patients and 29 patients who were treated with arthroscopically assisted mini open surgery. The arthroscopy group included 18 females and 11 males, the mini-open group included 10 females and 19 males. The mean age was 56,0 (39,0-73,0) years, in arthroscopic and 55,0 (40,0-70,0) years in mini-open surgery group. 6 patients in the arthroscopy group(20,7%) and 10 patients in the mini-open group(34,5%) were defining trauma before the beginning of their complaints. The postoperative follow up was 28,9 months in arthroscopy group and 22,6 months in the mini-open surgery group. Preoperative physical or medical treatments were documented. Any additional surgical procedures like biceps long head tenotomy, subacromial decompression and bursectomy were also noted. Patients were evaluated with ASES and Constant shoulder scales before and after the surgery. Patients were evaluated radiologically with MRI at the last follow up for healing and tendon quality. The type 2 acromion was the dominant in both groups constituting the 44,8% of the total number of patients. 24 (82,8%)patients in the arthroscopically treated patients and 18(62,1%) patients in the mini-open group were undergone at least one of the additional surgical treatments. The mean length of the surgical scar was 3,4(3-5) cm in mini open group. None of the patients complained of the surgical scar. 16 patients in the arthroscopy group and 17 patients in the mini-open group had supraspinatus tendon pathology(either tear or degeneration) in the MRI control at the

  11. Biceps Tendon Lengthening Surgery for Failed Serial Casting Patients With Elbow Flexion Contractures Following Brachial Plexus Birth Injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of surgical outcomes of biceps tendon lengthening (BTL) surgery in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients with elbow flexion contractures, who had unsuccessful serial casting. Serial casting and splinting have been shown to be effective in correcting elbow flexion contractures in OBPI. However, the possibilities of radial head dislocations and other complications have been reported in serial casting and splinting. Literature indicates surgical intervention when such nonoperative techniques and range-of-motion exercises fail. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the contractures of the affected elbow and improvement in arm length to more normal after BTL in these patients, who had unsuccessful serial casting. Ten OBPI patients (6 girls and 4 boys) with an average age of 11.2 years (4-17.7 years) had BTL surgery after unsuccessful serial casting. Mean elbow flexion contracture was 40° before and 37° (average) after serial casting. Mean elbow flexion contracture was reduced to 8° (0°-20°) post-BTL surgical procedure with an average follow-up of 11 months. This was 75% improvement and statistically significant (P < .001) when compared to 7% insignificant (P = .08) improvement after serial casting. These OBPI patients in our study had 75% significant reduction in elbow flexion contractures and achieved an improved and more normal length of the affected arm after the BTL surgery when compared to only 7% insignificant reduction and no improvement in arm length after serial casting.

  12. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear.

    PubMed

    Umans, Rachel L; Umans, Benjamin D; Umans, Hilary; Elsinger, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45° between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear.

  13. Transtendon, Double-Row, Transosseous-Equivalent Arthroscopic Repair of Partial-Thickness, Articular-Surface Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Dilisio, Matthew F.; Miller, Lindsay R.; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears. Direct visualization of the reduction of the retracted articular tendon layer to its insertion on the greater tuberosity is the key to the procedure. Linking the medial-row anchors and using a double-row construct provide a stable repair that allows early shoulder motion to minimize the risk of postoperative stiffness. PMID:25473606

  14. Transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Miller, Lindsay R; Higgins, Laurence D

    2014-10-01

    Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears. Direct visualization of the reduction of the retracted articular tendon layer to its insertion on the greater tuberosity is the key to the procedure. Linking the medial-row anchors and using a double-row construct provide a stable repair that allows early shoulder motion to minimize the risk of postoperative stiffness.

  15. Time-dependent changes after latissimus dorsi transfer: tenodesis or tendon transfer?

    PubMed

    Erşen, Ali; Ozben, Hakan; Demirhan, Mehmet; Atalar, Ata Can; Kapıcıoğlu, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon to the posterosuperior part of the rotator cuff is an option in active patients with massive rotator cuff tears to restore shoulder elevation and external rotation. However, it is unknown whether this treatment prevents progression of cuff tear arthropathy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the observed improvement in shoulder function in the early postoperative period with latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears will be permanent or will deteriorate in the midterm period (at 1-5 years after surgery). During a 6-year period, we performed 11 latissimus dorsi tendon transfers in 11 patients for patients with massive, irreparable, chronic tears of the posterosuperior part of the rotator cuff (defined as > 5 cm supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon tears with Goutallier Grade 3 to 4 fatty infiltration on MRI), for patients who were younger than 65 years of age, and had high functional demands and intact subscapularis function. No patients were lost to followup; minimum followup was 12 months (median, 33 months; range, 12-62 months). The mean patient age was 55 years (median, 53 years; range, 47-65 years). Shoulder forward elevation, external rotation, and Constant-Murley and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores were assessed. Pain was assessed by a 0- to 10-point visual analog scale. Acromiohumeral distance and cuff tear arthropathy (staged according to the Hamada classification) were evaluated on radiographs. Shoulder forward elevation, external rotation, Constant-Murley scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved at 6 months. However, although shoulder motion values and Constant-Murley scores remained unchanged between the 6-month and latest evaluations, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores decreased in this period (median, 71; range, 33-88 versus median, 68; range, 33-85; p = 0.009). Visual analog scale scores improved between the

  16. [Contribution of MRI to the preoperative evaluation of rotator cuff tears].

    PubMed

    Gagey, N; Desmoineaux, P; Gagey, O; Idy-Peretti, I; Mazas, F

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a series of 38 patients who had been examined by MRI and then operated for a rotator cuff syndrome. The correlation between the description of the cuff lesions after MRI and the surgical observations were excellent for 37 patients. In one case MRI showed a false image of tear of the supra spinatus m. on its anterior edge. This was due to a bad knowledge of the anatomy of the muscle and tendon and to a poor orientation of the frontal cut plane. This study was completed with MRI and anatomic study of 12 non embalmed cadaveric shoulders. The results showed that MRI was very sensitive (0.93) and specific (0.94) for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. MRI allowed also to show partial tears of the tendons of the rotator cuff. The authors propose a MRI classification of cuff lesions which permits to establish a good surgical planning.

  17. Degree of tendon degeneration and stage of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chris Hyunchul; Shin, Won Hyoung; Park, Ji Wan; Shin, Ji Sun; Kim, Ji Eun

    2017-07-01

    While tendon degeneration has been known to be an important cause of rotator cuff disease, few studies have objectively proven the association of tendon degeneration and rotator cuff disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of tendon degeneration with respect to the stage of rotator cuff disease. A total of 48 patients were included in the study: 12 with tendinopathy, 12 with a partial-thickness tear (pRCT), 12 with a full-thickness tear (fRCT), and 12 as the control. A full-thickness supraspinatus tendon sample was harvested en bloc from the middle portion between the lateral edge and the musculotendinous junction of the tendon using a biopsy punch with a diameter of 3 mm. Harvested samples were evaluated using a semi-quantitative grading scale with 7 parameters after haematoxylin and eosin staining. There was no significant difference in age, gender, symptom duration, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade between the groups except for the global fatty degeneration index. All of the seven parameters were significantly different between the groups and could be categorized as follows: early responders (fibre structure and arrangement), gradual responder (rounding of the nuclei), after-tear responders (cellularity, vascularity, and stainability), and late responder (hyalinization). The total degeneration scores were not significantly different between the control (6.08 ± 1.16) and tendinopathy (6.67 ± 1.83) (n.s.). However, the score of pRCT group (10.42 ± 1.31) was greater than that of tendinopathy (P < 0.001), and so was the score of fRCT (12.33 ± 1.15) than that of pRCT (p = 0.009). This study showed that the degeneration of supraspinatus tendon increases as the stage of rotator cuff disease progresses from tendinopathy to pRCT, and then to fRCT. The degree of degeneration of tendinopathy was not different from that of normal but aged tendons, and significant tendon degeneration began from the stage of pRCT. The clinical relevance of

  18. Triple-Loaded Single-Row Versus Suture-Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair With Platelet-Rich Plasma Fibrin Membrane: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan

    2016-05-01

    To compare the structural healing and clinical outcomes of triple-loaded single-row with suture-bridging double-row repairs of full-thickness rotator cuff tendons when both repair constructs are augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. A prospective, randomized, consecutive series of patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears no greater than 3 cm in anteroposterior length were treated with a triple-loaded single-row (20) or suture-bridging double-row (20) repair augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. The primary outcome measure was cuff integrity by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary clinical outcome measures were American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Rowe, Simple Shoulder Test, Constant, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores. The mean MRI interval was 12.6 months (range, 12-17 months). A total of 3 of 20 single-row repairs and 3 of 20 double-row repairs (15%) had tears at follow-up MRI. The single-row group had re-tears in 1 single tendon repair and 2 double tendon repairs. All 3 tears failed at the original attachment site (Cho type 1). In the double-row group, re-tears were found in 3 double tendon repairs. All 3 tears failed medial to the medial row near the musculotendinous junction (Cho type 2). All clinical outcome measures were significantly improved from the preoperative level (P < .0001), but there was no statistical difference between groups postoperatively. There is no MRI difference in rotator cuff tendon re-tear rate at 12 months postsurgery between a triple-loaded single-row repair or a suture-bridging double-row repair when both are augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. No difference could be demonstrated between these repairs on clinical outcome scores. I, Prospective randomized study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging versus ultrasound for the detection of symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Guja, Kip E; Subhas, Naveen; Virk, Mandeep S; Gold, Heather T

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound-based imaging strategies in the evaluation of a hypothetical population with a symptomatic full-thickness supraspinatus tendon (FTST) tear using formal cost-effectiveness analysis. A decision analytic model from the health care system perspective for 60-year-old patients with symptoms secondary to a suspected FTST tear was used to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of 3 imaging strategies during a 2-year time horizon: MRI, ultrasound, and ultrasound followed by MRI. Comprehensive literature search and expert opinion provided data on cost, probability, and quality of life estimates. The primary effectiveness outcome was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) through 2 years, with a willingness-to-pay threshold set to $100,000/QALY gained (2016 U.S. dollars). Costs and health benefits were discounted at 3%. Ultrasound was the least costly strategy ($1385). MRI was the most effective (1.332 QALYs). Ultrasound was the most cost-effective strategy but was not dominant. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for MRI was $22,756/QALY gained, below the willingness-to-pay threshold. Two-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that MRI was favored over the other imaging strategies over a wide range of reasonable costs. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, MRI was the preferred imaging strategy in 78% of the simulations. MRI and ultrasound represent cost-effective imaging options for evaluation of the patient thought to have a symptomatic FTST tear. The results indicate that MRI is the preferred strategy based on cost-effectiveness criteria, although the decision between MRI and ultrasound for an imaging center is likely to be dependent on additional factors, such as available resources and workflow. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff tears present a clinical challenge, often with poor outcomes after surgical repair. Degenerative changes to the muscle, tendon, and bone are thought to hinder healing after surgical repair; additionally, the ability to overcome degenerative changes after surgical repair remains unclear. Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing outcomes of muscle, tendon, and bone after tendon repair in a model of chronic rotator cuff disease and to compare these outcomes to those of acute rotator cuff injuries and repair. The hypothesis was that degenerative rotator cuff changes associated with chronic multitendon tears and muscle unloading would lead to poor structural and mechanical outcomes after repair compared with acute injuries and repair. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Chronic rotator cuff injuries, induced via detachment of the supraspinatus (SS) and infraspinatus (IS) tendons and injection of botulinum toxin A into the SS and IS muscle bellies, were created in the shoulders of rats. After 8 weeks of injury, tendons were surgically reattached to the humeral head, and an acute, dual-tendon injury and repair was performed on the contralateral side. After 8 weeks of healing, muscles were examined histologically, and tendon-to-bone samples were examined microscopically, histologically, and biomechanically and via micro–computed tomography. Results All repairs were intact at the time of dissection, with no evidence of gapping or ruptures. Tendon-to-bone healing after repair in our chronic injury model led to reduced bone quality and morphological disorganization at the repair site compared with acute injuries and repair. SS and IS muscles were atrophic at 8 weeks after repair of chronic injuries, indicating incomplete recovery after repair, whereas SS and IS muscles exhibited less atrophy and degeneration in the acute injury group at 8 weeks after repair. After chronic injuries and repair, humeral

  1. Electromechanical delay of the knee flexor muscles is impaired after harvesting hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ristanis, Stavros; Tsepis, Elias; Giotis, Dimitrios; Stergiou, Nicholas; Cerulli, Guiliano; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2009-11-01

    Changes in electromechanical delay during muscle activation are expected when there are substantial alterations in the structural properties of the musculotendinous tissue. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, specific tendons are being harvested for grafts. Thus, there is an associated scar tissue development at the tendon that may affect the corresponding electromechanical delay. This study was conducted to investigate whether harvesting of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction will affect the electromechanical delay of the knee flexors. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors evaluated 12 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus and gracilis autograft, 2 years after the reconstruction, and 12 healthy controls. Each participant performed 4 maximally explosive isometric contractions with a 1-minute break between contractions. The surface electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus was recorded from both legs during the contractions. The statistical comparisons revealed significant increases of the electromechanical delay of the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee for both investigated muscles. Specifically, the electromechanical delay values were increased for both the biceps femoris (P = .029) and the semitendinosus (P = .005) of the reconstructed knee when compared with the intact knee. Comparing the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee against healthy controls revealed similar significant differences for both muscles (semitendinosus, P = .011; biceps femoris, P = .024). The results showed that harvesting the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction significantly increased the electromechanical delay of the knee flexors. Increased hamstring electromechanical delay might impair knee safety and performance by modifying the transfer time of muscle tension to the tibia and

  2. Biceps Tendon Lengthening Surgery for Failed Serial Casting Patients With Elbow Flexion Contractures Following Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of surgical outcomes of biceps tendon lengthening (BTL) surgery in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients with elbow flexion contractures, who had unsuccessful serial casting. Background: Serial casting and splinting have been shown to be effective in correcting elbow flexion contractures in OBPI. However, the possibilities of radial head dislocations and other complications have been reported in serial casting and splinting. Literature indicates surgical intervention when such nonoperative techniques and range-of-motion exercises fail. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the contractures of the affected elbow and improvement in arm length to more normal after BTL in these patients, who had unsuccessful serial casting. Methods and Patients: Ten OBPI patients (6 girls and 4 boys) with an average age of 11.2 years (4-17.7 years) had BTL surgery after unsuccessful serial casting. Results: Mean elbow flexion contracture was 40° before and 37° (average) after serial casting. Mean elbow flexion contracture was reduced to 8° (0°-20°) post-BTL surgical procedure with an average follow-up of 11 months. This was 75% improvement and statistically significant (P < .001) when compared to 7% insignificant (P = .08) improvement after serial casting. Conclusion: These OBPI patients in our study had 75% significant reduction in elbow flexion contractures and achieved an improved and more normal length of the affected arm after the BTL surgery when compared to only 7% insignificant reduction and no improvement in arm length after serial casting. PMID:27648115

  3. Peroneal tendon pathology: Pre- and post-operative high resolution US and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Alian, Ali; Ahlawat, Shivani; Wukich, Dane K; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2017-07-01

    Peroneal tendon pathology is an important cause of lateral ankle pain and instability. Typical peroneal tendon disorders include tendinitis, tenosynovitis, partial and full thickness tendon tears, peroneal retinacular injuries, and tendon subluxations and dislocations. Surgery is usually indicated when conservative treatment fails. Familiarity with the peroneal tendon surgeries and expected postoperative imaging findings is essential for accurate assessment and to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Cross-sectional imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI provide accurate pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of the peroneal tendon pathology. In this review article, the normal anatomy, clinical presentation, imaging features, pitfalls and commonly performed surgical treatments for peroneal tendon abnormalities will be reviewed. The role of dynamic ultrasound and kinematic MRI for the evaluation of peroneal tendons will be discussed. Normal and abnormal postsurgical imaging appearances will be illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Total Knee Arthroplasty Augmented With Synthetic Mesh.

    PubMed

    Ormaza, Amaia; Moreta, Jesús; Mosquera, Javier; de Ugarte, Oskar Sáez; Mozos, José Luis Martinez-de Los

    2017-01-01

    Tear of the quadriceps tendon after revision or primary total knee arthroplasty is a rare complication, but when it occurs, this injury has serious functional consequences. In complete tears, the outcome of direct repair is unpredictable, and several authors recommend that the suture should be reinforced. Several techniques have been described, including the use of autografts, allografts, and synthetic mesh. The goal of this study was to assess the outcomes of a reconstruction technique augmented with synthetic mesh. A retrospective study was performed involving 3 patients who had chronic partial quadriceps tendon tear after total knee revision. In 2 cases, proximal quadriceps release was performed. When conservative management failed, surgical reconstruction with suture reinforced with synthetic mesh was attempted. The knee was immobilized in full extension for 6 weeks after the surgical procedure. A minimum follow-up of 12 months was required to assess results. All reconstructions showed clinical success at a mean follow-up of 19 months. Mean Knee Society Score improved from 55.7 to 87.3, with average postoperative extensor lag of 3.3° (range, 0°-10°). The mean visual analog scale pain score was 2.3 (range, 0-4). No complications were reported. Synthetic mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for patellar tendon repairs after total knee replacement, but there have been few articles on quadriceps rupture. Surgical reconstruction with synthetic mesh is a viable option that provides good functional outcomes in chronic quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):38-42.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Valeria; Wallwork, Sarah B; Stanton, Tasha R; Reverberi, Carlo; Gallace, Alberto; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one's own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration) on both 'upward-downward' and 'towards-away from the elbow' planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a 'telescoping' effect). Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow), but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length.

  6. Outcome of lower trapezius transfer to reconstruct massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem T; Wagner, Eric R; Werthel, Jean-David

    2016-08-01

    Management of massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear can be very challenging. This study reports the outcome of the lower trapezius transfer to reconstruct massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear. Included were 33 patients with an average age of 53 years (range, 31-66 years). All patients had symptomatic massive irreparable rotator cuff tear that failed conservative or prior surgical treatment and underwent reconstruction with lower trapezius transfer prolonged by Achilles tendon allograft. The tear was considered irreparable based on the magnetic resonance imaging finding of ≥2 full-thickness rotator cuff tears associated with shortening and retraction of the tendon to the level of the glenoid and a high grade of fatty infiltration of the muscles. This was confirmed at the time of the surgery. At an average follow-up of 47 months, 32 patients had significant improvement in pain, subjective shoulder value, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score and shoulder range of motion, including flexion, 120°; abduction, 90°; and external rotation 50°. One patient, with a body mass index of 36 kg/m(2), required débridement for an infection and then later underwent shoulder fusion. Patients with >60° of preoperative flexion had more significant gains in their range of motion. Shoulder external rotation improved in all patients regardless of the extent of the preoperative loss of motion. Transfer of the lower trapezius prolonged with Achilles tendon allograft to reconstruct massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear may lead to good outcome in most patients, specifically for those who have preoperative flexion of >60°. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-Versus Double-Row Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair in Massive Tears

    PubMed Central

    Wang, EnZhi; Wang, Liang; Gao, Peng; Li, ZhongJi; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, SongGang

    2015-01-01

    Background It is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons to treat massive rotator cuff tears. The optimal management of massive rotator cuff tears remains controversial. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare arthroscopic single- versus double-row rotator cuff repair with a larger sample size. Material/Methods Of the subjects with massive rotator cuff tears, 146 were treated using single-row repair, and 102 were treated using double-row repair. Pre- and postoperative functional outcomes and radiographic images were collected. The clinical outcomes were evaluated for a minimum of 2 years. Results No significant differences were shown between the groups in terms of functional outcomes. Regarding the integrity of the tendon, a lower rate of post-treatment retear was observed in patients who underwent double-row repair compared with single-row repair. Conclusions The results suggest that double-row repair is relatively superior in shoulder ROM and the strength of tendon compared with single-row repair. Future studies involving more patients in better-designed randomized controlled trials will be required. PMID:26017641

  8. Role of serum fibrinogen levels in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Loppini, Mattia; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Although rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a frequent pathology of the shoulder, the real understanding of its aetiopathogenesis is still unclear. Several studies showed that RC tendinopathy is more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. This paper aims to evaluate the serum concentration of fibrinogen in patients with RC tears. Metabolic disorders have been related to high concentration of serum fibrinogen and the activity of fibrinogen has been proven to be crucial in the development of microvascular damage. Thus, it may produce progression of RC degeneration by reducing the vascular supply of tendons. We report the results of a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study comparing the serum concentration of fibrinogen of patients with RC tears with that of a control group of patients without history of RC tears who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. We choose to enrol in the control group patients with pathology of the lower limb with a likely mechanic, not metabolic, cause, different from tendon pathology. We found no statistically significant differences in serum concentration of fibrinogen when comparing patients with RC tears and patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy (P = 0.5). Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fibrinogen in RC disease.

  9. Relationship of individual scapular anatomy and degenerative rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Moor, Beat K; Wieser, Karl; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Gerber, Christian; Bouaicha, Samy

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of rotator cuff disease is age related, as documented by prevalence data. Despite conflicting results, growing evidence suggests that distinct scapular morphologies may accelerate the underlying degenerative process. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the predictive power of 5 commonly used radiologic parameters of scapular morphology to discriminate between patients with intact rotator cuff tendons and those with torn rotator cuff tendons. A pre hoc power analysis was performed to determine the sample size. Two independent readers measured the acromion index, lateral acromion angle, and critical shoulder angle on standardized anteroposterior radiographs. In addition, the acromial morphology according to Bigliani and the acromial slope were determined on true outlet views. Measurements were performed in 51 consecutive patients with documented degenerative rotator cuff tears and in an age- and sex-matched control group of 51 patients with intact rotator cuff tendons. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine cutoff values and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of each parameter. Patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears demonstrated significantly higher acromion indices, smaller lateral acromion angles, and larger critical shoulder angles than patients with intact rotator cuffs. However, no difference was found between the acromial morphology according to Bigliani and the acromial slope. With an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.855 and an odds ratio of 10.8, the critical shoulder angle represented the strongest predictor for the presence of a rotator cuff tear. The acromion index, lateral acromion angle, and critical shoulder angle accurately predict the presence of degenerative rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Restoration of shoulder biomechanics according to degree of repair completion in a cadaveric model of massive rotator cuff tear: importance of margin convergence and posterior cuff fixation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Han; McGarry, Michelle H; Jun, Bong Jae; Gupta, Akash; Chung, Kyung Chil; Hwang, James; Lee, Thay Q

    2012-11-01

    Complete repair in massive rotator cuff tear may not be possible, allowing for only partial repair. However, the effect of partial repair on glenohumeral biomechanics has not been evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the rotational range of motion (ROM), glenohumeral kinematics, and gap formation at the repaired tendon edge following massive cuff tear and repair according to the degree of repair completion. Posterior fixation will restore the altered biomechanics of massive rotator cuff tear. Controlled laboratory study. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested at 0°, 30°, and 60° of abduction in the scapular plane. Muscle loading was applied based on physiological muscle cross-sectional area ratios. Maximum internal (MaxIR) and external rotations (MaxER) were measured. Humeral head apex (HHA) position and gap formation at the repaired tendon edge were measured using a MicroScribe from MaxIR to MaxER in 30° increments. Testing was performed for intact, massive cuff tear, complete repair, and 4 types of partial repair. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences. Massive tear significantly increased ROM and shifted HHA superiorly in MaxIR at all abduction angles (P < .05). The complete repair restored ROM to intact (P < .05), while all partial repairs did not. Abnormal HHA elevation due to massive tear was restored by all repairs (P < .05). Release of the anterior single row alone and release of the marginal convergence significantly increased gap formation at the anterior tendon edge (P < .05). This study emphasizes the importance of anterior fixation in massive cuff tear to restore rotational range of motion and decrease gap formation at the repaired tendon edge and of posterior fixation to restore abnormal glenohumeral kinematics due to massive cuff tear. If complete repair of massive cuff tear is not possible, posterior cuff (infraspinatus) repair is necessary to restore abnormal glenohumeral

  11. Biomechanical validation of load-sharing rip-stop fixation for the repair of tissue-deficient rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Denard, Patrick J; Konicek, John; Hanypsiak, Bryan T

    2014-02-01

    Poor-quality tendon is one of the most difficult problems the surgeon must overcome in achieving secure fixation during rotator cuff repair. A load-sharing rip-stop construct (LSRS) has recently been proposed as a method for improving fixation strength, but the biomechanical properties of this construct have not yet been examined. To compare the strength of the LSRS construct to that of single-row fixation for rotator cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. Rotator cuff tears were created in 6 cadaveric matched-pair specimens and repaired with a single row or an LSRS. In the LSRS repair, a 2-mm suture tape was placed as an inverted mattress stitch in the rotator cuff, and sutures from 2 anchors were placed as simple stitches that passed medial to the suture tape. The suture tape limbs were secured with knotless anchors laterally before sutures were tied from the medial anchors. Displacement was observed with video tracking after cyclic loading, and specimens were loaded to failure. The mean load to failure was 371 ± 102 N in single-row repairs compared with 616 ± 185 N in LSRS repairs (P = .031). There was no difference in displacement with cyclic loading between the groups (3.3 ± 0.8 mm vs. 3.5 ± 1.1 mm; P = .561). In the single-row group, 4 of 6 failures occurred at the suture-tendon interface. In the LSRS group, only 1 failure occurred at the suture-tendon interface. The ultimate failure load of the LSRS construct for rotator cuff repair was 1.7 times that of a single-row construct in a cadaveric model. The LSRS rotator cuff repair construct may be useful in the repair of difficult tears such as massive tears, medial tears, and tears with tendon loss.

  12. Rotator cuff tears in children and adolescents: experience at a large pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Zbojniewicz, Andrew M; Maeder, Matthew E; Emery, Kathleen H; Salisbury, Shelia R

    2014-06-01

    Prior literature, limited to small case series and case reports, suggests that rotator cuff tears are rare in adolescents. However, we have identified rotator cuff tears in numerous children and adolescents who have undergone shoulder MRI evaluation. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of rotator cuff tears in children and adolescents referred for MRI evaluation of the shoulder at a large pediatric hospital and to correlate the presence of rotator cuff tears with concurrent labral pathology, skeletal maturity and patient activity and outcomes. We reviewed reports from 455 consecutive non-contrast MRI and magnetic resonance arthrogram examinations of the shoulder performed during a 2-year period, and following exclusions we yielded 205 examinations in 201 patients (ages 8-18 years; 75 girls, 126 boys). Rotator cuff tears were classified by tendon involved, tear thickness (partial or full), surface and location of tear (when partial) and presence of delamination. We recorded concurrent labral pathology when present. Physeal patency of the proximal humerus was considered open, closing or closed. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate for a relationship between rotator cuff tears and degree of physeal patency. We obtained patient activity at the time of injury, surgical reports and outcomes from clinical records when available. Twenty-five (12.2%) rotator cuff tears were identified in 17 boys and 7 girls (ages 10-18 years; one patient had bilateral tears). The supraspinatus tendon was most frequently involved (56%). There were 2 full-thickness and 23 partial-thickness tears with articular-side partial-thickness tears most frequent (78%). Insertional partial-thickness tears were more common (78%) than critical zone tears (22%) and 10 (43%) partial-thickness tears were delamination tears. Nine (36%) patients with rotator cuff tears had concurrent labral pathology. There was no statistically significant relationship between

  13. Marked pathological changes proximal and distal to the site of rupture in acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Rabitti, Carla; Khanna, Anil; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-04-01

    A laboratory study was performed to evaluate the histopathological features of the macroscopically intact portion of the Achilles tendon in patients undergoing surgery for an acute rupture of the Achilles tendon. Tendon samples were harvested from 29 individuals (21 men, 8 women; mean age: 46 ± 12) who underwent repair of an Achilles tendon tear tear, and from 11 male patients who died of cardiovascular events (mean age: 61). Three pieces of tendon were harvested: at the rupture site, 4 cm proximal to the site of rupture, 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneum. Slides were assessed using a semiquantitative grading scale assessing fiber structure and arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, and hyalinization. Intra-observer reliability of the subscore readings was calculated. The pathological features were significantly more pronounced in the samples taken from the site of rupture than in the samples taken proximally and distal to it (0.008 < P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the mean pathologic sum-scores in the samples taken proximally and distal to the site of rupture. Unruptured Achilles tendons, even at an advanced age, and ruptured Achilles tendons are clearly part of two distinct populations, with the latter demonstrating histopathological evidence of failed healing response even in areas macroscopically normal.

  14. EGR1 induces tenogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells and promotes rabbit rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xu; Liu, Junpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhou, You; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-01-01

    The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs) using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Preservation of bursal-sided tendon in partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears: a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Yoon Sang; Kim, Rag Gyu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique that spares the intact bursal-sided tendon in articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCT) and to present shoulder functional outcomes in patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT that involves more than 50 % of its thickness after arthroscopic repair using a novel technique. Eighteen patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT involving more than 50 % of the tendon's thickness underwent arthroscopic repair using a devised technique. The devised technique restores only the torn articular portion of the rotator cuff at the anatomical footprint using a suture anchor, and preserves the integrity of the corresponding bursal-sided tendon by tying knots at the most lateral bursal side on the subacromial space. Clinical and functional outcome using ASES and Constant scores were evaluated. The structural integrity of the rotator cuff was evaluated by MRI at 6 months postoperatively. Pain relief and shoulder functional outcomes were encouraging during the recovery phase after operation. ASES (preoperative 54.0 ± 10.3 to postoperative 92.6 ± 8.0), Constant score (61.2 ± 8.5-88.0 ± 5.3), VAS for pain (4.9 ± 2.6-0.6 ± 0.7) improved significantly after arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair (p < 0.001). No patients had rotator cuff retears on 6-month MRI. No complications related to surgical procedures had occurred. The devised technique of arthroscopic transtendon repair provided satisfactory functional outcomes without postoperative discomforts. This technique minimizes over-tightening of the articular layer and reduces tension mismatches between the articular and bursal layers, which are considered as important factors for improvement of postoperative shoulder motion.

  16. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component.

  17. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Valeria; Wallwork, Sarah B.; Stanton, Tasha R.; Reverberi, Carlo; Gallace, Alberto; Moseley, G. Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one’s own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration) on both ‘upward-downward’ and ‘towards-away from the elbow’ planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a ‘telescoping’ effect). Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow), but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length. PMID:27305112

  18. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and

  19. Arthroscopically Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer in Beach-Chair Position

    PubMed Central

    Jermolajevas, Viktoras; Kordasiewicz, Bartlomiej

    2015-01-01

    Irreparable rotator cuff tears remain a surgical problem. The open technique of latissimus dorsi (LD) tendon transfer to “replace” the irreparable rotator cuff is already well known. The aim of this article is to present a modified arthroscopically assisted LD tendon transfer technique. This technique was adopted to operate on patients in the beach-chair position with several improvements in tendon harvesting and fixation. It can be divided into 6 steps, and only 1 step—LD muscle and tendon release—is performed open. The advantages of the arthroscopic procedure are sparing of the deltoid muscle, the possibility of repairing the subscapularis tendon, and the ability to visualize structures at risk while performing tendon harvesting (radial nerve) and passing into the subacromial space (axillary nerve). It is performed in a similar manner to standard rotator cuff surgery—the beach-chair position does not need any modification, and no sophisticated equipment for either the open or arthroscopic part of the procedure is necessary. Nevertheless, this is a challenging procedure and should only be attempted after training, as well as extensive practice. PMID:26759777

  20. The use of intrathecal analgesia and contrast radiography as preoperative diagnostic methods for digital flexor tendon sheath pathology.

    PubMed

    Fiske-Jackson, A R; Barker, W H J; Eliashar, E; Foy, K; Smith, R K W

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of manica flexoria (MF) tears within the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) is lower than for diagnosis of marginal tears of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Additional diagnostic tools would assist in appropriate decision making for either conservative or surgical management. To evaluate the improvement in lameness of horses with MF or DDFT tears following intrathecal analgesia and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of contrast radiography for the diagnosis of these tears. The case records of horses presented to a referral clinic over a 7-year period that underwent intrathecal diagnostic analgesia, or intrathecal analgesia and contrast radiography, of the DFTS with subsequent tenoscopy were examined. Fifty-three limbs had intrathecal diagnostic analgesia performed and 23 contrast tenograms were assessed in horses undergoing DFTS tenoscopy. Horses with DDFT tears were significantly more likely to respond positively to intrathecal diagnostic analgesia than those with MF tears (P = 0.02). Using contrast radiography, tears of the MF were predicted with an overall sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 80%; marginal tears of the DDFT were predicted with an overall sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 84%. The results of intrathecal analgesia of the DFTS in combination with contrast radiography have a high sensitivity for predicting MF tears. The sensitivity of contrast radiography for predicting tears of the DDFT is lower but the specificity remains high. Contrast radiography performed at the same time as intrathecal analgesia provides useful information regarding the presence of MF tears and DDFT tears, which can assist in the decision of whether to manage the lameness conservatively or with tenoscopic evaluation. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Rehabilitation after a grade III latissimus dorsi tear of a soccer player: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fysentzou, Christodoulos

    2016-11-21

    Latissimus dorsi, grade III tendon tears are an uncommon injury. There are very few cases reported in the literature, but most importantly, no cases could be found that relate to soccer. To present a successful, non-operative rehabilitation program for a professional athlete, after a grade III latissimus dorsi tear. A 37 year old healthy, elite professional soccer goalkeeper was injured during a championship game. The athlete fell on his left side with an outstretched and externally rotated upper extremity in order to catch a ball that was going very close to the left pole of his goal-post. After on-field and off-field clinical examinations, the diagnosis was a left latissimus dorsi tendon tear which was later confirmed by MRI as a grade III tear. During the first two weeks, intervention consisted of anti-inflammatory treatment and light therapeutic exercises. As the pain was subsiding and the strength was returning, the treatment shifted to purely strengthening and functional training. Four weeks after the injury, the athlete presented with pain 0/10 in all functional activities and full ROM in both active and passive movements. Before discharge, the athlete underwent a sport specific training program, without any complains, that cleared him to participate in normal training with the rest of the team. Three months after the injury the strength of the player's left shoulder was 5/5 in all movements. The protocol used yielded an accelerated return to sport (soccer) and function compared with other published research after a grade III latissimus dorsi tendon tear. One year later, the goalkeeper was still playing in the same competitive level without any re-injuries or complains, which means that this treatment protocol withstood the test of time.

  2. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P.; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Methods: Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Results: Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Conclusion: Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component. PMID:28400877

  3. Outcomes After Dermal Allograft Reconstruction of Chronic or Subacute Pectoralis Major Tendon Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julie A; Klein, Christopher M; van Eck, Carola F; Rahmi, Hithem; Itamura, John M

    2018-01-01

    Avoiding delay in the surgical management of pectoralis major (PM) ruptures optimizes outcomes. However, this is not always possible, and when a tear becomes chronic or when a subacute tear has poor tissue quality, a graft can facilitate reconstruction. The primary aim was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of PM reconstruction with dermal allograft augmentation for chronic tears or for subacute tears with poor tissue quality. A second aim was to determine patient and surgical factors affecting outcome. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Nineteen consecutive patients (19 PM ruptures) with a mean ± SD age of 39.1 ± 8.4 years were retrospectively reviewed at 26.4 ± 16.0 months following PM tendon reconstruction with dermal allograft. Surgery was performed at 19.2 ± 41.2 months after injury (median, 7.6 months; range, 1.1-185.4 months). Several outcome scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, including Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), as well as visual analog scale (VAS) (range, 0-10; 0 = no pain) and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE). Range of motion, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test score, and complications/reoperations were recorded postoperatively. Scores improved significantly for the DASH (preoperative, 34.9; postoperative, 8.0; P < .001) and VAS (preoperative, 5.0; postoperative, 1.5; P = .011). There was a trend toward improved SANE scores (preoperative, 15.0; postoperative, 80.0; P = .097), but the difference was not statistically significant, likely because of the small number of patients having preoperative SANE scores for review. Increased age was associated with higher VAS scores ( r = 0.628, P = .016) and less forward flexion ( r = -0.502, P = .048) and external rotation ( r = -0.654, P = .006). Patients with workers' compensation had lower scores for 3 measures: SANE (75.8 vs 88.4, P = .040), Constant (86.7 vs 93.4, P = .019), and ASES (81.9 vs 97.4, P = .016

  4. Multilayered Electrospun Scaffolds for Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chainani, Abby; Hippensteel, Kirk J.; Kishan, Alysha; Garrigues, N. William; Ruch, David S.; Guilak, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Full-thickness rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in people over the age of 65. High retear rates and poor functional outcomes are common after surgical repair, and currently available extracellular matrix scaffold patches have limited abilities to enhance new tendon formation. In this regard, tissue-engineered scaffolds may provide a means to improve repair of rotator cuff tears. Electrospinning provides a versatile method for creating nanofibrous scaffolds with controlled architectures, but several challenges remain in its application to tissue engineering, such as cell infiltration through the full thickness of the scaffold as well as control of cell growth and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that ligament-derived extracellular matrix may enhance differentiation toward a tendon or ligament phenotype by human adipose stem cells (hASCs). In this study, we investigated the use of tendon-derived extracellular matrix (TDM)-coated electrospun multilayered scaffolds compared to fibronectin (FN) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) coating for use in rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Multilayered poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds were prepared by sequentially collecting electrospun layers onto the surface of a grounded saline solution into a single scaffold. Scaffolds were then coated with TDM, FN, or PBS and seeded with hASCs. Scaffolds were maintained without exogenous growth factors for 28 days in culture and evaluated for protein content (by immunofluorescence and biochemical assay), markers of tendon differentiation, and tensile mechanical properties. The collagen content was greatest by day 28 in TDM-scaffolds. Gene expression of type I collagen, decorin, and tenascin C increased over time, with no effect of scaffold coating. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan and dsDNA contents increased over time in culture, but there was no effect of scaffold coating. The Young's modulus did not change over time, but yield strain

  5. Glenohumeral instability and rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Porcellini, Giuseppe; Caranzano, Francesco; Campi, Fabrizio; Pellegrini, Andrea; Paladini, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence of rotator cuff tears after traumatic dislocation increases with advancing age, a likely consequence of the age-associated deterioration of the structure and mechanical properties of the tendons of the rotator cuff. These are the effective stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint, compressing the humeral head in the 3-dimensional concavity of the glenohumeral joint. It is impossible to establish whether a lesion of the capsular-labrum complex or of the rotator cuff causes or follows a dislocation, regardless of whether it is anterior or posterior. A peripheral nerve or a brachial plexus injury can be associated with tendon lesion and instability, developing the "terrible triad" of the shoulder. Both conservative and surgical management are possible, and surgeons must choose the most appropriate management modality according to the biologic age, functional demands, and type of lesion.

  6. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of fixation point of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tear on glenohumeral external rotation: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bargoin, K; Boissard, M; Kany, J; Grimberg, J

    2016-12-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a surgical option for treating irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, notably when attempting to reconstruct active external rotation. We hypothesized that the positioning of the transfer's point of fixation would differ depending on the desired elbow-to-body external rotation or external rotation with the elbow abducted. Seven shoulders from four whole frozen cadavers were used. We created two systems to install the subject in a semi-seated position to allow external rotation elbow to body and the arm abducted 90°. Traction sutures were positioned on the latissimus dorsi muscle and a massive tear of the rotator cuff was created. We tested six different transfer positions. Muscle contraction of the latissimus dorsi was stimulated using 10-N and 20-N suspended weights. The point of fixation of the latissimus dorsi on the humeral head had an influence on the elbow-to-body external rotation and with 90° abduction (P<0.001). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation with the elbow to the body was the anterolateral position (P<0.016). The fixation point for a maximum external rotation at 90° abduction was the position centered on the infraspinatus footprint (P<0.078). The optimal point of fixation differs depending on whether external rotation is restored at 0° or 90° abduction. Fundamental study, anatomic study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Glenohumeral instability: evaluation with MR arthrography.

    PubMed

    Beltran, J; Rosenberg, Z S; Chandnani, V P; Cuomo, F; Beltran, S; Rokito, A

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance arthrography is superior to other imaging techniques in evaluation of the glenohumeral joint. Normal variants that can be diagnostic pitfalls include the anterosuperior sublabral foramen, the Buford complex, and hyaline cartilage under the labrum. Anteroinferior dislocation is the most frequent cause of anterior glenohumeral instability and produces a constellation of lesions (anteroinferior labral tear, classic and osseous Bankart lesions, Hill-Sachs lesion). Variants of anteroinferior labral tears include anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion and glenoid labral articular disruption. Anterior glenohumeral instability can also involve tears of the anterior or anterosuperior labrum or the glenohumeral ligaments. Posterior glenohumeral instability can involve a posterior labral tear, posterior capsular stripping or laxity; fracture, erosion, or sclerosis and ectopic ossification of the posterior glenoid fossa; reverse Hill-Sachs lesion; McLaughlin fracture; or posterosuperior glenoid impingement. Superior labral anterior and posterior lesions involve the superior labrum with varying degrees of biceps tendon involvement.

  9. Distal Insertions of the Biceps Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Eric A.; Anz, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Avulsion of the biceps femoris from the fibula and proximal tibia is encountered in clinical practice. While the anatomy of the primary posterolateral corner structures has been qualitatively and quantitatively described, a quantitative analysis regarding the insertions of the biceps femoris on the fibula and proximal tibia is lacking. Purpose: To quantitatively assess the insertions of the biceps femoris, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), and anterolateral ligament (ALL) on the fibula and proximal tibia as well as establish relationships among these structures and to pertinent surgical anatomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissections were performed on 12 nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens identifying the biceps femoris, FCL, and ALL, and their insertions on the proximal tibia and fibula. The footprint areas, orientations, and distances from relevant osseous landmarks were measured using a 3-dimensional coordinate measurement device. Results: Dissection produced 6 easily identifiable and reproducible anatomic footprints. Tibial footprints included the insertion of the ALL and an insertion of the biceps femoris (TBF). Fibular footprints included the insertion of the FCL, a distal insertion of the biceps femoris (DBF), a medial footprint of the biceps femoris (MBF), and a proximal footprint of the biceps femoris (PBF). The mean area of these footprints (95% CI) was as follows: ALL, 53.0 mm2 (38.4-67.6); TBF, 93.9 mm2 (72.0-115.8); FCL, 86.8 mm2 (72.3-101.2); DBF, 119 mm2 (91.1-146.9); MBF, 46.8 mm2 (29.0-64.5); and PBF, 215 mm2 (192.4-237.5). The mean distance (95% CI) from the Gerdy tubercle to the center of the ALL footprint was 24.3 mm (21.6-27.0) and to the center of the TBF was 22.5 mm (21.0-24.0). The center of the DBF was 8.68 mm (7.0-10.3) from the anterior border of the fibula, the center of the FCL was 14.6 mm (12.5-16.7) from the anterior border of the fibula and 20.7 mm (19.0-22.4) from the tip of the fibular

  10. Tendon Reattachment to Bone in an Ovine Tendon Defect Model of Retraction Using Allogenic and Xenogenic Demineralised Bone Matrix Incorporated with Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Shahbazi, Shirin; Pendegrass, Catherine J; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W

    2016-01-01

    Tendon-bone healing following rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. Demineralised bone matrix promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface but its role in the treatment of tendon tears with retraction has not been investigated. We hypothesized that cortical demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells will result in improved function and restoration of the tendon-bone interface with no difference between xenogenic and allogenic scaffolds. In an ovine model, the patellar tendon was detached from the tibial tuberosity and a complete distal tendon transverse defect measuring 1 cm was created. Suture anchors were used to reattach the tendon and xenogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5), or allogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5) were used to bridge the defect. Graft incorporation into the tendon and its effect on regeneration of the enthesis was assessed using histomorphometry. Force plate analysis was used to assess functional recovery. Compared to the xenograft, the allograft was associated with significantly higher functional weight bearing at 6 (P = 0.047), 9 (P = 0.028), and 12 weeks (P = 0.009). In the allogenic group this was accompanied by greater remodeling of the demineralised bone matrix into tendon-like tissue in the region of the defect (p = 0.015), and a more direct type of enthesis characterized by significantly more fibrocartilage (p = 0.039). No failures of tendon-bone healing were noted in either group. Demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface in an ovine model of acute tendon retraction, with superior mechanical and histological results associated with use of an allograft.

  11. Analysis of achilles tendon vascularity with second-generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Eugenio; Ronga, Mario; Recaldini, Chiara; Fontana, Federico; Callegari, Leonardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    To compare morphological, power Doppler, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of the Achilles tendon between asymptomatic athletes and athletes who had undergone surgical repair of a previous rupture. Twenty-four athletes were divided in two groups (A and B). Group A included 14 patients with a median age of 32 years (range 27 to 47 years) who had undergone surgical repair for unilateral Achilles tendon rupture. Group B (control group) included 10 subjects with a median age of 34 years (range 27 to 40 years) with no previous or present history of tendinopathy. All patients were evaluated with ultrasound, power Doppler, and CEUS with second-generation contrast agent. We studied the uninjured Achilles tendon in athletes of group A and either the left or the right Achilles tendon of the athletes in group B. CEUS showed a significantly greater ability to detect a greater number of vascular spots within the uninjured tendon of group A compared to group B (<0.05). In athletes who had suffered a tear of an Achilles tendon, CEUS detected small vessels that were not identified by power Doppler ultrasound in the uninjured contralateral Achilles tendon. CEUS is useful to evaluate vascularity not detected by other imaging techniques. Vascularity in the uninjured tendon seems to be increased in patients who had a previous rupture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Novel fiber-based pure chitosan scaffold for tendon augmentation: biomechanical and cell biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, J; Aibibu, D; Farack, J; Nimtschke, U; Hild, M; Gelinsky, M; Kasten, P; Cherif, Ch

    2016-07-01

    One possibility to improve the mechanical properties after tendon ruptures is augmentation with a scaffold. Based on wet spinning technology, chitosan fibres were processed to a novel pure high-grade multifilament yarn with reproducible quality. The fibres were braided to obtain a 3D tendon scaffold. The CS fibres and scaffolds were evaluated biomechanically and compared to human supraspinatus (SSP) tendons. For the cytobiological characterization, in vitro cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were performed. Three types of 3D circular braided scaffolds were fabricated. Significantly, higher ultimate stress values were measured for scaffold with larger filament yarn, compared to scaffold with smaller filament yarn. During cultivation over 28 days, the cells showed in dependence of isolation method and/or donor a doubling or tripling of the cell number or even a six-fold increase on the CS scaffold, which was comparable to the control (polystyrene) or in the case of cells obtained from human biceps tendon even higher proliferation rates. After 14 days, the scaffold surface was covered homogeneously with a cell layer. In summary, the present work demonstrates that braided chitosan scaffolds constitute a straightforward approach for designing tendon analogues, maintaining important flexibility in scaffold design and providing favourable mechanical properties of the resulting construct.

  13. A prospective multipractice investigation of patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears: the importance of comorbidities, practice, and other covariables on self-assessed shoulder function and health status.

    PubMed

    Harryman, Douglas T; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Smith, Kevin L; Campbell, Barry; Sidles, John A; Matsen, Frederick A

    2003-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are among the most common conditions of the shoulder. One of the major difficulties in studying patients with rotator cuff tears is that the clinical expression of these tears varies widely and different practices may have substantially different patient populations. The goals of the present prospective multipractice study were to use patient self-assessment questionnaires (1) to identify some of the characteristics of patients with rotator cuff tears, other than the size of the cuff tear, that are correlated with shoulder function, and (2) to determine whether there are significant differences in these characteristics among patients from the practices of different surgeons. Ten surgeons enrolled a total of 333 patients with a full-thickness tear of the supraspinatus tendon into this prospective study. Each patient completed self-assessment questionnaires that included items regarding demographic characteristics, prior treatment, medical and social comorbidities, general health status, and shoulder function. As expected, patients who had an infraspinatus tendon tear as well as a supraspinatus tendon tear had significantly worse ability to use the arm overhead compared with those who had a supraspinatus tear alone (p < 0.005). However, shoulder function and health status were correlated with patient characteristics other than the size of the rotator cuff tear. The number of shoulder functions that were performable was correlated with the subscales of the Short Form-36 and was inversely associated with medical and social comorbidities. The patients from the ten different surgeon practices showed significant differences in almost every parameter, including age, gender, method of tear documentation, tear size, prior treatment, medical and social comorbidities, general health status, and shoulder function. Clinical studies on the natural history of rotator cuff tears and the effectiveness of treatment must control for a wide range of variables, many

  14. Is the Dresden technique a mechanical design of choice suitable for the repair of middle third Achilles tendon ruptures? A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, C; Carreño-Zillmann, G; Marambio, H; Henríquez, H

    2016-01-01

    To compare the mechanical failure of the Dresden technique for Achilles tendon repair with the double modified Kessler technique controlled repair technique. The maximum resistance of the two repair techniques are also compared. A total of 30 Achilles tendon ruptures in bovine specimens were repaired with an Ethibond(®) suture to 4.5cm from the calcaneal insertion. Each rupture was randomly distributed into one of two surgical groups. After repair, each specimen was subjected to a maximum traction test. The mechanical failure (tendon, suture, or knot) rates (proportions) were compared using the exact Fisher test (α=.05), and the maximum resistances using the Student t test (α=.05). There was a difference in the proportions of mechanical failures, with the most frequent being a tendon tear in the Dresden technique, and a rupture of the suture in the Kessler technique. The repair using the Dresden technique performed in the open mode, compared to the Kessler technique, has a more suitable mechanical design for the repair of middle third Achilles tendon ruptures on developing a higher tensile resistance in 58.7%. However, its most common mechanical failure was a tendon tear, which due to inappropriate loads could lead to lengthening of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The histology of tendon attachments to bone in man.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Evans, E J; Copp, L

    1986-01-01

    Based on a parallel study of a wide range of human tendons from embalmed dissecting room subjects and from a study of dried bones, an explanation is offered for the well known similarity in gross appearance between the markings left by certain tendons (e.g. those of the rotator cuff) and by articular surfaces on dried bones. Epiphyseal tendons leave markings on bones that look like those left by articular surfaces. These tendons have a prominent zone of fibrocartilage at their attachment site and the deepest part of this is calcified, just as the deepest part of articular hyaline cartilage is calcified. After maceration of the soft tissues, the calcified (fibro) cartilage is left attached to the bone at articular surfaces and at the sites of tendon attachment. In all cases, the tissues separate at the basophilic tidemark between the calcified and uncalcified regions. This tidemark is smooth where there is much overlying uncalcified (fibro) cartilage and it is the smoothness that gives the typical appearance of the dried bone. Blood vessels do not generally traverse the tendon fibrocartilage plugs. Hence the areas are devoid of vascular foramina. The functional significance of tendon fibrocartilage is discussed with particular reference to supraspinatus. It is suggested that the uncalcified fibrocartilage ensures that the tendon fibres do not bend, splay out or become compressed at a hard tissue interface, and are thereby offered some protection from wear and tear. It is also suggested that the fibrocartilage plug of supraspinatus prevents the tendon from rubbing on the head of the humerus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693113

  16. Physical tests for shoulder impingements and local lesions of bursa, tendon or labrum that may accompany impingement.

    PubMed

    Hanchard, Nigel C A; Lenza, Mário; Handoll, Helen H G; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2013-04-30

    Impingement is a common cause of shoulder pain. Impingement mechanisms may occur subacromially (under the coraco-acromial arch) or internally (within the shoulder joint), and a number of secondary pathologies may be associated. These include subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis (inflammation of the subacromial portion of the bursa, the subdeltoid portion, or both), tendinopathy or tears affecting the rotator cuff or the long head of biceps tendon, and glenoid labral damage. Accurate diagnosis based on physical tests would facilitate early optimisation of the clinical management approach. Most people with shoulder pain are diagnosed and managed in the primary care setting. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of physical tests for shoulder impingements (subacromial or internal) or local lesions of bursa, rotator cuff or labrum that may accompany impingement, in people whose symptoms and/or history suggest any of these disorders. We searched electronic databases for primary studies in two stages. In the first stage, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and DARE (all from inception to November 2005). In the second stage, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED (2005 to 15 February 2010). Searches were delimited to articles written in English. We considered for inclusion diagnostic test accuracy studies that directly compared the accuracy of one or more physical index tests for shoulder impingement against a reference test in any clinical setting. We considered diagnostic test accuracy studies with cross-sectional or cohort designs (retrospective or prospective), case-control studies and randomised controlled trials. Two pairs of review authors independently performed study selection, assessed the study quality using QUADAS, and extracted data onto a purpose-designed form, noting patient characteristics (including care setting), study design, index tests and reference standard, and the diagnostic 2 x 2 table. We presented information on sensitivities and specificities with

  17. Rotator cuff disorders: How to write a surgically relevant magnetic resonance imaging report?

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Ahmed M; El-Morsy, Ahmad; Badran, Mohamed Aboelnour

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of rotator cuff is a common indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning of the shoulder. Conventional MRI is the most commonly used technique, while magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is reserved for certain cases. Rotator cuff disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of internal and external mechanisms. A well-structured MRI report should comment on the relevant anatomic structures including the acromial type and orientation, the presence of os acromiale, acromio-clavicular degenerative spurs and fluid in the subacromial subdeltoid bursa. In addition, specific injuries of the rotator cuff tendons and the condition of the long head of biceps should be accurately reported. The size and extent of tendon tears, tendon retraction and fatty degeneration or atrophy of the muscles are all essential components of a surgically relevant MRI report. PMID:24976930

  18. High-resolution US and MR imaging of peroneal tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Alcala, Jennifer N; Gimber, Lana H; Rieke, Joshua D; Chilvers, Margaret M; Latt, L Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the peroneal tendon complex are common and should be considered in every patient who presents with chronic lateral ankle pain. These injuries occur as a result of trauma (including ankle sprains), in tendons with preexisting tendonopathy, and with repetitive microtrauma due to instability. The peroneus brevis and peroneus longus tendons are rarely torn simultaneously. Several anatomic variants, including a flat or convex fibular retromalleolar groove, hypertrophy of the peroneal tubercle at the lateral aspect of the calcaneus, an accessory peroneus quartus muscle, a low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly, and an os peroneum, may predispose to peroneal tendon injuries. High-resolution 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with use of dedicated extremity coils and high-resolution ultrasonography (US) with high-frequency linear transducers and dynamic imaging are proved to adequately depict the peroneal tendons for evaluation and can aid the orthopedic surgeon in injury management. An understanding of current treatment approaches for partial- and full-thickness peroneal tendon tears, subluxation and dislocation of these tendons with superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR) injuries, intrasheath subluxations, and peroneal tendonopathy and tenosynovitis can help physicians achieve a favorable outcome. Patients with low functional demands do well with conservative treatment, while those with high functional demands may benefit from surgery if nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. Radiologists should recognize the normal anatomy and specific pathologic conditions of the peroneal tendons at US and MR imaging and understand the various treatment options for peroneal tendon and SPR superior peroneal retinaculum injuries. Online supplemental material is available for this article. RSNA, 2015

  19. Arthroscopic transtendinous repair of articular-sided pasta (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface.

  20. Advanced Rotator Cuff Tear Score (ARoCuS): a multi-scaled tool for the classification and description of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Walter, S G; Stadler, T; Thomas, T S; Thomas, W

    2018-03-02

    To introduce a (semi-)quantitative surgical score for the classification of rotator cuff tears. A total of 146 consecutive patients underwent rotator cuff repair and were assessed using the previously defined Advanced Rotator Cuff Tear Score (ARoCuS) criteria: muscle tendon, size, tissue quality, pattern as well as mobilization of the tear. The data set was split into a training (125 patients) and a testing set (21 patients). The training data set fitted a nonlinear predictive model of the tear score based on the ARoCuS criteria, while the testing data served as control. Based on the scoring results, rotator cuff tears were assigned to one of four categories (ΔV I-IV) and received a stage-adapted treatment. For statistical analysis, mean values ± standard deviation, interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa values were calculated. Overall, 32 patients were classified as ΔV I, 68 as ΔV II and 37 as ΔV III. Nine patients showed ΔV IV tears. Patients of all ΔV groups improved significantly their Constant scores (p < 0.001) and profited from significant pain reduction after surgery (p < 0.001). To date, ten patients have undergone revision surgery with five of them primarily classified as ΔV IV. Kappa values for the interobserver reliability ranged between 0.69 and 0.95. ICC scores for the ΔV category were 0.95 for interobserver reliability. The ARoCuS facilitates intra-operative decision-making and enables surgeons and researches to document rotator cuff tears in a standardized and reproducible manner.

  1. [Normal anatomy and related pathological changes of shoulder on MRI].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Q; Katsuya, N

    2000-04-01

    To describe the normal anatomy and common abnormal changes of rotator cuff impingement and tears and recurrent anterior instability of shoulder joint in MRI pictures. MRI was compared in 285 patients with shoulder diseases and 20 patients with symptomatic shoulder diseases. On oblique coronal image, the supraspinatus presented moderate signal intensity and low signal intensity in its tendon-muscle conjunction ranging from the humeral head to the greater tuberosity. The MRI manifestations of impingement lesion of the rotator cuff were as follows: high signal intensity of tendons, changes of their shapes, retraction of tendon-muscle conjunction, and muscle atrophy with high signal intensity. On T1-weighted axial image, the anterior and posterior glenohumeral labrum, the long head biceps tendon were displayed in low signal intensity. The anterior labrum manifested a sharp triangle contour and the posterior labrum a round one. The whole four muscles of the rotator cuff manifested on oblique sagital image. However, it was of less value in detecting the abnormalities of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral labrum on sagittal imaging. The sensitivity in demonstrating rotator cuff complete tear was 95% for MRI and 91% for arthrography; the specificity was 88% for MRI and 100% for arthrography. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 96% and 75% for detecting glenoid labrum abnormalities, and 78% and 88% for detecting labrum tear in anterior recurrent dislocation of the shoulder. Magnetic resonance imaging with its excellent contrast resolution in multiple anatomic planes allows noninvasive visualization of bone and soft tissues in the rotator cuff and labrum.

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced RhoA signaling and prolonged macrophage infiltration worsens fibrosis and fatty infiltration following rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael R; Lee, Lawrence; Feeley, Brian T; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation is involved in the development of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration following massive tendon tears. Increased RhoA signaling has been reported in chronic muscle degeneration, such as muscular dystrophy. However, the role of RhoA signaling in macrophage infiltration and rotator muscle degeneration remains unknown. Using a previously established rat model of massive rotator cuff tears, we found RhoA signaling is upregulated in rotator cuff muscle following a massive tendon-nerve injury. This increase in RhoA expression is greatly potentiated by the administration of a potent RhoA activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is accompanied by increased TNFα and TGF-β1 expression in rotator cuff muscle. Boosting RhoA signaling with LPA significantly worsened rotator cuff muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration, accompanied with massive monocytic infiltration of rotator cuff muscles. Co-staining of RhoA and the tissue macrophage marker CD68 showed that CD68+ tissue macrophages are the dominant cell source of increased RhoA signaling in rotator cuff muscles after tendon tears. Taken together, our findings suggest that LPA-mediated RhoA signaling in injured muscle worsens the outcomes of atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration by increasing macrophage infiltraion in rotator cuff muscle. Clinically, inhibiting RhoA signaling may represent a future direction for developing new treatments to improve muscle quality following massive rotator cuff tears. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Incidence of Major Tendon Ruptures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in US Army Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    the effect of activity, race, age, or gender. The majority of the reports have been case studies or focused on one particular tendon and do not have...forces created by eccentric muscle activation are usually responsible for tendon failure. 1312 White et al The American Journal of Sports Medicine...Activities that maximize eccentric loading, such as repeti- tive jumping and sprinting exercises for the lower extrem- ities (bench press for the pectoralis

  4. Prolonged passive static stretching-induced innervation zone shift in biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a bout of repeated and prolonged passive static stretching on the innervation zone (IZ) location of the human biceps brachii muscle. Eleven men performed 12 sets of 100-s passive stretches on their biceps brachii. Before (Pre) and immediately after (Post) the stretching intervention, isometric strength was tested during the maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the forearm flexors. The subjects also performed several separate isometric forearm flexion muscle actions at 30%, 50%, and 70% of their predetermined MVCs for examining the locations of the IZ at different contraction intensities. The IZ was identified through multi-channel surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from a linear electrode array. The stretching intervention induced an average of 10% isometric strength loss for the forearm flexors (mean±SD: Pre-MVC vs. Post-MVC=332.12±59.40 N vs. 299.53±70.51 N; p<0.001). In addition, the average IZ shift was nearly 4.5 mm in average in the proximal direction. However, this shift was not specific to the contraction intensity. We believe that the IZ shift was caused by the elongation of the entire muscle-tendon unit in the proximal direction. Therefore, caution should be taken when using surface EMG technique to examine possible changes in the EMG variables after a stretching protocol, as these variables can be contaminated by the shift of the IZ.

  5. Rotator Cuff Repair with a Tendon-Fibrocartilage-Bone Composite Bridging Patch

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qingshan; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Qu, Jin; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the mechanical performance of a rotator cuff repaired with a novel tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch vs the traditional Mason-Allen repair in an in vitro canine model. Methods Twenty shoulders and 10 bridging patches from patellar tendon were harvested. The patches were trimmed and sliced into 2 layers. An infraspinatus tendon tear was created in each shoulder. Modified Mason-Allen sutures were used to repair the infraspinatus tendon to the greater tuberosity, with or without the bridging patch (bridging patch group and controls, respectively). Shoulders were loaded to failure under displacement control at a rate of 0.5mm/sec. Findings The ultimate tensile load was significantly higher in the bridging patch group than control (mean [SD], 365.46 [36.45] vs 272.79 [48.88] N; P<.001). Stiffness at the greater tuberosity repair site and the patch-infraspinatus tendon repair site was significantly higher than the control repair site (93.96 [27.72] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm P<.001; 65.94 [24.51] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm P=.02, respectively). Interpretation The tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch achieved higher ultimate tensile load and stiffness at the patch–greater tuberosity repair site compared with traditional repair in a canine model. This composite tissue transforms the traditional tendon-to-bone healing interface (with dissimilar tissues) into a pair of bone-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon interfaces, which may improve healing quality and reduce retear rate. PMID:26190097

  6. Rotator cuff repair with a tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qingshan; Thoreson, Andrew R; Qu, Jin; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-11-01

    To compare the mechanical performance of a rotator cuff repaired with a novel tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch vs the traditional Mason-Allen repair in an in vitro canine model. Twenty shoulders and 10 bridging patches from patellar tendon were harvested. The patches were trimmed and sliced into 2 layers. An infraspinatus tendon tear was created in each shoulder. Modified Mason-Allen sutures were used to repair the infraspinatus tendon to the greater tuberosity, with or without the bridging patch (bridging patch group and controls, respectively). Shoulders were loaded to failure under displacement control at a rate of 0.5mm/s. The ultimate tensile load was significantly higher in the bridging patch group than control (mean [SD], 365.46 [36.45] vs 272.79 [48.88] N; P<.001). Stiffness at the greater tuberosity repair site and the patch-infraspinatus tendon repair site was significantly higher than the control repair site (93.96 [27.72] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm P<.001; 65.94 [24.51] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm P=.02, respectively). The tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch achieved higher ultimate tensile load and stiffness at the patch-greater tuberosity repair site compared with traditional repair in a canine model. This composite tissue transforms the traditional tendon-to-bone healing interface (with dissimilar tissues) into a pair of bone-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon interfaces, which may improve healing quality and reduce retear rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. bicep2/ KECK ARRAY . IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Barkats, D.

    2015-06-18

    bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS P. A. R. Ade1, R. W. Aikin2, D. Barkats3, S. J. Benton4, C. A. Bischoff5, J. J. Bock2,6, K. J. Bradford5, J. A. Brevik2, I. Buder5, E. Bullock7Show full author list Published 2015 June 18 • © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 806, Number 2 Article PDF Figures Tables References Citations 273 Total downloads Cited by 6 articles Turn on MathJax Share this article Get permission to re-use this article Article information Abstract bicep2 and the Keck Array aremore » polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array share a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.« less

  8. Patch-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi Transfer and Open Reduction–Internal Fixation of Unstable Os Acromiale for Irreparable Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Millett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a reasonable treatment option for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears that can substantially improve chronically painful and dysfunctional shoulders. This report and accompanying video describe the treatment of an active 43-year-old man with severe pain and weakness in the right shoulder after 3 failed rotator cuff repairs. Preoperative imaging showed a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear retracted to the glenoid as well as a hypermobile os acromiale likely causing dynamic impingement and recurrent rotator cuff tears. After diagnostic arthroscopy, the latissimus tendon is harvested and augmented with a 3-mm human acellular dermal patch (ArthroFlex; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The native rotator cuff tissue is repaired as much as possible, and the latissimus tendon is passed underneath the deltoid and posterior to the teres minor. The patch-augmented tendon is then integrated into a double-row SpeedBridge repair of eight 4.75-mm BioComposite SwiveLock anchors (Arthrex). The bony surface of the os acromiale is prepared and then fixed to the acromion with 2 cannulated partially threaded screws and additional tension-band wiring. Postoperative rehabilitation initially focuses on early passive range of motion, followed by active and active-assisted motion and a biofeedback program starting at 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26697309

  9. Engineering tendon and ligament tissues: present developments towards successful clinical products.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcia T; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2013-09-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Among them, tendon and ligament injuries represent an important aspect to consider in both athletes and active working people. Tendon and ligament damage is an important cause of joint instability, and progresses into early onset of osteoarthritis, pain, disability and eventually the need for joint replacement surgery. The social and economical burden associated with these medical conditions presents a compelling argument for greater understanding and expanding research on this issue. The particular physiology of tendons and ligaments (avascular, hypocellular and overall structural mechanical features) makes it difficult for currently available treatments to reach a complete and long-term functional repair of the damaged tissue, especially when complete tear occurs. Despite the effort, the treatment modalities for tendon and ligament are suboptimal, which have led to the development of alternative therapies, such as the delivery of growth factors, development of engineered scaffolds or the application of stem cells, which have been approached in this review. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Morphologic Characteristics and Strength of the Hamstring Muscles Remain Altered at 2 Years After Use of a Hamstring Tendon Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Jason M; Vertullo, Christopher J; Kennedy, Ben A; Bush, Hamish S; Barrett, Rod S; Lloyd, David G

    2016-10-01

    The hamstring tendon graft used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been shown to lead to changes to the semitendinosus and gracilis musculature. We hypothesized that (1) loss of donor muscle size would significantly correlate with knee muscle strength deficits, (2) loss of donor muscle size would be greater for muscles that do not experience tendon regeneration, and (3) morphological adaptations would also be evident in nondonor knee muscles. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty participants (14 men and 6 women, mean age 29 ± 7 years, mean body mass 82 ± 15 kg) who had undergone an ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon graft at least 2 years previously underwent bilateral magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent strength testing. Muscle and tendon volumes, peak cross-sectional areas (CSAs), and lengths were determined for 12 muscles and 6 functional muscle groups of the surgical and contralateral limbs. Peak isokinetic concentric strength was measured in knee flexion/extension and internal/external tibial rotation. Only 35% of the patients showed regeneration of both the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. The regenerated tendons were longer with larger volume and CSA compared with the contralateral side. Deficits in semitendinosus and gracilis muscle size were greater for muscles in which tendons did not regenerate. In addition, combined hamstring muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) and combined medial knee muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, vastus medialis, medial gastrocnemius, and sartorius) on the surgical side were reduced in volume by 12% and 10%, respectively. A 7% larger volume was observed in the surgical limb for the biceps femoris muscle and corresponded with a lower internal/external tibial rotation strength ratio. The difference in volume, peak CSA, and length of the semitendinosus and gracilis correlated significantly with the deficit in knee flexion strength, with

  11. Biomechanical effect of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable massive cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Han; Tilan, Justin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chung, Kyung Chil; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical effects of latissimus dorsi transfer in a cadaveric model of massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear. Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested at 0°, 30°, and 60° of abduction in the scapular plane with anatomically based muscle loading. Humeral rotational range of motion and the amount of humeral rotation due to muscle loading were measured. Glenohumeral kinematics and contact characteristics were measured throughout the range of motion. After testing in the intact condition, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus were resected. The cuff tear was then repaired by latissimus dorsi transfer. Two muscle loading conditions were applied after latissimus transfer to simulate increased tension that may occur due to limited muscle excursion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The amount of internal rotation due to muscle loading and maximum internal rotation increased with massive cuff tear and was restored with latissimus transfer (P < .05). At maximum internal rotation, the humeral head apex shifted anteriorly, superiorly, and laterally at 0° of abduction after massive cuff tear (P < .05); this abnormal shift was corrected with latissimus transfer (P < .05). However, at 30° and 60° of abduction, latissimus transfer significantly altered kinematics (P < .05) and latissimus transfer with increased muscle loading increased contact pressure, especially at 60° of abduction. Latissimus dorsi transfer is beneficial in restoring humeral internal/external rotational range of motion, the internal/external rotational balance of the humerus, and glenohumeral kinematics at 0° of abduction. However, latissimus dorsi transfer with simulated limited excursion may lead to an overcompensation that can further deteriorate normal biomechanics, especially at higher abduction angles. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Functional Consequence of Distal Brachioradialis Tendon Release: A Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tirrell, Timothy F.; Franko, Orrin I.; Bhola, Siddharth; Hentzen, Eric R.; Abrams, Reid A.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures often necessitates release of the brachioradialis from the radial styloid. However, this common procedure has the potential to decrease elbow flexion strength. To determine the potential morbidity associated with brachioradialis release, we measured the change in elbow torque as a function of incremental release of the brachioradialis insertion footprint. Methods In 5 upper extremity cadaveric specimens, the brachioradialis tendon was systematically released from the radius, and the resultant effect on brachioradialis elbow flexion torque was measured. Release distance was defined as the distance between the release point and the tip of the radial styloid. Results Brachioradialis elbow flexion torque dropped to 95%, 90% and 86% of its original value at release distances of 27mm, 46mm, and 52mm, respectively. Importantly, brachioradialis torque remained above 80% of its original value at release distances up to 7 centimeters. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that release of the brachioradialis tendon from its insertion has minor effects on its ability to transmit force to the distal radius. Clinical Relevance These data may imply that release of the distal brachioradialis tendon during distal radius open reduction internal fixation can be performed without meaningful functional consequences to elbow flexion torque. Even at large release distances, overall elbow flexion torque loss after brachioradialis release would be expected to be less than 5% due to the much larger contributions of the biceps and brachialis. Use of the brachioradialis as a tendon transfer donor should not be limited by concerns of elbow flexion loss, and the tendon could be considered as an autograft donor. PMID:23528425

  13. Influence of the initial rupture size and tendon subregion on three-dimensional biomechanical properties of single-row and double-row rotator cuff reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Lorbach, O; Pape, D; Raber, F; Busch, L C; Kohn, D; Kieb, M

    2012-11-01

    Influence of the initial rotator cuff tear size and of different subregions of the SSP tendon on the cyclic loading behavior of a modified single-row reconstruction compared to a suture-bridging double-row repair. Artificial tears (25 and 35 mm) were created in the rotator cuff of 24 human cadaver shoulders. The reconstructions were performed as a single-row repair (SR) using a modified suture configuration or a suture-bridge double-row repair (DR). Radiostereometric analysis was used under cyclic loading (50 cycles, 10–180 N, 10–250 N) to calculate cyclic displacement in three different planes (anteroposterior (x), craniocaudal (y) and mediolateral (z) level). Cyclic displacement was recorded, and differences in cyclic displacement of the anterior compared to the posterior subregions of the tendon were calculated. In small-to-medium tears (25 mm) and medium-to-large tears (35 mm), significant lower cyclic displacement was seen for the SR-reconstruction compared to the DR-repair at 180 N (p ≤ 0.0001; p = 0.001) and 250 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.007) in the x-level. These results were confirmed in the y-level at 180 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.0022) and 250 N (p = 0.005; p = 0.0018). Comparison of the initial tear sizes demonstrated significant differences in cyclic displacement for the DR technique in the x-level at 180 N (p = 0.002) and 250 N (p = 0.004). Comparison of the anterior versus the posterior subregion of the tendon revealed significant lower gap formation in the posterior compared to the anterior subregions in the x-level for both tested rotator cuff repairs (p ≤ 0.05). The tested single-row repair using a modified suture configuration achieved superior results in three-dimensional measurements of cyclic displacement compared to the tested double-row suture-bridge repair. The results were dependent on the initial rupture size of the rotator cuff tear. Furthermore, significant differences were found between tendon subregions of the rotator cuff with

  14. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  15. bicep2/KECK ARRAY. IV. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF THE bicep2 AND KECK ARRAY EXPERIMENTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.

    2015-06-20

    bicep2 and the Keck Array are polarization-sensitive microwave telescopes that observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the South Pole at degree angular scales in search of a signature of inflation imprinted as B-mode polarization in the CMB. bicep2 was deployed in late 2009, observed for three years until the end of 2012 at 150 GHz with 512 antenna-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers, and has reported a detection of B-mode polarization on degree angular scales. The Keck Array was first deployed in late 2010 and will observe through 2016 with five receivers at several frequencies (95, 150, and 220 GHz). bicep2 and the Keck Array sharemore » a common optical design and employ the field-proven bicep1 strategy of using small-aperture, cold, on-axis refractive optics, providing excellent control of systematics while maintaining a large field of view. This design allows for full characterization of far-field optical performance using microwave sources on the ground. Here we describe the optical design of both instruments and report a full characterization of the optical performance and beams of bicep2 and the Keck Array at 150 GHz.« less

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of a single-row versus double-row repair for complete subscapularis tears.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Mathias; Wiebringhaus, Philipp; Lodde, Ina; Waizy, Hazibullah; Becher, Christoph; Raschke, Michael J; Petersen, Wolf

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a single-row repair and a double-row repair technique for the specific characteristics of a complete subscapularis lesion. Ten pairs of human cadaveric shoulder human shoulder specimens were tested for stiffness and ultimate tensile strength of the intact tendons in a load to failure protocol. After a complete subscapularis tear was provoked, the specimens were assigned to two treatment groups: single-row repair (1) and a double-row repair using a "suture bridge" technique (2). After repair cyclic loading a subsequent load to failure protocol was performed to determine the ultimate tensile load, the stiffness and the elongation behaviour of the reconstructions. The intact subscapularis tendons had a mean stiffness of 115 N/mm and a mean ultimate load of 720 N. The predominant failure mode of the intact tendons was a tear at the humeral insertion site (65%). The double-row technique restored 48% of the ultimate load of the intact tendons (332 N), while the single-row technique revealed a significantly lower ultimate load of 244 N (P = 0.001). In terms of the stiffness, the double-row technique showed a mean stiffness of 81 N/mm which is significantly higher compared to the stiffness of the single-row repairs of 55 N/mm (P = 0.001). The double-row technique has been shown to be stronger and stiffer when compared to a conventional single-row repair. Therefore, this technique is recommended from a biomechanical point of view irrespectively if performed by an open or arthroscopic approach.

  17. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes With Assessment of the Learning Curve in Arthroscopically Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Irreparable Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Yamakado, Kotaro

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of an arthroscopy-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (aLD) for irreparable posterosuperior cuff tears as a primary surgery. The secondary aim of this study was to quantify the learning curve using the log-linear model. We hypothesized that aLD significantly improved shoulder function and that there was consistent reduction of the operative time in support of a learning-curve effect. After the arthroscopic partial repair was completed, the latissimus dorsi tendon was harvested via axillary mini-open incision and fixed with a knotless anchor arthroscopically. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively using a modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) scoring system, active range of motion, and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The operative time was recorded to quantify the learning curve using a log-linear model. Thirty patients with a mean age of 67.4 years who underwent aLD were included. At a mean of 34 months after an aLD, the mean UCLA score increased from 15.7 preoperatively to 28.8 postoperatively (P < .001). The mean active forward elevation increased from 105° preoperatively to 149° postoperatively (P < .001). The mean active external rotation increased from 22° preoperatively to 32° postoperatively (P < .001). The VAS improved from 58 mm to 18 mm (P < .001). In all but 2 cases (93%), the preoperative osteoarthritis grade was maintained. The mean operative time was 145 minutes. A significant linear correlation was observed between the operative time and cumulative volume of cases after performing a logarithmic transformation. The learning rate was calculated as 84%. Arthroscopy-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a technically demanding procedure; however, it can lead to significant improvements in overall shoulder pain and function. This study also confirmed a learning-curve effect for the aLD. The learning rate was 84%, indicating the existence of a long

  18. The detection of the capsular tear at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow: the value of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography arthrography.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Koichi; Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Onda, Kazunori; Iba, Kosuke; Sonoda, Tomoko; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Wada, Takuro

    2011-04-01

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) in the assessment of capsular tears at the undersurface of the extensor carpi radials brevis tendon in chronic tennis elbow using arthroscopy as a gold standard. Because of the higher spatial resolution of CT, we hypothesized that CTA is superior to MRI for assessing capsular tears. We retrospectively reviewed 19 consecutive patients with chronic tennis elbow with preoperative MRI and CTA studies who underwent arthroscopic surgery. Three observers with different levels of training and experience (musculoskeletal radiologist, experienced elbow surgeon, and hand fellow) evaluated the capsular tear by MRI and CTA in a blinded manner. The results of the MRI and CTA were compared and the agreement among the 3 observers was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Then, the results of the MRI and CTA examinations were compared with the intraoperative findings of the arthroscopic examination. The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value were calculated. The ICC of CTA (0.855) was superior to MRI (0.645). The sensitivity, specificity, and κ value of CTA were superior to those of MRI in each of the 3 observers. The κ value was 0.79, 0.89, and 0.79 for CTA, and 0.48, 0.48, and 0.27 for MRI for the radiologist, surgeon, and fellow, respectively. CTA was a reliable and accurate diagnostic modality compared with MRI to detect the capsular tear in patients with chronic tennis elbow. CTA was less influenced by the observer's experience. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acromion Index in Korean Population and Its Relationship with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kum, Dong Ho; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Keun Min; Lee, Eun Su; Park, Yong Bok; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-06-01

    Among the many causes of rotator cuff tears, scapular morphology is associated with the accelerating degenerative process of the rotator cuff. Acromion index (AI) was previously introduced and compared in two populations. We enrolled 100 Korean patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative arthroscopic findings between January and December 2013. Another 100 Korean patients with an intact rotator cuff tendon identified on magnetic resonance imaging and other shoulder diseases, such as frozen shoulder and instability, were enrolled as controls. We retrospectively compared these 100 rotator cuff tear patients (mean age, 63 years) and 100 controls (mean age, 51 years) in this study. Two independent orthopedic surgeons assessed the AI on radiographs. We performed an interobserver reliability test of the AI assessment, and then compared the AI between two groups. The measurement of the AI showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.82). The mean AI in the rotator cuff tear group was 0.68 and it was significantly different between groups ( p <0.001, 95% confidence interval). The AI was not related to tear size. Our study showed that the AI was an effective predictive factor for rotator cuff tears in a Korean population.

  20. Genome-wide association screens for Achilles tendon and ACL tears and tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Thomas R.; Roos, Andrew K.; Kleimeyer, John P.; Ahmed, Marwa A.; Goodlin, Gabrielle T.; Fredericson, Michael; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Avins, Andrew L.; Dragoo, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy or rupture and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture are substantial injuries affecting athletes, associated with delayed recovery or inability to return to competition. To identify genetic markers that might be used to predict risk for these injuries, we performed genome-wide association screens for these injuries using data from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort consisting of 102,979 individuals. We did not find any single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either of these injuries with a p-value that was genome-wide significant (p<5x10-8). We found, however, four and three polymorphisms with p-values that were borderline significant (p<10−6) for Achilles tendon injury and ACL rupture, respectively. We then tested SNPs previously reported to be associated with either Achilles tendon injury or ACL rupture. None showed an association in our cohort with a false discovery rate of less than 5%. We obtained, however, moderate to weak evidence for replication in one case; specifically, rs4919510 in MIR608 had a p-value of 5.1x10-3 for association with Achilles tendon injury, corresponding to a 7% chance of false replication. Finally, we tested 2855 SNPs in 90 candidate genes for musculoskeletal injury, but did not find any that showed a significant association below a false discovery rate of 5%. We provide data containing summary statistics for the entire genome, which will be useful for future genetic studies on these injuries. PMID:28358823

  1. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods — Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results — The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation — Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor. PMID:28880113

  2. Validation of Greyscale-Based Quantitative Ultrasound in Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Collinger, Jennifer L.; Fullerton, Bradley; Impink, Bradley G.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study is to establish the validity of greyscale-based quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measures of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons. Design Nine QUS measures of the biceps and supraspinatus tendons were computed from ultrasound images collected from sixty-seven manual wheelchair users. Shoulder pathology was measured using questionnaires, physical examination maneuvers, and a clinical ultrasound grading scale. Results Increased age, duration of wheelchair use, and body mass correlated with a darker, more homogenous tendon appearance. Subjects with pain during physical examination tests for biceps tenderness and acromioclavicular joint tenderness exhibited significantly different supraspinatus QUS values. Even when controlling for tendon depth, QUS measures of the biceps tendon differed significantly between subjects with healthy tendons, mild tendinosis, and severe tendinosis. Clinical grading of supraspinatus tendon health was correlated with QUS measures of the supraspinatus tendon. Conclusions Quantitative ultrasound is valid method to quantify tendinopathy and may allow for early detection of tendinosis. Manual wheelchair users are at a high risk for developing shoulder tendon pathology and may benefit from quantitative ultrasound-based research that focuses on identifying interventions designed to reduce this risk. PMID:20407304

  3. [Reconstruction of big rotator cuff ruptures. A new technique of tendon refixation with the corkscrew suture anchor system].

    PubMed

    Kessler, M A; Lichtenberg, S; Habermeyer, P

    2003-10-01

    Tendon retraction and fatty degeneration is a major problem in repair of massive rotator cuff tears. Especially in the transosseous refixation technique, a tension-free refixation cannot be obtained in all cases. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the postoperative results using a new tension-free reinsertion technique with a Corkscrew suture anchor system. Thirty patients (25 males, 5 females) with complete one and two tendon tears underwent open rotator cuff repair (rupture of one tendon: n=14, 47%). The torn tendons were mobilized and reinserted medially to reduce tension. Medialization was achieved by inserting tendon near the osteochondral border in a bony trough. The number of implanted suture anchors ranged from 2 to 6 (mean: 3.56). The mean age was 56 years (39-68 years) with a follow-up of 24 months (17-33 months). In one patient physical and sonographic examination showed a complete and in two patients a partial rerupture. A temporarily frozen shoulder occurred in two cases. No infection or rejection response was seen. In no case was revision surgery necessary. No displacement or loosening of the Corkscrew anchors was noticed. The constant score improved from 45 points preoperatively to 85 points at the time of follow-up (mean). The Corkscrew suture anchor system in combination with the new suture technique offers the possibility of a stable reinsertion even in reduced calcified bone structure. This facilitates good conditions for stable fibroblastic healing. Our midterm results show good osseous union combined with a low rerupture rate.

  4. Effects of corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid on torn rotator cuff tendons in vitro and in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakamura, Keiichirou; Honda, Hirokazu; Ohzono, Hiroki; Shimokobe, Hisao; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shirahama, Masahiro; Shiba, Naoto; Matsueda, Satoko

    2015-10-01

    Corticosteroids (CS) or hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in subacromial injection for the conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears (RCT); this study addresses the question of how CS and HA affect the tendon tissue and fibroblasts in vitro and in rats. Cell proliferation assays were performed in human tendon fibroblasts from RCT. Rats underwent surgery to create RCT, and the surgical sites were injected with CS or HA. The rotator cuff tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing, microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and ultrastructural analysis. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased with CS in vitro (p < 0.05). Maximal load of CS-treated tendons was significantly decreased compared with that of HA-treated tendons (p < 0.05), as well as PCNA(+) cells at 2 weeks (p < 0.05). Ultrastructural observations of the CS-treated rats detected apoptosis of tendon fibroblasts 24 h after surgery. Histological and biomechanical data 4 weeks after surgery were not significant among the three groups. Unlike HA, CS caused cell death, and inhibition of the proliferation of tendon fibroblasts, leading to a delay of tendon healing involved and a subsequent decrease of biomechanical strength at the surgical site. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clinical Outcomes of Modified Mason-Allen Single-Row Repair for Bursal-Sided Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Comparison With the Double-Row Suture-Bridge Technique.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Kook, Seung-Hwan; Rao, Nandan; Seo, Myeong-Jae

    2015-08-01

    Various repair techniques have been reported for the operative treatment of bursal-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Recently, arthroscopic single-row repair using a modified Mason-Allen technique has been introduced. The arthroscopic, modified Mason-Allen single-row technique with preservation of the articular-sided tendon provides satisfactory clinical outcomes and similar results to the double-row suture-bridge technique after conversion of a partial-thickness tear to a full-thickness tear. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective study was conducted on 84 consecutive patients with symptomatic, bursal-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears involving more than 50% thickness of the tendon. A total of 47 patients were treated by the modified Mason-Allen single-row repair technique, preserving the articular-sided tendon, and 37 patients were treated by the double-row suture-bridge repair technique after conversion to a full-thickness tear. The clinical and functional outcomes were evaluated using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Constant scores and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to analyze the integrity of tendons at 6-month follow-up. Patients were followed up for a mean of 32.5 months. In the 47 patients treated with the modified Mason-Allen suture technique, the VAS score decreased from a preoperative mean of 5.3 ± 0.3 to 0.9 ± 0.5 at the time of final follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean ASES score (from 45.4 ± 2.9 to 88.6 ± 4.5) and mean Constant score (from 66.9 ± 2.6 to 88.1 ± 2.4) (P < .001). Four of 47 patients (8.5%) demonstrated retears at 6-month postoperative MRI. There was no statistical difference in terms of functional outcomes and the retear rate compared with those of patients with the suture-bridge repair technique (3 patients, 8.1%). However, the mean number of suture anchors used in the

  6. Glenohumeral Function of the Long Head of the Biceps Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter N.; Cip, Johannes; Trombley, Robert; Cole, Brian J.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Optimal treatment of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears is controversial, in part because the dynamic role of the long head of the biceps muscle (LHBM) in the glenohumeral joint is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine dynamic LHBM behavior during shoulder activity by studying (1) the electromyographic activity of the LHBM during shoulder motion, (2) the effect of elbow immobilization on this activity, and (3) the effect of a load applied to the distal humerus on this activity. Hypothesis: The LHBM would not play a significant role in active glenohumeral range of motion. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Thirteen normal volunteers underwent surface electromyography (EMG) measurement of the LHBM, short head biceps muscle (SHBM), deltoid, infraspinatus, and brachioradialis during shoulder motion from the neutral position (0° of rotation, flexion, and abduction) to 45° of flexion, 90° of flexion, 45° of abduction, and 90° of abduction. These motions were repeated both with and without splint immobilization of the forearm and elbow at 100° of flexion and neutral rotation and with and without a 1-kg weight placed on the lateral distal humerus. Results: Mean EMG activity within the LHBM and the SHBM was low (≤11.6% ± 9.1%). LHBM activity was significant increased by flexion and abduction (P < .049 in all cases), while SHBM activity was not. EMG activity from the middle head of the deltoid was significantly increased by loading with the shoulder positioned away from the body (ie, in abduction or flexion). When compared with the unloaded state, the addition of a distal humeral load significantly increased LHBM activity in 45° of abduction (P = .028) and 90° of flexion (P = .033) despite forearm and elbow immobilization. The SHBM showed similar trends. Conclusion: In normal volunteers with forearm and elbow immobilization and application of a load to the distal humerus, LHBM EMG activity is increased by both

  7. Pulley lesions in rotator cuff tears: prevalence, etiology, and concomitant pathologies.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Garving, Christina; Habermeyer, Peter; Tauber, Mark

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of lesions in the biceps pulley complex in a representative, consecutive series of rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff interval treatments. We also analyzed associated tear pattern of rotator cuff injuries and superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions. We evaluated the relationships of these lesions to traumatic genesis and the prevalence of pulley lesions in revision cases. This retrospective study analyzed all pre- and intra-operative documentation on arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstructions and isolated pulley lesion treatments performed by a single surgeon over 2 consecutive years. According to Habermeyer et al., we classified cases into four groups, based on the presence of additional or related complete or partial rotator cuff tears, SLAP lesions, trauma, and primary or revision surgery. Among 382 patients with rotator cuff tears, 345 (90.3%) had an injured pulley system; 151 (43.8%) had partial tears of the rotator cuff; out of these, 106 (30.6%) were articular-sided. All of these articular-sided partial tears showed extension into the pulley complex. In 154 cases (44.6%), history of shoulder trauma was associated with the beginning of symptoms. In addition, concomitant SLAP lesions occurred in 25-62% of pulley lesions, correlating with the severity of pulley lesions. Among the 345 cases, there have been 32 (9.3%) revision cases where a pulley lesion was intra-operatively identified and addressed. Pulley complex lesions are present in 90.3% of surgically treated rotator cuff lesions, particularly in articular-sided injuries. In addition, we found a significant relationship between the incidence of SLAP lesions and the severity of pulley lesions. It seems reasonable to assume an important role of pulley system injuries in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff lesions.

  8. Quantitative diagnostic method for biceps long head tendinitis by using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of grayscale quantitative diagnostic method for biceps tendinitis and determine the cut-off points of a quantitative biceps ultrasound (US) method to diagnose biceps tendinitis. Design. Prospective cross-sectional case controlled study. Outpatient rehabilitation service. A total of 336 shoulder pain patients with suspected biceps tendinitis were recruited in this prospective observational study. The grayscale pixel data of the range of interest (ROI) were obtained for both the transverse and longitudinal views of the biceps US. A total of 136 patients were classified with biceps tendinitis, and 200 patients were classified as not having biceps tendinitis based on the diagnostic criteria. Based on the Youden index, the cut-off points were determined as 26.85 for the transverse view and 21.25 for the longitudinal view of the standard deviation (StdDev) of the ROI values, respectively. When the ROI evaluation of the US surpassed the cut-off point, the sensitivity was 68% and the specificity was 90% in the StdDev of the transverse view, and the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 73% in the StdDev of the longitudinal view to diagnose biceps tendinitis. For equivocal cases or inexperienced sonographers, our study provides a more objective method for diagnosing biceps tendinitis in shoulder pain patients.

  9. Work-related lesions of the supraspinatus tendon: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Seidler, Andreas; Bolm-Audorff, Ulrich; Petereit-Haack, Gabriela; Ball, Elke; Klupp, Magdalena; Krauss, Noëlle; Elsner, Gine

    2011-04-01

    To examine the dose-response relationship between cumulative duration of work with highly elevated arms (work above shoulder level) as well as of manual material handling and ruptures of the supraspinatus tendon in a population-based case-control study. In 14 radiologic practices, we recruited 483 male patients aged 25-65 with radiographically confirmed partial (n = 385) or total (n = 98) supraspinatus tears associated with shoulder pain. A total of 300 male control subjects were recruited. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. To calculate cumulative exposure, the self-reported duration of lifting/carrying of heavy loads (>20 kg) as well as the duration of work with highly elevated arms was added up over the entire working life. The results of our study support a dose-response relationship between cumulative duration of work with highly elevated arms and symptomatic supraspinatus tendon tears. For a cumulative duration of >3,195 h work above shoulder level, the risk of a supraspinatus tendon rupture is elevated to 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.5), adjusted for age, region, lifting/carrying of heavy loads, handheld vibration, apparatus gymnastics/shot put/javelin/hammer throwing/wrestling, and tennis. The cumulative duration of carrying/lifting of heavy loads also yields a positive dose-response relation with disease (independent from work above shoulder level and from handheld vibration), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) in the highest exposure category (>77 h). We find an increased risk for subjects exposed to handheld vibration with an adjusted OR of 3.2 (95% CI 1.7-5.9) in the highest exposure category (16 years or more in the job with exposure), but a clear dose-response relationship is lacking. This study points to a potential etiologic role of long-term cumulative effects of work with highly elevated arms and heavy lifting/carrying on shoulder tendon disorders.

  10. Arthroscopic repair of traumatic isolated subscapularis tendon lesions (Lafosse Type III or IV): a prospective magnetic resonance imaging-controlled case series with 1 year of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Grueninger, Patrick; Nikolic, Nikola; Schneider, Joerg; Lattmann, Thomas; Platz, Andreas; Chmiel, Corinne; Meier, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the efficacy of arthroscopic repair of isolated high-grade subscapularis (SSC) tendon lesions by means of clinical follow-up combined with magnetic resonance imaging investigations. Between January 2008 and September 2010, 11 patients (9 men and 2 women; mean age, 45 ± 10 years) with Lafosse type III or IV traumatic isolated SSC tendon lesions underwent arthroscopic repair including tenodesis of the long head of the biceps tendon. All patients were preoperatively assessed by clinical examination (Constant-Murley score [CMS]) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance arthrography. At 1 year of follow-up, specific clinical SSC tests, the CMS, and the loss of external rotation were evaluated. A native magnetic resonance investigation was performed to assess the structural integrity of the repair. The SSC muscle was compared with its preoperative condition regarding fatty infiltration and size (cross-sectional area). Patient satisfaction was graded from 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent). The mean time interval from trauma to surgery was 3.7 months. A concomitant lesion of the biceps tendon was observed in 10 patients (91%). The mean CMS improved from 44 to 89 points (P < .001). The functional tests showed a significant increase in strength (P < .05) (belly-press test, 4.8 v 2.9; lift-off test, 4.8 v 2.9). The mean loss of external rotation at 0° of abduction was 10° compared with the contralateral side (P < .05). Patient satisfaction was high. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation showed complete structural integrity of the tendon repair in all studies. The SSC showed a significant decrease in fatty infiltration and increase in the cross-sectional area. Arthroscopic repair of higher-grade isolated SSC lesions provides reliable tendon healing accompanied by excellent functional results 1 year after surgery. Level IV, prospective therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published

  11. Do postoperative platelet-rich plasma injections accelerate early tendon healing and functional recovery after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan; McCann, Philip; Colliver, Jess; Koh, Eamon; Ackland, Timothy; Joss, Brendan; Zheng, Minghao; Breidahl, Bill

    2015-06-01

    Tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair directly correlates with a successful outcome. Biological therapies that elevate local growth-factor concentrations may potentiate healing after surgery. To ascertain whether postoperative and repeated application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to the tendon repair site improves early tendon healing and enhances early functional recovery after double-row arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 patients underwent arthroscopic double-row supraspinatus tendon repair. After randomization, half the patients received 2 ultrasound-guided injections of PRP to the repair site at postoperative days 7 and 14. Early structural healing was assessed with MRI at 16 weeks, and cuff appearances were graded according to the Sugaya classification. Functional scores were recorded with the Oxford Shoulder Score; Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; visual analog scale for pain; and Short Form-12 quality-of-life score both preoperatively and at postoperative weeks 6, 12, and 16; isokinetic strength and active range of motion were measured at 16 weeks. PRP treatment did not improve early functional recovery, range of motion, or strength or influence pain scores at any time point after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. There was no difference in structural integrity of the supraspinatus repair on MRI between the PRP group (0% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 77% intact) and the control group (7% full-thickness retear; 23% partial tear; 70% intact) at 16 weeks postoperatively (P = .35). After arthroscopic supraspinatus tendon repair, image-guided PRP treatment on 2 occasions does not improve early tendon-bone healing or functional recovery. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Alterations in tendon microenvironment in response to mechanical load: potential molecular targets for treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Mohamed B; Thankam, Finosh G; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) tendons could beinflicted in many ways with an eventual outcome of pain, weakness and disability, which represent a large burden on health care cost. However, optimal healing, either conservatively or with surgical intervention, remains an issue that needs further investigation. Disorders of the RC tendons may result from external factors like trauma, or internal factors through physiologic and metabolic derangement. Most RC tendon disorders may be asymptomatic and may result from an over-activity of the inflicted shoulder and its tendons. Such tendon disorders are poorly diagnosed since patients do not seek medical attention until pain or weakness ensue. Immunological and biochemical events in RC disorders due to mechanical intolerance have not been investigated. Generally, the mechanical load drives normal physiological properties of the tendon. But, mechanical overload/burden exerts stress on tenocytes, and disrupts the tendon microenvironment by triggering a multitude of signaling pathways leading to extracellular matrix remodeling, disorganization, alteration in collagen composition and apoptosis. These events result in weak tendon which is highly susceptible to rupture or tear. In this article, we critically reviewed the intrinsic signaling pathways that are excessively triggered by continuous mechanical load and the counteracting physiological responses and associated derangements. The elucidation of the molecular events underlying mechanical stress-induced symptomatic/asymptomatic tendinopathy could provide information on potential target sites for translational application in the management of rotator cuff disorders. PMID:29118899

  13. Advanced age diminishes tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Plate, Johannes F; Brown, Philip J; Walters, Jordan; Clark, John A; Smith, Thomas L; Freehill, Michael T; Tuohy, Christopher J; Stitzel, Joel D; Mannava, Sandeep

    2014-04-01

    Advanced patient age is associated with recurrent tearing and failure of rotator cuff repairs clinically; however, basic science studies have not evaluated the influence of aging on tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair in an animal model. Hypothesis/ This study examined the effect of aging on tendon-to-bone healing in an established rat model of rotator cuff repair using the aged animal colony from the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health. The authors hypothesized that normal aging decreases biomechanical strength and histologic organization at the tendon-to-bone junction after acute repair. Controlled laboratory study. In 56 F344xBN rats, 28 old and 28 young (24 and 8 months of age, respectively), the supraspinatus tendon was transected and repaired. At 2 or 8 weeks after surgery, shoulder specimens underwent biomechanical testing to compare load-to-failure and load-relaxation response between age groups. Histologic sections of the tendon-to-bone interface were assessed with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and collagen fiber organization was assessed by semiquantitative analysis of picrosirius red birefringence under polarized light. Peak failure load was similar between young and old animals at 2 weeks after repair (31% vs 26% of age-matched uninjured controls, respectively; P > .05) but significantly higher in young animals compared with old animals 8 weeks after repair (86% vs 65% of age-matched uninjured controls, respectively; P < .01). Eight weeks after repair, fibroblasts appeared more organized and uniformly aligned in young animals on hematoxylin and eosin slides compared with old animals. Collagen birefringence analysis of the tendon-to-bone junction demonstrated that young animals had increased collagen fiber organization and similar histologic structure compared with age-matched controls (53.7 ± 2.4 gray scales; P > .05). In contrast, old animals had decreased collagen fiber organization and altered structure

  14. Differences of RNA Expression in the Tendon According to Anatomic Outcomes in Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Chung, Jin-Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2017-11-01

    Despite increased understanding of the pathophysiology of rotator cuff tears and the evolution of rotator cuff repair, healing failure remains a substantial problem. The critical roles played by biological factors have been emphasized, but little is known of the implications of gene expression profile differences at the time of repair. To document the relationship between the perioperative gene expression of healed and unhealed rotator cuffs by RNA microarray analysis. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Superior (supraspinatus involvement) and posterosuperior (supraspinatus and infraspinatus involvement) tears were included in the study. Samples of rotator cuff tendons were prospectively collected during rotator cuff surgery. Three samples were harvested at the tendon ends of tears from the anterior, middle (apex), and posterior parts using an arthroscopic punch. Seven patients with an unhealed rotator cuff were matched one-to-one with patients with a healed rotator cuff by sex, age, tear size, and fatty degeneration of rotator cuff muscles. mRNA microarray analysis was used to identify genetic differences between healed and unhealed rotator cuff tendons. Gene ontology and gene association files were obtained from the Gene Ontology Consortium, and the Gene Ontology system in DAVID was used to identify enhanced biological processes. Microarray analyses identified 262 genes that were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold between the healed and unhealed groups. Overall, in the healed group, 103 genes were significantly downregulated, and 159 were significantly upregulated. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster analysis showed that in the healed group, the genes most upregulated were related to the G protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway and to the neurological system. On the other hand, the genes most downregulated were related to immune and inflammatory responses. BMP5 was the gene most upregulated in the healed group, and the majority of

  15. A single dose of platelet-rich plasma improves the organization and strength of a surgically repaired rotator cuff tendon in rats.

    PubMed

    Dolkart, Oleg; Chechik, Ofir; Zarfati, Yaron; Brosh, Tamar; Alhajajra, Fadi; Maman, Eran

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common cause of pain and disability among adults. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a fraction of whole blood containing concentrated growth factors and proteins important for tissue healing. This study aimed at investigating the effects of local autologous PRP injection on repaired rotator cuff (RC) tendon repair in rats. Following experimental RCT and suturing, 44 Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups: (1) RC repair only (controls); (2) RC repair + PRP administration-shoulders were treated with intra-articular PRP immediately after the repair. Animals were killed after 3 weeks and tendon, were tested biomechanically in tension (12 rats/group). The remaining tendons (10 rats/group) were stained using hematoxylin and eosin and Picro-sirius Red. Histological analysis evaluated the cellular aspects of the repair tissue. PRP administration following experimental RC tear and suture resulted in a significantly higher maximal load (p < 0.001) and stiffness (p < 0.005) as compared to non-treated animals. Bonar score of PRP-treated tendons was significantly better (p = 0.018) than the control group. Collagen birefringence was significantly higher in PRP shoulders (p = 0.002), indicating improved organization. Vascularity scores were similar in both groups. Application of a single dose autologous PRP in adjunct to surgical repair resultes in improved tendon-to-bone healing, assessed by histological and biomechanical testing in a rat model of acute RCT, when tested at 3 weeks compared to controls. Further studies will be essential to determine the role of PRP in clinical practice.

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Doxycycline on the Quality of Repaired and Unrepaired Achilles Tendons.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynhhoa T; Norelli, Jolanta B; Graver, Adam; Ekstein, Charles; Schwartz, Johnathan; Chowdhury, Farzana; Drakos, Mark C; Grande, Daniel A; Chahine, Nadeen O

    2017-10-01

    Achilles tendon tears are devastating injuries, especially to athletes. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity after a tendon injury has been associated with deterioration of the collagen network and can be inhibited with doxycycline (Doxy). Daily oral administration of Doxy will enhance the histological, molecular, and biomechanical quality of transected Achilles tendons. Additionally, suture repair will further enhance the quality of repaired tendons. Controlled laboratory study. Randomized unilateral Achilles tendon transection was performed in 288 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The injured tendons were either unrepaired (groups 1 and 2) or surgically repaired (groups 3 and 4). Animals from groups 2 and 4 received Doxy daily through oral gavage, and animals from groups 1 and 3 served as controls (no Doxy). Tendons were harvested at 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 weeks after the injury (n = 18 per group and time point). The quality of tendon repair was evaluated based on the histological grading score, collagen fiber orientation, gene expression, and biomechanical properties. In surgically repaired samples, Doxy enhanced the quality of tendon repair compared with no Doxy ( P = .0014). Doxy had a significant effect on collagen fiber dispersion, but not principal fiber angle. There was a significant effect of time on the gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-9 and TIMP1, and Doxy significantly decreased MMP-3 expression at 9 weeks. Doxy treatment with surgical repair increased the dynamic modulus at 6 weeks but not at 9 weeks after the injury ( P < .001). Doxy also increased the equilibrium modulus and decreased creep strain irrespective of the repair group. Doxy did not have a significant effect on the histology or biomechanics of unrepaired tendons. The findings indicate that daily oral administration of Doxy accelerated matrix remodeling and the dynamic and equilibrium biomechanics of surgically repaired Achilles tendons, although such enhancements were most evident at the

  17. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, You-zhi; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2015-12-01

    The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an innovative clinical therapy, especially in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical improvement and tendon-to-bone healing with and without PRP therapy in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A systematic search was done in the major medical databases to evaluate the studies using PRP therapy (PRP+) or with no PRP (PRP-) for the treatment of patients with rotator cuff tears. We reviewed clinical scores such as the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Rating Scale, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the failure-to-heal rate by magnetic resonance imaging between PRP+ and PRP- groups. Five studies included in this review were used for a meta-analysis based on data availability. There were no statistically significant differences between PRP+ and PRP- groups for overall outcome scores (P > .05). However, the PRP+ group exhibited better healing rates postoperatively than the PRP- group (P = .03) in small/moderate full-thickness tears. The use of PRP therapy in full-thickness rotator cuff repairs showed no statistically significant difference compared with no PRP therapy in clinical outcome scores, but the failure-to-heal rate was significantly decreased when PRP was used for treatment of small-to-moderately sized tears. PRP therapy may improve tendon-to-bone healing in patients with small or moderate rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel technique for repairing posterior medial meniscus root tears using porcine knees and biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Lin; Lee, Chian-Her; Yang, Chan-Tsung; Chang, Chia-Ming; Li, Guoan; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Chen, Chih-Hwa; Huang, Hsu-Shan; Lai, Yu-Shu

    2018-01-01

    Transtibial pullout suture (TPS) repair of posterior medial meniscus root (PMMR) tears was shown to achieve good clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanically, a novel technique designed to repair PMMR tears using tendon graft (TG) and conventional TPS repair. Twelve porcine tibiae (n = 6 each) TG group: flexor digitorum profundus tendon was passed through an incision in the root area, created 5 mm postero-medially along the edge of the attachment area. TPS group: a modified Mason-Allen suture was created using no. 2 FiberWire. The tendon grafts and sutures were threaded through the bone tunnel and then fixed to the anterolateral cortex of the tibia. The two groups underwent cyclic loading followed by a load-to-failure test. Displacements of the constructs after 100, 500, and 1000 loading cycles, and the maximum load, stiffness, and elongation at failure were recorded. The TG technique had significantly lower elongation and higher stiffness compared with the TPS. The maximum load of the TG group was significantly lower than that of the TPS group. Failure modes for all specimens were caused by the suture or graft cutting through the meniscus. Lesser elongation and higher stiffness of the constructs in TG technique over those in the standard TPS technique might be beneficial for postoperative biological healing between the meniscus and tibial plateau. However, a slower rehabilitation program might be necessary due to its relatively lower maximum failure load.

  19. Illusory movements induced by tendon vibration in right- and left-handed people.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Fusco, Gabriele; Leonardis, Daniele; Frisoli, Antonio; Bergamasco, Massimo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-02-01

    Frequency-specific vibratory stimulation of peripheral tendons induces an illusion of limb movement that may be useful for restoring proprioceptive information in people with sensorimotor disability. This potential application may be limited by inter- and intra-subject variability in the susceptibility to such an illusion, which may depend on a variety of factors. To explore the influence of stimulation parameters and participants' handedness on the movement illusion, we vibrated the right and left tendon of the biceps brachii in a group of right- and left-handed people with five stimulation frequencies (from 40 to 120 Hz in step of 20 Hz). We found that all participants reported the expected illusion of elbow extension, especially after 40 and 60 Hz. Left-handers exhibited less variability in reporting the illusion compared to right-handers across the different stimulation frequencies. Moreover, the stimulation of the non-dominant arm elicited a more vivid illusion with faster onset relative to the stimulation of the dominant arm, an effect that was independent from participants' handedness. Overall, our data show that stimulation frequency, handedness and arm dominance influence the tendon vibration movement illusion. The results are discussed in reference to their relevance in linking motor awareness, improving current devices for motor ability recovery after brain or spinal damage and developing prosthetics and virtual embodiment systems.

  20. The popliteus tendon provides a safe and reliable location for all-inside meniscal repair device placement.

    PubMed

    Ouanezar, Hervé; Blakeney, William G; Latrobe, Charles; Saithna, Adnan; Fernandes, Levi Reina; Delaloye, Jean Romain; Thaunat, Mathieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2018-03-03

    Repairs of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus can be technically challenging. In contrast to medial meniscus repairs, the capsule around the posterior segment attachment of the lateral meniscus is quite thin. This study evaluates the clinical results of an arthroscopic all-inside repair technique for unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears, using a suture repair placed directly into the popliteus tendon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the SANTI database was performed. All patients who had undergone combined ACL reconstruction with lateral meniscus all-inside repair, using sutures placed in the popliteus tendon, between 2011 and 2015, were included. Patients were reviewed clinically at 1 and 2 years' follow-up. At final follow-up, all patients were contacted to identify if they underwent further surgery or had knee pain, locking or effusion. Symptomatic patients were recalled for clinical evaluation by a physician and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the knee. Operative notes for those undergoing further surgery were reviewed and rates and type of re-operation, including for failed lateral meniscal repair were recorded. Two hundred patients (mean age 28.6 ± 10.2 years) with a mean follow-up of 45.5 ± 12.8 months (range 24.7-75.2) were included. The mean Subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) at final follow-up was 85.0 ± 11.3. The post-operative mean side-to-side laxity measured at 1 year was 0.6 ± 1.0 mm. Twenty-six patients underwent re-operation (13%) at a mean follow-up of 14.8 ± 7.8 months. The ACL graft rupture rate was 5.0%. Other causes for re-operation included medial meniscus tear (2.5%), cyclops lesion (1.5%) and septic arthritis (0.5%). The lateral meniscus repair failure rate was 3.5%. No specific complications relating to placement of sutures in the popliteus tendon were identified. Arthroscopic all-inside repair of unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears

  1. Tendon transfer fixation: comparing a tendon to tendon technique vs. bioabsorbable interference-fit screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Sabonghy, Eric Peter; Wood, Robert Michael; Ambrose, Catherine Glauber; McGarvey, William Christopher; Clanton, Thomas Oscar

    2003-03-01

    Tendon transfer techniques in the foot and ankle are used for tendon ruptures, deformities, and instabilities. This fresh cadaver study compares the tendon fixation strength in 10 paired specimens by performing a tendon to tendon fixation technique or using 7 x 20-25 mm bioabsorbable interference-fit screw tendon fixation technique. Load at failure of the tendon to tendon fixation method averaged 279N (Standard Deviation 81N) and the bioabsorbable screw 148N (Standard Deviation 72N) [p = 0.0008]. Bioabsorbable interference-fit screws in these specimens show decreased fixation strength relative to the traditional fixation technique. However, the mean bioabsorbable screw fixation strength of 148N provides physiologic strength at the tendon-bone interface.

  2. Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments — an adaptation to compressive load

    PubMed Central

    BENJAMIN, M.; RALPHS, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified

  3. Structural and functional assessment of intense therapeutic ultrasound effects on partial Achilles tendon transection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Rice, Photini S.; Howard, Caitlin C.; Koevary, Jen W.; Danford, Forest; Gonzales, David A.; Vande Geest, Jon; Latt, L. Daniel; Szivek, John A.; Amodei, Richard; Slayton, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Tendinopathies and tendon tears heal slowly because tendons have a limited blood supply. Intense therapeutic ultrasound (ITU) is a treatment modality that creates very small, focal coagula in tissue, which can stimulate a healing response. This pilot study investigated the effects of ITU on rabbit and rat models of partial Achilles tendon rupture. The right Achilles tendons of 20 New Zealand White rabbits and 118 rats were partially transected. Twenty-four hours after surgery, ITU coagula were placed in the tendon and surrounding tissue, alternating right and left legs. At various time points, the following data were collected: ultrasound imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, mechanical testing, gene expression analysis, histology, and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of sectioned tissue. Ultrasound visualized cuts and treatment lesions. OCT showed the effect of the interventions on birefringence banding caused by collagen organization. MPM showed inflammatory infiltrate, collagen synthesis and organization. By day 14- 28, all tendons had a smooth appearance and histology, MPM and OCT still could still visualize residual healing processes. Few significant results in gene expression were seen, but trends were that ITU treatment caused an initial decrease in growth and collagen gene expression followed by an increase. No difference in failure loads was found between control, cut, and ITU treatment groups, suggesting that sufficient healing had occurred by 14 days to restore all test tissue to control mechanical properties. These results suggest that ITU does not cause harm to tendon tissue. Upregulation of some genes suggests that ITU may increase healing response.

  4. An Artificial Tendon with Durable Muscle Interface

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Witte, David; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    A coupling mechanism that can permanently fix a forcefully contracting muscle to a bone anchor or any totally inert prosthesis would meet a serious need in orthopaedics. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to satisfy these demands. The objective of this study was to test OrthoCoupler’s performance in vitro and in vivo in the goat semitendinosus tendon model. For in vitro evaluation, 40 samples were fatigue-tested, cycling at 10 load levels, n=4 each. For in vivo evaluation, the semitendinosus tendon was removed bilaterally in 8 goats. Left sides were reattached with an OrthoCoupler, and right sides were reattached using the Krackow stitch with #5 braided polyester sutures. Specimens were harvested 60 days post-surgery and assigned for biomechanics and histology. Fatigue strength of the devices in vitro was several times the contractile force of the semitendinosus muscle. The in vivo devices were built equivalent to two of the in vitro devices, providing an additional safety factor. In strength testing at necropsy, suture controls pulled out at 120.5 ± 68.3 N, whereas each OrthoCoupler was still holding after the muscle tore, remotely, at 298±111.3N (mean ± SD)(p<0.0003). Muscle tear strength was reached with the fiber-muscle composite produced in healing still soundly intact. This technology may be of value for orthopaedic challenges in oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and sports-injury reconstruction. PMID:19639642

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging-controlled results of the pectoralis major tendon transfer for irreparable anterosuperior rotator cuff tears performed with standard and modified fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Stefan; Auffarth, Alexander; Bogner, Robert; Tauber, Mark; Mayer, Michael; Karpik, Stefanie; Matis, Nicholas; Resch, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Irreparable ruptures of the subscapularis tendon lead to impaired function of the shoulder joint. In such cases, transfer of the pectoralis major tendon has led to encouraging results. The procedure fails periodically, typically associated with insufficient in-growth of the transferred tissue. We hypothesized that tendon harvest with chips of cancellous bone would improve the tendon-bone interface. Of 62 consecutive pectoralis tendon transfers, 54 shoulders were followed-up at an average of 35 months. In all shoulders, the transferred tendon was rerouted behind the conjoint tendon and fixed by transosseous sutures. In 29 shoulders, the tendon was harvested with a cuff of cancellous bone. In 25 shoulders, the conventional technique with sharp detachment of the tendon was used. Apart from detailed clinical examination of all shoulders, a magnetic resonance image (MRI) was available in 52 shoulders. The overall Constant score had improved from an average of 38.8 points preoperatively to 63.4 points at follow-up. Shoulders treated with the new fixation technique scored 64.4 compared with 62.2 for the conventional fixations. The MRI showed intact tendons and muscles in 80.8% of shoulders. In 7 shoulders (13.5%), the transferred tendon was ruptured. Two of these were treated with the new fixation technique. Mean patient satisfaction score was 8.2 points. A secure method of fixation that avoids secondary ruptures despite insufficiency of the transferred tendon is of great importance. Also the rerouting of the transferred tendon under the conjoined tendon is essential to imitate the natural force vector and the function of an intact subscapularis tendon. Patients in this investigation were also monitored by MRI to verify the integrity of the transferred tendon. As a salvage procedure, the pectoralis major tendon transfer provides good results in most cases. Sufficient in-growth of the transferred tissue is essential for the success of the procedure. This seems to be

  6. Delaminated rotator cuff tear: extension of delamination and cuff integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Heui-Chul; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Jung-Han; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Sagong, Seung-Yeob; Shin, John

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Sixty-five patients with delaminated rotator cuff tears were retrospectively reviewed. The delaminated tears were divided into full-thickness delaminated tears and partial-thickness delaminated tears. To evaluate the medial extension, we calculated the coronal size of the delaminated portion. To evaluate the posterior extension, we checked the tendon involved. Cuff integrity was evaluated by computed tomography arthrography. The mean medial extension in the full-thickness and partial-thickness delaminated tears was 18.1 ± 6.0 mm and 22.7 ± 6.3 mm, respectively (P = .0084). The posterior extension into the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus was 36.9% and 32.3%, respectively, in the full-thickness delaminated tears, and it was 27.7% and 3.1%, respectively, in the partial-thickness delaminated tears (P = .0043). With regard to cuff integrity, 35 cases of anatomic healing, 10 cases of partial healing defects, and 17 cases of retear were detected. Among the patients with retear and partial healing of the defect, all the partially healed defects showed delamination. Three retear patients showed delamination, and 14 retear patients did not show delamination; the difference was statistically significant (P = .0001). The full-thickness delaminated tears showed less medial extension and more posterior extension than the partial-thickness delaminated tears. Delamination did not develop in retear patients, but delamination was common in the patients with partially healed defects. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgery or conservative treatment for rotator cuff tear: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryösä, Anssi; Laimi, Katri; Äärimaa, Ville; Lehtimäki, Kaisa; Kukkonen, Juha; Saltychev, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Comparative evidence on treating rotator cuff tear is inconclusive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the evidence on effectiveness of tendon repair in reducing pain and improving function of the shoulder when compared with conservative treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Search on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Pedro databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing surgery and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tear. Study selection and extraction based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Random effects meta-analysis. Three identified RCTs involved 252 participants (123 cases and 129 controls). The risk of bias was considered low for all three RCTs. For Constant score, statistically insignificant effect size was 5.6 (95% CI -0.41 to 11.62) points in 1-year follow up favouring surgery and below the level of minimal clinically important difference. The respective difference in pain reduction was -0.93 (95% CI -1.65 to -0.21) cm on a 0-10 pain visual analogue scale favouring surgery. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.012) in 1-year follow up but below the level of minimal clinically important difference. There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. Thus, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. There was no clinically significant difference between surgery and active physiotherapy in 1-year follow-up in improving Constant score or reducing pain caused by rotator cuff tear. As physiotherapy is less proneness to complications and less expensive than surgery, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality to rotator cuff tears.

  8. Incidence of Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears and Identification of Associated Risk Factors From 2001 to 2010 Using a Geographic Database

    PubMed Central

    Schilaty, Nathan D.; Nagelli, Christopher; Bates, Nathaniel A.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Krych, Aaron J.; Stuart, Michael J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported rate of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (20%-30%), including graft failure and contralateral ACL tears, after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) or nonoperative therapy indicates that multiple factors may predispose patients to subsequent ACL injuries. Purpose: To determine the incidence of second ACL injuries in a population-based cohort over a 10-year observation period (2001-2010) and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of second injuries. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes relevant to the diagnosis of an ACL tear and the procedure code for ACLR were utilized to search the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a multidisciplinary county database, between the years of 2001 and 2010. The complete medical records for all cases were reviewed to confirm diagnosis and treatment details. A total of 914 unique patients with 1019 acute, isolated ACL tears were identified. These patients were stratified by primary and secondary tears, sex, age, activity level, side of injury, sex × side of injury, and graft type of reconstruction. Results: Second ACL tears were recorded in 141 (13.8%) of the 914 patients diagnosed with an ACL tear in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, from 2001 to 2010; 50.4% of these occurred in the contralateral knee. A noncontact mechanism was responsible for 76.4% of all ACL injuries. A second ACL injury was influenced by factors of sex × age group, treatment type × age group, and treatment type × activity level. Nonparametric analysis of graft disruption × graft type demonstrated that a higher prevalence of second ACL tears occurred with allografts compared with hamstring autografts (P = .0054) and patellar tendon autografts (P = .0001). Conclusion: The incidence of second ACL tears in this population-based cohort was 13.8%, and half occurred to the ACL of the contralateral knee. Statistically, second ACL injuries

  9. Regenerative Medicine in Rotator Cuff Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Randelli, Pietro; Ragone, Vincenza; Menon, Alessandra; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Rotator cuff injuries are a common source of shoulder pathology and result in an important decrease in quality of patient life. Given the frequency of these injuries, as well as the relatively poor result of surgical intervention, it is not surprising that new and innovative strategies like tissue engineering have become more appealing. Tissue-engineering strategies involve the use of cells and/or bioactive factors to promote tendon regeneration via natural processes. The ability of numerous growth factors to affect tendon healing has been extensively analyzed in vitro and in animal models, showing promising results. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a whole blood fraction which contains several growth factors. Controlled clinical studies using different autologous PRP formulations have provided controversial results. However, favourable structural healing rates have been observed for surgical repair of small and medium rotator cuff tears. Cell-based approaches have also been suggested to enhance tendon healing. Bone marrow is a well known source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, ex vivo human studies have isolated and cultured distinct populations of MSCs from rotator cuff tendons, long head of the biceps tendon, subacromial bursa, and glenohumeral synovia. Stem cells therapies represent a novel frontier in the management of rotator cuff disease that required further basic and clinical research. PMID:25184132

  10. Rotator cuff muscle degeneration and tear severity related to myogenic, adipogenic, and atrophy genes in human muscle.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivam A; Kormpakis, Ioannis; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Killian, Megan L; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M

    2017-12-01

    Large rotator cuff tear size and advanced muscle degeneration can affect reparability of tears and compromise tendon healing. Clinicians often rely on direct measures of rotator cuff tear size and muscle degeneration from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether the rotator cuff tear is repairable. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between gene expression changes in rotator cuff muscle degeneration to standard data available to clinicians. Radiographic assessment of preoperative rotator cuff tear severity was completed for 25 patients with varying magnitudes of rotator cuff tears. Tear width and retraction were measured using MRI, and Goutallier grade, tangent (tan) sign, and Thomazeau grade were determined. Expression of myogenic-, adipogenic-, atrophy-, and metabolism-related genes in biopsied muscles were correlated with tear width, tear retraction, Goutallier grade, tan sign, and Thomazeau grade. Tear width positively correlated with Goutallier grade in both the supraspinatus (r = 0.73) and infraspinatus (r = 0.77), along with tan sign (r = 0.71) and Thomazeau grade (r = 0.68). Decreased myogenesis (Myf5), increased adipogenesis (CEBPα, Lep, Wnt10b), and decreased metabolism (PPARα) correlated with radiographic assessments. Gene expression changes suggest that rotator cuff tears lead to a dramatic molecular response in an attempt to maintain normal muscle tissue, increase adipogenesis, and decrease metabolism. Fat accumulation and muscle atrophy appear to stem from endogenous changes rather than from changes mediated by infiltrating cells. Results suggest that chronic unloading of muscle, induced by rotator cuff tear, disrupts muscle homeostasis. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2808-2814, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biomechanical comparison of single-row, double-row, and transosseous-equivalent repair techniques after healing in an animal rotator cuff tear model.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Ryan J; Gupta, Akash; Oh, Joo-Han; Chung, Kyung-Chil; McGarry, Michelle H; Gupta, Ranjan; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-08-01

    The transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair technique increases failure loads and contact pressure and area between tendon and bone compared to single-row (SR) and double-row (DR) repairs, but no study has investigated if this translates into improved healing in vivo. We hypothesized that a TOE repair in a rabbit chronic rotator cuff tear model would demonstrate a better biomechanical profile than SR and DR repairs after 12 weeks of healing. A two-stage surgical procedure was performed on 21 New Zealand White Rabbits. The right subscapularis tendon was transected and allowed to retract for 6 weeks to simulate a chronic tear. Repair was done with the SR, DR, or TOE technique and allowed to heal for 12 weeks. Cyclic loading and load to failure biomechanical testing was then performed. The TOE repair showed greater biomechanical characteristics than DR, which in turn were greater than SR. These included yield load (p < 0.05), energy absorbed to yield (p < 0.05), and ultimate load (p < 0.05). For repair of a chronic, retracted rotator cuff tear, the TOE technique was the strongest biomechanical construct after healing followed by DR with SR being the weakest. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  12. Outcome Comparison Between in Situ Repair Versus Tear Completion Repair for Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Bae, Sung-Ho; Jin, Hyonki; Song, Hyun Seok

    2015-11-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic in situ repair with the tear completion repair technique for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PT-RCTs). We prospectively enrolled 100 cases with articular-sided and bursal-sided PT-RCTs exceeding 50% of tendon thickness and allocated them randomly. An in situ repair was performed in group 1 (n = 50). Completion of the remaining cuff tissue and repair were performed in group 2 (n = 50). The medial row was knotted as transosseous repair (suture-bridge technique) in all cases. American Shoulder Elbow Society (ASES) score, Constant shoulder (CS) score, Simple shoulder (SS) score, and Korean shoulder (KS) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and range of motion were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months and at the last visit. Repaired tendon integrity was determined at 6 to 12 months by magnetic resonance imaging. Eight cases were lost to follow-up. Ultimately, 92 cases were analyzed. The average follow-up was 19.1 months (range, 12 to 42 months). Significant improvements in the VAS for pain and functional outcomes were observed in both groups postoperatively (P = .001 for VAS; P < .001 for ASES score; P < .001 for CS score; P = .001 for SS score; P<.001 for KS score). No significant difference in the clinical results was observed at any time between the groups. No difference of retear rate on articular-sided PT-RCT was observed between the groups (P = .34). Retears on the bursal-sided PT-RCT were more frequent in group 2 (P = .02). Arthroscopic repair of PT-RCT exceeding 50% of the thickness provided functional improvements and pain relief regardless of the repair technique. The retear rate for bursal-sided PT-RCT was higher in group 2, although the retear rate for the articular-sided PT-RCT was not different. Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and microanalysis of tear film ferning of camel tears, human tears, and Refresh Plus.

    PubMed

    Am, Masmali; Ra, Fagehi; El-Naggar, Ahmad H; Tm, Almubrad

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the tear ferning pattern and chemical elements of the tear film of camel tears compared with human tears and Refresh Plus eye lubricant. Refresh Plus was used as a control because it provides a healthy ferning pattern, due to the presence of an optimum ratio of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium and electrolytes. The main research focus is elucidating the viability of camel tear film in the dry, harsh environment of the desert. The tears were collected from five camels, five male desert workers (20-25 years old) at a small village located 100 km from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and five male subjects (20-25 years old) from Riyadh. A small drop (1 μl) of tears was dried on a glass slide and observed under a light (Olympus BX1) and scanning electron microscope (Inspect S50, Field Electron and Ion Company [FEI]). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the tear film and Refresh Plus were investigated with a JEOL 1400 scanning transmission electron microscope. The camel tear film pattern was surrounded by thick, peripheral, homogenous layers containing small oily droplets, particles, and tiny branches in the tear ferning. The tear ferning of the camel was grade 0-1, whereas the tear ferning of human tears and Refresh Plus was grade 1-2. The mass percentage of chloride was highest in the camel tears. The mass percentage of potassium in the camel tears was greater than that in the human tears, but it was less than that in the Refresh Plus lubricant. Camel tears exhibit a better quality than human tears and Refresh Plus lubricant do. The presence of oily droplet-like structures at the periphery of tear ferning suggests that camel tear film may have a higher quality and quantity of minerals and lubricants, which may help the animal to avoid eye dryness. Future work is required to investigate the identification of the elements present in the peripheral and central part of the tear ferning.

  14. Efficacy of supraspinatus tendon repair using mesenchymal stem cells along with a collagen I scaffold.

    PubMed

    Tornero-Esteban, Pilar; Hoyas, José Antonio; Villafuertes, Esther; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Rojo, Francisco J; Guinea, Gustavo V; Paleczny, Anna; Lópiz-Morales, Yaiza; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Marco, Fernando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín

    2015-08-14

    Our main objective was to biologically improve rotator cuff healing in an elderly rat model using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with a collagen membrane and compared against other current techniques. A chronic rotator cuff tear injury model was developed by unilaterally detaching the supraspinatus (SP) tendons of Sprague-Dawley rats. At 1 month postinjury, the tears were repaired using one of the following techniques: (a) classical surgery using sutures (n = 12), (b) type I collagen membranes (n = 15), and (c) type I collagen membranes + 1 × 106 allogeneic MSCs (n = 14). Lesion restoration was evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 months postinjury based on biomechanical criteria. Continuous variables were described using mean and standard deviation (SD). To analyse the effect of the different surgical treatments in the repaired tendons' biomechanical capabilities (maximum load, stiffness, and deformity), a two-way ANOVA model was used, introducing an interaction between such factor and time (1, 2, and 3 months postinjury). With regard to maximum load, we observed an almost significant interaction between treatment and time (F = 2.62, df = 4, p = 0.053). When we analysed how this biomechanical capability changed with time for each treatment, we observed that repair with OrthADAPT and MSCs was associated with a significant increase in maximum load (p = 0.04) between months 1 and 3. On the other hand, when we compared the different treatments among themselves at different time points, we observed that the repair with OrthADAPT and MSCs has associated with a significant higher maximum load, when compared with the use of suture, but only at 3 months (p = 0.014). With regard to stiffness and deformity, no significant interaction was observed (F = 1.68, df = 4, p = 0.18; F = 0.40, df = 4, p = 0.81; respectively). The implantation of MSCs along with a collagen I scaffold into surgically created tendon

  15. Comparison of the Tendon Damage Caused by Four Different Anchor Systems Used in Transtendon Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm2 for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm2 for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm2 for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P < 0.001 or P < 0.001, compared to other anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears. PMID:22811923

  16. Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Reconstruction Using Auto-Gracilis Tendon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dhong Won; Haque, Russel; Chung, Kyu Sung; Kim, Jin Goo

    2017-08-01

    There have been several techniques to repair the medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) with the goal of restoring the anatomic and firm fixation of the meniscal root to bone. Many anatomic studies about the menisci also have been developed, so a better understanding of the anatomy could help surgeons perform correct fixation of the MMPRTs. The meniscal roots have ligament-like structures that firmly attach the menisci to the tibial plateau, and this structural concept is important to restore normal biomechanics after anatomic root repair. We present arthroscopic transtibial medial meniscus posterior root reconstruction using auto-gracilis tendon.

  17. Meniscal tears missed on MR imaging: relationship to meniscal tear patterns and anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    De Smet, A A; Graf, B K

    1994-04-01

    MR imaging of the knee is a valuable technique for diagnosing meniscal tears, but some tears found at arthroscopy are not shown on MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not tears were more frequently missed in the presence of an anterior cruciate ligament tear or when tears had certain locations or configurations. We reviewed the original MR reports and surgical records of 400 patients who had both an MR examination and arthroscopy of the knee. Using chi 2 analysis, we examined how the sensitivity for detecting meniscal tears varied with the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, with the location of the tear within the meniscus, and among six configurations of meniscal tears. We also studied whether sensitivity decreased with an increasing delay between MR examination and arthroscopy. In the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, the sensitivity decreased from 0.97 to 0.88 (p = .016) for medial meniscal tears and from 0.94 to 0.69 (p = .0005) for lateral tears. The overall sensitivity for lateral meniscal tears was significantly less for posterior (p = .001) and peripheral (p = .005) tears than for other tear locations or configurations. The sensitivities did not significantly differ between tear locations and configurations in the medial meniscus or with an increasing delay until arthroscopy. Patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament were more likely to have peripheral tears of the medial meniscus (p = .00004) and posterior (p = .0004) and peripheral (p = .04) tears of the lateral meniscus. Because of their location and configuration, meniscal tears associated with an anterior cruciate ligament injury are more difficult to detect on MR images than are tears in knees with an intact ligament. If a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament is detected, special attention should be given to the subtle peripheral tears that may be present in either meniscus, but most commonly in the posterior horn of the

  18. Comparison of a novel bone-tendon allograft with a human dermis-derived patch for repair of chronic large rotator cuff tears using a canine model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Cook, James L; Kuroki, Keiichi; Jayabalan, Prakash S; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Waters, Nicole P

    2012-02-01

    This study tested a bone-tendon allograft versus human dermis patch for reconstructing chronic rotator cuff repair by use of a canine model. Mature research dogs (N = 15) were used. Radiopaque wire was placed in the infraspinatus tendon (IST) before its transection. Three weeks later, radiographs showed IST retraction. Each dog then underwent 1 IST treatment: debridement (D), direct repair of IST to bone with a suture bridge and human dermis patch augmentation (GJ), or bone-tendon allograft (BT) reconstruction. Outcome measures included lameness grading, radiographs, and ultrasonographic assessment. Dogs were killed 6 months after surgery and both shoulders assessed biomechanically and histologically. BT dogs were significantly (P = .01) less lame than the other groups. BT dogs had superior bone-tendon, tendon, and tendon-muscle integrity compared with D and GJ dogs. Biomechanical testing showed that the D group had significantly (P = .05) more elongation than the other groups whereas BT had stiffness and elongation characteristics that most closely matched normal controls. Radiographically, D and GJ dogs showed significantly more retraction than BT dogs (P = .003 and P = .045, respectively) Histologically, GJ dogs had lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, tendon degeneration and hypocellularity, and poor tendon-bone integration. BT dogs showed complete incorporation of allograft bone into host bone, normal bone-tendon junctions, and well-integrated allograft tendon. The bone-tendon allograft technique re-establishes a functional IST bone-tendon-muscle unit and maintains integrity of repair in this model. Clinical trials using this bone-tendon allograft technique are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BICEP2/SPUD: Searching for Inflation with Degree Scale Polarimetry from the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hien Trong; Kovac, John; Adec, Peter; Aikin, Randol; Benton, Steve; Bock, Jamie; Brevik, Justus; Carlstrom, John; Dowell, Darren; Duband, Lionel; hide

    2008-01-01

    BICEP2/SPUD is the new powerful upgrade of the existing BICEP1 experiment, a bolometric receiver to study the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which has been in operation at the South Pole since January 2006. BICEP2 will provide an improvement up to 10 times mapping speed at 150 GHz compared to BICEP1, using the same BICEP telescope mount. SPUD, a series of compact, mechanically-cooled receivers deployed on the DASI mount at the Pole, will provide similar mapping speed in to BICEP2 in three bands, 100, 150, and 220 GHz. The new system will use large TES focal plane arrays to provide unprecedented sensitivity and excellent control of foreground contamination.

  20. Three-dimensional study of pectoralis major muscle and tendon architecture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lillia; Wong, Brian; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Agur, Anne; Rindlisbacher, Tim; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2009-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal structural anatomy of the pectoralis major (PM) is of paramount importance in the planning of PM tendon transfers or repairs following traumatic PM tears. However, there is little consensus regarding the complex musculotendinous architecture of the PM in the anatomic or surgical literature. The purpose of this study is to model and quantify the three-dimensional architecture of the pectoralis muscle and tendon. Eleven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens were examined: five (2M/3F) were serially dissected, digitized, and modeled in 3D using Autodesk Maya; six (4M/2F) were dissected and photographed. The PM tendon consisted of longer anterior and shorter posterior layers that were continuous inferiorly. The muscle belly consisted of an architecturally uniform clavicular head (CH) and a segmented sternal head (SH) with 6-7 segments. The most inferior SH segment in all specimens was found to fold anteriorly forming a trough that cradled the inferior aspect of the adjacent superior segment. No twisting of either the PM muscle or tendon was noted. Within the CH, the fiber bundle lengths (FBL) were found to increase from superior to inferior, whereas the mean FBLs of SH were greatest in segments 3-5 found centrally. The mean lateral pennation angle was greater in the CH (29.4 +/- 6.9 degrees ) than in the SH (20.6 +/- 2.7 degrees ). The application of these findings could form the basis of future studies to optimize surgical planning and functional recovery of repair/reconstruction procedures.

  1. Macroscopic Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy and Histopathology Do Not Predict Repair Outcomes of Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Sheth, Chirag D; Pauzenberger, Leo; McCarthy, Mary Beth R; Cote, Mark P; Soneson, Emma; Miller, Seth; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2018-03-01

    Numerous studies have identified factors that may affect the chances of rotator cuff healing after surgery. Intraoperative tendon quality may be used to predict healing and to determine type of repair and/or consideration of augmentation. There are no data that correlate how gross tendon morphology and degree of tendinopathy affect patient outcome or postoperative tendon healing. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purposes of this study were to (1) compare the gross appearance of the tendon edge during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with its histological degree of tendinopathy and (2) determine if gross appearance correlated with postoperative repair integrity. The hypothesis was that gross (macroscopic) tendon with normal thickness, no delamination, and elastic tissue before repair would have a correlation with low Bonar scores, higher postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and increased rates of postoperative tendon healing on ultrasound. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 105 patients undergoing repair of medium-size (1-3 cm) full-thickness rotator cuff tears were enrolled in the study. Intraoperatively, the supraspinatus tendon was rated on thickness, fraying, and stiffness. Tendon tissue was recovered for histological analysis based on the Bonar scoring system. Postoperative ASES and ultrasound assessment of healing were obtained 1 year after repair. Correlation between gross appearance of the tendon and rotator cuff histology was determined. Of the 105 patients, 85 were followed the study to completion. The mean age of the patients was 61.6 years; Bonar score, 7.5; preoperative ASES score, 49; and postoperative ASES score, 86. Ninety-one percent of repairs were intact on ultrasound. Gross appearance of torn rotator cuff tendon tissue did not correlate with histological appearance. Neither histological (Bonar) score nor gross appearance correlated with multivariate analysis of ASES score, postoperative repair status, or

  2. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    PubMed

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  3. Ultrasound and Functional Assessment of Transtendinous Repairs of Partial-Thickness Articular-Sided Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Roger V; Klauser, Jeffrey M; Menon, Sanjay; Hackel, Joshua G

    2017-03-01

    Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears are a frequent source of shoulder pain. Despite conservative measures, some patients continue to be symptomatic and require surgical management. However, there is some controversy as to which surgical approach results in the best outcomes for grade 3 tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate repair integrity and the clinical results of patients treated with transtendinous repair of high-grade partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis was that transtendinous repairs would result in reliable healing and acceptable functional outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in the study. All patients underwent arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears utilizing a transtendinous technique by a single surgeon. At latest follow-up, the repair integrity was evaluated using ultrasound imaging, and functional scores were calculated. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated that 18 of 20 patients had complete healing with a normal-appearing rotator cuff. Two patients had a minor residual partial tear. Sixteen of 20 patients had no pain on visual analog scale. Four patients complained of mild intermittent residual pain. All patients were rated as "excellent" by both the University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Score and the Simple Shoulder Test. The transtendon technique for the repair of articular-sided high-grade partial rotator cuff tears results in reliable tendon healing and excellent functional outcomes.

  4. Split lesions of the peroneus brevis tendon in chronic ankle laxity.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Tavernier, T; Bouysset, M

    1997-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, we operated on 18 patients for split lesions of the peroneal brevis tendon associated with chronic ankle instability. Five patients were competitive athletes, seven were recreational athletes, and six were persons. Symptoms developed in three phases: ankle sprain, chronic instability, and posterolateral pain. The mean delay between sprain and posterolateral pain was 6 years. At the time of surgery the main complaint was retromalleolar pain in nine patients, pain and instability in eight patients, and instability only in one patient. Diagnosis of tendinous lesions was based on clinical examination in three cases, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in eight cases, preoperative tenography in one case, and surgical exploration in six cases. The lesion was localized at the tip of the lateral malleolus and was visible only after opening the peroneal retinaculum. In three cases an accessory peroneal muscle was present. A Chrisman-Snook procedure was performed in 13 cases and a simple tendinous repair in 5 cases. The split lesion of the peroneus brevis tendon may be the result of chronic ankle laxity. This lesion needs a specific surgical treatment and the peroneal tendon must be checked in case of surgical procedure for ankle laxity. After ligamentous repair, residual pain can be due to a neglected peroneus brevis tear.

  5. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior-posterior shoulder tears: an examination of clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Sandrey, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    criteria, 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio reported. No specific information was provided about the procedure if the reviewers disagreed on how the evaluation criteria were applied. The specific search criteria led to the identification of 29 full-text articles. The studies were reviewed, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. This resulted in 14 excluded studies and 15 eligible studies for analysis. Of the 15 eligible studies, 1 evaluated only a single physical examination test for a SLAP lesion or biceps tendon injury, and 10 studies evaluated 2 to 6 physical examination tests for a SLAP lesion or biceps tendon injury. Nine studies reported sensitivities and specificities greater than 75%, 4 had sensitivities less than 75%, 3 had specificities less than 75%, 1 did not report sensitivity, and 2 did not report specificities. When validity was assessed for those 15 papers, only 1 study that evaluated the biceps tendon met the 5 critical appraisal criteria of Calvert et al and calculated 95% confidence intervals. When the Speed and Yergason tests were each compared with the gold standard (arthroscopy), the confidence intervals for the positive and negative likelihood ratios spanned 1. This indicated that the test result is unlikely to change the odds of having or not having the condition, respectively. The literature currently used as a reference for teaching in medical schools and continuing education lacks the necessary validity to help rule in or out a SLAP lesion or biceps tendon involvement. Based on the results from the systematic review conducted by Calvert et al, no tests clinically diagnose a SLAP lesion. This is a cause for concern as magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography, which are frequently used to assess a possible SLAP lesion, may also have diagnostic flaws and may be cost prohibitive. Performing arthroscopy on every patient to rule the

  6. BICEP2 III: Instrumental systematics

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.

    2015-11-23

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call "deprojection," for filtering the leading ordermore » beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ~10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. Lastly, the contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10 –3.« less

  7. BICEP2 III: Instrumental systematics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ade, P. A. R.

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call "deprojection," for filtering the leading ordermore » beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ~10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. Lastly, the contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10 –3.« less

  8. [Open repair of gluteus medius and minimus tendons tears with double-row technique : Clinical and radiological results].

    PubMed

    Schröder, J H; Geßlein, M; Schütz, M; Perka, C; Krüger, D

    2018-03-01

    Operative refixation is a new therapeutic option in cases of failed conservative treatment for trochanteric pain syndrome (TPS) and lesions of the hip abductors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Evaluation of the clinical and radiological results after open gluteus medius and minimus tendon reconstruction with a double-row technique was carried out. Patients with failed conservative treatment for TPS and confirmed lesions of the hip abductors in MRI were treated by open hip abductor tendon reconstruction with a double-row technique. The patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively (minimum follow-up 12 months) using the modified Harris hip score (mHHS) and a subjective score (subjective hip value, SHV). Preoperative and postoperative MRI evaluation included measurement of hip abductor muscle diameter and cross-sectional area as well as fatty degeneration. In this study 12 consecutive cases of open reconstruction of the hip abductor tendons were included. There was a significant improvement in the mHHS. In one case the patient showed an atraumatic rupture in the proximal anchor row. The MRI showed a significant improvement in muscle diameter and cross-sectional area for the gluteus medius muscle of the affected and the contralateral side, while the degree of fatty degeneration did not improve. The fatty degeneration showed a significant correlation with the postoperative results in the mHHS and the SHV. Operative reconstruction of lesions in the hip abductor tendons is a therapy option with significant improvement of patient satisfaction and functional scores as well as muscle diameter and cross-sectional area for the gluteus medius. The degree of fatty degeneration and possible differential diagnoses need to be taken into consideration.

  9. Longitudinal Long-term Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Follow-up After Single-Row Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Clinical Superiority of Structural Tendon Integrity.

    PubMed

    Heuberer, Philipp R; Smolen, Daniel; Pauzenberger, Leo; Plachel, Fabian; Salem, Sylvia; Laky, Brenda; Kriegleder, Bernhard; Anderl, Werner

    2017-05-01

    The number of arthroscopic rotator cuff surgeries is consistently increasing. Although generally considered successful, the reported number of retears after rotator cuff repair is substantial. Short-term clinical outcomes are reported to be rarely impaired by tendon retears, whereas to our knowledge, there is no study documenting long-term clinical outcomes and tendon integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. To investigate longitudinal long-term repair integrity and clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstruction. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Thirty patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with suture anchors for a full-tendon full-thickness tear of the supraspinatus or a partial-tendon full-thickness tear of the infraspinatus were included. Two and 10 years after initial arthroscopic surgery, tendon integrity was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score and Constant score as well as subjective questions regarding satisfaction with the procedure and return to normal activity were used to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes. At the early MRI follow-up, 42% of patients showed a full-thickness rerupture, while 25% had a partial rerupture, and 33% of tendons remained intact. The 10-year MRI follow-up (129 ± 11 months) showed 50% with a total rerupture, while the other half of the tendons were partially reruptured (25%) or intact (25%). The UCLA and Constant scores significantly improved from preoperatively (UCLA total: 50.6% ± 20.2%; Constant total: 44.7 ± 10.5 points) to 2 years (UCLA total: 91.4% ± 16.0% [ P < .001]; Constant total: 87.8 ± 15.3 points [ P < .001]) and remained significantly higher after 10 years (UCLA total: 89.7% ± 15.9% [ P < .001]; Constant total: 77.5 ± 15.6 points [ P < .001]). The Constant total score and Constant strength subscore, but not the UCLA score, were also significantly better at 10 years postoperatively in patients

  10. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1–/– mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro–engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-β2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709

  11. [Isokinetic assessment with two years follow-up of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendons].

    PubMed

    Condouret, J; Cohn, J; Ferret, J-M; Lemonsu, A; Vasconcelos, W; Dejour, D; Potel, J-F

    2008-12-01

    %, while, in the patellar tendon group, there was a dominance over the opposite side of 2 to 3% in concentric contraction. The hamstrings deficit appears to be "harvest dependent". For internal rotators, a significantly higher deficit is observed in eccentric contraction for the hamstrings group. The residual hamstrings deficits were related to the number of tendons harvested: -7% when there was no harvest, 7% with one tendon harvested and 17% with two tendons harvested. The relationship between the level of recovery of the quadriceps muscle and hamstrings at two years and the quality of functional results incite, regarding the significantly higher deficit of flexors in ACL reconstructions with hamstrings, to change the rehabilitation programs and especially on early rehabilitation of hamstrings in eccentric mode in the early weeks postoperative considering the harvest site as an equivalent of muscle tear.

  12. The V-Shaped Distal Triceps Tendon Repair: A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheiderer, Bastian; Imhoff, Florian B; Morikawa, Daichi; Lacheta, Lucca; Obopilwe, Elifho; Cote, Mark P; Imhoff, Andreas B; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Siebenlist, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Restoring footprint anatomy, minimizing gap formation, and maximizing the strength of distal triceps tendon repairs are essential factors for a successful healing process and return to sport. The novel V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique with unicortical button fixation closely restores footprint anatomy, provides minimal gap formation and high ultimate failure load, and minimizes iatrogenic fracture risk in acute/subacute distal triceps tendon tears. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four cadaveric elbows (mean ± SD age, 66 ± 5 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 repair groups: the transosseous cruciate repair technique (gold standard), the knotless suture-bridge repair technique, and the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique. Anatomic measurements of the central triceps tendon footprint were obtained in all specimens with a 3-dimensional digitizer before and after the repair. Cyclic loading was performed for a total of 1500 cycles at a rate of 0.25 Hz, pulling in the direction of the triceps. Displacements were measured on the medial and lateral tendon sites with 2 differential variable reluctance transducers. Load to failure and construct failure mode were recorded. The mean triceps bony insertion area was 399.05 ± 81.23 mm 2 . The transosseous cruciate repair technique restored 36.6% ± 16.8% of the native tendon insertion area, which was significantly different when compared with the knotless suture-bridge repair technique (85.2% ± 14.8%, P = .001) and the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique (88.9% ± 14.8%, P = .002). Mean displacement showed no significant difference between the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique (medial side, 0.75 ± 0.56 mm; lateral side, 0.99 ± 0.59 mm) and the knotless suture-bridge repair technique (1.61 ± 0.97 mm and 1.29 ± 0.8 mm) but significance between the V-shaped distal triceps tendon repair technique and the transosseous cruciate repair technique (4.91 ± 1.12 mm and 5

  13. The effect of the long head of the biceps on glenohumeral kinematics.

    PubMed

    Youm, Thomas; ElAttrache, Neal S; Tibone, James E; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q

    2009-01-01

    The long head of the biceps has been described as a stabilizing force in the setting of glenohumeral instability. However, data are lacking on the effect of loading the long head of the biceps on glenohumeral kinematics. Six cadaveric shoulders were tested for glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation using a custom shoulder testing system and the Microscribe 3DLX (Immersion, San Jose, CA). The path of glenohumeral articulation (PGA) was measured by calculating the humeral head center with respect to the glenoid articular surface at maximal internal rotation, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and maximal external rotation. Significant decreases in glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation were found with 22-N biceps loading vs the unloaded group. With respect to the PGA, the humeral rotation center was shifted posterior with biceps loading at maximal internal rotation, 30 degrees, and 60 degrees of external rotation. Loading the long head of the biceps significantly affects glenohumeral rotational range of motion, translations, and kinematics.

  14. Arthroscopic-Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer for Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Memon, Muzammil; Kay, Jeffrey; Quick, Emily; Simunovic, Nicole; Duong, Andrew; Henry, Patrick; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2018-06-01

    Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) has shown promising results with good outcomes in patients with massive rotator cuff tears (MRCTs), as reported by individual studies. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no systematic review has been performed to assess the collective outcomes of these individual studies. The primary purpose of this study was to assess patient outcomes after arthroscopic-assisted LDTT for the management of MRCTs. The secondary objectives were to report on the management of MRCTs, including diagnostic investigations, surgical decision making, and arthroscopic techniques, as well as to evaluate the quality of evidence of the existing literature. It was hypothesized that nearly all patients were satisfied with arthroscopic-assisted LDTT and that they experienced improvements in pain symptoms, function, and strength after the procedure, with an overall complication rate of less than 10%. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. The databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed were searched from database inception (1946) until August 18, 2017, with titles, abstracts, and full-text articles screened independently by 2 reviewers. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies investigating arthroscopic-assisted LDTT for the management of MRCTs on patients of all ages. Conference papers, book chapters, review articles, and technical reports were excluded. The quality of the included studies was categorized by level of evidence and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) checklist. In total, 8 studies (7 case series [median MINORS score, 7 of 16] and 1 prospective comparative study [median MINORS score, 14 of 24]) were identified; the studies included 258 patients (258 shoulders) with MRCTs treated with LDTT using arthroscopic-assisted techniques. The decision to pursue surgery was based on both clinical findings and investigations in 5 studies, investigations only in 2 studies, and clinical findings

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of the shoulder motion in patients with massive irreparable cuff tears after latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDT).

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Giorgio; Serrao, Mariano; Napoli, Francesco; Conte, Carmela; Miscusi, Massimo; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco; Costanzo, Giuseppe; De Cupis, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDT) is a recent method for surgical treatment of massive, irreparable posterosuperior cuff tears (MIPCT). So far, there are no studies on the quantitative motion analysis of the shoulder and latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle activation after LDT. The changes in shoulder movements after LDT can be objectively assessed by the 3-D motion analysis. These changes may not be due to an increased activity of the LD muscle as external rotator. The shoulder kinematics of nine patients with MIPCT were recorded through a 3-D motion analysis system, before LTD (T0), and after 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) months post-LDT. Maximal shoulder flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and horizontal abduction-adduction, and the internal and external circumduction of the shoulder joint were measured during upright standing posture. Surface EMG activity of the LD muscle was recorded during both internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) tasks in three different postures. A significant increase of shoulder movements was observed at T2 compared with T0 for almost all motor tasks. A significant effect of LDT was also found on LD-IR/ER ratio in posture 1 at T2 compared with T0 and T1. No significant effects were found for the LD-IR/ER ratio in the other postures. Our study indicates that LDT is effective in shoulder motion recovery. Such improvement is not associated with a change in function of the LD muscle, which may be induced by a depression of the humeral head into the glenoid cavity instead.

  16. Factors Predictive of Healing in Large Rotator Cuff Tears: Is It Possible to Predict Retear Preoperatively?

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ho Yeon; Kim, Hwan Jin; Jeon, Yoon Sang; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have identified risk factors that cause retear after rotator cuff repair. However, it is still questionable whether retears can be predicted preoperatively. To determine the risk factors related to retear after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and to evaluate whether it is possible to predict the occurrence of retear preoperatively. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study enrolled 112 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with single-row technique for a large-sized tear, defined as a tear with a mediolateral length of 3 to 5 cm. All patients underwent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9 months postoperatively to assess tendon integrity. The sample included 61 patients (54.5%) in the healed group and 51 (45.5%) in the retear group. In multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of retears were supraspinatus muscle atrophy ( P < .001) and fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus ( P = .027), which could be preoperatively measured by MRI. A significant difference was found between the two groups in sex, the acromiohumeral interval, tendon tension, and preoperative or intraoperative mediolateral tear length and musculotendinous junction position in univariate analysis. However, these variables were not independent predictors in multivariate analysis. The cutoff values of occupation ratio of supraspinatus and fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus were 43% and grade 2, respectively. The occupation ratio of supraspinatus <43% and grade ≥2 fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus were the strongest predictors of retear, with an area under the curve of 0.908, sensitivity of 98.0%, and specificity of 83.6% (accuracy = 90.2%). In patients with large rotator cuff tears, it was possible to predict the retear before rotator cuff repair regardless of intraoperative factors. The retear could be predicted most effectively when the occupation ratio of supraspinatus was <43% or the fatty infiltration of infraspinatus was

  17. Arthroscopic single-row modified mason-allen repair versus double-row suture bridge reconstruction for supraspinatus tendon tears: a matched-pair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Christian; Hug, Konstantin; Pauly, Stephan; Marnitz, Tim; Scheibel, Markus

    2012-12-01

    Arthroscopic double-row fixation of supraspinatus tendon tears compared with single-row techniques is still a matter of debate. Arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair using the suture bridge technique provides better clinical results and lower retear rates than does single-row repair using a modified Mason-Allen stitch technique. Cohort study; Level of evidence 3. Forty patients underwent either an arthroscopic single-row modified Mason-Allen stitch (SR) (n = 20; mean age ± SD, 61.5 ± 7.4 y) or a modified suture bridge double-row repair (DR) (n = 20; age, 61.2 ± 7.5 y). The anteroposterior extension was classified as Bateman I in 10% and Bateman II in 90% of patients in the SR group and as Bateman II in 80% and Bateman III in 20% of patients in the DR group. Patients were matched for sex and age. The subjective shoulder value (SSV), Constant-Murley score (CS), and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) were used for clinical follow-up. Furthermore, MRI scans were conducted for analysis of tendon integrity, muscle atrophy, and fatty infiltration via semiquantitative signal intensity analysis. In addition, re-defect patterns were evaluated. The mean follow-up time in the SR group was 16.8 ± 4.6 months. The mean SSV was 91.0% ± 8.8%, mean CS was 82.2 ± 8.1 (contralateral side, 88.8 ± 5.3), and mean WORC score was 96.5% ± 3.2%. The mean follow-up time in the DR group was 23.4 ± 2.9 months, with patients achieving scores of 92.9% ± 9.6% for the SSV, 77.0 ± 8.6 for the CS (contralateral side, 76.7 ± 17.1), and 90.7% ± 12.6% for the WORC (P > .05). No significant differences were detected in the clinical outcome between groups. Tendon integrity was as follows. Type 1, none in either group; type 2, 4 SR and 5 DR; type 3, 9 SR and 10 DR; type 4, 3 SR and 3 DR; and type 5, 3 SR and 2 DR. The failure rate was 31.6% (n = 6) in the SR group and 25% (n = 5) in the DR group (P > .05). No significant differences were obtained for muscular atrophy or fatty

  18. Hyaluronic Acid Accelerates Tendon-to-Bone Healing After Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hirokazu; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Ohzono, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hidehiro; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro; Fukuda, Kanji; Teramura, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Shichijo, Shigeki; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-12-01

    There is growing evidence that the subacromial injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) is effective for pain relief in rotator cuff tears; however, its effect on tendon-to-bone healing remains unknown. To examine the effect of HA on the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and on tendon-to-bone healing in a rotator cuff repair model. Controlled laboratory study. Bilateral complete tears of the infraspinatus tendon were made in rabbits and subsequently repaired. Before closure, 1 mL HA was applied to the repaired site, and phosphate-buffered saline was used in the opposite side as a control. Biomechanical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. After euthanizing each animal, the bone marrow was isolated from the femoral bone in the same rabbits. Then, MSCs were cultured in media for chondrogenic differentiation, and the chondral pellet production and cartilage-related gene expression levels in the cells were examined at various concentrations of HA. At 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, ultimate load-to-failure was significantly greater in the HA group than in the control group (45.61 ± 9.0 N vs 32.42 ± 9.4 N at 4 weeks, 90.7 ± 16.0 N vs 66.97 ± 10.0 N at 8 weeks; both P < .05) but not at 12 weeks after surgery (109.6 ± 40.2 N vs 108.1 ± 42.6 N, P > .05). Linear stiffness was not significant throughout the time point evaluation. The chondroid formation area at the tendon-bone interface stained by safranin O (control vs HA group) was 0.33% ± 0.7% versus 13.5% ± 12.3% at 4 weeks after surgery ( P < .05) and 3.0% ± 5.9% versus 12.9% ± 12.9% at 8 weeks after surgery ( P < .05), but there was no significant difference at 12 weeks after surgery. Maturity of collagen at the repaired site stained by PicroSirius Red (control vs HA group) was 16.2 ± 10.6 versus 43.5 ± 21.3 at 4 weeks after surgery ( P < .05), but there were no significant differences at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. MSCs were

  19. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... smooth layer) lining these tendons. A rotator cuff tear occurs when one of the tendons is torn ... Poor posture over many years Aging Rotator cuff tears TEARS Rotator cuff tears may occur in two ...

  20. DELTOID FLAP for MANAGEMENT of MASSIVE IRREPARABLE ROTATOR CUFF TEARS: Case Series.

    PubMed

    Roukoz, Sami; Nabhane, Linda; Aidibi, Ali al-rida; Sebaaly, Amer

    2016-01-01

    Muscle transfer has been reported as a good surgical option to reconstruct the deficient rotator cuff. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of deltoid muscle flap transfer to restore shoulder function in patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tear. This is a retrospective descriptive case series. Included patients had a lesion of two or more tendons of the rotator cuff or lesion of one tendon of more than 5 cm in width and no lesion to the subscapularis. Evaluation was done using the Constant score, visual analog scale for satisfaction and quality of life. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. Three patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining (9 males and 8 females) had a mean follow-up period of 40.5 months. The mean age at surgery was 61.3 years. Thirty-five percent of patients were involved in heavy labor while the lesions affected the dominant side in 70% of the cases. Mean preoperative Constant score was 40.8 and increased to 78.8 (p < 0.05) with a difference of +38 points on the raw Constant score and an improvement rate of 64%. The greatest improvement involved essentially pain and quality of life (improvement rate of 82%) (p < 0.05). Eighty-nine percent of patients have good and excellent self-reported results. More than just a salvage procedure, deltoid muscle flap seems to be an adequate option in terms of appropriate pain relief, function recovery as well as patient satisfaction. Keywords: massive rotator cuff tears, deltoid muscle flap

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine shoulder.

    PubMed

    Long, C D; Nyland, T G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the canine shoulder. Fourteen shoulders from 7 clinically normal mid-sized dogs were radiographed and imaged using high frequency ultrasound. Each shoulder was isolated postmortem, and the ultrasonographic and gross anatomy was studied during dissection. The ultrasonographic appearance of the shoulder specimens was similar to that found in the live dogs. Twenty-four shoulders isolated postmortem from 12 variably sized dogs were also used to characterize the normal ultrasound anatomy over a range of sizes. Important anatomic structures that could be consistently evaluated were the biceps tendon and bursa, the bicipital groove surface, the supraspinatous tendon, the infraspinatous tendon, the teres minor tendon, and the caudal aspect of the humeral head. Results of ultrasonographic examination of 4 dogs with shoulder lameness are described to illustrate some applications of canine shoulder ultrasonography in the evaluation of the canine shoulder. In these dogs, ultrasound was a valuable tool to evaluate effusion and synovial proliferation within the bicipital bursa, supraspinatous and biceps tendinitis, biceps tendon strain, and dystrophic calcification.

  2. Effect of Hypercholesterolemia on Fatty Infiltration and Quality of Tendon-to-Bone Healing in a Rabbit Model of a Chronic Rotator Cuff Tear: Electrophysiological, Biomechanical, and Histological Analyses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Park, HaeBong; Kwon, Jieun; Choe, Ghee Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of healing failure after rotator cuff repair is high, and fatty infiltration is a crucial factor in healing failure. To verify the effect of hypercholesterolemia on fatty infiltration and the quality of tendon-to-bone healing and its reversibility by lowering the cholesterol level in a chronic tear model using the rabbit supraspinatus. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-eight rabbits were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n = 12 each). After 4 weeks of a high-cholesterol diet (groups A and B) and a regular diet (groups C and D), the supraspinatus tendon was detached and left alone for 6 weeks and then was repaired in a transosseous manner (groups A, B, and C). Group D served as a control. Group A continued to receive the high-cholesterol diet until the final evaluation (6 weeks after repair); however, at the time of repair, group B was changed to a general diet with administration of a cholesterol-lowering agent (simvastatin). Histological evaluation of the fat-to-muscle proportion was performed twice, at the time of repair and the final evaluation, and an electromyographic (EMG) test, mechanical test, and histological test of tendon-to-bone healing were performed at the final evaluation. For the EMG test, group A showed a significantly smaller area of compound muscle action potential compared with groups C and D (all P <.01), and group B showed a larger area than group A, almost up to the level of group C (P = .312). Similarly, group A showed significantly lower mechanical properties both in load-to-failure and stiffness compared with groups C and D (all P <.05). In addition, although not significantly different, the mechanical properties of group B were higher than those of group A (mean load-to-failure: group A = 42.01 N, group B = 58.23 N [P = .103]; mean stiffness: group A = 36.32 N/mm, group B = 47.22 N/mm [P = .153]). For the histological test, groups A and B showed a significantly higher fat-to-muscle proportion than did groups C and D at 6

  3. 'Bald trochanter' spontaneous rupture of the conjoined tendons of the gluteus medius and minimus presenting as a trochanteric bursitis.

    PubMed

    LaBan, Myron M; Weir, Susan K; Taylor, Ronald S

    2004-10-01

    A 66-yr-old white woman presented with progressive complaints of right lateral hip and thigh pain associated with a disabling limp without an antecedent history of trauma. Physical examination revealed localized pain over the right greater trochanter to palpation. A full pain-free range of motion of the right hip was associated with weakness in the hip abductors. The patient ambulated with a compensated right Trendelenburg gait. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a trochanteric bursitis and an effusion of the hip and a full-thickness tear of the gluteus medius muscle, with both a disruption and retraction of the tendon of an atretic gluteus minimus muscle. Conjoined tendon pathology of both the gluteus medius and minimus as, revealed by magnetic resonance examination, is probably more frequent than heretofore commonly recognized. In patients presenting with "intractable" complaints of a trochanteric bursitis and an ambulatory limp due to weakness in the hip abductors, imaging studies calling attention to a possible tendon rupture may be diagnostic.

  4. TREM-1, HMGB1 and RAGE in the Shoulder Tendon: Dual Mechanisms for Inflammation Based on the Coincidence of Glenohumeral Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Dilisio, Matthew F; Dietz, Nicholas E; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff injury (RCI) is a major musculoskeletal disorder in the adult population where inflammation and pain are major contributing factors. Coincidence of other clinical conditions like glenohumeral arthritis aggravates inflammation and delays the healing response. The mechanism and signaling factors underlying the sustenance of inflammation in the rotator cuff joint are largely unknown. The present article aims to elucidate the involvement of inflammatory molecule, TREM-1 (Triggering Receptors Expressed on Myeloid cells-1), and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB-1) and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), in the setting of RCI with respect to the severity of glenohumeral arthritis. Biceps tendons (15 specimens) from the shoulder and blood (11 samples) from patients with glenohumeral arthritis (Group-1, n = 4) and without glenohumeral arthritis (Group-2, n = 11) after RCI surgery were obtained for the study. Molecular and morphological alterations between the groups were compared using histology, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and flow cytometry. MRI and histomorphology assessment revealed severe inflammation in Group-1 patients while in Group-2 ECM disorganization was prominent without any hallmarks of inflammation. A significant increase in TREM-1 expression in circulating neutrophils and monocytes was observed. Elevated levels of TREM-1, HMGB-1 and RAGE in Group-1 patients along with CD68+ and CD16+ cells confirmed DAMP-mediated inflammation. Expression of TREM-1 in the tendon of Group-2 patients even in the absence of immune cells presented a new population of TREM-expressing cells that were confirmed by real-time PCR analysis and immunofluorescence. Expression of HMGB-1 and RAGE in the biceps tendon from the shoulder of patients without glenohumeral arthritis implied TREM-1-mediated inflammation without involving immune cells, whereas in patients with glenohumeral arthritis

  5. Comparison of repair techniques in small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears in cadaveric sheep shoulders.

    PubMed

    Onay, Ulaş; Akpınar, Sercan; Akgün, Rahmi Can; Balçık, Cenk; Tuncay, Ismail Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare new knotless single-row and double-row suture anchor techniques with traditional transosseous suture techniques for different sized rotator cuff tears in an animal model. The study included 56 cadaveric sheep shoulders. Supraspinatus cuff tears of 1 cm repaired with new knotless single-row suture anchor technique and supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tears of 3 cm repaired with double-row suture anchor technique were compared to traditional transosseous suture techniques and control groups. The repaired tendons were loaded with 5 mm/min static velocity with 2.5 kgN load cell in Instron 8874 machine until the repair failure. The 1 cm transosseous group was statistically superior to 1 cm control group (p=0.021, p<0.05) and the 3 cm SpeedBridge group was statistically superior to the 1 cm SpeedFix group (p=0.012, p<0.05). The differences between the other groups were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found between the new knotless suture anchor techniques and traditional transosseous suture techniques.

  6. Bicipital tendinitis and tenosynovitis in the dog: a study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Bruce, W J; Burbidge, H M; Bray, J P; Broome, C J

    2000-04-01

    To describe the clinical, radiographic, and sonographic features of 15 dogs with bicipital tendinitis and tenosynovitis, classify them according to cause, and evaluate the long-term efficacy of treatment. Dogs exhibiting forelimb lameness with pain localised to the biceps tendon were included in the study. Sonographic examination of the tendon and tendon sheath, and radiographic examination including positive contrast arthrograms of the shoulder joint were performed, and assessed for features consistent with biceps tendon disease. In some cases, synovial-fluid analysis and surgical investigation were also undertaken. The causes of the conditions were classified as either traumatic, mechanical, neoplastic or inflammatory. Dogs were treated conservatively with rest and anti-inflammatory drugs, or surgically by either transection of the transverse humeral ligament or tenodesis of the biceps tendon. Assessment of the effects of treatment was made by re-examination at six weeks and from information gained by telephone interview with the dog's owner at longer-term follow-up. Bicipital tendinitis and tenosynovitis were common causes of forelimb lameness in active, middle-aged or older, medium to large-breed dogs. The most sensitive physical tests for localising pain to the biceps apparatus were shoulder flexion with the elbow extended, focal digital pressure applied directly to the biceps origin, and the biceps retraction test. Sonographic assessment was found to be more sensitive than shoulder radiography or arthrography for characterising the lesion. Conservative treatment of 11 traumatic cases resulted in good or excellent function at long-term follow-up. One mechanical bicipital tendinitis secondary to mineral deposits within the supraspinatus tendon improved following transection of the transverse humeral ligament and removal of the deposits. One of two cases of inflammatory tendinitis/ tenosynovitis improved following tenodesis. One dog with neoplastic disease did

  7. Botulinum toxin is detrimental to repair of a chronic rotator cuff tear in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Gilotra, Mohit; Nguyen, Thao; Christian, Matthew; Davis, Derik; Henn, R Frank; Hasan, Syed Ashfaq

    2015-08-01

    Re-tear continues to be a problem after rotator cuff repair. Intramuscular botulinum toxin (Botox) injection can help optimize tension at the repair site to promote healing but could have an adverse effect on the degenerated muscle in a chronic tear. We hypothesized that Botox injection would improve repair characteristics without adverse effect on the muscle in a chronic rotator cuff tear model. The supraspinatus tendon of both shoulders in 14 rabbits underwent delayed repair 12 weeks after transection. One shoulder was treated with intramuscular Botox injection and the other with a saline control injection. Six weeks after repair, outcomes were based on biomechanics, histology, and magnetic resonance imaging. Botox-treated repairs were significantly weaker (2.64 N) than control repairs (5.51 N, p = 0.03). Eighty percent of Botox-treated repairs and 40% of control repairs healed with some partial defect. Fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus was present in all shoulders (Goutallier Grade 3 or 4) but was increased in the setting of Botox. This study provides additional support for the rabbit supraspinatus model of chronic cuff tear, showing consistent fatty infiltration. Contrary to our hypothesis, Botox had a negative effect on repair strength and might increase fatty infiltration. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Long digital extensor tendon mineralization and cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Katie C; Perry, James A; Duncan, Colleen G; Duerr, Felix M

    2014-07-01

    To report clinical and histopathologic features of long digital extensor (LDE) tendon mineralization with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in a dog. Case report. 1.5-year-old, male castrated, English bulldog mix weighing 31.5 kg. Pre- and postoperative orthogonal radiographs, arthroscopic evaluation, arthrotomy with en bloc surgical excision, and histopathologic analysis of the excised LDE tendon. There was radiographic evidence of mineralization in the region of the proximal LDE and stifle instability suggestive of CCL rupture. Arthroscopy, and subsequent arthrotomy, showed complete tearing of the CCL and an intact but grossly thickened LDE. No evidence of avulsion or bony proliferation associated with the LDE was appreciated. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tenectomy of the LDE returned the dog to normal weight-bearing. No evidence of ectopic mineralization in the affected limb or similar clinical signs in the contralateral limb have been observed in 12 months follow-up. LDE tenectomy followed by stabilization of the stifle by TPLO resulted in a functional outcome. Mineralization without concurrent avulsion of the LDE has not been reported in dogs; however, posterolateral tendon injury in people has been linked to knee instability and cruciate ligament rupture. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Decellularized Tendon Extracellular Matrix—A Valuable Approach for Tendon Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Al-Sadi, Onays; Ertel, Wolfgang; Lohan, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Tendon healing is generally a time-consuming process and often leads to a functionally altered reparative tissue. Using degradable scaffolds for tendon reconstruction still remains a compromise in view of the required high mechanical strength of tendons. Regenerative approaches based on natural decellularized allo- or xenogenic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently started to attract interest. This ECM combines the advantages of its intrinsic mechanical competence with that of providing tenogenic stimuli for immigrating cells mediated, for example, by the growth factors and other mediators entrapped within the natural ECM. A major restriction for their therapeutic application is the mainly cell-associated immunogenicity of xenogenic or allogenic tissues and, in the case of allogenic tissues, also the risk of disease transmission. A survey of approaches for tendon reconstruction using cell-free tendon ECM is presented here, whereby the problems associated with the decellularization procedures, the success of various recellularization strategies, and the applicable cell types will be thoroughly discussed. Encouraging in vivo results using cell-free ECM, as, for instance, in rabbit models, have already been reported. However, in comparison to native tendon, cells remain mostly inhomogeneously distributed in the reseeded ECM and do not align. Hence, future work should focus on the optimization of tendon ECM decellularization and recolonization strategies to restore tendon functionality. PMID:24710540

  10. Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Objective *These authors contributed equally to this work.To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19–56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. PMID:28222622

  11. [Ultrastructural observation of tendonization of artificial tendon 109HH in rabbit].

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Cao, Q; Xiao, H

    1995-09-01

    Ten New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups at random. Calcaneal tendons were cut bilaterally, then atificial tendon 109HH was used to connect the two ends of the cut tendon. Ultrastructural changes of control group and experimental groups at 2, 6, 12, 28 weeks after section were observed. The results showed that fibroblast proliferated and a lot of ribosome and RER appeared in plasm during 2 approximately 6 weeks, indicating artificial tendon caused fibroblast proliferation. During this period, fibroblast over synthesized collagenous protein and the synthesis of collagenous fibers peaked. During 12-28 weeks, the number of fibroblasts and the synthesis of collagenous protein decreased. Finally, fibroblasts became inactive tendon cells. With the formation of new tendons, the artificial tendens were degradated and absorbed, and disappeared after 12 weeks. The new tendon fibers became thicker and had the correct direction through reconstruction. The structure and function of new tendons could be restored to be consistent with normal values.

  12. [Rheumatic tendon pathologies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, M; Jordan, M

    2014-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is found in approximately 2 % of the total population in Europe and the peak incidence of the disease is during the fourth and fifth decades of life. In approximately 15 % the first symptoms of the disease occur at the level of the foot and ankle. If the early stage-dependent therapy with pharmaceuticals fails isolated surgery of the tendons (e.g. tenosynovectomy) and reconstructive surgery including the tendons (e.g. tendon transfer and tendon readaptation) are performed to keep the patient mobile. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the most commonly used interventions in the reconstruction of tendons in rheumatism patients and the corresponding indications. The conservative therapy options for rheumatic foot and ankle alterations with a special emphasis on tendon pathologies have a well-established importance and are also presented. A selective literature search was carried out for therapeutic options of rheumatic tendon pathologies. If possible attempts should be made to preserve functional qualities using tenosynovectomy, tendon sutures or tendon transfer operations. If joints are already destroyed or dislocated, tendon operations should be carried out only as combined interventions with arthrodesis, endoprostheses or resection arthroplasty. The time window in which these interventions are possible should not be missed. Orthotic devices, bandages or even orthopedic shoes provide external support and splinting but do not represent a causal therapy.

  13. Hyaluronic acid increases tendon derived cell viability and proliferation in vitro: comparative study of two different hyaluronic acid preparations by molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Gallorini, Marialucia; Berardi, Anna C; Berardocco, Martina; Gissi, Clarissa; Maffulli, Nicola; Cataldi, Amelia; Oliva, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic Acid (HA) has been already approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for osteoarthritis (OA), while its use in the treatment of tendinopathy is still debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different HA on human rotator cuff tendon derived cells in terms of cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. An in vitro model was developed on human tendon derived cells from rotator cuff tears to study the effects of two different HA preparations: Sinovial HL® (High-Low molecular weight) (MW: 80-100 kDa) and KDa Sinovial Forte SF (MW: 800-1200), at various concentrations. Tendon derived cells morphology was evaluated after 0, 7 and 14 d of culture. Viability and proliferation were analyzed after 0, 24, and 48 h of culture and apoptosis occurrence was assessed after 24 h of culture. All the HAPs tested here increased viability and proliferation, in a dose-dependent manner and they reduced apoptosis at early stages (24 h) compared to control cells (without HAPs). HAPs enhanced viability and proliferation and counteracted apoptosis in tendon derived cells.

  14. Voluntary activation of biceps-to-triceps and deltoid-to-triceps transfers in quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carrie L; Bednar, Michael S; Bryden, Anne M; Keith, Michael W; Perreault, Eric J; Murray, Wendy M

    2017-01-01

    The biceps or the posterior deltoid can be transferred to improve elbow extension function for many individuals with C5 or C6 quadriplegia. Maximum strength after elbow reconstruction is variable; the patient's ability to voluntarily activate the transferred muscle to extend the elbow may contribute to the variability. We compared voluntary activation during maximum isometric elbow extension following biceps transfer (n = 5) and deltoid transfer (n = 6) in three functional postures. Voluntary activation was computed as the elbow extension moment generated during maximum voluntary effort divided by the moment generated with full activation, which was estimated via electrical stimulation. Voluntary activation was on average 96% after biceps transfer and not affected by posture. Individuals with deltoid transfer demonstrated deficits in voluntary activation, which differed by posture (80% in horizontal plane, 69% in overhead reach, and 70% in weight-relief), suggesting inadequate motor re-education after deltoid transfer. Overall, individuals with a biceps transfer better activated their transferred muscle than those with a deltoid transfer. This difference in neural control augmented the greater force-generating capacity of the biceps leading to increased elbow extension strength after biceps transfer (average 9.37 N-m across postures) relative to deltoid transfer (average 2.76 N-m across postures) in our study cohort.

  15. Voluntary activation of biceps-to-triceps and deltoid-to-triceps transfers in quadriplegia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Carrie L.; Bednar, Michael S.; Bryden, Anne M.; Keith, Michael W.; Perreault, Eric J.; Murray, Wendy M.

    2017-01-01

    The biceps or the posterior deltoid can be transferred to improve elbow extension function for many individuals with C5 or C6 quadriplegia. Maximum strength after elbow reconstruction is variable; the patient’s ability to voluntarily activate the transferred muscle to extend the elbow may contribute to the variability. We compared voluntary activation during maximum isometric elbow extension following biceps transfer (n = 5) and deltoid transfer (n = 6) in three functional postures. Voluntary activation was computed as the elbow extension moment generated during maximum voluntary effort divided by the moment generated with full activation, which was estimated via electrical stimulation. Voluntary activation was on average 96% after biceps transfer and not affected by posture. Individuals with deltoid transfer demonstrated deficits in voluntary activation, which differed by posture (80% in horizontal plane, 69% in overhead reach, and 70% in weight-relief), suggesting inadequate motor re-education after deltoid transfer. Overall, individuals with a biceps transfer better activated their transferred muscle than those with a deltoid transfer. This difference in neural control augmented the greater force-generating capacity of the biceps leading to increased elbow extension strength after biceps transfer (average 9.37 N-m across postures) relative to deltoid transfer (average 2.76 N-m across postures) in our study cohort. PMID:28253262

  16. Biologics for tendon repair☆

    PubMed Central

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  17. Hyaluronic acid injections protect patellar tendon from detraining-associated damage.

    PubMed

    Frizziero, Antonio; Salamanna, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ferrari, Andrea; Martini, Lucia; Marini, Marina; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Maffulli, Nicola; Masiero, Stefano; Fini, Milena

    2015-09-01

    Having previously demonstrated that detraining affects patellar tendon (PT) proteoglycan content and collagen fiber organization, we undertook the present study with two aims: to improve knowledge on the adaptation of PT and its enthesis to detraining from a histological and histomorphometric point of view, and to investigate the hypothesis that repeated peri-patellar injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) on detrained PT may reduce and limit detrained associated-damage. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: Untrained (n=6), Trained (n=6) (10 wks-treadmill) and Detrained (n=12). In the detrained rats, the left tendon was untreated while the right tendon received repeated peri-patellar injections of either HA or saline (NaCl). Structure and morphology of PTs (modified Movin score, tear density, collagen type I and III) and enthesis (cell morphology, chondrocyte cluster formation, tidemark integrity, matrix staining and vascularization) were evaluated. The left PT and enthesis of the Detrained groups showed altered structure and morphology with the highest Movin score values, the highest percentage of collagen III and the lowest of collagen I; the lowest score values were observed in the Trained and Detrained-HA groups. Detrained-NaCl PTs showed the highest collagen III and the lowest collagen I values with respect to Detrained-HA PTs. This study strengthens previously published data showing the alteration in tendon and enthesis morphology due to discontinuation of training, and provides new data showing that treatment with HA is effective in the maintenance of the structural properties of PT and enthesis in Detrained rats. Such beneficial effects could play a significant role in the management of conservative and rehabilitation strategies in athletes that change type, intensity and duration of training.

  18. Achilles tendon: US examination

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fornage, B.D.

    Real-time ultrasonography (US) using linear-array probes and a stand-off pad as a ''waterpath'' was performed to evaluate the Achilles tendon in 67 patients (including 24 athletes) believed to have acute or chronic traumatic or inflammatory pathologic conditions. Tendons in 23 patients appeared normal on US scans. The 44 abnormal tendons comprised five complete and four partial ruptures, seven instances of postoperative change, and 28 cases of tendonitis. US depiction of the inner structure of the tendon resulted in the diagnosis of focal abnormalities, including partial ruptures, nodules, and calcifications. Tendonitis was characterized by enlargement and decreased echogenicity of the tendon.more » The normal US appearance of the Achilles tendon is described.« less

  19. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1.5-Tesla MRI cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Thomas; Fries, Simon; Schweizer, Andreas; Schöffl, Isabelle; Janka, Rolf; Bongartz, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study. MRI in the crimp grip position and in the neutral position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (combined pulley rupture, n = 14; single pulley rupture, n = 7). Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were 92.86 % and 100 % respectively in the crimp grip position and 78.57 % and 85.71 % respectively in the neutral position. Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.87 in the crimp grip position and 0.59 in the neutral position. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position.

  20. Rotator cuff tear shape characterization: a comparison of two-dimensional imaging and three-dimensional magnetic resonance reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Beltran, Luis S; Gibbs, Kevin; Jazrawi, Laith; Berman, Phillip; Babb, James; Meislin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve our understanding of rotator cuff tendon tear shapes. We believed that 3D MRI would be more accurate than two-dimensional (2D) MRI for classifying tear shapes. We performed a retrospective review of MRI studies of patients with arthroscopically proven full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Two orthopedic surgeons reviewed the information for each case, including scope images, and characterized the shape of the cuff tear into crescent, longitudinal, U- or L-shaped longitudinal, and massive type. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the corresponding MRI studies independently and blind to the arthroscopic findings and characterized the shape on the basis of the tear's retraction and size using 2D MRI. The 3D reconstructions of each cuff tear were reviewed by each radiologist to characterize the shape. Statistical analysis included 95% confidence intervals and intraclass correlation coefficients. The study reviewed 34 patients. The accuracy for differentiating between crescent-shaped, longitudinal, and massive tears using measurements on 2D MRI was 70.6% for reader 1 and 67.6% for reader 2. The accuracy for tear shape characterization into crescent and longitudinal U- or L-shaped using 3D MRI was 97.1% for reader 1 and 82.4% for reader 2. When further characterizing the longitudinal tears as massive or not using 3D MRI, both readers had an accuracy of 76.9% (10 of 13). The overall accuracy of 3D MRI was 82.4% (56 of 68), significantly different (P = .021) from 2D MRI accuracy (64.7%). Our study has demonstrated that 3D MR reconstructions of the rotator cuff improve the accuracy of characterizing rotator cuff tear shapes compared with current 2D MRI-based techniques. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair With Graft Augmentation of 3-Dimensional Biological Collagen for Moderate to Large Tears: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, You-Zhi; Zhang, Chi; Jin, Ri-Long; Shen, Tong; Gu, Peng-Cheng; Lin, Xiang-Jin; Chen, Jian-De

    2018-05-01

    Due to the highly organized tissue and avascular nature of the rotator cuff, rotator cuff tears have limited ability to heal after the tendon is reinserted directly on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Consequently, retears are among the most common complications after rotator cuff repair. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with patches has been an active area of research in recent years to reduce retear rate. Graft augmentation with 3D collagen could prevent retears of the repaired tendon and improve tendon-bone healing in moderate to large rotator cuff tears. Randomized controlled study; Level of evidence, 2. A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed in a consecutive series of 112 patients age 50 to 85 years who underwent rotator cuff repair with the suture-bridge technique (58 patients, control group) or the suture-bridge technique augmented with 3-dimensional (3D) collagen (54 patients, study group). All patients were followed for 28.2 months (range, 24-36 months). Visual analog scale score for pain, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score, and Constant score were determined. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed pre- and postoperatively (at a minimum of 24 months) to evaluate the integrity of the rotator cuff and the retear rate of the repaired tendon. Three patients in each group had biopsies at nearly 24 months after surgery with histological assessment and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 104 patients completed the final follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, the UCLA shoulder score was 28.1 ± 1.9 in the study group, which was significantly better than that in the control group (26.9 ± 2.1, P = .002). The Constant score was also significantly better in the study group (87.1 ± 3.2) than in the control group (84.9 ± 4.2, P = .003). However, at the final follow-up, no significant differences were found in the UCLA shoulder scores (29.4 ± 1.9 in the control group and 30.0 ± 1.6 in the study group, P

  2. Phenytoin accelerates tendon healing in a rat model of Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, B; Navali, A M; Mohammad, S Ali; Mousavi, G; Akbari, M Gahvechi; Miyandoab, T Maleki; Roshangar, L; Saleh, B Mohammadi; Kermani, T Asvadi; Laleh, F Moutab; Ghabili, M

    2016-01-01

    Tendons are vulnerable to various types of acute or chronic injures. Different methods have been investigated to achieve better healing. Phenytoin is a drug which could stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen. This experimental study was performed to assess the effect of phenytoin on tendon healing in a rat model of tendon rupture. Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups, 1) Sham group; 2) Tendon rupture; 3) Tendon rupture+phenytoin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 21 days. On 21st day after tendon injury, the rats were anesthetized and tendon tissue was sampled for studying by light and electron microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic comparisons of the repair tissues of both groups were made on the 21st day. The results obtained from light and electron microscopy studies showed that tendon tissue healing was significantly better in phenytoin group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Systemic administration of phenytoin may have a positive effect on tendon healing by increasing fibroblast quantity, fibrillar collagen synthesis, vascularity, and suppressing inflammation (Tab. 2, Ref. 25).

  3. Informing Stem Cell-Based Tendon Tissue Engineering Approaches with Embryonic Tendon Development.

    PubMed

    Okech, William; Kuo, Catherine K

    Adult tendons fail to regenerate normal tissue after injury, and instead form dysfunctional scar tissue with abnormal mechanical properties. Surgical repair with grafts is the current standard to treat injuries, but faces significant limitations including pain and high rates of re-injury. To address this, we aim to regenerate new, normal tendons to replace dysfunctional tendons. A common approach to tendon tissue engineering is to design scaffolds and bioreactors based on adult tendon properties that can direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. Despite significant progress, advances have been limited due, in part, to a need for markers and potent induction cues. Our goal is to develop novel tendon tissue engineering approaches informed by embryonic tendon development. We are characterizing structure-property relationships of embryonic tendon to identify design parameters for three-dimensional scaffolds and bioreactor mechanical loading systems to direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. We will review studies in which we quantified changes in the mechanical and biochemical properties of tendon during embryonic development and elucidated specific mechanisms of functional property elaboration. We then examined the effects of these mechanical and biochemical factors on embryonic tendon cell behavior. Using custom-designed bioreactors, we also examined the effects of dynamic mechanical loading and growth factor treatment on embryonic tendon cells. Our findings have established cues to induce tenogenesis as well as metrics to evaluate differentiation. We finish by discussing how we have evaluated the tenogenic differentiation potential of adult stem cells by comparing their responses to that of embryonic tendon cells in these culture systems.

  4. The Degeneration of Meniscus Roots Is Accompanied by Fibrocartilage Formation, Which May Precede Meniscus Root Tears in Osteoarthritic Knees.

    PubMed

    Park, Do Young; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Choi, Byung Hyune; Kim, Young Jick; Kim, Mijin; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joon Ho

    2015-12-01

    Fibrocartilage metaplasia in tendons and ligaments is an adaptation to compression as well as a pathological feature during degeneration. Medial meniscus posterior roots are unique ligaments that resist multidirectional forces, including compression. To characterize the degeneration of medial meniscus posterior root tears in osteoarthritic knees, with an emphasis on fibrocartilage and calcification. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Samples of medial meniscus posterior roots were harvested from cadaveric specimens and patients during knee replacement surgery and grouped as follows: normal reference, no tear, partial tear, and complete tear. Degeneration was analyzed with histology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on specimens with and without fibrocartilage. Quantifiable data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn comparison test. Thirty, 28, and 42 samples harvested from 99 patients were allocated into the no tear, partial tear, and complete tear groups, respectively. Mean modified Bonar tendinopathy scores for each group were 3.97, 9.31, and 14.15, respectively, showing a higher degree of degeneration associated with the extent of the tear (P < .05 for all groups). The characterization of root matrices revealed an increase in fibrocartilage according to the extent of the tear. Tear margins revealed fibrocartilage in 59.3% of partial tear samples and 76.2% of complete tear samples, with a distinctive cleavage-like shape. Root tears with a similar shape were induced within fibrocartilaginous areas during uniaxial tensile testing. Even in the no tear group, 56.7% of samples showed fibrocartilage in the anterior margin of the root, adjacent to the meniscus. An increased stained area of calcification and expression of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene were observed in the complete tear group compared with the no tear group (P < .0001

  5. Clinical Outcomes of Conservative Treatment and Arthroscopic Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Do, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Joong Hoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Noh, Jee Hyun; Choi, Soo Hyun; Chung, Sun Gun; Lee, Shi-Uk; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Seihee; Kim, Min Jee; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes following conservative treatment and arthroscopic repair in patients with a rotator cuff tear. In this retrospective study, patients aged >50 years with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear were reviewed. The rotator cuff tendons were evaluated using ultrasonography, shoulder magnetic resonance imaging or MR arthrography, and the patients with either a high-grade partial-thickness or small-to-medium-sized (≤3 cm) full-thickness tear were included in this study. The primary outcome measures were a pain assessment score and range of motion (ROM) at 1-year follow-up. The secondary outcomes were the rate of tear progression or retear along with the rate of symptom aggravation after the treatments. A total of 357 patients were enrolled, including 183 patients that received conservative treatment and 174 patients who received an arthroscopic repair. The pain assessment score (p<0.001) and the ROM in forward flexion (p<0.001) were significantly improved in both groups. The ROM in internal rotation did not significantly change after conservative treatment and arthroscopic repair. The pain assessment score and ROM were not significantly different between the two groups. Retear was observed in 9.6% of patients who had an arthroscopic repair and tear progression was found in 6.7% of those who underwent conservative treatment. The proportion of aggravation for pain and ROM did not significantly differ between the two groups. The effectiveness of conservative treatment is not inferior to arthroscopic repair for patients >50 years old with a less than medium-sized rotator cuff tear in a 1-year follow-up period. Further study is warranted to find the optimal combination of conservative treatment for a symptomatic rotator cuff tear.

  6. Special Physical Examination Tests for Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior Shoulder Tears: An Examination of Clinical Usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Sandrey, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    applying the 5 criteria proposed by Calvert et al. If the study met the inclusion and validity criteria, 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio reported. No specific information was provided about the procedure if the reviewers disagreed on how the evaluation criteria were applied. Main Results: The specific search criteria led to the identification of 29 full-text articles. The studies were reviewed, and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. This resulted in 14 excluded studies and 15 eligible studies for analysis. Of the 15 eligible studies, 1 evaluated only a single physical examination test for a SLAP lesion or biceps tendon injury, and 10 studies evaluated 2 to 6 physical examination tests for a SLAP lesion or biceps tendon injury. Nine studies reported sensitivities and specificities greater than 75%, 4 had sensitivities less than 75%, 3 had specificities less than 75%, 1 did not report sensitivity, and 2 did not report specificities. When validity was assessed for those 15 papers, only 1 study that evaluated the biceps tendon met the 5 critical appraisal criteria of Calvert et al and calculated 95% confidence intervals. When the Speed and Yergason tests were each compared with the gold standard (arthroscopy), the confidence intervals for the positive and negative likelihood ratios spanned 1. This indicated that the test result is unlikely to change the odds of having or not having the condition, respectively. Conclusions: The literature currently used as a reference for teaching in medical schools and continuing education lacks the necessary validity to help rule in or out a SLAP lesion or biceps tendon involvement. Based on the results from the systematic review conducted by Calvert et al, no tests clinically diagnose a SLAP lesion. This is a cause for concern as magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance arthrography, which are frequently used to assess a possible SLAP

  7. Long-term successful arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears with a functional and degradable reinforcement device.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    Rotator cuff repair is a procedure with varying outcomes, and there has been subsequent interest in devices that reinforce the repair and enhance structural and functional outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine these outcomes for arthroscopic repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears augmented with a synthetic absorbable mesh designed specifically for reinforcement of tendon repair by imaging and clinical assessments. Consecutive arthroscopic repairs were performed on 18 patients with large to massive rotator cuff tears by use of a poly-l-lactic acid synthetic patch as a reinforcement device and fixation with 4 sutures. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 6 months, 12 months, and a mean of 42 months after surgery by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score to evaluate clinical performance and at 12 months by ultrasound to assess structural repair. Ultrasound showed that 15 of 18 patients had intact rotator cuff repair at 12 months; at 42 months, an additional patient had a failed repair. Patients showed improvement in the ASES shoulder score from 25 preoperatively to 71 at 12 months and 70 at 42 months after surgery. Patients with intact rotator cuff (n = 14) at 42 months had an ASES shoulder score of 82. The poly-l-lactic acid bioabsorbable patch designed specifically to reinforce the surgical repair of tendons supported successful repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears in 83% of patients at 12 months after surgery and 78% of patients at 42 months after surgery, with substantial functional improvement. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified tendon stripper for obtaining palmaris longus tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Aköz, T; Altintaş, H; Civelek, B

    1999-04-01

    Tendon graft harvesting is a challenging part of hand surgery. It is not only a time-consuming procedure but also carries the potential complications associated with it. Various alternatives for this procedure are presented in the literature to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, we are presenting a series of cases in which a newly modified tendon stripper was used for tendon graft harvesting.

  9. Mass spectrometric identification of phospholipids in human tears and tear lipocalin.

    PubMed

    Dean, Austin W; Glasgow, Ben J

    2012-04-02

    The purpose of this article was to identify by mass spectrometry phosphocholine lipids in stimulated human tears and determine the molecules bound to tear lipocalin or other proteins. Tear proteins were separated isocratically from pooled stimulated human tears by gel filtration fast performance liquid chromatography. Separation of tear lipocalin was confirmed by SDS tricine gradient PAGE. Protein fractions were extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed with electrospray ionization MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan mode for select leaving groups. For quantification, integrated ion counts were derived from standard curves of authentic compounds of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine. Linear approximation was possible from integration of the mass spectrometrically obtained ion peaks at 760 Da for the PC standard. Tears contained 194 ng/mL of the major intact PC (34:2), m/z 758.6. Ten other monoisotopic phosphocholines were found in tears. A peak at 703.3 Da was assigned as a sphingomyelin. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (m/z 490-540) accounted for about 80% of the total integrated ion count. The [M+H](+) compound, m/z 496.3, accounted for 60% of the signal intensity. Only the tear lipocalin-bearing fractions showed phosphocholines (104 ng/mL). Although the intact phospholipids bound to tear lipocalin corresponded precisely in mass and relative signal intensity to that found in tears, we did not identify phosphocholines between m/z 490 and 540 in any of the gel-filtration fractions. Phospholipids, predominantly lysophospholipids, are present in tears. The higher mass intact PCs in tears are native ligands of tear lipocalin.

  10. Fos Promotes Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialin; Zhang, Erchen; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zeyu; Lu, Ping; Zhu, Ting; Yin, Zi; Backman, Ludvig J; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Xiao; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    Stem cells have been widely used in tendon tissue engineering. The lack of refined and controlled differentiation strategy hampers the tendon repair and regeneration. This study aimed to find new effective differentiation factors for stepwise tenogenic differentiation. By microarray screening, the transcript factor Fos was found to be expressed in significantly higher amounts in postnatal Achilles tendon tissue derived from 1 day as compared with 7-days-old rats. It was further confirmed that expression of Fos decreased with time in postnatal rat Achilles tendon, which was accompanied with the decreased expression of multiply tendon markers. The expression of Fos also declined during regular in vitro cell culture, which corresponded to the loss of tendon phenotype. In a cell-sheet and a three-dimensional cell culture model, the expression of Fos was upregulated as compared with in regular cell culture, together with the recovery of tendon phenotype. In addition, significant higher expression of tendon markers was found in Fos-overexpressed tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs), and Fos knock-down gave opposite results. In situ rat tendon repair experiments found more normal tendon-like tissue formed and higher tendon markers expression at 4 weeks postimplantation of Fos-overexpressed TSPCs derived nonscaffold engineering tendon (cell-sheet), as compared with the control group. This study identifies Fos as a new marker and functional driver in the early stage teno-lineage differentiation of tendon, which paves the way for effective stepwise tendon differentiation and future tendon regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2009-2019. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  11. Tendon-Holding Capacities of Two Newly Designed Implants for Tendon Repair: An Experimental Study on the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ağır, İsmail; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim; Başçı, Onur; Çaypınar, Barış; Erol, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two main factors determine the strength of tendon repair; the tensile strength of material and the gripping capacity of a suture configuration. Different repair techniques and suture materials were developed to increase the strength of repairs but none of techniques and suture materials seem to provide enough tensile strength with safety margins for early active mobilization. In order to overcome this problem tendon suturing implants are being developed. We designed two different suturing implants. The aim of this study was to measure tendon-holding capacities of these implants biomechanically and to compare them with frequently used suture techniques Materials and Methods: In this study we used 64 sheep flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Four study groups were formed and each group had 16 tendons. We applied model 1 and model 2 implant to the first 2 groups and Bunnell and locking-loop techniques to the 3rd and 4th groups respectively by using 5 Ticron sutures. Results: In 13 tendons in group 1 and 15 tendons in group 2 and in all tendons in group 3 and 4, implants and sutures pulled out of the tendon in longitudinal axis at the point of maximum load. The mean tensile strengths were the largest in group 1 and smallest in group 3. Conclusion: In conclusion, the new stainless steel tendon suturing implants applied from outside the tendons using steel wires enable a biomechanically stronger repair with less tendon trauma when compared to previously developed tendon repair implants and the traditional suturing techniques. PMID:25067965

  12. [Clinical application of peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of Achilles tendon rupture].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rihao; Jin, Yu; Fang, Xiulin

    2006-07-01

    To discuss applied anatomy, biomechanics and surgical procedures of long peroneal muscles tendon transposition in repair of occlusive achilles tendon rupture. The blood supply and the morphology of long peroneal muscles tendon were observed in the lower extremity of 50 sides adult specimens and the mechanical tests which stretch load on the tendon were carried out. The methods were designed on the basis of the anatomical characteristics and morphology. Ten patients suffering occlusive Achilles tendon rupture were treated by using long peroneal muscles tendon transposition from March 2001 to July 2004. Among 10 patients, there were 7 males and 3 females, aging 32 to 54 years including 6 cases of jump injury, 2 cases of bruise, 1 case of step vacancy and 1 case of spontaneity injury. The interval between injury and surgery was 6 hours to 7 days in 7 fresh rupture and 21 days to 3 months in 3 old rupture. All cases belonged to occlusive Achilles tendon rupture (8 cases of complete rupture and 2 cases of incomplete rupture). The origin of long peroneal muscles was proximal tibia and fibular head, the end of them was base of first metatarsal bones and medial cuboid. The length of tendon was 13.5 +/- 2.5 cm. The width of origin tendon was 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm; the width on apex of lateral malleolus was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.4 +/- 0.1 cm, the width on head of cuboid was 0.7 +/- 0.1 cm and the thickness was 0.3 +/- 0.1 cm. The long peroneal muscles tendon had abundant blood supply. The results of mechanical test showed that the biggest load was 2,292.4 +/- 617.3 N on tendon calcaneus, 1,020.4 +/- 175.4 N on long peroneal muscles tendon, 752.0 +/- 165.4 N on peroneus brevis tendon and 938.2 +/- 216.7 N on tibialis posterior tendon. Ten cases of occlusive Achilles tendon rupture achieved healing by first intention and were followed up 18-24 months. No Achilles tendon re-rupture, necrosis of skin or other complications occurred

  13. Mass Spectrometric Identification of Phospholipids in Human Tears and Tear Lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Austin W.; Glasgow, Ben J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this article was to identify by mass spectrometry phosphocholine lipids in stimulated human tears and determine the molecules bound to tear lipocalin or other proteins. Methods. Tear proteins were separated isocratically from pooled stimulated human tears by gel filtration fast performance liquid chromatography. Separation of tear lipocalin was confirmed by SDS tricine gradient PAGE. Protein fractions were extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed with electrospray ionization MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan mode for select leaving groups. For quantification, integrated ion counts were derived from standard curves of authentic compounds of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine. Results. Linear approximation was possible from integration of the mass spectrometrically obtained ion peaks at 760 Da for the PC standard. Tears contained 194 ng/mL of the major intact PC (34:2), m/z 758.6. Ten other monoisotopic phosphocholines were found in tears. A peak at 703.3 Da was assigned as a sphingomyelin. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (m/z 490–540) accounted for about 80% of the total integrated ion count. The [M+H]+ compound, m/z 496.3, accounted for 60% of the signal intensity. Only the tear lipocalin–bearing fractions showed phosphocholines (104 ng/mL). Although the intact phospholipids bound to tear lipocalin corresponded precisely in mass and relative signal intensity to that found in tears, we did not identify phosphocholines between m/z 490 and 540 in any of the gel-filtration fractions. Conclusions. Phospholipids, predominantly lysophospholipids, are present in tears. The higher mass intact PCs in tears are native ligands of tear lipocalin. PMID:22395887

  14. The effect of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on rotator cuff tendon healing: a prospective, randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rodeo, Scott A; Delos, Demetris; Williams, Riley J; Adler, Ronald S; Pearle, Andrew; Warren, Russell F

    2012-06-01

    There is a strong need for methods to improve the biological potential of rotator cuff tendon healing. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) allows delivery of autologous cytokines to healing tissue, and limited evidence suggests a positive effect of platelet-rich plasma on tendon biology. To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin matrix on rotator cuff tendon healing. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Seventy-nine patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff tendon repair were randomized intraoperatively to either receive PRFM at the tendon-bone interface (n = 40) or standard repair with no PRFM (n = 39). Standardized repair techniques were used for all patients. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was the same in both groups. The primary outcome was tendon healing evaluated by ultrasound (intact vs defect at repair site) at 6 and 12 weeks. Power Doppler ultrasound was also used to evaluate vascularity in the peribursal, peritendinous, and musculotendinous and insertion site areas of the tendon and bone anchor site. Secondary outcomes included standardized shoulder outcome scales (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES] and L'Insalata) and strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer. Patients and the evaluator were blinded to treatment group. All patients were evaluated at minimum 1-year follow-up. A logistic regression model was used to predict outcome (healed vs defect) based on tear severity, repair type, treatment type (PRFM or control), and platelet count. Overall, there were no differences in tendon-to-bone healing between the PRFM and control groups. Complete tendon-to-bone healing (intact repair) was found in 24 of 36 (67%) in the PRFM group and 25 of 31 (81%) in the control group (P = .20). There were no significant differences in healing by ultrasound between 6 and 12 weeks. There were gradual increases in ASES and L'Insalata scores over time in both groups, but there were no differences in scores between the groups

  15. Symptoms of Pain Do Not Correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, G. Brian; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. Methods: A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Results: Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Conclusions

  16. Cosmological parameter fittings with the BICEP2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, FengQuan; Li, YiChao; Lu, YouJun; Chen, XueLei

    2014-08-01

    Combining the latest Planck, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data, we exploit the recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode power spectra data released by the BICEP2 collaboration to constrain the cosmological parameters of the LCDM model, especially the primordial power spectra parameters of the scalar and the tensor modes, n s , α s , r, n t . We obtain constraints on the parameters for a lensed LCDM model using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, the marginalized 68% bounds are r = 0.1043{-0.0914/+0.0307}, n s = 0.9617{-0.0061/+0.0061}, α s = -0.0175{-0.0097/+0.0105}, n t = 0.5198{-0.4579/+0.4515}.We find that a blue tilt for n t is favored slightly, but it is still well consistent with flat or even red tilt. Our r value is slightly smaller than the one obtained by the BICEP group, in that we permit n t as a free parameter without imposing the single-field slow roll inflation consistency relation. When we impose this relation, then r = 0.2130{-0.0609/+0.0446}. For most other parameters, the best fit values and measurement errors are not altered significantly by the introduction of the BICEP2 data.

  17. Altered Gene and Protein Expressions in Torn Rotator Cuff Tendon Tissues in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Choi, Bo Mi; Kim, Ja Yeon; Lee, Yong-Soo; Yoon, Jong Pil; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Park, Kyung Sik

    2017-03-01

    To analyze and compare the gene and protein expression characteristics in torn rotator cuff tendon tissues between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. This was a pilot study. Twelve samples of rotator cuff tendon tissue from diabetic patients (mean age, 62.3 ± 9.9 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic tendon tissues (62.3 ± 9.9 years) were acquired from the torn tendon end of medium rotator cuff tears during arthroscopic surgery, after applying the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. Expressions of various genes of interest, including collagens I and III, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, tenomodulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and p53, were analyzed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry and western blot assay were performed for the genes that revealed significantly different expressions in real-time qRT-PCR between groups. Gene expression levels of MMP-9, MMP-13, IL-6, and tenomodulin were significantly higher in the diabetic than in the nondiabetic group by real-time qRT-PCR analyses (P = .011, .004, .009, and .010, respectively). The density of cells expressing MMP-9 and IL-6 was significantly increased in the torn tendons of the diabetic patients on immunohistochemical analysis, and the density of MMP-9 and IL-6 protein expressions was significantly higher in the diabetic group on western blot (P = .018 and .044, respectively). Diabetic torn cuff tendon tissues showed MMP-9 and IL-6 overexpressions compared with controls. The overexpressions of MMP-9 and IL-6 may be one of the explanations for the high healing failure rate after rotator cuff repair in the diabetic patients. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic value of clinical tests for degenerative rotator cuff disease in medical practice.

    PubMed

    Lasbleiz, S; Quintero, N; Ea, K; Petrover, D; Aout, M; Laredo, J D; Vicaut, E; Bardin, T; Orcel, P; Beaudreuil, J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of clinical tests for degenerative rotator cuff disease (DRCD) in medical practice. Patients with DRCD were prospectively included. Eleven clinical tests of the rotator cuff have been done. One radiologist performed ultrasonography (US) of the shoulder. Results of US were expressed as normal tendon, tendinopathy or full-thickness tear (the reference). For each clinical test and each US criteria, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value, accuracy, negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) were calculated. Clinical relevance was defined as PLR ≥2 and NLR ≤0.5. For 35 patients (39 shoulders), Jobe (PLR: 2.08, NLR: 0.31) and full-can (2, 0.5) test results were relevant for diagnosis of supraspinatus tears and resisted lateral rotation (2.42, 0.5) for infraspinatus tears, with weakness as response criteria. The lift-off test (8.50, 0.27) was relevant for subscapularis tears with lag sign as response criteria. Yergason's test (3.7, 0.41) was relevant for tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps with pain as a response criterion. There was no relevant clinical test for diagnosis of tendinopathy of supraspinatus, infraspinatus or subscapularis. Five of 11 clinical tests were relevant for degenerative rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise following a short immobilization period is detrimental to tendon properties and joint mechanics in a rat rotator cuff injury model.

    PubMed

    Peltz, Cathryn D; Sarver, Joseph J; Dourte, Leann M; Würgler-Hauri, Carola C; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common clinical problem that can result in pain and disability. Previous studies in a rat model showed enhanced tendon to bone healing with postoperative immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of postimmobilization activity level on insertion site properties and joint mechanics in a rat model. Our hypothesis was that exercise following a short period of immobilization will cause detrimental changes in insertion site properties compared to cage activity following the same period of immobilization, but that passive shoulder mechanics will not be affected. We detached and repaired the supraspinatus tendon of 22 Sprague-Dawley rats, and the injured shoulder was immobilized postoperatively for 2 weeks. Following immobilization, rats were prescribed cage activity or exercise for 12 weeks. Passive shoulder mechanics were determined, and following euthanasia, tendon cross-sectional area and mechanical properties were measured. Exercise following immobilization resulted in significant decreases compared to cage activity in range of motion, tendon stiffness, modulus, percent relaxation, and several parameters from both a structurally based elastic model and a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Therefore, we conclude that after a short period of immobilization, increased activity is detrimental to both tendon mechanical properties and shoulder joint mechanics, presumably due to increased scar production. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  20. Sonography of the musculoskeletal system in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Gerwing, M; Hach, V; Schimke, E

    1997-01-01

    Sonography of the musculoskeletal system in dogs and cats was undertaken to evaluate the application of this imaging procedure in orthopedics. In most of the patients a 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used because of its flat application surface and its resolving power. The evaluation of bone by sonography is limited, but sonography can provide addition information regarding the bone surface and surrounding soft tissue. Ultrasound is valuable for assessing joint disease. Joint effusion, thickening of the joint capsule and cartilage defects can be identified sonographically. It is also possible to detect bone destruction. Instabilities are often identified with the help of a dynamic examination. Soft tissue abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system lend themselves to sonographic evaluation. Partial or complete muscles or tendon tears are able to be differentiated and the healing process can be monitored. Most of the diseases that are in the area of the biceps or the achilles tendon, such as dislocation of the tendon, old injuries with scarification, free dissecates in the tendonsheath, tendinitis and/or tendosynovitis can be differentiated by sonography. In addition, with clinical and laboratory findings, it is often possible to make a correct diagnosis with ultrasound in patients with abscesses, foreign bodies, hematomas, soft tissue tumors and lipomas.

  1. Novel engineered tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite with cyclic tension for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Hatta, Taku; Qi, Jun; Liu, Haoyu; Thoreson, Andrew R; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Steinmann, Scott P; Gingery, Anne; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2018-05-15

    Surgical repair of rotator cuff tears presents a significant clinical challenge with high failure rates and inferior functional outcomes. Graft augmentation improves repair outcomes, however currently available grafting materials have limitations. While cell-seeded decellularized tendon slices may facilitate cell infiltration, promote tendon incorporation and preserve original mechanical strength, the unique fibrocartilage zone is yet to be successfully reestablished. In this study, we investigated the biological and mechanical properties of an engineered tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite (TFBC) with cyclic tension (3% strain, 0.2 Hz). Decellularized TFBCs seeded with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) sheets and subjected to mechanical stimulation for up to 7 days, were characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and transcriptional regulation. The decellularized TFBC maintained native enthesis structure and properties. Mechanically stimulated TFBC-BMSC constructs displayed increased cell migration after 7 days of culture compared to static groups. The seeded cell sheet not only integrated well with tendon scaffold but also distributed homogeneously and aligned to the direction of stretch under dynamic culture. Developmental genes were regulated including, scleraxis which was significantly upregulated with mechanical stimulation. The Young's modulus of the cell-seeded constructs was significantly higher compared to the non-cell-seeded controls. In conclusion, the results of this study reveal that the TFBC-BMSC composite provides an ideal multilayer construct for cell seeding and growth, with mechanical preconditioning further enhances cell penetration and differentiation. The BMSC cell sheet revitalized TFBC in conjunction with mechanical stimulation could serve as a novel and primed biological patch to improve rotator cuff repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Tendon injuries of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265

  3. Functional tissue engineering of tendon: Establishing biological success criteria for improving tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Andrew P; Gilday, Steven D; Lalley, Andrea L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Gooch, Cynthia; Shearn, Jason T; Butler, David L

    2014-06-27

    Improving tendon repair using Functional Tissue Engineering (FTE) principles has been the focus of our laboratory over the last decade. Although our primary goals were initially focused only on mechanical outcomes, we are now carefully assessing the biological properties of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs so as to link biological influences with mechanics. However, given the complexities of tendon development and healing, it remains challenging to determine which aspects of tendon biology are the most important to focus on in the context of tissue engineering. To address this problem, we have formalized a strategy to identify, prioritize, and evaluate potential biological success criteria for tendon repair. We have defined numerous biological properties of normal tendon relative to cellular phenotype, extracellular matrix and tissue ultra-structure that we would like to reproduce in our tissue-engineered repairs and prioritized these biological criteria by examining their relative importance during both normal development and natural tendon healing. Here, we propose three specific biological criteria which we believe are essential for normal tendon function: (1) scleraxis-expressing cells; (2) well-organized and axially-aligned collagen fibrils having bimodal diameter distribution; and (3) a specialized tendon-to-bone insertion site. Moving forward, these biological success criteria will be used in conjunction with our already established mechanical success criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered tendon repairs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Anatomical study of the proximal origin of hamstring muscles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kengo; Nimura, Akimoto; Yamaguchi, Kumiko; Akita, Keiichi

    2012-09-01

    It is relatively well accepted that the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus both originate from the ischial tuberosity as a common tendon. However, it is also widely known that the biceps femoris is consistently injured more than the semitendinosus. The purpose of this study was to examine the origins of the hamstring muscles, to find an anatomic basis for diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the posterior thigh regions. Twenty-eight hips of fourteen adult Japanese cadavers were used in this study. In twenty hips of ten cadavers, the positional relationships among the origins on the ischial tuberosity were examined. In eight hips of four cadavers, histological examination of the origins of the hamstrings was also performed. The origin of the long head of the biceps femoris adjoined that of the semitendinosus. In the proximal regions of these muscles, the long head consisted of the tendinous part; however, the semitendinosus mainly consisted of the muscular part. Some of the fibers of the biceps tendon extended to fuse with the sacrotuberous ligament. The semimembranosus muscle broadly originated from the lateral surface of the ischial tuberosity. The origins of the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus are found to be almost independent, and the tendon of the long head is partly fused with the sacrotuberous ligament. The high incidence of injuries to the long head of the biceps femoris could be explained by these anatomical configurations.

  5. Risk Factors for Revision Surgery After Superior Labral Anterior-Posterior Repair: A National Perspective.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samuel A; Degen, Ryan M; White, Alexander E; McCarthy, Moira M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; O'Brien, Stephen J; Werner, Brian C

    2017-06-01

    Data regarding risk factors for revision surgery after superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair are limited to institutional series. To define risk factors for revision surgery after SLAP repair among patients in a large national database. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A national insurance database was queried for patients undergoing arthroscopic SLAP repair (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 29807) for the diagnosis of a SLAP tear. Patients without a CPT modifier for laterality were excluded. Revision surgery was defined as (1) subsequent ipsilateral SLAP repair (CPT 29807), (2) ipsilateral arthroscopic debridement for the diagnosis of a SLAP tear (CPT 29822 or 29823, with diagnosis code 840.7), (3) subsequent ipsilateral arthroscopic biceps tenodesis (CPT 29828), (4) subsequent ipsilateral open biceps tenodesis (CPT 23430), and (5) subsequent biceps tenotomy (CPT 23405). Multivariable binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for revision surgery after SLAP repair, including patient demographics/comorbidities, concomitant diagnoses, and concomitant procedures performed. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% CIs, and P values were calculated. The estimated financial impact of revision surgery was also calculated. There were 4751 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, 121 patients (2.5%) required revision surgery after SLAP repair. Regression analysis identified numerous risk factors for revision surgery, including age >40 years (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; P = .045), female sex (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8; P = .010), obesity (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P = .001), smoking (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.4; P < .0001), and diagnosis of biceps tendinitis (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.0-4.2; P < .0001) or long head of the biceps tearing (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 4.1-6.3; P < .0001) at or before the time of surgery. Concomitant rotator cuff repair and distal clavicle excision were not significant risk factors for revision surgery

  6. Tendon Mineralization Is Progressive and Associated with Deterioration of Tendon Biomechanical Properties, and Requires BMP-Smad Signaling in the Mouse Achilles Tendon Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318

  7. Outcome of arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair: Are the results improving with improved techniques and equipment?: A retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Arun, G R; Kumar, Pradeep; Patnaik, Sarthak; Selvaraj, Karthik; Rajan, David; Singh, Anant; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in understanding the subscapularis tears. There are multiple articles in the literature showing the short term results of isolated subscapularis tendon repair. However, the midterm and long term outcome studies for arthroscopic subscapularis repair are few. This study evaluates the functional outcome after arthroscopic subscapularis repair. Materials and Methods: The records of 35 patients who underwent an arthroscopic subscapularis repair between May 2008 and June 2012 were included in this retrospective study. The records of all patients were reviewed. There were 22 males and 13 female patients with mean age of 58.2 years (range 41-72 years). All patients had a complete history, physical examination, and radiographs of their shoulders. Visual analogue scale (VAS), range of movements, power of cuff muscles, and modified University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score were assessed. Results: The mean followup was 2.8 years (range 2-4 year). Functional outcome after arthroscopic subscapularis repair has an excellent outcome as analysed by clinical outcome, VAS score and UCLA score. Results were analyzed and had statistically significant values. The VAS for pain improved significantly (P < 0.001), and the mean modified UCLA score improved significantly (P < 0.001) from 14.24 ± 4.72 preoperatively to 33.15 ± 2.29 at 2 years postoperative. According to the UCLA system, there were 22 excellent, 11 good, and 2 fair results. Around 95% of patients returned to their usual work after surgery. Conclusion: At a median followup of 2 years, 95% of patients had a good to excellent result after an arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair. We conclude that the midterm results show that arthroscopic subscapularis repair remains a good option for the treatment of patients with subscapularis tendon repair. PMID:27293291

  8. Investigating tendon mineralisation in the avian hindlimb: a model for tendon ageing, injury and disease

    PubMed Central

    Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L

    2013-01-01

    Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons – the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon – were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. PMID:23826786

  9. The effect of seprafilm on adhesion formation and tendon healing after flexor tendon repair in chicken.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erhan; Avci, Mustafa; Bulut, Mehmet; Kelestimur, Halidun; Karakurt, Lokman; Ozercan, Ibrahim

    2010-03-01

    Adhesion of the tendon, which can occur during healing of tendon repair, is negatively affected by the outcome of surgery. In this experimental study, we sought to prevent adhesion of the tendon, and determined the mechanical stiffness of repair tissue by wrapping sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm; Genzyme, Cambridge, Massachusetts) around the repaired tendon segments. The study group comprised 2 groups of 20 chickens. In group I, the right gastrocnemius tendons of the chickens were cut smoothly, and after tendon and sheath repair, the skin was sutured. In group II, the right gastrocnemius tendons of the chickens were cut, the tendons were repaired, and before skin closure, Seprafilm was wrapped around the repaired tendon segments. Plastic splints were used for holding the chickens' ankles in a neutral position, and they were allowed weight bearing for 8 weeks. In group II, anatomic space between the tendon-sheath and tendon was clear and the tendon-sheath complex was sliding easily around the repaired tendon segment, and this complex was more functional both biomechanically and histologically. Also, the Seprafilm-applied tendons (group II) were observed to be biomechanically more resistant to the tensile forces in group I. Seprafilm is an easily applied interpositional material that can be used safely to prevent adhesion during the tendon healing process. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Role of biomechanics in the understanding of normal, injured, and healing ligaments and tendons

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho-Joong; Fisher, Matthew B; Woo, Savio L-Y

    2009-01-01

    Ligaments and tendons are soft connective tissues which serve essential roles for biomechanical function of the musculoskeletal system by stabilizing and guiding the motion of diarthrodial joints. Nevertheless, these tissues are frequently injured due to repetition and overuse as well as quick cutting motions that involve acceleration and deceleration. These injuries often upset this balance between mobility and stability of the joint which causes damage to other soft tissues manifested as pain and other morbidity, such as osteoarthritis. The healing of ligament and tendon injuries varies from tissue to tissue. Tendinopathies are ubiquitous and can take up to 12 months for the pain to subside before one could return to normal activity. A ruptured medial collateral ligament (MCL) can generally heal spontaneously; however, its remodeling process takes years and its biomechanical properties remain inferior when compared to the normal MCL. It is also known that a midsubstance anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear has limited healing capability, and reconstruction by soft tissue grafts has been regularly performed to regain knee function. However, long term follow-up studies have revealed that 20–25% of patients experience unsatisfactory results. Thus, a better understanding of the function of ligaments and tendons, together with knowledge on their healing potential, may help investigators to develop novel strategies to accelerate and improve the healing process of ligaments and tendons. With thousands of new papers published in the last ten years that involve biomechanics of ligaments and tendons, there is an increasing appreciation of this subject area. Such attention has positively impacted clinical practice. On the other hand, biomechanical data are complex in nature, and there is a danger of misinterpreting them. Thus, in these review, we will provide the readers with a brief overview of ligaments and tendons and refer them to appropriate methodologies used to

  11. Rotator cuff bridging repair using acellular dermal matrix in large to massive rotator cuff tears: histologic and clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Ok; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Sup; Ji, Jong-Hun; Koh, Sung-Jun; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the bridging repair using an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and an ADM with stem cells in rabbits. Also investigated were clinical outcomes of ADM bridging repair for large to massive rotator cuff tears. ADM, with and without stem cells, was used to cover a 5- × 5-mm-sized cuff defect in 17 rabbits, and biomechanical, histologic, and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted. Also evaluated were 24 patients with large to massive rotator cuff tears after ADM bridging repair. In the biomechanical test, the normal rotator cuff, cuff with ADM plus stem cells, and cuff with ADM in the rabbit model showed a maximum load (N) of 287.3, 217.5, and 170.3 and ultimate tensile strength (N/mm 2 ) of 11.1, 8.0, and 5.2, respectively. Histologically, the cuff tendons with the ADM or ADM plus stem cells showed characteristically mature tendons as time passed. In the clinical study, the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from preoperative 50 to postoperative 83, the University of California Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale from 17 to 30, and the Simple Shoulder Test from 4 to 8, respectively. No further fatty deteriorations or muscle atrophy were observed on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. A retear was found in 5 of 24 patients (21%). Bridging repair with ADM or stem cells in the rabbit model showed cellular infiltration into the graft and some evidence of neotendon formation. Clinically, ADM repair was a safe alternative that did not show any further fatty deterioration nor muscle atrophy in large to massive rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tendon Functional Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Screen, H.R.C.; Birk, D.E.; Kadler, K.E.; Ramirez, F; Young, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series, summarising views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the “Functional Extracellular Matrix” stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely-varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, ageing and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. PMID:25640030

  13. Therapeutics for tendon regeneration: a multidisciplinary review of tendon research for improved healing.

    PubMed

    Paredes, J J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly

    2016-11-01

    Tendon injuries, known as tendinopathies, are common musculoskeletal injuries that affect a wide range of the population. Canonical tendon healing is characterized by fibrosis, scar formation, and the loss of tissue mechanical and structural properties. Understanding the regenerative tendon environment is an area of increasing interest in the field of musculoskeletal research. Previous studies have focused on utilizing individual elements from the fields of biomechanics, developmental biology, cell and growth factor therapy, and tissue engineering in an attempt to develop regenerative tendon therapeutics. Still, the specific mechanism for regenerative healing remains unknown. In this review, we highlight some of the current approaches of tendon therapeutics and elucidate the differences along the tendon midsubstance and enthesis, exhibiting the necessity of location-specific tendon therapeutics. Furthermore, we emphasize the necessity of further interdisciplinary research in order to reach the desired goal of fully understanding the mechanisms underlying regenerative healing. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. A comparison of basal and eye-flush tears for the analysis of cat tear proteins.

    PubMed

    Petznick, Andrea; Evans, Margaret D M; Madigan, Michele C; Markoulli, Maria; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F

    2011-02-01

    To identify a rapid and effective tear collection method providing sufficient tear volume and total protein content (TPC) for analysis of individual proteins in cats. Domestic adult short-haired cats (12-37 months; 2.7-6.6 kg) were used in the study. Basal tears without stimulation and eye-flush tears after instillation of saline (10 μl) were collected using microcapillary tubes from animal eyes either unwounded control or wounded with 9-mm central epithelial debridement giving four groups with n = 3. Tear comparisons were based on total time and rate for tear collection, TPC using micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA), tear immunoglobulin A (IgA), total matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMP-9 activity. Eye-flush tears were collected significantly faster than basal tears in wounded eyes with higher rates for tear collection in unwounded control and wounded eyes. TPC was significantly lower in eye-flush tears compared to basal tears. The relative proportion of tear IgA normalized to TPC (% IgA of TPC) was not significantly different between basal and eye-flush tears. In unwounded control eyes, MMP-9 was slightly higher in eye-flush than in basal tears; activity of MMP-9 in both tear types was similar. In wounded eyes, eye-flush tears showed highest MMP-9 levels and activity on Day 1, which subsequently decreased to Day 7. MMP-9 activity in basal tears from wounded eyes did not display changes in expression. Eye-flush tears can be collected rapidly providing sufficient tear volume and TPC. This study also indicates that eye-flush tears may be more suitable than basal tears for the analysis of MMPs following corneal wounding. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. Neuronal regulation of tendon homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders. PMID:23718724

  16. Flexible bipolar nanofibrous membranes for improving gradient microstructure in tendon-to-bone healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Ruoyu; Sun, Zhiyong; Su, Wei; Pan, Guoqing; Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo

    2017-10-01

    Enthesis is a specialized tissue interface between the tendon and bone. Enthesis structure is very complex because of gradient changes in its composition and structure. There is currently no strategy to create a suitable environment and to regenerate the gradual-changing enthesis because of the modular complexities between two tissue types. Herein, a dual-layer organic/inorganic flexible bipolar fibrous membrane (BFM) was successfully fabricated by electrospinning to generate biomimetic non-mineralized fibrocartilage and mineralized fibrocartilage in tendon-to-bone integration of enthesis. The growth of the in situ apatite nanoparticle layer was induced on the nano hydroxyapatite-poly-l-lactic acid (nHA-PLLA) fibrous layer in simulated body solution, and the poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) fibrous layer retained its original properties to induce tendon regeneration. The in vivo results showed that BFM significantly increased the area of glycosaminoglycan staining at the tendon-bone interface and improved collagen organization when compared to the simplex fibrous membrane (SFM) of PLLA. Implanting the bipolar membrane also induced bone formation and fibrillogenesis as assessed by micro-CT and histological analysis. Biomechanical testing showed that the BFM group had a greater ultimate load-to-failure and stiffness than the SFM group at 12weeks after surgery. Therefore, this flexible bipolar nanofibrous membrane improves the healing and regeneration process of the enthesis in rotator cuff repair. In this study, we generated a biomimetic dual-layer organic/inorganic flexible bipolar fibrous membrane by sequential electrospinning and in situ biomineralization, producing integrated bipolar fibrous membranes of PLLA fibrous membrane as the upper layer and nHA-PLLA fibrous membrane as the lower layer to mimic non-mineralized fibrocartilage and mineralized fibrocartilage in tendon-to-bone integration of enthesis. Flexible bipolar nanofibrous membranes could be easily fabricated

  17. Inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 increases tendon healing and reduces muscle fibrosis and lipid accumulation after rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Saripalli, Anjali L; Davis, Max E; Harning, Julie